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Sample records for metallicity galaxy ic

  1. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  2. SN 2010ay Is a Luminous and Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Within a Low-Metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approximately 4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR approx. -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si (is) approx. 19×10(exp 3) km s-1 at approximately 40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines approximately 2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, MNi = 0.9 solar mass. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, Mej (is) approx. 4.7 solar mass, and total kinetic energy, EK (is) approx. 11 × 10(exp 51) erg. The ratio of MNi to Mej is approximately 2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log(O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and (is) approximately 0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E(gamma) (is) approximately less than 6 × 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E (is) approximately greater than 10(exp 48) erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF

  3. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kirshner, R. P.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Luppino, G. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Magnier, E. A.; Monet, D. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Onaka, P. M.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waterson, M. F.

    2012-09-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3π survey just ~4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR ≈ -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si ≈ 19 × 103 km s-1 at ~40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines ~2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, M Ni = 0.9 M ⊙. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M ej ≈ 4.7 M ⊙, and total kinetic energy, EK ≈ 11 × 1051 erg. The ratio of M Ni to M ej is ~2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and ~0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E γ <~ 6 × 1048 erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E >~ 1048 erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF 060218. If this SN did not harbor a GRB, these observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of relativistic ejecta and suggest that other parameters

  4. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN2010ay at z approx 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approx 4 days after explosion. Combining our photometric observations with those available in the literature, we estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, M(sub R) approximately equals 20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ibc ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion from our spectroscopic follow-up observations, v(sub ph) approximately equals 19.2 X 10 (exp 3) km/s at approx 40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN2010ay is 2 - 5 X higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of Ni-56, M(sub Ni) = 0.9(+0.1/-0.1) solar mass. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, M(sub ej) approx 4.7 Solar Mass, and total kinetic energy, E(sub K,51) approximately equals 11. Thus the ratio of M(sub Ni) to M(sub ej) is at least twice as large for SN2010ay than in GRB-SNe and may indicate an additional energy reservoir. We also measure the metallicity (log(O/H) + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy using a high S/N optical spectrum. Our abundance measurement places this SN in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and approx 0.2(0.5) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) Ic supernovae. Despite striking similarities to the recent GRB-SN100316D/2010bh, we show that gamma-ray observations rule out an associated GRB with E(sub gamma) approx < 6 X 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV). Similarly, our deep

  5. Spectroscopic study of the peculiar galaxy IC 883

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, V. A.; Merkulova, O. A.; Karataeva, G. M.; Shalyapina, L. V.; Yablokova, N. V.; Burenkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze new optical spectroscopic observations obtained at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the SCORPIO focal reducer (in the modes of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) and long-slit spectroscopy) and the Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph for the galaxy IC 883. We have confirmed that the main body of the galaxy rotates around its minor axis. The positions of the dynamical axes of the stellar and gaseous components have been found to differ by ~10°. The velocities in the SE tail do not correspond to the circular rotation around the galaxy's minor axis. This structure is probably a fragment of an unwound curved spiral arm. Regions with high velocity dispersions and peculiarities in the velocity fields have been found along the minor axis. Our study of the age and metallicity of the galaxy's stellar population has shown that the mean values of these parameters in the stellar disk, except for the central region ( r ≤ 5"), are ≈1 Gyr and ≈-0.4 dex, respectively. Both young (2-5 × 108 yr) and old (5-10 × 109 yr) stellar populations are present in the circumnuclear region. Our analysis of the spectroscopic data for the bright feature 8" south of the nucleus coincident in position with a compact X-ray source has shown that this is apparently a dwarf galaxy or a remnant of a companion galaxy. Our FPI observations in the Hα emission line and direct images have revealed a region of ionized gas that together with the already known structures along the minor axis forms a clumpy tidal structure of ionized gas pulled from the companion galaxy. The results of our study confirm the previously proposed hypothesis that the observed peculiar structures were formed by the merger of two galaxies. However, it can be said that IC 883 does not belong to the class of polar-ring galaxies.

  6. First Stellar Abundances in the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Geisler, Doug; Wallerstein, George; Borissova, Jura; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pagel, Bernard E. J.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Smith, Verne

    2007-12-01

    Chemical abundances in three M supergiants in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined using high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope. A detailed synthetic-spectrum analysis has been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, La, and Eu. We find the overall metallicity of the stars to be [Fe/H] = -0.67 ± 0.09 and the age 9-13 Myr, which is in excellent agreement with the present-day values in the age-metallicity relationship model of IC 1613 by Skillman et al. We have found that the three supergiants investigated have a mean [α/Fe] equal to about -0.1, which is lower than seen in Galactic stars at the same metallicity and is in agreement with the results obtained in other dwarf irregular galaxies. The oxygen abundances are in agreement with the upper values of the nebular oxygen determinations in IC 1613. The abundance ratios of s- and r-process elements to iron are enhanced relative to solar by about 0.3 dex. The abundance pattern of the elements studied is similar to that of the Small Magellanic Cloud, except for Co and Ni, which are underabundant in the SMC. The observed elemental abundances are generally in very good agreement with the recent chemical evolution model of Yuk and Lee. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope and the 2.2 m Telescope of the European Southern Observatory within the Observing Programs 70.B-0361(A) and 072.D-0113(D).

  7. ASKAP H I imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, P.; Koribalski, B.; Kilborn, V.; Allison, J. R.; Amy, S. W.; Ball, L.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Bowen, M.; Boyle, B.; Broadhurst, S.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Bunton, J. D.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Chung, Y.; Cooray, F.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Diamond, P.; Forsyth, R.; Gough, R.; Gupta, N.; Hampson, G. A.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Indermuehle, B.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C. A.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Johnston, S.; Joseph, J.; Kamphuis, P.; Leach, M.; Lenc, E.; Lensson, E.; Mackay, S.; Marquarding, M.; Marvil, J.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; McConnell, D.; Meyer, M.; Mirtschin, P.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; Norris, R. P.; O'Sullivan, J.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pearce, S.; Phillips, C.; Popping, A.; Qiao, R. Y.; Reynolds, J. E.; Roberts, P.; Sault, R. J.; Schinckel, A. E. T.; Shaw, R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Storey, M.; Sweetnam, A. W.; Troup, E.; Tzioumis, A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Westmeier, T.; Whiting, M.; Wilson, C.; Wong, O. I.; Wu, X.

    2015-09-01

    We present H I imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459 carried out with six antennas of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder equipped with phased-array feeds. We detect and resolve H I in 11 galaxies down to a column density of ˜1020 cm-2 inside a ˜6 deg2 field and with a resolution of ˜1 arcmin on the sky and ˜8 km s-1 in velocity. We present H I images, velocity fields and integrated spectra of all detections, and highlight the discovery of three H I clouds - two in the proximity of the galaxy IC 5270 and one close to NGC 7418. Each cloud has an H I mass of ˜109 M⊙ and accounts for ˜15 per cent of the H I associated with its host galaxy. Available images at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths do not reveal any clear stellar counterpart of any of the clouds, suggesting that they are not gas-rich dwarf neighbours of IC 5270 and NGC 7418. Using Parkes data, we find evidence of additional extended, low-column-density H I emission around IC 5270, indicating that the clouds are the tip of the iceberg of a larger system of gas surrounding this galaxy. This result adds to the body of evidence on the presence of intragroup gas within the IC 1459 group. Altogether, the H I found outside galaxies in this group amounts to several times 109 M⊙, at least 10 per cent of the H I contained inside galaxies. This suggests a substantial flow of gas in and out of galaxies during the several billion years of the group's evolution.

  8. Mass modelling of superthin galaxies: IC5249, UGC7321 and IC2233

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arunima; Bapat, Disha

    2017-04-01

    Superthin galaxies are low surface brightness (LSB) disc galaxies, characterized by optical discs with strikingly high values of planar-to-vertical axes ratios (>10), the physical origin and evolution of which continue to be a puzzle. We present mass models for three superthin galaxies: IC5249, UGC7321 and IC2233. We use high-resolution rotation curves and gas surface density distributions obtained from H I 21 cm radiosynthesis observations, in combination with their two-dimensional structural surface brightness decompositions at Spitzer 3.6 μm band, all of which were available in the literature. We find that while models with the pseudo-isothermal (PIS) and the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profiles fit the observed rotation curves of IC5249 and UGC7321 equally well, those with the NFW profile do not comply with the slowly rising rotation curve of IC2233. Interestingly, for all of our sample galaxies, the best-fitting mass models with a PIS dark matter density profile indicate a compact dark matter halo, i.e. Rc/RD < 2, where Rc is the core radius of the PIS dark matter halo and RD is the radial scalelength of the exponential stellar disc. The compact dark matter halo may be fundamentally responsible for the superthin nature of the stellar disc, and therefore our results may have important implications for the formation and evolution models of superthin galaxies in the universe.

  9. Exploring Dwarf Galaxy Evolution through Metallicity Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    As the most numerous type of galaxy, dwarf galaxies are ideal for examining galactic evolution on small scales. Additional clues to galactic evolution come from the metallicity distribution function (MDF), which is influenced by the star formation, accretion, outflows and galaxy interactions. We derived stellar MDFs for the Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies using HST images in order to examine how their evolution compares as a function of various galaxy properties. These galaxies span a range of different morphologies, masses, SFHs and distances from the MW. We fit a simple evolution model and an accretion model to the MDFs in order to quantify the effect of gas flows and enrichment within the galaxies. The MDFs of Leo II (dSph), Phoenix (dTrans) and IC 1613 (dIr) have similar shapes, though their peak metallicities differ. Additionally, we find the accretion model, over the simple model, is a better fit chemical evolution model for these three galaxies. However these best fit accretion models do not require a significant amount of additional gas to explain the MDF shapes. In contrast the chemical evolution model that best fits the narrow MDF of Leo I implies twice the additional gas accretion. The similarities in the MDF shapes of Leo II, Phoenix and IC 1613, even though these galaxies all have different morphologies, implies that the current morphology is not the driving factor in shaping the MDF of these galaxies.

  10. Neutral hydrogen in the starburst galaxy NGC3690/IC694

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolstoy, E.; Dickey, John M.; Israel, F. P.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers made observations of the neutral hydrogen (HI) emission structure surrounding the very deep absorption peak (observed earlier by Dickey (1986)) in the galaxy pair NGC3690/IC694. This galaxy pair is highly luminous in the far infrared, and known to exhibit extensive star formation as well as nuclear activity. Knowledge of the spatial distribution and velocity structure of the HI emission is of great importance to the understanding of the dynamics of the interaction and the resulting environmental effects on the galaxies.

  11. IC 1689: S0 galaxy with inner polar disk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    1997-03-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of the S0 galaxy IC 1689 are given. The radial velocity curves constructed from the measurements of Hα and [NII]λ6583 lines show that in the galaxy interior there is a gas disk (r=~3kpc) rotating around the axis placed in the main plane of the galaxy (polar disk). Active star formation occurs in the outer part of the disk (in the ring). Both Hα and [NII]λ6583 emission lines are observed here. Only collisionally excited [NII] radiates in the inner regions of the disk.

  12. The remarkable infrared galaxy Arp 220 = IC 4553

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Helou, G.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Hacking, P.; Rice, W.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    IRAS observations of the peculiar galaxy Arp 220 = IC 4553 show that it is extremely luminous in the far-infrared, with a total luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 12th solar luminosities. The infrared-to-blue luminosity ratio of this galaxy is about 80, which is the largest value of the ratio for galaxies in the UGC catalog, and places it in the range of the 'unidentified' infrared sources recently reported by Houck et al. in the IRAS all-sky survey. Other observations of Arp 220, combined with the luminosity in the infrared, allow either a Seyfert-like or starburst origin for this luminosity.

  13. A nonthermal superbubble in the irregular galaxy IC 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Hui; Skillman, Evan D.

    1993-01-01

    We present synthesis radio continuum observations of the nearby irregular galaxy IC 10. These observations, at 6, 20, and 49 cm, allow us to measure the flux and spectral index of a number of resolved sources in IC 10. While most of these are easily identified as thermal emission from H II regions and a few are nonthermal background sources, one extended, nonthermal source appears to be a superbubble in IC 10. Its large size (about 250 pc) implies that it is most likely the product of several supernovae. Comparisons of these radio observations with Halpha, H I, and optical imaging observations reveal that the large nonthermal superbubble is associated with a region of star formation containing two of the most luminous H II regions and the most massive H I cloud in IC 10. We tentatively identify a stellar cluster with two Wolf-Rayet stars in the center of the superbubble. We propose that this superbubble in IC 10 represents a bridge between the giant H II regions and the H I shells and supershells observed in our Galaxy and external galaxies.

  14. Galaxy IC 3639 with Obscured Active Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-07

    IC 3639, a galaxy with an active galactic nucleus, is seen in this image combining data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the European Southern Observatory. This galaxy contains an example of a supermassive black hole hidden by gas and dust. Researchers analyzed NuSTAR data from this object and compared them with previous observations from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the Japanese-led Suzaku satellite. The findings from NuSTAR, which is more sensitive to higher energy X-rays than these observatories, confirm the nature of IC 3639 as an active galactic nucleus that is heavily obscured, and intrinsically much brighter than observed. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21087

  15. Ocular Shock Front in the Colliding Galaxy IC 2163

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Michele; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Bournaud, Frédéric; Brinks, Elias; Juneau, Stephanie; Sheth, Kartik

    2016-11-01

    ALMA observations in the 12CO J=1\\to 0 line of the interacting galaxy pair IC 2163 and NGC 2207 at 2″ × 1.″5 resolution reveal how the encounter drives gas to pile up in narrow, ∼1 kpc wide, “eyelids” in IC 2163. IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are involved in a grazing encounter, which has led to the development in IC 2163 of an eye-shaped (ocular) structure at mid-radius and two tidal arms. The CO data show that there are large velocity gradients across the width of each eyelid, with a mixture of radial and azimuthal streaming of gas at the outer edge of the eyelid relative to its inner edge. The sense of the radial streaming in the eyelids is consistent with the idea that gas from the outer part of IC 2163 flows inward until its radial streaming slows down abruptly and the gas piles up in the eyelids. The radial compression at the eyelids causes an increase in the gas column density by direct radial impact and also leads to a high rate of shear. A linear regression of the molecular column density N({{{H}}}2) on the magnitude of | {dv}/{dR}| across the width of the eyelid at fixed values of azimuth finds a strong correlation between N({{{H}}}2) and | {dv}/{dR}| . Substantial portions of the eyelids have high velocity dispersion in CO, indicative of elevated turbulence there.

  16. Feeding IC 342: The nuclear spiral of a starburst galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D.; Turner, J. L.; Hurt, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    IC 342 is a large nearby (1.8 Mpc, Turner and Hurt, 1991, hereafter T&H) spiral galaxy undergoing a moderate nuclear starburst. T&H have previously mapped the inner arcminute in CO-13(1-0) using the Owens Valley Millimeter Interferometer and found evidence that the nuclear molecular gas takes the form of spiral arms in a density wave pattern. They suggest that radial streaming along the arms may channel gas from the exterior of the galaxy into the nucleus, feeding the starburst. We have mapped the CO-12(1-0) emission of the inner 2 kpc of IC 342 at 2.8 inch resolution using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Millimeter Interferometer. The greater sensitivity of CO-12 observations has allowed us to trace the spiral pattern out to a total extent of greater than 1 kpc. The CO-12 observations extend considerably the structure observed at CO-13 and offer further evidence that a spiral density wave may extend from the disk into the nucleus of IC 342.

  17. Feeding IC 342: The nuclear spiral of a starburst galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, D.; Turner, J. L.; Hurt, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    IC 342 is a large nearby (1.8 Mpc, Turner and Hurt, 1991, hereafter T&H) spiral galaxy undergoing a moderate nuclear starburst. T&H have previously mapped the inner arcminute in CO-13(1-0) using the Owens Valley Millimeter Interferometer and found evidence that the nuclear molecular gas takes the form of spiral arms in a density wave pattern. They suggest that radial streaming along the arms may channel gas from the exterior of the galaxy into the nucleus, feeding the starburst. We have mapped the CO-12(1-0) emission of the inner 2 kpc of IC 342 at 2.8 inch resolution using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Millimeter Interferometer. The greater sensitivity of CO-12 observations has allowed us to trace the spiral pattern out to a total extent of greater than 1 kpc. The CO-12 observations extend considerably the structure observed at CO-13 and offer further evidence that a spiral density wave may extend from the disk into the nucleus of IC 342.

  18. 1 Mpc giant radio galaxy IC 711 - 3 km Westerbork observations at 92 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, J.P.; Strom, R.G.

    1988-05-01

    New Westerbork obsevations at 92 cm of the galaxy IC 711 show a radio trail that extends 1 Mpc long, much farther out than previously observed at shorter wavelengths. These new observations confirm IC 711 as the longest head-tail galaxy known, and move IC 711 to the fifth rank among galaxies with the largest radio extension from an optical galaxy nucleus (after the classical double sources 3C 236, 3C 326, HB 13, and MSH 05-22). 20 references.

  19. Evidence for photometric contamination in key observations of Cepheids in the benchmark galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D. G.; Gieren, W.; Ngeow, C.

    2014-12-01

    This study helps increase awareness of the pernicious effects of photometric contamination (crowding/blending), since it can propagate an undesirable systematic offset into the cosmic distance scale. The latest Galactic Cepheid Wesenheit (VIc) and Spitzer calibrations were employed to establish distances for classical Cepheids in IC 1613 and NGC 6822, thus enabling the impact of photometric contamination to be assessed in concert with metallicity. Distances (WVIc, [3.6]) for Cepheids in IC 1613 exhibit a galactocentric dependence, whereby Cepheids near the core appear (spuriously) too bright (rg< 2'). That effect is attributed to photometric contamination from neighboring (unresolved) stars, since the stellar density and surface brightness may increase with decreasing galactocentric distance. The impact is relatively indiscernible for a comparison sample of Cepheids occupying NGC 6822, a result that is partly attributable to that sample being nearer than the metal-poor galaxy IC 1613. WVIc and [3.6] distances for relatively uncontaminated Cepheids in each galaxy are comparable, thus confirming that period-magnitude relations (Leavitt Law) in those bands are relatively insensitive to metallicity (Δ [ Fe/H ] ≃ 1).

  20. X-ray Emission from Megamaser Galaxy IC 2560

    SciTech Connect

    Madejski, Greg; Done, Chris; Zycki, Piotr; Greenhill, Lincoln; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2005-09-12

    Observation of the H{sub 2}O megamaser galaxy IC 2560 with the Chandra Observatory reveals a complex spectrum composed of soft X-ray emission due to multi-temperature thermal plasma, and a hard continuum with strong emission lines. The continuum is most likely a Compton reflection (reprocessing) of primary emission that is completely absorbed at least up to 7 keV. The lines can be identified with fluorescence from Si, S and Fe in the lowest ionization stages. The equivalent widths of the Si and S lines are broadly compatible with those anticipated for reprocessing by optically thick cold plasma of Solar abundances, while the large equivalent width of the Fe line requires some overabundance of iron. A contribution to the line from a transmitted component cannot be ruled out, but the limits on the strength of the Compton shoulder make it less likely. From the bolometric luminosity of the nuclear region, we infer that the source radiates at 1-10% of its Eddington luminosity, for an adopted central mass of 3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The overall spectrum is consistent with the hypotheses that the central engines powering the detected megamsers in accretion disks are obscured from direct view by the associated accretion disk material itself, and that there is a correlation between the occurrence of megamaser emission and Compton-thick absorption columns. For the 11 known galaxies with both column density measurements and maser emission believed to arise from accretion disks, eight AGN are Compton thick.

  1. RR Lyrae stars in Local Group galaxies. IV - IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, A.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Hoessel, John G.; Mossman, Amy E.

    1992-09-01

    Deep charge-coupled device images of a field in IC 1613 away from the star forming central regions were taken with the '4-shooter' on the Hale 5 m telescope, and processed to find photometrically measure variable stars. Fifteen RR Lyrae stars were found, and periods, light curves, and finding charts for them are presented. The mean magnitude of RR Lyrae stars in this galaxy is deduced to be 24.90 mag. Assuming the absolute g magnitude for RR Lyraes to be Mg = 0.73 mag, and using extinction Ag = 0.07 mag, a distance modulus of 24.10 +/- 0.27 mag is derived. The finding of RR Lyrae stars indicates the unambiguous presence of an old population. The distance modulus derived from them is smaller than that derived from the Cepheids by an amount which is dependent upon the RR Lyrae zero-point calibration adopted, and may be as large as 0.3 mag. The difference has the same sense and magnitude as the discrepancy in the LMC. The probable sources of the problem are discussed.

  2. A Twisted Star-Forming Web in the Galaxy IC 342

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-20

    Looking like a spider web swirled into a spiral, galaxy IC 342 presents its delicate pattern of dust in this infrared light image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. The very center glows especially brightly in the infrared.

  3. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon; Saha, Abhijit; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J. E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  4. The red extended structure of IC 10, the nearest blue compact galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie A. N.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike

    2015-11-01

    The Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10 is the closest example of a blue compact galaxy. Here, we use optical gi imaging from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam and near infrared JHK imaging from United Kingdom Infrared Telescope/Wide Field Camera to conduct a comprehensive survey of the structure of IC 10. We examine the spatial distribution of its resolved young, intermediate and old stellar populations to large radius and low effective surface brightness levels. Akin to other dwarfs with multiple populations of different ages, stellar populations of decreasing average age are increasingly concentrated in this galaxy. We find that the young, starbursting population and the asymptotic giant branch population are both offset from the geometric centre of the older red giant branch (RGB) population by a few hundred parsecs, implying that the younger star formation occurred significantly away from the centre of the galaxy. The RGB population traces an extended structure that is typical of blue compact galaxies, with an effective radius of ˜5.75 arcmin (˜1.25 kpc). These measurements show that IC 10 is much more extended than has previously been realized, and this blue compact galaxy is one of the most extended dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. The outermost isophotes of this galaxy are very regular in shape and essentially circular in morphology. Based on this analysis, we do not find any evidence to suggest that IC 10 has undergone a recent, significant, interaction with an unknown companion.

  5. Ionized gas in the Irr galaxy IC 10: The emission spectrum and ionization sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Egorov, O. V.; Lozinskaya, T. A.; Moiseev, A. V.

    2011-02-01

    We present the observations of the Irr galaxy IC 10 at the 6-m SAO telescope with the panoramic Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph (MPFS). Based on the results of these observations and our long-slit spectroscopy performed previously, we have investigated the ionized-gas emission spectrum in the region of intense star formation and refined the gas metallicity estimates. We show that the “diagnostic diagrams” constructed from our observations agree best with the new improved ionization models by Martin-Manjon et al. Using these models, we have determined the electron density and gas ionization parameter and ionizing-cluster characteristics, the age and mass, from the spectra of the investigated HII regions. The cluster ages and masses are shown to be within the ranges 2.5-5 Myr and (0.2-1) × 105 M ⊗, respectively.

  6. Winds of low-metallicity OB-type stars: HST-COS spectroscopy in IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Miriam; Najarro, Francisco; Herrero, Artemio; Urbaneja, Miguel Alejandro

    2014-06-10

    We present the first quantitative ultraviolet spectroscopic analysis of resolved OB stars in IC 1613. Because of its alleged very low metallicity (≲1/10 Z {sub ☉}, from H II regions), studies in this Local Group dwarf galaxy could become a significant step forward from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) toward the extremely metal-poor massive stars of the early universe. We present HST-COS data covering the ∼1150-1800 Å wavelength range with resolution R ∼ 2500. We find that the targets do exhibit wind features, and these are similar in strength to SMC stars. Wind terminal velocities were derived from the observed P Cygni profiles with the Sobolev plus Exact Integration method. The v {sub ∞}-Z relationship has been revisited. The terminal velocity of IC 1613 O stars is clearly lower than Milky Way counterparts, but there is no clear difference between IC 1613 and SMC or LMC analog stars. We find no clear segregation with host galaxy in the terminal velocities of B-supergiants, nor in the v {sub ∞}/v {sub esc} ratio of the whole OB star sample in any of the studied galaxies. Finally, we present the first evidence that the Fe-abundance of IC 1613 OB stars is similar to the SMC, which is in agreement with previous results on red supergiants. With the confirmed ∼1/10 solar oxygen abundances of B-supergiants, our results indicate that IC 1613's α/Fe ratio is sub-solar.

  7. Evolved stars in the Local Group galaxies - I. AGB evolution and dust production in IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Boyer, M. L.; García-Hernández, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    We used models of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, which also describe the dust-formation process in the wind, to interpret the combination of near- and mid-infrared photometric data of the dwarf galaxy IC 1613. This is the first time that this approach is extended to an environment different from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). Our analysis, based on synthetic population techniques, shows nice agreement between the observations and the expected distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude diagrams obtained with JHK and Spitzer bands. This allows a characterization of the individual stars in the AGB sample in terms of mass, chemical composition and formation epoch of the progenitors. We identify the stars exhibiting the largest degree of obscuration as carbon stars evolving through the final AGB phases, descending from 1-1.25 M⊙ objects of metallicity Z = 10-3 and from 1.5-2.5 M⊙ stars with Z = 2 × 10-3. Oxygen-rich stars constitute the majority of the sample (˜65 per cent), mainly low-mass stars (<2 M⊙) that produce a negligible amount of dust (≤10-7 M⊙ yr-1). We predict the overall dust-production rate from IC 1613, mostly determined by carbon stars, to be ˜6 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1 with an uncertainty of 30 per cent. The capability of the current generation of models to interpret the AGB population in an environment different from the MCs opens the possibility to extend this kind of analysis to other Local Group galaxies.

  8. A search for extragalactic pulsars in the local group galaxies IC 10 and Barnard’s galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, H. Al; Roberts, M. S. E.; Champion, D.; McLaughlin, M.; Ransom, Scott; Ray, P. S.

    2017-06-01

    As of today, more than 2500 pulsars have been found, nearly all in the Milky Way, with the exception of ∼28 pulsars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. However, there have been few published attempts to search for pulsars deeper in our Galactic neighborhood. Two of the more promising Local Group galaxies are IC 10 and NGC 6822 (also known as Barnard’s Galaxy) due to their relatively high star formation rate and their proximity to our galaxy. IC 10 in particular, holds promise as it is the closest starburst galaxy to us and harbors an unusually high number of Wolf-Rayet stars, implying the presence of many neutron stars. We observed IC 10 and NGC 6822 at 820 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope for ∼15 and 5 hours respectively, and put a strong upper limit of 0.1 mJy on pulsars in either of the two galaxies. We also performed single pulse searches of both galaxies with no firm detections.

  9. An HI and Optical Study of Interacting Galaxies NGC 672 and IC 1727

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanchfield, Sara; Wilcots, E.; Prescott, M.

    2012-05-01

    We present VLA HI radio data and WIYN broadband optical observations of NGC 672 and IC 1727, two nearby, late-type, spiral galaxies. In the optical NGC 672 appears as a symmetric barred spiral with defined spiral arms and a scale length of 1.2 kpc. IC 1727 is asymmetric, lacks a true bar, and has a scale length of 2. 4 kpc. In the HI, we see tidal bridge, indicating interaction between the two galaxies. We map the distribution and kinematics of the neutral hydrogen gas in order to understand the nature of the true distribution of mass in these systems and present the resulting mass models.

  10. Dense gas in low-metallicity galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braine, J.; Shimajiri, Y.; André, P.; Bontemps, S.; Gao, Yu; Chen, Hao; Kramer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Stars form out of the densest parts of molecular clouds. Far-IR emission can be used to estimate the star formation rate (SFR) and high dipole moment molecules, typically HCN, trace the dense gas. A strong correlation exists between HCN and far-IR emission, with the ratio being nearly constant, over a large range of physical scales. A few recent observations have found HCN to be weak with respect to the far-IR and CO in subsolar metallicity (low-Z) objects. We present observations of the Local Group galaxies M 33, IC 10, and NGC 6822 with the IRAM 30 m and NRO 45 m telescopes, greatly improving the sample of low-Z galaxies observed. HCN, HCO+, CS, C2H, and HNC have been detected. Compared to solar metallicity galaxies, the nitrogen-bearing species are weak (HCN, HNC) or not detected (CN, HNCO, N2H+) relative to far-IR or CO emission. HCO+ and C2H emission is normal with respect to CO and far-IR. While 13CO is the usual factor 10 weaker than 12CO, C18O emission was not detected down to very low levels. Including earlier data, we find that the HCN/HCO+ ratio varies with metallicity (O/H) and attribute this to the sharply decreasing nitrogen abundance. The dense gas fraction, traced by the HCN/CO and HCO+/CO ratios, follows the SFR but in the low-Z objects the HCO+ is much easier to measure. Combined with larger and smaller scale measurements, the HCO+ line appears to be an excellent tracer of dense gas and varies linearly with the SFR for both low and high metallicities.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERACTION IN THE NEAREST STARBURSTING DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10

    SciTech Connect

    Nidever, David L.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Ott, Jürgen; Johnson, Megan; Stanimirović, Snežana; Putman, Mary; Majewski, Steven R.; Jütte, Eva; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Burton, W. Butler

    2013-12-20

    Using deep 21 cm H I data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ≳18.3 kpc long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly found feature stretches 1.°3 to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ∼65 km s{sup –1} lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (∼10 km s{sup –1} across ∼26') transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The H I mass of IC 10 is 9.5 × 10{sup 7} (d/805 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉} and the mass of the new extension is 7.1 × 10{sup 5} (d/805 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}. An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the H I extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously found counter-rotating H I gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall.

  12. Metallicity Distribution Functions of Four Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon; Saha, Abhijit; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.

    2015-06-01

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color-color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color-color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%-50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is

  13. A High-Resolution Radio Continuum Study Of The Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westcott, J.; Brinks, E.; Beswick, R. J.; Heesen, V.; Argo, M. K.; Baldi, R. D.; Fenech, D. M.; McHardy, I. M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Williams, D. R. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present high-resolution e-MERLIN radio continuum maps of the Dwarf Irregular galaxy IC 10 at 1.5 GHz and 5 GHz. We detect 11 compact sources at 1.5 GHz, 5 of which have complementary detections at 5 GHz. We classify 3 extended sources as compact HII regions within IC 10, 5 sources as contaminating background galaxies and identify 3 sources which require additional observations to classify. We do not expect that any of these 3 sources are Supernova Remnants as they will likely be resolved out at the assumed distance of IC 10 (0.7 Mpc). We correct integrated flux densities of IC 10 from the literature for contamination by unrelated background sources and obtain updated flux density measurements of 354 ± 11 mJy at 1.5 GHz and 199 ± 9 mJy at 4.85 GHz. The background contamination does not contribute significantly to the overall radio emission from IC 10, so previous analysis concerning its integrated radio properties remain valid.

  14. Metallic Winds in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Valdez, F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; Esquivel, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present results from models of galactic winds driven by energy injected from nuclear (at the galactic center) and non-nuclear starbursts. The total energy of the starburst is provided by very massive young stellar clusters, which can push the galactic interstellar medium and produce an important outflow. Such outflow can be a well or partially mixed wind, or a highly metallic wind. We have performed adiabatic 3D N-Body/Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of galactic winds using the gadget-2 code. The numerical models cover a wide range of parameters, varying the galaxy concentration index, gas fraction of the galactic disk, and radial distance of the starburst. We show that an off-center starburst in dwarf galaxies is the most effective mechanism to produce a significant loss of metals (material from the starburst itself). At the same time, a non-nuclear starburst produces a high efficiency of metal loss, in spite of having a moderate to low mass loss rate.

  15. Optical polarization of the Seyfert galaxies IC 4329A and MRK 376

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P. G.; Stockman, H. S.; Angel, J. R. P.; Maza, J.; Beaver, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the optical polarizations of the two highly polarized Seyfert 1 galaxies IC 4329A and Mrk 376 are presented. Continuum and line polarization of the two objects were observed with the Steward Observatory 2.25-m telescope using a two-channel photoelectric Pockels cell polarimeter, a single-channel scanner, and a digicon attached to a flint prism spectrograph. Results indicate that, for both galaxies, the emission line polarization and underlying continuum polarization are identical, rising toward short wavelengths, and therefore must be explained by a common mechanism. Such a mechanism is suggested to involve polarization produced by aligned grains in the galactic disk. A model for polarization in IC 4329A by this mechanism predicts a grain size three times smaller than Galactic polarizing grains, as well as a visual extinction of about 2 magnitudes, a gas to dust mass ratio close to 100 and a polarization to extinction ratio comparable to the Galactic ratio.

  16. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, David

    2017-06-01

    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  17. Blue Supergiant X-Ray Binaries in the Nearby Dwarf Galaxy IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas G. T.; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna; Prestwich, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In young starburst galaxies, the X-ray population is expected to be dominated by the relics of the most massive and short-lived stars, black hole and neutron-star high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). In the closest such galaxy, IC 10, we have made a multi-wavelength census of these objects. Employing a novel statistical correlation technique, we have matched our list of 110 X-ray point sources, derived from a decade of Chandra observations, against published photometric data. We report an 8σ correlation between the celestial coordinates of the two catalogs, with 42 X-ray sources having an optical counterpart. Applying an optical color-magnitude selection to isolate blue supergiant (SG) stars in IC 10, we find 16 matches. Both cases show a statistically significant overabundance versus the expectation value for chance alignments. The blue objects also exhibit systematically higher {f}x/{f}v ratios than other stars in the same magnitude range. Blue SG-XRBs include a major class of progenitors of double-degenerate binaries, hence their numbers are an important factor in modeling the rate of gravitational-wave sources. We suggest that the anomalous features of the IC 10 stellar population are explained if the age of the IC 10 starburst is close to the time of the peak of interaction for massive binaries.

  18. Kinematics of the ionized gas in the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez-Gutiérrez, M.; Rosado, M.; Georgiev, L.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.

    2001-01-01

    We present Hα and [S Ii] observations for the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 using the PUMA scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. Our goal is to analyze the kinematics of the ionized gas in the complex sample of superbubbles located in the whole extension of our field (10\\arcmin ), which includes most of the optical emission of this galaxy, and to study the inter-relationship between young stellar associations and nebulae based on a previous study that we have made on the stellar associations of the central region of this galaxy. The ionized gas in this galaxy is distributed in classical H Ii regions and in a series of superbubbles (also called giant shells) covering a large fraction of the optical extent of the galaxy. We present a catalog of kinematical properties of both the H Ii regions of this galaxy and the superbubbles. We have also compared the kinematics of the ionized gas in H Ii regions to search for possible dynamic differences between neutral and ionized gas.

  19. Efficiency of Metal Mixing in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Saitoh, Takayuki R.

    2017-04-01

    Metal mixing plays a critical role in the enrichment of metals in galaxies. The abundance of elements such as Mg, Fe, and Ba in metal-poor stars helps us understand the metal mixing in galaxies. However, the efficiency of metal mixing in galaxies is not yet understood. Here we report a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies with different efficiencies of metal mixing using a turbulence-induced mixing model. We show that metal mixing apparently occurs in dwarf galaxies from Mg and Ba abundances. We find that a scaling factor for metal diffusion larger than 0.01 is necessary to reproduce the measured abundances of Ba in dwarf galaxies. This value is consistent with the value expected from turbulence theory and experiments. We also find that the timescale of metal mixing is less than 40 Myr. This timescale is shorter than the typical dynamical times of dwarf galaxies. We demonstrate that the determination of a degree of scatters of Ba abundance by the observation will help us to better constrain the efficiency of metal mixing.

  20. IC 4767 (the X-galaxy) - the missing link for understanding galaxies with peanut-shaped bulges

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, B.C.; Bell, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photometric and kinematic observations of the peculiar S0 galaxy IC 4767, the X-galaxy, are presented. At various intensities the bulge of this galaxy looks like a normal spheroidal system with elliptical isophotes, a well-defined rectangle, and a peanut-shaped or X-shaped structure with components aligned at oblique angles to the major axis. The observations reveal a rapidly rotating inner disk of gas and dust which is nearly aligned with the major axis. The presence of gaseous emission alone suggests an accretion event. The stars in the outer regions of the X-component are rotating nearly as rapidly as the gas in the main disk, indicating that they are in relatively circular orbits. The five most prominent peanut-shaped bulges all have several nearby companions, evidence that the peanut deformity is due to interaction between galaxies. An analogy with the formation mechanism proposed for polar-ring galaxies suggests how an X-shaped component could develop from the accretion of gaseous material during an inclined encounter. 29 references.

  1. Choirs H I galaxy groups: The metallicity of dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Sarah M.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Meurer, Gerhardt; Bekki, Kenji; Dopita, Michael A.; Nicholls, David C.; Kilborn, Virginia

    2014-02-10

    We present a recalibration of the luminosity-metallicity relation for gas-rich, star-forming dwarfs to magnitudes as faint as M{sub R} ∼ –13. We use the Dopita et al. metallicity calibrations to calibrate the relation for all the data in this analysis. In metallicity-luminosity space, we find two subpopulations within a sample of high-confidence Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 star-forming galaxies: 52% are metal-rich giants and 48% are metal-medium galaxies. Metal-rich dwarfs classified as tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the literature are typically of metallicity 12 + log(O/H) = 8.70 ± 0.05, while SDSS dwarfs fainter than M{sub R} = –16 have a mean metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.28 ± 0.10, regardless of their luminosity, indicating that there is an approximate floor to the metallicity of low-luminosity galaxies. Our hydrodynamical simulations predict that TDGs should have metallicities elevated above the normal luminosity-metallicity relation. Metallicity can therefore be a useful diagnostic for identifying TDG candidate populations in the absence of tidal tails. At magnitudes brighter than M{sub R} ∼ –16, our sample of 53 star-forming galaxies in 9 H I gas-rich groups is consistent with the normal relation defined by the SDSS sample. At fainter magnitudes, there is an increase in dispersion of the metallicity of our sample, suggestive of a wide range of H I content and environment. In our sample, we identify three (16% of dwarfs) strong TDG candidates (12 + log(O/H) > 8.6) and four (21%) very metal-poor dwarfs (12 + log(O/H) < 8.0), which are likely gas-rich dwarfs with recently ignited star formation.

  2. XMM-Newton Observations of the Heavily Absorbed Seyfert 1 Galaxy IC 4329A

    SciTech Connect

    Steenbrugge, K.

    2005-01-05

    We detect seven distinct absorbing systems in the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy IC 4329A, taken with XMM-Newton. Firstly we detect absorption due to cold gas in our own Galaxy and warm gas in the Galactic halo or the Local Group. This local warm gas is only detected through O VII absorption, from which we deduce a temperature between 0.03 and 0.2 keV. In IC 4329A we detect absorption from the host galaxy as well as from a warm absorber, close to the nucleus, which has 4 components. The absorption from the host galaxy is well modeled by neutral material. The warm absorber detected in IC 4329A is photoionized and has an ionization range between log {xi} = -1.37 and log {xi} = 2.7. A broad excess is measured at the O VIII Ly{alpha} and N VII Ly{alpha} emission lines, which can be modeled by either disklines or multiple Gaussians. From the lightcurve we find that the source changed luminosity by about 20 % over the 140 ks observation, while the spectral shape, i.e. the softness ratio did not vary. In the EPIC spectra a narrow Fe K{alpha} and Fe XXVI Ly{alpha} emission line are detected. The narrowness of the Fe K{alpha} line and the fact that there is no evidence for flux variability between different observations leads us to conclude that the Fe K{alpha} line is formed at a large distance from the central black hole.

  3. Exploring stellar metallicities in dwarf galaxies and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Teresa Lynn

    In this thesis I discuss issues involving stellar metallicities in dwarf galaxies. Stars reflect the gas composition at the time they formed, thereby making the metallicity distribution function (MDF -- the relative number of stars as a function of metallicity) a record of the chemical evolution within a galaxy. I measure photometric metallicities using Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Advantages of photometric metallicities include measuring every star in the field down to fainter magnitudes than allowed by spectroscopy. I quantified and calibrated the metallicity and temperature sensitivities of colors derived from nine WFC3 filters using Dartmouth isochrones and Kurucz model atmospheres. The photometric metallicities were tested and calibrated with five well studied Galactic clusters spanning three orders of magnitude in metallicity: M92, NGC 6752, NGC 104, NGC 5927, and NGC 6791. The greatest accuracy in assigning metallicity was found using the (F390M--F555W) color, with the main advantage being the increased color sensitivity at low metallicity. MDFs for a population, along with chemical evolution models provide evolutionary information about gas flows and enrichment within that galaxy. I measured photometric metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix, and analytical chemical evolution models were fit to their MDFs. The MDF shapes, chemical evolution models and dynamic histories suggest that the galactic conditions during periods of star formation influenced the metallicities. I find that the narrower MDFs are indicative of interactions occurring in concert with star formation, while a broader MDF indicates a passive evolution. Additionally, I explore ways to combine chemical evolution models and star formation histories (SFH), to quantify the metallicity evolution with time. The SFHs of Weisz et al. (2014) are assessed for their potential to determine MDFs for 40 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFH

  4. Characterization Of Deformation Properties Of Metals In 3D ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittler, Olaf; Mroßko, Raul; Huber, Saskia; Dowhan, Lukasz; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-09-01

    The properties of the materials involved in the set-up of 3D ICs need to be known, when the occurring mechanical stresses are to be modeled. Especially elastic-plastic properties are relevant for the metal layers, which form redistribution layers and the through silicon vias. These can be characterized by the nanoindentation experiment, which is an established technique for the determination of Hardness and Young's modulus of thin films. But this standard data set is not sufficient to be used as input to finite element simulations, because stress strain curves are required for the analysis of reliability of metal layers. These stress-strain curves can be obtained by fitting the force displacement curves of the experiment with a finite-element model. This approach enables additionally a solution for the so called substrate effect, because the stiffness of the substrate can be considered in the fitting model. This known approach is being applied and tested on thin (300 nm) gold layers deposited on silicon. It is shown that a good sensitivity for Young's Modulus can be reached even for indents that exceed 10% of the film thickness, but for the plastic data the results are not unique and a range of plastic properties can be fitted.

  5. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of the radio galaxy IC310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.; Marinelli, A.; Galván-Gámez, A.; Aguilar-Ruiz, E.

    2017-03-01

    The radio galaxy IC310 located in the Perseus Cluster is one of the brightest objects in the radio and X-ray bands, and one of the closest active galactic nuclei observed in very-high energies. In GeV - TeV γ-rays, IC310 was detected in low and high flux states by the MAGIC telescopes from October 2009 to February 2010. Taking into account that the spectral energy distribution (SED) up to a few GeV seems to exhibit a double-peak feature and that a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model can explain all of the multiwavelength emission except for the non-simultaneous MAGIC emission, we interpret, in this work, the multifrequency data set of the radio galaxy IC310 in the context of homogeneous hadronic and leptonic models. In the leptonic framework, we present a multi-zone SSC model with two electron populations to explain the whole SED whereas for the hadronic model, we propose that a single-zone SSC model describes the SED up to a few GeVs and neutral pion decay products resulting from pγ interactions could describe the TeV - GeV γ-ray spectra. These interactions occur when Fermi-accelerated protons interact with the seed photons around the SSC peaks. We show that, in the leptonic model the minimum Lorentz factor of second electron population is exceedingly high γe ∼ 105 disfavoring this model, and in the hadronic model the required proton luminosity is not extremely high ∼1044 erg/s, provided that charge neutrality between the number of electrons and protons is given. Correlating the TeV γ-ray and neutrino spectra through photo-hadronic interactions, we find that the contribution of the emitting region of IC310 to the observed neutrino and ultra-high-energy cosmic ray fluxes are negligible.

  6. ON THE RADIAL EXTENT OF THE DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC10

    SciTech Connect

    Sanna, N.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R.; Stetson, P. B.; Ferraro, I.; Caputo, F.; Iannicola, G.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Bresolin, R.; Cignoni, M.; Matsunaga, N.; Pietrinferni, A.; Romaniello, M.; Storm, J.; Walker, A. R.

    2010-10-20

    We present new deep and accurate space (Advanced Camera for Surveys-Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope) and ground-based (Suprime-Cam at Subaru Telescope, Mega-Cam at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) photometric and astrometric data for the Local Group dwarf irregular IC10. We confirm the significant decrease of the young stellar population when moving from the center toward the outermost regions. We find that the tidal radius of IC10 is significantly larger than previous estimates of r{sub t} {approx_lt} 10'. By using the I, V-I color-magnitude diagram based on the Suprime-Cam data, we detect sizable samples of red giant (RG) stars up to radial distances of 18'-23' from the galactic center. The ratio between observed star counts (Mega-Cam data) across the tip of the RG branch and star counts predicted by Galactic models indicates a star count excess at least at a 3{sigma} level up to 34'-42' from the center. This finding supports the hypothesis that the huge H I cloud covering more than 1{sup 0} across the galaxy is associated with IC10. We also provide new estimates of the total luminosity (L{sub V} {approx} 9 x 10{sup 7} L {sub sun}, M{sub V} {approx} -15.1 mag) that agree with similar estimates available in the literature. If we restrict our study to the regions where rotational velocity measurements are available (r {approx} 13'), we find a mass-to-light ratio ({approx}10 M {sub sun}/L {sub sun}) that is at least one order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. The new estimate should be cautiously treated, since it is based on a minimal fraction of the body of the galaxy.

  7. The Local Group Galaxy IC 1613 and its asymptotic giant branch variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, John W.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Feast, Michael W.

    2015-09-01

    JHKS photometry is presented from a 3-yr survey of the central regions of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613. The morphologies of the colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams are discussed with particular reference to the supergiants and M- and C-type asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Mean JHKS magnitudes, amplitudes and periods are given for five O-rich and nine C-rich Mira variables for which bolometric magnitudes are also estimated. A distance of 750 kpc ((m - M)0 = 24.37 ± 0.08 mag) is derived for IC 1613 by fitting a period-luminosity (PL) relation to the C-rich Miras. This is in agreement with values from the literature. The AGB stars exhibit a range of ages. A comparison with theoretical isochrones suggests that four luminous O-rich Miras are as young as 2 × 108 yr. One of these has a lithium absorption line in its spectrum, demonstrating that it is undergoing hot bottom burning (HBB). This supports the idea that HBB is the cause of the high luminosity of these AGB stars, which puts them above the fundamental PL relation. Further studies of similar stars, selected from their positions in the PL diagram, could provide insight into HBB. A much fainter, presumed O-rich, Mira is similar to those found in Galactic globular clusters. The C Miras are of intermediate age. The O-rich variables are not all recognized as O-rich, or even as AGB stars, on the basis of their J - KS colour. It is important to appreciate this when using near-infrared surveys to classify AGB stars in more distant galaxies.

  8. THE METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF INTERACTING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars; Cox, T. J.; Kewley, Lisa

    2012-02-10

    Nuclear inflows of metal-poor interstellar gas triggered by galaxy interactions can account for the systematically lower central oxygen abundances observed in local interacting galaxies. Here, we investigate the metallicity evolution of a large set of simulations of colliding galaxies. Our models include cooling, star formation, feedback, and a new stochastic method for tracking the mass recycled back to the interstellar medium from stellar winds and supernovae. We study the influence of merger-induced inflows, enrichment, gas consumption, and galactic winds in determining the nuclear metallicity. The central metallicity is primarily a competition between the inflow of low-metallicity gas and enrichment from star formation. An average depression in the nuclear metallicity of {approx}0.07 is found for gas-poor disk-disk interactions. Gas-rich disk-disk interactions, on the other hand, typically have an enhancement in the central metallicity that is positively correlated with the gas content. The simulations fare reasonably well when compared to the observed mass-metallicity and separation-metallicity relationships, but further study is warranted.

  9. A Journey In The Radio Galaxy IC 1531: Through The Linear Scale, Across The Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Tiziana; Migliori, G.; Grandi, P.; Vignali, C.

    2016-10-01

    We present a multi-scale and multi-frequency study of the radio galaxy IC1531 (z=0.026) with Chandra, XMM-Newton and Fermi. The Chandra image shows an X-ray core and 5 extended emission with the radio jet. The X-ray spectrum of the core is well fitted by a power law (Γ=2.2). The X-ray emission of the large scale jet is most-likely synchrotron emission, further confirming the low-power source classication. The gamma-ray analisys shows a 5-days variability, from which it is possible to estimate the size of the emitting region. We present a study of the spectral energy distribution of the core of IC1531 from radio to gamma-ray emission. The models allowed us to determine the nature of the gamma-ray emission and infer the jet kinetic power at sub-pc scales. The jet power at kpc scales is estimated from the total radio luminosity at 151 MHz. Finally, we compare the jet power with the disk luminosity. We discuss our results in terms of the formation and evolution of the jet.

  10. Shock-induced star formation in IC2153 - A colliding pair of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, K.; Bergvall, N.; Ekman, A.

    1984-08-01

    Direct photographic, photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting galaxy-pair IC2153 = ESO 364-IG 22 are reported. The observations were performed with the ESO 3.6-m, 1.5 m and 1-m telescopes at La Silla, Chile. The mean radial velocity of the system is 2630 km/s ( = or 30 km/s), corresponding to a distance of 35 Mpc. The system is aobut nine kpc across, and its UBV colors are consistent with those found in irregular galaxies. The absolute magnitude of the system is -18.4 mag. Spectral tracings of the main components show an early-type absorption spectrum and an emission spectrum. Spectra in the intermediate region of the pair have pure emission-line characteristics. Evidence of shock-heating in the galactic H-II regions, and it is estimated that about 7 percent of the light in H-beta originates from shock-heating and that the remainder arises from photoionization by hot stars. From a stellar population model, it is found that the UBV Johnson colors in the pair represent a burst of star formation with an age of 150 million years.

  11. Spectrophotometry of the central region of the galaxy Markaryan 298 = IC 1182-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metik, L. P.; Pronik, I. I.

    1981-10-01

    An analysis of spectra obtained with an approximately 95 A/mm-dispersion spectrograph has yielded new data on the structure of the central region of the Seyfert galaxy Markaryan 298 = IC 1182-4. The central region's gaseous formation has a diameter of 6.5 kpc, an electron density of 0.2-0.5/cu cm, and a mass ratio (M/solar-M) ranging from 0.6 x 10 to the 7th to 7 x 10 to the 8th. The data further suggests that this gas formation is associated with condensations of blue stars, and interacts with both the nucleus and the eastern elongated structure of the galaxy. The nucleus of Markaryan 298 is found to be a type 1 Seyfert which is distorted by dust absorption, with a hydrogen envelope that is opaque in the Balmer lines and inhomogeneous in its physical conditions. Gas condensations in the forbidden line emission region are found to be of the densities 20, 10,000 and 200,000/cu cm

  12. On the Radial Extent of the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, N.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Ferraro, I.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Bresolin, R.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Cignoni, M.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Iannicola, G.; Matsunaga, N.; Pietrinferni, A.; Romaniello, M.; Storm, J.; Walker, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    We present new deep and accurate space (Advanced Camera for Surveys-Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope) and ground-based (Suprime-Cam at Subaru Telescope, Mega-Cam at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) photometric and astrometric data for the Local Group dwarf irregular IC10. We confirm the significant decrease of the young stellar population when moving from the center toward the outermost regions. We find that the tidal radius of IC10 is significantly larger than previous estimates of rt <~ 10'. By using the I, V-I color-magnitude diagram based on the Suprime-Cam data, we detect sizable samples of red giant (RG) stars up to radial distances of 18'-23' from the galactic center. The ratio between observed star counts (Mega-Cam data) across the tip of the RG branch and star counts predicted by Galactic models indicates a star count excess at least at a 3σ level up to 34'-42' from the center. This finding supports the hypothesis that the huge H I cloud covering more than 1° across the galaxy is associated with IC10. We also provide new estimates of the total luminosity (LV ~ 9 × 107 L sun, MV ~ -15.1 mag) that agree with similar estimates available in the literature. If we restrict our study to the regions where rotational velocity measurements are available (r ≈ 13'), we find a mass-to-light ratio (~10 M sun/L sun) that is at least one order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. The new estimate should be cautiously treated, since it is based on a minimal fraction of the body of the galaxy. This research used the facilities of the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency. This research is based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  13. A Radio Study of the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063: Evidence for Fast Gas Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Tsvetanov, Z.

    1998-03-01

    We present new radio continuum (8 and 1.4 GHz) and H i 21 cm line observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC 5063 (PKS 2048-572), obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The high-resolution 8 GHz image reveals a linear triple structure ~4" (1.3 kpc) in size. This small-scale radio emission shows a strong morphological association with the narrow-line region (NLR), the inner part of the optical emission-line region. It is aligned with the inner dust lane and is oriented perpendicularly to the position angle of the optical polarization. We identify the radio nucleus as the central blob of the radio emission. At 21 cm, very broad (~700 km s^-1) H i absorption is observed against the strong continuum source. This absorption is almost entirely blueshifted, indicating a fast net outflow, but a faint and narrow redshifted component is also present. In IC 5063 we see clear evidence, both morphological and kinematic, of strong shocks resulting from the interaction between the radio plasma and the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central few kiloparsecs. However, we estimate the energy flux in the radio plasma to be an order of magnitude smaller than the energy flux emitted in emission lines. Thus, although strong shocks associated with the jet/ISM interaction occur, and could contribute locally to the ionization of the NLR, they are unlikely to account solely for the global ionization of the emission-line region, particularly at large distances. The main structure of the H i emission is a warped disk associated with the system of dust lanes of R ~ 2' (~38 kpc, corresponding to ~5 effective radii). The lack of kinematically disturbed gas (both neutral and ionized) outside the central few kiloparsecs, the warped structure of the large-scale disk, and the close morphological connection between the inner dust lanes and the large-scale ionized gas all support the idea that the gas at large radii is photoionized by the central region, while shadowing effects are

  14. The fast molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063 as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Frieswijk, Wilfred; Tadhunter, Clive

    2015-08-01

    We use high-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC 5063. The data reveal that the kinematics of the gas is very complex. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet (~1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot spot in the western lobe. The ALMA data show that a massive, fast outflow with velocities up to 650kms-1 of cold molecular gas is present, in addition to the outflow detected earlier in warm H2, H i and ionized gas. All phases of the gas outflow show similar kinematics. IC 5063 appears to be one of the best examples of the multi-phase nature of AGN-driven outflows. Both the central AGN and the radio jet could energetically drive the outflow, however, the characteristics of the outflowing gas point to the radio jet being the main driver. This is an important result because IC 5063, although one of the most powerful Seyfert galaxies, is a relatively weak radio source (P1.4 GHz = 3 × 1023 W Hz-1). All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This model is consistent with results obtained by recent simulations. A stronger, direct interaction between the jet and a gas cloud is present at the location of the brighter western lobe. This interaction may also be responsible for the asymmetry in the radio brightness of the two lobes. Even assuming the most conservative values for the conversion factor CO-to-H2, we find that the mass of the outflowing gas is between 1.9 and 4.8 × 107 M⊙, of which between 0.5 and 1.3 × 107 M⊙ is associated with the fast outflow at the location of the western lobe. These amounts are much larger than those of the

  15. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES: DYNAMICS AND METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Munoz-Tunon, C.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Elmegreen, B. G. E-mail: cmt@iac.es E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu

    2013-04-10

    Tadpole galaxies, with a bright peripheral clump on a faint tail, are morphological types unusual in the nearby universe but very common early on. Low mass local tadpoles were identified and studied photometrically in a previous work, which we complete here analyzing their chemical and dynamical properties. We measure H{alpha} velocity curves of seven local tadpoles, representing 50% of the initial sample. Five of them show evidence for rotation ({approx}70%), and a sixth target hints at it. Often the center of rotation is spatially offset with respect to the tadpole head (three out of five cases). The size and velocity dispersion of the heads are typical of giant H II regions, and three of them yield dynamical masses in fair agreement with their stellar masses as inferred from photometry. In four cases the velocity dispersion at the head is reduced with respect to its immediate surroundings. The oxygen metallicity estimated from [N II] {lambda}6583/H{alpha} often shows significant spatial variations across the galaxies ({approx}0.5 dex), being smallest at the head and larger elsewhere. The resulting chemical abundance gradients are opposite to the ones observed in local spirals, but agrees with disk galaxies at high redshift. We interpret the metallicity variation as a sign of external gas accretion (cold-flows) onto the head of the tadpole. The galaxies are low-metallicity outliers of the mass-metallicity relationship. In particular, two of the tadpole heads are extremely metal poor, with a metallicity smaller than a tenth of the solar value. These two targets are also very young (ages smaller than 5 Myr). All these results combined are consistent with the local tadpole galaxies being disks in early stages of assembling, with their star formation sustained by accretion of external metal-poor gas.

  16. The optical and near-infrared distribution of light in the edge-on galaxy IC 2531

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainscoat, R. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Hyland, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    Optical and near-IR imaging of the edge-on galaxy IC 2531 is presented, and an attempt is made to derive the true distributions of stars and dust in this galaxy. The results suggest that the z dependence of the light distribution is better fitted by an exponential than by the isothermal sech-squared distribution. The dynamical implication of such a distribution is that the vertical velocity dispersion near the galactic plane should increase with z. A simple model for the light and dust distribution in IC 2531 employing three exponential components is constructed: an old disk, a young disk, and dust. Vertical scale heights of h(zd) = h(z)/4 and h(zy) = h(z)/8 and an absorption equivalent to about half of that in the Galaxy are found to produce the best fits.

  17. Representative galaxy age-metallicity relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastián L.

    2017-07-01

    The ongoing surveys of galaxies and those for the next generation of telescopes will demand the execution of high-CPU consuming machine codes for recovering detailed star formation histories (SFHs) and hence age-metallicity relationships (AMRs). We present here an expeditive method which provides quick-look AMRs on the basis of representative ages and metallicities obtained from colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) analyses. We have tested its performance by generating synthetic CMDs for a wide variety of galaxy SFHs. The representative AMRs turn out to be reliable down to a magnitude limit with a photometric completeness factor higher than ˜85 per cent, and trace the chemical evolution history for any stellar population (represented by a mean age and an intrinsic age spread) with a total mass within ˜40 per cent of the more massive stellar population in the galaxy.

  18. THE ACS LCID PROJECT. II. FAINT VARIABLE STARS IN THE ISOLATED DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio; Drozdovsky, Igor; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Cassisi, Santi; Skillman, Evan D.; Stetson, Peter B. E-mail: monelli@iac.e E-mail: antapaj@iac.e E-mail: slhidalgo@iac.e E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.ed

    2010-04-01

    We present the results of a new search for variable stars in the Local Group (LG) isolated dwarf galaxy IC 1613, based on 24 orbits of F475W and F814W photometry from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We detected 259 candidate variables in this field, of which only 13 (all of them bright Cepheids) were previously known. Out of the confirmed variables, we found 90 RR Lyrae stars, 49 classical Cepheids (including 36 new discoveries), and 38 eclipsing binary stars for which we could determine a period. The RR Lyrae include 61 fundamental (RRab) and 24 first-overtone (FO, RRc) pulsators, and five pulsating in both modes simultaneously (RRd). As for the majority of LG dwarfs, the mean periods of the RRab and RRc (0.611 and 0.334 days, respectively) as well as the fraction of overtone pulsators (f{sub c} = 0.28) place this galaxy in the intermediate regime between the Oosterhoff types. From their position on the period-luminosity diagram and light-curve morphology, we can unambiguously classify 25 and 14 Cepheids as fundamental and FO mode pulsators, respectively. Another two are clearly second-overtone Cepheids, the first ones to be discovered beyond the Magellanic Clouds. Among the remaining candidate variables, five were classified as delta-Scuti and five as long-period variables. Most of the others are located on the main sequence, the majority of them likely eclipsing binary systems, although some present variations similar to pulsating stars. We estimate the distance to IC 1613 using various methods based on the photometric and pulsational properties of the Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. The values we find are in very good agreement with each other and with previous estimates based on independent methods. When corrected to a common reddening of E(B - V) = 0.025 and true Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance modulus of (m-M){sub LMC,0} = 18.515 +- 0.085, we find that all the distance determinations from the literature converge

  19. Measurement of the Lick Indices in Early-Type Galaxies: Line-of-Sight Velocity Distribution Corrections for IC 1459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samurovic, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we analyse the measurements of the absorption line-strength Lick indices in the early-type galaxy IC 1459. We use the long-slit spectra of the elliptical galaxy IC 1459 from which its kinematics had previously been extracted to calculate the Lick indices for the observed spectral region (Mg_2, Fe5270, Fe5335 and H_β). We apply the usual procedure and correct the indices to the Lick spectral resolution and for the zero velocity dispersion. The procedure applied in this paper also corrects to non-Gaussian line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) observed in this galaxy, especially in its outer parts. The findings of Kuntschner (2004) were tested and it is shown that the departures from the Gaussian LOSVD may indeed cause erroneous determinations of the Lick indices. The impact of the introduction of non-Gaussian LOSVD differs for different indices. For the galaxy IC~1459 it is shown that the iron indices are especially sensitive when the correction due to anistropies is introduced: the corrections for Fe5270 and Fe5335 are ˜ 10 and ˜ 19 percent larger, respectively, than the corrections obtained in case of a pure Gaussian. The corrections for Mg_2 index are shown to be negligible and the corrections of the H_β index due to anisotropies are also small (below ˜ 4 per cent at most).

  20. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Charmandaris, Vassilis; van der Werf, Paul; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Cao, Chen

    2017-08-01

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ˜34 pc) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6-5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6-5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ˜10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa-α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ˜ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ˜34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s-1 (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  1. Galaxies with Shells in the Illustris Simulation: Metallicity Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Ana-Roxana; Pillepich, Annalisa; Amorisco, Nicola; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Stellar shells are low surface brightness arcs of overdense stellar regions, extending to large galactocentric distances. In a companion study, we identified 39 shell galaxies in a sample of 220 massive ellipticals ($\\mathrm{M}_{\\mathrm{200crit}}>6\\times10^{12}\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$) from the Illustris cosmological simulation. We used stellar history catalogs to trace the history of each individual star particle inside the shell substructures, and we found that shells in high-mass galaxies form through mergers with massive satellites (stellar mass ratios $\\mu_{\\mathrm{stars}}\\gtrsim1:10$). Using the same sample of shell galaxies, the current study extends the stellar history catalogs in order to investigate the metallicity of stellar shells around massive galaxies. Our results indicate that outer shells are often times more metal-rich than the surrounding stellar material in a galaxy's halo. For a galaxy with two different satellites forming $z=0$ shells, we find a significa! nt difference in the metallicity of the shells produced by each progenitor. We also find that shell galaxies have higher mass-weighted logarithmic metallicities ([Z/H]) at $2$-$4\\,\\mathrm{R}_{\\mathrm{eff}}$ compared to galaxies without shells. Our results indicate that observations comparing the metallicities of stars in tidal features, such as shells, to the average metallicities in the stellar halo can provide information about the assembly histories of galaxies. %K galaxies: evolution, galaxies: interactions, galaxies: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: structure, methods: numerical, stellar shells, stellar metallicities

  2. Multi-Wavelength Observations of the Supernova Remnant Populations in the Nearby Spiral Galaxies IC 342 and NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuti, Thomas; Chomiuk, L.; Grimes, C. K.; Staggs, W. D.; Tussey, J. M.; Laine, S.; Schlegel, E.

    2011-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are intimately tied to many crucial processes associated with the interstellar medium of galaxies, such as the acceleration of cosmic-ray particles and the deposition of vast amounts of kinetic energy and chemically-enriched material. Well-known observational challenges in the study of SNRs located in the Milky Way Galaxy (for example, formidable extinction along Galactic lines of sight and considerable uncertainties in the distances to these sources) have motivated searches for SNRs in nearby galaxies at such characteristic wavelengths as X-ray, optical and radio. These searches have revealed a considerable number of SNRs and led to new insights into their properties, but the SNR populations in only a handful of nearby galaxies have been adequately surveyed at multiple wavelengths. To help remedy this situation, we are conducting a multi-wavelength study of the SNR population of selected nearby galaxies. To illustrate our work, we present the results of studies of the SNR population in two nearby spiral galaxies, IC 342 and NGC 4258. Our results draw upon the analysis of pointed archival radio and X-ray observations of these two galaxies. Initial results will be presented and discussed.

  3. Star formation histories in mergers: the spatially resolved properties of the early-stage merger luminous infrared galaxies IC 1623 and NGC 6090

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Sánchez, S. F.; de Amorim, A. L.; Di Matteo, P.; García-Benito, R.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López Fernández, R.; Tadhunter, C.

    2017-06-01

    The role of major mergers in galaxy evolution is investigated through a detailed characterization of the stellar populations, ionized gas properties and star formation rates (SFR) in the early-stage merger luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) IC 1623 W and NGC 6090, by analysing optical integral field spectroscopy and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging. The spectra were processed with the starlight full spectral fitting code, and the emission lines measured in the residual spectra. The results are compared with non-interacting control spiral galaxies from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. Merger-induced star formation is extended and recent, as revealed by the young ages (50-80 Myr) and high contributions to light of young stellar populations (50-90 per cent), in agreement with merger simulations in the literature. These early-stage mergers have positive central gradients of the stellar metallicity, with an average ˜0.6 Z⊙. Compared to non-interacting spirals, they have lower central nebular metallicity, and flatter profiles, in agreement with the gas inflow scenario. We find that they are dominated by star formation, although shock excitation cannot be discarded in some regions, where high velocity dispersion is found (170-200 km s-1). The average SFR in these early-stage mergers (˜23-32 M⊙ yr-1) is enhanced with respect to main-sequence Sbc galaxies by factors of 6-9, slightly above the predictions from classical merger simulations, but still possible in about 15 per cent of major galaxy mergers, where U/LIRGs belong.

  4. First multi-wavelength campaign on the gamma-ray-loud active galaxy IC 310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Ishio, K.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Nöthe, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres-Albà, N.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Krauß, F.; Schulz, R.; Kadler, M.; Wilms, J.; Ros, E.; Bach, U.; Beuchert, T.; Langejahn, M.; Wendel, C.; Gehrels, N.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Markwardt, C. B.; Müller, C.; Grinberg, V.; Hovatta, T.; Magill, J.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The extragalactic very-high-energy gamma-ray sky is rich in blazars. These are jetted active galactic nuclei that are viewed at a small angle to the line-of-sight. Only a handful of objects viewed at a larger angle are so far known to emit above 100 GeV. Multi-wavelength studies of such objects up to the highest energies provide new insights into the particle and radiation processes of active galactic nuclei. Aims: We aim to report the results from the first multi-wavelength campaign observing the TeV detected nucleus of the active galaxy IC 310, whose jet is observed at a moderate viewing angle of 10°-20°. Methods: The multi-instrument campaign was conducted between 2012 November and 2013 January, and involved observations with MAGIC, Fermi, INTEGRAL, Swift, OVRO, MOJAVE and EVN. These observations were complemented with archival data from the AllWISE and 2MASS catalogs. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was applied to describe the broadband spectral energy distribution. Results: IC 310 showed an extraordinary TeV flare at the beginning of the campaign, followed by a low, but still detectable TeV flux. Compared to previous measurements in this energy range, the spectral shape was found to be steeper during the low emission state. Simultaneous observations in the soft X-ray band showed an enhanced energy flux state and a harder-when-brighter spectral shape behavior. No strong correlated flux variability was found in other frequency regimes. The broadband spectral energy distribution obtained from these observations supports the hypothesis of a double-hump structure. Conclusions: The harder-when-brighter trend in the X-ray and VHE emission, observed for the first time during this campaign, is consistent with the behavior expected from a synchrotron self-Compton scenario. The contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distribution is well described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model using parameters that are comparable to those found for

  5. The ACS LCID Project. II. Faint Variable Stars in the Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Drozdovsky, Igor; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Skillman, Evan D.; Stetson, Peter B.

    2010-04-01

    We present the results of a new search for variable stars in the Local Group (LG) isolated dwarf galaxy IC 1613, based on 24 orbits of F475W and F814W photometry from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We detected 259 candidate variables in this field, of which only 13 (all of them bright Cepheids) were previously known. Out of the confirmed variables, we found 90 RR Lyrae stars, 49 classical Cepheids (including 36 new discoveries), and 38 eclipsing binary stars for which we could determine a period. The RR Lyrae include 61 fundamental (RRab) and 24 first-overtone (FO, RRc) pulsators, and five pulsating in both modes simultaneously (RRd). As for the majority of LG dwarfs, the mean periods of the RRab and RRc (0.611 and 0.334 days, respectively) as well as the fraction of overtone pulsators (f c = 0.28) place this galaxy in the intermediate regime between the Oosterhoff types. From their position on the period-luminosity diagram and light-curve morphology, we can unambiguously classify 25 and 14 Cepheids as fundamental and FO mode pulsators, respectively. Another two are clearly second-overtone Cepheids, the first ones to be discovered beyond the Magellanic Clouds. Among the remaining candidate variables, five were classified as δ-Scuti and five as long-period variables. Most of the others are located on the main sequence, the majority of them likely eclipsing binary systems, although some present variations similar to pulsating stars. We estimate the distance to IC 1613 using various methods based on the photometric and pulsational properties of the Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. The values we find are in very good agreement with each other and with previous estimates based on independent methods. When corrected to a common reddening of E(B - V) = 0.025 and true Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance modulus of (m-M)LMC,0 = 18.515 ± 0.085, we find that all the distance determinations from the literature converge to a common

  6. The Relativistic Iron Line Profile in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy IC4329a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Zycki, P. T.

    2000-01-01

    We present simultaneous ASCA and RXTE data on the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy IC4329a. The iron line is significantly broadened, but not to the extent expected from an accretion disk which extends down to the last stable orbit around a black hole. We marginally detect a narrow line component, presumably from the molecular torus, but, even including this gives a line profile from the accretion disk which is significantly narrower that that seen in MCG-6-30-15, and is much more like that seen from the low/hard state galactic black hole candidates. This is consistent with the inner disk being truncated before the last stable orbit, forming a hot flow at small radii as in the ADAF models. However. we cannot rule out the presence of an inner disk which does not contribute to the reflected spectrum. either because of extreme ionisation suppressing the characteristic atomic features of the reflected spectrum or because the X-ray source is intrinsically anisotropic, so it does not illuminate the inner disk. The source was monitored by RXTE every 2 days for 2 months, and these snapshot spectra show that there is intrinsic spectral variability. The data are good enough to disentangle the power law from the reflected continuum and we see that the power law softens as the source brightens. The lack of a corresponding increase in the observed reflected spectrum implies that either the changes in disk inner radial extent/ionization structure are small, or that the variability is actually driven by changes in the seed photons which are decoupled from the hard X-ray mechanism.

  7. Carbon monoxide in an extremely metal-poor galaxy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang; Gu, Qiusheng

    2016-12-09

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies with metallicity below 10% of the solar value in the local universe are the best analogues to investigating the interstellar medium at a quasi-primitive environment in the early universe. In spite of the ongoing formation of stars in these galaxies, the presence of molecular gas (which is known to provide the material reservoir for star formation in galaxies such as our Milky Way) remains unclear. Here we report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO), the primary tracer of molecular gas, in a galaxy with 7% solar metallicity, with additional detections in two galaxies at higher metallicities. Such detections offer direct evidence for the existence of molecular gas in these galaxies that contain few metals. Using archived infrared data, it is shown that the molecular gas mass per CO luminosity at extremely low metallicity is approximately one-thousand times the Milky Way value.

  8. Carbon monoxide in an extremely metal-poor galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yong; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang; Gu, Qiusheng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies with metallicity below 10% of the solar value in the local universe are the best analogues to investigating the interstellar medium at a quasi-primitive environment in the early universe. In spite of the ongoing formation of stars in these galaxies, the presence of molecular gas (which is known to provide the material reservoir for star formation in galaxies such as our Milky Way) remains unclear. Here we report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO), the primary tracer of molecular gas, in a galaxy with 7% solar metallicity, with additional detections in two galaxies at higher metallicities. Such detections offer direct evidence for the existence of molecular gas in these galaxies that contain few metals. Using archived infrared data, it is shown that the molecular gas mass per CO luminosity at extremely low metallicity is approximately one-thousand times the Milky Way value. PMID:27934880

  9. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SITES: CONSTRAINING THE MASS AND METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITORS. I. TYPE Ib AND Ic SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Aldering, Greg; Arimoto, Nobuo; Pereira, Rui

    2013-08-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of 11 Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) explosion sites in nearby galaxies has been obtained using UH88/SNIFS and Gemini-N/GMOS. The use of integral field spectroscopy enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information about the explosion site, enabling the identification of the parent stellar population of the SN progenitor star. The spectrum of the parent population provides metallicity determination via strong-line method and age estimation obtained via comparison with simple stellar population models. We adopt this information as the metallicity and age of the SN progenitor, under the assumption that it was coeval with the parent stellar population. The age of the star corresponds to its lifetime, which in turn gives the estimate of its initial mass. With this method we were able to determine both the metallicity and initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the progenitor stars of SNe Ib and Ic. We found that on average SN Ic explosion sites are more metal-rich and younger than SN Ib sites. The initial mass of the progenitors derived from parent stellar population age suggests that SN Ic has more massive progenitors than SN Ib. In addition, we also found indication that some of our SN progenitors are less massive than {approx}25 M{sub Sun }, indicating that they may have been stars in a close binary system that have lost their outer envelope via binary interactions to produce SNe Ib/Ic, instead of single Wolf-Rayet stars. These findings support the current suggestions that both binary and single progenitor channels are in effect in producing SNe Ib/Ic. This work also demonstrates the power of integral field spectroscopy in investigating SN environments and active star-forming regions.

  10. Flat Metallicity Profiles in Rotating Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroyen, J.; de Rijcke, S.; Valcke, S.

    2011-07-01

    Dwarf irregulars (dIrr) and flat, rotating dwarf ellipticals (dE) generally posess flat metallicity profiles while round dEs show strong metallicity gradients (Koleva et al. 2009). Unlike dEs, dIrrs also exhibit ongoing star formation (SF) (Dolphin et al. 2005), in most cases compatible with a continuous star formation history (SFH). We show results based on a large suite of Nbody-SPH simulations of flat dwarf galaxies, both rotating and non-rotating, performed with a modified version of GADGET2. They have a range of masses, flattenings and rotations speeds and are based on the spherical models of (Valcke et al. 2008). Specifically, we want to see if it is possible to reproduce these characteristics in isolated DG models. These simulations show that using rotation to flatten a dwarf galaxy is particularly efficient in turning a so-called "breathing" SFH (Valcke et al. 2008) into a more continuous SFH, and in producing flat metallicity profiles. Non-rotating dEs in a flattened dark-matter halo are not able to reproduce these characteristics. Thus, it appears that rotation is key to reproducing the observed characteristics. Rotation causes a "centrifugal barrier" which slows down the infall of gas, so that the low-level star formation is not centrally concentrated but occurs galaxy-wide, and in this way also prevents large-scale oscillations in the SFR. This mechanism of smearing out the star formation in time and space proves to be the principal reason for the flat metallicity profiles, instead of the often referred to "fountain mechanism" (De Young & Heckman 1994; Barazza & Binggeli 2002; Mac Low & Ferrara 1999; Ferrara & Tolstoy 2000). We therefore propose a "centrifugal barrier mechanism" which is able to explain the observations.

  11. Transformation of a Virgo Cluster dwarf irregular galaxy by ram pressure stripping: IC3418 and its fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Geha, Marla; Jáchym, Pavel; Dague, William; Crowl, Hugh H.; Chung, Aeree; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Vollmer, Bernd

    2014-01-10

    We present optical imaging and spectroscopy and H I imaging of the Virgo Cluster galaxy IC 3418, which is likely a 'smoking gun' example of the transformation of a dwarf irregular into a dwarf elliptical galaxy by ram pressure stripping. IC 3418 has a spectacular 17 kpc length UV-bright tail comprised of knots, head-tail, and linear stellar features. The only Hα emission arises from a few H II regions in the tail, the brightest of which are at the heads of head-tail UV sources whose tails point toward the galaxy ('fireballs'). Several of the elongated tail sources have Hα peaks outwardly offset by ∼80-150 pc from the UV peaks, suggesting that gas clumps continue to accelerate through ram pressure, leaving behind streams of newly formed stars which have decoupled from the gas. Absorption line strengths, measured from Keck DEIMOS spectra, together with UV colors, show star formation stopped 300 ± 100 Myr ago in the main body, and a strong starburst occurred prior to quenching. While neither Hα nor H I emission are detected in the main body of the galaxy, we have detected 4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} of H I from the tail with the Very Large Array. The velocities of tail H II regions, measured from Keck LRIS spectra, extend only a small fraction of the way to the cluster velocity, suggesting that star formation does not happen in more distant parts of the tail. Stars in the outer tail have velocities exceeding the escape speed, but some in the inner tail should fall back into the galaxy, forming halo streams.

  12. Investigating the Processes Driving Low-Mass Galaxy Evolution with Gas Metallicities of Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew; Nagao, Tohru; Hayashi, Masao; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Motohara, Kentaro

    2013-02-01

    There appears to be a ``fundamental" relationship that links the stellar masses, star-formation rates (SFRs), and gas metallicities of local galaxies. It has been used to constrain the major processes in galaxy evolution. However, it is unclear whether (1) this observed relation holds at earlier cosmic time, and (2) if it applies to low-mass galaxies and/or those with relatively higher specific SFRs (sSFRs). We request follow-up Hectospec spectroscopy %and DEIMOS spectroscopy to obtain gas metallicity measurements in key unexplored domains of galaxy parameter space. We will target Ntarget low-mass high equivalent width (EW) emission-line galaxies at zrange in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). This sample is a factor of almost 4 larger than the existing data for galaxies with similar redshifts, SFRs and stellar masses. The SDF is ideal for such a survey because of its unique multi-wavelength imaging data that allow us to (1) identify a much higher surface density of high-EW star-forming galaxies over a wide redshift range than in any other survey, and (2) determine stellar masses and SFRs for individual galaxies. With the largest spectroscopic sample of low mass and/or high sSFR galaxies, we will determine the relationships between metallicity, stellar mass, and SFRs for dwarf galaxies. We will examine if the same galaxy evolution processes in massive galaxies also hold for lower mass galaxies over the past six billion years.

  13. Metallicity evolution in mergers of disk galaxies with black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantala, Antti; Johansson, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    We use the TreeSPH simulation code Gadget-3 including a recently improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) module, a detailed metallicity evolution model and sophisticated subresolution feedback models for supernovae and supermassive black holes in order to study the metallicity evolution in disk galaxy mergers. In addition, we examine the simulated morphology, star formation histories, metallicity gradients and kinematic properties of merging galaxies and merger remnants. We will compare our simulation results with observations of the early-type Centaurus A galaxy and the currently colliding Antennae galaxies.

  14. USING COLORS TO IMPROVE PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Levesque, E. M.

    2013-10-01

    There is a well known correlation between the mass and metallicity of star-forming galaxies. Because mass is correlated with luminosity, this relation is often exploited, when spectroscopy is not available, to estimate galaxy metallicities based on single band photometry. However, we show that galaxy color is typically more effective than luminosity as a predictor of metallicity. This is a consequence of the correlation between color and the galaxy mass-to-light ratio and the recently discovered correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and residuals from the mass-metallicity relation. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy of ∼180, 000 nearby galaxies, we derive 'LZC relations', empirical relations between metallicity (in seven common strong line diagnostics), luminosity, and color (in 10 filter pairs and four methods of photometry). We show that these relations allow photometric metallicity estimates, based on luminosity and a single optical color, that are ∼50% more precise than those made based on luminosity alone; galaxy metallicity can be estimated to within ∼0.05-0.1 dex of the spectroscopically derived value depending on the diagnostic used. Including color information in photometric metallicity estimates also reduces systematic biases for populations skewed toward high or low SFR environments, as we illustrate using the host galaxy of the supernova SN 2010ay. This new tool will lend more statistical power to studies of galaxy populations, such as supernova and gamma-ray burst host environments, in ongoing and future wide-field imaging surveys.

  15. Quasar Metallicities and Host Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leah, Simon E.; Hamann, F. W.

    2006-12-01

    From studies of galaxies in the local Universe we find the masses of the galactic spheroidal component corresponds with the mass of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). This relation is known as the M(gal) M(BH) relation, and suggests a close relationship between the formation of the galaxy and the black hole. We study the metallicities near quasars at high redshift to observe this formation process in action. Associated absorption lines (AALs) provide us with a unique tool for this study, because these lines have a high probability of forming close to the quasar. Most of the work so far, using the emission lines, suggests that quasar environments are typically metal rich, with gas-phase metallicities near solar or higher at all observed redshifts. However, other independant abundance checks, such as AALs, are essential in order to confirm these results. We use very high resolution echelle spectra from VLT-UVES for 8 high redshift (z of 2 to z of 4.6) quasars, selected to contain candidate intrinsic absorbers, and ecompassing a typical rest-frame spectral range from approximatly 900 Angstroms to 2500 Angstroms, designed to include at least Lyman alpha and C IV spectral features. We perform one of the first analyses of absorption line metallicities in high redshift quasars and present lower limits on column densities, as well as estimates for the absorber locations relative to the quasar. We place rough estimates on the abundances where possible. We find covering fractions which vary with velocity, and a significant fraction of absorption lines which exhibit variability, indicating their intrinsic nature. Saturated lines inhibit concrete abundance analysis, but present excellent opportunities for future research proposals.

  16. Quasar Metallicities and Host Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Leah; Hamann, F.

    2007-12-01

    From studies of galaxies in the local Universe we find the masses of the galactic spheroidal component corresponds with the mass of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). This relation is known as the M(gal) - M(BH) relation, and suggests a close relationship between the formation of the galaxy and the black hole. We study the metallicities near quasars at high redshift to observe this formation process in action. Associated absorption lines (AALs) provide us with a unique tool for this study, because these lines have a high probability of forming close to the quasar. Most of the work so far, using the emission lines, suggests that quasar environments are typically metal rich, with gas-phase metallicities near solar or higher at all observed redshifts. However, other independent abundance checks, such as AALs, are essential in order to confirm these results. We use very high resolution echelle spectra from VLT-UVES, Keck-HIRES and Magellan-MIKE for 18 high redshift (z of 2 to z of 4.6) quasars, selected to contain candidate intrinsic absorbers, and encompassing a typical rest-frame spectral range from approximately 900 Angstroms to 2500 Angstroms, designed to include at least Lyman alpha and C IV spectral features. We perform one of the first analyses of absorption line metallicities in high redshift quasars and present column densities, as well as estimates for the absorber locations relative to the quasar. We place solid limits on the C/H abundances, and find a wide range of values, from one hundredth solar to several times solar. We find covering fractions which vary with velocity, indicating the intrinsic nature of the absorbing gas. Saturated lines inhibit concrete abundance analysis in some systems, but are still useful for placing limits based on Gaussian fits to the lines.

  17. The origin of the enhanced metallicity of satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahé, Yannick M.; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McGee, Sean L.; Trayford, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of galaxies in the local Universe have shown that both the ionized gas and the stars of satellites are more metal-rich than of equally massive centrals. To gain insight into the connection between this metallicity enhancement and other differences between centrals and satellites, such as their star formation rates, gas content, and growth history, we study the metallicities of >3600 galaxies with Mstar > 1010 M⊙ in the cosmological hydrodynamical EAGLE 100 Mpc `Reference' simulation, including ˜1500 in the vicinity of galaxy groups and clusters (M200 ≥ 1013 M⊙). The simulation predicts excess gas and stellar metallicities in satellites consistent with observations, except for stellar metallicities at Mstar ≲ 1010.2 M⊙ where the predicted excess is smaller than observed. The exact magnitude of the effect depends on galaxy selection, aperture, and on whether the metallicity is weighted by stellar mass or luminosity. The stellar metallicity excess in clusters is also sensitive to the efficiency scaling of star formation feedback. We identify stripping of low-metallicity gas from the galaxy outskirts, as well as suppression of metal-poor inflows towards the galaxy centre, as key drivers of the enhancement of gas metallicity. Stellar metallicities in satellites are higher than in the field as a direct consequence of the more metal-rich star-forming gas, whereas stripping of stars and suppressed stellar mass growth, as well as differences in accreted versus in situ star formation between satellites and the field, are of secondary importance.

  18. Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-10-16

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no 'metals' (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.

  19. The metallicities of luminous, massive field galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhcine, M.; Bamford, S. P.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Nakamura, O.; Milvang-Jensen, B.

    2006-06-01

    We derive oxygen abundances for a sample of 40 luminous (MB <~ -19), star-forming, mostly disc, field galaxies with redshifts in the range 0.2 <~ z <~ 0.8, with a median of = 0.45. Oxygen abundances, relative to hydrogen, of the interstellar emitting gas are estimated by means of the empirically calibrated strong emission-line ratio technique. The derived 12 + log (O/H) values range from 8.4 to 9.0, with a median of 8.7. Twenty of these galaxies have securely measured rotation velocities, in the range 50-244 km s-1. The measured emission-line equivalent widths and diagnostic ratios for the intermediate redshift galaxies cover similar ranges to those observed across a large sample of local galaxies. The estimated oxygen abundances for our luminous star-forming intermediate redshift galaxies cover the same range as their local counterparts. However, at a given galaxy luminosity, many of our galaxies have significantly lower oxygen abundances, i.e. 12 + log (O/H) ~8.6, than local galaxies with similar luminosities. Interestingly, these luminous, massive, intermediate redshift, star-forming galaxies with low oxygen abundances exhibit physical conditions, i.e. emission-line equivalent width and ionization state, very similar to those of local faint and metal-poor star-forming galaxies. The oxygen abundance of the interstellar gas does not seem to correlate with the maximum rotation velocity or the emission scalelength of the parent galaxy. This suggests that there is diversity in the intrinsic properties of the massive field galaxy population at intermediate redshifts. The distribution of the colour excess, derived from the ratio of extinction-uncorrected Hβ and [OII]λ3727 star formation rate indicators, covers a similar range to that observed locally, but exhibits a lower mean than is observed for local optically selected star-forming galaxies. Luminous field galaxies at intermediate redshifts show similar star formation rates to their local counterparts. However

  20. Shocks and metallicity gradients in normal star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting

    Gas flow is one of the most fundamental processes driving galaxy evolution. This thesis explores gas flows in local galaxies by studying metallicity gradients and galactic-scale outflows in normal star-forming galaxies. This is made possible by new integral field spectroscopy data that provide simultaneously spatial and spectral information of galaxies. First, I measure metallicity gradients in isolated disk galaxies and show that their metallicity gradients are remarkably simple and universal. When the metallicity gradients are normalized to galaxy sizes, all the 49 galaxies studied have virtually the same metallicity gradient. I model the common metallicity gradient using a simple chemical evolution model to understand its origin. The common metallicity gradient is a direct result of the coevolution of gas and stellar disk while galactic disks build up their masses from inside-out. Tight constraints on the mass outflow rates and inflow rates can be placed by the chemical evolution model. Second, I investigate galactic winds in normal star-forming galaxies using data from an integral field spectroscopy survey. I demonstrate how to search for galactic winds by probing emission line ratios, shocks, and gas kinematics. Galactic winds are found to be common even in normal star-forming galaxies that were not expected to host winds. By comparing galaxies with and without hosting winds, I show that galaxies with high star formation rate surface densities and bursty star formation histories are more likely to drive large-scale galactic winds. Finally, lzifu, a toolkit for fitting multiple emission lines simultaneously in integral field spectroscopy data, is developed in this thesis. I describe in detail the structure of the toolkit and demonstrate the capabilities of lzifu.

  1. ALMA CO Observations of Shocks and Star Formation in the Interacting Galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Kaufman, Michele; Brinks, Elias; Struck, Curtis; Bournaud, Frederic; Sheth, Kartik; Juneau, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The spiral galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are a well-studied pair undergoing a grazing collision. ALMA CO observations of masses, column densities, and velocities are combined with HI, Hα, optical, and 24 micron data to study the star formation rates and efficiencies. The close encounter of the galaxies produced in-plane tidal forces in IC 2163, resulting in a large shock with high molecular velocity gradients and both radial and azimuthal streaming (100 km/s) that formed a pile-up of molecular gas in the resulting cuspy-oval or ``eyelid'' structure at mid-radius. The encounter also produced forces nearly orthogonal to the plane of NGC 2207, resulting in a warp. By comparing with the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for star formation, we find that some regions of NGC 2207 with unusually high turbulent speeds (40-50 km/s) and high star formation rates (>0.01 Mo/pc2/Myr) have gas that is predominantly atomic with high density cores. Half of the CO mass is in 300 clouds each more massive than 4.0x105 Mo. The mass distribution functions for the CO clouds and star complexes in the eyelid in IC 2163 both have a slope similar to what is observed in Milky Way clouds; the CO slope is steeper in NGC 2207. The CO distribution in NGC 2207 also includes a nuclear ring, a mini-bar, and a mini-starburst region that dominates the 24 micron, radio, and Hα emission in both galaxies. Dust extinction, molecular column densities, and slightly negative molecular velocities indicate the mini-starburst region has ejected a jet of molecular gas nearly perpendicular to the plane of NGC 2207 on the near side with a kinetic energy of 1052 ergs. The large scale star formation efficiency, measured as the ratio of the summed masses of the star complexes near molecular clouds to the combined star complex and cloud masses, is 7% overall; it is 23% in the mini-starburst. The maximum age of star complexes in the galactic-scale shock front at the eyelid is about the same as the time since closest

  2. Joint ROSAT-Compton GRO observations of the X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, G. M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Turner, T. J.; Done, C.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hartman, R. C.; Gehrels, N.; Connors, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Nandra, K.

    1995-01-01

    We report a simultaneous ROSAT and Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) observation of the X-ray-bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A. For the GRO Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) detector, we also present the sum of the data for this and earlier observations. The overall spectrum is very well described as a power law with an energy spectral index of approximately 1 absorbed at low energies plus a strong Compton reflection component, typical for Seyfert 1 galaxies. The low energy absorption can be well described by a sum of a neutral column density of approximately 3 x 10(exp 21)sq cm, most of which is associated with the edge-on galactic disk of IC 4329A, plus an edgelike feature at approximately 700 eV; this feature implies either complex absorption (due to additional ionized material, or due to a partial covering), or a soft excess. The data only weakly constrain the presence of a high-energy cutoff in the underlying power law; they are compatible with an exponential cutoff at any energy E(sub c) approximately greater than 100 keV. The relative steepness of the OSSE data, with the power-law energy index of 1.6 +/- 0.2, can be accounted for entirely by the contribution of the high-energy tail of the reflection component when E(sub c) approaches infinity. (We find that the definite cutoff at an energy E(sub c)approximately 130 keV suggested in the recently published analysis of the OSSE data for this subject is due to a data reduction error.) Including nonsimultaneous Ginga observations with 2 keV fluxes matching well that of ROSAT gives us likely broad-band X-ray/gamma-ray spectra of the object from approximately 0.1 keV up to several hundred keV. We also report the ROSAT spectrum of the companion object to the Seyfert galaxy, the elliptical galaxy IC 4329.

  3. Metallicity of Stars and Parameters of Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, N.

    2017-06-01

    On the basis of archival ACS/WFC images of the Hubble space telescope we carried out a stellar photometry of 46 irregular galaxies. On the received Hertzsprung -Russel diagrams (CM-diagrams), branches of red supergiants and giants were allocated. We determined the distances to galaxies and metallicity of red giants by the TRGB-method. For red supergiants the color index (V-I) of stars at the level of MI = -7 was accepted as an equivalent of metallicity. We constructed the distributions of the number density of stars of different age along the radius of galaxies and determined the spatial sizes of subsystems of these stars. Dependences between metallicities of stars of different age, and also between metallicity and global parameters of galaxies — sizes of stellar subsystems and brightness of galaxies — were found.

  4. Rapid and multiband variability of the TeV bright active nucleus of the galaxy IC 310

    DOE PAGES

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; ...

    2014-03-14

    Recently the radio galaxy IC 310 was identified as a γ-ray emitter based on observations at GeV energies with Fermi-LAT and at very high energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) with the MAGIC telescopes. Originally classified as a head-tail radio galaxy, the nature of this object is subject of controversy since its nucleus shows blazar-like behavior. In order to understand the nature of IC 310 and the origin of the VHE emission, we studied the spectral and flux variability of IC 310 from the X-ray band to the VHE γ-ray regime. The light curve of IC 310 above 300 GeVmore » has been measured with the MAGIC telescopes from 2009 October to 2010 February. Contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data (2008-2011) in the 10-500 GeV energy range were also analyzed. In the X-ray regime, archival observations from 2003 to 2007 with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift-XRT in the 0.5-10 keV band were studied. The VHE light curve reveals several high-amplitude and short-duration flares. Day-to-day flux variability is clearly present (>5σ). The photon index between 120 GeV and 8 TeV remains at the value Γ ~ 2.0 during both low and high flux states. The VHE spectral shape does not show significant variability, whereas the flux at 1 TeV changes by a factor of ~7. Fermi-LAT detected only eight γ-ray events in the energy range 10 GeV–500 GeV in three years of observation. Moreover, the measured photon index of Γ = 1.3 ± 0.5 in the Fermi-LAT range is very hard. The X-ray measurements show strong variability in both flux and photon index. The latter varied from 1.76 ± 0.07 to 2.55 ± 0.07. The rapid variability measured in γ-rays and X-rays confirms the blazar-like behavior of IC 310. The multi-TeV γ-ray emission seems to originate from scales of less than 80 Schwarzschild radii (for a black hole mass of 2 × 108 M⊙) within the compact core of its FR I radio jet with orientation angle 10°-38°. The spectral energy distribution resembles that of an extreme blazar, albeit the luminosity is more than

  5. Rapid and multiband variability of the TeV bright active nucleus of the galaxy IC 310

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; Delgado Mendez, C.; De Lotto, B.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López-Coto, R.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Dauser, T.; Fortin, P.; Kadler, M.; Krauß, F.; Wilbert, S.; Wilms, J.

    2014-03-14

    Recently the radio galaxy IC 310 was identified as a γ-ray emitter based on observations at GeV energies with Fermi-LAT and at very high energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) with the MAGIC telescopes. Originally classified as a head-tail radio galaxy, the nature of this object is subject of controversy since its nucleus shows blazar-like behavior. In order to understand the nature of IC 310 and the origin of the VHE emission, we studied the spectral and flux variability of IC 310 from the X-ray band to the VHE γ-ray regime. The light curve of IC 310 above 300 GeV has been measured with the MAGIC telescopes from 2009 October to 2010 February. Contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data (2008-2011) in the 10-500 GeV energy range were also analyzed. In the X-ray regime, archival observations from 2003 to 2007 with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift-XRT in the 0.5-10 keV band were studied. The VHE light curve reveals several high-amplitude and short-duration flares. Day-to-day flux variability is clearly present (>5σ). The photon index between 120 GeV and 8 TeV remains at the value Γ ~ 2.0 during both low and high flux states. The VHE spectral shape does not show significant variability, whereas the flux at 1 TeV changes by a factor of ~7. Fermi-LAT detected only eight γ-ray events in the energy range 10 GeV–500 GeV in three years of observation. Moreover, the measured photon index of Γ = 1.3 ± 0.5 in the Fermi-LAT range is very hard. The X-ray measurements show strong variability in both flux and photon index. The latter varied from 1.76 ± 0.07 to 2.55 ± 0.07. The rapid variability measured in γ-rays and X-rays confirms the blazar-like behavior of IC 310. The multi-TeV γ-ray emission seems to originate from scales of less than 80 Schwarzschild radii (for a black hole mass of 2 × 108 M⊙) within the compact core of its FR I radio jet with orientation angle 10°-38°. The spectral energy distribution resembles that of an extreme blazar, albeit the luminosity is more

  6. Submillimeter continuum emission from galaxies - Star formation and the interstellar medium in the local group dwarf IC 10

    SciTech Connect

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Hunter, D.A.; Casey, S.; Harper, D.A. Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI )

    1990-05-01

    Far-infrared (95 and 160 micron) maps and visual broad-band and line images of the nearby, luminous irregular galaxy IC 10 are discussed. Observations of the dust emission make it possible to constrain the total mass of gas and the rate of star formation derived for the galaxy. The total star-formation rate is estimated to be about 0.15 solar mass/yr, and the e-folding time for exhaustion of the interstellar gas due to the star formation is only a few billion years. To determine the source of the cool dust in emission at approximately 100-250 microns from many galaxies, 60, 100, and 160 micron photometry, obtained previously, is compared; and CO, H I, and dust emission is correlated. Based on the correlation between the various cool components of the interstellar medium, it is concluded that the likely location of the dust that dominates the emission at about 160, and possibly 100, microns is within both the diffuse atomic gas and in surface layers of molecular clouds. 57 refs.

  7. ORIGIN OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY-STAR FORMATION RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harwit, Martin; Brisbin, Drew

    2015-02-20

    We describe an equilibrium model that links the metallicity of low-redshift galaxies to stellar evolution models. It enables the testing of different stellar initial mass functions and metal yields against observed galaxy metallicities. We show that the metallicities of more than 80,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in the low-redshift range 0.07 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 considerably constrain stellar evolution models that simultaneously relate galaxy stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rates to the infall rate of low-metallicity extragalactic gas and outflow of enriched matter. A feature of our model is that it encompasses both the active star forming phases of a galaxy and epochs during which the same galaxy may lie fallow. We show that the galaxy mass-metallicity-star formation relation can be traced to infall of extragalactic gas mixing with native gas from host galaxies to form stars of observed metallicities, the most massive of which eject oxygen into extragalactic space. Most consequential among our findings is that, on average, extragalactic infall accounts for one half of the gas required for star formation, a ratio that is remarkably constant across galaxies with stellar masses ranging at least from M* = 2 × 10{sup 9} to 6 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. This leads us to propose that star formation is initiated when extragalactic infall roughly doubles the mass of marginally stable interstellar clouds. The processes described may also account quantitatively for the metallicity of extragalactic space, though to check this the fraction of extragalactic baryons will need to be more firmly established.

  8. Mild evolution of the stellar metallicity gradients of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, Patricia B.; Machado, Rubens E. G.; Vilchez, José M.; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Varela, Silvio

    2017-08-01

    Context. The metallicity gradients of the stellar populations in disc galaxies and their evolution store relevant information on the disc formation history and on those processes which could mix stars a posteriori, such as migration, bars and/or galaxy-galaxy interactions. Aims: We aim to investigate the evolution of the metallicity gradients of the whole stellar populations in disc components of simulated galaxies in a cosmological context. Methods: We analyse simulated disc galaxies selected from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation that includes chemical evolution and a physically motivated supernova feedback capable of driving mass-loaded galactic winds. Results: We detect a mild evolution with redshift in the metallicity slopes of - 0.02 ± 0.01 dex kpc-1 from z 1. If the metallicity profiles are normalised by the effective radius of the stellar disc, the slopes show no clear evolution for z< 1, with a median value of approximately - 0.23 dex reff-1. As a function of stellar mass, we find that metallicity gradients steepen for stellar masses smaller than 1010.3M⊙ while the trend reverses for higher stellar masses, in the redshift range z = [ 0,1 ]. Galaxies with small stellar masses have discs with larger reff and flatter metallicity gradients than expected. We detect migration albeit weaker than in previous works. Conclusions: Our stellar discs show a mild evolution of the stellar metallicity slopes up to z 1, which is well-matched by the evolution calculated archeologically from the abundance distributions of mono-age stellar populations at z 0. The dispersion in the relations allows for stronger individual evolutions. Overall, supernova feedback could explain the trends but an impact of migration can not be totally discarded. Galaxy-galaxy interactions or small satellite accretions can also contribute to modify the metallicity profiles in the outer parts. Disentangling the effects of these processes for individual galaxies is still a challenge in a

  9. The metal enrichment of passive galaxies in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Nagashima, Masahiro; Lacey, Cedric G.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2017-02-01

    Massive early-type galaxies have higher metallicities and higher ratios of α elements to iron than their less massive counterparts. Reproducing these correlations has long been a problem for hierarchical galaxy formation theory, both in semi-analytic models and cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that a simulation in which gas cooling in massive dark haloes is quenched by radio-mode active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback naturally reproduces the observed trend between α/Fe and the velocity dispersion of galaxies, σ. The quenching occurs earlier for more massive galaxies. Consequently, these galaxies complete their star formation before α/Fe is diluted by the contribution from Type Ia supernovae. For galaxies more massive than ˜1011 M⊙, whose α/Fe correlates positively with stellar mass, we find an inversely correlated mass-metallicity relation. This is a common problem in simulations in which star formation in massive galaxies is quenched either by quasar- or radio-mode AGN feedback. The early suppression of gas cooling in progenitors of massive galaxies prevents them from recapturing enriched gas ejected as winds. Simultaneously reproducing the [α/Fe]-σ relation and the mass-metallicity relation is, thus, difficult in the current framework of galaxy formation.

  10. THE METALLICITY OF VOID DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kreckel, K.; Groves, B.; Croxall, K.; Pogge, R. W.; Van de Weygaert, R.

    2015-01-01

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the assumption that void galaxies are more pristine, we compare the evolutionary properties of a sample of dwarf galaxies selected specifically to lie in voids with a sample of similar isolated dwarf galaxies in average density environments. We measure gas-phase oxygen abundances and gas fractions for eight dwarf galaxies (M{sub r} > –16.2), carefully selected to reside within the lowest density environments of seven voids, and apply the same calibrations to existing samples of isolated dwarf galaxies. We find no significant difference between these void dwarf galaxies and the isolated dwarf galaxies, suggesting that dwarf galaxy chemical evolution proceeds independent of the large-scale environment. While this sample is too small to draw strong conclusions, it suggests that external gas accretion is playing a limited role in the chemical evolution of these systems, and that this evolution is instead dominated mainly by the internal secular processes that are linking the simultaneous growth and enrichment of these galaxies.

  11. Metallicity Gradients in the Halos of Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Goulding, Andrew; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Blakeslee, John P.; Davis, Timothy; Thomas, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the stellar halos of massive elliptical galaxies, as revealed by our ambitious integral-field spectroscopic survey MASSIVE. We show that metallicity drops smoothly as a function of radius out to ~ 2.5 Re , while the [α/Fe] abundance ratios stay flat. The stars in the outskirts likely formed rapidly (to explain the high ratio of alpha to Fe) but in a relatively shallow potential (to explain the low metallicities). This is consistent with expectations for a two-phase growth of massive galaxies, in which the second phase involves accretion of small satellites. We also show some preliminary study of the gas content of these most MASSIVE galaxies.

  12. Probing Globular Cluster Formation in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey E.; Hunt, Leslie K.; Reines, Amy E.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquitous presence of globular clusters around massive galaxies today suggests that these extreme star clusters must have been formed prolifically in the earlier universe in low-metallicity galaxies. Numerous adolescent and massive star clusters are already known to be present in a variety of galaxies in the local universe; however most of these systems have metallicities of 12 + log(O/H) > 8, and are thus not representative of the galaxies in which today's ancient globular clusters were formed. In order to better understand the formation and evolution of these massive clusters in environments with few heavy elements, we have targeted several low-metallicity dwarf galaxies with radio observations, searching for newly-formed massive star clusters still embedded in their birth material. The galaxies in this initial study are HS 0822+3542, UGC 4483, Pox 186, and SBS 0335-052, all of which have metallicities of 12 + log(O/H) < 7.75. While no thermal radio sources, indicative of natal massive star clusters, are found in three of the four galaxies, SBS 0335-052 hosts two such objects, which are incredibly luminous. The radio spectral energy distributions of these intense star-forming regions in SBS 0335-052 suggest the presence of ~12,000 equivalent O-type stars, and the implied star formation rate is nearing the maximum starburst intensity limit.

  13. A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY AND MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE COLLIDING GALAXY PAIR NGC 2207/IC 2163

    SciTech Connect

    Mineo, S.; Rappaport, S.; Levine, A.; Homan, J.; Pooley, D.; Steinhorn, B. E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: jeroen@space.mit.edu E-mail: bsteinho@mit.edu

    2014-12-20

    We present a comprehensive study of the total X-ray emission from the colliding galaxy pair NGC 2207/IC 2163, based on Chandra, Spitzer, and GALEX data. We detect 28 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), 7 of which were not detected previously because of X-ray variability. Twelve sources show significant long-term variability, with no correlated spectral changes. Seven sources are transient candidates. One ULX coincides with an extremely blue star cluster (B – V = –0.7). We confirm that the global relation between the number and luminosity of ULXs and the integrated star-formation rate (SFR) of the host galaxy also holds on local scales. We investigate the effects of dust extinction and age on the X-ray binary (XRB) population on subgalactic scales. The distributions of N {sub X} and L {sub X} are peaked at L {sub IR}/L {sub NUV} ∼ 1, which may be associated with an age of ∼10 Myr for the underlying stellar population. We find that approximately one-third of the XRBs are located in close proximity to young star complexes. The luminosity function of the XRBs is consistent with that typical for high-mass XRBs and appears unaffected by variability. We disentangle and compare the X-ray diffuse spectrum with that of the bright XRBs. The hot interstellar medium dominates the diffuse X-ray emission at E ≲ 1 keV and has a temperature kT=0.28{sub −0.04}{sup +0.05} keV and intrinsic 0.5-2 keV luminosity of 7.9×10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1}, a factor of ∼2.3 higher than the average thermal luminosity produced per unit SFR in local star-forming galaxies. The total X-ray output of NGC 2207/IC 2163 is 1.5×10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1}, and the corresponding total integrated SFR is 23.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}.

  14. The Thermal Pressure in Low Metallicity Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfire, Mark; McKee, Christopher; Ostriker, Eve C.; Bolatto, Alberto; Jenkins, Edward

    2015-08-01

    The thermal pressure in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) is a relatively small fraction of the total ISM pressure yet it is extremely important for the evolution of the ISM phases. A multi-phase medium can exist between a range of thermal pressures Pmin < Pth < Pmax. The phase separation is driven by thermal instability and produces a cold (T ˜ 100 K) neutral atomic gas and a warm (T ˜ 8000 K) neutral atomic gas separated by thermally unstable gas. At thermal pressures greater than Pmax only the cold phase can exist and at thermal pressures less than Pmin only the warm phase can exist. The ISM is also highly turbulent and turbulence can both initiate the thermal phase transition and be produced in a rapid phase transition. Hydrodynamic modeling also points to a strong two-phase distribution (.e.g., Kim et al. 2011; Audit & Hennebelle 2010) with a median thermal pressure in the cold gas very near the expected two-phase pressure. Global, theoretical models including star-formation feedback have been developed for the molecular fraction in galactic disks using, at their core, the paradigm that thermal pressure determines the phase transitions to warm, cold, or multiphase medium (e.g., Krumholz et al. 2009; Ostriker et al. 2010).Here we present a phase diagram for a low metallicity galaxy using the Small Magellanic Clouds as an example. We find that although the heating rates and metallicities can differ by factors of 5 to 10 from the Milky Way, the resulting two-phase pressure and physical conditions of the phases are not very different from Galactic. We also confirm that a widely used fitting function for Pmin presented in Wolfire et al. 2003 provides an accurate prediction for the new results. We demonstrate how the variation in input parameters determine the final pressures and physical conditions.

  15. Numerical Simulations of the Metallicity Distribution in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Battaglia, G.; Abel, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-12-12

    Recent observations show that the number of stars with very low metallicities in the dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way is low, despite the low average metallicities of stars in these systems. We undertake numerical simulations of star formation and metal enrichment of dwarf galaxies in order to verify whether this result can be reproduced with ''standard'' assumptions. The answer is likely to be negative, unless some selection bias against very low metallicity stars is present in the observations.

  16. THE METALLICITIES OF LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES AND THE SCATTER IN THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. J.; Bresolin, F.; Kewley, L. J.; Coil, A. L.; Dave, R.

    2012-05-10

    In this investigation, we quantify the metallicities of low-mass galaxies by constructing the most comprehensive census to date. We use galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey and estimate metallicities from their optical emission lines. We also use two smaller samples from the literature that have metallicities determined by the direct method using the temperature sensitive [O III]{lambda}4363 line. We examine the scatter in the local mass-metallicity (MZ) relation determined from {approx}20,000 star-forming galaxies in the SDSS and show that it is larger at lower stellar masses, consistent with the theoretical scatter in the MZ relation determined from hydrodynamical simulations. We determine a lower limit for the scatter in metallicities of galaxies down to stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} which is only slightly smaller than the expected scatter inferred from the SDSS MZ relation and significantly larger than what has been previously established in the literature. The average metallicity of star-forming galaxies increases with stellar mass. By examining the scatter in the SDSS MZ relation, we show that this is mostly due to the lowest metallicity galaxies. The population of low-mass, metal-rich galaxies have properties that are consistent with previously identified galaxies that may be transitional objects between gas-rich dwarf irregulars and gas-poor dwarf spheroidals and ellipticals.

  17. The new semi-analytic code GalICS 2.0 - reproducing the galaxy stellar mass function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, A.; Blaizot, J.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Mamon, G. A.; Tollet, E.; Dekel, A.; Guiderdoni, B.; Kucukbas, M.; Thob, A. C. R.

    2017-10-01

    GalICS 2.0 is a new semi-analytic code to model the formation and evolution of galaxies in a cosmological context. N-body simulations based on a Planck cosmology are used to construct halo merger trees, track subhaloes, compute spins and measure concentrations. The accretion of gas on to galaxies and the morphological evolution of galaxies are modelled with prescriptions derived from hydrodynamic simulations. Star formation and stellar feedback are described with phenomenological models (as in other semi-analytic codes). GalICS 2.0 computes rotation speeds from the gravitational potential of the dark matter, the disc and the central bulge. As the rotation speed depends not only on the virial velocity but also on the ratio of baryons to dark matter within a galaxy, our calculation predicts a different Tully-Fisher relation from models in which vrot ∝ vvir. This is why, GalICS 2.0 is able to reproduce the galaxy stellar mass function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously. Our results are also in agreement with halo masses from weak lensing and satellite kinematics, gas fractions, the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass, the evolution of the cosmic SFR density, bulge-to-disc ratios, disc sizes and the Faber-Jackson relation.

  18. A ~ 12 kpc H i extension and other H i asymmetries in the isolated galaxy CIG 340 (IC 2487)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, T. C.; Sengupta, C.; Verdes Montenegro, L.; Bosma, A.; Athanassoula, E.; Sulentic, J.; Espada, D.; Yun, M. S.; Argudo-Fernández, M.

    2014-07-01

    Context. H i kinematic asymmetries are common in late-type galaxies irrespective of environment, although the amplitudes are strikingly low in isolated galaxies. As part of our studies of the H i morphology and kinematics in isolated late-type galaxies we have chosen several very isolated galaxies from the AMIGA sample for H i mapping. We present here the results of H i mapping of CIG 340 (IC 2487) which was selected because its integrated H i spectrum has a very symmetric profile (Aflux = 1.03 ± 0.02). Aims: Optical images of the galaxy hinted at a warped disk in contrast to the symmetric integrated H i spectrum profile. Our aim is to determine the extent to which the optical asymmetry is reflected in the resolved H i morphology and kinematics. Methods: Resolved 21-cm H i line mapping has been carried out using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The H i morphology and kinematics from this mapping together with other multi-wavelength data have been used to study the relationship between the H i and stellar components of CIG 340. Results: GMRT observations reveal significant H i morphological asymmetries in CIG 340 despite it's overall symmetric optical form and highly symmetric H i spectrum. The most notable H i features are: 1) a warp in the H i disk (with an optical counterpart), 2) the H i north/south flux ratio = 1.32 is much larger than expected from the integrated H i spectrum profile, and 3) a ~ 45'' (12 kpc) H i extension containing ~6% of the detected H i mass on the northern side of the disk. Conclusions: Overall, we conclude that in isolated galaxies a highly symmetric H i spectrum can mask significant H i morphological asymmetries which can be revealed by H i interferometric mapping. The northern H i extension appears to be the result of a recent perturbation (108 yr), possibly by a satellite which is now disrupted or projected within the disk. But, we cannot rule out that the H i extension and the other observed asymmetries are the result of

  19. Environmental Effects on the Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Jones, Christine

    2004-01-01

    In this multi-year project to investigate the metal enrichment of early-type galaxies, we have used ROSAT, ASCA and now Chandra observations to study samples of galaxies. We have published two papers and a third paper that incorporates Chandra archival observations is nearing completion. Below, we briefly describe our findings. Our first paper "SN IA Enrichment in Virgo Early-type Galaxies from ROSAT and ASCA Observations" was published in the Astrophysical Journal (vol 539, 603) reported on the properties of nine X-ray bright elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster observed by ROSAT and ASCA. We measured iron abundance gradients as a function of radius in three galaxies. We found that the magnesium and silicon abundance gradients were in general flatter than those of iron. We suggest this is due to a metallicity dependence in the metal production rates of SN Ia's. We calculate SN Ia rates in the center of these galaxies that are comparable to those measured optically. Our second paper "ASCA Observations of Groups at Radii of Low Overdensity: Implications for Cosmic Preheating" also was published in the Astrophysical Journal (vol 578, 74). This paper reported on the ASCA spectroscopy of nine groups of galaxies. We found that the entropy profile in groups is driven by nongravitational heating processes, and could be explained by a short period of preheating by galactic winds. The third paper (in preparation) uses a sample of about 200 galaxies from both ROSAT and Chandra observations. In this paper we characterize both the nuclear and the extended X-ray emission for this sample. We will use these observations to determine the "on-time" of the X-ray emitting AGN and the fraction of "fossil groups" as well as to investigate how large AGN outbursts can sweep the galaxy of its hot ISM, thus leading to changes in the ISM metal enrichment.

  20. METAL PRODUCTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: THE NON-GALACTIC COMPONENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, Joel N.; Anderson, Michael E.; Dai Xinyu E-mail: michevan@umich.ed

    2010-06-10

    The metallicity in galaxy clusters is expected to originate from the stars in galaxies, with a population dominated by high-mass stars likely being the most important stellar component, especially in rich clusters. We examine the relationship between the metallicity and the prominence of galaxies as measured by the star-to-baryon ratio, M{sub *}/M{sub bary}. Counter to expectations, we rule out a metallicity that is proportional to M{sub *}/M{sub bary}, where the best fit has the gas-phase metallicity decreasing with M{sub *}/M{sub bary}, or the metallicity of the gas plus the stars being independent of M{sub *}/M{sub bary}. This implies that the population of stars responsible for the metals is largely proportional to the total baryonic mass of the cluster, not to the galaxy mass within the cluster. If generally applicable, most of the heavy elements in the universe were not produced within galaxies.

  1. The Methods and Study Progress about Estimating Metallicities of Galaxies(II): Luminosity-Metallicity Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yan-Chun; Hammer, François; Deng, Li-Cai; Zhao Gang

    2007-03-01

    The luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relation (stellar mass-metallicity, mass-Z, relation) is one of the fundamental parameters of galaxies, and can trace the assembly history of metals and stellar masses in the galaxies. The authors review the study progress about (L-Z) and mass-Z relations of galaxies, including the local, the intermediate-z (0.4 < z < 1) and the high-z (z > 2) galaxies. Since the observations extent to a wide cosmic time scale, this can help to understand the evolutionary process of the L-Z relations of galaxies, hence to understand the whole evolutionary scenario of galaxies. In Sect.2 the relations between B-band absolute magnitudes and metallicities (MB-Z) of nearby galaxies are introduced, including the irregular, the spiral galaxies, the UV-selected and nearby HII galaxies, the KISS sample, the 2dFGRS sample, and the SDSS galaxies. Some of the important formulas of such relations are presented. In Sect.3 the study about the relationship between near-infrared J, H, K band absolute magnitudes and metallicities of nearby galaxies are presented. The majority is the result of 400 KISS galaxies obtained from 2MASS. The MK-Z relations of a small sample of distant luminous infrared galaxies is also mentioned. In Sect.4 the relations between stellar mass and metallicities of nearby star-forming galaxies derived from the SDSS database are specially introduced. All these results show that the more luminous (massive) galaxies are more metal-rich generally. The luminosity correlates with metallicity over 10 magnitudes in luminosity and 2 dex in metallicity, with indication that the relationship may be environmental and morphology free. In Sect.5 the L-Z (mass-Z) relations of the intermediate-z and high-z galaxies are introduced. With the increasing ability of observations, more and more distant galaxies have been obtained their L-Z (mass-Z) relations, such as the intermediate-z (0.4 < z < 1) luminous infrared galaxies, the galaxies selected fromm GOODS

  2. METALS REMOVED BY OUTFLOWS FROM MILKY WAY DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian

    2011-12-15

    The stars in the dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) of the Milky Way are significantly more metal-poor than would be expected from a closed box model of chemical evolution. Gas outflows likely carried away most of the metals produced by the dSphs. Based on previous Keck/DEIMOS observations and models, we calculate the mass in Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe expelled from each of eight dSphs. Essentially, these masses are the differences between the observed amount of metals present in the dSphs' stars today and the inferred amount of metals produced by supernovae. We conclude that the dSphs lost 96% to >99% of the metals their stars manufactured. We apply the observed mass function of Milky Way dSphs to the ejected mass function to determine that a single large dSph, like Fornax, lost more metals over 10 Gyr than all smaller dSphs combined. Therefore, small galaxies like dSphs are not significant contributors to the metal content of the intergalactic medium. Finally, we compare our ejected mass function to previous X-ray measurements of the metal content of the winds from the post-starburst dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569. Remarkably, the most recent starburst in that galaxy falls exactly on the ejected-mass-stellar-mass relation defined by the Milky Way dSphs.

  3. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J.; Masci, Frank J.; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Bally, John; Cao, Yi; Fox, Ori D.; Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D.; Green, Wayne; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Smith, Nathan; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Williams, Robert

    2017-03-01

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer/IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous (M [4.5] = -17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] - [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 (D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s-1), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μm, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A V = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]-[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous (M 4.5 = -16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A V ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  4. A framework for empirical galaxy phenomenology: the scatter in galaxy ages and stellar metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Joseph A.; Peeples, Molly S.

    2015-04-01

    We develop a theoretical framework that extracts a deeper understanding of galaxy formation from empirically derived relations among galaxy properties by extending the main-sequence integration method for computing galaxy star formation histories. We properly account for scatter in the stellar mass-star formation rate relation and the evolving fraction of passive systems and find that the latter effect is almost solely responsible for the age distributions among z ˜ 0 galaxies with stellar masses above ˜1010 M⊙. However, while we qualitatively agree with the observed median stellar metallicity as a function of stellar mass, we attribute our inability to reproduce the distribution in detail largely to a combination of imperfect gas-phase metallicity and α/Fe ratio calibrations. Our formalism will benefit from new observational constraints and, in turn, improve interpretations of future data by providing self-consistent star formation histories for population synthesis modelling.

  5. FE K EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE XMM-EPIC SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY IC 4329A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2001-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of the XMM-Newton long-look of the X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329a. The Fe K bandpass is dominated by two peaks, consistent with emission from neutral or near-neutral Fe Ka and KP. A relativistic diskline model whereby both peaks are the result of one doubly-peaked diskline profile is found to be a poor description of the data. Models using two relativistic disklines are found to describe the emission profile well. A low-inclination, moderately-relativistic dual-diskline model is possible if the contribution from narrow components, due to distant material, is small or absent. A high-inclination, moderately relativistic profile for each peak is possible if there are roughly equal contributions from both the broad and narrow components. Upper limits on Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission and absorption at the systemic velocity of IC 4329a are obtained. We also present the results of RXTE monitoring of this source obtained so far; the combined XMM-Newton and RXTE data sets allow us to explore the time-resolved spectral behavior of this source on time scales ranging from hours to 2 years. We find no strong evidence for variability of the Fe Ka emission line on any time scale probed, likely due to the minimal level of continuum variability. We detect a narrow absorption line, at a energy of 7.68 keV in the rest frame of the source; its significance has been confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations. This feature is most likely due to absorption from Fe XXVI blueshifted to approximately 0.1c relative to the systemic velocity, making IC 4329a the lowest-redshift AGN known with a high-velocity, highly-ionized outflow component. As is often the case with similar outflows seen in high-luminosity quasars, the estimated mass outflow rate is larger than the inflow accretion rate, signaling that the outflow represents a substantial portion of the total energy budget of the AGN. The outflow could arise from a radiatively-driven disk wind, or it may be in the

  6. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu

    2009-09-15

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z {approx} M {sup 0.30{+-}}{sup 0.05}. No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  7. The predicted metallicity distribution of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, Gustavo A.; Matteucci, Francesca

    2004-07-01

    We predict the metallicity distribution of stars and the age-metallicity relation for six dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group by means of a chemical evolution model that is able to reproduce several observed abundance ratios, and the present-day total mass and gas content of these galaxies. The model adopts up-to-date nucleosynthesis and takes into account the role played by supernovae of different types (II, Ia) allowing us to follow in detail the evolution of several chemical elements (H, D, He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca and Fe). Each galaxy model is specified by the prescriptions of the star formation rate and by the galactic wind efficiency chosen to reproduce the main features of these galaxies. These quantities are constrained by the star formation histories of the galaxies as inferred by the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMD). The main conclusions are: (i) five of the six dSph galaxies are characterized by very low star formation efficiencies (ν= 0.005-0.5 Gyr-1) with only Sagittarius having a higher one (ν= 1.0 -5.0 Gyr-1) (ii) the wind rate is proportional to the star formation rate and the wind efficiency is high for all galaxies, in the range wi= 6-15 (iii) a high wind efficiency is required in order to reproduce the abundance ratios and the present-day gas mass of the galaxies; (iv) the predicted age-metallicity relation implies that the stars of the dSphs reach solar metallicities in a time-scale of the order of 2-6 Gyr, depending on the particular galaxy; (v) the metallicity distributions of stars in dSphs exhibit a peak around [Fe/H]~-1.8 to -1.5 dex, with the exception of Sagittarius, which shows a peak around [Fe/H]~-0.8 dex; (iv) the predicted metallicity distributions of stars suggest that the majority of stars in dSphs are formed in a range of metallicity in agreement with the one of the observed stars.

  8. Environmental Effects on the Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We completed and published two papers in the Astrophysical Journal based on research from grant. In the first paper we analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type II supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. In the second paper We analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type I1 supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia.

  9. Understanding The Baryonic Cycle: Confronting Galaxy Physics With The Mass; Metallicity Relation And Dust Content Of Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popping, Gergö; Somerville, Rachel; Galametz, Maud

    2016-09-01

    The mass-metallicity relation combines the star formation, metal enrichment, feedback, and baryon accretion history of galaxies and acts as a superb probe of the cycle of baryons through galaxies. Reproducing its cosmic evolution is a stringent constraint on models of galaxy formation. I will present new cosmological models of galaxy formation that include various ejective and preventive feedback schemes and detailed chemical evolution and dust chemistry models. I will present the impact of the different feedback schemes on the evolution of the mass;metallicity relation, compare my predictions with observations, and discuss how this comparison helps us constrain the galaxy physics acting on the baryonic cycle. I will further show that proper accounting for dust emphasizes a serious caveat in our understanding of galaxy formation. Galaxies are too metal enriched at early times.

  10. The Extremely Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxy AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John Joseph; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) sample, which consists of ultra-low HI mass galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast-Acting ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. SHIELD is a multi-configuration Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) study of the neutral gas content and dynamics of galaxies with HI masses in the range of 106-107 M⊙. Our spectral data were obtained using the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) on the Mayall 4-m telescope as part of a systematic study of the nebular abundances in the SHIELD galaxy sample. These observations enable measurement of the temperature sensitive [OIII]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a "direct" oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxy with an oxygen abundance comparable to such objects as I Zw 18, SBS 0335-052W, Leo P, and DDO 68 - the lowest metallicity star-forming systems known. It is worth noting that two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies currently recognized were discovered via the ALFALFA blind HI survey. These XMD galaxies are potential analogues to the first star-forming systems, which through hierarchical accretion processes built up the large galaxies we observe today in the local Universe. Detailed analysis of such XMD systems offers observational constraint to models of galactic evolution and star formation histories to allow a better understanding of the processes that govern the chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies.

  11. Mass-metallicity relations and metallicity gradients of galaxies in chemodynamical simulations with AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    I show metallicities of high-redshift galaxies and their time evolution in our cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations with the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have applied a new model for the formation of black holes motivated by the first star formation, in contrast to the merging scenario of previous works. The model parameters are determined from observational constraints, namely, the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass-galaxy mass relation, and the size-mass relation of galaxies. We then obtain better agreement with the observed down-sizing phenomena, namely, the colour-magnitude relation, specific star formation rates, and the \\alpha enhancement of early type galaxies. In massive galaxies, AGN-driven outflows transport metals into the circumgalactic medium and the intergalactic medium, which is important for a large-scale chemical enrichment in the Universe. Smaller galaxies can get external enrichment from nearby AGN depending on their environment. Nonetheless, these metallicity changes are negligible, and the mass-metallicity relations, which are mainly generated by supernova feedback at the first star burst, are preserved. The mass-metallicity relations evolve showing a steeper slope at higher redshifts. Metallicity radial gradients dramatically evolve depending on the their merging histories, and at the present we find a weak correlation between the gradients and galaxy mass. These predictions will be tested with on-going spectral and IFU surveys.

  12. Exploring the Metal Retention Fractions of Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Melissa Elizabeth; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Williams, Benjamin F.; van Zee, Liese

    2017-01-01

    Using a novel technique that combines star formation and chemical evolution histories from resolved stellar populations, nebular abundances, and gas masses, McQuinn et al. 2015 measured that only 5% of the oxygen produced by stellar nucleosynthesis was retained in the gas and stars in the very low-mass (stellar mass = 6x105 Msun) galaxy Leo P. In contrast to expectations, metal production and metal loss for spirals in the mass range ~109 - 1011 Msun show that these galaxies retain 20-25% of their metals, independent of mass (Peeples et al. 2014). This suggests there is only a factor of ~5 difference in the ability of galaxies to retain metals, despite a factor of 106 difference in mass. In this prototype study, we explore using the same technique from McQuinn et al. on a small sample of dwarfs with HST archival data, with particular attention to understanding the uncertainties in the approach. Our results will provide a measurement in the intervening mass range between Leo P and more massive spirals. This will allow us to test theoretical predictions of metal loss as a function of galaxy mass.

  13. Tidal dwarf galaxies and the luminosity-metallicity relation .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, S. M.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Meurer, G.; Bekki, K.; Dopita, M. A.; Kilborn, V.; Nicholls, D.

    We present a recalibration of the luminosity-metallicity relation for gas-rich, star-forming dwarfs to magnitudes as faint as M_R˜ -13. We use the \\citet{Dopita2013} metallicity calibrations to calibrate the relation for all of the data in this analysis. Metal-rich dwarfs classified as tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the literature are typically of metallicity 12 + log(O/H) = 8.70 ± 0.05, while SDSS dwarfs fainter than M_R = -16 have a mean metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.28 ± 0.10, regardless of their luminosity. Our hydrodynamical simuations predict that TDGs should have metallicities elevated above the normal luminosity-metallicity relation. Metallicity can therefore be a useful diagnostic for identifying TDG candidate populations in the absence of tidal tails. At magnitudes brighter than M_R˜ -16 our sample of 53 star-forming galaxies in 9 HI gas-rich groups is consistent with the normal relation defined by the SDSS sample. At fainter magnitudes there is an increase in dispersion in metallicity of our sample. In our sample we identify three (16% of dwarfs) strong TDG candidates (12 + log(O/H) > 8.6), and four (21%) very metal poor dwarfs (12 + log(O/H) < 8.0), which are likely gas-rich dwarfs with recently ignited star formation. Further details of this analysis are available in Sweet et al. (2013, ApJ submitted).

  14. SPATIALLY RESOLVED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION FEATURES IN NEARBY, LOW METALLICITY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Korey; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; Gehrz, Robert; Jackson, Dale C. E-mail: khaynes5@gmu.ed E-mail: gehrz@astro.umn.ed

    2010-11-20

    Low-resolution, mid-infrared Spitzer/IRS spectral maps are presented for three nearby, low-metallicity dwarf galaxies (NGC 55, NGC 3109, and IC 5152) for the purpose of examining the spatial distribution and variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission. The sample straddles a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) {approx} 8, a transition point below which PAH intensity empirically drops and the character of the interstellar medium changes. We derive quantitative radiances of PAH features and atomic lines on both global and spatially resolved scales. The Spitzer spectra, combined with extensive ancillary data from the UV through the mid-infrared, allow us to examine changes in the physical environments and in PAH feature radiances down to a physical scale of {approx}50 pc. We discuss correlations between various PAH emission feature and atomic line radiances. The (6.2 {mu}m)/(11.3 {mu}m), (7.7 {mu}m)/(11.3 {mu}m), (8.6 {mu}m)/(11.3 {mu}m), (7.7 {mu}m)/(6.2 {mu}m), and (8.6 {mu}m)/(6.2 {mu}m) PAH radiance ratios are found to be independent of position across all three galaxies, although the ratios do vary from galaxy to galaxy. As seen in other galaxies, we find no variation in the grain size distribution as a function of local radiation field strength. Absolute PAH feature intensities as measured by a ratio of PAH/(24 {mu}m) radiances are seen to vary both positionally within a given galaxy and from one galaxy to another when integrated over the full observed extent of each system. We examine direct comparisons of CC mode PAH ratios (7.7 {mu}m)/(6.2 {mu}m) and (8.6 {mu}m)/(6.2 {mu}m) to the mixed (CC/CH) mode PAH ratio (7.7 {mu}m)/(11.3 {mu}m). We find little variation in either mode and no difference in trends between modes. While the local conditions change markedly over the observed regions of these galaxies, the properties of PAH emission show a remarkable degree of uniformity.

  15. Local environments of SNe Ic and Ic-BL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selsing, Jonatan; Christensen, Lise; Thöne, Christina; Modjaz, Maryam

    2015-08-01

    In this project we have observed the local explosion environments of a sample Type Ic and Type Ic-BL Supernove (SNe) selected from both targeted and non-targeted surveys using VLT/VIMOS in IFU-mode. It is believed that by probing the local surroundings of the parent stellar populations of these types of SNe, valuable information can be gained about the physical conditions, which affect the type of SNe produced. The different kinds of SNe produced are determined by the initial mass and metallicity of the stellar progenitor, as well as by the metallicity-dependent mass loss in the stellar winds at the end phase of their evolution and the interaction with a sufficiently close companion star. At the redshift of the galaxies we have selected, we spatially resolve regions ~250 pc across, comparable to the size of HII regions in local galaxies and using strong nebular emission lines as a proxy for the metal content of the stellar population, we can investigate if the conditions for the two types of SNe differ. The connection between long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and broad-lined SNe Ic and the existence of SNe Ic-bl without observed GRBs raises the question of what distinguishes a GRB progenitor from that of an ordinary SN Ic-bl without a GRB and this project will help with the elucidation of this. Moreover, from the HII region ages and stellar mass estimates, we examine the two suggested progenitor models for stripped SNe: single massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with main-sequence masses of >30M⊙ that have experienced mass loss during the main sequence and WR stages, vs. binaries from lower-mass He stars.

  16. Environmental Effects on the Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We have completed and published two papers based on research from this grant. Our first paper "SN IA Enrichment in Virgo Early-type Galaxies from ROSAT and ASCA Observations" was published in the Astrophysical Journal (vol 539,603) reported on the properties of nine X-ray bright elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster observed by ROSAT and ASCA. We measured iron abundance gradients as a function of radius in three galaxies. We found that the magnesium and silicon abundance gradients were in general flatter than those of iron. We suggest this is due to a metallicity dependence in the metal production rates of SN Ia's. We calculate SN Ia rates in the center of these galaxies that are comparable to those measured optically. Our second paper "ASCA Observations of Groups at Radii of Low Overdensity: Implications for Cosmic Preheating" also was published in the Astrophysical Journal (vol 578, 74). This paper reported on the ASCA spectroscopy of nine groups of galaxies. We found that the entropy profile in groups is driven by nongravitational heating processes, and could be explained by a short period of preheating by galactic winds.

  17. Chemical abundances in metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim; Norris, John; Shetrone, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, but also r-process challenged stars, and a disparate fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. A more pristine and chemically inhomogeneous interstellar medium, combined with stoichastic star formation in a metal-poor environment, is thought to cause these detectable differences in the early SN II contributions. We are also now finding stars in dwarf galaxies that appear to be iron-enhanced, i.e., stars that have formed in pockets of SN Ia enriched gas. A comparison of their chemical abundances with individual SN Ia models can provide unique constraints on the SN Ia progenitors.

  18. Metal abundance range in the Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, R.

    1981-12-01

    A small sample of red giants in the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy has been observed with the multichannel scanner and the digital spectrograph of the Hale 5 m telescope. These observations confirm the large width of the giant branch in the color-magnitude diagram and indicate that it is caused by a range in metal abundance of approx.1 dex (i.e., -2.55< or approx. =(Fe/H)< or approx. =-1.36, according to Cohen's scale for globular clusters). Ursa Minor and the Draco dwarf spheroidal appear to have very similar ranges in metal abundance. These observations and those of the other dwarf spheroidal galaxies are compared with the models of the chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies that include mass loss. The models are consistent with the dispersions in metal abundance that are found in the dwarf spheroidals, but now with the lack of detectable dispersions in globular clusters that are comparable in mass to Ursa Minor and Draco (e.g., M92). Some explanations for this difference between the galaxies and the clusters are discussed.

  19. Metal enrichment in a semi-analytical model, fundamental scaling relations, and the case of Milky Way galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, M.; Buat, V.; Boissier, S.; Bethermin, M.; Roehlly, Y.; Génois, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Gas flows play a fundamental role in galaxy formation and evolution, providing the fuel for the star formation process. These mechanisms leave an imprint in the amount of heavy elements that enrich the interstellar medium. Thus, the analysis of this metallicity signature provides additional constraint on the galaxy formation scenario. Aims: We aim to discriminate between four different galaxy formation models based on two accretion scenarios and two different star formation recipes. We address the impact of a bimodal accretion scenario and a strongly regulated star formation recipe on the metal enrichment process of galaxies. Methods: We present a new extension of the eGalICS model, which allows us to track the metal enrichment process in both stellar populations and in the gas phase. Based on stellar metallicity bins from 0 to 2.5 Z⊙, our new chemodynamical model is applicable for situations ranging from metal-free primordial accretion to very enriched interstellar gas contents. We use this new tool to predict the metallicity evolution of both the stellar populations and gas phase. We compare these predictions with recent observational measurements. We also address the evolution of the gas metallicity with the star formation rate (SFR). We then focus on a sub-sample of Milky Way-like galaxies. We compare both the cosmic stellar mass assembly and the metal enrichment process of such galaxies with observations and detailed chemical evolution models. Results: Our models, based on a strong star formation regulation, allow us to reproduce well the stellar mass to gas-phase metallicity relation observed in the local Universe. The shape of our average stellar mass to stellar metallicity relations is in good agreement with observations. However, we observe a systematic shift towards high masses. Our M⋆ - Zg -SFR relation is in good agreement with recent measurements: our best model predicts a clear dependence with the SFR. Both SFR and metal enrichment

  20. WISE DISCOVERY OF LOW-METALLICITY BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Roger L.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Wu Yanling; Yan Lin; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Wu Jingwen; Blain, Andrew; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin; Stanford, Spencer A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-07-20

    We report two new low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), WISEP J080103.93+264053.9 (hereafter W0801+26) and WISEP J170233.53+180306.4 (hereafter W1702+18), discovered using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We identified these two BCDs from their extremely red colors at mid-infrared wavelengths and obtained follow-up optical spectroscopy using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck I. The mid-infrared properties of these two sources are similar to the well-studied, extremely low metallicity galaxy SBS 0335-052E. We determine metallicities of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.75 and 7.63 for W0801+26 and W1702+18, respectively, placing them among a very small group of very metal deficient galaxies (Z {<=} 1/10 Z{sub sun}). Their >300 A H{beta} equivalent widths, similar to SBS 0335-052E, imply the existence of young (<5 Myr) star-forming regions. We measure star formation rates of 2.6 and 10.9 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} for W0801+26 and W1702+18, respectively. These BCDs, showing recent star formation activity in extremely low metallicity environments, provide new laboratories for studying star formation in extreme conditions and are low-redshift analogs of the first generation of galaxies to form in the universe. Using the all-sky WISE survey, we discuss a new method to identify similar star-forming, low-metallicity BCDs.

  1. The multifrequency parsec-scale structure of PKS 2254-367 (IC 1459): a luminosity-dependent break in morphology for the precursors of radio galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Edwards, P. G.

    2015-03-01

    We present the first multifrequency very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) images of PKS 2254-367, a gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) radio source hosted by the nearby galaxy IC 1459 (D = 20.5 Mpc). PKS 2254-367 and the radio source in NGC 1052 (PKS 0238-084; D = 17.2 Mpc) are the two closest GPS radio sources to us, far closer than the next closest example, PKS 1718-649 (D = 59 Mpc). As such, IC 1459 and NGC 1052 offer opportunities to study the details of the parsec-scale radio sources as well as the environments that the radio sources inhabit, across the electromagnetic spectrum. Given that some models for the origin and evolution of GPS radio sources require a strong connection between the radio source morphology and the gaseous nuclear environment, such opportunities for detailed study are important. Our VLBI images of PKS 2254-367 show that the previously identified similarities between IC 1459 and NGC 1052 continue on to the parsec-scale. Both compact radio sources appear to have symmetric jets of approximately the same luminosity, much lower than typically noted in compact double GPS sources. Similarities between PKS 2254-367 and NGC 1052, and differences with respect to other GPS galaxies, lead us to speculate that a sub-class of GPS radio sources, with low luminosity and with jet-dominated morphologies, exists and would be largely absent from radio source surveys with ˜1 Jy flux density cut-offs. We suggest that this possible low-luminosity, jet-dominated population of GPS sources could be an analogue of the Fanaroff-Riley type I (FR I) radio galaxies, with the higher luminosity lobe-dominated GPS sources being the analogue of the FR II radio galaxies.

  2. The mass-metallicity relation of absorption selected high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise; Møller, P.; Rhodin, Henrik; Krogager, Jens-Kristian; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2017-03-01

    Strong absorption lines in quasar spectra primarily probe low-mass galaxies and detecting these in emission has previously been difficult. Dedicated surveys for the host galaxies of damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems have often resulted in non-detections and upper limits. Targeting the most metal-rich absorbers has proven to be a viable method, because these galaxies are brighter. By combining DLA metallicities and deriving host galaxy stellar masses, we find that metal-rich DLAs (with >10% solar metallicity) and their host galaxies follow the same redshift-dependent scaling relation between stellar mass and metallicity as luminosity-selected galaxies. We derive a prediction for an absorber galaxy mass that depends on the DLA metallicity.

  3. DISCOVERY AND EARLY MULTI-WAVELENGTH MEASUREMENTS OF THE ENERGETIC TYPE IC SUPERNOVA PTF12GZK: A MASSIVE-STAR EXPLOSION IN A DWARF HOST GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Modjaz, Maryam; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Perley, Daniel; Howell, D. Andrew; Graham, Melissa L.; Sand, David J.; Horst, J. Chuck; Leonard, Douglas C.; Im, Myunshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Sullivan, Mark; and others

    2012-12-01

    We present the discovery and extensive early-time observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN) PTF12gzk. Our light curves show a rise of 0.8 mag within 2.5 hr. Power-law fits (f(t){proportional_to}(t - t{sub 0}) {sup n}) to these data constrain the explosion date to within one day. We cannot rule out a quadratic fireball model, but higher values of n are possible as well for larger areas in the fit parameter space. Our bolometric light curve and a dense spectral sequence are used to estimate the physical parameters of the exploding star and of the explosion. We show that the photometric evolution of PTF12gzk is slower than that of most SNe Ic. The high ejecta expansion velocities we measure ({approx}30, 000 km s{sup -1} derived from line minima four days after explosion) are similar to the observed velocities of broad-lined SNe Ic associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) rather than to normal SN Ic velocities. Yet, this SN does not show the persistent broad lines that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. The host-galaxy characteristics are also consistent with GRB-SN hosts, and not with normal SN Ic hosts. By comparison with the spectroscopically similar SN 2004aw, we suggest that the observed properties of PTF12gzk indicate an initial progenitor mass of 25-35 M{sub Sun} and a large ((5-10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg) kinetic energy, the later being close to the regime of GRB-SN properties.

  4. THE METALLICITY BIMODALITY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: A TEST OF GALAXY ASSEMBLY AND OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    We build a theoretical model to study the origin of the globular cluster metallicity bimodality in the hierarchical galaxy assembly scenario. The model is based on empirical relations such as the galaxy mass-metallicity relation [O/H]-M {sub star} as a function of redshift, and on the observed galaxy stellar mass function up to redshift z {approx} 4. We make use of the theoretical merger rates as a function of mass and redshift from the Millennium simulation to build galaxy merger trees. We derive a new galaxy [Fe/H]-M {sub star} relation as a function of redshift, and by assuming that globular clusters share the metallicity of their original parent galaxy at the time of their formation, we populate the merger tree with globular clusters. We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of the galaxy hierarchical assembly, and study the properties of the final globular cluster population as a function of galaxy mass, assembly and star formation history, and under different assumptions for the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation. The main results and predictions of the model are the following. (1) The hierarchical clustering scenario naturally predicts a metallicity bimodality in the galaxy globular cluster population, where the metal-rich subpopulation is composed of globular clusters formed in the galaxy main progenitor around redshift z {approx} 2, and the metal-poor subpopulation is composed of clusters accreted from satellites, and formed at redshifts z {approx} 3-4. (2) The model reproduces the observed relations by Peng et al. for the metallicities of the metal-rich and metal-poor globular cluster subpopulations as a function of galaxy mass; the positions of the metal-poor and metal-rich peaks depend exclusively on the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation and the [O/Fe], both of which can be constrained by this method. In particular, we find that the galaxy [O/Fe] evolves linearly with redshift from a value of {approx}0.5 at redshift

  5. Metal Abundances of KISS Galaxies. V. Nebular Abundances of 15 Intermediate Luminosity Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Bresolin, Fabio; Saviane, Ivo; Yegorova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy of 15 emission-line galaxies cataloged in the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey, selected for their possession of high equivalent width [O iii] lines. The primary goal of this study was to attempt to derive direct-method (Te) abundances for use in constraining the upper-metallicity branch of the {R}23 relation. The spectra cover the full optical region from [O ii]λλ3726,3729 to [S iii]λλ9069,9531 and include the measurement of [O iii]λ4363 in 13 objects. From these spectra, we determine abundance ratios of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon. We find these galaxies to predominantly possess oxygen abundances in the range of 8.0 ≲ 12+log(O/H) ≲ 8.3. We present a comparison of direct-method abundances with empirical strong-emission-line techniques, revealing several discrepancies. We also present a comparison of direct-method oxygen abundance calculations using electron temperatures determined from emission lines of O++ and S++, finding a small systematic shift to lower Te (∼1184 K) and higher metallicity (∼0.14 dex) for sulfur-derived Te compared to oxygen-derived Te. Finally, we explore in some detail the different spectral activity types of targets in our sample, including regular star-forming galaxies, those with suspected AGN contamination, and a local pair of low-metallicity, high-luminosity compact objects.

  6. Metallicity and the level of the ultraviolet rising branch in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faber, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    This final report concerns a project to study the systematics of the ultraviolet flux level in elliptical galaxies. Prior to the inception of this work, the systematic behavior of the ultraviolet flux level was basically unknown and ultraviolet fluxes were observed to vary greatly from galaxy to galaxy. There was a suggestion, however, that there might be a dependence of ultraviolet flux on galaxy metallicity, but the correlation was based on just six galaxies. IUE spectra of elliptical galaxies have been reanalyzed and placed on a consistent, homogenous flux system. The major conclusion is a confirmation of the original hypothesis: galaxies with stronger Mg2 lines show enhanced ultraviolet flux.

  7. Artificial neural network to search for metal-poor galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang

    2014-02-01

    Aims: To find a fast and reliable method for selecting metal-poor galaxies (MPGs), especially in large surveys and huge databases, an artificial neural network (ANN) method is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 9 (DR9) provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (MPA/JHU). Methods: A two-step approach is adopted: (i) The ANN network must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be either MPGs or metal rich galaxies (MRGs), treating the strong emission line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission line flux ratios. (ii) After the network is trained on a sample of star-forming galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as either MPGs or MRGs. We consider several random divisions of the data into training and testing sets; for instance, for our sample, a total of 70 percent of the data are involved in training the algorithm, 15 percent are involved in validating the algorithm, and the remaining 15 percent are used for blind testing the resulting classifier. Results: For target selection, we have achieved an acquisition rate for MPGs of 96 percent and 92 percent for an MPGs threshold of 12 + log (O/H) = 8.00 and 12 + log (O/H) = 8.39, respectively. Running the code takes minutes in most cases under the Matlab 2013a software environment. The ANN method can easily be extended to any MPGs target selection task when the physical property of the target can be expressed as a quantitative variable. The code in the paper is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com).

  8. New insights into the interstellar medium of the dwarf galaxy IC 10: connection between magnetic fields, the radio–infrared correlation and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Aritra; Roychowdhury, Sambit; Heesen, Volker; Beck, Rainer; Brinks, Elias; Westcott, Jonathan; Hindson, Luke

    2017-10-01

    We present the highest sensitivity and angular resolution study at 0.32 GHz of the dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10, observed using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, probing ∼45 pc spatial scales. We find the galaxy-averaged radio continuum spectrum to be relatively flat, with a spectral index α = -0.34 ± 0.01 (Sν ∝ να), mainly due to a high contribution from free-free emission. At 0.32 GHz, some of the H II regions show evidence of free-free absorption as they become optically thick below ∼0.41 GHz with corresponding free electron densities of ∼ 11-22 cm- 3. After removing the free-free emission, we studied the radio-infrared (IR) relations on 55, 110 and 165 pc spatial scales. We find that on all scales the non-thermal emission at 0.32 and 6.2 GHz correlates better with far-infrared (FIR) emission at 70 μm than mid-IR emission at 24 μm. The dispersion of the radio-FIR relation arises due to variations in both magnetic field and dust temperature, and decreases systematically with increasing spatial scale. The effect of cosmic ray transport is negligible as cosmic ray electrons were only injected ≲5 Myr ago. The average magnetic field strength (B) of 12 μG in the disc is comparable to that of large star-forming galaxies. The local magnetic field is strongly correlated with local star formation rate (SFR) as B ∝ SFR0.35 ± 0.03, indicating a starburst-driven fluctuation dynamo to be efficient (∼10 per cent) in amplifying the field in IC 10. The high spatial resolution observations presented here suggest that the high efficiency of magnetic field amplification and strong coupling with SFR likely sets up the radio-FIR correlation in cosmologically young galaxies.

  9. Theoretical Modeling of Star-Forming Galaxies. I. Emission-Line Diagnostic Grids for Local and Low-Metallicity Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Larson, Kirsten L.

    2010-02-01

    We use the newest generation of the Starburst99/Mappings code to generate an extensive suite of models to facilitate detailed studies of star-forming galaxies and their interstellar medium properties, particularly at low metallicities. The new models used include a rigorous treatment of metal opacities in the population synthesis modeling and more detailed dust physics in the photoionization code. These models span a wide range of physical parameters including metallicity, ionization parameter, and the adoption of both an instantaneous burst and continuous star formation history (SFH). We examine the agreement between our models and local (z < 0.1) star-forming galaxy populations from several large data sets, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, and samples of blue compact galaxies and metal-poor galaxies. We find that models adopting a continuous SFH reproduce the metallicity-sensitive line ratios observed in the local population of star-forming galaxies, including the low-metallicity sample. However, we find that the current codes generate an insufficiently hard ionizing radiation field, leading to deficiencies in the [S II] fluxes produced by the models. We consider the advantages and shortcomings of this suite of models, and discuss future work and improvements that can be applied to the modeling of star-forming galaxies.

  10. The rarity of dust in metal-poor galaxies.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David B; Bolatto, Alberto D; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Draine, Bruce T; Donaldson, Jessica; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin M; Leroy, Adam K; Cannon, John; Gordon, Karl

    2014-01-09

    Galaxies observed at redshift z > 6, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, thus far very rarely show evidence of the cold dust that accompanies star formation in the local Universe, where the dust-to-gas mass ratio is around one per cent. A prototypical example is the galaxy Himiko (z = 6.6), which--a mere 840 million years after the Big Bang--is forming stars at a rate of 30-100 solar masses per year, yielding a mass assembly time of about 150 × 10(6) years. Himiko is thought to have a low fraction (2-3 per cent of the Sun's) of elements heavier than helium (low metallicity), and although its gas mass cannot yet be determined its dust-to-stellar mass ratio is constrained to be less than 0.05 per cent. The local dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18, which has a metallicity about 4 per cent that of the Sun's and is forming stars less rapidly (assembly time about 1.6 × 10(9) years) than Himiko but still vigorously for its mass, is also very dust deficient and is perhaps one of the best analogues of primitive galaxies accessible to detailed study. Here we report observations of dust emission from I Zw 18, from which we determine its dust mass to be 450-1,800 solar masses, yielding a dust-to-stellar mass ratio of about 10(-6) to 10(-5) and a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 3.2-13 × 10(-6). If I Zw 18 is a reasonable analogue of Himiko, then Himiko's dust mass must be around 50,000 solar masses, a factor of 100 below the current upper limit. These numbers are quite uncertain, but if most high-z galaxies are more like Himiko than like the very-high-dust-mass galaxy SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 at z ≈ 6, which hosts a quasar, then our prospects for detecting the gas and dust inside such galaxies are much poorer than hitherto anticipated.

  11. New fully empirical calibrations of strong-line metallicity indicators in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curti, M.; Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Esposito, S.

    2017-02-01

    We derive new empirical calibrations for strong-line diagnostics of gas-phase metallicity in local star-forming galaxies by uniformly applying the Te method over the full metallicity range probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To measure electron temperatures at high metallicity, where the auroral lines needed are not detected in single galaxies, we stacked spectra of more than 110 000 galaxies from the SDSS in bins of log[O II]/Hβ and log[O III]/Hβ. This stacking scheme does not assume any dependence of metallicity on mass or star formation rate, but only that galaxies with the same line ratios have the same oxygen abundance. We provide calibrations which span more than 1 dex in metallicity and are entirely defined on a consistent absolute Te metallicity scale for galaxies. We apply our calibrations to the SDSS sample and find that they provide consistent metallicity estimates to within 0.05 dex.

  12. Searching for metal-deficient emission-line galaxy candidates: the final sample of the SDSS DR12 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, N. G.; Izotov, Y. I.; Fricke, K. J.; Henkel, C.

    2017-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of metal-deficient dwarf galaxy candidates, selected from the SDSS DR12. The oxygen abundances were derived using the direct method in galaxies with the electron temperature-sensitive emission line [O iii]λ4363 Å measured with an accuracy better than 30%. The oxygen abundances for the remaining galaxies with larger uncertainties of the [O iii]λ4363 Å line fluxes were calculated using a strong-line semi-empirical method by Izotov and Thuan. The resulting sample consists of 287 low-metallicity candidates with oxygen abundances below 12 + log O/H = 7.65 including 23 extremely metal-deficient (XMD) candidates with 12 + log O/H ≤ 7.35. Ten out of sixteen XMDs known so far (or 60%) have been discovered by our team using the direct method. Three XMDs were found in the present study. We study relations between global parameters of low-metallicity galaxies, including absolute optical magnitudes, Hβ luminosities (or equivalently star formation rates), stellar masses, mid-infrared colours, and oxygen abundances. Low-metallicity and XMD galaxies strongly deviate to lower metallicities in L-Z, L(Hβ)-Z and M∗-Z diagrams than in relations obtained for large samples of low-redshift, star-forming galaxies with non-restricted metallicities. These less chemically evolved galaxies with stellar masses ≈106-108M⊙, Hβ luminosities ≈1038-1041 erg s-1, SFR ≈ 0.01-1.0 M⊙ yr-1, and sSFR 50 Gyr-1 have physical conditions which may be characteristic of high-redshift low-mass star-forming galaxies which are still awaiting discovery.

  13. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. III. AN EXTREMELY METAL DEFICIENT GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle A.; Olive, Keith A.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu; and others

    2013-07-01

    We present KPNO 4 m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an H II region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line and determine a ''direct'' oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 {+-} 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal {alpha} element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the ''delayed release'' hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509{sup +0.0184}{sub -0.0123}, which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 {+-} 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surveys of very low mass galaxies compete well with emission line galaxy surveys for finding XMD galaxies. It is possible that XMD galaxies may be divided into two classes: the relatively rare XMD emission line galaxies which are associated with starbursts triggered by infall of low-metallicity gas and the more common, relatively quiescent XMD galaxies like Leo P, with very low chemical abundances due to their intrinsically small masses.

  14. A search for Wolf-Rayet stars in active star forming regions of low mass galaxies - GR8, NGC 2366, IC 2574, and NGC 1569

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, Laurent; Roy, Jean-Rene; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    1993-10-01

    We report the detection, via narrow-band 4686 A filter imagery, of possible new Wolf-Rayet stars in the most massive giant H II regions of the irregular galaxies NGC 2366 and IC 2574. One stellar knot in the post-starburst galaxy NGC 1569 also appears to contain a weak excess of light at 4686 A. A similar search yielded negative results in the very low mass galaxy GR8. The strongest 4686 A excess is located close to the secondary eastern knot in the core of NGC 2366-I (NGC 2363). If this excess is of stellar origin, about five Wolf-Rayet stars of the luminous late-type can account for the excess emission. Nebular emission wraps around this cluster in the form of a shell. The putative Wolf-Rayet stars appear to be close to the center of the large expanding H II bubble discovered by Roy et al. (1991). A possible nebular origin of the 4686 A excess is also discussed.

  15. Detection of Very High Energy γ-ray Emission from the Perseus Cluster Head-Tail Galaxy IC 310 by the MAGIC Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Neronov, A.; Pfrommer, C.; Pinzke, A.; Semikoz, D. V.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    We report on the detection with the MAGIC telescopes of very high energy (VHE) γ-rays from IC 310, a head-tail radio galaxy in the Perseus galaxy cluster, observed during the interval 2008 November to 2010 February. The Fermi satellite has also detected this galaxy. The source is detected by MAGIC at a high statistical significance of 7.6σ in 20.6 hr of stereo data. The observed spectral energy distribution is flat with a differential spectral index of -2.00 ± 0.14. The mean flux above 300 GeV, between 2009 October and 2010 February, (3.1 ± 0.5) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1, corresponds to (2.5 ± 0.4)% of Crab Nebula units. Only an upper limit, of 1.9% of Crab Nebula units above 300 GeV, was obtained with the 2008 data. This, together with strong hints (>3σ) of flares in the middle of 2009 October and November, implies that the emission is variable. The MAGIC results favor a scenario with the VHE emission originating from the inner jet close to the central engine. More complicated models than a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario, e.g., multi-zone SSC, external Compton, or hadronic, may be required to explain the very flat spectrum and its extension over more than three orders of magnitude in energy.

  16. SUZAKU VIEW OF THE SWIFT/BAT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. IV. NATURE OF TWO NARROW-LINE RADIO GALAXIES (3C 403 AND IC 5063)

    SciTech Connect

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2011-09-01

    We report the results of Suzaku broadband X-ray observations of the two narrow-line radio galaxies, 3C 403 and IC 5063. Combined with the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) spectra averaged for 58 months, we are able to accurately constrain their spectral properties over the 0.5-200 keV band. The spectra of both nuclei are well represented with an absorbed cutoff power law, an absorbed reflection component from cold matter with an iron-K emission line, and an unabsorbed soft component, which gives a firm upper limit for the scattered emission. The reflection strength normalized to the averaged BAT flux is R {identical_to} {Omega}/2{pi} {approx} 0.6 in both targets, implying that their tori have a sufficiently large solid angle to produce the reprocessed emission. A numerical torus model with an opening angle of {approx}50{sup 0} well reproduces the observed spectra. We discuss the possibility that the amount of the normal gas responsible for Thomson scattering is systematically smaller in radio galaxies compared with Seyfert galaxies.

  17. Deep Imaging of Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether the most metal-poor and actively star-forming galaxies in the local universe such as I Zw 18 contain evolved stars. We propose to help settle this issue by obtaining deep ACS/HRC U, narrow-V, I, and H-alpha images of nine nearby {z < 0.01} extremely metal-poor {12 + O/H < 7.65} galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects are only marginally resolved from the ground and appear uniformly blue, strongly motivating HST imaging. The continuum images will establish: 1.} If underlying populations of evolved stars are present, by revealing the objects' colors on scales 10 pc, and 2.} The presence of any faint tidal features, dust lanes, and globular or super star clusters, all of which constrain the objects' evolutionary states. The H-alpha images, in combination with ground-based echelle spectroscopy, will reveal 1.} Whether the objects are producing "superwinds" that are depleting them of their metals; ground-based images of some of them indeed show large halos of ionized gas, and 2.} The correspondence of their nebular and stellar emission on scales of a few parsecs, which is important for understanding the "feedback" process by which supernovae and stellar winds regulate star formation. One of the sample objects, CGCG 269-049, lies only 2 Mpc away, allowing the detection of individual red giant stars in it if any are present. We have recently obtained Spitzer images and spectra of this galaxy to determine its dust content and star formation history, which will complement the proposed HST observations. [NOTE: THIS PROPOSAL WAS REDUCED TO FIVE ORBITS, AND ONLY ONE OF THE ORIGINAL TARGETS, CGCG 269-049, AFTER THE PHASE I REVIEW

  18. Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Henry, Richard B. C.; Erb, Dawn K.; Carigi, Leticia

    2016-08-01

    The study of carbon and oxygen abundances yields information on the time evolution and nucleosynthetic origins of these elements, yet they remain relatively unexplored. At low metallicities, (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), nebular carbon measurements are limited to rest-frame UV collisionally excited emission lines. Therefore, we present the UV spectrophotometry of 12 nearby low-metallicity high-ionization H ii regions in dwarf galaxies obtained using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the first analysis of the C/O ratio in local galaxies based solely on simultaneous significant detections of the UV {{{O}}}+2 and {{{C}}}+2 collisionally excited lines in seven of our targets and five objects from the literature to create a final sample of 12 significant detections. Our sample is complemented by optical SDSS spectra, from which we measured the nebular physical conditions and oxygen abundances using the direct method. At low metallicity, (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), no clear trend is evident in C/O versus O/H for the present sample given the large dispersion observed. When combined with recombination line observations at higher values of O/H, a general trend of increasing C/O with increasing O/H is also viable but with some significant outliers. Additionally, we find the C/N ratio appears to be constant (but with significant scatter) over a large range in oxygen abundance, indicating that carbon is predominantly produced by similar nucleosynthetic mechanisms as nitrogen. If true, and our current understanding of nitrogen production is correct, this would indicate that primary production of carbon (a flat trend) dominates at low metallicity, but quasi-secondary production (an increasing trend) becomes prominent at higher metallicities. A larger sample will be needed to determine the true nature and dispersion of the relation.

  19. AMAZE and LSD: Metallicity and Dynamical Evolution of Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; Cresci, G.; Gnerucci, A.; Troncoso, P.; Marconi, A.; Calura, F.; Cimatti, A.; Cocchia, F.; Fontana, A.; Granato, G.; Grazian, A.; Matteucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Pentericci, L.; Pipino, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Risaliti, G.; Silva, L.

    2010-12-01

    The metal content in galaxies provides important information on the physical processes responsible for galaxy formation, but little was known for galaxies at z > 3, when the Universe was less than 15% of its current age. We report on our metallicity survey of galaxies at z > 3 using SINFONI at the VLT. We find that at z > 3, low-mass galaxies obey the same fundamental relation between metallicity, mass and star formation rate as at 0 < z < 2.5; however, at z > 3 massive galaxies deviate from this relation, being more metal-poor. In some of these massive galaxies we can even map the gas metallicity. We find that galaxies at z > 3.3 have regular rotation, though highly turbulent, and inverted abundance gradients relative to local galaxies, with lower abundances near the centre, close to the most active regions of star formation. Overall the results suggest that prominent inflow of pristine gas is responsible for the strong chemical evolution observed in galaxies at z > 3.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF GALAXY SURFACE BRIGHTNESS ON THE MASS–METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Po-Feng; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Tully, R. Brent; Neill, J. D.

    2015-09-10

    We study the effect of surface brightness on the mass–metallicity relation using nearby galaxies whose gas content and metallicity profiles are available. Previous studies using fiber spectra indicated that lower surface brightness galaxies have systematically lower metallicities for their stellar mass, but the results were uncertain because of aperture effects. With stellar masses and surface brightnesses measured at Wide-field Infrared Explorer W1 and W2 bands, we re-investigate the surface brightness dependence with spatially resolved metallicity profiles and find similar results. We further demonstrate that the systematical difference cannot be explained by the gas content of galaxies. For two galaxies with similar stellar and gas masses, the one with lower surface brightness tends to have a lower metallicity. Using chemical evolution models, we investigate the inflow and outflow properties of galaxies of different masses and surface brightnesses. We find that, on average, high mass galaxies have lower inflow and outflow rates relative to the star formation rate. On the other hand, galaxies with a lower surface brightness experience stronger inflow than galaxies with a higher surface brightness of a similar mass. The surface brightness effect is more significant for low-mass galaxies. We discuss implications on the different inflow properties between low and high surface brightness galaxies, including star formation efficiency, environment, and mass assembly history.

  1. Why do high-redshift galaxies show diverse gas-phase metallicity gradients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Torrey, Paul; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Recent spatially resolved observations of galaxies at z ˜ 0.6-3 reveal that high-redshift galaxies show complex kinematics and a broad distribution of gas-phase metallicity gradients. To understand these results, we use a suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project, which include physically motivated models of the multi-phase ISM, star formation, and stellar feedback. Our simulations reproduce the observed diversity of kinematic properties and metallicity gradients, broadly consistent with observations at z ˜ 0-3. Strong negative metallicity gradients only appear in galaxies with a rotating disk, but not all rotationally supported galaxies have significant gradients. Strongly perturbed galaxies with little rotation always have flat gradients. The kinematic properties and metallicity gradient of a high-redshift galaxy can vary significantly on short time-scales, associated with starburst episodes. Feedback from a starburst can destroy the gas disk, drive strong outflows, and flatten a pre-existing negative metallicity gradient. The time variability of a single galaxy is statistically similar to the entire simulated sample, indicating that the observed metallicity gradients in high-redshift galaxies reflect the instantaneous state of the galaxy rather than the accretion and growth history on cosmological time-scales. We find weak dependence of metallicity gradient on stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR). Low-mass galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR tend to have flat gradients, likely due to the fact that feedback is more efficient in these galaxies. We argue that it is important to resolve feedback on small scales in order to produce the diverse metallicity gradients observed.

  2. Why do high-redshift galaxies show diverse gas-phase metallicity gradients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Torrey, Paul; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-04-01

    Recent spatially resolved observations of galaxies at z ˜ 0.6-3 reveal that high-redshift galaxies show complex kinematics and a broad distribution of gas-phase metallicity gradients. To understand these results, we use a suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project, which include physically motivated models of the multiphase interstellar medium, star formation and stellar feedback. Our simulations reproduce the observed diversity of kinematic properties and metallicity gradients, broadly consistent with observations at z ˜ 0-3. Strong negative metallicity gradients only appear in galaxies with a rotating disc, but not all rotationally supported galaxies have significant gradients. Strongly perturbed galaxies with little rotation always have flat gradients. The kinematic properties and metallicity gradient of a high-redshift galaxy can vary significantly on short time-scales, associated with starburst episodes. Feedback from a starburst can destroy the gas disc, drive strong outflows and flatten a pre-existing negative metallicity gradient. The time variability of a single galaxy is statistically similar to the entire simulated sample, indicating that the observed metallicity gradients in high-redshift galaxies reflect the instantaneous state of the galaxy rather than the accretion and growth history on cosmological time-scales. We find weak dependence of metallicity gradient on stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR). Low-mass galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR tend to have flat gradients, likely due to the fact that feedback is more efficient in these galaxies. We argue that it is important to resolve feedback on small scales in order to produce the diverse metallicity gradients observed.

  3. The evolution of galaxies. III - Metal-enhanced star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. J., Jr.; Arnett, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of the paucity of low-metal-abundance low-mass stars is discussed. One alternative to the variable-initial-mass-function (VIMF) solution is proposed. It is shown that this solution - metal-enhanced star formation - satisfies the classical test which prompted the VIMF hypothesis. Furthermore, with no additional parameters it provides improved fits to other tests - e.g., inhomogeneities in the abundances in young stars, concordance of all nucleo-cosmochronologies, and a required yield of heavy-element production which is consistent with current stellar evolution theory. In this model the age of the Galaxy is 18.6 plus or minus 5.7 b.y.

  4. The evolution of galaxies. III - Metal-enhanced star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. J., Jr.; Arnett, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of the paucity of low-metal-abundance low-mass stars is discussed. One alternative to the variable-initial-mass-function (VIMF) solution is proposed. It is shown that this solution - metal-enhanced star formation - satisfies the classical test which prompted the VIMF hypothesis. Furthermore, with no additional parameters it provides improved fits to other tests - e.g., inhomogeneities in the abundances in young stars, concordance of all nucleo-cosmochronologies, and a required yield of heavy-element production which is consistent with current stellar evolution theory. In this model the age of the Galaxy is 18.6 plus or minus 5.7 b.y.

  5. ON THE USE OF THE INDEX N2 TO DERIVE THE METALLICITY IN METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Luis, A. B.; Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Pérez-Montero, E. E-mail: cmt@iac.es E-mail: epm@iaa.es

    2014-12-20

    The N2 index ([N II] λ6584/Hα) is used to determine emission line galaxy metallicities at all redshifts, including high redshift, where galaxies tend to be metal-poor. The initial aim of this work was to improve the calibrations used to infer oxygen abundance from N2 by employing updated low-metallicity galaxy databases. We compare N2 and the metallicity determined using the direct method for the set of extremely metal-poor galaxies compiled by Morales-Luis et al. To our surprise, the oxygen abundance presents a tendency to be constant with N2, with a very large scatter. Consequently, we find that the existing N2 calibrators overestimate the oxygen abundance for most low-metallicity galaxies, and can therefore only be used to set upper limits to the true metallicity in low-metallicity galaxies. An explicit expression for this limit is given. In addition, we try to explain the observed scatter using photoionization models. It is mostly due to the different evolutionary state of the H II regions producing the emission lines, but it also arises due to differences in N/O among the galaxies.

  6. Spotlight on IC 3583

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-28

    This delicate blue group of stars — actually an irregular galaxy named IC 3583 — sits some 30 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo (The Virgin). It may seem to have no discernable structure, but IC 3583 has been found to have a bar of stars running through its centre. These structures are common throughout the Universe, and are found within the majority of spiral, many irregular, and some lenticular galaxies. Two of our closest cosmic neighbours, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, are barred, indicating that they may have once been barred spiral galaxies that were disrupted or torn apart by the gravitational pull of the Milky Way. Something similar might be happening with IC 3583. This small galaxy is thought to be gravitationally interacting with one of its neighbours, the spiral Messier 90. Together, the duo form a pairing known as Arp 76. It’s still unclear whether these flirtations are the cause of IC 3583’s irregular appearance — but whatever the cause, the galaxy makes for a strikingly delicate sight in this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, glimmering in the blackness of space.

  7. Does star formation proceed differently in metal-poor galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2014-10-01

    The importance of molecular gas in the star-formation process has been questioned by recent theoretical studies. When metals are scarce, star formation could proceed before the molecular fraction becomes significant, making cold atomic gas the key pre-requisite for star formation. The best case studies are blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), with their prominent star-formation episode and yet with little or no evidence of molecular gas. Current observations do not provide strong constraints on the presence of dense atomic gas in BCDs nor on the fraction of molecular gas.We propose to examine the HI region of 9 nearby BCDs selected from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey. Our program relies on the synergy of Hubble and Herschel, by calculating the gas cooling rate from the fine-structure level of ionized carbon, a parameter that can be determined both in the FUV with COS (probing the diffuse gas through the 1335.7A CII* absorption) and in the FIR with Herschel (probing the denser gas through the [CII] 157um emission). This comparison allows us to constrain the volume filling factor of dense vs. diffuse gas. The program we propose will allow us to examine how this fraction varies with metallicity, star-formation rate, and total gas mass. We will also be able to quantify the mass of molecular gas and evaluate its actual importance for star formation. Finally, a secondary objective is to characterize the main gas heating mechanisms in the HI region of BCDs and in particular the validity of the photoelectric effect paradigm in sources with a low dust-to-gas ratio, with potential implications for high-redshift galaxies.

  8. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the mass-metallicity relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, C.; Hopkins, A. M.; Gunawardhana, M.; Lara-López, M. A.; Sharp, R. G.; Steele, O.; Taylor, E. N.; Driver, S. P.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S. P.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Alpaslan, M.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Cameron, E.; Colless, M.; Conselice, C. J.; Croom, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Hill, D. T.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L. S.; Kuijken, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Owers, M. S.; Parkinson, H. R.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Sutherland, W. J.; Thomas, D.; Tuffs, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Wijesinghe, D.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The mass-metallicity relationship (MMR) of star-forming galaxies is well-established, however there is still some disagreement with respect to its exact shape and its possible dependence on other observables. Aims: We measure the MMR in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We compare our measured MMR to that measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and study the dependence of the MMR on various selection criteria to identify potential causes for disparities seen in the literature. Methods: We use strong emission line ratio diagnostics to derive oxygen abundances. We then apply a range of selection criteria for the minimum signal-to-noise in various emission lines, as well as the apparent and absolute magnitude to study variations in the inferred MMR. Results: The shape and position of the MMR can differ significantly depending on the metallicity calibration and selection used. After selecting a robust metallicity calibration amongst those tested, we find that the mass-metallicity relation for redshifts 0.061 ≲ z ≲ 0.35 in GAMA is in reasonable agreement with that found in the SDSS despite the difference in the luminosity range probed. Conclusions: In view of the significant variations of the MMR brought about by reasonable changes in the sample selection criteria and method, we recommend that care be taken when comparing the MMR from different surveys and studies directly. We also conclude that there could be a modest level of evolution over 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 0.35 within the GAMA sample.

  9. Metallicity inhomogeneities in local star-forming galaxies as a sign of recent metal-poor gas accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Elmegreen, B. G. E-mail: abml@iac.es E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu E-mail: jma20@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We measure the oxygen metallicity of the ionized gas along the major axis of seven dwarf star-forming galaxies. Two of them, SDSSJ1647+21 and SDSSJ2238+14, show ≅0.5 dex metallicity decrements in inner regions with enhanced star formation activity. This behavior is similar to the metallicity drop observed in a number of local tadpole galaxies by Sánchez Almeida et al., and was interpreted as showing early stages of assembling in disk galaxies, with the star formation sustained by external metal-poor gas accretion. The agreement with tadpoles has several implications. (1) It proves that galaxies other than the local tadpoles present the same unusual metallicity pattern. (2) Our metallicity inhomogeneities were inferred using the direct method, thus discarding systematic errors usually attributed to other methods. (3) Taken together with the tadpole data, our findings suggest a threshold around one-tenth the solar value for the metallicity drops to show up. Although galaxies with clear metallicity drops are rare, the physical mechanism responsible for them may sustain a significant part of the star formation activity in the local universe. We argue that the star formation dependence of the mass-metallicity relationship, as well as other general properties followed by most local disk galaxies, is naturally interpreted as side effects of pristine gas infall. Alternatives to the metal-poor gas accretion are examined as well.

  10. How surface density of galaxy disks affects metallicity? Outflow and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Tully, R. Brent; Neill, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    The surface density of disk is considered as a second parameter affecting the evolution of disk galaxies other than mass. Several physical and chemical properties of galaxies are found to be correlated with surface density of disk galaxies. However, the surface density, or surface brightness, is also strongly correlated with mass. It's not clear whether surface density really plays a role, or those correlations simply reflect the effect from stellar mass. To ask the question properly, one should take away the dependence on mass of galaxies, i.e., compare galaxies with the same mass but different surface densities.In this study, we ask, besides stellar mass, whether the surface density of disks also affects chemical evolution of galaxies. We demonstrate that, after removing the dependence on stellar mass and gas mass, the metallicity of galaxy still correlates with surface density of the galaxy disk. At the same stellar and gas mass, higher surface brightness galaxies on average possess both higher stellar and gas-phase metallicity, inferred from broadband color and spectrosopy of HII regions, respectively.We use an analytical model of chemical evolution involving gas outflow and accretion to explore possible reasons causing the difference in metallicity. Accroding to the model, at the same mass, lower metallicity galaxies should have experienced severer mass loss during star-formation events, and/or be inert to gas accretion. Both scenarios are consistent with general expections from properties of low surface density disks of shallow potential wells and dynamical stability.

  11. Metal abundance range in the Draco dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, R.

    1980-11-01

    This paper examines the evidence for and against a range in metal abundance in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. It is shown that (i) Zinn's scanner observations of 17 red giants in Draco provide strong evidence in favor of a significant dispersion in metallicity; (ii) the scatter in B-V color of the subgiant branch stars (i.e., 20.0< or =V< or =20.5) in Stetson's color-magnitude diagram is consistent with the dispersion in metallicity that is inferred from Zinn's observations, but the possibility that the errors in the measurements alone are responsible for the scatter cannot be ruled out; and (iii) the scatter in B-V of a brighter sample of red giants (i.e., 19.2< or =V<20.0) is also consistent with Zinn's observations, and in this case the scatter is clearly larger than that expected from the observational errors. It is concluded that there is no evidence against there being a dispersion in metallicity in Draco and that there is some substantial evidence in favor of this hypothesis.

  12. The gas-phase metallicity of central and satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, Anna; Gallazzi, Anna; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2012-09-01

    We exploit the galaxy groups catalogue of Yang et al. and the galaxy properties measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 4 and 7 to study how the gas-phase metallicities of star-forming galaxies depend on environment. We find that satellite and central galaxies follow a qualitatively similar stellar mass (M★)-gas-phase metallicity relation, whereby their gas-phase metallicity increases with M★. Satellites, though, have higher gas-phase metallicities than equally massive centrals, and this difference increases with decreasing stellar mass. We find a maximum offset of 0.06 dex at log(M★/h-2 M⊙) ≃ 8.25. At fixed halo mass, centrals are more metal rich than satellites by ˜0.5 dex on average. This is simply due to the fact that, by definition, centrals are the most massive galaxies in their groups, and the fact that gas-phase metallicity increases with stellar mass. More interestingly, we also find that the gas-phase metallicity of satellites increases with halo mass (Mh) at fixed stellar mass. This increment is more pronounced for less massive galaxies, and, at M★ ≃ 109 h-2 M⊙, corresponds to ˜0.15 dex across the range 11 < log (Mh/h-1 M⊙) < 14. We also show that low-mass satellite galaxies have higher gas-phase metallicities than central galaxies of the same stellar metallicity. This difference becomes negligible for more massive galaxies of roughly solar metallicity. We demonstrate that the observed differences in gas-phase metallicity between centrals and satellites at fixed M★ are not a consequence of stellar mass stripping (advocated by Pasquali et al. in order to explain similar differences but in stellar metallicity), nor to the past star formation history of these galaxies as quantified by their surface mass density or gas mass fraction. Rather, we argue that these trends probably originate from a combination of three environmental effects: (i) strangulation, which prevents satellite galaxies from accreting new, low-metallicity

  13. SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Luis, A. B.; Sanchez Almeida, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Munoz-Tunon, C. E-mail: jos@iac.es E-mail: jalfonso@iac.es

    2011-12-10

    We carry out a systematic search for extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies in the spectroscopic sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7 (DR7). The XMP candidates are found by classifying all the galaxies according to the form of their spectra in a region 80 A wide around H{alpha}. Due to the data size, the method requires an automatic classification algorithm. We use k-means. Our systematic search renders 32 galaxies having negligible [N II] lines, as expected in XMP galaxy spectra. Twenty-one of them have been previously identified as XMP galaxies in the literature-the remaining 11 are new. This was established after a thorough bibliographic search that yielded only some 130 galaxies known to have an oxygen metallicity 10 times smaller than the Sun (explicitly, with 12 + log (O/H) {<=} 7.65). XMP galaxies are rare; they represent 0.01% of the galaxies with emission lines in SDSS/DR7. Although the final metallicity estimate of all candidates remains pending, strong-line empirical calibrations indicate a metallicity about one-tenth solar, with the oxygen metallicity of the 21 known targets being 12 + log (O/H) {approx_equal} 7.61 {+-} 0.19. Since the SDSS catalog is limited in apparent magnitude, we have been able to estimate the volume number density of XMP galaxies in the local universe, which turns out to be (1.32 {+-} 0.23) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}. The XMP galaxies constitute 0.1% of the galaxies in the local volume, or {approx}0.2% considering only emission-line galaxies. All but four of our candidates are blue compact dwarf galaxies, and 24 of them have either cometary shape or are formed by chained knots.

  14. Investigating Galaxy Quenching With The Sdss: Stellar Metallicities As A Tracer Of Quenching Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trussler, James; Maiolino, Roberto; Goddard, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Peng, Yingjie

    2017-06-01

    Peng et al. (2015, Nature, 521, 192) analysed stellar metallicities of 26,000 SDSS galaxies and found that galaxies with stellar masses below 1011 solar masses are primarily quenched due to the halting of the supply of cold gas (strangulation). We take this analysis further by making use of the much larger spectroscopic sample of galaxies in SDSS DR7, analysing the stellar metallicities of 70,000 local galaxies. We compare the observed stellar metallicity difference between star-forming and passive galaxies with the predictions of simple models for galaxy evolution to put constraints on the possible quenching mechanisms and timescales. We find that the observed stellar metallicity differences are well reproduced by closed-box models, indicating that local galaxies quench primarily through strangulation over a mass-independent timescale of 2 Gyr. We also investigate the dependence of galaxy quenching on environment, in terms of both the central/satellite dichotomy and the local overdensity. We find that there is no strong dependence of the stellar metallicity difference on the overdensity, even over an overdensity range of 2 dex. This result further suggests that the environment cannot be solely responsible for galaxy strangulation.

  15. The galaxy population of Abell 1367: the stellar mass-metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhcine, M.; Kriwattanawong, W.; James, P. A.

    2011-04-01

    Using wide baseline broad-band photometry, we analyse the stellar population properties of a sample of 72 galaxies, spanning a wide range of stellar masses and morphological types, in the nearby spiral-rich and dynamically young galaxy cluster Abell 1367. The sample galaxies are distributed from the cluster centre out to approximately half the cluster Abell radius. The optical/near-infrared colours are compared with simple stellar population synthesis models from which the luminosity-weighted stellar population ages and metallicities are determined. The locus of the colours of elliptical galaxies traces a sequence of varying metallicity at a narrow range of luminosity-weighted stellar ages. Lenticular galaxies in the red sequence, however, exhibit a substantial spread of luminosity-weighted stellar metallicities and ages. For red-sequence lenticular galaxies and blue cloud galaxies, low-mass galaxies tend to be on average dominated by stellar populations of younger luminosity-weighted ages. Sample galaxies exhibit a strong correlation between integrated stellar mass and luminosity-weighted stellar metallicity. Galaxies with signs of morphological disturbance and ongoing star formation activity, tend to be underabundant with respect to passive galaxies in the red sequence of comparable stellar masses. We argue that this could be due to tidally driven gas flows towards the star-forming regions, carrying less enriched gas and diluting the pre-existing gas to produce younger stellar populations with lower metallicities than would be obtained prior to the interaction. Finally, we find no statistically significant evidence for changes in the luminosity-weighted ages and metallicities for either red-sequence or blue-cloud galaxies, at fixed stellar mass, with location within the cluster. We dedicate this work to the memory of our friend and colleague C. Moss who died suddenly recently.

  16. The X-Ray Binary Population of the Nearby Dwarf Starburst Galaxy IC 10: Variable and Transient X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas; Cappallo, Rigel; Williams, Benjamin F.; Prestwich, Andrea; Binder, Breanna; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.

    2017-02-01

    We have monitored the Cassiopeia dwarf galaxy (IC 10) in a series of 10 Chandra ACIS-S observations to capture its variable and transient X-ray source population, which is expected to be dominated by High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs). We present a sample of 21 X-ray sources that are variable between observations at the 3σ level, from a catalog of 110 unique point sources. We find four transients (flux variability ratio greater than 10) and a further eight objects with ratios >5. The observations span the years 2003-2010 and reach a limiting luminosity of >1035 erg s-1, providing sensitivity to X-ray binaries in IC 10 as well as flare stars in the foreground Milky Way. The nature of the variable sources is investigated from light curves, X-ray spectra, energy quantiles, and optical counterparts. The purpose of this study is to discover the composition of the X-ray binary population in a young starburst environment. IC 10 provides a sharp contrast in stellar population age (<10 My) when compared to the Magellanic Clouds (40-200 My) where most of the known HMXBs reside. We find 10 strong HMXB candidates, 2 probable background Active Galactic Nuclei, 4 foreground flare-stars or active binaries, and 5 not yet classifiable sources. Complete classification of the sample requires optical spectroscopy for radial velocity analysis and deeper X-ray observations to obtain higher S/N spectra and search for pulsations. A catalog and supporting data set are provided.

  17. Measuring the Radius of a Neutron Star; Origin of High X-Ray Luminosities in Optically Passive Galaxies; Resolving the Source of X-Rays in IC 1613"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ROSAT projects over the past three years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from its support. A high resolution ROSAT HRI X-ray image of the Local Group dwarf IC1613 revealed that the principal source of X-ray emission in this direction arises in a background cluster of galaxies, as first suggested by Eskridge (1995). In addition, however, we found a bright X-ray source coincident with the only known supernova remnant in this galaxy, S # 8. Extensive ground-based follow-up observations in the radio and optical regimes were conducted. We confirmed the nonthermal radio spectral index of the source and measured its extent to be approx. 3 sec at 20 cm. Imaging spectrophotometric observations taken with the multi-pupil spectrograph of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in the FSU allowed us to determine the density and velocity distribution of the gas in the remnant. The simultaneous presence of luminous X-ray and optical emission suggests a relatively young remnant in which the outward-moving shock has recently encountered dense material. Many of this object's properties are similar to those of the brightest optical remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, N49. Another potential source of X-rays in this galaxy which featured prominently in our original proposal, an Oxygen Wolf-Rayet star with a large surrounding wind-blown bubble, was not detected.

  18. Measuring the Radius of a Neutron Star; Origin of High X-Ray Luminosities in Optically Passive Galaxies; Resolving the Source of X-Rays in IC 1613"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ROSAT projects over the past three years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from its support. A high resolution ROSAT HRI X-ray image of the Local Group dwarf IC1613 revealed that the principal source of X-ray emission in this direction arises in a background cluster of galaxies, as first suggested by Eskridge (1995). In addition, however, we found a bright X-ray source coincident with the only known supernova remnant in this galaxy, S # 8. Extensive ground-based follow-up observations in the radio and optical regimes were conducted. We confirmed the nonthermal radio spectral index of the source and measured its extent to be approx. 3 sec at 20 cm. Imaging spectrophotometric observations taken with the multi-pupil spectrograph of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in the FSU allowed us to determine the density and velocity distribution of the gas in the remnant. The simultaneous presence of luminous X-ray and optical emission suggests a relatively young remnant in which the outward-moving shock has recently encountered dense material. Many of this object's properties are similar to those of the brightest optical remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, N49. Another potential source of X-rays in this galaxy which featured prominently in our original proposal, an Oxygen Wolf-Rayet star with a large surrounding wind-blown bubble, was not detected.

  19. Charting the evolution of the ages and metallicities of massive galaxies since z = 0.7

    SciTech Connect

    Gallazzi, Anna; Zibetti, Stefano; Bell, Eric F.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Kelson, Daniel D.

    2014-06-10

    Detailed studies of the stellar populations of intermediate-redshift galaxies can shed light onto the processes responsible for the growth of the massive galaxy population in the last 8 billion years. We here take a step toward this goal by means of deep, multiobject rest-frame optical spectroscopy, performed with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Magellan telescope, of a sample of ∼70 galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South survey with redshift 0.65 ≤ z ≤ 0.75, apparent R > 22.7 mag{sub Vega}, and stellar mass >10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We measure velocity dispersion and stellar absorption features for individual sources. We interpret them by means of a large Monte Carlo library of star formation histories, following the Bayesian approach adopted for previous low redshift studies, and derive constraints on the stellar mass, mean stellar age, and stellar metallicity of these galaxies. We characterize for the first time the relations between stellar age and stellar mass and between stellar metallicity and stellar mass at z ∼ 0.7 for the galaxy population as a whole and for quiescent and star-forming galaxies separately. These relations of increasing age and metallicity with galaxy mass for the galaxy population as a whole have a similar shape as the z ∼ 0.1 analog derived for Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies but are shifted by –0.28 dex in age and by –0.13 dex in metallicity, at odds with simple passive evolution. Considering z = 0.7 quiescent galaxies alone, we find that no additional star formation and chemical enrichment are required for them to evolve into the present-day quiescent population. However, other observations require the quiescent population to grow from z = 0.7 to the present day. This growth could be supplied by the quenching of a fraction of z = 0.7 M {sub *} > 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} star-forming galaxies with metallicities already comparable to those of quiescent galaxies, thus leading to the

  20. The impact of gas inflows on star formation rates and metallicities in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Nair, Preethi; Patton, David R.; Scudder, Jillian M.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Simard, Luc

    2011-09-01

    The star formation rates (SFRs) and metallicities of a sample of 294 galaxies with visually classified, strong, large-scale bars are compared to a control sample of unbarred disc galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The fibre (inner few kpc) metallicities of barred galaxies are uniformly higher (at a given mass) than the unbarred sample by ˜0.06 dex. However, the fibre SFRs of the visually classified barred galaxies are higher by about 60 per cent only in the galaxies with total stellar mass M★ > 1010 M⊙. The metal enhancement at M★ < 1010 M⊙ without an accompanying increase in the SFR may be due to a short-lived phase of early bar-triggered star formation in the past, compared to on-going SFR enhancements in higher mass barred galaxies. There is no correlation between bar length or bar axial ratio with the enhancement of the SFR. In order to assess the relative importance of star formation triggered by bars and galaxy-galaxy interactions, SFRs are also determined for a sample of close galaxy pairs. Both mechanisms appear to be similarly effective at triggering central star formation for galaxies with M★ > 1010 M⊙. However, due to the much lower fraction of pairs than bars, bars account for ˜3.5 times more triggered central star formation than interactions.

  1. Toward Gas Chemistry in Low Metallicity Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Anderson, Crystal N.; Turner, Jean; Ott, Juergen; Beck, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Dense gas, which is intimately connected with star formation, is key to understanding star formation. Though challenging to study, dense gas in low metallicity starbursts is important given these system's often extreme star formation and their potential implications for high redshift analogs. High spatial resolution (~50 pc) ALMA observations of several key probes of gas chemistry, including HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), CCH(1-0;3/2-1/2) and SiO(2-1), towards the nearby super star-cluster (SSC) forming, sub-solar metallicity galaxy NGC 5253 are discussed. Dense gas is observed to be extended well beyond the current compact starburst, reaching into the apparently infalling molecular streamer. The faintness of HCN, the standard dense gas tracer, is extreme both in an absolute sense relative to high metallicity starbursts of a similar intensity and in a relative sense, with the HCO+/HCN ratio being one of the most elevated observed. UV-irradiated molecular gas, traced by CCH, is also extended over the mapped region, not being strongly correlated with the SSC. Despite the accretion of molecular gas from the halo and the intense burst of star formation, chemical signatures of shocked gas, traced by SiO (and HNCO), are not obvious. By placing NGC 5253 in context with other local starbursts, like 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Clouds and the high metallicity proto-typical starburst NGC 253, it is suggested that a combination of gas excitation and abundance changes associated with the sub solar metallicity may explain these anomalous dense gas properties.

  2. Rest-UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator: The Metal Content of Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisst, A. L.; Capak, P. L.; Davidzon, I.; Salvato, M.; Laigle, C.; Ilbert, O.; Onodera, M.; Hasinger, G.; Kakazu, Y.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Sanders, D.; Silverman, J. D.; Yan, L.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2016-05-01

    We measure a relation between the depth of four prominent rest-UV absorption complexes and metallicity for local galaxies and verify it up to z˜ 3. We then apply this relation to a sample of 224 galaxies at 3.5\\lt z\\lt 6.0 (< z> =4.8) in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), for which unique UV spectra from the Deep Imaging Multi-object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) and accurate stellar masses from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH) are available. The average galaxy population at z˜ 5 and {log}(M/{M}⊙ )\\gt 9 is characterized by 0.3-0.4 dex (in units of 12+{log}({{O/H}})) lower metallicities than at z ˜ 2, but comparable to z˜ 3.5. We find galaxies with weak or no Lyα emission to have metallicities comparable to z ˜ 2 galaxies and therefore may represent an evolved subpopulation of z˜ 5 galaxies. We find a correlation between metallicity and dust in good agreement with local galaxies and an inverse trend between metallicity and star-formation rate consistent with observations at z ˜ 2. The relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation) is similar to z˜ 3.5, but there are indications of it being slightly shallower, in particular for the young, Lyα-emitting galaxies. We show that, within a “bathtub” approach, a shallower MZ relation is expected in the case of a fast (exponential) build-up of stellar mass with an e-folding time of 100-200 Myr. Because of this fast evolution, the process of dust production and metal enrichment as a function of mass could be more stochastic in the first billion years of galaxy formation compared to later times.

  3. Star Formation at Low Metallicity in Local Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce; Hunter, Deidre Ann; Rubio, Monica; Brinks, Elias; Cortés, Juan R.; Cigan, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The radial profiles of star formation rates and surface mass densities for gas and stars have been compiled for 20 local dwarf irregular galaxies and converted into disk scale heights and Toomre Q values. The scale heights are relatively large compared to the galaxy sizes (~0.6 times the local radii) and generally increase with radius in a flare. The gaseous Q values are high, ~4, at most radii and even higher for the stars. Star formation proceeds even with these high Q values in a normal exponential disk as viewed in the far ultraviolet. Such normal star formation suggests that Q is not relevant to star formation in dIrrs. The star formation rate per unit area always equals approximately the gas surface density divided by the midplane free fall time with an efficiency factor of about 1% that decreases systematically with radius in approximate proportion to the gas surface density. We view this efficiency variation as a result of a changing molecular fraction in a disk where atomic gas dominates both stars and molecules. In a related study, CO observations with ALMA of star-forming regions at the low metallicities of these dwarfs, which averages 13% solar, shows, in the case of the WLM galaxy, tiny CO clouds inside much larger molecular and atomic hydrogen envelopes. The CO cloud mass fraction within the molecular region is only one percent or so. Nevertheless, the CO clouds have properties that are similar to solar neighborhood clouds: they satisfy the size-linewidth relation observed in the LMC, SMC, and other local dwarfs where CO has been observed, and the same virial mass versus luminosity relation. This uniforming of CO cloud properties seems to be the result of a confining pressure from the weight of the overlying molecular and atomic shielding layers. Star formation at low metallicity therefore appears to be a three dimensional process independent of 2D instabilities involving Q, in highly atomic gas with relatively small CO cores, activated at a rate

  4. Evaluation of surface analysis methods for characterization of trace metal surface contaminants found in silicon IC manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, A.C.; Maillot, P.; Gordon, M.; Baylis, J.; Chacon, J.; Witowski, R. ); Arlinghaus, H. ); Knapp, J.A.; Doyle, B.L. )

    1991-01-01

    A major topic at recent silicon-based integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing symposia is the pursuit of decreased contamination levels. The aim is to remove contamination from both processes and materials. In conjunction with this effort, characterization methods are being pushed to lower and lower detection limits. In this paper, we evaluate surface analysis methods used to determine the concentration of inorganic contamination on unpatterned Si wafers. We compare sampling depths, detection limits, and applicability of each method for use in support of Si IC manufacturing. This comparison is further limited to Fe and Cu which are transition metal contaminants associated with manufacturing yield loss. The surface analysis methods included in this evaluation are: Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF or TRXRF); Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS); two post-ionization'' methods Surface Analysis by Laser Ionization (SALI) and Sputter Initiated Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (SIRIS); Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectroscopy (HIBS); and Vapor Phase Phase Decomposition (VPD) based methods Atomic Absorption (VPD-AA) along with VPD-TXRF. Sets of 6 in. Si wafers with concentration levels between 10{sup 9} atoms/cm{sup 2} and 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 2} Fe and Cu were characterized by TXRF, SIMS, SIRIS, and HIBS. This data allows estimation of detection limits (DLs) and relative method accuracy. In Section 1 we describe each surface analysis method and the circumstance under which it would be used to support Si IC manufacturing. The equipment used for this comparison and the 150 mm Si wafer set are described in Section 2. Results from each method are contrasted in Section 3. Finally, a conclusion is presented in Section 4.

  5. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.

    2010-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor galaxy I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding z=7-8 galaxies now being discovered by Hubb|e's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Using HST/STIS images and recently obtained HST/COS ultraviolet spectra, we derive information about the hot, massive stars in this galaxy including stellar abundances, constraints on the stellar IMF and mass distribution of young clusters containing hot, massive stars.

  6. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.

    2010-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor galaxy I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding z=7-8 galaxies now being discovered by Hubb|e's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Using HST/STIS images and recently obtained HST/COS ultraviolet spectra, we derive information about the hot, massive stars in this galaxy including stellar abundances, constraints on the stellar IMF and mass distribution of young clusters containing hot, massive stars.

  7. Determination of transition metals in wine by IC, DPASV-DPCSV, and ZGFAAS coupled with UV photolysis.

    PubMed

    Buldini, P L; Cavalli, S; Sharma, J L

    1999-05-01

    In the present work ion chromatography (IC), differential pulse anodic (DPASV) or cathodic stripping voltammetry (DPCSV), and Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (ZGFAAS) were applied to the determination of heavy and transition metals in wine. The matrix is degraded by oxidative UV photolysis in a digester equipped with a high-pressure mercury lamp. The temperature of the sample is maintained at 85 +/- 5 degrees C by a combined air/water cooling system. This procedure has decisive advantages if compared with other sample pretreatment techniques. Most organic wine constituents degrade in <1 h, whereas metals quantitation remains unaffected by UV radiation, with the exception of manganese. The clear solution is directly analyzed for most common heavy and transition metals such as cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc. In the absence of standards, the results obtained by different techniques are compared and are found in good agreement. All of the considered techniques appear to be equivalent, but ZGFAAS is more time-consuming because it does not permit multielement analyses.

  8. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  9. A Semi-Analytic Study of Feedback Processes and Metallicity Profiles in Disc Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, Nathan Ross; Lu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity gradients of disc galaxies contain valuable information about the physics governing their formation and evolution. The observed metallicity profiles have negative gradients that are steeper at high redshifts, indicating an inside-out formation of disc galaxies. We improve on our semi-analytic galaxy formation model (Lu, Mo & Wechsler 2015) by incorporating the radial distribution of metals into the model. With the improved model, we explore how feedback scenarios affect metallicity gradients. The model features 3 feedback scenarios: An Ejective (EJ) model, which includes ejective supernova (SN) feedback, a PRe-Heating (PR) model, which assumes that the intergalactic medium is preheated, preventing it from collapsing onto galaxies, and a Re-Incorporation (RI) model, which also includes strong outflows but allows ejected gas to re-accrete onto the galaxies. We compare the models with observations from Ho et al. (2015) and find that while all models struggle to match the observed metallicity gradient-stellar mass relationship, the PR model predicts metallicity gradients that best match observations. We also find that the RI model predicts a flat gradient because its outflow and re-accretion replenish the disc uniformly with newly accreted enriched gas, erasing the mark of inside-out formation. Our findings suggest feedback plays a key role in shaping the metallicity gradients of disc galaxies and require more detailed theoretical modeling to understand them.

  10. Age and Metallicity of Merging Galaxies and Merger Remnants in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; McIntosh, D. H.; Cooper, A. L.; Haines, T.; McConnell, A.; Gallazzi, A.; Pasquali, A.; van den Bosch, F. C.; Mo, H. J.; Yang, X.

    2011-01-01

    We study the stellar ages and metallicities of major mergers and post-merger remnants among massive galaxies in the local universe. The ages and metallicities are excellent records of the star formation and chemical enrichment histories of galaxies, and major merging between comparable mass systems is postulated to be a central mechanism in explaining the assembly and growth of spheroids over cosmic time. Starting with a volume-limited (z LE 0.08) and stellar mass-limited (M GE 1e10 Msun) sample of 36,000 galaxies with SDSS spectra having median S/N > 20 we identified over 600 galaxies in pairs (mergers), and 100 individual systems (remnants), with tidal signatures associated with major merging activity. Using previously derived median-likelihood estimates of stellar metallicity, light-weighted age and stellar mass, we compare mergers and remnants to each other and to the underlying galaxy population. We confirm that the lower metallicity (Zstar < -0.1 Zsun) population has a higher fraction of isolated disturbed galaxies (remnants) compared to the majority of galaxies with typical stellar metal abundances (> -0.1 Zsun). Comparing mergers and remnants, we find that the remnant population has a higher percentage of low metallicity members than does the merger population. We further explore the stellar metallicity distributions of galaxies involved in spiral-spiral, spiral-elliptical and elliptical-elliptical mergers. Last, we find that remnants have younger light-weighted ages on average than either galaxies involved in ongoing major interactions or non-merging systems. This result connects evidence of recent star formation with visible tidal signatures as expected in the aftermath of a gas-rich major merger.

  11. Witnessing Gas Mixing in the Metal Distribution during a Galaxy Merger.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amram, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    I will present direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of gas being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. In focusing on the emission line gas, this is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances, while in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region. This nearby system involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies.

  12. How does metallicity affect the gas and dust properties of galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Suzanne C.; Cormier, Diane; Rémy-Ruyer, Aurélie

    Comparison of the ISM properties of a wide range of metal poor galaxies with normal metal-rich galaxies reveals striking differences. We find that the combination of the low dust abundance and the active star formation results in a very porous ISM filled with hard photons, heating the dust in dwarf galaxies to overall higher temperatures than their metal-rich counterparts. This results in photodissociation of molecular clouds to greater depths, leaving relatively large PDR envelopes and difficult-to-detect CO cores. From detailed modeling of the low-metallicity ISM, we find significant fractions of CO-dark H2 - a reservoir of molecular gas not traced by CO, but present in the [CII] and [CI]-emitting envelopes. Self-consistent analyses of the neutral and ionized gas diagnostics along with the dust SED is the necessary way forward in uncovering the multiphase structure of galaxies.

  13. On the evolution of simulated galaxies: the mass dependence in metallicity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Maider; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2017-03-01

    Making use of a fiducial set of simulated disc galaxies spanning a wide range of mass, we examine the influence of stellar mass in the radial metallicity gradients and compare to observational trends from Ho et al. (2015).

  14. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal-poor galaxies*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Shi, Yong; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-05-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal-poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z ≲ Z⊙/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70μm/f160 μm ratios at a given f160 μm/f250 μm ratio; single modified blackbody (MBB) fittings to the SED at λ ≥ 100 μm still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (β = 2) show that even at 100 μm, about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (˜20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images furthermore reveal that the far-IR colours including f70 μm/f160 μm, f160 μm/f250 μm and f250 μm/f350 μm are all related to the surface densities of young stars as traced by far-UV, 24 μm and star formation rates (SFRs), but not to the stellar mass surface densities. This suggests that the dust emitting at wavelengths from 70 to 350 μm is primarily heated by radiation from young stars.

  15. Metallicity gradients in local Universe galaxies: Time evolution and effects of radial migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Coccato, Lodovico; Stanghellini, Letizia; Casasola, Viviana; Galli, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    Context. Our knowledge of the shape of radial metallicity gradients in disc galaxies has recently improved. Conversely, the understanding of their time evolution is more complex, since it requires analysis of stellar populations with different ages or systematic studies of galaxies at different redshifts. In the local Universe, H ii regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) are important tools to investigate radial metallicity gradients in disc galaxies. Aims: We present an in-depth study of all nearby spiral galaxies (M33, M31, NGC 300, and M81) with direct-method nebular abundances of both populations, aiming at studying the evolution of their radial metallicity gradients. For the first time, we also evaluate the radial migration of PN populations. Methods: For the selected galaxies, we analysed H ii region and PN properties to: determine whether oxygen in PNe is a reliable tracer for past interstellar medium (ISM) composition; homogenise published datasets; estimate the migration of the oldest stellar populations; and determine the overall chemical enrichment and slope evolution. Results: We confirm that oxygen in PNe is a reliable tracer for past ISM metallicity. We find that PN gradients are flatter than or equal to those of H ii regions. When radial motions are negligible, this result provides a direct measurement of the time evolution of the gradient. For galaxies with dominant radial motions, we provide upper limits on the gradient evolution. Finally, the total metal content increases with time in all target galaxies, and early morphological types have a larger increment Δ(O/H) than late-type galaxies. Conclusions: Our findings provide important constraints to discriminate among different galactic evolutionary scenarios, favouring cosmological models with enhanced feedback from supernovae. The advent of extremely large telescopes allows us to include galaxies in a wider range of morphologies and environments, thus putting firmer constraints on galaxy formation

  16. ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE MOST METAL POOR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, A. H.; Zezas, A.; Jackson, F.; Tsantaki, Maria; Roberts, T. P.; Foltz, R.; Linden, T.; Kalogera, V.

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULX) are X-ray binaries with L{sub x} >10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. The most spectacular examples of ULX occur in starburst galaxies and are now understood to be young, luminous high mass X-ray binaries. The conditions under which ULX form are poorly understood, but recent evidence suggests they may be more common in low metallicity systems. Here we investigate the hypothesis that ULX form preferentially in low metallicity galaxies by searching for ULX in a sample of extremely metal poor galaxies (XMPG) observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. XMPG are defined as galaxies with log(O/H) + 12 < 7.65, or less than 5% solar. These are the most metal-deficient galaxies known, and a logical place to find ULX if they favor metal poor systems. We compare the number of ULX (corrected for background contamination) per unit of star formation (N{sub ULX}(SFR)) in the XMPG sample with N{sub ULX}(SFR) in a comparison sample of galaxies with higher metallicities taken from the Spitzer Infrared Galaxy Sample. We find that ULX occur preferentially in the metal poor sample with a formal statistical significance of 2.3{sigma}. We do not see strong evidence for a trend in the formation of ULX in the high metallicity sample: above 12+log(O/H) {approx} 8.0 the efficiency of ULX production appears to be flat. The effect we see is strongest in the lowest metallicity bin. We discuss briefly the implications of these results for the formation of black holes in low metallicity gas.

  17. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies: evidence of a mass-metallicity relation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Møller, P.; Srianand, R.

    2006-10-01

    We used our database of VLT-UVES quasar spectra to build up a sample of 70 Damped Lyman-α (DLA) or strong sub-DLA systems with total neutral hydrogen column densities of log N(H i)⪆ 20 and redshifts in the range 1.7metallicities relative to solar in an homogeneous manner, [X/H] (with X=Zn, or S or Si), and the velocity widths of low-ionization line profiles, Δ V. For the first time, we provide evidence for a correlation between DLA metallicity and line profile velocity width, which is detected at the 6.1σ significance level. This confirms the trend previously observed in a much smaller sample by Wolfe & Prochaska (1998). The best-fit linear relation is [X/H]=1.55(± 0.12)logΔ V -4.33(± 0.23), with Δ V expressed in km s-1. The slope of the DLA velocity-metallicity relation is the same within uncertainties between the higher (z_abs>2.43) and the lower (z_abs≤ 2.43) redshift halves of our sample. However, the two populations of systems are statistically different. There is a strong redshift evolution in the sense that the median metallicity and median velocity width increase with decreasing redshift. We argue that the existence of a DLA velocity-metallicity correlation, over more than a factor of 100 spread in metallicity, is probably the consequence of an underlying mass-metallicity relation for the galaxies responsible for DLA absorption lines. Assuming a simple linear scaling of the galaxy luminosity with the mass of the dark-matter halo, we find that the slope of the DLA velocity-metallicity relation is consistent with that of the luminosity-metallicity relation derived for local galaxies. If the galaxy dynamical mass is indeed the dominant factor setting up the observed DLA velocity-metallicity correlation, then the DLA systems exhibiting the lowest metallicities among the DLA population should, on average, be associated with galaxies of lower masses (e.g., gas-rich dwarf galaxies). In turn

  18. Linking dust emission to fundamental properties in galaxies: the low-metallicity picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Madden, S. C.; Galliano, F.; Lebouteiller, V.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cormier, D.; Cooray, A.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Doublier-Pritchard, V.; Galametz, M.; Jones, A. P.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Lu, N.; Spinoglio, L.

    2015-10-01

    Aims: In this work, we aim to provide a consistent analysis of the dust properties from metal-poor to metal-rich environments by linking them to fundamental galactic parameters. Methods: We consider two samples of galaxies: the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS) and the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH), totalling 109 galaxies, spanning almost 2 dex in metallicity. We collect infrared (IR) to submillimetre (submm) data for both samples and present the complete data set for the DGS sample. We model the observed spectral energy distributions (SED) with a physically-motivated dust model to access the dust properties: dust mass, total-IR luminosity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass fraction, dust temperature distribution, and dust-to-stellar mass ratio. Results: Using a different SED model (modified black body), different dust composition (amorphous carbon in lieu of graphite), or a different wavelength coverage at submm wavelengths results in differences in the dust mass estimate of a factor two to three, showing that this parameter is subject to non-negligible systematic modelling uncertainties. We find half as much dust with the amorphous carbon dust composition. For eight galaxies in our sample, we find a rather small excess at 500 μm (≤1.5σ). We find that the dust SED of low-metallicity galaxies is broader and peaks at shorter wavelengths compared to more metal-rich systems, a sign of a clumpier medium in dwarf galaxies. The PAH mass fraction and dust temperature distribution are found to be driven mostly by the specific star formation rate, sSFR, with secondary effects from metallicity. The correlations between metallicity and dust mass or total-IR luminosity are direct consequences of the stellar mass-metallicity relation. The dust-to-stellar mass ratios of metal-rich sources follow the well-studied trend of decreasing ratio for decreasing sSFR. The relation is more complex for low-metallicity galaxies with high

  19. UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator and the Metal Content of Star-forming Galaxies at z=5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisst, Andreas; Capak, Peter L.; Davidson, Iary; Kakazu, Yuko; Salvato, Mara; Laigle, Clotilde; Onodera, Masato; Masters, Daniel; COSMOS Team

    2016-01-01

    Probing the metal content of high redshift galaxies is essential to study their formation and evolution in the early universe. However, the spectral features used to measure the metallicity are shifted out of the wavelength range of current spectrographs at high-z and therefore alternative methods must be used.We measure the relation between four prominent UV absorption complexes and metallicity for more than 50 local galaxies and, by using a sample of more than 20 galaxies at z ~ 2 - 3, verify that this relation holds up to z ˜ 3. We then apply this method to a sample of ˜ 220 galaxies at 3.5 < z < 6.0 in COSMOS, for which unique UV spectra from DEIMOS and accurate stellar mass estimates from SPLASH are available. The z ~ 5 galaxies at 9 < log(m/M⊙) < 11 are characterized by 0.3 - 0.4 dex (in units of 12 + log(O/H)) lower metallicities than galaxies at z ˜ 2 but comparable to z ˜ 3 - 3.5 galaxies. In the same stellar mass range, we do not find a significant relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation), suggesting that the MZ relation at z ~ 5 is very shallow or breaking down. Since we verify a correlation between dust obscuration (measured by β) and UV absorption strength (i.e., metallicity), we argue that the process of dust production and metal enrichment in the first billion years of galaxy formation is more stochastic than at later times. Using a "bathtub" model approach, we find that an exponential build up of stellar mass within a short time of several 100 Myr can explain a shallow MZ relation at z ˜ 5. Furthermore, we find a weak anti-correlation between star-formation rates and UV absorption strength (i.e., metallicity), indicative of these galaxies being fueled by the inflow of pristine (metal-poor) gas. The galaxy sample presented in this work is unique to further test these scenarios using ALMA and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. On the Dearth of Ultra-faint Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Filho, M. E.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Skillman, E. D.

    2017-02-01

    Local extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) are of particular astrophysical interest since they allow us to look into physical processes characteristic of the early universe, from the assembly of galaxy disks to the formation of stars in conditions of low metallicity. Given the luminosity-metallicity relationship, all galaxies fainter than Mr ≃ -13 are expected to be XMPs. Therefore, XMPs should be common in galaxy surveys. However, they are not common, because several observational biases hamper their detection. This work compares the number of faint XMPs in the SDSS-DR7 spectroscopic survey with the expected number, given the known biases and the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF). The faint end of the LF is poorly constrained observationally, but it determines the expected number of XMPs. Surprisingly, the number of observed faint XMPs (˜10) is overpredicted by our calculation, unless the upturn in the faint end of the LF is not present in the model. The lack of an upturn can be naturally understood if most XMPs are central galaxies in their low-mass dark matter halos, which are highly depleted in baryons due to interaction with the cosmic ultraviolet background and to other physical processes. Our result also suggests that the upturn toward low luminosity of the observed galaxy LF is due to satellite galaxies.

  1. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  2. A 3D analysis of the metal distribution in the compact group of galaxies HCG 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Flores, Sergio; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Alfaro-Cuello, Mayte; Rodrigo Carrasco, Eleazar; de Mello, Duilia; Amram, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    We present new Gemini/GMOS integral field unit observations of the central region of the merging compact group of galaxies HCG 31. Using this data set, we derive the oxygen abundances for the merging galaxies HCG 31A and HCG 31C. We found a smooth metallicity gradient between the nuclei of these galaxies, suggesting a mixing of metals between these objects. These results are confirmed by high-resolution Fabry-Perot data, from which we infer that gas is flowing between HCG 31A and HCG 31C.

  3. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor galaxy, I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding galaxies in the early universe by providing constraints on the IMF of massive stars, the role of galaxies in reionization of the universe, mixing of newly synthesized material in the ISM, and gamma-ray bursts at low metallicity, and on the earliest generations of stars producing the observed abundance pattern. We describe these constraints as derived from analyses of HST/COS spectra of I Zw 18 including stellar atmosphere analysis and photo-ionization modeling of both the emission and absorption spectra of the nebular material and interstellar medium.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LAMOST metal-poor galaxies sample (Gao+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.-L.; Lian, J.-H.; Kong, X.; Lin, Z.-S.; Hu, N.; Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, E.-C.; Cao, Z.-H.; Hou, Y.-H.; Wang, Y.-F.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Among all galaxies from the LAMOST ExtraGAlactic Surveys (LEGAS), we first select a subsample of metal-poor galaxies with emission line flux ratios [NII]λ6583/Hα<=0.1, which yields 665 galaxies. Among them, we identify 237 objects with [OIII]λ4363 detection at >=3σ. We inspect these 237 objects visually, and find 73 of them are false detections. We also exclude 115 objects that are HI regions in nearby large galaxies using optical images with SDSS SkyServer. Finally, we check the right ascension and declination of the remaining sources, and note that one object was observed twice by LAMOST. We keep the observation that has better spectral quality. As a consequence, our final sample consists of 48 galaxies, making up only 0.05% of all the LAMOST galaxies until DR4 Q2. (1 data file).

  5. A sample of metal-poor galaxies identified from the LAMOST spectral survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu-Long; Lian, Jian-Hui; Kong, Xu; Lin, Ze-Sen; Hu, Ning; Liu, Hai-Yang; Wang, En-Ci; Cao, Zi-Huang; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    We present a sample of 48 metal-poor galaxies at z< 0.14 selected from 92 510 galaxies in the LAMOST survey. These galaxies are identified by their detection of the auroral emission line [{{O}} {\\small{{III}}}]λ 4363 above the 3σ level, which allows a direct measurement of electron temperature and oxygen abundance. The emission line fluxes are corrected for internal dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method. With electron temperature derived from [{{O}} {\\small{{III}}}]λ λ 4959,5007/[{{O}} {\\small{{III}}}]λ 4363 and electron density from [{{S}} {\\small{{II}}}]λ 6731/[{{S}} {\\small{{II}}}]λ 6717, we obtain the oxygen abundances in our sample which range from 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.63(0.09 {Z}⊙ ) to 8.46 (0.6 {Z}⊙ ). We find an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.63+/- 0.01. With multiband photometric data from FUV to NIR and {{H}}α measurements, we also determine the stellar masses and star formation rates, based on the spectral energy distribution fitting and {{H}}α luminosity, respectively. We find that our galaxies have low and intermediate stellar masses with 6.39≤ {log}(M/{M}⊙ )≤ 9.27, and high star formation rates (SFRs) with -2.18≤ {log}({SFR}/{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1)≤ 1.95. We also find that the metallicities of our galaxies are consistent with the local {T}{{e}}-based mass-metallicity relation, while the scatter is about 0.28 dex. Additionally, assuming the coefficient of α =0.66, we find most of our galaxies follow the local mass-metallicity-SFR relation, but a scatter of about 0.24 dex exists, suggesting the mass-metallicity relation is weakly dependent on SFR for those metal-poor galaxies.

  6. The universal stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S.; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gallazzi, Anna

    2013-12-20

    We present spectroscopic metallicities of individual stars in seven gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs), and we show that dIrrs obey the same mass-metallicity relation as the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of both the Milky Way and M31: Z{sub ∗}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.30±0.02}. The uniformity of the relation is in contradiction to previous estimates of metallicity based on photometry. This relationship is roughly continuous with the stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for galaxies as massive as M {sub *} = 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. Although the average metallicities of dwarf galaxies depend only on stellar mass, the shapes of their metallicity distributions depend on galaxy type. The metallicity distributions of dIrrs resemble simple, leaky box chemical evolution models, whereas dSphs require an additional parameter, such as gas accretion, to explain the shapes of their metallicity distributions. Furthermore, the metallicity distributions of the more luminous dSphs have sharp, metal-rich cut-offs that are consistent with the sudden truncation of star formation due to ram pressure stripping.

  7. Secondary metallicity in analytic models of chemical evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Pantelaki, I.

    1986-01-01

    Analytic models of the chemical evolution of galactic regions that grow in mass owing to the continuous infall of matter are characterized, emphasizing the solutions for secondary nuclei (defined as those nuclei whose stellar yields are proportional to the abundance of a primary seed nucleus) in the families of models described by Clayton (1984 and 1985). Wide variations in time dependence of both primary and secondary nuclei as well as in the ratio of secondary to primary are displayed by these model families, confirming again the usefulness of these families as interpretive guides if galaxies do in fact evolve with substantial infall. Additionally, analytic solutions are presented for two other possible interesting systems: the evolution of abundances if the primary metallicity in the infall is increasing in time, and the evolution of abundances if the primary yield changes linearly with time owing to continuous changes in the stellar mass function, the opacity, or other astrophysical agents. Finally, test evaluations of the instantaneous recycling approximation on which these analytic models rely are presented.

  8. Secondary metallicity in analytic models of chemical evolution of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Pantelaki, I.

    1986-08-01

    Analytic models of the chemical evolution of galactic regions that grow in mass owing to the continuous infall of matter are characterized, emphasizing the solutions for secondary nuclei (defined as those nuclei whose stellar yields are proportional to the abundance of a primary seed nucleus) in the families of models described by Clayton (1984 and 1985). Wide variations in time dependence of both primary and secondary nuclei as well as in the ratio of secondary to primary are displayed by these model families, confirming again the usefulness of these families as interpretive guides if galaxies do in fact evolve with substantial infall. Additionally, analytic solutions are presented for two other possible interesting systems: the evolution of abundances if the primary metallicity in the infall is increasing in time, and the evolution of abundances if the primary yield changes linearly with time owing to continuous changes in the stellar mass function, the opacity, or other astrophysical agents. Finally, test evaluations of the instantaneous recycling approximation on which these analytic models rely are presented.

  9. Extremely metal-poor galaxies: The H I content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filho, M. E.; Winkel, B.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Aguerri, J. A.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Gomes, J. M.; Humphrey, A.; Lagos, P.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are chemically, and possibly dynamically, primordial objects in the local Universe. Aims: Our objective is to characterize the H i content of the XMP galaxies as a class, using as a reference the list of 140 known local XMPs compiled by Morales-Luis et al. (2011). Methods: We have observed 29 XMPs, which had not been observed before at 21 cm, using the Effelsberg radio telescope. This information was complemented with H i data published in literature for a further 53 XMPs. In addition, optical data from the literature provided morphologies, stellar masses, star-formation rates and metallicities. Results: Effelsberg H i integrated flux densities are between 1 and 15 Jy km s-1, while line widths are between 20 and 120 km s-1. H i integrated flux densities and line widths from literature are in the range 0.1-200 Jy km s-1 and 15-150 km s-1, respectively. Of the 10 new Effelsberg detections, two sources show an asymmetric double-horn profile, while the remaining sources show either asymmetric (seven sources) or symmetric (one source) single-peak 21 cm line profiles. An asymmetry in the H i line profile is systematically accompanied by an asymmetry in the optical morphology. Typically, the g-band stellar mass-to-light ratios are ~0.1, whereas the H i gas mass-to-light ratios may be up to two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, H i gas-to-stellar mass ratios fall typically between 10 and 20, denoting that XMPs are extremely gas-rich. We find an anti-correlation between the H i gas mass-to-light ratio and the luminosity, whereby fainter XMPs are more gas-rich than brighter XMPs, suggesting that brighter sources have converted a larger fraction of their H i gas into stars. The dynamical masses inferred from the H i line widths imply that the stellar mass does not exceed 5% of the dynamical mass, while the H i mass constitutes between 20 and 60% of the dynamical mass. Furthermore, the dark matter mass fraction spans a wide

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Petropoulou, V.; Vilchez, J.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.

    2012-04-20

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the

  11. Determining the Large-scale Environmental Dependence of Gas-phase Metallicity in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Kelly A.; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [O iii] and [S ii] transitions, provide estimates of a region’s electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [O ii] λ3727, [O iii] λ4363, and [O iii] λλ4959, 5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the direct Te method. We estimate the metallicity of 42 blue, star-forming void dwarf galaxies and 89 blue, star-forming dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as reprocessed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are less prevalent in voids than in the denser regions.

  12. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. IX. CONSTRAINING ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH EVOLUTION WITH OLD METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, Leo; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L.; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Seth, Anil C.

    2010-12-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratios between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. This database provides Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color-magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence, the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models with different prescriptions for the mass loss. This technique allows us to set stringent constraints on the TP-AGB models of low-mass, metal-poor stars (with M < 1.5 M{sub sun}, [Fe/H]{approx}< -1.0). Indeed, those which satisfactorily reproduce the observed AGB/RGB ratios have TP-AGB lifetimes between 1.2 and 1.8 Myr, and finish their nuclear burning lives with masses between 0.51 and 0.55 M{sub sun}. This is also in good agreement with recent observations of white dwarf masses in the M4 old globular cluster. These constraints can be added to those already derived from Magellanic Cloud star clusters as important mileposts in the arduous process of calibrating AGB evolutionary models.

  13. Exploring the Role of Galaxy Morphology in the Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl, Anthony; Rafelski, Marc; Scarlata, Claudia; Pacifici, Camilla; Henry, Alaina L.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Elmegreen, Debra M.

    2017-01-01

    The Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate (M-Z-SFR) fundamental relation reveals the underlying physics behind galaxy evolution: the mechanics of gas inflow, outflow, and the formation of stars are intimately connected. At higher redshift, we observe galaxies which are believed to be more actively accreting from the cosmic web, and as a result bright star-forming clumps are expected to form due to the increased gravitational instability of the galactic medium. We investigate these “clumpy” galaxies in context of their location on the M-Z-SFR plane to search for evidence of metal-poor gas inflows as predicted by theoretical models, and to help us understand how galaxies form and change at a higher redshift (1.3 < z < 2.2). We use the CANDELS survey to examine the morphological structure of star forming regions utilizing the high resolution of space-based HST imaging. We create stamps in their rest-frame UV light to investigate recent star formation and visually classify the morphology of the galaxies. We also utilize stellar population fits of the photometric data to determine properties such as mass and star formation rate. From the grism data of the 3D-HST survey, we select 1861 galaxies based on the strong detection of the [OIII_5007] line, and determine metallicity through the line-diagnostic R_23 using [OIII_5007], [OII_3727] and H_beta. We improve these results through the stacking of spectra to remove a sample bias of requiring strong detections on weak emission lines. Using mass, star formation rate, and metallicity we compare the location of clumpy galaxies on the fundamental plane to investigate possible diminished metallicity and heightened star formation rate compared to the remainder of the sample. This will enable us to better understand the theoretical underpinnings of gas accretion and galaxy evolution at high redshift.

  14. Inferring gas-phase metallicity gradients of galaxies at the seeing limit: a forward modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, David; Brinchmann, Jarle; Shirazi, Maryam; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoît; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Marino, Raffaella A.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Richard, Johan; Patrício, Vera

    2017-06-01

    We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission-line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept, we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing, we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies with sizes approximately equal to the half width at half-maximum of the point spread function. However, we also find that the presence of star-forming clumps can significantly complicate the interpretation of metallicity gradients in moderately resolved high-redshift galaxies. Therefore, we emphasize that care should be taken when comparing nearby well-resolved observations to high-redshift observations of partially resolved galaxies.

  15. Galaxy evolution in cosmological simulations with outflows - II. Metallicities and gas fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.

    2011-09-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows, star formation and outflows govern the gaseous and metal content of galaxies within a hierarchical structure formation context. In our simulations, galaxy metallicities are established by a balance between inflows and outflows as governed by the mass outflow rate, implying that the mass-metallicity relation reflects how the outflow rate varies with stellar mass. Gas content, meanwhile, is set by a competition between inflow into and gas consumption within the interstellar medium, the latter being governed by the star formation law, while the former is impacted by both wind recycling and preventive feedback. Stochastic variations in the inflow rate move galaxies off the equilibrium mass-metallicity and mass-gas fraction relations in a manner correlated with the star formation rate, and the scatter is set by the time-scale to re-equilibrate. The evolution of both relations from z= 3 → 0 is slow, as individual galaxies tend to evolve mostly along the relations. Gas fractions at a given stellar mass slowly decrease with time because the cosmic inflow rate diminishes faster than the consumption rate, while metallicities slowly increase as infalling gas becomes more enriched. Observations from z˜ 3 → 0 are better matched by simulations employing momentum-driven wind scalings rather than constant wind speeds, but all models predict too low gas fractions at low masses and too high metallicities at high masses. All our models reproduce observed second-parameter trends of the mass-metallicity relation with the star formation rate and environment, indicating that these are a consequence of equilibrium and not feedback. Overall, the analytical framework of our equilibrium scenario broadly captures the relevant physics establishing the galaxy gas and metal content in simulations, which suggests that the cycle of baryonic inflows and outflows centrally governs the cosmic evolution of these properties

  16. Constraining Metallicity and Age for Massive Quiescent Galaxies in a Redshift Range of 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Carpenter, Vicente; Papovich, Casey J.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Bridge, Joanna; Dickinson, Mark; Closson Ferguson, Henry; finlator, kristian; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Livermore, Rachael C.; Long, James; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Pirzkal, Norbert; Quadri, Ryan; Salmon, Brett W.; Tilvi, Vithal; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2017-01-01

    Using HST/WFC3 grism spectroscopy from the CANDELS Lyman-alpha Emission at Reionization (CLEAR) survey, we constrain the metallicities and ages of massive quiescent galaxies, at z ~ 1.5. CLEAR provides deep spectroscopy (12 HST orbits per pointing) with the WFC3/G102 grism over the wavelength range ~ 7,500 < λ < 12,000 Å, at a spectral resolution of R ~ 200, within the GOODS-N and GOODS-S Deep regions of CANDELS. These data cover important age and metallicity sensitive spectral features for galaxies at 1 < z < 2, including the redshifted Ca HK lines, 4000 Å break, Balmer-series lines, and Hg+G features. We stack the G102 spectra of a stellar-mass limited sample of 34 quiescent galaxies, with log(M*/M⊙) > 10 and 1 < z < 2, and fit the spectra using two sets of stellar population synthesis models, BC03 (Bruzual & Charlot 2003) and FSPS (Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis, Conroy & Gunn 2010). From these fits, we construct probability distribution functions of age and metallicity for these galaxies, separated into two mass bins, 10 < log(M*/M⊙) < 10.9 and log(M*/M⊙) > 10.9. The model fits favor higher metallicity for the more massive quiescent galaxies, with Z/Z⊙ ~ 1, with some systematics possibly leading from differences in the stellar population models. Therefore, there is no evidence for significant evolution in metallicity for the most massive quiescent galaxies since z ~ 1.5. The model fits to the lower mass quiescent galaxies favor lower metallicites, Z/Z⊙ ~ 0.4, with an offset of ~ 0.3 dex from the present-day relation (e.g., Galazzi et al. 2005). For quiescent galaxies in this mass range, 10.0 < log(M*/M⊙) < 10.9, this requires evolution in metallicity, either as a result of continued chemical enrichment of current galaxies, or the formation of additional quiescent galaxies (presumably quenching of star-forming galaxies at z > 1), or a combination of the two.

  17. Inside-Out or Outside-In? Metallicity Gradients in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the MUSCEL Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    We present the metallicity profiles of three low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies as clues to the formation of these galaxies. This easily overlooked class of galaxy comprises up to half of the galaxy population with masses spanning that of the Milky Way, making them cosmologically significant baryon repositories. LSB galaxies are also very different from the more familiar archetypal galaxies in that they have unusually high gas fractions, up to 95%. Yet, they do not represent a distinct class of galaxy, but are simply on the low surface brightness end of a continuum.We have observed a sample of low surface brightness galaxies with the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph as part of the MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry, and Evolution of LSB galaxies). Our program aims to fully characterize the formation histories of these galaxies by using these data in tandem with Spitzer, Galex, and Swift observations.Optical emission lines contained within the VIRUS-P spectra have allowed us to determined the metallicities of HII regions within these galaxies via emission-line ratio diagnostics. Because ISM metallicities are directly linked to the competing effects of star formation and gas accretion, the distribution of metals is a significant clue to the formation of these galaxies.

  18. Chemical abundances in Virgo cluster spirals - what drives the environmental dependence of galaxy metallicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara; Skillman, Evan; Chung, Aeree

    2009-08-01

    The Virgo cluster is not only our nearest massive cluster, but its dynamical infancy also renders it an ideal laboratory for studies of cluster formation and galaxy evolution. Given the intense interest in Virgo, it is astounding that only 9 out of over 100 spirals in its firmament have chemical abundance measurements. We propose to simultaneously address this gap in our fundamental knowledge of Virgo cluster spirals and investigate how the metallicity and abundance gradients of star forming galaxies are sensitive to environment. Our sample consists of 13 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies, preferentially gas-poor early types, which complement the existing metallicity measurements. We also sample a range of clustercentric distances (0.3 -- 3 Mpc from M87), local densities and include several galaxies which exhibit evidence for interactions with the intra-cluster medium.

  19. Galaxy metallicities depend primarily on stellar mass and molecular gas mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M. S.; Maiolino, R.; Cicone, C.; Peng, Y.; Wagg, J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present an analysis of the behaviour of galaxies in a four-dimensional parameter space defined by stellar mass, metallicity, star formation rate, and molecular gas mass. We analyse a combined sample of 227 galaxies that draws from a number of surveys across the redshift range 0 < z < 2 (>90% of the sample at z 0) and covers >3 decades in stellar mass. Methods: Using principal component analysis, we demonstrate that galaxies in our sample lie on a 2D plane within this 4D parameter space, which is indicative of galaxies that exist in an equilibrium between gas inflow and outflow. Furthermore, we find that the metallicity of galaxies depends only on stellar mass and molecular gas mass. In other words, gas-phase metallicity has a negligible dependence on star formation rate once the correlated effect of molecular gas content is accounted for. Results: The well-known fundamental metallicity relation which describes a close and tight relationship between metallicity and SFR (at fixed stellar mass) is therefore entirely a by-product of the underlying physical relationship with molecular gas mass (through the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation).

  20. The dependence of galaxy group star formation rates and metallicities on large-scale environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2012-07-01

    We construct a sample of 75 863 star-forming galaxies with robust metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, from which we select a clean sample of compact group (CG) galaxies. The CGs are defined to be close configurations of at least four galaxies that are otherwise apparently isolated. Our selection results in a sample of 112 spectroscopically identified CG galaxies, which can be further divided into groups that are either embedded within a larger structure, such as a cluster or large group, or truly isolated systems. The CGs then serve as a probe into the influence of large-scale environment on a galaxy's evolution, while keeping the local density fixed at high values. We find that the SFRs of star-forming galaxies in CGs are significantly different between isolated and embedded systems. Galaxies in isolated systems show significantly enhanced SFR, relative to a control sample matched in mass and redshift, a trend not seen in the embedded systems. Galaxies in isolated systems exhibit a median SFR enhancement at a fixed stellar mass of +0.07 ± 0.03 dex. These dependences on large-scale environment are small in magnitude relative to the apparent influence of local-scale effects found in previous studies, but the significance of the difference in SFRs between our two samples constrains the effect of large-scale environment to be non-zero. We find no significant change in the gas-phase interstellar metallicity for either the isolated or embedded CG sample relative to their controls. However, simulated samples that include artificial offsets indicate that we are only sensitive to metallicity changes of log O/H> 0.13 dex (at 99 per cent confidence), which is considerably larger than the typical metallicity differences seen in previous environmental studies.

  1. MUFASA: Galaxy star formation, gas, and metal properties across cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davé, Romeel; Rafieferantsoa, Mika H.; Thompson, Robert J.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-05-01

    We examine galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), metallicities and gas contents predicted by the Mufasa cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, which employ meshless hydrodynamics and novel feedback prescriptions that yield a good match to observed galaxy stellar mass assembly. We combine 50, 25 and 12.5 h-1 Mpc boxes with a quarter billion particles each to show that Mufasa broadly reproduces a wide range of relevant observations, including SFR and specific SFR functions, the mass-metallicity relation, H i and H2 fractions, H i (21 cm) and CO luminosity functions, and cosmic gas density evolution. There are mild but significant discrepancies, such as perhaps too many high-SFR galaxies, overly metal-rich and H i-poor galaxies at M* ≳ 2 × 1010 M⊙, and specific star formation rates that are too low at z ˜ 1-2. The H i mass function increases by ×2 out to z ˜ 1, then steepens to higher redshifts, while the CO luminosity function computed using the Narayanan et al. conversion factor shows a rapid increase of CO-bright galaxies out to z ˜ 2 in accord with data. Ω _{H I} and ΩH2 both scale roughly as ∝(1 + z)0.7 out to z ˜ 3, comparable to the rise in H i and H2 fractions. Mufasa galaxies with high SFR at a given M* have lower metallicities and higher H i and H2 fractions, following observed trends; we make quantitative predictions for how the fluctuations in the baryon cycle drive correlated scatter around galaxy scaling relations. Most of these trends are well converged with numerical resolution. These successes highlight Mufasa as a viable platform to study many facets of cosmological galaxy evolution.

  2. MUFASA: Galaxy star formation, gas, and metal properties across cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davé, Romeel; Rafieferantsoa, Mika H.; Thompson, Robert J.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    We examine galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), metallicities, and gas contents predicted by the MUFASA cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, which employ meshless hydrodynamics and novel feedback prescriptions that yield a good match to observed galaxy stellar mass assembly. We combine 50, 25, and 12.5h-1Mpc boxes with a quarter billion particles each to show that MUFASA broadly reproduces a wide range of relevant observations, including SFR and specific SFR functions, the mass-metallicity relation, H I and H2 fractions, H I (21 cm) and CO luminosity functions, and cosmic gas density evolution. There are mild but significant discrepancies, such as perhaps too many high-SFR galaxies, overly metal-rich and H I-poor galaxies at M_* ≳ 2× 10^{10} M_⊙, and sSFRs that are too low at z ˜ 1 - 2. The H I mass function increases by × 2 out to z ˜ 1 then steepens to higher redshifts, while the CO luminosity function computed using the Narayanan et al. conversion factor shows a rapid increase of CO-bright galaxies out to z ˜ 2 in accord with data. ΩHI and ΩH2 both scale roughly as ∝(1 + z)0.7 out to z ˜ 3, comparable to the rise in H I and H2 fractions. MUFASA galaxies with high SFR at a given M★ have lower metallicities and higher H I and H2 fractions, following observed trends; we make quantitative predictions for how fluctuations in the baryon cycle drive correlated scatter around galaxy scaling relations. Most of these trends are well converged with numerical resolution. These successes highlight MUFASA as a viable platform to study many facets of cosmological galaxy evolution.

  3. Dense cloud cores revealed by CO in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Monica; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Brinks, Elias; Cortés, Juan R.; Cigan, Phil

    2015-09-01

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations they are molecular, with H2 the dominant species and carbon monoxide (CO) the best available tracer. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared with that of hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies, CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it is difficult for it to accumulate inside dense clouds. Here we report interferometric observations of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM), which has a metallicity that is 13 per cent of the solar value and 50 per cent lower than the previous CO detection threshold. The clouds are tiny compared to the surrounding atomic and H2 envelopes, but they have typical densities and column densities for CO clouds in the Milky Way. The normal CO density explains why star clusters forming in dwarf irregulars have similar densities to star clusters in giant spiral galaxies. The low cloud masses suggest that these clusters will also be low mass, unless some galaxy-scale compression occurs, such as an impact from a cosmic cloud or other galaxy. If the massive metal-poor globular clusters in the halo of the Milky Way formed in dwarf galaxies, as is commonly believed, then they were probably triggered by such an impact.

  4. Dense cloud cores revealed by CO in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Monica; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Hunter, Deidre A; Brinks, Elias; Cortés, Juan R; Cigan, Phil

    2015-09-10

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations they are molecular, with H2 the dominant species and carbon monoxide (CO) the best available tracer. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared with that of hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies, CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it is difficult for it to accumulate inside dense clouds. Here we report interferometric observations of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM), which has a metallicity that is 13 per cent of the solar value and 50 per cent lower than the previous CO detection threshold. The clouds are tiny compared to the surrounding atomic and H2 envelopes, but they have typical densities and column densities for CO clouds in the Milky Way. The normal CO density explains why star clusters forming in dwarf irregulars have similar densities to star clusters in giant spiral galaxies. The low cloud masses suggest that these clusters will also be low mass, unless some galaxy-scale compression occurs, such as an impact from a cosmic cloud or other galaxy. If the massive metal-poor globular clusters in the halo of the Milky Way formed in dwarf galaxies, as is commonly believed, then they were probably triggered by such an impact.

  5. Star formation and metallicity gradients in semi-analytic models of disc galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Huang, Mei-ling; Yates, Robert M.; Moran, Sean; Heckman, Timothy M.; Davé, Romeel; Guo, Qi; Henriques, Bruno M. B.

    2013-09-01

    We have updated our radially resolved semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation, which track both the atomic and molecular gas phases of the interstellar medium. The models are adapted from those of Guo et al. using similar methodology as by Fu et al. and are run on halo merger trees from the Millennium and Millennium-II simulations with the following main changes. (1) We adopt a simple star formation law ΣSFR ∝ ΣH2. (2) We inject the heavy elements produced by supernovae directly into the halo hot gas, instead of first mixing them with the cold gas in the disc. (3) We include radial gas inflows in discs using a model of the form vinflow = αr. The models are used to study the radial profiles of star formation rate and gas-phase metallicity in present-day galaxies. The surface density profiles of molecular gas in L* galaxies place strong constraints on inflow velocities, favouring models where vinflow ˜ 7 km s-1 at a galactocentric radius of 10 kpc. Radial gas inflow has little influence on gas-phase and stellar metallicity gradients, which are affected much more strongly by the fraction of metals that are directly injected into the halo gas, rather than mixed with the cold gas. Metals ejected out of the galaxy in early epochs result in late infall of pre-enriched gas and flatter present-day gas-phase metallicity gradients. A prescription in which 80 per cent of the metals are injected into the halo gas results in good fits to the flat observed metallicity gradients in galaxies with stellar masses greater than 1010 M⊙, as well as the relations between gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate in the outer parts of galactic discs. We examine the correlation between the gas-phase metallicity gradient and global galaxy properties, finding that it is most strongly correlated with the bulge-to-total ratio of the galaxy. This is because gas is consumed when the bulge forms during galaxy mergers, and the gas-phase metallicity gradient is then set

  6. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    SciTech Connect

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert; Evans, Christopher J.; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Carraro, Giovanni E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at E-mail: chris.evans@stfc.ac.uk E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl

    2014-04-20

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T {sub eff} indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  7. Quantitative Spectroscopy of Blue Supergiants in Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxy NGC 3109

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosek, Matthew W., Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Evans, Christopher J.; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Przybilla, Norbert; Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (~4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T eff indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [\\bar{Z}] = -0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([\\bar{Z}] = -0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  8. Leo P: A very low-mass, extremely metal-poor, star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B.; Leo P Team

    2017-01-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy just outside the Local Group with properties that make it an ideal probe of galaxy evolution at the faint-end of the luminosity function. Using combined data from 2 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing campaigns, the Very Large Array, the Spitzer Space telescope, as well as ground based data, we have constructed a robust evolutionary picture of Leo P. Leo P is one the most metal-poor, gas-rich galaxies ever discovered, has a stellar mass of a 5x105 Msun, comparable gas mass, and a single HII region. The star formation history reconstructed from the resolved stellar populations in Leo P shows it is unquenched, despite its very low mass. Based on the star formation history and metallicity measurements, the galaxy has lost 95% of its oxygen produced via nucleosynthesis, presumably to outflows. The neutral gas in the galaxy shows signs of rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. Thus, Leo P bridges the gap between more massive dwarf irregular and less massive dwarf spheroidals on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Furthermore, the galaxy hosts several, extremely dusty AGB candidates which will be probed with new HST and Spitzer observations. If confirmed as AGB stars, these may be our best local proxies for studying chemically unevolved star formation and subsequent dust production in metallicity environments comparable to the early universe.

  9. Metal-line absorption at Zabs approximately Zem from associated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingson, E.; Yee, H. K. C.; Bechtold, Jill; Dobrzycki, Adam

    1994-04-01

    For a preliminary study of whether C IV absorption at Zabs approximately Zem is related to associated galaxy companions, we have collected data from a sample of 10 quasars with 0.15 less than z less than 0.65 for which high-resolution optical and UV spectroscopy is available from the literature, and for which we have deep optical images and limited spectroscopy. We also present new optical spectra for two of our samples. Four of these quasars have associated C IV absorption systems. In thes four fields, there are eight galaxies with Mr less than -19.0 mag within 35 kpc of the quasar (projected distance, assuming they are at the quasar redshift), which may be candidates for the associated C IV absorption. This observed density of galaxies near quasars with associated C IV absorption is significantly greater than that for a control sample of quasars chosen from the literature. This result suggests that galaxies near the quasar line of sight may be linked with associated C IV absorption. None of these quasars show associated Mg II absorption, despite the presence of galaxies very near the line of sight, suggesting a Mg II 'proximity effect,' where ionizing flux from the quasar destroys the Mg(+) from at least the outer parts of the galaxies. Three quasars are located in rich galaxy clusters, but none of these quasars are found to have associated C IV absorption. This suggests that galaxies in rich clusters associated with quasars are less likely to be metal-line absorbers. It is plausible that the extended galaxy halos which may be responsible for the absorptions are stripped from galaxies in these dense environments. While it seems that at Z approximately 0.6 rich clusters do not cause them, associated C IV absorption systems at higher redshift may be explained by associated clusters if there has been evolution in the properties of galaxy halos in dense environments.

  10. Metallicity gradients and newly created star-forming systems in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia L.

    2015-08-01

    Interactions play an extremely important role in the evolution of galaxies, changing their morphologies and kinematics. Galaxy collisions may result in the formation of intergalactic star-forming objects, such as HII regions, young clusters and/or tidal dwarf galaxies. Several studies have found a wealth of newly created objects in interacting systems. We will exemplify the problems and challenges in this field and will describe observations of the interacting group NGC 6845, which contains four bright galaxies, two of which have extended tidal tails. We obtained Gemini/GMOS spectra for 28 of the regions located in the galaxies and in the tails. All regions in the latter are star-forming objects according to their line ratios, with ages younger than 10 Myr. A super luminous star forming complex is found in the brightest member of the group, NGC 6845A. Its luminosity reveals a star formation density of 0.19 solar masses, per year, per kpc^2, suggesting that this object is a localized starburst. We derived the gas-phase metallicity gradients across NGC 6845A and its two tails and we find that these are shallower than those for isolated galaxies. We speculate that the observed metallicity gradient may be related to one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) interaction induced inflow of fresh gas to the galaxy center, as seen in simulations, which is expected to dilute the metallicity of the central burst, (2) the formation of young metal-rich star forming regions in the tidal tails, which were born out of enriched gas expelled from the central regions of the system during the interaction and (3) the incremental growth of metals accumulated over time, due to the successful generations of star forming regions along the tails. Finally we will describe our plans to do a search for such objects on Halpha images that will soon be available for 17.5k degrees of the sky, with the A-PLUS survey.

  11. Using radial metallicity gradients in dwarf galaxies to study environmental processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, R.; Venn, K.; Brooks, A.; Battaglia, G.; Cole, A.; Ibata, R.; Irwin, M.; McConnachie, A.; Mendel, T.; Tolstoy, E.; Starkenburg, E.

    The observed morphology-density relation in the Local Group suggests that some amount of environmental processing has occurred, however the nature and efficiency of tidal and ram pressure stripping is not well constrained. A possible avenue to test these processes is to study the radial distribution of metallicity and angular momentum in dwarf galaxies of different environments. Using spectroscopic abundances in the isolated WLM dwarf irregular galaxy and a sample of other dwarfs from the literature, we identify a correlation such that more rotationally supported dwarf galaxies show typically flatter radial metallicity profiles. In the context of tidally induced transformations of rotating dwarf irregulars into dispersion supported dwarf spheroidals, tidal stripping should preserve an initially flat metallicity profile - therefore this correlation may provide additional evidence that ram pressure is required for environmental transformations in the Local Group.

  12. Low-Metallicity Star Formation: From the First Stars to Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Leslie K.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Raffaella

    2008-12-01

    Preface; SOC and LOC; Participants; Life at the conference; Conference photo; Session I. Population III and Metal-Free Star Formation: 1. Open questions in the study of population III star formation S. C. O. Glover, P. C. Clark, T. H. Greif, J. L. Johnson, V. Bromm, R. S. Klessen and A. Stacy; 2. Protostar formation in the early universe Naoki Yoshida; 3. Population III.1 stars: formation, feedback and evolution of the IMF Jonathan C. Tan; 4. The formation of the first galaxies and the transition to low-mass star formation T. H. Greif, D. R. G. Schleicher, J. L. Johnson, A.-K. Jappsen, R. S. Klessen, P. C. Clark, S. C. O. Glover, A. Stacy and V. Bromm; 5. Low-metallicity star formation: the characteristic mass and upper mass limit Kazuyuki Omukai; 6. Dark stars: dark matter in the first stars leads to a new phase of stellar evolution Katherine Freese, Douglas Spolyar, Anthony Aguirre, Peter Bodenheimer, Paolo Gondolo, J. A. Sellwood and Naoki Yoshida; 7. Effects of dark matter annihilation on the first stars F. Iocco, A. Bressan, E. Ripamonti, R. Schneider, A. Ferrara and P. Marigo; 8. Searching for Pop III stars and galaxies at high redshift Daniel Schaerer; 9. The search for population III stars Sperello di Serego Alighieri, Jaron Kurk, Benedetta Ciardi, Andrea Cimatti, Emanuele Daddi and Andrea Ferrara; 10. Observational search for population III stars in high-redshift galaxies Tohru Nagao; Session II. Metal Enrichment, Chemical Evolution, and Feedback: 11. Cosmic metal enrichment Andrea Ferrara; 12. Insights into the origin of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation Henry Lee, Eric F. Bell and Rachel S. Somerville; 13. LSD and AMAZE: the mass-metallicity relation at z > 3 F. Mannucci and R. Maiolino; 14. Three modes of metal-enriched star formation at high redshift Britton D. Smith, Matthew J. Turk, Steinn Sigurdsson, Brian W. O'Shea and Michael L. Norman; 15. Primordial supernovae and the assembly of the first galaxies Daniel Whalen, Bob Van Veelen, Brian W. O

  13. Observationally Constrained Metal Signatures of Galaxy Evolution in the Stars and Gas of Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlies, Lauren N.

    The halos of galaxies - consisting of gas, stars, and satellite galaxies - are formed and shaped by the most fundamental processes: hierarchical merging and the flow of gas into and out of galaxies. While these processes are hard to disentangle, metals are tied to the gas that fuels star formation and entrained in the wind that the deaths of these stars generate. As such, they can act as important indicators of the star formation, the chemical enrichment, and the outflow histories of galaxies. Thus, this thesis aims to take advantage of such metal signatures in the stars and gas to place observational constraints on current theories of galaxy evolution as implemented in cosmological simulations. The first two chapters consider the metallicities of stars in the stellar halo of the Milky Way and its surviving satellite dwarf galaxies. Chapter 2 pairs an N-body simulation with a semi-analytic model for supernova-driven winds to examine the early environment of a Milky Way-like galaxy. At z = 10, progenitors of surviving z = 0 satellite galaxies are found to sit preferentially on the outskirts of progenitor halos of the eventual main halo. The consequence of these positions is that main halo progenitors are found to more effectively cross-pollute each other than satellite progenitors. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of different progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns measured today. Chapter 3 expands this work into the analysis of a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation of dwarf galaxies in the early universe. We find that simple assumptions for modeling the extent of supernova-driven winds used in Chapter 2 agree well with the simulation whereas the presence of inhomogeneous mixing in the simulation has a large effect on the stellar metallicities. Furthermore, the star-forming halos show both bursty and continuous SFHs, two scenarios proposed by stellar metallicity data

  14. Ultraviolet to near-infrared spectral distributions of star-forming galaxies: Metallicity and age effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral distributions from the UV to the near-IR of a sample of 44 star-forming galaxies are used to calculate the metallicity (O/H), star-formation rate (SFR) and age of the starbursts. The oxygen abundance covers the range 8.3 less than O/H less than 9.4 and nitrogen (N) is found to be mostly a product of secondary nucleosynthesis for O/H greater than 8.4. Due to its secondary origin, N/O ratios up to approximately equals 4 times the solar value can be obtained for metal-rich starbursts. The SFR ranges 0.01 to 100 solar mass/year. The lower metallicity galaxies seem to be experiencing an instantaneous burst of star formation, with ages ranging from under 5 x 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) yr. The highest metallicity galaxies are most probably experiencing a continuous burst. Correlations between the calculated quantities and several spectral features are investigated. We found a highly significant correlation between the equivalent width W(C IV lambda 1550)-a stellar (absorption) feature- and the oxygen abundance of the emitting gas (O/H). Thus we show for the first time that the stellar metallicity is well correlated with the gas metallicity in star-bursting galaxies. The equivalent width W(Si IV lambda 1400) and the emission line ratio (N II) lambda lambda 6548.84/H(sub alpha) also correlate well with O/H, and all three features can be used as metallicity indicators for star-forming galaxies. The continuum color between lambda 1400 and lambda 3500 (C(14 - 35)) is shown to correlate with O/H, although it is better correlated with E(B - V). It was not possible to disentangle the metallicity from the reddening effect in C(14- 35). We estimate that the reddening affecting the UV continuum is about half the one derived from the Balmer decrement of the emitting gas. The SFR correlates well with the galaxy luminosity and there is no dependence of the continuum color on the SFR. The higher metallicities are only found in the more luminous galaxies, while low metallicities are

  15. DUST EXTINCTION AND METALLICITIES OF STAR-FORMING Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Moustakas, John

    2011-06-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic study of 12 GALEX-discovered star-forming Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z {approx} 0.3. We measure the emission-line fluxes from these galaxies by fitting their observed spectra to stellar population models in order to correct for underlying stellar absorption. We revisit earlier stellar population model fitting results, finding that excluding now-known active galactic nuclei lowers the typical stellar population age and stellar mass of this sample to {approx}300 Myr and {approx}4 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, respectively. We calculate their dust extinction using the Balmer decrement, and find a typical visual attenuation of A{sub V} {approx} 0.3 mag, similar to that seen in some high-redshift LAEs. Comparing the ratios of Ly{alpha}/H{alpha} and the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths to the measured dust extinction, we find that the interstellar media (ISMs) in these objects appear to be neither enhancing nor seriously attenuating the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, as would be the case in a quasi-clumpy ISM. Lastly, we perform a detailed analysis of the gas-phase metallicities of these galaxies, and we find that most galaxies in our sample have Z {approx}< 0.4 Z{sub sun}. We find that at a fixed stellar mass, these low-redshift LAE analogs are offset by {approx}0.3-0.6 dex lower metallicity from the general galaxy population at similar redshifts based on the local mass-metallicity relationship. This implies that galaxies with Ly{alpha} in emission may be systematically more metal-poor than star-forming galaxies at the same stellar mass and redshift, similar to preliminary results at z {approx} 2.

  16. THE WHIQII SURVEY: METALLICITIES AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF LUMINOUS COMPACT BLUE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff; Van Zee, Liese

    2010-01-10

    As part of the WIYN High Image Quality Indiana-Irvine (WHIQII) survey, we present 123 spectra of faint emission-line galaxies, selected to focus on intermediate redshift (0.4 approx< z approx< 0.8) galaxies with blue colors that appear physically compact on the sky. The sample includes 15 true Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) and an additional 27 slightly less extreme emission-line systems. These galaxies represent a highly evolving class that may play an important role in the decline of star formation since z approx 1, but their exact nature and evolutionary pathways remain a mystery. Here, we use emission lines to determine metallicities and ionization parameters, constraining their intrinsic properties and state of star formation. Some LCBG metallicities are consistent with a 'bursting dwarf' scenario, while a substantial fraction of others are not, further confirming that LCBGs are a highly heterogeneous population but are broadly consistent with the intermediate redshift field. In agreement with previous studies, we observe overall evolution in the luminosity-metallicity relation at intermediate redshift. Our sample, and particularly the LCBGs, occupies a region in the empirical R{sub 23}-O{sub 32} plane that differs from luminous local galaxies and is more consistent with dwarf irregulars at the present epoch, suggesting that cosmic 'downsizing' is observable in even the most fundamental parameters that describe star formation. These properties for our sample are also generally consistent with lying between local galaxies and those at high redshift, as expected by this scenario. Surprisingly, our sample exhibits no detectable correlation between compactness and metallicity, strongly suggesting that at these epochs of rapid star formation, the morphology of compact star-forming galaxies is largely transient.

  17. On the Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate Relation for Galaxies at z˜2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Samir; Lee, Janice C.; Davé, Romeel; Dickinson, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that the local mass-metallicity (M*-Z) relation depends on the specific star formation rate (sSFR). Whether such a dependence exists at higher redshifts, and whether the resulting M*-Z-SFR relation is redshift invariant, is debated. We re-examine these issues by applying the non-parametric techniques of Salim et al. to ˜130 z˜ 2.3 galaxies with N2 and O3 measurements from Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS). We find that the KBSS M*-Z relation depends on sSFR at intermediate masses where such dependence exists locally. KBSS and SDSS galaxies of the same mass and sSFR (“local analogs”) are similarly offset in the BPT diagram relative to the bulk of local star-forming galaxies, and thus we posit that metallicities can be compared self-consistently at different redshifts as long as the masses and sSFRs of the galaxies are similar. We find that the M*-Z-SFR relation of z˜ 2 galaxies is consistent with the local one at {log}{M}*\\lt 10, but is offset up to -0.25 dex at higher masses, so it is altogether not redshift invariant. This high-mass offset could arise from a bias that [O iii]-based, high-redshift spectroscopic surveys have against high-metallicity galaxies, but additional evidence disfavors this possibility. We identify three causes for the reported discrepancy between N2 and O3N2 metallicities at z˜ 2: (1) a smaller offset that is also present for SDSS galaxies, which we remove with new N2 calibration, (2) a genuine offset due to differing ISM condition, which is also present in local analogs, and (3) an additional offset due to unrecognized active galactic nucleus contamination.

  18. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan; Barmby, Pauline; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Lagadec, Eric; Lennon, Daniel; Marengo, Massimo; McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, G. C.; Van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  19. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106-107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  20. What shapes stellar metallicity gradients of massive galaxies at large radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar metallicity gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing sets of high-resolution, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic, stellar-driven winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity gradients in agreement with observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations. Moreover, we discuss the impact of additional AGN feedback. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (e.g. MaNGA, CALIFA).

  1. Prolate rotation and metallicity gradient in the transforming dwarf galaxy Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacharov, Nikolay; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Rejkuba, Marina; Cole, Andrew A.; Carrera, Ricardo; Fraternali, Filippo; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Gallart, Carme G.; Irwin, Mike; Tolstoy, Eline

    2017-04-01

    Transition type dwarf galaxies are thought to be systems undergoing the process of transformation from a star-forming into a passively evolving dwarf, which makes them particularly suitable to study evolutionary processes driving the existence of different dwarf morphological types. Here we present results from a spectroscopic survey of ∼200 individual red giant branch stars in the Phoenix dwarf, the closest transition type with a comparable luminosity to 'classical' dwarf galaxies. We measure a systemic heliocentric velocity Vhelio = -21.2 ± 1.0 km s-1. Our survey reveals the clear presence of prolate rotation that is aligned with the peculiar spatial distribution of the youngest stars in Phoenix. We speculate that both features might have arisen from the same event, possibly an accretion of a smaller system. The evolved stellar population of Phoenix is relatively metal-poor (<[Fe/H] > = -1.49 ± 0.04 dex) and shows a large metallicity spread (σ[Fe/H] = 0.51 ± 0.04 dex), with a pronounced metallicity gradient of -0.13 ± 0.01 dex arcmin-1 similar to luminous, passive dwarf galaxies. We also report a discovery of an extremely metal-poor star candidate in Phoenix and discuss the importance of correcting for spatial sampling when interpreting the chemical properties of galaxies with metallicity gradients. This study presents a major leap forward in our knowledge of the internal kinematics of the Phoenix transition type dwarf galaxy and the first wide area spectroscopic survey of its metallicity properties. A table containing the measured velocities, metallicities, and CaT equivalent widths of all spectroscopic targets is available online at the CDS.

  2. LEO P: HOW MANY METALS CAN A VERY LOW MASS, ISOLATED GALAXY RETAIN?

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M.; Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Berg, Danielle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-12-20

    Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with an extremely low gas-phase oxygen abundance (3% solar). The isolated nature of Leo P enables a quantitative measurement of metals lost solely due to star formation feedback. We present an inventory of the oxygen atoms in Leo P based on the gas-phase oxygen abundance measurement, the star formation history (SFH), and the chemical enrichment evolution derived from resolved stellar populations. The SFH also provides the total amount of oxygen produced. Overall, Leo P has retained 5% of its oxygen; 25% of the retained oxygen is in the stars while 75% is in the gas phase. This is considerably lower than the 20%–25% calculated for massive galaxies, supporting the trend for less efficient metal retention for lower-mass galaxies. The retention fraction is higher than that calculated for other alpha elements (Mg, Si, Ca) in dSph Milky Way satellites of similar stellar mass and metallicity. Accounting only for the oxygen retained in stars, our results are consistent with those derived for the alpha elements in dSph galaxies. Thus, under the assumption that the dSph galaxies lost the bulk of their gas mass through an environmental process such as tidal stripping, the estimates of retained metal fractions represent underestimates by roughly a factor of four. Because of its isolation, Leo P provides an important datum for the fraction of metals lost as a function of galaxy mass due to star formation.

  3. Leo P: How Many Metals Can a Very Low Mass, Isolated Galaxy Retain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M.; Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Berg, Danielle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-12-01

    Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with an extremely low gas-phase oxygen abundance (3% solar). The isolated nature of Leo P enables a quantitative measurement of metals lost solely due to star formation feedback. We present an inventory of the oxygen atoms in Leo P based on the gas-phase oxygen abundance measurement, the star formation history (SFH), and the chemical enrichment evolution derived from resolved stellar populations. The SFH also provides the total amount of oxygen produced. Overall, Leo P has retained 5% of its oxygen; 25% of the retained oxygen is in the stars while 75% is in the gas phase. This is considerably lower than the 20%-25% calculated for massive galaxies, supporting the trend for less efficient metal retention for lower-mass galaxies. The retention fraction is higher than that calculated for other alpha elements (Mg, Si, Ca) in dSph Milky Way satellites of similar stellar mass and metallicity. Accounting only for the oxygen retained in stars, our results are consistent with those derived for the alpha elements in dSph galaxies. Thus, under the assumption that the dSph galaxies lost the bulk of their gas mass through an environmental process such as tidal stripping, the estimates of retained metal fractions represent underestimates by roughly a factor of four. Because of its isolation, Leo P provides an important datum for the fraction of metals lost as a function of galaxy mass due to star formation. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  4. GRAPE-SPH chemodynamical simulation of elliptical galaxies - I. Evolution of metallicity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2004-01-01

    We simulate the formation and chemodynamical evolution of 124 elliptical galaxies using a GRAPE-SPH code that includes various physical processes that are associated with the formation of stellar systems: radiative cooling, star formation, feedback from Type II and Ia supernovae and stellar winds, and chemical enrichment. In our cold dark matter (CDM)-based scenario, galaxies form through the successive merging of subgalaxies with various masses. Their merging histories vary between a major merger at one extreme and a monolithic collapse of a slow-rotating gas cloud at the other extreme. We examine the physical conditions during 151 merging events that occur in our simulation. The basic processes driving the evolution of the metallicity gradients are as follows: (i) destruction by mergers to an extent dependent on the progenitor mass ratio; (ii) regeneration when strong central star formation is induced at a rate dependent on the gas mass of the secondary; and (iii) slow evolution as star formation is induced in the outer regions through late gas accretion. We succeed in reproducing the observed variety of the radial metallicity gradients. The average metallicity gradient Δlog Z/Δlog r~=- 0.3 with dispersion of +/- 0.2 and no correlation between gradient and galaxy mass are consistent with observations of Mg2 gradients. The variety of the gradients stems from the difference in the merging histories. Galaxies that form monolithically have steeper gradients, while galaxies that undergo major mergers have shallower gradients. Thus merging histories can, in principle, be inferred from the observed metallicity gradients of present-day galaxies. The observed variation in the metallicity gradients cannot be explained either by monolithic collapse or by major merger alone. Rather it requires a model in which both formation processes arise, such as the present CDM scheme.

  5. IC 1795

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-16

    This image from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, is a view within the constellation Cassiopeia of another portion of the vast star forming complex that makes up part of the Perseus spiral arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.

  6. High Resolution Studies Of Lensed z ∼ 2 Galaxies: Kinematics And Metal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leethochawalit, Nicha

    2016-09-01

    We use the OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectograph to secure spatially-resolved strong emission lines of 15 gravitationally-lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift z ∼ 2. With the aid of gravitational lensing and Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics, the spatial resolution of these sub-luminous galaxies is at a few hundred parsecs. First, we demonstrate that high spatial resolution is crucial in diagnosing the kinematic properties and dynamical maturity of z ∼ 2 galaxies. We observe a significantly lower fraction of rotationally-supported systems than what has been claimed in lower spatial resolution surveys. Second, we find a much larger fraction of z ∼ 2 galaxies with weak metallicity gradients, contrary to the simple picture suggested by earlier studies that well-ordered rotation develops concurrently with established steep metal gradients in all but merging systems. Comparing our observations with the predictions of hydronamical simulations, strong feedback is likely to play a key role in flattening metal gradients in early star-forming galaxies.

  7. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor.

    PubMed

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D

    2010-03-04

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical.

  8. Evolution of Intermediate Redshift Galaxies Physical Properties and Mass-Metallicity Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lifang

    The first part of this dissertation presents the implementation of Bayesian statistics with galaxy surface luminosity (SL) prior probabilities to improve the accuracy of photometric redshifts. The addition of the SL prior probability helps break the degeneracy of spectro-photometric redshifts (SPZs) between low redshift 4000 A break galaxies and high redshift Lyman break galaxies which are mostly catastrophic outliers. For a sample of 1138 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the GOODS North and South fields at z < 1.6, the application of the surface luminosity prior reduces the fraction of galaxies with redshift deviation sigma(z) > 0.2 from 15.0% to 10.4%. The second part of this dissertation presents the study of the chemical evolution of the star-forming galaxies. The Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism Survey effectively selects emission line galaxies (ELGs) to m AB ˜ 27. Follow-up Magellan LDSS3+IMACS spectroscopy of the HST/ACS PEARS ELGs confirms an accuracy of sigma_z = 0.006 for the HST/ACS PEARS grism redshifts. The luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relation and the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation of the PEARS ELGs at z ˜ 0.6 are offset by ˜ - 0.8 dex in metallicity for a given rest-frame B absolute magnitude and stellar mass relative to the local relations from SDSS galaxies. The offsets in both relations are ˜ - 0.4 dex larger than that given by other samples at same redshifts, which are demonstrated to be due to the selection of different physical properties of the PEARS ELGs: low metallicities, very blue colors, small sizes, compact disturbed morphologies, high SSFR > 10-9 yr-1, and high gas fraction. The downsizing effect, the tidal interacting induced inflow of metal-poor gas, and the SNe driven galactic winds outflows, may account for the significant offset of the PEARS galaxies in the L-Z and the M-Z relations relative to the local relations. The detection of the emission lines of ELGs down

  9. The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey. I. Properties of the low-metallicity ISM from PACS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, D.; Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V.; Abel, N.; Hony, S.; Galliano, F.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Bigiel, F.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Chevance, M.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; Doublier, V.; Galametz, M.; Hughes, T.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Lee, M.-Y.; Lu, N.; Spinoglio, L.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The far-infrared (FIR) lines are important tracers of the cooling and physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) and are rapidly becoming workhorse diagnostics for galaxies throughout the universe. There are clear indications of a different behavior of these lines at low metallicity that needs to be explored. Aims: Our goal is to explain the main differences and trends observed in the FIR line emission of dwarf galaxies compared to more metal-rich galaxies, and how this translates in ISM properties. Methods: We present Herschel/PACS spectroscopic observations of the [C ii] 157 μm, [O i] 63 and 145 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, [N ii] 122 and 205 μm, and [N iii] 57 μm fine-structure cooling lines in a sample of 48 low-metallicity star-forming galaxies of the guaranteed time key program Dwarf Galaxy Survey. We correlate PACS line ratios and line-to-LTIR ratios with LTIR, LTIR/LB, metallicity, and FIR color, and interpret the observed trends in terms of ISM conditions and phase filling factors with Cloudy radiative transfer models. Results: We find that the FIR lines together account for up to 3 percent of LTIR and that star-forming regions dominate the overall emission in dwarf galaxies. Compared to metal-rich galaxies, the ratios of [O iii]88/[N ii]122 and [N iii]57/[N ii]122 are high, indicative of hard radiation fields. In the photodissociation region (PDR), the [C ii]157/[O i]63 ratio is slightly higher than in metal-rich galaxies, with a small increase with metallicity, and the [O i]145/[O i]63 ratio is generally lower than 0.1, demonstrating that optical depth effects should be small on the scales probed. The [O iii]88/[O i]63 ratio can be used as an indicator of the ionized gas/PDR filling factor, and is found to be ~4 times higher in the dwarfs than in metal-rich galaxies. The high [C ii]/LTIR, [O i]/LTIR, and [O iii]/LTIR ratios, which decrease with increasing LTIR and LTIR/LB, are interpreted as a combination of moderate far-UV fields and a low

  10. The stellar metallicity gradients in galaxy discs in a cosmological scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, Patricia B.; Machado, Rubens E. G.; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Snaith, Owain; Vilchez, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Context. The stellar metallicity gradients of disc galaxies provide information on disc assembly, star formation processes, and chemical evolution. They also might store information on dynamical processes that could affect the distribution of chemical elements in the gas phase and the stellar components. Understanding their joint effects within a hierarchical clustering scenario is of paramount importance. Aims: We studied the stellar metallicity gradients of simulated discs in a cosmological simulation. We explored the dependence of the stellar metallicity gradients on stellar age and on the size and mass of the stellar discs. Methods: We used a catalogue of galaxies with disc components selected from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation performed including a physically motivated supernova feedback and chemical evolution. Disc components were defined based on angular momentum and binding energy criteria. The metallicity profiles were estimated for stars with different ages. We confront our numerical findings with results from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) Survey. Results: The simulated stellar discs are found to have metallicity profiles with slopes in global agreement with observations. Low stellar mass galaxies tend to have a larger variety of metallicity slopes. When normalized by the half-mass radius, the stellar metallicity gradients do not show any dependence and the dispersion increases significantly, regardless of the galaxy mass. Galaxies with stellar masses o f around 1010M⊙ show steeper negative metallicity gradients. The stellar metallicity gradients correlate with the half-mass radius. However, the correlation signal is not present when they are normalized by the half-mass radius. Stellar discs with positive age gradients are detected to have negative and positive metallicity gradients, depending on the relative importance of recent star formation activity in the central regions. Conclusions: Our results suggest that inside

  11. Galaxy assembly, stellar feedback and metal enrichment: the view from the GAEA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; De Lucia, Gabriella; Fontanot, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    One major problem of current theoretical models of galaxy formation is given by their inability to reproduce the apparently `anti-hierarchical' evolution of galaxy assembly: massive galaxies appear to be in place since z ˜ 3, while a significant increase of the number densities of low-mass galaxies is measured with decreasing redshift. In this work, we perform a systematic analysis of the influence of different stellar feedback schemes, carried out in the framework of GAEA, a new semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. It includes a self-consistent treatment for the timings of gas, metal and energy recycling, and for the chemical yields. We show this to be crucial to use observational measurements of the metallicity as independent and powerful constraints for the adopted feedback schemes. The observed trends can be reproduced in the framework of either a strong ejective or preventive feedback model. In the former case, the gas ejection rate must decrease significantly with cosmic time (as suggested by parametrizations of the cosmological `FIRE' simulations). Irrespective of the feedback scheme used, our successful models always imply that up to 60-70 per cent of the baryons reside in an `ejected' reservoir and are unavailable for cooling at high redshift. The same schemes predict physical properties of model galaxies (e.g. gas content, colour, age, and metallicity) that are in much better agreement with observational data than our fiducial model. The overall fraction of passive galaxies is found to be primarily determined by internal physical processes, with environment playing a secondary role.

  12. A CANDIDATE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE LOW-METALLICITY DWARF GALAXY PAIR MRK 709

    SciTech Connect

    Reines, Amy E.; Condon, James J.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Russell, Thomas D.; Mezcua, Mar; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.

    2014-06-01

    The incidence and properties of present-day dwarf galaxies hosting massive black holes (BHs) can provide important constraints on the origin of high-redshift BH seeds. Here we present high-resolution X-ray and radio observations of the low-metallicity, star-forming, dwarf-galaxy system Mrk 709 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These data reveal spatially coincident hard X-ray and radio point sources with luminosities suggesting the presence of an accreting massive BH (M {sub BH} ∼ 10{sup 5-7} M {sub ☉}). Based on imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that Mrk 709 consists of a pair of compact dwarf galaxies that appear to be interacting with one another. The position of the candidate massive BH is consistent with the optical center of the southern galaxy (Mrk 709 S), while no evidence for an active BH is seen in the northern galaxy (Mrk 709 N). We derive stellar masses of M {sub *} ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and M {sub *} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} for Mrk 709 S and Mrk 709 N, respectively, and present an analysis of the SDSS spectrum of the BH host Mrk 709 S. At a metallicity of just ∼10% solar, Mrk 709 is among the most metal-poor galaxies with evidence for an active galactic nucleus. Moreover, this discovery adds to the growing body of evidence that massive BHs can form in dwarf galaxies and that deep, high-resolution X-ray and radio observations are ideally suited to reveal accreting massive BHs hidden at optical wavelengths.

  13. SDSS IV MaNGA - metallicity and nitrogen abundance gradients in local galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Francesco; Maiolino, Roberto; Tremonti, Christy; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Lin, Lihwai; Drory, Niv; Boquien, Médéric; Thomas, Daniel; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We study the gas phase metallicity (O/H) and nitrogen abundance gradients traced by star-forming regions in a representative sample of 550 nearby galaxies in the stellar mass range 109-1011.5 M⊙ with resolved spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory survey. Using strong-line ratio diagnostics (R23 and O3N2 for metallicity and N2O2 for N/O) and referencing to the effective (half-light) radius (Re), we find that the metallicity gradient steepens with stellar mass, lying roughly flat among galaxies with log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.0 but exhibiting slopes as steep as -0.14 dex R_e^{-1} at log (M⋆/M⊙) = 10.5 (using R23, but equivalent results are obtained using O3N2). At higher masses, these slopes remain typical in the outer regions of our sample (R > 1.5Re), but a flattening is observed in the central regions (R < 1Re). In the outer regions (R > 2.0Re), we detect a mild flattening of the metallicity gradient in stacked profiles, although with low significance. The N/O ratio gradient provides complementary constraints on the average chemical enrichment history. Unlike the oxygen abundance, the average N/O profiles do not flatten out in the central regions of massive galaxies. The metallicity and N/O profiles both depart significantly from an exponential form, suggesting a disconnect between chemical enrichment and stellar mass surface density on local scales. In the context of inside-out growth of discs, our findings suggest that central regions of massive galaxies today have evolved to an equilibrium metallicity, while the nitrogen abundance continues to increase as a consequence of delayed secondary nucleosynthetic production.

  14. The beautiful side of IC 335

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-22

    This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the galaxy IC 335 in front of a backdrop of distant galaxies. IC 335 is part of a galaxy group containing three other galaxies, and located in the Fornax Galaxy Cluster 60 million light-years away. As seen in this image, the disc of IC 335 appears edge-on from the vantage point of Earth. This makes it harder for astronomers to classify it, as most of the characteristics of a galaxy’s morphology — the arms of a spiral or the bar across the centre — are only visible on its face. Still, the 45 000 light-year-long galaxy could be classified as an S0 type. These lenticular galaxies are an intermediate state in galaxy morphological classification schemes between true spiral and elliptical galaxies. They have a thin stellar disc and a bulge, like spiral galaxies, but in contrast to typical spiral galaxies they have used up most of the interstellar medium. Only a few new stars can be created out of the material that is left and the star formation rate is very low. Hence, the population of stars in S0 galaxies consists mainly of aging stars, very similar to the star population in elliptical galaxies. As S0 galaxies have only ill-defined spiral arms they are easily mistaken for elliptical galaxies if they are seen inclined face-on or edge-on as IC 335 here. And indeed, despite the morphological differences between S0 and elliptical class galaxies, they share a some common characteristics, like typical sizes and spectral features. Both classes are also early-type galaxies, as they are evolving passively. However, elliptical galaxies may be passively evolving when we observe them, but they had violent interactions with other galaxies in their past. Whereas S0 galaxies are either aging and fading spiral galaxies, which never had any interactions with other galaxies, or they are the aging result of a single merger between two spiral galaxies in the past. The exact nature of these galaxies is still a matter of debate

  15. The Metallicity Evolution of Low Mass Galaxies: New Contraints at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian; Dressler, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We present abundance measurements from 26 emission-line-selected galaxies at z approx. 0.6-0.7. By reaching stellar masses as low as 10(exp 8) M stellar mass, these observations provide the first measurement of the intermediate-redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation below 10(exp 9)M stellar mass. For the portion of our sample above M is greater than 10(exp 9)M (8/26 galaxies), we find good agreement with previous measurements of the intermediate-redshift MZ relation. Compared to the local relation, we measure an evolution that corresponds to a 0.12 dex decrease in oxygen abundances at intermediate redshifts. This result confirms the trend that metallicity evolution becomes more significant toward lower stellar masses, in keeping with a downsizing scenario where low-mass galaxies evolve onto the local MZ relation at later cosmic times. We show that these galaxies follow the local fundamental metallicity relation, where objects with higher specific (mass-normalized) star formation rates (SFRs) have lower metallicities. Furthermore, we show that the galaxies in our sample lie on an extrapolation of the SFR-M* relation (the star-forming main sequence). Leveraging the MZ relation and star-forming main sequence (and combining our data with higher-mass measurements from the literature), we test models that assume an equilibrium between mass inflow, outflow, and star formation.We find that outflows are required to describe the data. By comparing different outflow prescriptions, we show that momentum, driven winds can describe the MZ relation; however, this model underpredicts the amount of star formation in low-mass galaxies. This disagreement may indicate that preventive feedback from gas heating has been overestimated, or it may signify a more fundamental deviation from the equilibrium assumption.

  16. Fundamental metallicity relation at z>3: Are galaxies gas-regulated systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Masato

    2014-01-01

    This proposal is a resubmission of an accepted proposal S13B-088 in which we got no data due to bad weather. Star-forming galaxies in the local Universe are known to lie on a tight surface in the stellar mass (M_*)-star formation rate (SFR)-metallicity (Z) space, with a strikingly small scatter of 0.05 dex. Studies of the Z(M_*,SFR) have suggested it may be constant to z~2.5 even as the SFR at given mass increases by a factor of twenty --- leading to the idea of a "fundamental metallicity relation'' (FMR). There is some observational evidence for a change in behavior at z>3. Theoretically, a simple model of star-formation in galaxies naturally reproduces the form and constancy of the FMR. However, this gas-regulated system may break down at very high redshifts because of the convergence of a number of timescales. Here we propose a Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy for ~50 galaxies at 3metallicities in order to study the Z(M*,SFR) relation at z>3 across a wide range of M_* and SFR yet being explored. Using metallicities and SFRs from the emission lines, and M_* from SED fitting, we will investigate the existence and form of Z(M_*,SFR) at z>3 in detail and thereby gain new insights into the flow of gas into and out of galaxies at high redshifts.

  17. The metallicity and dust content of a redshift 5 gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sparre, M.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Watson, D. J.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Hartoog, O. E.; Kaper, L.; Wiersema, K.; D'Elia, V.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Covino, S.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Jakobsson, P.; Klose, S.; Levan, A. J.; and others

    2014-04-20

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A, from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and extinction of the GRB host galaxy at z = 5.0. The host absorption system is a damped Lyα absorber with a very large neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H I)/cm{sup −2}=22.30±0.06 and a metallicity of [S/H] = –1.70 ± 0.10. It is the highest-redshift GRB with such a precise metallicity measurement. The presence of fine-structure lines confirms the z = 5.0 system as the GRB host galaxy and makes this the highest redshift where Fe II fine-structure lines have been detected. The afterglow is mildly reddened with A{sub V} = 0.11 ± 0.04 mag, and the host galaxy has a DTM that is consistent with being equal to or lower than typical values in the Local Group.

  18. Why do disk galaxies present a common gas-phase metallicity gradient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, R.; Zhang, Shuhui; Shen, Shiyin; Yin, Jun; Hou, Jinliang

    2017-03-01

    CALIFA data show that isolated disk galaxies present a common gas-phase metallicity gradient, with a characteristic slope of -0.1dex/re between 0.3 and 2 disk effective radius re (Sanchez et al. 2014). Here we construct a simple model to investigate which processes regulate the formation and evolution.

  19. The distribution of star formation and metals in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. E.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon X.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Programme (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with more metal-rich regions near the edges of the galactic disc. Based on the emission-line diagnostics alone, the current mode of star formation, slow and concentrated in the outer disc, appears to have dominated for quite some time, although there are clear signs of a much older stellar population formed in a more standard inside-out fashion.

  20. THE METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES FROM THE INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT TO THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Jianhui; Hu, Ning; Ye, Chengyun; Kong, Xu; Fang, Guanwen E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-03-01

    We present oxygen abundance measurements for 74 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the redshift range of [0.2, 0.5] using the strong-line method. The spectra of these objects are taken using Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. More than half of these BCDs had dust attenuation corrected using the Balmer decrement method. For comparison, we also selected a sample of 2023 local BCDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. Based on the local and intermediate-z BCD samples, we investigated the cosmic evolution of the metallicity, star formation rate (SFR), and D{sub n}(4000) index. Compared with local BCDs, the intermediate-z BCDs had a systematically higher R23 ratio but a similar O32 ratio. Interestingly, no significant deviation in the mass–metallicity (MZ) relation was found between the intermediate-z and local BCDs. Besides the metallicity, the intermediate-z BCDs also exhibited an SFR distribution that was consistent with local BCDs, suggesting a weak dependence on redshift. The intermediate-z BCDs seemed to be younger than the local BCDs with lower D{sub n}(4000) index values. The insignificant deviation in the mass–metallicity and mass–SFR relations between intermediate-z and local BCDs indicates that the relations between the global parameters of low-mass compact galaxies may be universal. These results from low-mass compact galaxies could be used to place important observational constraints on galaxy formation and evolution models.

  1. Carbon monoxide in clouds at low metallicity in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM.

    PubMed

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Rubio, Monica; Hunter, Deidre A; Verdugo, Celia; Brinks, Elias; Schruba, Andreas

    2013-03-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the primary tracer for interstellar clouds where stars form, but it has never been detected in galaxies in which the oxygen abundance relative to hydrogen is less than 20 per cent of that of the Sun, even though such 'low-metallicity' galaxies often form stars. This raises the question of whether stars can form in dense gas without molecules, cooling to the required near-zero temperatures by atomic transitions and dust radiation rather than by molecular line emission; and it highlights uncertainties about star formation in the early Universe, when the metallicity was generally low. Here we report the detection of CO in two regions of a local dwarf irregular galaxy, WLM, where the metallicity is 13 per cent of the solar value. We use new submillimetre observations and archival far-infrared observations to estimate the cloud masses, which are both slightly greater than 100,000 solar masses. The clouds have produced stars at a rate per molecule equal to 10 per cent of that in the local Orion nebula cloud. The CO fraction of the molecular gas is also low, about 3 per cent of the Milky Way value. These results suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and CO molecules become increasingly rare in molecular hydrogen clouds as the metallicity decreases.

  2. LONG GRBs ARE METALLICITY-BIASED TRACERS OF STAR FORMATION: EVIDENCE FROM HOST GALAXIES AND REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G. E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and the redshift distribution of long GRBs by considering that long GRBs occur in low-metallicity environments. We calculate the upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy which can produce long GRBs by utilizing the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation of galaxies. After comparing with the observed GRB host galaxies masses, we find that the observed GRB host galaxy masses can fit the predicted masses well if GRBs occur in low-metallicity 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7. GRB host galaxies have low metallicity, low mass, and high star formation rate compared with galaxies of seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also study the cumulative redshift distribution of the latest Swift long GRBs by adding dark GRBs and 10 new GRBs redshifts from the TOUGH survey. The observed discrepancy between the GRB rate and the star formation history can be reconciled by considering that GRBs tend to occur in low-metallicity galaxies with 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7. We conclude that the metallicity cutoff that can produce long GRBs is about 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7 from the host mass distribution and redshift distribution.

  3. The growth of discs and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation - II. Metallicity, stellar populations and dynamical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, C.; Mutch, S. J.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Croton, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the properties of the stellar populations of model galaxies as a function of galaxy evolutionary history and angular momentum content. We use the new semi-analytic model presented in Tonini et al. This new model follows the angular momentum evolution of gas and stars, providing the base for a new star formation recipe, and treatment of the effects of mergers that depends on the central galaxy dynamical structure. We find that the new recipes have the effect of boosting the efficiency of the baryonic cycle in producing and recycling metals, as well as preventing minor mergers from diluting the metallicity of bulges and ellipticals. The model reproduces the stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for galaxies above 1010 solar masses, including Brightest Cluster Galaxies. Model discs, galaxies dominated by instability-driven components, and merger-driven objects each stem from different evolutionary channels. These model galaxies therefore occupy different loci in the galaxy mass-size relation, which we find to be in accord with the ATLAS 3D classification of disc galaxies, fast rotators and slow rotators. We find that the stellar populations' properties depend on the galaxy evolutionary type, with more evolved stellar populations being part of systems that have lost or dissipated more angular momentum during their assembly history.

  4. Far-infrared metallicity diagnostics: application to local ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, M.; Rigopoulou, D.; Farrah, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Li, J.

    2017-09-01

    The abundance of metals in galaxies is a key parameter that permits to distinguish between different galaxy formation and evolution models. Most of the metallicity determinations are based on optical line ratios. However, the optical spectral range is subject to dust extinction and, for high-z objects (z > 3), some of the lines used in optical metallicity diagnostics are shifted to wavelengths not accessible to ground-based observatories. For this reason, we explore metallicity diagnostics using far-infrared (far-IR) line ratios which can provide a suitable alternative in such situations. To investigate these far-IR line ratios, we modelled the emission of a starburst with the photoionization code cloudy. The most sensitive far-IR ratios to measure metallicities are the [O iii]52 μm and 88 μm to [N iii]57 μm ratios. We show that this ratio produces robust metallicities in the presence of an active galactic nucleus and is insensitive to changes in the age of the ionizing stellar. Another metallicity-sensitive ratio is the [O iii]88 μm/[N ii]122 μm ratio, although it depends on the ionization parameter. We propose various mid- and far-IR line ratios to break this dependence. Finally, we apply these far-IR diagnostics to a sample of 19 local ultraluminous IR galaxies (ULIRGs) observed with Herschel and Spitzer. We find that the gas-phase metallicity in these local ULIRGs is in the range 0.7metallicities agree well with previous estimates for local ULIRGs and this confirms that they lie below the local mass-metallicity relation.

  5. Probing the History of Galaxy Clusters with Metallicity and Entropy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkholy, Tamer Yohanna

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects found today in our Universe. The gas they contain, the intra-cluster medium (ICM), is heated to temperatures in the approximate range of 1 to 10 keV, and thus emits X-ray radiation. Studying the ICM through the spatial and spectral analysis of its emission returns the richest information about both the overall cosmological context which governs the formation of clusters, as well as the physical processes occurring within. The aim of this thesis is to learn about the history of the physical processes that drive the evolution of galaxy clusters, through careful, spatially resolved measurements of their metallicity and entropy content. A sample of 45 nearby clusters observed with Chandra is analyzed to produce radial density, temperature, entropy and metallicity profiles. The entropy profiles are computed to larger radial extents than in previous Chandra analyses. The results of this analysis are made available to the scientific community in an electronic database. Comparing metallicity and entropy in the outskirts of clusters, we find no signature on the entropy profiles of the ensemble of supernovae that produced the observed metals. In the centers of clusters, we find that the metallicities of high-mass clusters are much less dispersed than those of low-mass clusters. A comparison of metallicity with the regularity of the X-ray emission morphology suggests that metallicities in low-mass clusters are more susceptible to increase from violent events such as mergers. We also find that the variation in the stellar-to-gas mass ratio as a function of cluster mass can explain the variation of central metallicity with cluster mass, only if we assume that there is a constant level of metallicity for clusters of all masses, above which the observed galaxies add more metals in proportion to their mass. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  6. The H I content of extremely metal-deficient blue compact dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuan, T. X.; Goehring, K. M.; Hibbard, J. E.; Izotov, Y. I.; Hunt, L. K.

    2016-12-01

    We have obtained new H I observations with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) for a sample of 29 extremely metal-deficient star-forming blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectral data base to be extremely metal-deficient (12 + log O/H ≤ 7.6). Neutral hydrogen was detected in 28 galaxies, a 97 per cent detection rate. Combining the H I data with SDSS optical spectra for the BCD sample and adding complementary galaxy samples from the literature to extend the metallicity and mass ranges, we have studied how the H I content of a galaxy varies with various global galaxian properties. There is a clear trend of increasing gas mass fraction with decreasing metallicity, mass and luminosity. We obtain the relation M(H I)/Lg∝ L_g^{-0.3}, in agreement with previous studies based on samples with a smaller luminosity range. The median gas mass fraction fgas for the GBT sample is equal to 0.94 while the mean gas mass fraction is 0.90±0.15, with a lower limit of ˜0.65. The H I depletion time is independent of metallicity, with a large scatter around the median value of 3.4 Gyr. The ratio of the baryonic mass to the dynamical mass of the metal-deficient BCDs varies from 0.05 to 0.80, with a median value of ˜0.2. About 65 per cent of the BCDs in our sample have an effective yield larger than the true yield, implying that the neutral gas envelope in BCDs is more metal-deficient by a factor of 1.5-20, as compared to the ionized gas.

  7. THE FOSSIL RECORD OF TWO-PHASE GALAXY ASSEMBLY: KINEMATICS AND METALLICITIES IN THE NEAREST S0 GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Benson, Andrew J.

    2011-08-01

    We present a global analysis of kinematics and metallicity in the nearest S0 galaxy, NGC 3115, along with implications for its assembly history. The data include high-quality wide-field imaging from Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope, and multi-slit spectra of the field stars and globular clusters (GCs) obtained using Keck-DEIMOS/LRIS and Magellan-IMACS. Within two effective radii, the bulge (as traced by the stars and metal-rich GCs) is flattened and rotates rapidly (v/{sigma} {approx}> 1.5). At larger radii, the rotation declines dramatically to v/{sigma} {approx} 0.7, but remains well aligned with the inner regions. The radial decrease in characteristic metallicity of both the metal-rich and metal-poor GC subpopulations produces strong gradients with power-law slopes of -0.17 {+-} 0.04 and -0.38 {+-} 0.06 dex dex{sup -1}, respectively. We argue that this pattern is not naturally explained by a binary major merger, but instead by a two-phase assembly process where the inner regions have formed in an early violent, dissipative phase, followed by the protracted growth of the outer parts via minor mergers with typical mass ratios of {approx}15-20:1.

  8. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF SIX METAL-RICH QUASAR ABSORBER GALAXY FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, Lorrie A.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.

    2011-06-15

    Absorption lines in quasar spectra allow us to locate and study intervening galaxies. In order to obtain a clearer picture of these absorber galaxies, we have used the Near-Infrared Camera Fabry-Perot System at Apache Point Observatory to obtain near-infrared broadband images in one or more filters (J and K{sub s} ) of six quasar fields containing metal-rich low-z damped or sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems. These data allow us to search for the galaxies and constrain their luminosities. Candidate absorber galaxies are detected at 2.''01-7.''38 separation from the quasar in three out of six fields in the J and K{sub s} bands at >3{sigma} level with luminosities ranging from log(L/L{sub sun}) = 10.44-10.36 in the J band (for E-Sc type galaxies) and log(L/L{sub sun}) = 11.59-10.03 in the K{sub s} band for our detections. We place limits on the remaining fields with no detections of log(L/L{sub sun}) <10.83-9.75 for the J band and log(L/L{sub sun}) <10.43-10.05 for the K{sub s} band. We are also able to utilize Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra for each field to calculate optical fluxes and limits as well as limits on star formation rate via [O II]{lambda}3727 emission in spectra. Our data, combined with other recent imaging results for metal-rich absorbers, suggest a possible positive correlation between absorber metallicity and galaxy luminosity, although the samples are still small.

  9. Active galactic nuclei feedback, quiescence and circumgalactic medium metal enrichment in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenreich, Maximilian; Naab, Thorsten; Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Emsellem, Eric

    2017-06-01

    We present three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations showing the effect of kinetic and radiative active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on a model galaxy representing a massive quiescent low-redshift early-type galaxy of M* = 8.41 × 1010 M⊙, harbouring an MBH = 4 × 108 M⊙ black hole surrounded by a cooling gaseous halo. We show that, for a total baryon fraction of ˜20 per cent of the cosmological value, feedback from the AGN can keep the galaxy quiescent for about 4.35 Gyr and with properties consistent with black hole mass and X-ray luminosity scaling relations. However, this can only be achieved if the AGN feedback model includes both kinetic and radiative feedback modes. The simulation with only kinetic feedback fails to keep the model galaxy fully quiescent, while one with only radiative feedback leads to excessive black hole growth. For higher baryon fractions (e.g. 50 per cent of the cosmological value), the X-ray luminosities exceed observed values by at least one order of magnitude, and rapid cooling results in a star-forming galaxy. The AGN plays a major role in keeping the circumgalactic gas at observed metallicities of Z/Z⊙ ≳ 0.3 within the central ˜30 kpc by venting nuclear gas enriched with metals from residual star formation activity. As indicated by previous cosmological simulations, our results are consistent with a model for which the black hole mass and the total baryon fraction are set at higher redshifts z > 1 and the AGN alone can keep the model galaxy on observed scaling relations. Models without AGN feedback violate both the quiescence criterion as well as circumgalactic medium metallicity constraints.

  10. Kinematics of Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies: Evidence for Stellar Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmo-García, A.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2017-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies analyzed in a previous paper have large star-forming regions with a metallicity lower than the rest of the galaxy. Such a chemical inhomogeneity reveals the external origin of the metal-poor gas fueling star formation, possibly indicating accretion from the cosmic web. This paper studies the kinematic properties of the ionized gas in these galaxies. Most XMPs have a rotation velocity around a few tens of km s‑1. The star-forming regions appear to move coherently. The velocity is constant within each region, and the velocity dispersion sometimes increases within the star-forming clump toward the galaxy midpoint, suggesting inspiral motion toward the galaxy center. Other regions present a local maximum in velocity dispersion at their center, suggesting a moderate global expansion. The Hα line wings show a number of faint emission features with amplitudes around a few per cent of the main Hα component, and wavelength shifts between 100 and 400 km s‑1. The components are often paired, so that red and blue emission features with similar amplitudes and shifts appear simultaneously. Assuming the faint emission to be produced by expanding shell-like structures, the inferred mass loading factor (mass loss rate divided by star formation rate) exceeds 10. Since the expansion velocity far exceeds the rotational and turbulent velocities, the gas may eventually escape from the galaxy disk. The observed motions involve energies consistent with the kinetic energy released by individual core-collapse supernovae. Alternative explanations for the faint emission have been considered and discarded.

  11. Ages and metallicities for quiescent galaxies in the Shapley supercluster: driving parameters of the stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2009-12-01

    We use high signal-to-noise spectroscopy for a sample of 232 quiescent galaxies in the Shapley supercluster, to investigate how their stellar populations depend on velocity dispersion (σ), luminosity and stellar mass. The sample spans a large range in velocity dispersion (30-300kms-1) and in luminosity (MR from -18.7 to -23.2). Estimates of age, total metallicity (Z/H) and α-element abundance ratio (α/Fe) were derived from absorption-line analysis, using single-burst models of Thomas and collaborators. Using the Rose CaII index, we conclude that recent star formation (frosting) events are not responsible for the intermediate ages observed in some of the galaxies. Age, Z/H and α/Fe are correlated positively with velocity dispersion, but we also find significant residual trends with luminosity: at given σ, the brighter galaxies are younger, less α-enriched and have higher Z/H. At face value, these results might suggest that the stellar populations depend on stellar mass as well as on velocity dispersion. However, we show that the observed trends can be reproduced by models in which the stellar populations depend systematically only on σ, and are independent of stellar mass M*. For age, the observed luminosity correlation arises because young galaxies are brighter, at fixed M*. For metallicity, the observed luminosity dependence arises because metal-rich galaxies, at fixed mass, tend also to be younger, and hence brighter. We find a good match to the observed luminosity correlations with age ~σ+0.40, Z/H~σ+0.35,α/Fe ~σ+0.20, where the slopes are close to those found when fitting traditional scaling relations. We conclude that the star formation and enrichment histories of galaxies are determined primarily by the depth of their gravitational potential wells. The observed residual correlations with luminosity do not imply a corresponding dependence on stellar mass.

  12. Modeling the Destruction and Survival of PAHs in Astrophysical Regions: from Low-metallicity Galaxies to Elliptical Galaxies and Galactic Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen

    2006-05-01

    The 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 micron emission features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been seen in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic objects. However, the PAH features are weak or absent in low-metallicity galaxies and AGN, as generally interpreted as the destruction of PAHs by hard UV photons in metal-poor galaxies or by extreme UV and soft X-ray photons in AGN. On the other hand, the PAH emission features have recently been detected in elliptical galaxies, tidal dwarf galaxies, galaxy halos, and distant galaxies at redshift >=2. However, it is not clear how PAHs can survive in elliptical galaxies containing X-ray emitting hot gas where PAHs are expected to be easily destroyed through sputtering by hot plasma ions. It is also not clear how PAHs get ``levitated'' and survive from galactic plane to galaxy halo where the physical conditions are similar to those of elliptical galaxies. We propose to study the destruction of PAHs (1) by UV photons in low-metallicity galaxies, (2) by extreme UV and X-ray photons in AGN, (3) by intense UV radiation in regions with strong star-forming activities, and (4) through sputtering by plasma ions in hot gas. This will allow us, by the first time, to quantitatively investigate the deficiency or lack of PAHs in AGN and low-metallicity galaxies, as well as the survivability of PAHs in elliptical galaxies, galaxy halo, and superwind, and the method of using the IRAC 8 micron photometry as a tracer of star formation rates. This program will create a web-based ``library'' of the destruction rates of PAHs by UV and X-ray photons as a function of size, intensity and hardness of the radiation field, and the sputtering rates of PAHs by plasma ions as a function of size, gas density and temperature. This library will be made publicly available to the astronomical community by May 2007 on the internet at http://www.missouri.edu/~lia/.

  13. Rotation curves and metallicity gradients from HII regions in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Galletta, G.

    2002-10-01

    In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of Hα emission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable and well defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmental status, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction with satellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curves are considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological type and luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity of all the detected HII regions, thus producing a composite metallicity profile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolated galaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than the interacting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolated galaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they show similar relations between global parameters. The scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantly lower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/Hα ratios, used as a metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z and morphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing higher ratios; this trend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotation curve, G, is used; no trend is found with the change in interaction status. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almost flat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The [NII]/Hα ratios measured for disk HII regions of interacting galaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all the galaxy families present similar distributions of Hα Equivalent Width. Tables 3 and 4 and Figs. 6, 7 and 21 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/389 Based on data obtained Asiago/Ekar Observatory. Also based on observations made

  14. Dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity variations in nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, M. R.; MacLaren, I.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1990-09-01

    The dependence of the dust-to-gas ratio on Galacto-centric radius and its relation to the known metallicity gradient in the Galaxy and nearby galaxies is investigated. Despite the large degree of uncertainty associated with both quantities, there is evidence for a correlation, with dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity decreasing at roughly the same rate with increasing radius. Such a result has important implications. For example, attempts using FIR surveys to estimate the conversion between observed CO emission and molecular hydrogen column density should allow for the varying dust-to-gas ratio. Broadbent et al. (1989) used a dust-to-gas ratio that varied in proportion to metallicity, following the approach used by Cox et al. (1986), and confirmed the previously estimated low value for the conversion factor; there is thus support for this result.

  15. Relative abundances in the low-metallicity dwarf irregular galaxy UGC 4483

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Evan D.

    1991-01-01

    UGC 4483 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in the M 81 group. Narrow-band optical imaging has revealed an H II region in UGC 4483 with an H-alpha flux of about 2 x 10 to the -13th erg/sq cm per A per s. Optical, UV and NIR spectroscopy of this H II region yield He, C, N, O, Ne, and S abundances for the ISM in this galaxy. With an oxygen abundance of 0.000021 12 + log(O/H) = 7.3, this galaxy is among the most metal-poor dwarf irregulars known to date. A comparison of the S/O abundance ratio in this galaxy with that in I Zw 18 supports the claim by Garnett (1990) that the S/O ratio is consistent with the solar ratio for low-metallicity dwarf irregulars. The C/O ratio in UGC 4483 is lower than that derived for I Zw 18 and, therefore, more in line with the trend seen in higher metallicity H II regions. The derived helium abundance is He/H = 0.075, which converts to a He mass fraction of 0.23, consistent with earlier determinations of the primordial He abundance.

  16. The metal abundance distribution of the oldest stellar component in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementini, G.; Ripepi, V.; Bragaglia, A.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Held, E. V.; Gratton, R. G.

    2005-11-01

    Low-resolution spectroscopy obtained with FORS2 at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) has been used for the measurement of individual metal abundances ([Fe/H]) for 110 variable stars, including 107 RR Lyrae stars and one anomalous Cepheid, and to trace the metal distribution of the oldest stellar component in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The RR Lyrae stars are spread over a 15 × 15 arcmin2 area around the galaxy centre. Their metallicities have an average value of [Fe/H]=-1.83 +/- 0.03 (rms = 0.26 dex) and cover the metallicity range -2.40 < [Fe/H] < -0.85 (on the scale of Zinn & West), but there is only one variable that has [Fe/H] > -1.3. The star-to-star scatter is larger than typical errors on individual metallicities (+/-0.15-0.16 dex), indicating a real spread in metal abundances. The radial velocities measured from the RR Lyrae spectra have a dispersion of 12.9kms-1. This value is consistent with the dispersion derived by Tolstoy et al. for metal-poor red giants associated with the blue horizontal branch stars in Sculptor. Along with the metallicity distribution these results suggest that most of the RR Lyrae stars in Sculptor arise from the same burst of stellar formation that produced the metal-poor component, originating the galaxy blue horizontal branch. The metal-rich red horizontal branch population found to be centrally concentrated only produced a few (if any) of the RR Lyrae stars in our sample. The spectroscopic metallicities were used along with the apparent luminosities to study the luminosity-metallicity relation followed by the RR Lyrae stars in Sculptor, for which we derive a shallow slope of 0.09magdex-1. This result can be due to a high level of evolution off the zero-age horizontal branch of the RR Lyrae stars in this galaxy, again in agreement with their origin from the blue horizontal branch population.

  17. THE KENNICUTT–SCHMIDT RELATION IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, M. E.; Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Amorín, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Kennicutt–Schmidt (KS) relation between the gas mass and star formation rate (SFR) describes the star formation regulation in disk galaxies. It is a function of gas metallicity, but the low-metallicity regime of the KS diagram is poorly sampled. We have analyzed data for a representative set of extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), as well as auxiliary data, and compared these to empirical and theoretical predictions. The majority of the XMPs possess high specific SFRs, similar to high-redshift star-forming galaxies. On the KS plot, the XMP H i data occupy the same region as dwarfs and extend the relation for low surface brightness galaxies. Considering the H i gas alone, a considerable fraction of the XMPs already fall off the KS law. Significant quantities of “dark” H{sub 2} mass (i.e., not traced by CO) would imply that XMPs possess low star formation efficiencies (SFE{sub gas}). Low SFE{sub gas} in XMPs may be the result of the metal-poor nature of the H i gas. Alternatively, the H i reservoir may be largely inert, the star formation being dominated by cosmological accretion. Time lags between gas accretion and star formation may also reduce the apparent SFE{sub gas}, as may galaxy winds, which can expel most of the gas into the intergalactic medium. Hence, on global scales, XMPs could be H i-dominated, high-specific-SFR (≳10{sup −10} yr{sup −1}), low-SFE{sub gas} (≲10{sup −9} yr{sup −1}) systems, in which the total H i mass is likely not a good predictor of the total H{sub 2} mass, nor of the SFR.

  18. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  19. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  20. OUTFLOW VERSUS INFALL IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: METAL ABSORPTION IN THE HALO OF NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, Joel N.; Seitzer, Patrick; Cowley, C. R.; Miller, Matthew J.; Miller, Eric D.

    2013-03-20

    Gas accreting onto a galaxy will be of low metallicity while halo gas due to a galactic fountain will be of near-solar metallicity. We test these predictions by measuring the metal absorption line properties of halo gas 5 kpc above the plane of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891, using observations taken with HST/STIS toward a bright background quasar. Metal absorption lines of Fe II, Mg II, and Mg I in the halo of NGC 891 are clearly seen, and when combined with recent deep H I observations, we are able to place constraints on the metallicity of the halo gas for the first time. The H I line width defines the line broadening, from which we model opacity effects in these metal lines, assuming that the absorbing gas is continuously distributed in the halo. The gas-phase metallicities are [Fe/H] = -1.18 {+-} 0.07 and [Mg/H] = -0.23 + 0.36/ - 0.27 (statistical errors) and this difference is probably due to differential depletion onto grains. When corrected for such depletion using Galactic gas as a guide, both elements have approximately solar or even supersolar abundances. This suggests that the gas is from the galaxy disk, probably expelled into the halo by a galactic fountain, rather than from accretion of intergalactic gas, which would have a low metallicity. The abundances would be raised by significant amounts if the absorbing gas lies in a few clouds with thermal widths smaller than the rotational velocity of the halo. If this is the case, both the abundances and [Mg/Fe] would be supersolar.

  1. THE ORIGIN OF METALS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z = 3

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Sijing; Madau, Piero; Aguirre, Anthony; Guedes, Javiera; Mayer, Lucio; Wadsley, James

    2012-11-20

    We present a detailed study of the metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM) of a massive galaxy at z = 3 using results from 'ErisMC', a new cosmological hydrodynamic 'zoom-in' simulation of a disk galaxy with mass comparable to the Milky Way. The reference run adopts a blast wave scheme for supernova feedback that generates galactic outflows without explicit wind particles, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold and high-temperature metal cooling. ErisMC's main progenitor at z = 3 resembles a 'Lyman break' galaxy of total mass M {sub vir} = 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M {sub Sun }, virial radius R {sub vir} = 48 kpc, and star formation rate 18 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and its metal-enriched CGM extends as far as 200 (physical) kpc from its center. Approximately 41%, 9%, and 50% of all gas-phase metals at z = 3 are locked in a hot (T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K), warm (3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K > T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K), and cold (T < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K) medium, respectively. We identify three sources of heavy elements: (1) the main host, responsible for 60% of all the metals found within 3 R {sub vir}; (2) its satellite progenitors, which shed their metals before and during infall, and are responsible for 28% of all the metals within 3 R {sub vir}, and for only 5% of those beyond 3 R {sub vir}; and (3) nearby dwarfs, which give origin to 12% of all the metals within 3 R {sub vir} and 95% of those beyond 3 R {sub vir}. Late (z < 5) galactic 'superwinds'-the result of recent star formation in ErisMC-account for only 9% of all the metals observed beyond 2 R {sub vir}, the bulk having been released at redshifts 5 {approx}< z {approx}< 8 by early star formation and outflows. In the CGM, lower overdensities are typically enriched by 'older', colder metals. Heavy elements are accreted onto ErisMC along filaments via low-metallicity cold inflows and are ejected hot via galactic outflows at a few

  2. Dense Cloud Cores revealed by ALMA CO observations in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, M.; Elmegreen, B.; Hunter, D.; Cortes, J.; Brinks, E.; Cigan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations, they are molecular with H2 the dominant species and CO the best available. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared to hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it cannot accumulate inside dense clouds. Then we lose our ability to trace the gas in regions of star formation and we lose critical information on the temperatures, densities, and velocities of the material that collapses. I will report on high resolution observations with ALMA of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy WLM, which has a metallicity that is 13% of the solar value and 50% lower than the previous CO detection threshold and the properties derived of very small dense CO clouds mapped..

  3. Metallicity Distribution Functions of Dwarf Galaxies: A Probe of Star Formation History and Baryonic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escala, Ivanna; Kirby, Evan N.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) of simulated, isolated dwarf galaxies (M_{star} = 4 × 10^{4} - 3 × 10^{8} M_{⊙}) from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to quantify the impact of star formation history (SFH) and baryonic physics. These high-resolution cosmological simulations include realistic treatments of stellar evolution and complex gas dynamics and do not require the usual approximations (e.g., instantaneous recycling and instantaneous mixing) of analytic chemical evolution models. The evolution of the MDF with redshift informs which processes drive the dominant contributions to the distribution at z = 0, thus enabling a reconstruction of the SFH and gas loss/accretion history. We then compare the theoretical MDFs to the observed MDFs of Local Group dwarf galaxies to infer plausible SFHs for each matched galaxy.

  4. AGES AND METALLICITIES OF CLUSTER GALAXIES IN A779 USING MODIFIED STROeMGREN PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedhar, Yuvraj Harsha; Rakos, Karl D.; Hensler, Gerhard; Zeilinger, Werner W.; Odell, Andrew P.

    2012-03-01

    In the quest for the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters, Rakos and co-workers introduced a spectrophotometric method using modified Stroemgren photometry, but with the considerable debate toward the project's abilities, we re-introduce the system by testing for the repeatability of the modified Stroemgren colors and compare them with the Stroemgren colors, and check for the reproducibility of the ages and metallicities (using the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique and the GALEV models) for the six common galaxies in all three A779 data sets. As a result, a fair agreement between two filter systems was found to produce similar colors (with a precision of 0.09 mag in (uz - vz), 0.02 mag in (bz - yz), and 0.03 mag in (vz - vz)) and the generated ages and metallicities are also similar (with an uncertainty of 0.36 Gyr and 0.04 dex from PCA and 0.44 Gyr and 0.2 dex using the GALEV models). We infer that the technique is able to relieve the age-metallicity degeneracy by separating the age effects from the metallicity effects, but it is still unable to completely eliminate it. We further extend this paper to re-study the evolution of galaxies in the low mass, dynamically poor A779 cluster (as it was not elaborately analyzed by Rakos and co-workers in their previous work) by correlating the luminosity (mass), density, and radial distance with the estimated age, metallicity, and the star formation history. Our results distinctly show the bimodality of the young, low-mass, metal-poor population with a mean age of 6.7 Gyr ({+-} 0.5 Gyr) and the old, high-mass, metal-rich galaxies with a mean age of 9 Gyr ({+-} 0.5 Gyr). The method also observes the color evolution of the blue cluster galaxies to red (Butcher-Oemler phenomenon), and the downsizing phenomenon. Our analysis shows that modified Stroemgren photometry is very well suited for studying low- and intermediate-z clusters, as it is capable of observing deeper with better spatial resolution at

  5. On the connection between the metal-enriched intergalactic medium and galaxies: an O VI-galaxy cross-correlation study at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Charles W.; Morris, Simon L.; Tejos, Nicolas; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Perry, Robert; Fumagalli, Michele; Bielby, Rich; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Shanks, Tom; Liske, Jochen; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Bartle, Stephanie

    2016-07-01

    We present new results on the auto- and cross-correlation functions of galaxies and O VI absorbers in a ˜18 Gpc3 comoving volume at z < 1. We use a sample of 51 296 galaxies and 140 O VI absorbers in the column density range 13 ≲ log N ≲ 15 to measure two-point correlation functions in the two dimensions transverse and orthogonal to the line of sight ξ(r⊥, r∥). We furthermore infer the corresponding `real-space' correlation functions, ξ(r), by projecting ξ(r⊥, r∥) along r∥, and assuming a power-law form, ξ(r) = (r/r0)-γ. Comparing the results from the absorber-galaxy cross-correlation function, ξag, the galaxy autocorrelation function, ξgg, and the absorber autocorrelation function, ξaa, we constrain the statistical connection between galaxies and the metal-enriched intergalactic medium as a function of star formation activity. We also compare these results to predictions from the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation and find a reasonable agreement. We find that: (i) O VI absorbers show very little velocity dispersion with respect to galaxies on ˜ Mpc scales, likely ≲100 km s-1; (ii) O VI absorbers are less clustered, and potentially more extended around galaxies than galaxies are around themselves; (iii) on ≳100 kpc scales, the likelihood of finding O VI absorbers around star-forming galaxies is similar to the likelihood of finding O VI absorbers around non-star-forming galaxies; and (iv) O VI absorbers are either not ubiquitous to galaxies in our sample, or their distribution around them is patchy on scales ≳100 kpc (or both), at least for the column densities at which most are currently detected.

  6. DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH COMPANION TO THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY DDO 68

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, John M.; Alfvin, Erik D.; Johnson, Megan; Koribalski, Baerbel; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Bailin, Jeremy; Ford, H. Alyson; Girardi, Léo; Hirschauer, Alec S.; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.; Van Sistine, Angela; Dolphin, Andrew; Elson, E. C.; Marigo, Paola; Rosenfield, Philip; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Warren, Steven R.

    2014-05-20

    We present H I spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only ∼3% Z {sub ☉}, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival H I spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (M{sub H} {sub I} = 2.8 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}), recently star-forming (SFR{sub FUV} = 1.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, SFR{sub Hα} < 7 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) companion has the same systemic velocity as DDO 68 (V {sub sys} = 506 km s{sup –1}; D = 12.74 ± 0.27 Mpc) and is located at a projected distance of ∼42 kpc. New H I maps obtained with the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope provide evidence that DDO 68 and this companion are gravitationally interacting at the present time. Low surface brightness H I gas forms a bridge between these objects.

  7. Long gamma-ray Bursts and Type Ic Core CollapseSupernovae have Similar Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.L.; Kirshner, R.P.; Pahre, M.

    2007-12-04

    When the afterglow fades at the site of a long-duration {gamma}-ray burst (LGRB), Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic) are the only type of core collapse supernova observed. Recent work found that a sample of LGRB had different environments from a collection of core-collapse supernovae identified in a high-redshift sample from colors and light curves. LGRB were in the brightest regions of their hosts, but the core-collapse sample followed the overall distribution of the galaxy light. Here we examine 263 fully spectroscopically-typed supernovae found in nearby (z < 0.06) galaxies for which we have constructed surface photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The distributions of the thermonuclear supernovae (SN Ia) and some varieties of core-collapse supernovae (SN II and SN Ib) follow the galaxy light, but the SN Ic (like LGRB) are much more likely to erupt in the brightest regions of their hosts. The high-redshift hosts of LGRB are overwhelmingly irregulars, without bulges, while many low redshift SN Ic hosts are spirals with small bulges. When we remove the bulge light from our low-redshift sample, the SN Ic and LGRB distributions agree extremely well. If both LGRB and SN Ic stem from very massive stars, then it seems plausible that the conditions necessary for forming SN Ic are also required for LGRB. Additional factors, including metallicity, may determine whether the stellar evolution of a massive star leads to a LGRB with an underlying broad-lined SN Ic, or simply a SN Ic without a {gamma}-ray burst.

  8. Metal Distributions out to 0.5 r 180 in the Intracluster Medium of Four Galaxy Groups Observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sato, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    We studied the distributions of metal abundances and metal-mass-to-light ratios in the intracluster medium (ICM) of four galaxy groups, MKW 4, HCG 62, the NGC 1550 group, and the NGC 5044 group, out to ~0.5 r 180 observed with Suzaku. The iron abundance decreases with radius and is about 0.2-0.4 solar beyond 0.1 r 180. At a given radius in units of r 180, the iron abundance in the ICM of the four galaxy groups was consistent with or smaller than those of clusters of galaxies. The Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios in the ICM are nearly constant at the solar ratio out to 0.5 r 180. We also studied systematic uncertainties in the derived metal abundances, comparing the results from two versions of atomic data for astrophysicists (ATOMDB) and single- and two-temperature model fits. Since the metals have been synthesized in galaxies, we collected K-band luminosities of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and calculated the integrated iron-mass-to-light-ratios (IMLR), or the ratios of the iron mass in the ICM to light from stars in galaxies. The groups with smaller gas-mass-to-light ratios have smaller IMLR values and the IMLR is inversely correlated with the entropy excess. Based on these abundance features, we discussed the past history of metal enrichment processes in groups of galaxies.

  9. The Origin of the Heaviest Metals in Most Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.

    2017-01-01

    The heaviest metals found in stars in most ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies in the Milky Way halo are generally underabundant by an order of magnitude or more when compared with stars in the halo field. Among the heavy elements produced by n-capture reactions, only Sr and Ba can be detected in red giant stars in most UFD galaxies. This limited chemical information is unable to identify the nucleosynthesis process(es) responsible for producing the heavy elements in UFD galaxies. Similar [Sr/Ba] and [Ba/Fe] ratios are found in three bright halo field stars, BD‑18°5550, CS 22185–007, and CS 22891–200. Previous studies of high-quality spectra of these stars report detections of additional n-capture elements, including Eu. The [Eu/Ba] ratios in these stars span +0.41 to +0.86. These ratios and others among elements in the rare Earth domain indicate an r-process origin. These stars have some of the lowest levels of r-process enhancement known, with [Eu/H] spanning ‑3.95 to ‑3.32, and they may be considered nearby proxies for faint stars in UFD galaxies. Direct confirmation, however, must await future observations of additional heavy elements in stars in the UFD galaxies themselves.

  10. Metal distribution in the intracluster medium: a comprehensive numerical study of twelve galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höller, Harald; Stöckl, Josef; Benson, Andrew; Haider, Markus; Steinhauser, Dominik; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Pranger, Florian

    2014-09-01

    We present a simulation setup for studying the dynamical and chemical evolution of the intracluster medium (ICM) and analyze a sample of 12 galaxy clusters that are diverse both kinetically (pre-merger, merging, virialized) and in total mass (Mvir = 1.17 × 1014 - 1.06 × 1015 M⊙). We analyzed the metal mass fraction in the ICM as a function of redshift and discuss radial trends as well as projected 2D metallicity maps. The setup combines high mass resolution N-body simulations with the semi-analytical galaxy formation model Galacticus for consistent treatment of the subgrid physics (such as galactic winds and ram-pressure stripping) in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The interface between Galacticus and the hydro simulation of the ICM with FLASH is discussed with respect to observations of star formation rate histories, radial star formation trends in galaxy clusters, and the metallicity at different redshifts. As a test for the robustness of the wind model, we compare three prescriptions from different approaches. For the wind model directly taken from Galacticus, we find mean ICM metallicities between 0.2-0.8 Z⊙ within the inner 1 Mpc at z = 0. The main contribution to the metal mass fraction comes from galactic winds. The outflows are efficiently mixed in the ICM, leading to a steady homogenization of metallicities until ram-pressure stripping becomes effective at low redshifts. We find a very peculiar and yet common drop in metal mass fractions within the inner ~200 kpc of the cool cores, which is due to a combination of wind suppression by outer pressure within our model and a lack of mixing after the formation of these dense regions. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Metal abundances and kinematics of a high-redshift galaxy obtained with the Kech telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Arthur M.; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Tytler, David; Vogt, Steven S.; Keane, Michael J.; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    1994-01-01

    We use the Kech 10 m telescope and its high-resolution echelle spectrometer (HIRES) to obtain accurate high-resolution spectra of a quasar to determine element abundances of a probable foreground young galaxy with redshift z = 2.309. Precise measurements of absorption lines lead to the first accurate abundance determinations on Zn, Cr, and Ni at large redshifts. We find that (Zn/H) = -1.55 +/- 0.11, while (Cr/H) = -1.79 +/- 0.10 and (Ni/H) = -2.13 +/- 0.08. The Zn abundance indicates low metallicity, while the Cr and Ni abundances are consistent with depletion of these elements onto grains. We also find (O/H) less than 0.97. Therefore, the galaxy is more metal-deficient than the oldest disk stars in the Galaxy. The kinematic evidence is consistent with a thick disk of gas with rotation speed and radius comparable to the rotation speeds and radii of current luminous spiral galaxies. Therefore, a rotationally supported disk may be in place at z greater than 2.

  12. The Metallicity of the Circumgalactic Medium of z<1 Galaxies: How low can you go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotta, Christopher; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; O'Meara, John; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion from the intergalactic medium and large-scale outflows are thought to drive a galaxy's evolution, including its star formation rate and its metal content. Studying the circumgalactic medium (CGM), the host of these processes, provides insights into the balance of these competing mechanisms. The cool, dense CGM has integrated H I column densities typical of optically-thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs, 17.2 <= log N(H I) < 19.0) and optically-thin partial-LLSs (pLLSs, 16 < log N(HI) < 17.2). With our Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) survey of 44 pLLSs and 11 LLSs at z<1, we show that the metallicity distribution of the pLLSs is bimodal, with peaks at 1.3% and 48% of the solar metallicity. This strengthens our earlier findings and demonstrates unambiguously that low-metallicity gas is prevalent around z<1 galaxies, which provides the best-yet observational evidence for cold accretion flows like those present in numerical simulations of galaxies. For the LLSs, the sample is still small but there is a hint that the metallicity distribution changes to a unimodal distribution. It is also in this N(HI) regime that we found the lowest metallicity LLS at z<1, with <0.3% solar metallicity. Here I will present briefly these early results as well as our ongoing follow-up survey of ~40 strong pLLSs/LLSs (16.9 <= log N(H I) < 18.5) where we are systematically estimating the metallicity with COS and ground-based MgII spectra. With this new sample, we will robustly determine the metallicity distribution of the LLSs and how frequently extremely low-metallicity gas (<0.3% solar metallicity) is present at z<1. This extremely low-metallicity gas could be possible evidence for remnants of Population III enrichment at low redshift, and only in the LLS regime is the HI absorption strong enough to be sensitive to <0.3% solar metallicity.

  13. Metal enriched gaseous halos around distant radio galaxies: Clues to feedback in galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Reuland, M; van Breugel, W; de Vries, W; Dopita, A; Dey, A; Miley, G; Rottgering, H; Venemans, B; Stanford, S A; Lacy, M; Spinrad, H; Dawson, S; Stern, D; Bunker, A

    2006-08-01

    We present the results of an optical and near-IR spectroscopic study of giant nebular emission line halos associated with three z > 3 radio galaxies, 4C 41.17, 4C 60.07 and B2 0902+34. Previous deep narrow band Ly{alpha} imaging had revealed complex morphologies with sizes up to 100 kpc, possibly connected to outflows and AGN feedback from the central regions. The outer regions of these halos show quiet kinematics with typical velocity dispersions of a few hundred km s{sup -1}, and velocity shears that can mostly be interpreted as being due to rotation. The inner regions show shocked cocoons of gas closely associated with the radio lobes. These display disturbed kinematics and have expansion velocities and/or velocity dispersions >1000 km s{sup -1}. The core region is chemically evolved, and we also find spectroscopic evidence for the ejection of enriched material in 4C 41.17 up to a distance of {approx} 60 kpc along the radio-axis. The dynamical structures traced in the Ly{alpha} line are, in most cases, closely echoed in the Carbon and Oxygen lines. This shows that the Ly{alpha} line is produced in a highly clumped medium of small filling factor, and can therefore be used as a tracer of the dynamics of HzRGs. We conclude that these HzRGs are undergoing a final jet-induced phase of star formation with ejection of most of their interstellar medium before becoming 'red and dead' Elliptical galaxies.

  14. Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Cindy; Baildon, Taylor; Mehta, Shail; Garcia, Edgar; Massey, Philip; Hodge, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey of Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and seven dwarf galaxies in (NGC6822, IC10, WLM, Sextans A and B, Phoenix and Pegasus). Using data from the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS - see Massey et al, 2006), we used continuum-subtracted Ha emission line images to define emission regions with a faint flux limit of 10 -17 ergs-sec-1-cm-2above the background. We have obtained photometric measurements for roughly 7450 Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and five of the seven dwarf galaxies (no regions for Phoenix or Pegasus). Using these regions, with boundaries defined by Hα-emission flux limits, we also measured fluxes for the continuum-subtracted [OIII] and [SII] images and constructed a catalog of Hα fluxes, region sizes and [OIII]/ Hα and [SII]/ Hα line ratios. The HII region luminosity functions and size distributions for the spiral galaxies M31 and M33 are compared with those of the dwarf galaxies NGC 6822 and IC10. For M31 and M33, the average [SII]/ Hα and [OIII]/ Hα line ratios, plotted as a function of galactocentric radius, display a linear trend with shallow slopes consistent with other studies of metallicity gradients in these galaxies. The galaxy-wide averages of [SII]/ Hα line ratios correlate with the masses of the dwarf galaxies following the previously established dwarf galaxy mass-metallicity relationship. The slope of the luminosity functions for the dwarf galaxies varies with galaxy mass. The Carleton Catalog of this Local Group Emission-line Survey will be made available on-line.

  15. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) extends to low stellar mass and high SFR. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFRs, with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 decimal exponent (dex) above the redshift (z) approximately equal to 1 stellar mass-SFR relation, and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 decimal exponent (dex) below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 decimal exponent (dex), but significant dispersion remains (0.29 decimal exponent (dex) with 0.16 decimal exponent (dex) due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years that suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 97.3 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas, but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  16. Hitomi observations of the Perseus Cluster / Constant metallicity in the outskirts of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Norbert; Simionescu, Aurora; Urban, Ondrej; Allen, Steven

    2016-07-01

    X-ray observations with the Suzaku satellite reveal a remarkably homogeneous distribution of iron out to the virial radii of nearby galaxy clusters. Observations of the Virgo Cluster, that also allow us to measure the abundances of Si, S, and Mg out to the outskirts, show that the chemical composition of the intra-cluster medium is constant on large scales. These observations require that most of the metal enrichment and mixing of the intergalactic medium occurred before clusters formed, probably more than ten billion years ago, during the period of maximal star formation and black hole activity. We estimate the ratio between the number of SN Ia and the total number of supernovae enriching the intergalactic medium to be between 15-20%, generally consistent with the metal abundance patterns in our own Galaxy.

  17. The galaxy counterpart of the high-metallicity and 16 kpc impact parameter DLA towards Q 0918+1636 - a challenge to galaxy formation models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer-Larsen, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2017-01-01

    The quasar Q0918+1636 (z = 3.07) has an intervening high-metallicity damped Lyman α absorber (DLA) along the line of sight, at a redshift of z = 2.58. The DLA is located at a large impact parameter of 16.2 kpc, and despite this large impact parameter, it has a very high metallicity (consistent with solar). In this paper, it is investigated whether a novel type of galaxy formation models, based on hydrodynamical/gravitational TreeSPH simulations invoking a new Supernova Type II feedback prescription, the Haardt & Madau most recent ultraviolet background radiation (UVB) field and explicit treatment of UVB self-shielding effects, can reproduce the observed characteristics of the DLA. Effects of UV radiation from young stellar populations in the galaxy, in particular in the photon energy range 10.36-13.61 eV (relating to Sulphur II abundance), are also considered in the analysis. It is found that (a) for L ˜ L⋆ galaxies (at z = 2.58), about 10 per cent of the sight-lines through the galaxies at impact parameter b = 16.2 kpc will display a Sulphur II column density of N({S II)} ≥ 10^{15.82} cm-2 (the observed value for the DLA), and (b) considering only cases where a near-solar metallicity will be detected at 16.2 kpc impact parameter, the (Bayesian) probability distribution of galaxy star formation rate peaks near the value observed for the DLA galaxy counterpart of 27^{+20}_{-9} { M_{⊙}} yr-1. It is argued that the bulk of the α-elements, like Sulphur, traced by the high metal column density, b = 16.2 kpc absorption lines, have been produced by evolving stars in the inner galaxy, and subsequently transported outwards by galactic winds.

  18. Stellar kinematics and metallicities in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J. D.

    2015-07-23

    With this study, we present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of $62.8\\pm 0.5\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{\\rm{s}}^{-1}$ and a velocity dispersion of $3.3\\pm 0.7\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{\\rm{s}}^{-1}$. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is $470\\pm 210\\ {M}_{\\odot }/{L}_{\\odot }$, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 $\\mathrm{km}\\ {{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with ${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3$. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of ${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65\\pm 0.07$, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is ${\\mathrm{log}}_{10}(J)=18.8\\pm 0.6\\;\\;\\mathrm{GeV}{\\;}^{2}\\;{\\mathrm{cm}}^{-5}\\;$ within 0fdg2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies.

  19. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. D.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Li, T. S.; Nord, B.; Geha, M.; Bechtol, K.; Balbinot, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Lin, H.; Marshall, J.; Santiago, B.; Strigari, L.; Wang, M.; Wechsler, R. H.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T.; Bauer, A. H.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dodelson, S.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of 62.8+/- 0.5 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a velocity dispersion of 3.3+/- 0.7 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is 470+/- 210 {M}⊙ /{L}⊙ , demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 {km} {{{s}}}-1, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with {{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of {{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65+/- 0.07, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is {{log}}10(J)=18.8+/- 0.6 {GeV}{ }2 {{cm}}-5 within 0.°2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number 157689.

  20. METAL DEFICIENCY IN CLUSTER STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT Z = 2

    SciTech Connect

    Valentino, F.; Daddi, E.; Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Bournaud, F.; Juneau, S.; Zanella, A.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the environmental effect on the metal enrichment of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the farthest spectroscopically confirmed and X-ray-detected cluster, CL J1449+0856 at z = 1.99. We combined Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 G141 slitless spectroscopic data, our thirteen-band photometry, and a recent Subaru/Multi-object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up to constrain the physical properties of SFGs in CL J1449+0856 and in a mass-matched field sample. After a conservative removal of active galactic nuclei, stacking individual MOIRCS spectra of 6 (31) sources in the cluster (field) in the mass range 10 ≤ log(M/M{sub ⊙}) ≤ 11, we find a ∼4σ lower [N ii]/Hα ratio in the cluster than in the field. Stacking a subsample of 16 field galaxies with Hβ and [O iii] in the observed range, we measure an [O iii]/Hβ ratio fully compatible with the cluster value. Converting these ratios into metallicities, we find that the cluster SFGs are up to 0.25 dex poorer in metals than their field counterparts, depending on the adopted calibration. The low metallicity in cluster sources is confirmed using alternative indicators. Furthermore, we observe a significantly higher Hα luminosity and equivalent width in the average cluster spectrum than in the field. This is likely due to the enhanced specific star formation rate; even if lower dust reddening and/or an uncertain environmental dependence on the continuum-to-nebular emission differential reddening may play a role. Our findings might be explained by the accretion of pristine gas around galaxies at z = 2 and from cluster-scale reservoirs, possibly connected with a phase of rapid halo mass assembly at z > 2 and of a high galaxy merging rate.

  1. LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES AT z {approx} 8

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Trump, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Based on the recent very deep near-infrared imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope, five groups published the most probable samples of galaxies at z {approx} 8, selected by the so-called dropout method or photometric redshift; e.g., Y{sub 105}-dropouts (Y{sub 105} - J{sub 125} > 0.8). These studies are highly useful for investigating both the early star formation history of galaxies and the sources of cosmic re-ionization. In order to better understand these issues, we carefully examine whether there are low-z interlopers in the samples of z {approx} 8 galaxy candidates. We focus on the strong emission-line galaxies at z {approx} 2 in this paper. Such galaxies may be selected as Y{sub 105}-dropouts since the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission line is redshifted into the J{sub 125} band. We have found that the contamination from such low-z interlopers is negligibly small. Therefore, all objects found by the five groups are free from this type of contamination. However, it remains difficult to extract real z {approx} 8 galaxies because all the sources are very faint and the different groups have found different candidates. With this in mind, we construct a robust sample of eight galaxies at z {approx} 8 from the objects found by the five groups: each of these eight objects has been selected by at least two groups. Using this sample, we discuss their UV continuum slope. We also discuss the escape fraction of ionizing photons adopting various metallicities. Our analysis suggests that massive stars forming in low-metallicity gas (Z {approx} 5 x 10{sup -4} Z{sub sun}) can be responsible for the completion of cosmic re-ionization if the escape fraction of the ionizing continuum from galaxies is as large as 0.5, and this is consistent with the observed blue UV continua.

  2. Metal abundances in the cool cores of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grandi, S.; Molendi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We use XMM-Newton data to carry out a detailed study of the Si, Fe and Ni abundances in the cool cores of a representative sample of 26 local clusters. We performed a careful evaluation of the systematic uncertainties related to the instruments, the plasma codes and the spectral modeling, finding that the major source of uncertainty is the plasma codes. Our Si, Fe, Ni, Si/Fe and Ni/Fe distributions feature only moderate spreads (from 20% to 30%) around their mean values strongly suggesting similar enrichment processes at work in all our cluster cores. Our sample-averaged Si/Fe ratio is comparable to those measured in samples of groups and high luminosity ellipticals, implying that the enrichment process in ellipticals, dominant galaxies in groups and BCGs in clusters is quite similar. Although our Si/Fe and Ni/Fe abundance ratios are fairly well constrained, the large uncertainties in the supernova yields prevent us from making a firm assessment of the relative contribution of type Ia and core-collapsed supernovae to the enrichment process. All that can be said with some certainty is that both contribute to the enrichment of cluster cores. Tables and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Suzaku observations of metal distribution out to 0.5 r180 in the intracluster medium of four galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sato, Kosuke

    We studied the distributions of metal abundances and metal-mass-to-light ratios in the intracluster medium of four galaxy groups, MKW 4, HCG 62, the NGC 1550 group, and the NGC 5044 group, out to ˜ 0.5 r_{180} observed with Suzaku.The Fe abundance decreases with radius, and about 0.2-0.4 solar beyond 0.1 r _{180}. At a given radius in units of r_{180}, the Fe abundance in the ICM of the four galaxy groups were consistent or smaller than those of clusters of galaxies. The Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios in the ICM are nearly constant at the solar ratio out to 0.5 r_{180}. Since the metals have been synthesized in galaxies, we collected K-band luminosities of galaxies from Two Micron All Sky Survey catalogue and calculated the integrated iron-mass-to-light-ratios (IMLR), or the ratios of the iron mass in the ICM to light from stars in galaxies. The groups with smaller gas mass to light ratios have smaller IMLR values and the IMLR inversely correlated with the entropy excess. Based on these abundance features, we discussed the past history of metal enrichment process in groups of galaxies. These results and discussions were shown in Sasaki et al. 2014,ApJ,781,36.

  4. The Little Cub: Discovery of an Extremely Metal-poor Star-forming Galaxy in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsyu, Tiffany; Cooke, Ryan J.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Bolte, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We report the discovery of the Little Cub, an extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the local universe, found in the constellation Ursa Major (a.k.a. the Great Bear). We first identified the Little Cub as a candidate metal-poor galaxy based on its Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric colors, combined with spectroscopy using the Kast spectrograph on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory. In this Letter, we present high-quality spectroscopic data taken with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Keck Observatory, which confirm the extremely metal-poor nature of this galaxy. Based on the weak [O iii] λ4363 Å emission line, we estimate a direct oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.13 ± 0.08, making the Little Cub one of the lowest-metallicity star-forming galaxies currently known in the local universe. The Little Cub appears to be a companion of the spiral galaxy NGC 3359 and shows evidence of gas stripping. We may therefore be witnessing the quenching of a near-pristine galaxy as it makes its first passage about a Milky Way-like galaxy.

  5. The Metallicity Evolution of Low-mass Galaxies: New Constraints at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian; Dressler, Alan

    2013-06-01

    We present abundance measurements from 26 emission-line-selected galaxies at z ~ 0.6-0.7. By reaching stellar masses as low as 108 M ⊙, these observations provide the first measurement of the intermediate-redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation below 109 M ⊙. For the portion of our sample above M > 109 M ⊙ (8/26 galaxies), we find good agreement with previous measurements of the intermediate-redshift MZ relation. Compared to the local relation, we measure an evolution that corresponds to a 0.12 dex decrease in oxygen abundances at intermediate redshifts. This result confirms the trend that metallicity evolution becomes more significant toward lower stellar masses, in keeping with a downsizing scenario where low-mass galaxies evolve onto the local MZ relation at later cosmic times. We show that these galaxies follow the local fundamental metallicity relation, where objects with higher specific (mass-normalized) star formation rates (SFRs) have lower metallicities. Furthermore, we show that the galaxies in our sample lie on an extrapolation of the SFR-M * relation (the star-forming main sequence). Leveraging the MZ relation and star-forming main sequence (and combining our data with higher-mass measurements from the literature), we test models that assume an equilibrium between mass inflow, outflow, and star formation. We find that outflows are required to describe the data. By comparing different outflow prescriptions, we show that momentum, driven winds can describe the MZ relation; however, this model underpredicts the amount of star formation in low-mass galaxies. This disagreement may indicate that preventive feedback from gas heating has been overestimated, or it may signify a more fundamental deviation from the equilibrium assumption. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National

  6. The Low-Metallicity Galaxy, I Zw 18 (Z=1/50 Z(circle dot))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2003-01-01

    Both observations and evolutionary models indicate that rotation becomes a more important factor at lower metallicities. Some important effects of rotation include: increasing the rate of mass-loss; lowering the effective gravity; altering the evolutionary track on the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD); extending the main-sequence phase (both on the HR diagram and in time); and mixing of CNO-processed elements up to the stellar surface. We discuss these effects for massive stars in the low-metallicity galaxy, I Zw 18 (Z=1/50 Z(circle dot)) and their implications for the first stars.

  7. Revealing the cold dust in low-metallicity environments. I. Photometry analysis of the Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Madden, S. C.; Galliano, F.; Hony, S.; Sauvage, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Roussel, H.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Galametz, M.; Cormier, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Wu, R.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; De Looze, I.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Panuzzo, P.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Wilson, C. D.

    2013-09-01

    Context. We present new photometric data from our Herschel guaranteed time key programme, the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), dedicated to the observation of the gas and dust in low-metallicity environments. A total of 48 dwarf galaxies were observed with the PACS and SPIRE instruments onboard the Herschel Space Observatory at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm. Aims: The goal of this paper is to provide reliable far-infrared (FIR) photometry for the DGS sample and to analyse the FIR/submillimetre (submm) behaviour of the DGS galaxies. We focus on a systematic comparison of the derived FIR properties (FIR luminosity, LFIR, dust mass, Mdust, dust temperature, T, emissivity index, β) with more metal-rich galaxies and investigate the detection of a potential submm excess. Methods: The data reduction method is adapted for each galaxy in order to derive the most reliable photometry from the final maps. The derived PACS flux densities are compared with the Spitzer MIPS 70 and 160 μm bands. We use colour-colour diagrams to analyse the FIR/submm behaviour of the DGS galaxies and modified blackbody fitting procedures to determine their dust properties. To study the variation in these dust properties with metallicity, we also include galaxies from the Herschel KINGFISH sample, which contains more metal-rich environments, totalling 109 galaxies. Results: The location of the DGS galaxies on Herschel colour-colour diagrams highlights the differences in dust grain properties and/or global environments of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. The dust in DGS galaxies is generally warmer than in KINGFISH galaxies (TDGS ~ 32 K and TKINGFISH ~ 23 K). The emissivity index, β, is ~1.7 in the DGS, however metallicity does not make a strong effect on β. The proportion of dust mass relative to stellar mass is lower in low-metallicity galaxies: Mdust/Mstar ~ 0.02% for the DGS versus 0.1% for KINGFISH. However, per unit dust mass, dwarf galaxies emit about six times more in the FIR/submm than

  8. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: the discovery of a luminous, low-metallicity H II complex in the dwarf galaxy GAMA J141103.98-003242.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, S. N.; Schaefer, A. L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Croom, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.; Sweet, S. M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Allen, J. T.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Brough, S.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Ho, I.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Koribalski, B. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Owers, M. S.; Sadler, E. M.; Sharp, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present the discovery of a luminous unresolved H II complex on the edge of dwarf galaxy GAMA J141103.98-003242.3 using data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. This dwarf galaxy is situated at a distance of ˜100 Mpc and contains an unresolved region of H II emission that contributes ˜70 per cent of the galaxy's Hα luminosity, located at the top end of established H II region luminosity functions. For the H II complex, we measure a star formation rate of 0.147 ± 0.041 M⊙ yr-1and a metallicity of 12+log(O/H) = 8.01 ± 0.05 that is lower than the rest of the galaxy by ˜0.2 dex. Data from the H I Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) indicate the likely presence of neutral hydrogen in the galaxy to potentially fuel ongoing and future star-forming events. We discuss various triggering mechanisms for the intense star formation activity of this H II complex, where the kinematics of the ionized gas are well described by a rotating disc and do not show any features indicative of interactions. We show that SAMI is an ideal instrument to identify similar systems to GAMA J141103.98-003242.3, and the SAMI Galaxy Survey is likely to find many more of these systems to aid in the understanding of their formation and evolution.

  9. The Deep2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Mean Ages and Metallicities ofRed Field Galaxies at Z ~; 0.9 from Stacked Keck/Deimos Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Faber, S.M.; Konidaris, Nicholas; Graves,Genevieve; Willmer, Christopher N.A.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Coil, AlisonL.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Harker, Justin; Koo, David C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Yan, Renbin

    2006-10-19

    As part of the DEEP2 galaxy redshift survey, we analyze absorption line strengths in stacked Keck/DEIMOS spectra of red field galaxies with weak to no emission lines, at redshifts 0.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 1. Comparison with models of stellar population synthesis shows that red galaxies at z {approx} 0:9 have mean luminosity-weighted ages of the order of only 1 Gyr and at least solar metallicities. These ages cannot be reconciled with a scenario where all stars evolved passively after forming at very high z. Rather, a significant fraction of stars can be no more than 1 Gyr old, which means that some star formation in the stacked populations continued to at least z {approx} 1:2. Furthermore, a comparison of these distant galaxies with a local SDSS sample, using stellar populations synthesis models, shows that the drop in the equivalent width of H{delta} from z {approx} 0:9 to 0.1 is less than predicted by passively evolving models. This admits of two interpretations: either each individual galaxy experiences continuing low-level star formation, or the red-sequence galaxy population from z {approx} 0:9 to 0.1 is continually being added to by new galaxies with younger stars.

  10. Missing metals and baryons in galaxies: Clues from our Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anjali; Mathur, Smita

    2016-06-01

    It is well-known that most galaxies are missing most of their baryonic mass. Perhaps more surprisingly, they also seem to be missing most of their metals. Our Milky Way galaxy, like other nearby galaxies, is missing most of its baryons. Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation suggest that the missing baryonic mass should reside in the circum-galactic medium (CGM), in a warm-hot gas phase at temperatures between one million and 10 million K. Although theoretical models predict the existence of the warm-hot gas in the CGM, detecting and characterizing the diffuse CGM has been difficult. At the expected temperatures the baryons are in the form of highly ionized plasma, observable in soft X-rays. A combination of absorption and emission studies at soft X-ray energies is required to fully characterize this warm-hot CGM. Recently, combining the Chandra observations of OVII and OVIII absorption lines and XMM-Newton and Suzaku measurements of the Galactic halo emission measure, we found that there is a huge reservoir of ionized gas around the Milky Way, with the mass of over 2 billion solar masses and the radius of over 100 kpc.I will present Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations probing our Milky Way halo in absorption and emission. Our results show that the Milky Way halo contains a huge reservoir of warm-hot gas that may account for a large fraction of missing baryons and metals. I'll review current status of this field, discuss implications of our results to models of galaxy formation and evolution and outline paths for future progress.

  11. A support vector machine to search for metal-poor galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhong-Hua; Zhi, Shu-Teng

    2014-10-01

    To develop a fast and reliable method for selecting metal-poor galaxies (MPGs), especially in large surveys and huge data bases, a support vector machine (SVM) supervized learning algorithms is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9 provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (http://www.sdss3.org/dr9/spectro/spectroaccess.php). A two-step approach is adopted: (i) the SVM must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be either MPGs or metal-rich galaxies (MRGs), treating the strong emission line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission line flux ratios. (ii) After training on a sample of star-forming galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as either MPGs or MRGs using a 10-fold cross-validation technique. For target selection, we have achieved an acquisition accuracy for MPGs of ˜96 and ˜95 per cent for an MPG threshold of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.00 and 12 + log(O/H) = 8.39, respectively. Running the code takes minutes in most cases under the MATLAB 2013a software environment. The code in the Letter is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com). The SVM method can easily be extended to any MPGs target selection task and can be regarded as an efficient classification method particularly suitable for modern large surveys.

  12. Missing metals and baryons in galaxies: Clues from our Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anjali

    2016-04-01

    It is well-known that most galaxies are missing most of their baryonic mass. Perhaps more surprisingly, they also seem to be missing most of their metals. Our Milky Way galaxy, like other nearby galaxies, is missing most of its baryons. Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation suggest that the missing baryonic mass should reside in the circum-galactic medium (CGM), in a warm-hot gas phase at temperatures between one million and 10 million K. Although theoretical models predict the existence of the warm-hot gas in the CGM, detecting and characterizing the diffuse CGM has been difficult. At the expected temperatures the baryons are in the form of highly ionized plasma, observable in soft X-rays. A combination of absorption and emission studies at soft X-ray energies is required to fully characterize this warm-hot CGM. Recently, combining the Chandra observations of OVII and OVIII absorption lines and XMM-Newton and Suzaku measurements of the Galactic halo emission measure, we found that there is a huge reservoir of ionized gas around the Milky Way, with the mass of over 2 billion solar masses and the radius of over 100 kpc.I will present Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations probing our Milky Way halo in absorption and emission. Our results show that the Milky Way halo contains a huge reservoir of warm-hot gas that may account for a large fraction of missing baryons and metals. I'll review current status of this field, discuss implications of our results to models of galaxy formation and evolution and outline paths for future progress.

  13. CARBON-RICH DUST PRODUCTION IN METAL-POOR GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, G. C.; Matsuura, M.; Lagadec, E.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Kraemer, K. E.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Wood, P. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2012-06-20

    We have observed a sample of 19 carbon stars in the Sculptor, Carina, Fornax, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show significant quantities of dust around the carbon stars in Sculptor, Fornax, and Leo I, but little in Carina. Previous comparisons of carbon stars with similar pulsation properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds revealed no evidence that metallicity affected the production of dust by carbon stars. However, the more metal-poor stars in the current sample appear to be generating less dust. These data extend two known trends to lower metallicities. In more metal-poor samples, the SiC dust emission weakens, while the acetylene absorption strengthens. The bolometric magnitudes and infrared spectral properties of the carbon stars in Fornax are consistent with metallicities more similar to carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds than in the other dwarf spheroidals in our sample. A study of the carbon budget in these stars reinforces previous considerations that the dredge-up of sufficient quantities of carbon from the stellar cores may trigger the final superwind phase, ending a star's lifetime on the asymptotic giant branch.

  14. FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James

    2012-09-20

    The size, mass, luminosity, and space density of Ly{alpha} emitting (LAE) galaxies observed at intermediate to high redshift agree with expectations for the properties of galaxies that formed metal-poor halo globular clusters (GCs). The low metallicity of these clusters is the result of their formation in low-mass galaxies. Metal-poor GCs could enter spiral galaxies along with their dwarf galaxy hosts, unlike metal-rich GCs, which form in the spirals themselves. Considering an initial GC mass larger than the current mass to account for multiple stellar populations, and considering the additional clusters that are likely to form with massive clusters, we estimate that each GC with a mass today greater than 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} was likely to have formed among a total stellar mass {approx}> 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, a molecular mass {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, and 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} of older stars, depending on the relative gas fraction. The star formation rate would have been several M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} lasting for {approx}10{sup 7} yr, and the Ly{alpha} luminosity would have been {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Integrating the LAE galaxy luminosity function above this minimum, considering the average escape probability for Ly{alpha} photons (25%), and then dividing by the probability that a dwarf galaxy is observed in the LAE phase (0.4%), we find agreement between the comoving space density of LAEs and the average space density of metal-poor GCs today. The local galaxy WLM, with its early starburst and old GC, could be an LAE remnant that did not get into a galaxy halo because of its remote location.

  15. Present-Day Metallicities for Constructing Star-Formation Histories in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies (South, part 2 of 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Henry; Dalcanton, Julianne; Skillman, Evan; van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice; Seth, Anil; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Croxall, Kevin; Warren, Steven

    2008-08-01

    The largest and most uniform dataset on the histories of star formation will be created with the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) program and the Archival of Nearby Galaxies: Reuse, Reduce, Recycle (ANGRRR) programs, which aim, respectively, (1) to secure complete and uniform HST imaging of a volume-limited sample of galaxies out to 3.5 Mpc, and (2) to obtain homogeneous reductions of archival WFPC2/ACS imaging data of galaxies out to a distance of about 5 Mpc. These will provide some of the best and deepest data for the closest galaxies, with derived star-formation rates at ages from tens of Myr to a few Gyr. Without a priori information about metallicities, it can be difficult to disentangle the age-metallicity degeneracy in the construction of color-magnitude diagrams and subsequent comparisons with established isochrone fiducials. Oxygen abundances are easily derived from optical spectroscopy of star-forming regions, and provide present-day metallicity "zero-points" which help break age-metallicity degeneracies. We request a total of 51.5 hr with GMOS at Gemini South to obtain optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of six galaxies in order to derive their present-day metallicity in their interstellar media.

  16. Spatially resolved optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the low-metallicity galaxy UGC 4483

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Televich, Roberto J.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Garnett, Donald R.; Terlevich, Elena

    1994-01-01

    UGC 4483 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in the M81 group. Narrow-band imaging has revealed an H II region in UGC 4483 with an H alpha flux approximately = 1 x 10 (exp - 13) ergs/sq cm/s. Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of this H ll region yields He, N, O, Ne, and S abundances for the interstellar matter (ISM) in this galaxy. The spectra were acquired with several different telescope/instrument combinations in order to assess the quality of the derived uncertainties. With oxygen abundance of 3.3 x 10 (exp -5) (12 + log (O/H) = 7.5), this galaxy is similar to GR 8 and among the most metal poor dwarf irregulars known to date. However, the H II region in UGC 4483 has high excitation and higher surface brightness than GR 8, allowing very accurate abundance estimates. The N/O ratio is 3%, in good agreement with other low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. The S/O abundance ratio in UGC 4483 is close to the solar ratio, consistent with results for I Zw 18 and other low-metallicity dwarf irregulars. A He/H abundance of 0.079 +/- 0.002 is derived from observations of the lambda 6678 He ll emission line. A comparison of observations obtained with different telescopes and with the same telescope on different nights supports our relatively small estimated uncertainty in this measurement. We determine that the neutral helium fraction is insignificant through both direct observations of the He(+)/H(+) ratio across the nebula and through photoionization modeling. This results in a helium mass fraction of 0.239 +/- 0.006, consistent with the most recent theoretical and observational determinations of the primordial helium abundance. We also discuss remaining systematic uncertainties in the calculation of the primordial helium abundance

  17. Spatially resolved optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the low-metallicity galaxy UGC 4483

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Televich, Roberto J.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Garnett, Donald R.; Terlevich, Elena

    1994-01-01

    UGC 4483 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in the M81 group. Narrow-band imaging has revealed an H II region in UGC 4483 with an H alpha flux approximately = 1 x 10 (exp - 13) ergs/sq cm/s. Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of this H ll region yields He, N, O, Ne, and S abundances for the interstellar matter (ISM) in this galaxy. The spectra were acquired with several different telescope/instrument combinations in order to assess the quality of the derived uncertainties. With oxygen abundance of 3.3 x 10 (exp -5) (12 + log (O/H) = 7.5), this galaxy is similar to GR 8 and among the most metal poor dwarf irregulars known to date. However, the H II region in UGC 4483 has high excitation and higher surface brightness than GR 8, allowing very accurate abundance estimates. The N/O ratio is 3%, in good agreement with other low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. The S/O abundance ratio in UGC 4483 is close to the solar ratio, consistent with results for I Zw 18 and other low-metallicity dwarf irregulars. A He/H abundance of 0.079 +/- 0.002 is derived from observations of the lambda 6678 He ll emission line. A comparison of observations obtained with different telescopes and with the same telescope on different nights supports our relatively small estimated uncertainty in this measurement. We determine that the neutral helium fraction is insignificant through both direct observations of the He(+)/H(+) ratio across the nebula and through photoionization modeling. This results in a helium mass fraction of 0.239 +/- 0.006, consistent with the most recent theoretical and observational determinations of the primordial helium abundance. We also discuss remaining systematic uncertainties in the calculation of the primordial helium abundance

  18. Spectral Line Survey toward a Molecular Cloud in IC10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yuri; Shimonishi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Aikawa, Yuri; Kawamura, Akiko; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey observation in the 3 mm band toward the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy IC10 with the 45 m radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory to explore its chemical composition at a molecular-cloud scale (∼80 pc). The CS, SO, CCH, HCN, HCO+, and HNC lines are detected for the first time in this galaxy in addition to the CO and 13CO lines, while the c-C3H2, CH3OH, CN, C18O, and N2H+ lines are not detected. The spectral intensity pattern is found to be similar to those observed toward molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), whose metallicity is as low as IC10. Nitrogen-bearing species are deficient in comparison with the Galactic molecular clouds due to a lower elemental abundance of nitrogen. CCH is abundant in comparison with Galactic translucent clouds, whereas CH3OH may be deficient. These characteristic trends for CCH and CH3OH are also seen in the LMC, and seem to originate from photodissociation regions more extended in the peripheries of molecular clouds due to the lower metallicity condition.

  19. Detailed Abundances of Two Very Metal-poor Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[α/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] Lt -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] ~ -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo. Data herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metallicity of MPA-JHU SDSS-DR7 dwarf galaxies (Douglass+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, K. A.; Vogeley, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [OIII] and [SII] transitions, provide estimates of a region's electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [OII]λ3727, [OIII]λ4363, and [OIII]λλ4959,5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the direct Te method. We estimate the metallicity of 42 blue, star-forming void dwarf galaxies and 89 blue, star-forming dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as reprocessed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are less prevalent in voids than in the denser regions. (1 data file).

  1. A CENSUS OF OXYGEN IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: AN EMPIRICAL MODEL LINKING METALLICITIES, STAR FORMATION RATES, AND OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. J.; Dima, G. I.; Kewley, L. J.; Erb, D. K.; Dave, R.

    2012-09-20

    In this contribution, we present the first census of oxygen in star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We examine three samples of galaxies with metallicities and star formation rates (SFRs) at z = 0.07, 0.8, and 2.26, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey. We infer the total mass of oxygen produced and mass of oxygen found in the gas-phase from our local SDSS sample. The star formation history is determined by requiring that galaxies evolve along the relation between stellar mass and SFR observed in our three samples. We show that the observed relation between stellar mass and SFR for our three samples is consistent with other samples in the literature. The mass-metallicity relation is well established for our three samples, and from this we empirically determine the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies. Thus, we are able to simultaneously constrain the SFRs and metallicities of galaxies over cosmic time, allowing us to estimate the mass of oxygen locked up in stars. Combining this work with independent measurements reported in the literature, we conclude that the loss of oxygen from the interstellar medium of local star-forming galaxies is likely to be a ubiquitous process with the oxygen mass loss scaling (almost) linearly with stellar mass. We estimate the total baryonic mass loss and argue that only a small fraction of the baryons inferred from cosmological observations accrete onto galaxies.

  2. A closer look at IC 5201

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-12

    In 1900, astronomer Joseph Lunt made a discovery: Peering through a telescope at Cape Town Observatory, the British–South African scientist spotted this beautiful sight in the southern constellation of Grus (The Crane): a barred spiral galaxy now named IC 5201. Over a century later, the galaxy is still of interest to astronomers. For this image, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope used its Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to produce a beautiful and intricate image of the galaxy. Hubble’s ACS can resolve individual stars within other galaxies, making it an invaluable tool to explore how various populations of stars have sprung to life, evolved, and died throughout the cosmos. IC 5201 sits over 40 million light-years away from us. As with two thirds of all the spirals we see in the Universe — including the Milky Way, the galaxy has a bar of stars slicing through its centre.

  3. Metallicity and Age of the Stellar Stream around the Disk Galaxy NGC 5907

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Seppo; Grillmair, Carl J.; Capak, Peter; Arendt, Richard G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Davies, James E.; Majewski, Stephen R.; Brodie, Jean P.; GaBany, R. Jay; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2016-09-01

    Stellar streams have become central to studies of the interaction histories of nearby galaxies. To characterize the most prominent parts of the stellar stream around the well-known nearby (d = 17 Mpc) edge-on disk galaxy NGC 5907, we have obtained and analyzed new, deep gri Subaru/Suprime-Cam and 3.6 μm Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera observations. Combining the near-infrared 3.6 μm data with visible-light images allows us to use a long wavelength baseline to estimate the metallicity and age of the stellar population along an ˜60 kpc long segment of the stream. We have fitted the stellar spectral energy distribution with a single-burst stellar population synthesis model and we use it to distinguish between the proposed satellite accretion and minor/major merger formation models of the stellar stream around this galaxy. We conclude that a massive minor merger (stellar mass ratio of at least 1:8) can best account for the metallicity of -0.3 inferred along the brightest parts of the stream.

  4. On the Dependence of Type Ia SNe Luminosities on the Metallicity of Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Raya, Manuel E.; Mollá, Mercedes; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Galbany, Lluís; Vílchez, José Manuel; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Domínguez, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The metallicity of the progenitor system producing a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) could play a role in its maximum luminosity, as suggested by theoretical predictions. We present an observational study to investigate if such a relationship exists. Using the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) we have obtained intermediate-resolution spectroscopy data of a sample of 28 local galaxies hosting SNe Ia, for which distances have been derived using methods independent of those based on SN Ia parameters. From the emission lines observed in their optical spectra, we derived the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the region where each SN Ia exploded. Our data show a trend, with an 80% of chance not being due to random fluctuation, between SNe Ia absolute magnitudes and the oxygen abundances of the host galaxies, in the sense that luminosities tend to be higher for galaxies with lower metallicities. This result seems likely to be in agreement with both the theoretically expected behavior and with other observational results. This dependence MB-Z might induce systematic errors when it is not considered when deriving SNe Ia luminosities and then using them to derive cosmological distances.

  5. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF TYPE Ia SNe LUMINOSITIES ON THE METALLICITY OF THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Raya, Manuel E.; Mollá, Mercedes; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Galbany, Lluís; Vílchez, José Manuel; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Domínguez, Inmaculada

    2016-02-10

    The metallicity of the progenitor system producing a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) could play a role in its maximum luminosity, as suggested by theoretical predictions. We present an observational study to investigate if such a relationship exists. Using the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) we have obtained intermediate-resolution spectroscopy data of a sample of 28 local galaxies hosting SNe Ia, for which distances have been derived using methods independent of those based on SN Ia parameters. From the emission lines observed in their optical spectra, we derived the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the region where each SN Ia exploded. Our data show a trend, with an 80% of chance not being due to random fluctuation, between SNe Ia absolute magnitudes and the oxygen abundances of the host galaxies, in the sense that luminosities tend to be higher for galaxies with lower metallicities. This result seems likely to be in agreement with both the theoretically expected behavior and with other observational results. This dependence M{sub B}–Z might induce systematic errors when it is not considered when deriving SNe Ia luminosities and then using them to derive cosmological distances.

  6. On the Metal Aversion of LGRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, John; Fruchter, A.; Levesque, E.; L., K.; J., B.; Levan, A.; Tanvir, N.; Patel, S.; Aldering, G.; Perlmutter, S.; Misra, K.; Huang, K.; Reichart, D.; Nysewander, M.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss recent observations of several high metallicity LGRBs hosts. We then compare the entire population of LGRB hosts with measured metallicities to the hosts of Type II and broad-lined Type Ic SNe as well as the star-forming SDSS galaxy population using several methods of analysis. We argue that even though a few LGRBs do lie in fairly metal rich hosts, the general population of LGRB hosts is surprisingly metal poor, and that metallicity must be an important factor in the formation of LGRBs. Finally we conclude with a discussion of the potential importance and practicality of obtaining spatiality resolved metallicity measurement of LGRB host galaxies.

  7. THE DYNAMICS AND METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISTANT DWARF GALAXY VV124

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Bellazzini, Michele

    2012-05-20

    VV124 (UGC 4879) is an isolated, dwarf irregular/dwarf spheroidal (dIrr/dSph) transition-type galaxy at a distance of 1.36 Mpc. Previous low-resolution spectroscopy yielded inconsistent radial velocities for different components of the galaxy, and photometry hinted at the presence of a stellar disk. In order to quantify the stellar dynamics, we observed individual red giants in VV124 with the Keck/Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS). We validated members based on their positions in the color-magnitude diagram, radial velocities, and spectral features. Our sample contains 67 members. The average radial velocity is (v{sub r} ) = -29.1 {+-} 1.3 km s{sup -1} in agreement with the previous radio measurements of H I gas. The velocity distribution is Gaussian, indicating that VV124 is supported primarily by velocity dispersion inside a radius of 1.5 kpc. Outside that radius, our measurements provide only an upper limit of 8.6 km s{sup -1} on any rotation in the photometric disk-like feature. The velocity dispersion is {sigma}{sub v} = 9.4 {+-} 1.0 km s{sup -1}, from which we inferred a mass of M{sub 1/2} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} and a mass-to-light ratio of (M/L{sub V} ){sub 1/2} = 5.2 {+-} 1.1 M{sub Sun }/L{sub Sun }, both measured within the half-light radius. Thus, VV124 contains dark matter. We also measured the metallicity distribution from neutral iron lines. The average metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = -1.14 {+-} 0.06, is consistent with the mass-metallicity relation defined by dSph galaxies. The dynamics and metallicity distribution of VV124 appear similar to dSphs of similar stellar mass.

  8. First Detection of a Cluster-scale Gradient in the ISM metallicity of the Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anshu; Yuan, Tiantian; Tran, Kim-Vy; Martizzi, Davide; Taylor, Philip; Kewley, Lisa J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effect of cluster environment on galaxy formation and evolution is a central topic in extragalactic astronomy. The interstellar medium (ISM) metallicity provides a powerful constraint on the complex interplay of star formation and the galactic inflow/outflow. Disentangling the effect of internal (stellar mass) and external (environment) processes on galaxy evolution is difficult because high mass galaxies tend to exist in dense environments. For the past decade, the difference between mass-metallicity relations in the cluster and field environment have been used to disentangle the effect of internal/external processes. Current observations of the mass-metallicity relation show minimal dependence on the large-scale environment. In this talk, I will present the radial distribution of ISM metallicity in galaxy clusters as an alternative method to study the impact of environment on galaxy evolution. I will present the first observation of cluster-scale negative abundance gradients in two CLASH clusters at z~0.35: MACS1115+0129 and RXJ1532+3021. Our observation presents the highest metallicity enhancement observed in a galaxy cluster on the mass-metallicity relation to date. Most strikingly, we discover that neither the radial metallicity gradient nor the offset on the mass-metallicity relation show any obvious dependence on the stellar mass of cluster members. I will discuss the different physical processes in the cluster environment such as disk truncation due to ram-pressure stripping and self-enrichment due to strangulation that can lead to the observed cluster-scale negative abundance gradient in ISM metallicity.In our follow-up work, we have performed simulations of the disk-truncation in cluster environment using a sample of CALIFA galaxies. Our analytical model of disk-truncation is based on the ram-pressure stripping of the cold gas component of the infalling galaxy in the cluster environment. I will present the simulated radial metallicity

  9. The metallicity dependence of the long-duration gamma-ray burst rate from host galaxy luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the difference between the host galaxy properties of core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe) and long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), and quantify a possible metallicity dependence of the efficiency of producing LGRBs. We use a sample of 16 CC SNe and 16 LGRBs from Fruchter et al. which have similar redshift distributions to eliminate galaxy evolution biases. We make a forward prediction of their host galaxy luminosity distributions from the overall cosmic metallicity distribution of star formation. The latter is based on luminosity functions, star formation rates (SFRs) and luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations of galaxies. This approach is supported by the finding that LGRB hosts follow the L-Z relations of star-forming galaxies. We then compare predictions for metallicity-dependent event efficiencies with the observed host data. We find that ultraviolet-based SFR estimates predict the host distribution of CC SNe perfectly well in a metallicity-independent form. In contrast, LGRB hosts are on average fainter by one magnitude, almost as faint as the Large Magellanic Cloud. Assuming this to be a metallicity effect, the present data are insufficient to discriminate between a sharp cut-off and a soft decrease in efficiency towards higher metallicity. For a sharp cut-off, however, we find a best value for the cut-off metallicity, as reflected in the oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H)lim ~= 8.7 +/- 0.3 at 95 per cent confidence including systematic uncertainties, in the calibration of Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval. This value is somewhat lower than the traditionally quoted value for the Sun, but is comparable to the revised solar oxygen abundance. LGRB models that require sharp metallicity cut-offs well below approximately one-half the revised solar metallicity appear to be effectively ruled out, as they would require fainter LGRB hosts than those that are observed. We also discuss the likely implications of the still ongoing metallicity `calibration debate'.

  10. The GRB 030329 host: a blue low metallicity subluminous galaxy with intense star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorosabel, J.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Sollerman, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Christensen, L.; Hjorth, J.; Jóhannesson, G.; Guziy, S.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Björnsson, G.; Sokolov, V. V.; Fatkhullin, T. A.; Nilsson, K.

    2005-12-01

    We present broad band photometry and spectroscopic observations of the host galaxy of GRB 030329. Analysis of the spectral emission lines shows that the host is likely a low metallicity galaxy (Z˜0.004). The spectral energy distribution (SED) constructed with the photometric points has been fitted using synthetic and observational templates. The best SED fit is obtained with a starburst template with an age of 150 Myr and an extinction Av ˜ 0.6. We find that the GRB 030329 host galaxy is a subluminous galaxy (L ˜ 0.016 Lstar) with a stellar mass of ≳ 108 M⊙. Three independent diagnostics, based on the restframe UV continuum, the [O II], and the Balmer emission lines, provide a consistent unextinguished star formation rate of ˜ 0.6 M⊙ yr-1, implying a high unextinguished specific star formation rate ( 34 M⊙ yr-1 (L/Lstar)-1). We estimate that the unextinguished specific star formation rate of the GRB 030329 host is higher than 93.5% of the galaxies at a similar redshift. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on data taken at the 2.2-m and 3.5-m telescopes of the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán de Calar Alto, operated by the Max Planck institute of Heidelberg and Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. The spectral observations were obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal (Chile), under the Director's Discretionary Time programme 271.D-5006(A).

  11. Gravitational Wave Background from Binary Mergers and Metallicity Evolution of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Niino, Yuu; Sago, Norichika

    2016-12-01

    The cosmological evolution of the binary black hole (BH) merger rate and the energy density of the gravitational wave (GW) background are investigated. To evaluate the redshift dependence of the BH formation rate, BHs are assumed to originate from low-metallicity stars, and the relations between the star formation rate, metallicity and stellar mass of galaxies are combined with the stellar mass function at each redshift. As a result, it is found that when the energy density of the GW background is scaled with the merger rate at the local universe, the scaling factor does not depend on the critical metallicity for the formation of BHs. Also taking into account the merger of binary neutron stars, a simple formula to express the energy spectrum of the GW background is constructed for the inspiral phase. The relation between the local merger rate and the energy density of the GW background will be examined by future GW observations.

  12. CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE AND HOST GALAXY STELLAR POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2012-11-10

    We have used images and spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to examine the host galaxies of 519 nearby supernovae (SN). The colors at the sites of the explosions, as well as chemical abundances, and specific star formation rates (SFRs) of the host galaxies provide circumstantial evidence on the origin of each SN type. We examine separately SN II, SN IIn, SN IIb, SN Ib, SN Ic, and SN Ic with broad lines (SN Ic-BL). For host galaxies that have multiple spectroscopic fibers, we select the fiber with host radial offset most similar to that of the SN. Type Ic SN explode at small host offsets, and their hosts have exceptionally strongly star-forming, metal-rich, and dusty stellar populations near their centers. The SN Ic-BL and SN IIb explode in exceptionally blue locations, and, in our sample, we find that the host spectra for SN Ic-BL show lower average oxygen abundances than those for SN Ic. SN IIb host fiber spectra are also more metal-poor than those for SN Ib, although a significant difference exists for only one of two strong-line diagnostics. SN Ic-BL host galaxy emission lines show strong central specific SFRs. In contrast, we find no strong evidence for different environments for SN IIn compared to the sites of SN II. Because our SN sample is constructed from a variety of sources, there is always a risk that sampling methods can produce misleading results. We have separated the SN discovered by targeted surveys from those discovered by galaxy-impartial searches to examine these questions and show that our results do not depend sensitively on the discovery technique.

  13. DETECTION OF A DISTINCT METAL-POOR STELLAR HALO IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.

    2015-02-10

    We present the resolved stellar populations in the inner and outer halo of the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115. Using deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we analyze stars 2 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We study three fields along the minor axis of this galaxy, 19, 37, and 54 kpc from its center—corresponding to 7, 14, and 21 effective radii (r{sub e} ). Even at these large galactocentric distances, all of the fields are dominated by a relatively enriched population, with the main peak in the metallicity distribution decreasing with radius from [Z/H] ∼ –0.5 to –0.65. The fraction of metal-poor stars ([Z/H] < –0.95) increases from 17% at 16-37 kpc to 28% at ∼54 kpc. We observe a distinct low-metallicity population (peaked at [Z/H] ∼ –1.3 and with total mass 2 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} ∼ 14% of the galaxy's stellar mass) and argue that this represents the detection of an underlying low-metallicity stellar halo. Such halos are generally predicted by galaxy formation theories and have been observed in several late-type galaxies, including the Milky Way and M31. The metallicity and spatial distribution of the stellar halo of NGC 3115 are consistent with the galaxy's globular cluster system, which has a similar low-metallicity population that becomes dominant at these large radii. This finding supports the use of globular clusters as bright chemodynamical tracers of galaxy halos. These data also allow us to make a precise measurement of the magnitude of the TRGB, from which we derive a distance modulus of NGC 3115 of 30.05 ± 0.05 ± 0.10{sub sys} (10.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.5{sub sys} Mpc)

  14. Metallicity calibrations of galaxies with low star formation rates: the influence of a stochastic IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paalvast, Mieke; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2017-09-01

    We present a study of the consequences of an initial mass function (IMF) that is stochastically sampled on the main emission lines used for gas-phase metallicity estimates in extragalactic sources. We use the stochastic stellar population code slug and the photoionization code cloudy to show that the stochastic sampling of the massive end of the mass function can lead to clear variations in the relative production of energetic emission lines such as [O iii] relative to that of Balmer lines. We use this to study the impact on the Te, N2O2, R23 and O3N2 metallicity calibrators. We find that stochastic sampling of the IMF leads to a systematic overestimate of O/H in galaxies with low star formation rates (SFRs; ≤10-3 M⊙ yr-1) when using the N2O2, R23 and O3N2 strong-line methods, and an underestimate when using the Te method on galaxies of sub-solar metallicity. We point out that while the SFRH α-to-SFRUV ratio can be used to identify systems where the IMF might be insufficiently sampled, it does not provide sufficient information to fully correct the metallicity calibrations at low SFRs. Care must therefore be given in the choice of metallicity indicators in such systems, with the N2O2 indicator proving most robust of those tested by us, with a bias of 0.08 dex for models with SFR = 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 and solar metallicity.

  15. HI in very metal-poor galaxies: the SBS 0335-052 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekta, B.; Pustilnik, Simon A.; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2009-08-01

    We present Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, HI 21 cm observations of SBS 0335-052E and SBS 0335-052W, a close pair of dwarf galaxies, which are further unusual in being the most metal-poor star-forming galaxies known. We present images at several angular resolutions, ranging from ~40 to 4 arcsec. These images show that SBS 0335-052 is a strongly interacting system, with a faint diffuse HI bridge seen at low resolution, and elongated tails seen at the higher resolutions. The overall morphology suggests that the pair represents a major (as both galaxies have similar HI masses) merger of extremely gas-rich galaxies, which is currently past the first close encounter. The low-resolution velocity field is dominated by the velocity difference between the two galaxies and the velocity gradient along the tidal features. However, for SBS 0335-052W at least, at high angular resolution, one sees a central velocity field that could be associated with the spin of the original undisturbed disc. The two galaxies have very similar HI masses, but very different optical properties and current star formation rates. A possible reason for this is the differing amounts of tidally induced star formation, because of the different spin orientations of these interacting galaxies. The highest angular resolution HI images show that the ionized superbubble, identified by Thuan, Izotov & Lipovetsky, in the Hubble Space Telescope images of SBS 0335-052E, is extended along one of the diffuse tidal features, and that there is a high-density HI clump at the other end of the superbubble. The star formation in SBS 0335-052E occurs mainly in a group of superstar clusters (SSCs) with a clear age gradient; the age decreases as one approaches the dense HI clump. We suggest that this propagating star formation is driven by the superbubble expanding into a medium with a tidally produced density gradient. The high pressures associated with the compressed material would also naturally explain why current star

  16. Radial metallicity gradients in spiral galaxies from H II regions and planetary nebulae: probing galactic chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Letizia

    2015-08-01

    Radial metallicity gradients, typically observed in spiral galaxies, are excellent constraints for chemical evolution models. The contemporary studies of the two stellar populations, whose progenitors have formed at different times, yield to the chemical and time constraining of the models. In this context, planetary nebula and HII region analysis proved to be ideal two-epochs test populations. We present an assortment of galaxies whose oxygen abundances have been determined both with weak- and strong-line methods, and whose radial metallicity gradients and their evolution in time have disclosed very interesting correlations with the galaxy characteristics. New results from our Gemini/GMOS observations, and a review of the best literature data, set the stage for a better understanding of spiral galaxy evolution.

  17. The physical conditions, metallicity and metal abundance ratios in a highly magnified galaxy at z = 3.6252

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Rigby, Jane R.; Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci; Wuyts, Eva; Florian, Michael; Gladders, Michael D.; Oguri, Masamune

    2014-08-01

    We present optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy of SGAS J105039.6+001730, a strongly lensed galaxy at z = 3.6252 magnified by >30×, and derive its physical properties. We measure a stellar mass of log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) = 9.5 ± 0.35, star formation rates from [O II] λλ3727 and Hβ of 55 ± 25 and 84 ± 24 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively, an electron density of n{sub e} ≤ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –2}, an electron temperature of T{sub e} ≤ 14,000 K, and a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.3 ± 0.1. The strong C III] λλ1907,1909 emission and abundance ratios of C, N, O, and Si are consistent with well-studied starbursts at z ∼ 0 with similar metallicities. Strong P Cygni lines and He II λ1640 emission indicate a significant population of Wolf-Rayet stars, but synthetic spectra of individual populations of young, hot stars do not reproduce the observed integrated P Cygni absorption features. The rest-frame UV spectral features are indicative of a young starburst with high ionization, implying either (1) an ionization parameter significantly higher than suggested by rest-frame optical nebular lines, or (2) differences in one or both of the initial mass function and the properties of ionizing spectra of massive stars. We argue that the observed features are likely the result of a superposition of star forming regions with different physical properties. These results demonstrate the complexity of star formation on scales smaller than individual galaxies, and highlight the importance of systematic effects that result from smearing together the signatures of individual star forming regions within galaxies.

  18. VARIATIONS OF MID- AND FAR-INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AMONG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: RELATION TO STELLAR METALLICITY AND COLD DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2013-05-01

    The Hubble morphological sequence from early to late galaxies corresponds to an increasing rate of specific star formation. The Hubble sequence also follows a banana-shaped correlation between 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities, both normalized with the K-band luminosity. We show that this correlation is significantly tightened if galaxies with central active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission are removed, but the cosmic scatter of elliptical galaxies in both 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities remains significant along the correlation. We find that the 24 {mu}m variation among ellipticals correlates with stellar metallicity, reflecting emission from hot dust in winds from asymptotic giant branch stars of varying metallicity. Infrared surface brightness variations in elliptical galaxies indicate that the K - 24 color profile is U-shaped for reasons that are unclear. In some elliptical galaxies, cold interstellar dust emitting at 70 and 160 {mu}m may arise from recent gas-rich mergers. However, we argue that most of the large range of 70 {mu}m luminosity in elliptical galaxies is due to dust transported from galactic cores by feedback events in (currently IR-quiet) AGNs. Cooler dusty gas naturally accumulates in the cores of elliptical galaxies due to dust-cooled local stellar mass loss and may accrete onto the central black hole, releasing energy. AGN-heated gas can transport dust in cores 5-10 kpc out into the hot gas atmospheres where it radiates extended 70 {mu}m emission but is eventually destroyed by sputtering. This, and some modest star formation, defines a cycle of dust creation and destruction. Elliptical galaxies evidently undergo large transient excursions in the banana plot in times comparable to the sputtering time or AGN duty cycle, 10 Myr. Normally regarded as passive, elliptical galaxies are the most active galaxies in the IR color-color correlation.

  19. HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH GALCONS

    SciTech Connect

    Arieli, Yinon; Rephaeli, Yoel; Norman, Michael L.

    2010-06-20

    We present our recently developed galcon approach to hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters-a subgrid model added to the Enzo adaptive mesh refinement code-which is capable of tracking galaxies within the cluster potential and following the feedback of their main baryonic processes. Galcons are physically extended galactic constructs within which baryonic processes are modeled analytically. By identifying galaxy halos and initializing galcons at high redshift (z {approx} 3, well before most clusters virialize), we are able to follow the evolution of star formation (SF), galactic winds, and ram pressure stripping of interstellar media, along with their associated mass, metals, and energy feedback into intracluster (IC) gas, which are deposited through a well-resolved spherical interface layer. Our approach is fully described and all results from initial simulations with the enhanced Enzo-Galcon code are presented. With a galactic SF rate derived from the observed cosmic SF density, our galcon simulation better reproduces the observed properties of IC gas, including the density, temperature, metallicity, and entropy profiles. By following the impact of a large number of galaxies on IC gas we explicitly demonstrate the advantages of this approach in producing a lower stellar fraction, a larger gas core radius, an isothermal temperature profile in the central cluster region, and a flatter metallicity gradient than in a standard simulation.

  20. SDSS-IV MaNGA: environmental dependence of stellar age and metallicity gradients in nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Huiyuan; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Mo, Houjun; Goddard, Daniel; Bundy, Kevin; Li, Hongyu; Nair, Preethi; Lin, Lihwai; Long, R. J.; Riffel, Rogério; Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel R.; Zhang, Kai; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Malanushenko, Olena

    2017-03-01

    We present a study on the stellar age and metallicity distributions for 1105 galaxies using the STARLIGHT software on MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) integral field spectra. We derive age and metallicity gradients by fitting straight lines to the radial profiles, and explore their correlations with total stellar mass M*, NUV - r colour and environments, as identified by both the large-scale structure (LSS) type and the local density. We find that the mean age and metallicity gradients are close to zero but slightly negative, which is consistent with the inside-out formation scenario. Within our sample, we find that both the age and metallicity gradients show weak or no correlation with either the LSS type or local density environment. In addition, we also study the environmental dependence of age and metallicity values at the effective radii. The age and metallicity values are highly correlated with M* and NUV - r and are also dependent on LSS type as well as local density. Low-mass galaxies tend to be younger and have lower metallicity in low-density environments while high-mass galaxies are less affected by environment.

  1. A DIRECT STELLAR METALLICITY DETERMINATION IN THE DISK OF THE MASER GALAXY NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zachary; Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert

    2013-12-20

    We present the first direct determination of a stellar metallicity in the spiral galaxy NGC 4258 (D = 7.6 Mpc) based on the quantitative analysis of a low-resolution (∼5 Å) Keck Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph spectrum of a blue supergiant star located in its disk. A determination of stellar metallicity in this galaxy is important for the absolute calibration of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation as an anchor for the extragalactic distance scale and for a better characterization of its dependence as a function of abundance. We find a value 0.2 dex lower than solar metallicity at a galactocentric distance of 8.7 kpc, in agreement with recent H II region studies using the weak forbidden auroral oxygen line at 4363 Å. We determine the effective stellar temperature, gravity, luminosity, and line-of-sight extinction of the blue supergiant being studied. We show that it fits well on the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation, strengthening the potential of this method as a new extragalactic distance indicator.

  2. Effects of Metallicity and AGN Activity on the Mid-Infrared Dust Emission of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Zhu, Yi-Nan; Cao, Chen; Qin, Bo

    2007-10-01

    Using a sample of the Spitzer SWIRE-field galaxies whose optical spectra are taken from Data Release 4 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we study possible correlations between the mid-infrared (MIR) dust emission from these galaxies and both their metallicities and AGN activities. We find that both metallicity and AGN activity are well correlated with the following ratios: PAH-to-star, VSG-to-star, and PAH-to-VSG, which can be characterized by νLν[8 μm(dust)]/νLν[3.6 μm], νLν[24 μm]/νLν[3.6 μm], and νLν[8 μm(dust)]/νLν[24 μm], respectively. We argue that our MIR-metallicity correlation could be explained by either the amount of dust (ongoing dust formation) or dust destruction (PAHs and VSGs could be destroyed by hard and intense radiation fields), and that the MIR-AGN correlation could arise due to either PAH destruction or an enhanced VSG continuum by the central AGN.

  3. ANISOTROPIC METAL-ENRICHED OUTFLOWS DRIVEN BY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.; Cavagnolo, K. W.

    2011-04-20

    We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of metal-rich gas in 10 galaxy clusters using deep observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) have experienced recent active galactic nucleus activity in the forms of bright radio emission, cavities, and shock fronts embedded in the hot atmospheres. The heavy elements are distributed anisotropically and are aligned with the large-scale radio and cavity axes. They are apparently being transported from the halo of the BCG into the intracluster medium along large-scale outflows driven by the radio jets. The radial ranges of the metal-enriched outflows are found to scale with jet power as R{sub Fe} {proportional_to} P {sup 0.42}{sub jet}, with a scatter of only 0.5 dex. The heavy elements are transported beyond the extent of the inner cavities in all clusters, suggesting that this is a long-lasting effect sustained over multiple generations of outbursts. Black holes in BCGs will likely have difficulty ejecting metal-enriched gas beyond 1 Mpc unless their masses substantially exceed 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}.

  4. Ultraviolet ISM Diagnostics for Star-forming Galaxies. I. Tracers of Metallicity and Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterlund, Erika; Levesque, Emily M.; Leitherer, Claus; Danforth, Charles W.

    2015-06-01

    We have observed a sample of 14 nearby (z˜ 0.03) star-forming blue compact galaxies (BCGs) in the rest-frame far-UV (˜1150-2200 Å) using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We have also generated a grid of stellar population synthesis models using the Starburst99 evolutionary synthesis code, allowing us to compare observations and theoretical predictions for the Si iv_1400 and C iv_1550 UV indices; both are comprised of a blend of stellar wind and interstellar lines and have been proposed as metallicity diagnostics in the UV. Our models and observations both demonstrate that there is a positive linear correlation with metallicity for both indices, and we find generally good agreement between our observations and the predictions of the Starburst99 models (with the models slightly under-estimating the value of the indices due to contributions from interstellar lines not simulated by a stellar population synthesis code). By combining the rest-frame UV observations with pre-existing rest-frame optical spectrophotometry of our BCG sample, we also directly compare the predictions of metallicity and extinction diagnostics across both wavelength regimes. This comparison reveals a correlation between the UV absorption and optical strong-line diagnostics, offering the first means of directly comparing interstellar medium (ISM) properties determined across different rest-frame regimes. Finally, using our Starburst99 model grid, we determine theoretical values for the short-wavelength UV continuum slope, {{β }18}, which can be used for determining extinction in rest-frame UV spectra of star-forming galaxies. We consider the implications of these results and discuss future work aimed at parameterizing these and other environmental diagnostics in the UV (a suite of diagnostics that could offer particular utility in the study of star-forming galaxies at high redshift) as well as the development of robust comparisons between ISM diagnostics across a

  5. Stellar metallicity of the extended disk and distance of the spiral galaxy NGC 3621

    SciTech Connect

    Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at

    2014-06-10

    Low resolution (∼4.5 Å) ESO VLT/FORS spectra of blue supergiant stars are analyzed to determine stellar metallicities (based on elements such as iron, titanium, and magnesium) in the extended disk of the spiral galaxy, NGC 3621. Mildly subsolar metallicity (–0.30 dex) is found for the outer objects beyond 7 kpc, independent of galactocentric radius and compatible with the absence of a metallicity gradient, confirming the results of a recent investigation of interstellar medium H II region gas oxygen abundances. The stellar metallicities are slightly higher than those from the H II regions when based on measurements of the weak forbidden auroral oxygen line at 4363 Å but lower than the ones obtained with the R {sub 23} strong line method. It is shown that the present level of metallicity in the extended disk cannot be the result of chemical evolution over the age of the disk with the present rate of in situ star formation. Additional mechanisms must be involved. In addition to metallicity, stellar effective temperatures, gravities, interstellar reddening, and bolometric magnitudes are determined. After the application of individual reddening corrections for each target, the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship of blue supergiant stars is used to obtain a distance modulus of 29.07 ± 0.09 mag (distance D = 6.52 ± 0.28 Mpc). This new distance is discussed in relation to Cepheid and the tip of the red giant branch distances.

  6. Stellar kinematics and metallicities in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II

    DOE PAGES

    Simon, J. D.

    2015-07-23

    With this study, we present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity ofmore » $$62.8\\pm 0.5\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{\\rm{s}}^{-1}$$ and a velocity dispersion of $$3.3\\pm 0.7\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{\\rm{s}}^{-1}$$. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is $$470\\pm 210\\ {M}_{\\odot }/{L}_{\\odot }$$, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 $$\\mathrm{km}\\ {{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3$$. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65\\pm 0.07$$, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is $${\\mathrm{log}}_{10}(J)=18.8\\pm 0.6\\;\\;\\mathrm{GeV}{\\;}^{2}\\;{\\mathrm{cm}}^{-5}\\;$$ within 0fdg2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies.« less

  7. MULTI-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS FROM MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. III. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF MILKY WAY DWARF SATELLITE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A.; Simon, Joshua D.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2011-02-01

    We present metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) for the central regions of eight dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way: Fornax, Leo I and II, Sculptor, Sextans, Draco, Canes Venatici I, and Ursa Minor. We use the published catalog of abundance measurements from the previous paper in this series. The measurements are based on spectral synthesis of iron absorption lines. For each MDF, we determine maximum likelihood fits for Leaky Box, Pre-Enriched, and Extra Gas (wherein the gas supply available for star formation increases before it decreases to zero) analytic models of chemical evolution. Although the models are too simplistic to describe any MDF in detail, a Leaky Box starting from zero metallicity gas fits none of the galaxies except Canes Venatici I well. The MDFs of some galaxies, particularly the more luminous ones, strongly prefer the Extra Gas Model to the other models. Only for Canes Venatici I does the Pre-Enriched Model fit significantly better than the Extra Gas Model. The best-fit effective yields of the less luminous half of our galaxy sample do not exceed 0.02 Z{sub sun}, indicating that gas outflow is important in the chemical evolution of the less luminous galaxies. We surmise that the ratio of the importance of gas infall to gas outflow increases with galaxy luminosity. Strong correlations of average [Fe/H] and metallicity spread with luminosity support this hypothesis.

  8. The Quest for Cradles of Life: Using the Fundamental Metallicity Relation to Hunt for the Most Habitable Type of Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Pratika; Cockell, Charles; Rice, Ken; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2015-09-01

    The field of astrobiology has made huge strides in understanding the habitable zones around stars (stellar habitable zones) where life can begin, sustain its existence and evolve into complex forms. A few studies have extended this idea by modeling galactic-scale habitable zones (galactic habitable zones) for our Milky Way (MW) and specific elliptical galaxies. However, estimating the habitability for galaxies spanning a wide range of physical properties has so far remained an outstanding issue. Here, we present a “cosmobiological” framework that allows us to sift through the entire galaxy population in the local universe and answer the question, “Which type of galaxy is most likely to host complex life in the cosmos?” Interestingly, the three key astrophysical criteria governing habitability (total mass in stars, total metal mass and ongoing star formation rate) are found to be intricately linked through the “fundamental metallicity relation” as shown by Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations of more than a hundred thousand galaxies in the local universe. Using this relation we show that metal-rich, shapeless giant elliptical galaxies at least twice as massive as the MW (with a tenth of its star formation rate) can potentially host ten thousand times as many habitable (Earth-like) planets, making them the most probable “cradles of life” in the universe.

  9. THE QUEST FOR CRADLES OF LIFE: USING THE FUNDAMENTAL METALLICITY RELATION TO HUNT FOR THE MOST HABITABLE TYPE OF GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Dayal, Pratika; Cockell, Charles; Rice, Ken; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2015-09-01

    The field of astrobiology has made huge strides in understanding the habitable zones around stars (stellar habitable zones) where life can begin, sustain its existence and evolve into complex forms. A few studies have extended this idea by modeling galactic-scale habitable zones (galactic habitable zones) for our Milky Way (MW) and specific elliptical galaxies. However, estimating the habitability for galaxies spanning a wide range of physical properties has so far remained an outstanding issue. Here, we present a “cosmobiological” framework that allows us to sift through the entire galaxy population in the local universe and answer the question, “Which type of galaxy is most likely to host complex life in the cosmos?” Interestingly, the three key astrophysical criteria governing habitability (total mass in stars, total metal mass and ongoing star formation rate) are found to be intricately linked through the “fundamental metallicity relation” as shown by Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations of more than a hundred thousand galaxies in the local universe. Using this relation we show that metal-rich, shapeless giant elliptical galaxies at least twice as massive as the MW (with a tenth of its star formation rate) can potentially host ten thousand times as many habitable (Earth-like) planets, making them the most probable “cradles of life” in the universe.

  10. Metal-line absorption at Z(sub abs) approximately Z(sub em) from associated galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, E.; Yee, H. K. C.; Bechtold, Jill; Dobrzycki, Adam

    1994-01-01

    For a preliminary study of whether C IV absorption at Z(sub abs) approximately Z(sub em) is related to associated galaxy companions, we have collected data from a sample of 10 quasars with 0.15 less than z less than 0.65 for which high-resolution optical and UV spectroscopy is available from the literature, and for which we have deep optical images and limited spectroscopy. We also present new optical spectra for two of our samples. Four of these quasars have associated C IV absorption systems. In thes four fields, there are eight galaxies with M(sub r) less than -19.0 mag within 35 kpc of the quasar (projected distance, assuming they are at the quasar redshift), which may be candidates for the associated C IV absorption. This observed density of galaxies near quasars with associated C IV absorption is significantly greater than that for a control sample of quasars chosen from the literature. This result suggests that galaxies near the quasar line of sight may be linked with associated C IV absorption. None of these quasars show associated Mg II absorption, despite the presence of galaxies very near the line of sight, suggesting a Mg II 'proximity effect,' where ionizing flux from the quasar destroys the Mg(+) from at least the outer parts of the galaxies. Three quasars are located in rich galaxy clusters, but none of these quasars are found to have associated C IV absorption. This suggests that galaxies in rich clusters associated with quasars are less likely to be metal-line absorbers. It is plausible that the extended galaxy halos which may be responsible for the absorptions are stripped from galaxies in these dense environments. While it seems that at Z approximately 0.6 rich clusters do not cause them, associated C IV absorption systems at higher redshift may be explained by associated clusters if there has been evolution in the properties of galaxy halos in dense environments.

  11. Nonlinear Color--Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VI. On Calcium II Triplet Based Metallicities of Globular Clusters in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chul; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-02-01

    The metallicity distribution function of globular clusters (GCs) in galaxies is a key to understanding galactic formation and evolution. The calcium II triplet (CaT) index has recently become a popular metal abundance indicator thanks to its sensitivity to GC metallicity. Here we revisit and assess the reliability of CaT as a metallicity indicator using our new stellar population synthesis simulations based on empirical high-resolution fluxes. The model shows that the CaT strength of old (>10 Gyr) GCs is proportional to [Fe/H] below -0.5. In the modest metal-rich regime, however, CaT does not increase anymore with [Fe/H] due to the little contribution from coolest red giant stars to the CaT absorption. The nonlinear nature of the color-CaT relation is confirmed by the observations of GCs in nearby early-type galaxies. This indicates that the CaT should be used carefully when deriving metallicities of metal-rich stellar populations. Our results offer an explanation for the observed sharp difference between the color and CaT distributions of GCs in the same galaxies. We take this as an analogy to the view that metallicity-color and metallicity-Lick index nonlinearity of GCs is primarily responsible for their observed “bimodal” distributions of colors and absorption indices.

  12. Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of IC 1613. II. The Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Saha, Abhijit; Gallagher, J. S.; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Mateo, Mario

    2003-10-01

    We have taken deep images of an outlying field in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 with the WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the standard broadband F555W (V, 8 orbits) and F814W (I, 16 orbits) filters. The photometry reaches to V=27.7 (MV=+3.4) and I=27.1 (MI=+2.8) at the 50% completeness level, the deepest to date for an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy. We analyze the resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and compare it with CMDs created from theoretical stellar models using three different methods to derive a star formation history (SFH) as well as constrain the chemical evolution for IC 1613. All three methods find an enhanced star formation rate (SFR), at roughly the same magnitude (factor of 3), over roughly the same period (from 3 to 6 Gyr ago). Additionally, all three methods were driven to similar age-metallicity relationships (AMR) that show an increase from [Fe/H]~-1.3 at earliest times to [Fe/H]~-0.7 at present. Good agreement is found between the AMR which is derived from the CMD analysis and that which can be inferred from the derived SFH at all but the earliest ages. The agreement between the three models and the self-consistency of the derived chemical enrichment history support the reality of the derived SFH of IC 1613 and, more generally, are supportive of the practice of constructing galaxy SFHs from CMDs. A comparison of the newly observed outer field with an earlier studied central field of IC 1613 shows that the SFR in the outer field has been significantly depressed during the last Gyr. This implies that the optical scale length of the galaxy has been decreasing with time and that comparison of galaxies at intermediate redshift with present-day galaxies should take this effect into account. Comparing the CMD of the outer field of IC 1613 with CMDs of Milky Way dSph companions, we find strong similarities between IC 1613 and the more distant dSph companions (Carina, Fornax, Leo I, and Leo II) in that all are dominated

  13. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density versus gas metallicity (Σ*-Z) relation for more than 500 000 spatially resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disc galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of 4 in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disc galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ*-Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disc galaxies.

  14. Very metal-poor galaxies: ionized gas kinematics in nine objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. V.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2010-07-01

    The study of ionized gas morphology and kinematics in nine extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxies with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer on the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) 6-m telescope is presented. Some of these very rare objects (with currently known range of O/H of 7.12 < 12 + log(O/H) < 7.65, or ) are believed to be the best proxies of `young' low-mass galaxies in the high-redshift Universe. One of the main goals of this study is to look for possible evidence of star formation (SF) activity induced by external perturbations. Recent results from HI mapping of a small subsample of XMD star-forming galaxies provided confident evidence for the important role of interaction-induced SF. Our observations provide complementary or new information that the great majority of the studied XMD dwarfs have strongly disturbed gas morphology and kinematics or the presence of detached components. We approximate the observed velocity fields by simple models of a rotating tilted thin disc, which allows us the robust detection of non-circular gas motions. These data, in turn, indicate the important role of current/recent interactions and mergers in the observed enhanced SF. As a by-product of our observations, we obtained data for two Low Surface Brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies: Anon J012544+075957 that is a companion of the merger system UGC 993, and SAO 0822+3545 which shows off-centre, asymmetric, low star formation rate star-forming regions, likely induced by the interaction with the companion XMD dwarf HS 0822+3542. Based on observations obtained with the Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS 6-m telescope. E-mail: moisav@gmail.com (AVM); sap@sao.ru (SAP); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK)

  15. New metallicity calibration for Seyfert 2 galaxies based on the N2O2 index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Dors, O. L.; Cardaci, M. V.; Hägele, G. F.

    2017-01-01

    We derive a new relation between the metallicity of Seyfert 2 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and the intensity of the narrow emission-lines ratio N2O2=log([N II]λ6584/[O II]λ3727). The calibration of this relation was performed determining the metallicity (Z) of a sample of 58 AGNs through a diagram containing the observational data and the results of a grid of photoionization models obtained with the CLOUDY code. We find the new Z/Z⊙-N2O2 relation using the obtained metallicity values and the corresponding observational emission line intensities for each object of the sample. Estimations derived through the use of this new calibration indicate that narrow line regions of Seyfert 2 galaxies exhibit a large range of metallicities (0.3 ≲ Z/Z_{⊙} ≲ 2.0), with a median value Z ≈ Z⊙. Regarding the possible existence of correlations between the luminosity L(Hβ), the electron density, and the color excess E(B-V) with the metallicity in this kind of objects, we do not find correlations between them.

  16. New metallicity calibration for Seyfert 2 galaxies based on the N2O2 index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Dors, O. L.; Cardaci, M. V.; Hägele, G. F.

    2017-05-01

    We derive a new relation between the metallicity of Seyfert 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the intensity of the narrow emission-lines ratio N2O2 = log([N ii] λ6584/[O ii] λ3727). The calibration of this relation was performed by determining the metallicity (Z) of a sample of 58 AGNs through a diagram containing the observational data and the results of a grid of photoionization models obtained with the cloudy code. We find the new Z/Z⊙-N2O2 relation using the obtained metallicity values and the corresponding observational emission-line intensities for each object of the sample. Estimations derived through the use of this new calibration indicate that the narrow-line regions of Seyfert 2 galaxies exhibit a large range of metallicities (0.3 ≲ Z/Z⊙ ≲ 2.0), with a median value Z ≈ Z⊙. Regarding the possible existence of correlations between the luminosity L(Hβ), the electron density and the colour excess E(B - V) with the metallicity in this kind of objects, we do not find correlations between them.

  17. A uniform metal distribution in the intergalactic medium of the Perseus cluster of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Werner, Norbert; Urban, Ondrej; Simionescu, Aurora; Allen, Steven W

    2013-10-31

    Most of the metals (elements heavier than helium) produced by stars in the member galaxies of clusters currently reside within the hot, X-ray-emitting intra-cluster gas. Observations of X-ray line emission from this intergalactic medium have suggested a relatively small cluster-to-cluster scatter outside the cluster centres and enrichment with iron out to large radii, leading to the idea that the metal enrichment occurred early in the history of the Universe. Models with early enrichment predict a uniform metal distribution at large radii in clusters, whereas those with late-time enrichment are expected to introduce significant spatial variations of the metallicity. To discriminate clearly between these competing models, it is essential to test for potential inhomogeneities by measuring the abundances out to large radii along multiple directions in clusters, which has not hitherto been done. Here we report a remarkably uniform iron abundance, as a function of radius and azimuth, that is statistically consistent with a constant value of ZFe = 0.306 ± 0.012 in solar units out to the edge of the nearby Perseus cluster. This homogeneous distribution requires that most of the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium occurred before the cluster formed, probably more than ten billion years ago, during the period of maximal star formation and black hole activity.

  18. SPECTRUM OF THE SUPERNOVA RELIC NEUTRINO BACKGROUND AND METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazato, Ken’ichiro; Mochida, Eri; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Niino, Yuu

    2015-05-01

    The spectrum of the supernova relic neutrino (SRN) background from past stellar collapses including black hole formation (failed supernovae) is calculated. The redshift dependence of the black hole formation rate is considered on the basis of the metallicity evolution of galaxies. Assuming the mass and metallicity ranges of failed supernova progenitors, their contribution to SRNs is quantitatively estimated for the first time. Using this model, the dependences of SRNs on the cosmic star formation rate density (CSFRD), shock revival time, and equation of state (EOS) are investigated. The shock revival time is introduced as a parameter that should depend on the still unknown explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae. The dependence on EOS is considered for failed supernovae, whose collapse dynamics and neutrino emission are certainly affected. It is found that the low-energy spectrum of SRNs is mainly determined by the CSFRD. These low-energy events will be observed in the Super-Kamiokande experiment with gadolinium-loaded water.

  19. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound): The Mass-Metallicity Relation and the Fundamental Metallicity Relation at z˜1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, K.; Ohta, K.; Akiyama, M.; Tamura, N.; Iwamuro, F.; Totani, T.; Dalton, G.; Bunker, A.; FastSound Team

    2016-10-01

    We present results from a large NIR spectroscopic survey (FastSound) with Subaru/FMOS, consisting of ˜4,000 galaxies at z˜1.4 with significant Hα detection. The resulting mass-metallicity relation generally agrees with those obtained previously in a similar redshift range to our sample. No clear dependence on the mass-metallicity relation on star-formation rate is found, which is not in agreement with the extrapolation of the local fundamental metallicity relation. We estimate the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio (N/O) from the N2S2 index, and find that the N/O in galaxies at z˜1.4 is significantly higher than the local values at a fixed metallicity and stellar mass. The metallicity derived by using the N2 method calibrated in the local universe decreases by ˜0.2 dex if we correct the N/O enhancement.

  20. Gas-phase Oxygen Abundances and Radial Metallicity Gradients in the Two nearby Spiral Galaxies NGC 7793 and NGC 4945

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Magrini, Laura; Casasola, Viviana

    2015-10-01

    Gas-phase abundances in H ii regions of two spiral galaxies, NGC 7793 and NGC 4945, have been studied to determine their radial metallicity gradients. We used the strong-line method to derive oxygen abundances from spectra acquired with GMOS-S, the multi-object spectrograph on the 8 m Gemini South telescope. We found that NGC 7793 has a well-defined gas-phase radial oxygen gradient of -0.321 ± 0.112 dex {R}25-1 (or -0.054 ± 0.019 dex kpc-1) in the galactocentric range 0.17 < RG/R25 < 0.82, not dissimilar from gradients calculated with direct abundance methods in galaxies of similar mass and morphology. We also determined a shallow radial oxygen gradient in NGC 4945, -0.253 ± 0.149 dex {R}25-1 (or -0.019 ± 0.011 dex kpc-1) for 0.04 < RG/R25 < 0.51, where the larger relative uncertainty derives mostly from the larger inclination of this galaxy. NGC 7793 and NGC 4945 have been selected for this study because they are similar, in mass and morphology, to M33 and the Milky Way, respectively. Since at zeroth order we expect the radial metallicity gradients to depend on mass and galaxy type, we compared our galaxies in the framework of radial metallicity models best suited for M33 and the Galaxy. We found a good agreement between M33 and NGC 7793, pointing toward similar evolution for the two galaxies. We notice instead differences between NGC 4945 and the radial metallicity gradient model that best fits the Milky Way. We found that these differences are likely related to the presence of an active galactic nucleus combined with a bar in the central regions of NGC 4945, and to its interacting environment.

  1. The mass-metallicity relation of AKARI-FMOS infrared galaxies at z ∼ 0.88 in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Survey Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Nagisa; Goto, Tomotsugu; Malkan, Matthew; Pearson, Chris; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    The mass, metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy are crucial parameters in understanding galaxy formation and evolution. However, the relation between these parameters, (i.e., the fundamental relation) is still a matter of debate for luminous infrared (IR) galaxies, which carry a bulk of the SFR budget of the universe at z ∼ 1. We have investigated the relation among stellar mass, gas-phase oxygen abundance, and SFR of the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI-detected mid-IR galaxies at z ∼ 0.88 in the AKARI north ecliptic pole deep field. We observed ∼350 AKARI sources with Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-IR spectrograph, and detected confirmed Hα emission lines from 25 galaxies and expected Hα emission lines from 44 galaxies. The SFRHα, IR of our sample is almost constant (〈SFRHα, IR〉 = ∼ 25 M⊙ yr - 1) over the stellar mass range of our sample. Compared with main-sequence (MS) galaxies at a similar redshift range (z ∼ 0.78), the average SFR of our detected sample is comparable for massive galaxies ( ∼ 1010.58 M⊙), while higher by ∼0.6 dex for less massive galaxies ( ∼ 1010.05 M⊙). We measure metallicities from the [N II]/Hα emission line ratio. We find that the mass-metallicity relation of our individually measured sources agrees with that for optically-selected star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.1, while metallicities of stacked spectra agree with that of MS galaxies at z ∼ 0.78. Considering the high SFR of individually measured sources, the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) of the IR galaxies is different from that at z ∼ 0.1. However, on the mass-metallicity plane, they are consistent with the MS galaxies, highlighting the higher SFR of the IR galaxies. This suggests that the evolutionary path of our infrared galaxies is different from that of MS galaxies. A possible physical interpretation includes that the star-formation activities of IR galaxies at z ∼ 0.88 in our sample are enhanced by

  2. Coevolution of metallicity and star formation in galaxies to z ≃ 3.7 - II. A theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Leslie; Dayal, Pratika; Magrini, Laura; Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Recent work suggests that galaxy evolution, and the build-up of stellar mass (M*) over cosmic time, is characterized by changes with redshift of star formation rate (SFR) and oxygen abundance (O/H). In a companion paper, we have compiled a large data set to study Metallicity Evolution and Galaxy Assembly (MEGA), consisting of ˜1000 galaxies to z ≃ 3.7 with a common O/H calibration. Here we interpret the MEGA scaling relations of M*, SFR, and O/H with an updated version of the model presented by Dayal et al. This model successfully reproduces the observed O/H ratio of ˜80 000 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to within 0.05-0.06 dex. By extending the model to the higher redshift MEGA sample, we find that although the specific mass loading of outflows does not change measurably during the evolution, the accretion rate and gas content of galaxies increase significantly with redshift. These two effects can explain, either separately or possibly in tandem, the observed lower metal abundance of high-z galaxies.

  3. NEW PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY OUTFLOWS FROM THE FIRST DETECTION OF BOTH INTRINSIC AND TRAVERSE METAL-LINE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff; Martin, Crystal L.; Ho, Stephanie H.; Bouché, Nicolas; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane; Churchill, Christopher W.; Klimek, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Lyα, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V {sub dtb} = 45-255 km s{sup –1}. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V {sub outflow} = 40-80 km s{sup –1} to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V {sub dtb}. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from Hα and N II, of [O/H] = –0.21 ± 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = –1.12 ± 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ∼1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  4. New Perspective on Galaxy Outflows from the First Detection of Both Intrinsic and Traverse Metal-line Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Martin, Crystal L.; Bouché, Nicolas; Churchill, Christopher W.; Cooke, Jeff; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane; Ho, Stephanie H.; Klimek, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Lyα, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V dtb = 45-255 km s-1. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V outflow = 40-80 km s-1 to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V dtb. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from Hα and N II, of [O/H] = -0.21 ± 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = -1.12 ± 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M ⊙ yr-1 while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M ⊙ yr-1 and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ~1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  5. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL DILUTION OF THE METAL CONTENT OF HOT GAS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES BY ACCRETED COLD GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2013-03-20

    The measured emission-weighted metal abundance of the hot gas in early-type galaxies has been known to be lower than theoretical expectations for 20 years. In addition, both X-ray luminosity and metal abundance vary significantly among galaxies of similar optical luminosities. This suggests some missing factors in the galaxy evolution process, especially the metal enrichment process. With Chandra and XMM-Newton, we studied 32 early-type galaxies (kT {approx}< 1 keV) covering a span of two orders of L{sub X,gas}/L{sub K} to investigate these missing factors. Contrary to previous studies that X-ray faint galaxies show extremely low Fe abundance ({approx}0.1 Z{sub Sun }), nearly all galaxies in our sample show an Fe abundance at least 0.3 Z{sub Sun }, although the measured Fe abundance difference between X-ray faint and X-ray bright galaxies remains remarkable. We investigated whether this dichotomy of hot gas Fe abundances can be related to the dilution of hot gas by mixing with cold gas. With a subset of 24 galaxies in this sample, we find that there is virtually no correlation between hot gas Fe abundances and their atomic gas content, which disproves the scenario that the low metal abundance of X-ray faint galaxies might be a result of the dilution of the remaining hot gas by pristine atomic gas. In contrast, we demonstrate a negative correlation between the measured hot gas Fe abundance and the ratio of molecular gas mass to hot gas mass, although it is unclear what is responsible for this apparent anti-correlation. We discuss several possibilities including that externally originated molecular gas might be able to dilute the hot gas metal content. Alternatively, the measured hot gas Fe abundance may be underestimated due to more complex temperature and abundance structures and even a two-temperature model might be insufficient to reflect the true value of the emission weighted mean Fe abundance.

  6. Stellar Populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, E.; Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Sohn, T.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Grocholski, A. J.; James, B.

    2016-10-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO 68, based on our photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. With a metallicity of only 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.15 and a very isolated location, DDO 68 is one of the most metal-poor galaxies known. It has been argued that DDO 68 is a young system that started forming stars only ˜0.15 Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that allows us to disprove this hypothesis since we find a population of at least ˜1 Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is ≃0.01 M ⊙ yr-1, corresponding to a total astrated mass of ≃1.3 × 108 M ⊙. Our photometry allows us to infer the distance from the tip of the red giant branch, D = 12.08 ± 0.67 Mpc; however, to let our synthetic CMD reproduce the observed ones, we need a slightly higher distance, D = 12.65 Mpc, or (m - M)0 = 30.51, still inside the errors of the previous determination, and we adopt the latter. DDO 68 shows a very interesting and complex history, with its quite disturbed shape and a long tail, probably due to tidal interactions. The SFH of the tail differs from that of the main body mainly for enhanced activity at recent epochs likely triggered by the interaction. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS5-26555.

  7. The Physical Conditions, Metallicity and Metal Abundance Ratios in a Highly Magnified Galaxy at z = 3.6252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Rigby, Jane R.; Sharon, Keren; Wuyts, Eva; Florian, Michael; Gladders, Michael D.; Johnson, Traci; Oguri, Masamune

    2014-08-01

    We present optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy of SGAS J105039.6+001730, a strongly lensed galaxy at z = 3.6252 magnified by >30×, and derive its physical properties. We measure a stellar mass of log(M */M ⊙) = 9.5 ± 0.35, star formation rates from [O II] λλ3727 and Hβ of 55 ± 25 and 84 ± 24 M ⊙ yr-1, respectively, an electron density of ne <= 103 cm-2, an electron temperature of Te <= 14,000 K, and a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.3 ± 0.1. The strong C III] λλ1907,1909 emission and abundance ratios of C, N, O, and Si are consistent with well-studied starbursts at z ~ 0 with similar metallicities. Strong P Cygni lines and He II λ1640 emission indicate a significant population of Wolf-Rayet stars, but synthetic spectra of individual populations of young, hot stars do not reproduce the observed integrated P Cygni absorption features. The rest-frame UV spectral features are indicative of a young starburst with high ionization, implying either (1) an ionization parameter significantly higher than suggested by rest-frame optical nebular lines, or (2) differences in one or both of the initial mass function and the properties of ionizing spectra of massive stars. We argue that the observed features are likely the result of a superposition of star forming regions with different physical properties. These results demonstrate the complexity of star formation on scales smaller than individual galaxies, and highlight the importance of systematic effects that result from smearing together the signatures of individual star forming regions within galaxies. Based on observations from the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, from Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the United States, Canada, Chile, Australia, Brazil and Argentina, with additional supporting data obtained at the Subaru telescope

  8. Redshift, metallicity and size of two extended dwarf Irregular galaxies. A link between dwarf Irregulars and ultra diffuse galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, M.; Belokurov, V.; Magrini, L.; Fraternali, F.; Testa, V.; Beccari, G.; Marchetti, A.; Carini, R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of the spectroscopic and photometric follow-up of two field galaxies that were selected as possible stellar counterparts of local high velocity clouds. Our analysis shows that the two systems are distant (D>20 Mpc) dwarf irregular galaxies unrelated to the local H I clouds. However, the newly derived distance and structural parameters reveal that the two galaxies have luminosities and effective radii very similar to the recently identified ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs). At odds with classical UDGs, they are remarkably isolated, having no known giant galaxy within ˜2.0 Mpc. Moreover, one of them has a very high gas content compared to galaxies of similar stellar mass, with a H I to stellar mass ratio MHI/M⋆ ˜ 90, typical of almost-dark dwarfs. Expanding on this finding, we show that extended dwarf irregulars overlap the distribution of UDGs in the MV vs. log re plane and that the sequence including dwarf spheroidals, dwarf irregulars and UDGs appears as continuously populated in this plane. This may suggest an evolutionary link between dwarf irregulars and UDGs.

  9. Redshift, metallicity and size of two extended dwarf Irregular galaxies: a link between dwarf Irregulars and ultra diffuse galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, M.; Belokurov, V.; Magrini, L.; Fraternali, F.; Testa, V.; Beccari, G.; Marchetti, A.; Carini, R.

    2017-05-01

    We present the results of the spectroscopic and photometric follow-up of two field galaxies that were selected as possible stellar counterparts of local high-velocity clouds. Our analysis shows that the two systems are distant (D > 20 Mpc) dwarf irregular galaxies unrelated to the local H I clouds. However, the newly derived distance and structural parameters reveal that the two galaxies have luminosities and effective radii very similar to the recently identified ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs). At odds with classical UDGs, they are remarkably isolated, having no known giant galaxy within ˜2.0 Mpc. Moreover, one of them has a very high gas content compared to galaxies of similar stellar mass, with a H I to stellar mass ratio M_{H I}/M_{\\star }˜ 90, typical of almost-dark dwarfs. Expanding on this finding, we show that extended dwarf irregulars overlap the distribution of UDGs in the MV versus log re plane and that the sequence including dwarf spheroidals, dwarf irregulars and UDGs appears as continuously populated in this plane. This may suggest an evolutionary link between dwarf irregulars and UDGs.

  10. The Gas Phase Mass Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies: Dependence on Star Formation Rate and H I Gas Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMRSFR) as well as HI-gas mass (FMRHI). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMRSFR and FMRHI across the stellar mass range 106.6-108.8 M⊙, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMRSFR (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMRSFR is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10-2.4 M⊙ yr-1, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMRHI. We also find that the FMRHI is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FMLSFR) and HI-gas mass (FMLHI). We find that the FMLHI relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FMLHI relation is not improved over the FMRHI scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMRHI is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation. Based on VLT service mode observations (Programs 081.B-0649 and 083.B-0662) gathered at the European Southern Observatory, Chile.

  11. The Oldest Stars of the Extremely Metal-Poor Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Leo A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Hopp, Ulrich; Drozdovsky, Igor O.; Greggio, Laura; Crone, Mary M.

    2002-08-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) single-star photometry of Leo A in B, V, and I. Our new field of view is offset from the centrally located field observed by Tolstoy et al. in order to expose the halo population of this galaxy. We report the detection of metal-poor red horizontal branch stars, which demonstrate that Leo A is not a young galaxy. In fact, Leo A is as least as old as metal-poor Galactic Globular Clusters that exhibit red horizontal branches and are considered to have a minimum age of about 9 Gyr. We discuss the distance to Leo A and perform an extensive comparison of the data with stellar isochrones. For a distance modulus of 24.5, the data are better than 50% complete down to absolute magnitudes of 2 or more. We can easily identify stars with metallicities between 0.0001 and 0.0004, and ages between about 5 and 10 Gyr, in their post-main-sequence phases, but we lack the detection of main-sequence turnoffs that would provide unambiguous proof of ancient (>10 Gyr) stellar generations. Blue horizontal branch stars are above the detection limits but difficult to distinguish from young stars with similar colors and magnitudes. Synthetic color-magnitude diagrams show it is possible to populate the blue horizontal branch in the halo of Leo A. The models also suggest ~50% of the total astrated mass in our pointing to be attributed to an ancient (>10 Gyr) stellar population. We conclude that Leo A started to form stars at least about 9 Gyr ago. Leo A exhibits an extremely low oxygen abundance, only 3% of solar, in its ionized interstellar medium. The existence of old stars in this very oxygen-deficient galaxy illustrates that a low oxygen abundance does not preclude a history of early star formation. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metal abundances of KISS galaxies. V. (Hirschauer+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, A. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Bresolin, F.; Saviane, I.; Yegorova, I.

    2016-01-01

    Our spectroscopic targets for this project were potentially metal-rich galaxies identified by KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS; Salzer et al., 2000AJ....120...80S). KISS used low-dispersion objective-prism spectra to identify emission-line galaxy (ELG) candidates via detection of line emission in galaxies with redshifts of less than 0.095. The "red" survey (Salzer et al. 2001, cat. J/AJ/121/66; Gronwall et al. 2004, cat. J/AJ/127/1943; Jangren et al. 2005, cat. J/AJ/130/2571) cataloged objects by means of the Hα line, while the "blue" survey (Salzer et al. 2002, cat. J/AJ/123/1292) distinguished objects through strong [OIII]λ5007 line emission. The 15 galaxies discussed in this paper were chosen from the KISS Hα-selected catalog. Spectra of 15 KISS ELGs were obtained using the Keck I 10m telescope on 2006 May 25 with the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS), a double spectrograph that includes a dichroic that directs light toward a red and a blue side. The use of two distinct dispersion elements and cameras enables simultaneous spectral coverage spanning from ~3000 to ~10000Å with good dispersion. Blue side exposures used the 600/400 grism, with a dispersion of 0.63Å/pixel, a resolution of ~6Å, and wavelength coverage between ~3000 and ~5600Å. Red side exposures used the 900/5500 grating, with a dispersion of 0.53Å/pixel, a resolution of ~3Å, and wavelength coverage between ~5700 and ~7300Å. Each galaxy was first observed using the blue and red sides simultaneously to determine if further observations would yield usable spectra. If the raw spectra were of substantially high quality, the red side grating was switched to observe near-infrared (NIR) lines. This was completed for ten of the fifteen galaxies. For NIR exposures, the red side was switched to the 400/8500 grating, with a dispersion of 1.16Å/pixel, a resolution of ~6Å, and wavelength coverage between ~6300 and ~10000Å in order to observe the NIR [SIII] nebular lines at λ9069

  13. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z > 2 using very large telescope and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, C.; Ziegler, B. L.; Lilly, S. J.; Peng, Y.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called 'fundamental metallicity relation' (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al.

  14. The Mass-Metallicity and Fundamental Metallicity Relations at z > 2 Using Very Large Telescope and Subaru Near-infrared Spectroscopy of zCOSMOS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Ziegler, B. L.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Peng, Y.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called "fundamental metallicity relation" (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al. AND SUBARU

  15. Herschel photometric observations of the low metallicity dwarf galaxy NGC 1705

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, B.; Galametz, M.; Madden, S. C.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Bendo, G. J.; Bock, J. J.; Boselli, A.; Bradford, M.; Buat, V.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Cormier, D.; Cooray, A.; Cortese, L.; Davies, J. I.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S. A.; Elbaz, D.; Galliano, F.; Gear, W. K.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H. L.; Hony, S.; Isaak, K. G.; Levenson, L. R.; Lu, N.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E. E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Srinivasan, S.; Stevens, J. A.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Vigroux, L.; Wilson, C. D.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G. S.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2010-07-01

    We present Herschel SPIRE and PACS photometeric observations of the low metallicity (Z ~ 0.35 Z⊙) nearby dwarf galaxy, NGC 1705, in six wavelength bands as part of the Dwarf Galaxy Survey guaranteed time Herschel key program. We confirm the presence of two dominant circumnuclear IR-bright regions surrounding the central super star cluster that had been previously noted at mid-IR wavelengths and in the sub-mm by LABOCA. On constructing a global spectral energy distribution using the SPIRE and PACS photometry, in conjunction with archival IR measurements, we note the presence of an excess at sub-mm wavelengths. This excess suggests the presence of a signiPcant cold dust component within NGC 1705 and was modeled as an additional cold component in the SED. Although alternative explanations for the sub-mm excess beyond 350 μm, such as changes to the dust emissivity cannot be ruled out, the most likely explanation for the observed submillimetre excess is that of an additional cold dust component.

  16. THE MOST METAL-POOR DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS: AN INSIGHT INTO DWARF GALAXIES AT HIGH-REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2015-02-10

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a ''knee'' in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] ≅ –2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T {sub gas} ≅ 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe.

  17. Detailed Study of a Very Low Mass, Low Metallicity Starburst Galaxy at z=1.85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erb, Dawn

    2015-08-01

    We propose to carry out a detailed study of the ionizing spectrum and physical conditions in the gravitationally lensed arc SL2SJ021737-051329 at z=1.85, using rest-frame UV spectroscopy with LRIS. With stellar mass 10^8 Msun and metallicity Z 1/20 Zsun, SL2SJ0217 is one of the lowest metallicity star-forming galaxies yet identified at z>1. Due to its magnification by a factor of 35, this intrinsically faint object is amenable to detailed examination. Using the the combination of high S/N measurements of the rest-frame UV spectrum and rest-frame optical emission lines observed with the HST WFC3 grism, we will constrain the object's ionizing spectrum, confirm its low metallicity (so far determined indirectly), and study the Lya profile. High S/N in the rest-frame UV continuum will allow a sensitive test for galactic outflows in a very young starburst.

  18. Ages and Metallicities of the Nuclei and Field Stars of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Scott; Miller, B. W.; Harris, W.; Lotz, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    We present preliminary ages and metallicities for six nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE,N) in the Fornax Cluster based on Lick/IDS index measurements and SSP models. Employing IRAF and IDL routines we have successfully extracted high signal-to-noise (S/N >= 30 per Å) Gemini GMOS-S spectra of both galactic nuclei and field star regions. Extracted spectrum have a wavelength range of 3,700 Å to 6,500 Å with a resolution of 4 Å. We fit our data with empirical chemo-evolutionary models to determine radial velocity along with Hb and [MgFe]' line indices. We then compare our measurements to current SSP model predictions by Bruzual & Charlot (2003) to determine age and metallicity. Results suggest that the dE nuclei have intermediate ages ( 5 Gyr) and less than solar metallicities ([Fe/H] <= -0.64dex). Comparing nuclei and dE field star spectra, we find evidence that in general the nuclei have undergone more recent star formation. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: The National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  19. Low-metallicity Young Clusters in the Outer Galaxy. II. Sh 2-208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Chikako; Kobayashi, Naoto; Saito, Masao; Izumi, Natsuko

    2016-05-01

    We obtained deep near-infrared images of Sh 2-208, one of the lowest-metallicity H ii regions in the Galaxy, [O/H] = -0.8 dex. We detected a young cluster in the center of the H ii region with a limiting magnitude of K = 18.0 mag (10σ), which corresponds to a mass detection limit of ˜0.2 M⊙. This enables the comparison of star-forming properties under low metallicity with those of the solar neighborhood. We identified 89 cluster members. From the fitting of the K-band luminosity function (KLF), the age and distance of the cluster are estimated to be ˜0.5 Myr and ˜4 kpc, respectively. The estimated young age is consistent with the detection of strong CO emission in the cluster region and the estimated large extinction of cluster members (AV ˜ 4-25 mag). The observed KLF suggests that the underlying initial mass function (IMF) of the low-metallicity cluster is not significantly different from canonical IMFs in the solar neighborhood in terms of both high-mass slope and IMF peak (characteristic mass). Despite the very young age, the disk fraction of the cluster is estimated at only 27% ± 6%, which is significantly lower than those in the solar metallicity. Those results are similar to Sh 2-207, which is another star-forming region close to Sh 2-208 with a separation of 12 pc, suggesting that their star-forming activities in low-metallicity environments are essentially identical to those in the solar neighborhood, except for the disk dispersal timescale. From large-scale mid-infrared images, we suggest that sequential star formation is taking place in Sh 2-207, Sh 2-208, and the surrounding region, triggered by an expanding bubble with a ˜30 pc radius.

  20. A very deep Chandra view of metals, sloshing and feedback in the Centaurus cluster of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Russell, H. R.; Blundell, K. M.; Canning, R. E. A.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Walker, S. A.; Grimes, C. K.

    2016-03-01

    We examine deep Chandra X-ray observations of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies, Abell 3526. Applying a gradient magnitude filter reveals a wealth of structure, from filamentary soft emission on 100 pc (0.5 arcsec) scales close to the nucleus to features 10 s of kpc in size at larger radii. The cluster contains multiple high-metallicity regions with sharp edges. Relative to an azimuthal average, the deviations of metallicity and surface brightness are correlated, and the temperature is inversely correlated, as expected if the larger scale asymmetries in the cluster are dominated by sloshing motions. Around the western cold front are a series of ˜7 kpc `notches', suggestive of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The cold front width varies from 4 kpc down to close to the electron mean free path. Inside the front are multiple metallicity blobs on scales of 5-10 kpc, which could have been uplifted by AGN activity, also explaining the central metallicity drop and flat inner metallicity profile. Close to the nucleus are multiple shocks, including a 1.9-kpc-radius inner shell-like structure and a weak 1.1-1.4 Mach number shock around the central cavities. Within a 10 kpc radius are nine depressions in surface brightness, several of which appear to be associated with radio emission. The shocks and cavities imply that the nucleus has been repeatedly active on 5-10 Myr time-scales, indicating a tight balance between heating and cooling. We confirm the presence of a series of linear quasi-periodic structures. If they are sound waves, the ˜5 kpc spacing implies a period of 6 Myr, similar to the ages of the shocks and cavities. Alternatively, these structures may be Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, their associated turbulence or amplified magnetic field layers.

  1. 3D-HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED, LOW-METALLICITY STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 1.847

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Erb, Dawn K.; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Marchesini, Danilo; Quadri, Ryan

    2012-10-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] {lambda}5007 and H{beta} emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 {+-} 100 and 520 {+-} 40 A, respectively. The source has a stellar mass {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, sSFR {approx} 100 Gyr{sup -1}, and detection of [O III] {lambda}4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 {+-} 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size r{sub e} {approx}300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey.

  2. IC Associated Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... marked by various painful vulvovaginal symptoms, is the fourth most common IC-related condition. It is thought ... about these and other related conditions. Revised Thursday, July 7th, 2016 About IC What is Interstitial Cystitis ( ...

  3. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  4. Pregnancy and IC

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  5. PopIII-star siblings in IZw18 and metal-poor WR galaxies unveiled from integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Brinchmann, J.; Crowther, P. A.; Durret, F.; Kunth, D.

    Here, we highlight our recent results from the IFS study of Mrk178, the closest metal-poor WR galaxy, and of IZw18, the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy known in the local Universe. The IFS data of Mrk178 show the importance of aperture effects on the search for WR features, and the extent to which physical variations in the ISM properties can be detected. Our IFS data of IZw18 reveal its entire nebular HeIIλ4686-emitting region, and indicate for the very first time that peculiar, hot (nearly) metal-free ionizing stars (called here PopIII-star siblings) might hold the key to the HeII-ionization in IZw18.

  6. LSD: Lyman-break galaxies Stellar populations and Dynamics - I. Mass, metallicity and gas at z ~ 3.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, F.; Cresci, G.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Pastorini, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Gnerucci, A.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Lehnert, M.; Salvati, M.

    2009-10-01

    We present the first results of a project, Lyman-break galaxies Stellar populations and Dynamics (LSD), aimed at obtaining spatially resolved, near-infrared (IR) spectroscopy of a complete sample of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3. Deep observations with adaptive optics resulted in the detection of the main optical lines, such as [OII] λ3727, Hβ and [OIII] λ5007, which are used to study sizes, star formation rates (SFRs), morphologies, gas-phase metallicities, gas fractions and effective yields. Optical, near-IR and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera photometry are used to measure stellar mass. We obtain that morphologies are usually complex, with the presence of several peaks of emissions and companions that are not detected in broad-band images. Typical metallicities are 10-50 per cent solar, with a strong evolution of the mass-metallicity relation from lower redshifts. Stellar masses, gas fraction and evolutionary stages vary significantly among the galaxies, with less massive galaxies showing larger fractions of gas. In contrast with observations in the local universe, effective yields decrease with stellar mass and reach solar values at the low-mass end of the sample. This effect can be reproduced by gas infall with rates of the order of the SFRs. Outflows are present but are not needed to explain the mass-metallicity relation. We conclude that a large fraction of these galaxies is actively creating stars after major episodes of gas infall or merging. Based on observations collected with European Southern Observatory/Very Large Telescope (ESO/VLT) (proposals 075.A-0300 and 076.A-0711), with the Italian TNG, operated by FGG (INAF) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, and with the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by JPL (Caltech) under a contract with NASA.

  7. LOW-METALLICITY YOUNG CLUSTERS IN THE OUTER GALAXY. I. Sh 2-207

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Chikako; Kobayashi, Naoto; Izumi, Natsuko; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Saito, Masao

    2016-03-15

    To study star formation in low-metallicity environments ([M/H] ∼ −1 dex), we obtained deep near-infrared (NIR) images of Sh 2-207 (S207), which is an H ii region in the outer Galaxy with a spectroscopically determined metallicity of [O/H] ≃ −0.8 dex. We identified a young cluster in the western region of S207 with a limiting magnitude of K{sub S} = 19.0 mag (10σ) that corresponds to a mass detection limit of ≲0.1 M{sub ⊙} and enables the comparison of star-forming properties under low metallicity with those of the solar neighborhood. From the fitting of the K-band luminosity function (KLF), the age and distance of the S207 cluster are estimated at 2–3 Myr and ∼4 kpc, respectively. The estimated age is consistent with the suggestion of small extinctions of stars in the cluster (A{sub V} ∼ 3 mag) and the non-detection of molecular clouds. The reasonably good fit between the observed KLF and the model KLF suggests that the underlying initial mass function (IMF) of the cluster down to the detection limit is not significantly different from the typical IMFs in the solar metallicity. From the fraction of stars with NIR excesses, a low disk fraction (<10%) in the cluster with a relatively young age is suggested, as we had previously proposed.

  8. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound). III. The mass-metallicity relation and the fundamental metallicity relation at z ˜ 1.4*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Kiyoto; Ohta, Kouji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Bunker, Andrew; Dalton, Gavin; Ellis, Richard; Glazebrook, Karl; Goto, Tomotsugu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Okada, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Tonegawa, Motonari; Totani, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    We present the results from a large near-infrared spectroscopic survey made with Subaru/FMOS (FastSound) consisting of ˜ 4000 galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 with significant Hα detection. We measure the gas-phase metallicity from the [N II]λ6583/Hα emission line ratio of the composite spectra in various stellar mass and star-formation rate bins. The resulting mass-metallicity relation generally agrees with previous studies obtained in a similar redshift range to that of our sample. No clear dependence of the mass-metallicity relation on star-formation rate is found. Our result at z ˜ 1.4 is roughly in agreement with the fundamental metallicity relation at z ˜ 0.1 with a fiber aperture corrected star-formation rate. We detect significant [S II]λλ6716,6731 emission lines from the composite spectra. The electron density estimated from the [S II]λλ6716,6731 line ratio ranges from 10-500 cm-3, which generally agrees with that of local galaxies. On the other hand, the distribution of our sample on [N II]λ6583/Hα vs. [S II]λλ6716,6731/Hα is different to that found locally. We estimate the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio (N/O) from the N2S2 index, and find that the N/O in galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 is significantly higher than the local values at a fixed metallicity and stellar mass. The metallicity at z ˜ 1.4 recalculated with this N/O enhancement taken into account decreases by 0.1-0.2 dex. The resulting metallicity is lower than the local fundamental metallicity relation.

  9. Dust-to-gas Ratio in the Extremely Metal-poor Galaxy I Zw 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Gordon, Karl. D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Donaldson, Jessica; Meléndez, Marcio; Cannon, John M.

    2012-06-01

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 is one of the most metal-poor systems known in the local universe (12+log(O/H) = 7.17). In this work we study I Zw 18 using data from Spitzer, Herschel Space Telescope, and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our data set includes the most sensitive maps of I Zw 18, to date, in both the far-infrared and the CO J = 1 → 0 transition. We use dust emission models to derive a dust mass upper limit of only M dust <= 1.1 × 104 M ⊙ (3σ limit). This upper limit is driven by the non-detection at 160 μm, and it is a factor of 4-10 times smaller than previous estimates (depending on the model used). We also estimate an upper limit to the total dust-to-gas mass ratio of M Dust/M gas <= 5.0 × 10-5. If a linear correlation between the dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity (measured as O/H) were to hold, we would expect a ratio of 3.9 × 10-4. We also show that the infrared spectral energy distribution is similar to that of starbursting systems.

  10. The host galaxies of fast-ejecta core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Modjaz, Maryam; Kocevski, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Spectra of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL), the only kind of SN observed at the locations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), exhibit wide features indicative of high ejecta velocities (∼0.1c). We study the host galaxies of a sample of 245 low-redshift (z < 0.2) core-collapse SNe, including 17 SNe Ic-BL, discovered by galaxy-untargeted searches, and 15 optically luminous and dust-obscured z < 1.2 LGRBs. We show that, in comparison with Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies having similar stellar masses, the hosts of low-redshift SNe Ic-BL and z < 1.2 LGRBs have high stellar mass and star formation rate densities. Core-collapse SNe having typical ejecta velocities, in contrast, show no preference for such galaxies. Moreover, we find that the hosts of SNe Ic-BL, unlike those of SNe Ib/Ic and SNe II, exhibit high gas velocity dispersions for their stellar masses. The patterns likely reflect variations among star-forming environments and suggest that LGRBs can be used as probes of conditions in high-redshift galaxies. They may be caused by efficient formation of massive binary progenitor systems in densely star-forming regions, or, less probably, a higher fraction of stars created with the initial masses required for an SN Ic-BL or LGRB. Finally, we show that the preference of SNe Ic-BL and LGRBs for galaxies with high stellar mass and star formation rate densities cannot be attributed to a preference for low metal abundances but must reflect the influence of a separate environmental factor.

  11. The Host Galaxies of Fast-Ejecta Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Modjaz, Maryam; Kocevski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic-BL), the only kind of SN observed at the locations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), exhibit wide features indicative of high ejecta velocities ((is) approximately 0.1c). We study the host galaxies of a sample of 245 low-redshift (z (is) less than 0.2) core-collapse SN, including 17 SN Ic-BL, discovered by galaxy-untargeted searches, and 15 optically luminous and dust-obscured z (is) less than 1.2 LGRBs. We show that, in comparison with SDSS galaxies having similar stellar masses, the hosts of low-redshift SN Ic- BL and z (is) is less than 1.2 LGRBs have high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities. Core-collapse SN having typical ejecta velocities, in contrast, show no preference for such galaxies. Moreover, we find that the hosts of SN Ic-BL, unlike those of SN Ib/Ic and SN II, exhibit high gas velocity dispersions for their stellar masses. The patterns likely reflect variations among star-forming environments, and suggest that LGRBs can be used as probes of conditions in high-redshift galaxies. They may be caused by efficient formation of massive binary progenitors systems in densely star-forming regions, or, less probably, a higher fraction of stars created with the initial masses required for a SN Ic-BL or LGRB. Finally, we show that the preference of SN Ic-BL and LGRBs for galaxies with high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities cannot be attributed to a preference for low metal abundances but must reflect the influence of a separate environmental factor.

  12. Strongly time-variable ultraviolet metal-line emission from the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sravan, Niharika; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; van de Voort, Freeke; Kereš, Dušan; Muratov, Alexander L.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2016-11-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project, which implement a comprehensive set of stellar feedback processes, to study ultraviolet (UV) metal-line emission from the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift (z = 2-4) galaxies. Our simulations cover the halo mass range Mh ˜ 2 × 1011-8.5 × 1012 M⊙ at z = 2, representative of Lyman break galaxies. Of the transitions we analyse, the low-ionization C III (977 Å) and Si III (1207 Å) emission lines are the most luminous, with C IV (1548 Å) and Si IV (1394 Å) also showing interesting spatially extended structures. The more massive haloes are on average more UV-luminous. The UV metal-line emission from galactic haloes in our simulations arises primarily from collisionally ionized gas and is strongly time variable, with peak-to-trough variations of up to ˜2 dex. The peaks of UV metal-line luminosity correspond closely to massive and energetic mass outflow events, which follow bursts of star formation and inject sufficient energy into galactic haloes to power the metal-line emission. The strong time variability implies that even some relatively low-mass haloes may be detectable. Conversely, flux-limited samples will be biased towards haloes whose central galaxy has recently experienced a strong burst of star formation. Spatially extended UV metal-line emission around high-redshift galaxies should be detectable by current and upcoming integral field spectrographs such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope and Keck Cosmic Web Imager.

  13. The metal-poor knee in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Koch, Andreas; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A.; Boeche, Corrado; Walker, Matthew; Johnson, Christian I.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Gilmore, Gerard

    2014-04-20

    We present α-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, obtained with Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE (R ∼ 16, 000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor (MP) stars in our sample, we are able to follow the α-element evolution from [Fe/H] ≈ –2.5 continuously to [Fe/H] ≈ –0.7. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, α-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [α/Fe] values, due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an α-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined 'knee' caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [α/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H] ≈ –1.9 and therefore significantly more MP than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value is rather comparable to the knee in Sculptor, a dSph ∼10 times less luminous than Fornax. Using chemical evolution models, we find that the position of the knee and the subsequent plateau at the sub-solar level can hardly be explained unless the galaxy experienced several discrete star formation (SF) events with a drastic variation in SF efficiency, while a uniform SF can be ruled out. One possible evolutionary scenario is that Fornax experienced one or several major accretion events from gas-rich systems in the past, so that its current stellar mass is not indicative of the chemical evolution environment at ancient times. If Fornax is the product of several smaller buildings blocks, this may also have implications for the understanding of the formation process of dSphs in general.

  14. The Metal-poor Knee in the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Koch, Andreas; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A.; Boeche, Corrado; Walker, Matthew; Johnson, Christian I.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Gilmore, Gerard

    2014-04-01

    We present α-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, obtained with Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE (R ~ 16, 000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor (MP) stars in our sample, we are able to follow the α-element evolution from [Fe/H] ≈ -2.5 continuously to [Fe/H] ≈ -0.7. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, α-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [α/Fe] values, due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an α-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined "knee" caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [α/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.9 and therefore significantly more MP than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value is rather comparable to the knee in Sculptor, a dSph ~10 times less luminous than Fornax. Using chemical evolution models, we find that the position of the knee and the subsequent plateau at the sub-solar level can hardly be explained unless the galaxy experienced several discrete star formation (SF) events with a drastic variation in SF efficiency, while a uniform SF can be ruled out. One possible evolutionary scenario is that Fornax experienced one or several major accretion events from gas-rich systems in the past, so that its current stellar mass is not indicative of the chemical evolution environment at ancient times. If Fornax is the product of several smaller buildings blocks, this may also have implications for the understanding of the formation process of dSphs in general. This article is based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under program 082.B-0940(A).

  15. Metal distributions out to 0.5 r {sub 180} in the intracluster medium of four galaxy groups observed with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sato, Kosuke E-mail: matusita@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2014-01-20

    We studied the distributions of metal abundances and metal-mass-to-light ratios in the intracluster medium (ICM) of four galaxy groups, MKW 4, HCG 62, the NGC 1550 group, and the NGC 5044 group, out to ∼0.5 r {sub 180} observed with Suzaku. The iron abundance decreases with radius and is about 0.2-0.4 solar beyond 0.1 r {sub 180}. At a given radius in units of r {sub 180}, the iron abundance in the ICM of the four galaxy groups was consistent with or smaller than those of clusters of galaxies. The Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios in the ICM are nearly constant at the solar ratio out to 0.5 r {sub 180}. We also studied systematic uncertainties in the derived metal abundances, comparing the results from two versions of atomic data for astrophysicists (ATOMDB) and single- and two-temperature model fits. Since the metals have been synthesized in galaxies, we collected K-band luminosities of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and calculated the integrated iron-mass-to-light-ratios (IMLR), or the ratios of the iron mass in the ICM to light from stars in galaxies. The groups with smaller gas-mass-to-light ratios have smaller IMLR values and the IMLR is inversely correlated with the entropy excess. Based on these abundance features, we discussed the past history of metal enrichment processes in groups of galaxies.

  16. Search for Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. (II). High Electron Temperature Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; García-Benito, R.; Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F. S.

    2016-03-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are defined to have a gas-phase metallicity smaller than a tenth of the solar value (12+{log}[{{O/H}}]< 7.69). They are uncommon, chemically and possibly dynamically primitive, with physical conditions characteristic of earlier phases of the universe. We search for new XMPs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in a work that complements Paper I. This time, high electron temperature objects are selected; metals are a main coolant of the gas, so metal-poor objects contain high-temperature gas. Using the algorithm k-means, we classify 788,677 spectra to select 1281 galaxies that have particularly intense [O III]λ4363 with respect to [O III]λ5007, which is a proxy for high electron temperature. The metallicity of these candidates was computed using a hybrid technique consistent with the direct method, rendering 196 XMPs. A less restrictive noise constraint provides a larger set with 332 candidates. Both lists are provided in electronic format. The selected XMP sample has a mean stellar mass around {10}8 {M}⊙ , with the dust mass ∼ {10}3{M}⊙ for typical star-forming regions. In agreement with previous findings, XMPs show a tendency to be tadpole-like or cometary. Their underlying stellar continuum corresponds to a fairly young stellar population (< 1 {{Gyr}}), although young and aged stellar populations coexist at the low-metallicity starbursts. About 10% of the XMPs show large N/O. Based on their location in constrained cosmological numerical simulations, XMPs have a strong tendency to appear in voids and to avoid galaxy clusters. The puzzling 2%-solar low-metallicity threshold exhibited by XMPs remains.

  17. The Importance of Preventive Feedback: Inference from Observations of the Stellar Masses and Metallicities of Milky Way Dwarf Galaxies

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Wetzel, Andrew; ...

    2017-08-31

    Dwarf galaxies are known to have remarkably low star formation efficiency due to strong feedback. Adopting the dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) as a laboratory, we explore a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model to understand how the feedback processes shape the satellite galaxies of the MW. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we exhaustively search a large parameter space of the model and rigorously show that the general wisdom of strong outflows as the primary feedback mechanism cannot simultaneously explain the stellar mass function and the mass–metallicity relation of the MW satellites. An extended model that assumes that amore » fraction of baryons is prevented from collapsing into low-mass halos in the first place can be accurately constrained to simultaneously reproduce those observations. Here, the inference suggests that two different physical mechanisms are needed to explain the two different data sets. In particular, moderate outflows with weak halo mass dependence are needed to explain the mass–metallicity relation, and prevention of baryons falling into shallow gravitational potentials of low-mass halos (e.g., "pre-heating") is needed to explain the low stellar mass fraction for a given subhalo mass.« less

  18. A Study of Low-Metallicity Red Giant Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Using APOGEE Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wanying; Simon, Joshua D.; APOGEE-2

    2017-01-01

    Studying the chemical evolution of stars in the Milky Way’s faint dwarf galaxy satellites can provide valuable insight into the formation of the Galaxy and its companions. Past chemical abundance studies of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy contain a maximum of sixteen stars, but large surveys such as APOGEE (Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment), which perform high-resolution spectroscopy (R ˜ 22,500) for hundreds of stars at a time, have the potential to vastly expand the amount of available stellar chemical abundance data and provide a more comprehensive view of the dSph’s chemical evolution. However, the APOGEE reduction and analysis pipelines were designed for high S/N observations of bright stars, and have not been tested in the lower S/N regime of dSph stars. We evaluate the performance of the APOGEE pipeline for low S/N spectra taken from faint, low-metallicity stars in the galaxy. We compare APOGEE metallicities against those found in literature, and examine the spectra for elemental absorption lines. We also attempt to constrain the population of binary stars in the dSph.

  19. The Importance of Preventive Feedback: Inference from Observations of the Stellar Masses and Metallicities of Milky Way Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Wetzel, Andrew; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H. G.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-09-01

    Dwarf galaxies are known to have remarkably low star formation efficiency due to strong feedback. Adopting the dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) as a laboratory, we explore a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model to understand how the feedback processes shape the satellite galaxies of the MW. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we exhaustively search a large parameter space of the model and rigorously show that the general wisdom of strong outflows as the primary feedback mechanism cannot simultaneously explain the stellar mass function and the mass–metallicity relation of the MW satellites. An extended model that assumes that a fraction of baryons is prevented from collapsing into low-mass halos in the first place can be accurately constrained to simultaneously reproduce those observations. The inference suggests that two different physical mechanisms are needed to explain the two different data sets. In particular, moderate outflows with weak halo mass dependence are needed to explain the mass–metallicity relation, and prevention of baryons falling into shallow gravitational potentials of low-mass halos (e.g., “pre-heating”) is needed to explain the low stellar mass fraction for a given subhalo mass.

  20. The XLF of LMXBs in the fields of early-type galaxies, their metal-rich, and metal-poor globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Mark; Zepf, Steve E.

    2016-04-01

    The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of extragalactic low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) can provide insights into their nature and origin. We present an analysis of seven early-type galaxies. These galaxies have deep Chandra observations, which detect X-ray sources down to 1037erg/s, and HST optical mosaics that enable the classification of these sources into field LMXBs, globular cluster (GC) LMXBs, and contaminating sources. At all luminosities, we find that the number of field LMXBs per stellar mass is similar in these galaxies. This sample therefore suggests that the GC specific frequency may not influence the field LMXB population. It also suggests that other parameters, such as the stellar IMF, are either similar across the galaxy sample or vary in a way that does not effect the LMXB population. The XLF of the field and GC LMXBs are significantly different (p-value of 3x10-6), with the latter having a flatter XLF. The XLFs of the metal-rich and metal-poor GC LMXBs are similar, although larger samples will be needed to provide sharper tests in the future.

  1. The evolution of high-metallicity horizontal-branch stars and the origin of the ultraviolet light in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horch, E.; Demarque, P.; Pinsonneault, M.

    1992-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations of high-metallicity horizontal-branch stars show that for the relevant masses and helium abundances, post-HB evolution in the HR diagram does not proceed toward and along the AGB, but rather toward a 'slow blue phase' in the vicinity of the helium-burning main sequence, following the extinction of the hydrogen shell energy source. For solar and twice solar metallicity, the blue phase begins during the helium shell-burning phase (in agreement with the work of Brocato and Castellani and Tornambe); for 3 times solar metallicity, it begins earlier, during the helium core-burning phase. This behavior differs from what takes place at lower metallicities. The implications for high-metallicity old stellar populations in the Galactic bulge and for the integrated colors of elliptical galaxies are discussed.

  2. The evolution of high-metallicity horizontal-branch stars and the origin of the ultraviolet light in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, E.; Demarque, P.; Pinsonneault, M.

    1992-04-01

    Evolutionary calculations of high-metallicity horizontal-branch stars show that for the relevant masses and helium abundances, post-HB evolution in the HR diagram does not proceed toward and along the AGB, but rather toward a 'slow blue phase' in the vicinity of the helium-burning main sequence, following the extinction of the hydrogen shell energy source. For solar and twice solar metallicity, the blue phase begins during the helium shell-burning phase (in agreement with the work of Brocato and Castellani and Tornambe); for 3 times solar metallicity, it begins earlier, during the helium core-burning phase. This behavior differs from what takes place at lower metallicities. The implications for high-metallicity old stellar populations in the Galactic bulge and for the integrated colors of elliptical galaxies are discussed.

  3. The IC 342-Maffei 1 Group Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, M. L.; Buta, R.

    1996-12-01

    Deep wide-field CCD images of thirteen members of the IC 342-Maffei 1 Group in the Northern Milky Way have been acquired in the Johnson V and Cousins I photometric systems. The observations were obtained with the Kitt Peak Burrell-Schmidt telescope in Arizona during six nights in November 1995. Almost none of these galaxies was effectively studied in the past because of the heavy foreground extinction and significant foreground star contamination in the direction of the group. The tens of thousands of foreground stars included on the Schmidt images have been successfully subtracted using DAOPHOT, revealing the true extent and total brightness of most of the galaxies for the first time. In the absence of galactic extinction, Maffei 1, Maffei 2, and IC 342 would be among the five brightest galaxies in the northern sky, and both Maffei 1 and IC 342 would subtend angles as large as the full Moon. The results are critical for assessing the degree to which the group influenced the dynamical evolution of the Local Group. In this poster, we will present deep photographs, total magnitudes and color indices, luminosity profiles, and distance estimates for the member galaxies.

  4. Collision Between Two Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-24

    NGC 6050/IC 1179 Arp 272 is a remarkable collision between two spiral galaxies, NGC 6050 and IC 1179, and is part of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster, located in the constellation of Hercules. This image is from NASA Hubble Space Telescope.

  5. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies: Bimodal Metallicity Distributions and the Nature of the High-Luminosity Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Karakla, Diane; Okoń, Waldemar; Baum, William A.; Hanes, David A.; Kavelaars, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    We present new (B, I) photometry for the globular cluster systems in eight brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), obtained with the ACS/WFC camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. In the very rich cluster systems that reside within these giant galaxies, we find that all have strongly bimodal color distributions that are clearly resolved by the metallicity-sensitive (B-I) index. Furthermore, the mean colors and internal color range of the blue subpopulation are remarkably similar from one galaxy to the next, to well within the +/-0.02-0.03 mag uncertainties in the foreground reddenings and photometric zero points. By contrast, the mean color and internal color range for the red subpopulation differ from one galaxy to the next by twice as much as the blue population. All the BCGs show population gradients, with much higher relative numbers of red clusters within 5 kpc of their centers, consistent with their having formed at later times than the blue, metal-poor population. A striking new feature of the color distributions emerging from our data is that for the brightest clusters (MI<-10.5) the color distribution becomes broad and less obviously bimodal. This effect was first noticed by Ostrov et al. and Dirsch et al. for the Fornax giant NGC 1399; our data suggest that it may be a characteristic of many BCGs and perhaps other large galaxies. Our data indicate that the blue (metal-poor) clusters brighter than MI~=-10 become progressively redder with increasing luminosity, following a mass/metallicity scaling relation Z~M0.55. A basically similar relation has been found for M87 by Strader et al. (2005). We argue that these GCS characteristics are consistent with a hierarchical-merging galaxy formation picture in which the metal-poor clusters formed in protogalactic clouds or dense starburst complexes with gas masses in the range 107-1010 Msolar, but where the more massive clusters on average formed in bigger clouds with deeper potential wells where more preenrichment could

  6. CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY: INDICATIONS FOR A DIFFERENT POPULATION IN DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Quimby, Robert M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas; Cooke, Jeff; Nugent, Peter E.; Poznanski, Dovi; Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sullivan, Mark; Hook, Isobel; Joensson, Jakob; Blake, Sarah; Howell, D. Andrew; Dekany, Richard; Rahmer, Gustavo

    2010-09-20

    We use the first compilation of 72 core-collapse supernovae (SNe) from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) to study their observed subtype distribution in dwarf galaxies compared to giant galaxies. Our sample is the largest single-survey, untargeted, spectroscopically classified, homogeneous collection of core-collapse events ever assembled, spanning a wide host-galaxy luminosity range (down to M{sub r} {approx} -14 mag) and including a substantial fraction (>20%) of dwarf (M{sub r} {>=} -18 mag) hosts. We find more core-collapse SNe in dwarf galaxies than expected and several interesting trends emerge. We use detailed subclassifications of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe and find that all Type I core-collapse events occurring in dwarf galaxies are either SNe Ib or broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-BL), while 'normal' SNe Ic dominate in giant galaxies. We also see a significant excess of SNe IIb in dwarf hosts. We hypothesize that in lower metallicity hosts, metallicity-driven mass loss is reduced, allowing massive stars that would have appeared as 'normal' SNe Ic in metal-rich galaxies to retain some He and H, exploding as Ib/IIb events. At the same time, another mechanism allows some stars to undergo extensive stripping and explode as SNe Ic-BL (and presumably also as long-duration gamma-ray bursts). Our results are still limited by small-number statistics, and our measurements of the observed N(Ib/c)/N(II) number ratio in dwarf and giant hosts (0.25{sup +0.3}{sub -0.15} and 0.23{sup +0.11}{sub -0.08}, respectively; 1{sigma} uncertainties) are consistent with previous studies and theoretical predictions. As additional PTF data accumulate, more robust statistical analyses will be possible, allowing the evolution of massive stars to be probed via the dwarf-galaxy SN population.

  7. 'Direct' Gas-Phase Metallicities, Stellar Properties, and Local Environments of Emission-Line Galaxies at Redshifts Below 0.90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band (NB) imaging and optical spectroscopy from the Keck telescope and the Multi Mirror Telescope (MMT), we identify a sample of 20 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at z = 0.065-0.90 where the weak auroral emission line, [O iii] lambda4363, is detected at >=3sigma. These detections allow us to determine the gas-phase metallicity using the "direct" method. With electron temperature measurements, and dust attenuation corrections from Balmer decrements, we find that 4 of these low-mass galaxies are extremely metal-poor with 12+log(O/H) <= 7.65 or one-tenth solar. Our most metal-deficient galaxy has 12+log(O/H)= 7.24(+0.45 / -0.30) (95% confidence), similar to some of the lowest metallicity galaxies identified in the local universe. We find that our galaxies are all undergoing significant star formation with average specific star formation rate (SFR) of (100 Myra)(exp -1), and that they have high central SFR surface densities (average of 0.5 Solar M / yr/ sq. kpc). In addition, more than two-thirds of our galaxies have between one and four nearby companions within a projected radius of 100 kpc, which we find is an excess among star-forming galaxies at z =0.4 -- 0.85. We also find that the gas-phase metallicities for a given stellar mass and SFR lie systematically lower than the local stellar M-Z-(SFR) relation by approx. = 0.2 dex (2 sigma significance). These results are partly due to selection effects, since galaxies with strong star formation and low metallicity are more likely to yield [O iii] lambda4363 detections. Finally, the observed higher ionization parameter and high electron density suggest that they are lower redshift analogs to typical z approx. > 1 galaxies.

  8. 'Direct' gas-phase metallicities, stellar properties, and local environments of emission-line galaxies at redshifts below 0.90

    SciTech Connect

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Hayashi, Masao; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-10

    Using deep narrow-band (NB) imaging and optical spectroscopy from the Keck telescope and MMT, we identify a sample of 20 emission-line galaxies at z = 0.065-0.90 where the weak auroral emission line, [O III] λ4363, is detected at ≥3σ. These detections allow us to determine the gas-phase metallicity using the 'direct' method. With electron temperature measurements, and dust attenuation corrections from Balmer decrements, we find that four of these low-mass galaxies are extremely metal-poor with 12 + log (O/H) ≤ 7.65 or one-tenth solar. Our most metal-deficient galaxy has 12 + log (O/H) = 7.24{sub −0.30}{sup +0.45} (95% confidence), similar to some of the lowest metallicity galaxies identified in the local universe. We find that our galaxies are all undergoing significant star formation with average specific star formation rate (SFR) of (100 Myr){sup –1}, and that they have high central SFR surface densities (average of 0.5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}). In addition, more than two-thirds of our galaxies have between one and four nearby companions within a projected radius of 100 kpc, which we find is an excess among star-forming galaxies at z = 0.4-0.85. We also find that the gas-phase metallicities for a given stellar mass and SFR lie systematically lower than the local M {sub *}-Z-(SFR) relation by ≈0.2 dex (2σ significance). These results are partly due to selection effects, since galaxies with strong star formation and low metallicity are more likely to yield [O III] λ4363 detections. Finally, the observed higher ionization parameter and high electron density suggest that they are lower redshift analogs to typical z ≳ 1 galaxies.

  9. Measurement of a Metallicity Gradient in a z = 2 Galaxy: Implications for Inside-out Assembly Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Tucker; Ellis, Richard; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan

    2010-12-01

    We present near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of the strongly lensed z = 2.00 galaxy SDSS J120601.69+514227.8 ("the Clone arc"). Using OSIRIS on the Keck 2 telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics, we achieve resolved spectroscopy with 0.20 arcsec FWHM resolution in the diagnostic emission lines [O III], Hα, and [N II]. The lensing magnification allows us to map the velocity and star formation from Hα emission at a physical resolution of sime300 pc in the galaxy source plane. With an integrated star formation rate of sime50 M sun yr-1, the galaxy is typical of sources similarly studied at this epoch. It is dispersion dominated with a velocity gradient of sime±80 km s-1 and average dispersion \\bar{σ} = 85 km s-1 the dynamical mass is 2.4 × 1010 M sun within a half-light radius of 2.9 kpc. Robust detection of [N II] emission across the entire OSIRIS field of view enables us to trace the gas phase metallicity distribution with 500 pc resolution. We find a strong radial gradient in both the [N II]/Hα and [O III]/Hα ratios indicating a metallicity gradient of -0.27 ± 0.05 dex kpc-1 with central metallicity close to solar. We demonstrate that the gradient is seen independently in two multiple images. While the physical gradient is considerably steeper than that observed in local galaxies, in terms of the effective radius at that epoch, the gradient is similar. This suggests that subsequent growth occurs in an inside-out manner with the inner metallicity gradient diminished over time due to radial mixing and enrichment from star formation.

  10. Using dust, gas and stellar mass-selected samples to probe dust sources and sinks in low-metallicity galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vis, P.; Gomez, H. L.; Schofield, S. P.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Baes, M.; Cigan, P.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Lara-López, M.; Owers, M.

    2017-10-01

    We combine samples of nearby galaxies with Herschel photometry selected on their dust, metal, H I and stellar mass content, and compare these to chemical evolution models in order to discriminate between different dust sources. In a companion paper, we used an H i-selected sample of nearby galaxies to reveal a subsample of very gas-rich (gas fraction >80 per cent) sources with dust masses significantly below predictions from simple chemical evolution models, and well below Md/M* and Md/Mgas scaling relations seen in dust and stellar-selected samples of local galaxies. We use a chemical evolution model to explain these dust-poor, but gas-rich, sources as well as the observed star formation rates (SFRs) and dust-to-gas ratios. We find that (i) a delayed star formation history is required to model the observed SFRs; (ii) inflows and outflows are required to model the observed metallicities at low gas fractions; (iii) a reduced contribution of dust from supernovae (SNe) is needed to explain the dust-poor sources with high gas fractions. These dust-poor, low stellar mass galaxies require a typical core-collapse SN to produce 0.01-0.16 M⊙ of dust. To match the observed dust masses at lower gas fractions, significant grain growth is required to counteract the reduced contribution from dust in SNe and dust destruction from SN shocks. These findings are statistically robust, though due to intrinsic scatter it is not always possible to find one single model that successfully describes all the data. We also show that the dust-to-metal ratio decreases towards lower metallicity.

  11. A novel multi-scale analysis to determine red giant branch metallicities of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Christopher Thomas

    Through the last century the color-magnitude diagram has given a huge wealth of information about resolved stellar populations. Objects ranging from sparse star associations and open clusters to the massive spiral and elliptical galaxies have been measured in a wide array of photometric filter systems to understand how galaxies formed into the structure that we as humans see them as today. With a basic knowledge of nuclear physics fused with stellar evolution we have measured the ages of these systems of stars, along with estimates of the chemical abundances. Our understanding has been that smaller systems like open and globular star clusters were formed as a single population of stars at roughly the same time. In contrast the larger systems like spiral and elliptical galaxies were formed by a combination of constant star formation along with mergers of smaller proto systems. In fact, these mergers are still happening in the current epoch of the universe. Over the last decade higher resolution studies paved by larger 8-10 meter telescopes, along with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, have shown the simplistic view of the formation of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies is no longer acceptable. Photometric and spectroscopic observations show that the globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies have multiple populations that vary with age, and/or metallicity (Geisler et al. 2007, Tolstoy et al. 2009). Two objects that show the extremes of each are the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Hurley-Keller et al. 1998) and the massive o Centauri globular cluster (Sollima et al. 2005). The more massive globular clusters show hints of multiple populations such as the NGC2808 globular cluster. It seems as though our understanding of the universe has only begun as we uncover more complexities with better tools to probe the universe. This dissertation thesis brings a new tool for stellar population studies when analyzing data from photometric systems. I have chosen theM I

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: BOÖTES II

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Geha, Marla

    2016-01-20

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of the four brightest confirmed red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II (Boo II). These stars all inhabit the metal-poor tail of the Boo II metallicity distribution function. The chemical abundance pattern of all detectable elements in these stars is consistent with that of the Galactic halo. However, all four stars have undetectable amounts of neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, with upper limits comparable to the lowest ever detected in the halo or in other dwarf galaxies. One star exhibits significant radial velocity variations over time, suggesting it to be in a binary system. Its variable velocity has likely increased past determinations of the Boo II velocity dispersion. Our four stars span a limited metallicity range, but their enhanced α-abundances and low neutron-capture abundances are consistent with the interpretation that Boo II has been enriched by very few generations of stars. The chemical abundance pattern in Boo II confirms the emerging trend that the faintest dwarf galaxies have neutron-capture abundances distinct from the halo, suggesting the dominant source of neutron-capture elements in halo stars may be different than in ultra-faint dwarfs.

  13. High resolution radio and optical observations of the central starburst in the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy II Zw 40

    SciTech Connect

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Reines, Amy E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Walker, Lisa May E-mail: areines@nrao.edu E-mail: lisamay@virginia.edu

    2014-02-01

    The extent to which star formation varies in galaxies with low masses, low metallicities, and high star formation rate surface densities is not well constrained. To gain insight into star formation under these physical conditions, this paper estimates the ionizing photon fluxes, masses, and ages for young massive clusters in the central region of II Zw 40—the prototypical low-metallicity dwarf starburst galaxy—from radio continuum and optical observations. Discrete, cluster-sized sources only account for half the total radio continuum emission; the remainder is diffuse. The young (≲ 5 Myr) central burst has a star formation rate surface density that significantly exceeds that of the Milky Way. Three of the 13 sources have ionizing photon fluxes (and thus masses) greater than R136 in 30 Doradus. Although isolating the effects of galaxy mass and metallicity is difficult, the H II region luminosity function and the internal extinction in the center of II Zw 40 appear to be primarily driven by a merger-related starburst. The relatively flat H II region luminosity function may be the result of an increase in interstellar medium pressure during the merger and the internal extinction is similar to that generated by the clumpy and porous dust in other starburst galaxies.

  14. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: LEO IV

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joshua D.; McWilliam, Andrew; Thompson, Ian B.; Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N. E-mail: andy@ociw.ed E-mail: afrebel@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-06-10

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy of the brightest star in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Leo IV. We measure an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.2, adding to the rapidly growing sample of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars being identified in Milky Way satellite galaxies. The star is enhanced in the {alpha} elements Mg, Ca, and Ti by {approx}0.3 dex, very similar to the typical Milky Way halo abundance pattern. All of the light and iron-peak elements follow the trends established by EMP halo stars, but the neutron-capture elements Ba and Sr are significantly underabundant. These results are quite similar to those found for stars in the ultra-faint dwarfs Ursa Major II, Coma Berenices, Booetes I, and Hercules, suggesting that the chemical evolution of the lowest-luminosity galaxies may be universal. The abundance pattern we observe is consistent with predictions for nucleosynthesis from a Population III supernova explosion. The extremely low metallicity of this star also supports the idea that a significant fraction ({approx}>10%) of the stars in the faintest dwarfs have metallicities below [Fe/H] = -3.0.

  15. Molecular gas in low-metallicity starburst galaxies:. Scaling relations and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, R.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Planesas, P.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Tracing the molecular gas-phase in low-mass star-forming galaxies becomes extremely challenging due to significant UV photo-dissociation of CO molecules in their low-dust, low-metallicity ISM environments. Aims: We aim to study the molecular content and the star-formation efficiency of a representative sample of 21 blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), previously characterized on the basis of their spectrophotometric properties. Methods: We present CO (1-0) and (2-1) observations conducted at the IRAM-30m telescope. These data are further supplemented with additional CO measurements and multiwavelength ancillary data from the literature. We explore correlations between the derived CO luminosities and several galaxy-averaged properties. Results: We detect CO emission in seven out of ten BCDs observed. For two galaxies these are the first CO detections reported so far. We find the molecular content traced by CO to be correlated with the stellar and Hi masses, star formation rate (SFR) tracers, the projected size of the starburst, and its gas-phase metallicity. BCDs appear to be systematically offset from the Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law, showing lower average gas surface densities for a given ΣSFR, and therefore showing extremely low (≲0.1 Gyr) H2 and H2 +Hi depletion timescales. The departure from the SK law is smaller when considering H2 +Hi rather than H2 only, and is larger for BCDs with lower metallicity and higher specific SFR. Thus, the molecular fraction (ΣH2/ ΣHI) and CO depletion timescale (ΣH2/ ΣSFR) of BCDs is found to be strongly correlated with metallicity. Using this, and assuming that the empirical correlation found between the specific SFR and galaxy-averaged H2 depletion timescale of more metal-rich galaxies extends to lower masses, we derive a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor αCO,Z ∝ (Z/Z⊙)- y, with y = 1.5(±0.3)in qualitative agreement with previous determinations, dust-based measurements, and recent model

  16. The Ages, Metallicities, and Element Abundance Ratios of Massive Quenched Galaxies at z ≥ 1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Renzini, A.; Cappellari, M.; Mancini, C.; Arimoto, N.; Daddi, E.; Gobat, R.; Strazzullo, V.; Tacchella, S.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the stellar population properties of a sample of 24 massive quenched galaxies at 1.25< zspec< 2.09 identified in the COSMOS field with our Subaru/Multi-object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph near-IR spectroscopic observations. Tracing the stellar population properties as close to their major formation epoch as possible, we try to put constraints on the star formation history, post-quenching evolution, and possible progenitor star-forming populations for such massive quenched galaxies. By using a set of Lick absorption line indices on a rest-frame optical composite spectrum, the average age, metallicity [Z/H], and α-to-iron element abundance ratio [α/Fe] are derived as log(age/Gyr)=0.04-0.08+0.10, [Z/H]=0.24-0.14+0.20, and [α /Fe]=0.31-0.12+0.12, respectively. If our sample of quenched galaxies at < z≥1.6 is evolved passively to z = 0, their stellar population properties will align in excellent agreement with local counterparts at similar stellar velocity dispersions, which qualifies them as progenitors of local massive early-type galaxies. Redshift evolution of stellar population ages in quenched galaxies combined with low redshift measurements from the literature suggests a formation redshift of zf∼ 2.3, around which the bulk of stars in these galaxies have been formed. The measured [α/Fe] value indicates a star formation timescale of ≲ 1 Gyr, which can be translated into a specific star formation rate of ≃ 1 Gyr-1 prior to quenching. Based on these findings, we discuss identifying possible progenitor star-forming galaxies at z≃ 2.3. We identify normal star-forming galaxies, i.e., those on the star-forming main sequence, followed by a rapid quenching event, as likely precursors of the quenched galaxies at < z≥1.6 presented here. Based on data collected at the Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. (Proposal IDs: S09A-043, S10A-058, and S11A-075.)

  17. The H II regions of IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.S.; Mason, S.F.; Gullixson, C.A. Prime Computer, Inc., Bedford, MA Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ )

    1990-08-01

    New H-alpha images are presented of IC 1613, a small irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The images, obtained with a CCD on the 42-in telescope at Lowell Observatory, have been calibrated and used to produce an H-alpha luminosity function and a size distribution for the H II regions in IC 1613. The results are compared to results for NGC 6822 and the Magellanic Clouds. The size distribution is found to be Poissonian over a limited range. 24 refs.

  18. THE GAS PHASE MASS METALLICITY RELATION FOR DWARF GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND HI GAS MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola

    2015-10-20

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR{sub SFR}) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR{sub HI}). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMR{sub SFR} and FMR{sub HI} across the stellar mass range 10{sup 6.6}–10{sup 8.8} M{sub ⊙}, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMR{sub SFR} (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR{sub SFR} is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10{sup −2.4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR{sub HI}. We also find that the FMR{sub HI} is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FML{sub SFR}) and HI-gas mass (FML{sub HI}). We find that the FML{sub HI} relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FML{sub HI} relation is not improved over the FMR{sub HI} scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMR{sub HI} is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation.

  19. SINFONI-HiZELS: the dynamics, merger rates and metallicity gradients of 'typical' star-forming galaxies at z = 0.8-2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, J.; Ibar, Edo; Swinbank, A. M.; Sobral, D.; Best, P. N.; Smail, I.; Escala, A.; Cirasuolo, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present adaptive optics (AO) assisted SINFONI integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy of 11 Hα emitting galaxies selected from the High-Z Emission Line Survey (HiZELS). We obtain spatially resolved dynamics on ˜kpc-scales of star-forming galaxies [stellar mass M⋆ = 109.5 - 10.5 M⊙ and star formation rate (SFR) = 2-30 M⊙ yr-1] near the peak of the cosmic star formation rate history. Combining these observations with our previous SINFONI-HiZELS campaign, we construct a sample of 20 homogeneously selected galaxies with IFU AO-aided observations - the 'SHiZELS' survey, with roughly equal number of galaxies per redshift slice, at z = 0.8, 1.47 and 2.23. We measure the dynamics and identify the major kinematic axis by modelling their velocity fields to extract rotational curves and infer their inclination-corrected rotational velocities. We explore the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relationship, finding that galaxies with higher velocity dispersions tend to deviate from this relation. Using kinemetry analyses, we find that galaxy interactions might be the dominant mechanism controlling the star formation activity at z = 2.23 but they become gradually less important down to z = 0.8. Metallicity gradients derived from the [N II]/Hα emission line ratio show a median negative gradient for the SHiZELS survey of Δlog(O/H)/ΔR = -0.026 ± 0.008 dex kpc-1. We find that metal-rich galaxies tend to show negative gradients, whereas metal-poor galaxies tend to exhibit positive metallicity gradients. This result suggests that the accretion of pristine gas in the periphery of galaxies plays an important role in replenishing the gas in 'typical' star-forming galaxies.

  20. Peanut-shaped metallicity distributions in bulges of edge-on galaxies: the case of NGC 4710

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Oscar A.; Debattista, Victor P.; Ness, Melissa; Erwin, Peter; Gadotti, Dimitri A.

    2017-03-01

    Bulges of edge-on galaxies are often boxy/peanut-shaped (B/PS), and unsharp masks reveal the presence of an X shape. Simulations show that these shapes can be produced by dynamical processes driven by a bar which vertically thickens the centre. In the Milky Way, which contains such a B/PS bulge, the X-shaped structure is traced by the metal-rich stars but not by the metal-poor ones. Recently, Debattista et al. interpreted this property as a result of the varying effect of the bar on stellar populations with different starting kinematics. This kinematic fractionation model predicts that cooler populations at the time of bar formation go on to trace the X shape, whereas hotter populations are more uniformly distributed. As this prediction is not specific to the Milky Way, we test it with Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of the B/PS bulge in the nearby galaxy NGC 4710. We show that the metallicity map is more peanut-shaped than the density distribution itself, in good agreement with the prediction. This result indicates that the X-shaped structure in B/PS bulges is formed of relatively metal-rich stars that have been vertically redistributed by the bar, whereas the metal-poor stars have a more uniform, box-shaped distribution.

  1. DISCOVERY OF MIRA VARIABLE STARS IN THE METAL-POOR SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2012-12-10

    We report the discovery of two Mira variable stars (Miras) toward the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). We performed optical long-term monitoring observations for two red stars in the Sextans dSph. The light curves of both stars in the I{sub c} band show large-amplitude (3.7 and 0.9 mag) and long-period (326 {+-} 15 and 122 {+-} 5 days) variations, suggesting that they are Miras. We combine our own infrared data with previously published data to estimate the mean infrared magnitudes. The distances obtained from the period-luminosity relation of the Miras (75.3{sup +12.8}{sub -10.9} and 79.8{sup +11.5}{sub -9.9} kpc, respectively), together with the radial velocities available, support memberships of the Sextans dSph (90.0 {+-} 10.0 kpc). These are the first Miras found in a stellar system with a metallicity as low as [Fe/H] {approx} -1.9 than any other known system with Miras.

  2. A uniform metallicity in the outskirts of massive, nearby galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, O.; Werner, N.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Mantz, A.

    2017-10-01

    Suzaku measurements of a homogeneous metal distribution of Z ˜ 0.3 Solar in the outskirts of the nearby Perseus cluster suggest that chemical elements were deposited and mixed into the intergalactic medium before clusters formed, likely over 10 billion years ago. A key prediction of this early enrichment scenario is that the intracluster medium in all massive clusters should be uniformly enriched to a similar level. Here, we confirm this prediction by determining the iron abundances in the outskirts (r > 0.25r200) of a sample of 10 other nearby galaxy clusters observed with Suzaku for which robust measurements based on the Fe-K lines can be made. Across our sample, the iron abundances are consistent with a constant value, ZFe = 0.316 ± 0.012 Solar (χ2 = 28.85 for 25 degrees of freedom). This is remarkably similar to the measurements for the Perseus cluster of ZFe = 0.314 ± 0.012 Solar, using the Solar abundance scale of Asplund et al.

  3. A uniform metallicity in the outskirts of massive, nearby galaxy clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Urban, O.; Werner, N.; Allen, S. W.; ...

    2017-06-20

    Suzaku measurements of a homogeneous metal distribution of Z ~ 0:3 Solar in the outskirts of the nearby Perseus cluster suggest that chemical elements were deposited and mixed into the intergalactic medium before clusters formed, likely over 10 billion years ago. A key prediction of this early enrichment scenario is that the intracluster medium in all massive clusters should be uniformly enriched to a similar level. Here, we confirm this prediction by determining the iron abundances in the outskirts (r > 0:25r200) of a sample of ten other nearby galaxy clusters observed with Suzaku for which robust measurements based onmore » the Fe-K lines can be made. Across our sample the iron abundances are consistent with a constant value, ZFe = 0:316 ± 0:012 Solar (Χ2 = 28:85 for 25 degrees of freedom). This is remarkably similar to the measurements for the Perseus cluster of ZFe = 0:314±0:012 Solar, using the Solar abundance scale of Asplund et al. (2009).« less

  4. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. IX. Dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity gradients in four Virgo spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, L.; Bianchi, S.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Hunt, L.; Smith, M.; Vlahakis, C.; Davies, J.; Bendo, G. J.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Casasola, V.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T.; Madden, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Pohlen, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Verstappen, J.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Using Herschel data from the open time key project the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS), we investigated the relationship between the metallicity gradients expressed by metal abundances in the gas phase as traced by the chemical composition of HII regions, and in the solid phase, as traced by the dust-to-gas mass ratio. Aims: We derived the radial gradient of the dust-to-gas mass ratio for all galaxies observed by HeViCS whose metallicity gradients are available in the literature. They are all late type Sbc galaxies, namely NGC 4254, NGC 4303, NGC 4321, and NGC 4501. Methods: We fitted PACS and SPIRE observations with a single-temperature modified blackbody, inferred the dust mass, and calculated two dimensional maps of the dust-to-gas mass ratio, with the total mass of gas from available HI and CO maps. HI moment-1 maps were used to derive the geometric parameters of the galaxies and extract the radial profiles. We examined different dependencies on metallicity of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (XCO), used to transform the 12CO observations into the amount of molecular hydrogen. Results: We found that in these galaxies the dust-to-gas mass ratio radial profile is extremely sensitive to choice of the XCO value, since the molecular gas is the dominant component in the inner parts. We found that for three galaxies of our sample, namely NGC 4254, NGC 4321, and NGC 4501, the slopes of the oxygen and of the dust-to-gas radial gradients agree up to ~0.6-0.7 R25 using XCO values in the range 1/3-1/2 Galactic XCO. For NGC 4303 a lower value of XCO ~ 0.1 × 1020 is necessary. Conclusions: We suggest that such low XCO values might be due to a metallicity dependence of XCO (from close to linear for NGC 4254, NGC 4321, and NGC 4501 to superlinear for NGC 4303), especially in the radial regions RG < 0.6-0.7 R25 where the molecular gas dominates. On the other hand, the outer regions, where the atomic gas component is dominant, are less affected by the choice of

  5. The Most Metal-poor Damped Lyα Systems: An Insight into Dwarf Galaxies at High-redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a "knee" in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] sime -2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T gas ~= 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (VLT program IDs: 60.A-9022(A), 65.O-0063(B), 65.O-0296(A), 67.A-0022(A), 67.A-0078(A), 68.A-0600(A), 68.B-0115(A), 70.A-0425(C), 078.A-0185(A), 080.A-0014(A), 082.A-0544(A), 083.A-0042(A), 083.A-0454(A), 085.A-0109(A), 086.A-0204(A)), and at the

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: URSA MAJOR II and COMA BERENICES

    SciTech Connect

    Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Geha, Maria; Willman, Beth E-mail: jsimon@ociw.ed E-mail: bwillman@haverford.ed

    2010-01-01

    We present spectra of six metal-poor stars in two of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW), Ursa Major II, and Coma Berenices obtained with the Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES). These observations include the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -3.0) stars not belonging to the MW halo field star population. We obtain abundance measurements and upper limits for 26 elements between carbon and europium. The entire sample of stars spans a range of -3.2 < [Fe/H] < -2.3, and we confirm that each galaxy contains a large intrinsic spread of Fe abundances. A comparison with MW halo stars of similar metallicities reveals substantial agreement between the abundance patterns of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies and the MW halo for the light, alpha, and iron-peak elements (C to Zn). This agreement contrasts with the results of earlier studies of more metal-rich stars (-2.5 approx< [Fe/H] approx< -1.0) in more luminous dwarf spheroidal galaxies, which found significant abundance discrepancies with respect to the MW halo data. The abundances of neutron-capture elements (Sr to Eu) in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are extremely low, consistent with the most metal-poor halo stars, but not with the typical halo abundance pattern at [Fe/H] approx> -3.0. Not only are our results broadly consistent with a galaxy formation model that predicts that massive dwarf galaxies are the source of the metal-rich component ([Fe/H]> - 2.5) of the MW halo, but they also suggest that the faintest known dwarfs may be the primary contributors to the metal-poor end of the MW halo metallicity distribution.

  7. THE X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF LOW MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES, THEIR METAL-RICH, AND METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2016-02-10

    We present the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the globular clusters (GCs) and fields of seven early-type galaxies. These galaxies are selected to have both deep Chandra observations, which allow their LMXB populations to be observed to X-ray luminosities of 10{sup 37}–10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}, and Hubble Space Telescope optical mosaics that enable the X-ray sources to be separated into field LMXBs, GC LMXBs, and contaminating background and foreground sources. We find that at all luminosities the number of field LMXBs per stellar mass is similar in these galaxies. This suggests that the field LMXB populations in these galaxies are not effected by the GC specific frequency, and that properties such as binary fraction and the stellar initial mass function are either similar across the sample or change in a way that does not affect the number of LMXBs. We compare the XLF of the field LMXBs to that of the GC LMXBs and find that they are significantly different with a p-value of 3 × 10{sup −6} (equivalent to 4.7σ for a normal distribution). The difference is such that the XLF of the GC LMXBs is flatter than that of the field LMXBs, with the GCs hosting relatively more bright sources and fewer faint sources. A comparison of the XLF of the metal-rich and metal-poor GCs hints that the metal-poor clusters may have more bright LMXBs, but the difference is not statistically significant.

  8. Modeling the physical properties in the ISM of the low-metallicity galaxy NGC 4214

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimaratos, A.; Cormier, D.; Bigiel, F.; Madden, S. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present a model for the interstellar medium of NGC 4214 with the objective to probe the physical conditions in the two main star-forming regions and their connection with the star formation activity of the galaxy. We used the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to model an H ii region and the associated photodissociation region (PDR) to reproduce the emission of mid- and far-infrared fine-structure lines from the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes for these two regions. Input parameters of the model, such as elemental abundances and star formation history, are guided by earlier studies of the galaxy, and we investigated the effect of the mode in which star formation takes place (bursty or continuous) on the line emission. Furthermore, we tested the effect of adding pressure support with magnetic fields and turbulence on the line predictions. We find that this model can satisfactorily predict (within a factor of ~2) all observed lines that originate from the ionized medium ([S iv] 10.5 μm, [Ne iii] 15.6 μm, [S iii] 18.7 μm, [S iii] 33.5 μm, and [O iii] 88 μm), with the exception of [Ne ii] 12.8 μm and [N ii] 122 μm, which may arise from a lower ionization medium. In the PDR, the [O i] 63 μm, [O i] 145 μm, and [C ii] 157 μm lines are matched within a factor of ~5 and work better when weak pressure support is added to the thermal pressure or when the PDR clouds are placed farther away from the H ii regions and have covering factors lower than unity. Our models of the H ii region agree with different evolutionary stages found in previous studies, with a more evolved, diffuse central region, and a younger, more compact southern region. However, the local PDR conditions are averaged out on the 175 pc scales probed and do not reflect differences observed in the star formation properties of the two regions. Their increased porosity stands out as an intrinsic characteristic of the low-metallicity ISM, with the PDR covering factor tracing the evolution of the

  9. Relations between stellar mass and electron temperature-based metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a wide mass range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Liang, Yan-Chun; Shao, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Gang; Hammer, Francois; Zhang, Yong; Flores, Hector; Ruan, Gui-Ping; Zhou, Li

    2014-07-01

    We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O III]λ4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5σ. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are then determined. We compare the results from different methods. t2, the electron temperature in the low ionization region, estimated from t3, that in the high ionization region, is compared using three analysis relations between t2 - t3. These show obvious differences, which result in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of t3, t2, O++/H+ and O+/H+ derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances O++/H+ are higher than O+/H+ for most cases. The different oxygen abundances derived from Te and the strong-line ratios show a clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio R23. The sample of galaxies from SDSS with detected [O III]λ4363 have lower metallicites and higher star formation rates, so they may not be typical representatives of the whole population of galaxies. Adopting data objects from Andrews & Martini, Liang et al. and Lee et al. data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from 106 Msolar to 1011 Msolar.

  10. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. V. Star-forming dwarf galaxies - dust in metal-poor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Vlahakis, C.; Bomans, D. J.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Hughes, T. M.; Jones, A. P.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    We present the dust properties of a small sample of Virgo cluster dwarf galaxies drawn from the science demonstration phase data set of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. These galaxies have low metallicities (7.8 < 12 + log(O/H) < 8.3) and star-formation rates ≲10-1 M⊙ yr-1. We measure the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 100 to 500 μm and derive dust temperatures and dust masses. The SEDs are fitted by a cool component of temperature T ≲ 20 K, implying dust masses around 105 M⊙ and dust-to-gas ratios D within the range 10-3-10-2. The completion of the full survey will yield a larger set of galaxies, which will provide more stringent constraints on the dust content of star-forming dwarf galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. Metal-line absorption around z ≈ 2.4 star-forming galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Monica L.; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Strom, Allison L.

    2014-11-01

    We study metal absorption around 854 z ≈ 2.4 star-forming galaxies taken from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey. The galaxies examined in this work lie in the fields of 15 hyperluminous background quasi-stellar objects, with galaxy impact parameters ranging from 35 proper kpc (pkpc) to 2 proper Mpc (pMpc). Using the pixel optical depth technique, we present the first galaxy-centred 2D maps of the median absorption by O VI, N V, C IV, C III, and Si IV, as well as updated results for H I. At small galactocentric radii we detect a strong enhancement of the absorption relative to randomly located regions that extend out to at least 180 pkpc in the transverse direction, and ±240 km s-1 along the line of sight (LOS, ˜1 pMpc in the case of pure Hubble flow) for all ions except N V. For C IV (and H I) we detect a significant enhancement of the absorption signal out to 2 pMpc in the transverse direction, corresponding to the maximum impact parameter in our sample. After normalizing the median absorption profiles to account for variations in line strengths and detection limits, in the transverse direction we find no evidence for a sharp drop-off in metals distinct from that of H I. We argue instead that non-detection of some metal-line species in the extended circumgalactic medium is consistent with differences in the detection sensitivity. Along the LOS, the normalized profiles reveal that the enhancement in the absorption is more extended for O VI, C IV, and Si IV than for H I. We also present measurements of the scatter in the pixel optical depths, covering fractions, and equivalent widths as a function of projected galaxy distance. Limiting the sample to the 340 galaxies with redshifts measured from nebular emission lines does not decrease the extent of the enhancement along the LOS compared to that in the transverse direction. This rules out redshift errors as the source of the observed redshift-space anisotropy and thus implies that we have detected the signature

  12. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - V. Tracing changes in star formation rate and metallicity out to separations of 80 kpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Ellison, Sara L.; Torrey, Paul; Patton, David R.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2012-10-01

    We present a sample of 1899 galaxies with a close companion taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxy pairs are selected to have velocity differences Δv < 300 km s-1, projected separations (rp) < 80 h70-1 kpc, mass ratios between 0.1 and 10, and robust measurements of star formation rates and gas-phase metallicities. We match the galaxies in total stellar mass, redshift and local density to a set of 10 control galaxies per pair galaxy. For each pair galaxy, we can therefore calculate the statistical change in star formation rate (SFR) and metallicity associated with the interaction process. Relative to the control sample, we find that galaxies in pairs show typical SFR enhancements that are, on average, 60 per cent higher than the control sample at rp < 30 h70-1 kpc. It is at these small separations that the strongest enhancements in SFR (by up to a factor of ˜10) are measured, although such starbursts are rare, even amongst the closest pairs. In addition, the pairs demonstrate more modest SFR enhancements of ˜30 per cent out to at least 80 h70-1 kpc (the widest separations in our sample). This is the first time that enhanced SFRs have been robustly detected out to such large projected separations. Galaxies in both major and minor mergers show significant SFR enhancements at all rp, although the strongest starbursts (with SFR enhancements of a factor of ˜10) appear to be found only in the major mergers. We also find evidence that SFR enhancements are synchronized in an interacting pair, such that a higher SFR in one galaxy is accompanied by an increased SFR in its companion. For the first time, we are also able to trace the metallicity changes in galaxy pairs as a function of projected separation. The metallicity is generally diluted in galaxy pairs by ˜0.02 dex, with an average metallicity decrement of -0.03 dex at the smallest separations, a trend that mirrors the SFR enhancements as a function of rp. The SFR and metallicity trends

  13. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Draco and Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from WHT/AF2-WYFFOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Irwin, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Lewis, J.; Hartke, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present preliminary results from our chemo-dynamical survey of two Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, Draco and Ursa Minor. The two galaxies have similar radial velocities and reside in close proximity in the outskirts of the Milky Way halo, yet exhibit noteworthy differences in their morphologies. We obtained spectroscopic data with AF2-WYFFOS on the WHT for several hundred red-giant-branch (RGB) candidates in each galaxy out to its tidal radius, from which we have identified approximately 100 velocity members in each system. Metallicities are determined for the individual RGB stars using the Ca II triplet lines. Whereas Ursa Minor shows an RGB population of well-mixed metallicities, a clear gradient is observed in Draco, in which the outer regions host stars of lower [Fe/H]. Such differences may be a reflection of their differing morphologies, with Ursa Minor having been tidally stirred to give rise to both its highly elongated shape and a more mixed [Fe/H] distribution.

  14. High Rate for Type IC Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A.; Marvin-Newberg, H.J.; Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perlmutter, S.; Sasseen, T.P.; Smith, C.K.

    1991-09-01

    Using an automated telescope we have detected 20 supernovae in carefully documented observations of nearby galaxies. The supernova rates for late spiral (Sbc, Sc, Scd, and Sd) galaxies, normalized to a blue luminosity of 10{sup 10} L{sub Bsun}, are 0.4 h{sup 2}, 1.6 h{sup 2}, and 1.1 h{sup 2} per 100 years for SNe type la, Ic, and II. The rate for type Ic supernovae is significantly higher than found in previous surveys. The rates are not corrected for detection inefficiencies, and do not take into account the indications that the Ic supernovae are fainter on the average than the previous estimates; therefore the true rates are probably higher. The rates are not strongly dependent on the galaxy inclination, in contradiction to previous compilations. If the Milky Way is a late spiral, then the rate of Galactic supernovae is greater than 1 per 30 {+-} 7 years, assuming h = 0.75. This high rate has encouraging con