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Sample records for metallographic cooling rates

  1. Metallographic Cooling Rates of IAB Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, A.; Haack, H.; Jensen, S. K.; Ulff-Moller, F.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    1995-09-01

    Non-metals can play an important role for the diffusion-controlled growth of the Widmanstatten structure in iron meteorites. The presence of P significantly changes the diffusivity and equilibrium concentration of Ni in kamacite and taenite [1,2], and the effects of P have therefore been included in metallographic cooling rate calculations for many years. The presence of C probably increases the diffusivity of Ni in taenite up to a factor of two, which is considerably smaller than the effect of P that increases the Ni diffusivity by up to a factor of 10 [3,1]. On the other hand, C partitions strongly into taenite leaving kamacite essentially C-free (<10 micrograms/g [4]) and significantly reduces the equilibrium Ni-concentration in taenite [5]. Therefore, the effect of C should be included in metallographic cooling rate calculations of C-rich iron meteorites [6]. IAB iron meteorites have much higher bulk C-concentrations than most other iron meteorites and the metallic phases of the IAB irons were probably saturated with C soon after kamacite nucleation commenced. Since C is expected to decrease the solubility of P in taenite [7] we have based our cooling rate estimate of Toluca (IAB) on the Fe-Ni-C system rather than the Fe-Ni-P system. Previous metallographic cooling rates determined for IAB irons, including the effect of P, are low (1-10 degrees C/My [8] and 30-70 degrees C/My [9]). Fractional crystallization of S-rich cores [10, 11] and impact generated melt pools [12] have been proposed as origins of the IAB iron meteorites. Since we expect melt pools near the surface to have cooled significantly faster than the core of a differentiated parent body, the metallographic cooling rates may be used to discriminate between the two models. We have performed thermodynamic calculations on the C-saturated Fe-Ni-C-system at temperatures above 400 degrees C [13]. The results agree with earlier experimental work [5] and indicate that C, to the same degree as P, reduces the

  2. Metallographic Cooling Rate of IVA Irons Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2005-01-01

    There is long standing problem reconciling the chemical evidence that the IVA iron meteorites formed in a core with the diverse cooling rates reported by several researchers. This large inferred range of cooling rates suggests that the IVA irons were distributed at different depths in a parent body with a complex structure when the Widmanstatten pattern formed. On the other hand, some researchers argued that the diverse cooling rates in group IVA result from inaccurate model parameters such as phase diagram, interdiffusion coefficients, and kamacite nucleation and growth mechanisms. In addition, the measured cooling rates may not apply for the same cooling temperature ranges, and the variation in the crystallographic orientations of the Widmanstatten plates on the analysis surface may result in inaccurate measurements of widths needed for the computer simulation models. We have revaluated the major parameters in computer model developed by Hopfe and Goldstein and measured cooling rates for the IVA irons. Such data are useful in evaluating whether these meteorites were part of a single core of a parent body during the formation of the Widmanstatten pattern.

  3. Metallographic cooling rates of L-group ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Marvin E.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Shock metamorphism appears to be a ubiquitous feature in L-group ordinary chondrites. Brecciation and heterogeneous melting obscure much of the early history of this meteorite group and have caused confusion as to whether L chondrites have undergone thermal metamorphism within onion-shell or rubble-pile parent bodies. Employing the most recent shock criteria, we have examined 55 Antarctic and 24 non-Antarctic L chondrites in order to identify those which have been least affected by post-accretional shock. Six low-shock samples (those with shock grade less than S4) of petrographic types L3-L5 were selected from both populations and metallographic cooling rates were obtained following the technique of Willis and Goldstein. All non-Antarctic L6 chondrites inspected were too heavily shocked to be included in this group. However, 4 shocked L6 chondrites were analyzed in order to determine what effects shock may impose on metallographic cooling rates. Metallographic cooling rates were derived by analyzing the cores of taenite grains and then measuring the distance to the nearest grain edge. Taenites were identified using backscatter imaging on a Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe. Using backscatter we were able to locate homogeneous, rust-free, nearly spherical grains. M-shaped profiles taken from grain traverses were also used to help locate the central portions of selected grains. All points which contained phosphorus above detection limits were discarded. Plots of cooling-rate data are summarized and data from the high-shock samples are presented. The lack of coherency of cooling rates for individual samples is indicative of heterogeneous cooling following shock. The data confirms the statement expressed by numerous workers that extreme care must be taken when selecting samples of L chondrites for cooling-rate studies. Data for the 6 non-Antarctic low-shock samples are also presented. The samples display a general trend in cooling rates. The lowest metamorphic grade

  4. A Revision of the Metallographic Cooling Rate Method for Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.-W.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1995-09-01

    The metallographic cooling rate methods [1][2][3] have been used for some 30 years to determine the cooling rates of the metal phases in meteorites. Of the cooling rate methods that have been used, two valid procedures [4] are the "central Ni content vs. taenite size method [1]" and the "profile matching method [2]". The cooling rate of meteorites is determined by matching numerically calculated data with experimental data measured with the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). Both cooling rate methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the numerical calculation of the Ni composition profile in taenite. The numerical calculation is based on diffusion theory, experimentally determined diffusion coefficients and the Fe-Ni (P) phase diagram. _ Recently, the chemistry and microstructure of the metallic phases in meteorites have been investigated by Yang et al. [5] using analytical electron microscopy (AEM) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been observed that the final microstructure and Ni composition of the metallic phases are formed by a series of complex phase transformations at low temperatures (<400 degrees C), which can not be explained using the current phase diagram, Reuter et al. [6]. Therefore, a new Fe-Ni phase diagram at low temperatures has been proposed by Yang et al. [5] using the AEM results of metallic phases in meteorites. In the new phase diagram, alpha (low Ni bcc kamacite) and g' (Ni3Fe) phases are in equilibrium at low temperatures. The g" (FeNi, tetrataenite) phase is present as a metastable phase. During the cooling process, first a monotectoid reaction (g1 > a + g2, where g1 is a low Ni paramagnetic fcc taenite and g2 is a high Ni ferromagnetic fcc taenite) occurs at about 400 degrees C, and then at lower temperature (about 345 degrees C) a eutectoid reaction (g2 > a + g', where g' is Ni3Fe) occurs. Because of these low temperature reactions, the computer program which has been used for numerical calculation of the

  5. Solidification zoning and metallographic cooling rates of chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1981-01-01

    The cooling rates of chondrites have been determined according to the cooling rate method of Wood (1967) which involves the measurement of the concentration of nickel in the interiors of taenite grains of various sizes. The present paper presents an investigation of the effect of zoning produced during solidification on the use of the Wood method. Cooling rate curves were obtained in a computer simulation based on a model of kamacite formation on the outer edge of a taenite sphere of uniform initial composition, followed by the inward radial progression of the kamacite-taenite interface. When a concentration gradient produced by solidification is present in the initial conditions, deviations from the cooling rate curves for uniform 10% Ni are obtained only at cooling rates greater than 1000 K/million years, which would result in an overestimation of the cooling rates based on observed Ni gradients in grains of radius greater than 20 microns.

  6. The thermal evolution of IVA iron meteorites: Evidence from metallographic cooling rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Ulff-Møller, Finn; Haack, Henning

    1995-07-01

    Metallographic cooling rates of group IVA iron meteorites have been recalculated based on the most recent Ni diffusion coefficients and phase diagram. The cooling rates are revised upwards by a factor of ca. 15 relative to previous estimates. A large range in cooling rate is found in the low-Ni part of group IVA (Ni < 8.4 wt%), while the high-Ni part shows approximately constant cooling rates. Undercooling is observed only in the high-Ni IVA members. Some of the taenite lamellae in the high-Ni IVA irons, which were apparently affected by moderate undercooling, can, alternatively, be interpreted to have experienced a nonlinear cooling history. The variation in cooling rate of the entire group IVA spans two orders of magnitude (19-3400 K/My). This span is still so large that it constitutes severe problems for both a core origin model and a raisin-bread model but seemingly it does not contradict a model where the parent body is broken up and reassembled after core crystallization but prior to Widmanstätten pattern formation.

  7. Thermal Histories of H3-6 Chondrites and Their Parent Asteroid from Metallographic Cooling Rates and Cloudy Taenite Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, T. V.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.; Wakita, S.

    2012-09-01

    Metallographic cooling rates and cloudy taenite dimensions for 17 and 23 H3-6 chondrites show that the H parent body did not retain an onion-shell structure as it cooled. Impacts excavated and mixed material and may have heated surficial material.

  8. Clast Selection and Metallographic Cooling Rates: Initial Results on Type 1A and 2A Mesosiderites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baecker, B.; Cohen, B. A.; Rubin, A. E.; Frasl, B.; Corrigan, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We initiated a comprehensive study on selected clasts and metal of mesosiderites using SEM, electron microprobe and the complete suite of noble gases. Here we report initial results on the petrography of selected clasts and metallographic cooling rates using the central Ni method used in sev-eral publications. We focus on the approach of selecting grains in least recrystallized mesosiderites. Hence, especially (lithic) clasts in type 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B are the first choice. They provide highest primitive-ness and least annealing/metamorphism. All grains selected should be in close proximity to each other. Lithic clasts in mesosiderites are of high interest be-cause of their igneous texture and similarity to eucrites and howardite petrography. We find pyrox-enes (px) and plagioclase (plag) attached to each other which implies a common formation history. It will be interesting to see differences and similarities in their noble gas inventory (CRE ages, trapped components and closure temperature). In addition, we will investi-gate variations of the lithic clasts toward similar grains in the thick sections which are not igneous. Plag grains are the best bases for noble gas measurements con-cerning He to Ar and Ar-Ar dating since it delivers im-portant target elements. We focus on plag grains in close contact to olivine (olv) / px grains to assess weth-er both grains show noble gas patterns being similar or different. Phosphate grains are suitable for Kr and Xe measurements since they yield REE abundances (tar-get elements).

  9. Implications for Metallographic Cooling Rates, Derived from Fine-Scale Analytical Traverses Across Kamacite, Taenite, and Tetrataenite in the Butler Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Ross, D. K.; Chabot, N. L.; Keller, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    The "M-shaped" Ni concentrations across Widmanstatten patterns in iron meteorites, mesosiderites, and ordinary chondrites are commonly used to calculate cooling rates. As Ni-poor kamacite exolves from Ni-rich taenite, Ni concentrations build up at the kamacite-taenite interface because of the sluggish diffusivity of Ni. Quantitative knowledge of experimentally-determined Ni diffusivities, coupled with the shape of the M-profile, have been used to allow calculation of cooling rates that pertained at low temperatures, less than or equal to 500 C. However, determining Ni metallographic cooling rates are challenging, due to the sluggish diffusivity of Ni at low temperatures. There are three potential difficulties in using Ni cooling rates at low temperatures: (i) Ni diffusivities are typically extrapolated from higher-temperature measurements; (ii) Phase changes occur at low temperatures that may be difficult to take into account; and (iii) It appears that Ge in kamacite and taenite has continued to equilibrate (or attempted to equilibrate) at temperatures below those that formed the M-shaped Ni profile. Combining Ni measurements with those of other elements has the potential to provide a way to confirm or challenge Ni-determined cooling rates, as well as provide insight into the partitioning behaviors of elements during the cooling of iron meteorites. Despite these benefits, studies that examine elemental profiles of Ni along with other elements in iron meteorites are limited, often due to the low concentration levels of the other elements and associated analytical challenges. The Butler iron meteorite provides a good opportunity to conduct a multi-element analytical study, due to the higher concentration levels of key elements in addition to Fe and Ni. In this work, we perform combined analysis for six elements in the Butler iron to determine the relative behaviors of these elements during the evolution of iron meteorites, with implications for metallographic cooling

  10. Relative Metallographic Cooling Rates: Can They be Measured Using Co/Ni Ratios at Taenite/Kamacite Interfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Yang, J.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2012-09-01

    The relative cooling rates of IVA and IIIAB irons obtained recently by Wasson and Hoppe must be treated with much caution as they were obtained with inadequate spatial resloution and a flowed phase diagram and methodology.

  11. Cooling Rates of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Hewins, R. H.; Eiben, B. A.

    1995-09-01

    Cooling rates for chondrules are among many aspects of chondrule forming events currently under debate and estimates by different authors vary considerably. Calculations based on radiation from isolated chondrules yield an extremely high cooling rate of ~10^5 degrees C/hr [1]. The cooling rates derived from previous petrological and experimental studies are much lower but inconsistent, ranging from 5 - 100 degrees C/hr [2] to ~1000 degrees C/hr [3]. Since cooling rates bear important information about the chondrule-forming environment, they need to be more tightly constrained. Here we re-evaluate the chondrule cooling rates based on the results of our recent flash heating experiments, mainly the volatile loss data, as well as textures, and olivine zoning profiles of the chondrule analog materials. Linear cooling vs. cooling curves. Many previous studies either assumed or used linear cooling rates for chondrules [2,3]. In reality, even with simple radiative cooling, the cooling rates should have followed a non-linear path, according to the Stefan- Boltzmann law. We used non-linear cooling rates throughout our experiments, and our observations show that the initial cooling rate at the high temperature end of a specific cooling curve affects chondrule properties most. Volatile loss results. Our Na and S loss experiments [4] have shown that to reproduce the very high Na contents [5,6] and primary sulfide [7] found in some natural chondrules, heating has to be brief, but fast cooling and relatively high fO2 are also essential. With an fO2 of ~10^(-10) atm, for a type II chondrule flash heated to its liquidus temperature, cooling curves beginning at ~2500 degrees C/hr are necessary to retain >90% of its original Na content or part of its S, unless the ambient gas is very enriched in these elements [8]. Under lower fO2, or for type I chondrule composition, even higher cooling rates are required. Textures and olivine zoning with ~10^1 - ~10^3 degrees C/hr initial cooling

  12. Cation ordering in orthopyroxenes and cooling rates of meteorites: Low temperature cooling rates of Estherville, Bondoc and Shaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Yang, H.; Ghose, S.

    1993-01-01

    The cooling rates of meteorites provide important constraints on the size of their parent bodies, and their accretionary and evolutionary histories. However, the cooling rates obtained so far from the commonly used metallographic, radiometric and fission-track methods have been sometimes quite controversial, such as in the case of the mesosiderites and the meteorite Shaw. We have undertaken a systematic study of the cooling rates of meteorites using a different approach, which involves single crystal x-ray determination of Fe(2+)-Mg ordering in orthopyroxenes (OP(x)) in meteorites, subject to bulk compositional constraints, and numerical simulation of the evolution of the ordering state as a function of cooling rate, within the framework of the thermodynamic and kinetic principles governing cation ordering. We report the results obtained for OP(x) crystals from Shaw and two mesosiderites, Estherville and Bondoc.

  13. Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V̇o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature  =  35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity  =  52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature  =  24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity  =  39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age  =  21.3 ± 1.1 years, height  =  182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass  =  76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds  =  50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area  =  1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V̇o2max  =  49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket. PMID:20210620

  14. Co/Ni ratios at taenite/kamacite interfaces and relative cooling rates in iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Hoppe, Peter

    2012-05-01

    We report a pilot study of a new technique to use the distribution of Co between kamacite and taenite to infer relative cooling rates of iron meteorites; data of Widge and Goldstein (1977) showed that the distribution is temperature dependent. A plot of the logarithm of the double ratio [(Co/Ni)kamacite/(Co/Ni)taenite] (abbreviated Rαγ) against inverse temperature yields a linear equation showing that the ratio ranges from ˜2.5 at 1080 K to ˜30 at 710 K. Thus, a measurement of Rαγ in the kamacite and taenite near the interface offers information about relative cooling rates; the higher Rαγ, the lower the cooling rate. A major advantage of this technique is that it is mainly affected by the final (low-temperature) cooling rate, just before the sample cooled to the blocking temperature where diffusion became insignificant. To test this method we used the NanoSIMS ion probe to measure Rαγ in two IVA and two IIIAB irons; members of each pair differ by large factors in elemental composition and in published metallographic cooling rates (Yang and Goldstein, 2006; Yang et al., 2008). Despite differing by a factor of 25 in estimated metallographic cooling rate, the two IVA irons showed similar Rαγ values of ˜22. If experimental uncertainties are considered this implies that, at low temperatures, their cooling rates differ by less than a factor of 5 with 95% confidence, i.e., significantly less than the range in metallographic cooling rates. In contrast, the IIIAB irons have different ratios; Rαγ in Haig is 29 whereas that in Cumpas, with a reported cooling rate 4.5 times lower, is 22, the opposite of that expected from the published cooling rates. A reevaluation of the Yang-Goldstein IIIAB data set shows that Haig has anomalous metallographic properties. We suggest that both the high Rαγ in Haig and the systematically low taenite central Ni contents are the result of impact-produced fractures in the taenite that allowed equilibration with kamacite down to

  15. New fine structure cooling rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    One of the dominant electron cooling processes in the ionosphere is caused by electron impact induced fine structure transitions among the ground state levels of atomic oxygen. This fine structure cooling rate is based on theoretical cross sections. Recent advances in the numerical cross section determinations to include polarization effects and more accurate representations of the atomic target result in new lower values. These cross sections are employed in this paper to derive a new fine structure cooling rate which is between 40% and 60% of the currently used rate. A new generalized formula is presented for the cooling rate (from which the fine structure cooling rate is derived), valid for arbitrary mass and temperature difference of the colliding particles and arbitrary inelastic energy difference.

  16. Interpretation of metallographic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, W. ); Dvorak, J. )

    1990-01-01

    This book provides insight into the interpretation of metallographers' and metallurgists' results and an analysis of the view as seen through an optical microscope. It discusses the strengths and weaknesses of various metallographic techniques such as light optics, electron optics, and microbeam spectroscopy. The authors also cover metallographic evidences and their relation to physical compositions and transformations, distinguishing between equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions in a solid, and deduction of the origins of failure.

  17. New cooling-rate indicator for metal particles in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. W.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1994-07-01

    It has been proposed that the size variation of the constituents of the cloudy zone in metal particles can be used to estimate the low-temperature cooling rate of the host meteorite. The cloudy zone ion the retained taenite of meteoritic metal is mainly composed of two phases, the high-Ni island phase and the low-Ni honeycomb phase. The width of the island phase is governed by the cooling rate and Ni concentration. Since the Ni concentration is almost constant at the outermost region of the cloudy zone, only the cooling rate controls the size of the island phase. The purpose of this study is to further develop the relationship between the size of the island phase of the cloudy zone and the cooling rate of meteorites. The cloudy zone microstructure was studied using a JEOL 6300F high-resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM). The island phase size variation was measured using a Micro-Plan II image analysis system. In this study, 21 meteorites including 6 mesosiderites, 4 pallasites, 8 iron meteorites, and 3 chondrites were investigated. The size variation of the island phase at the outermost region of the cloudy zone vs. the cooling rate of meteorites is presented. The size of the biggest island phase clearly decreases with increasing cooling rate without regard to whether the host is an iron, stony-iron, or stony meteorite. Those meteorites that have cooled extremely fast (the IVA irons) have a very fine microstructure, which cannot be easily resolved even by employing a HRSEM. The metallographic cooling rates of the meteorites that we studied were taken from previous measurements Saikumar and Goldstein have evaluated the methods to determine the cooling rates of iron meteorites considering impingement effects.

  18. Constraining the Cooling Rates of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, S. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Anand, M.; Grady, M. M.

    2017-02-01

    The cooling rates of chondrules are an important constraint on chondrule formation. By measuring and modelling diffusion profiles between relict grain and overgrowth formed during cooling, we will calculate the cooling rate of the host chondrule.

  19. Rate of runaway evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Groep, J. van de; Straten, P. van der; Vogels, J. M.

    2011-09-15

    Evaporative cooling is a process that is essential in creating Bose-Einstein condensates in dilute atomic gasses. This process has often been simulated based on a model using a truncated Boltzmann distribution. This model assumes that the energy distribution up to the threshold energy can still be described by a Boltzmann distribution: it assumes detailed balance up to the threshold energy. However, the evolution of the distribution function in time is not taken into account. Here we solve the kinetic Boltzmann equation for a gas undergoing evaporative cooling in a harmonic and linear trap in order to determine the evolution of the energy distribution. The magnitude of the discrepancy with the truncated Boltzmannmodel is calculated by including a polynomial expansion of the distribution function. We find that up to 35% fewer particles are found in the high-energy tail of the distribution with respect to the truncated Boltzmann distribution and up to 15% more collisions are needed to reach quantum degeneracy. Supported by a detailed investigation of the particle loss rate at different energies, we conclude that the limited occupation of high-energy states during the evaporation process causes the lowering of the evaporation speed and efficiency.

  20. Metallographic in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Powell, Richard D; Pettay, James D; Powell, William C; Roche, Patrick C; Grogan, Thomas M; Hainfeld, James F; Tubbs, Raymond R

    2007-08-01

    Metallographic methods, in which a target is visualized using a probe or antibody that deposits metal selectively at its binding site, offers many advantages for bright-field in situ hybridization (ISH) detection as well as for other labeling and detection methods. Autometallographically enhanced gold labeling procedures have demonstrated higher sensitivity than conventional enzyme chromogens. Enzyme metallography, a novel procedure in which an enzymatic probe is used to deposit metal directly from solution, has been used to develop bright-field ISH methods for HER2 gene determination in breast cancer and other biopsy specimens. It provides the highest level of sensitivity and resolution, both for visualizing endogenous gene copies in nonamplified tissues and for resolving multiple gene copies to allow copy enumeration in amplified tissues without the need for oil immersion or fluorescence optics. An automated enzyme metallography procedure, silver ISH, has been developed for use in slide-staining instruments. Metallographic staining also provides excellent results for immunohistochemistry and may be combined with other staining procedures for the simultaneous detection of more than one gene or combinations of genes and proteins.

  1. Cooling rates of group IVA iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, J.; Wasson, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Cooling rates of six group IVA iron meteorites were estimated by a taenite central Ni concentration-taenite half-width method. Calculated cooling rates range from 13 to 25 C/Myr, with an average of 20 C/Myr. No correlation between cooling rate and bulk Ni content is observed, and the data appear to be consistent with a uniform cooling rate as expected from an igneous core origin. This result differs from previous studies reporting a wide range in cooling rates that were strongly correlated with bulk Ni content. The differences result mainly from differences in the phase diagram and the selected diffusion coefficients. Cooling rates inferred from taenite Ni concentrations at the interface with kamacite are consistent with those based on taenite central Ni content.

  2. Cooling rates of group IVA iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, J.; Wasson, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Cooling rates of six group IVA iron meteorites were estimated by a taenite central Ni concentration-taenite half-width method. Calculated cooling rates range from 13 to 25 C/Myr, with an average of 20 C/Myr. No correlation between cooling rate and bulk Ni content is observed, and the data appear to be consistent with a uniform cooling rate as expected from an igneous core origin. This result differs from previous studies reporting a wide range in cooling rates that were strongly correlated with bulk Ni content. The differences result mainly from differences in the phase diagram and the selected diffusion coefficients. Cooling rates inferred from taenite Ni concentrations at the interface with kamacite are consistent with those based on taenite central Ni content.

  3. Cooling rates for glass containing lunar compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, C. Y.; Yinnon, H.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Cooling rates required to form glassy or partly-crystalline bodies of 14 lunar compositions have been estimated using a previously introduced, simplified model. The calculated cooling rates are found to be in good agreement with cooling rates measured for the same compositions. Measurements are also reported of the liquidus temperature and glass transition temperature for each composition. Inferred cooling rates are combined with heat flow analyses to obtain insight into the thermal histories of samples 15422, 14162, 15025, 74220, 74241, 10084, 15425, and 15427. The critical cooling rates required to form glasses of 24 lunar compositions, including the 14 compositions of the present study, are suggested to increase systematically with increasing ratio of total network modifiers/total network formers in the compositions. This reflects the importance of melt viscosity in affecting glass formation.

  4. Cooling rates of lunar volcanic glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, H.; Hess, K. U.; Zhang, Y.; Peslier, A. H.; Lange, R. A.; Dingwell, D. B.; Neal, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  5. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  6. Abundances of volatile-bearing phases in carbonaceous chondrites and cooling rates of meteorites based on cation ordering of orthopyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra

    1989-01-01

    Results of preliminary calculations of volatile abundances in carbonaceous chondrites are discussed. The method (Ganguly 1982) was refined for the calculation of cooling rate on the basis of cation ordering in orthopyroxenes, and it was applied to the derivation of cooling rates of some stony meteorites. Evaluation of cooling rate is important to the analysis of condensation, accretion, and post-accretionary metamorphic histories of meteorites. The method of orthopyroxene speedometry is widely applicable to meteorites and would be very useful in the understanding of the evolutionary histories of carbonaceous chondrites, especially since the conventional metallographic and fission track methods yield widely different results in many cases. Abstracts are given which summarize the major conclusions of the volatile abundance and cooling rate calculations.

  7. A Study of the Effect of Temperature and Rate of Cooling Under Crystallization on the Structure of Cast Alloy Al - 30 at .% Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men'shikova, S. G.; Brodova, I. G.; Shirinkina, I. G.; Lad'yanov, V. I.; Suslov, A. A.; Yablonskikh, T. I.

    2017-07-01

    The methods of metallographic, differential thermal and x-ray phase analysis, light and electron microscopy, and measurement of microhardness are used to study the morphological features of the structure of hypereutectic alloy Al - 30 at.% Cu formed due to cooling of liquid phase at a rate of about 2 and about 104 K/sec after superheating above the liquidus. A comparative study of structural and phase transformations in castings is performed.

  8. Cryopreservation: Vitrification and Controlled Rate Cooling.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the application of low temperatures to preserve the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. Conventional cooling protocols allow ice to form and solute concentrations to rise during the cryopreservation process. The damage caused by the rise in solute concentration can be mitigated by the use of compounds known as cryoprotectants. Such compounds protect cells from the consequences of slow cooling injury, allowing them to be cooled at cooling rates which avoid the lethal effects of intracellular ice. An alternative to conventional cooling is vitrification. Vitrification methods incorporate cryoprotectants at sufficiently high concentrations to prevent ice crystallization so that the system forms an amorphous glass thus avoiding the damaging effects caused by conventional slow cooling. However, vitrification too can impose damaging consequences on cells as the cryoprotectant concentrations required to vitrify cells at lower cooling rates are potentially, and often, harmful. While these concentrations can be lowered to nontoxic levels, if the cells are ultra-rapidly cooled, the resulting metastable system can lead to damage through devitrification and growth of ice during subsequent storage and rewarming if not appropriately handled.The commercial and clinical application of stem cells requires robust and reproducible cryopreservation protocols and appropriate long-term, low-temperature storage conditions to provide reliable master and working cell banks. Though current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) compliant methods for the derivation and banking of clinical grade pluripotent stem cells exist and stem cell lines suitable for clinical applications are available, current cryopreservation protocols, whether for vitrification or conventional slow freezing, remain suboptimal. Apart from the resultant loss of valuable product that suboptimal cryopreservation engenders, there is a danger that such processes will impose a selective

  9. Metallographic Observation of the Cloudy Zone in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. W.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1993-07-01

    The cloudy zone in the retained taenite of meteoritic metal is composed of two phases, the high-Ni island phase and the low-Ni honeycomb phase [1,2]. There is a concentration gradient through the cloudy zone and the size of the island phase varies with local Ni concentration. We propose that this size variation can be used to estimate the low-temperature cooling rate of the meteorite since the island phase width is controlled by the cooling rate and Ni concentration. The purpose of this study is to develop a relationship between the size of the island phase in the microstructure, the composition of the cloudy zone in the retained taenite of iron, stony-iron, and stony meteorites, and the cooling rate of meteorites obtained by metallographic techniques. A JEOL 6300F high-resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) and a JEOL 733 electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) were employed to study the microstructure. The island phase size variation was measured using a Micro-Plan II image analysis system (DonSanto Co.). Five meteorites including one mesosiderite, Estherville (ES), one iron meteorite, Tazewell (TA), and three chondrites, Saint Severin (SS), Guarena (GU), and Kernouve (KE),were investigated. The island phase width was measured using high-magnification (50,000X) HRSEM images taken across the cloudy zone of the five meteorites and the local Ni concentration was measured for each image using EPMA. For all the meteorites, the size of the island phase increases with increasing Ni concentration. The Ni concentration of the cloudy zone, which abuts the clear taenite (tetrataenite) rim phase, has the highest Ni, and has the biggest island phases, is almost constant (~42 wt% Ni). The size of the biggest island phase in a meteorite can be used as a measure of the cooling rate. Figure 1 shows the variation of the island phase vs. cooling rate. The metallographic cooling rate data were taken from previous measurements (Estherville [3], Saint Severin [4,5], Guarena [5

  10. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  11. Cooling-rate dependence of thermoremanent magnetisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J. M. W.; Aitken, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    In using the thermoremanent magnetisation (TRM) of material heated in antiquity (usually pottery, bricks, stones or lava) to evaluate the magnitude of the geomagnetic field at the time of heating, little attention (apart from an observation by Thellier1) has been given to the possibility that results are affected by the rate at which the sample is cooling while the TRM is being acquired. We report here an experimental observation of the effect in archaeological baked clay; it parallels the theoretical prediction of Dodson and McClelland-Brown2 in respect of geological material.

  12. Determining cooling rates of iron and stony-iron meteorites from measurements of Ni and Co at kamacite-taenite interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Joseph I.; Yang, Jijin; Scott, Edward R. D.

    2014-09-01

    Analyses and modeling of Ni zoning in taenite in differentiated meteorites provide metallographic cooling rates at ∼500 °C that are inconsistent with conventional formation models. Group IVA iron meteorites have very diverse cooling rates of 100-6600 °C/Myr indicating that they cooled inside a large metallic body with little or no silicate mantle (Yang et al., 2007). Wasson and Hoppe (2012) have questioned these diverse cooling rates on the basis of their ion probe measurements of Ni/Co ratios at the kamacite-taenite interface in two group IVA and in two group IIIAB iron meteorites. To investigate their claims and to assess methods for determining relative cooling rates from kamacite-taenite interface compositions, we have analyzed 38 meteorites-13 IVA, 14 IIIAB irons, 4 IAB complex irons, 6 pallasites and a mesosiderite-using the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). Ni concentrations in taenite (Niγ) and kamacite (Niα) at kamacite-taenite interfaces are well correlated with metallographic cooling rates: Niγ values increase from 30 to 52 wt.% while Niα decreases from 7 to 4 wt.% as cooling rates decrease. EPMA measurements of Niγ, Niα, and Niα/Niγ, can therefore be used to provide order-of-magnitude estimates of relative cooling rates. Concentrations of Co in kamacite and taenite at their interface (Coα, Coγ) are controlled by bulk Ni and Co composition, as well as cooling rate. The ratios Coα/Coγ and (Co/Ni)α/(Co/Ni)γ are correlated with cooling rate, but because of significant scatter, these parameters should not be used to estimate cooling rates. Our analyses of 13 group IVA irons provide robust support for diverse cooling rates that decrease with increasing bulk Ni, consistent with measurements of cloudy zone size and tetrataenite width. Apparent equilibration temperatures, which are inferred from Niγ values and the Fe-Ni-P phase diagram and Ni diffusion rates in taenite, show that cooling rates of IVA irons vary by a factor of ≈100, in

  13. Ultrasonic metal etching for metallographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Ultrasonic etching delineates microstructural features not discernible in specimens prepared for metallographic analysis by standard chemical etching procedures. Cavitation bubbles in ultrasonically excited water produce preferential damage /etching/ of metallurgical phases or grain boundaries, depending on hardness of metal specimens.

  14. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  15. Crystal/liquid partitioning in augite - Effects of cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, R. P.; Taylor, L. A.

    1980-03-01

    The partitioning of major and minor elements between augite and melt was determined as a function of cooling rate for two high-titanium basalt compositions. The results of this study of lunar rock systems 10017 and 75055 were compared with the results of other kinetic studies of augite-liquid partitioning in other rock systems. It was found that the partitioning of major elements (i.e., Ca, Fe, Mg) is essentially rate independent and is insensitive to bulk rock composition and to the nature and order of appearance of coexisting phases for cooling rates of less than 100 C/hr. The partitioning behavior of minor elements (i.e., Al, Cr, Ti) for the same range of cooling rates is complex, being dependent on cooling rate and bulk rock composition. Consideration of these factors is important when augite chemistry and/or partitioning behavior are used in modeling certain magmatic processes or in estimating the thermal history of basaltic rocks.

  16. Effect of tropospheric aerosols upon atmospheric infrared cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshvardhan, MR.; Cess, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tropospheric aerosols on atmospheric infrared cooling rates is investigated by the use of recent models of infrared gaseous absorption. A radiative model of the atmosphere that incorporates dust as an absorber and scatterer of infrared radiation is constructed by employing the exponential kernel approximation to the radiative transfer equation. Scattering effects are represented in terms of a single scattering albedo and an asymmetry factor. The model is applied to estimate the effect of an aerosol layer made of spherical quartz particles on the infrared cooling rate. Calculations performed for a reference wavelength of 0.55 microns show an increased greenhouse effect, where the net upward flux at the surface is reduced by 10% owing to the strongly enhanced downward emission. There is a substantial increase in the cooling rate near the surface, but the mean cooling rate throughout the lower troposphere was only 10%.

  17. Weld Metal Cooling Rate Indicator System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    rate of change of weld temperature at the predetermined weld temperature. A range of...provided so that the rate of change of weld temperatures at the predetermined weld temperature can be compared with this range. A device is then provided...which is responsive to the comparing information for indicating whether the rate of change of weld temperature is within, above, or below the range

  18. Kinetics of rennet casein gelation at different cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Q; Daubert, C R

    2004-11-01

    A mathematical model was developed to quantitatively analyze the rheological data of rennet casein gelation at different cooling rates. Kinetic parameters were estimated and correlated with the microstructure development of the protein network. The kinetic model identified structure development upon cooling to be first order, and the network forming energies were estimated for four protein concentrations cooled at four rates. A lower energy for network formation was observed for a slower cooling rate and a higher protein concentration. This observation resulted from the availability of more flocs at a slower cooling rate and a higher casein concentration, simplifying floc cross-linking. By analyzing the kinetics during the aging process of casein gels, no difference in the reaction mechanism was observed. This study illustrated that structure formation resulted from the addition of flocs into the protein network: not all flocs were part of the network at a defined gel point. The incubation period following cooling integrated idle flocs into the network, thereby strengthening the gel. By understanding the gelation mechanism during cooling of rennet casein gels, the structure and thus quality of dairy products, such as processed cheese, may be better controlled.

  19. Measuring the Evolutionary Rate of Cooling of ZZ Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Fraser, Oliver; Córsico, A. H.; Montgomery, M. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Romero, A. D.; Winget, D. E.; Hermes, J. J.; Riecken, T. S.; Kronberg, M. E.; Winget, K. I.; Falcon, Ross E.; Chandler, D. W.; Kuehne, J. W.; Sullivan, D. J.; Reaves, D.; von Hippel, T.; Mullally, F.; Shipman, H.; Thompson, S. E.; Silvestri, N. M.; Hynes, R. I.

    2013-07-01

    We have finally measured the evolutionary rate of cooling of the pulsating hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf ZZ Ceti (Ross 548), as reflected by the drift rate of the 213.13260694 s period. Using 41 yr of time-series photometry from 1970 November to 2012 January, we determine the rate of change of this period with time to be dP/dt = (5.2 ± 1.4) × 10-15 s s-1 employing the O - C method and (5.45 ± 0.79) × 10-15 s s-1 using a direct nonlinear least squares fit to the entire lightcurve. We adopt the dP/dt obtained from the nonlinear least squares program as our final determination, but augment the corresponding uncertainty to a more realistic value, ultimately arriving at the measurement of dP/dt = (5.5 ± 1.0) × 10-15 s s-1. After correcting for proper motion, the evolutionary rate of cooling of ZZ Ceti is computed to be (3.3 ± 1.1) × 10-15 s s-1. This value is consistent within uncertainties with the measurement of (4.19 ± 0.73) × 10-15 s s-1 for another similar pulsating DA white dwarf, G 117-B15A. Measuring the cooling rate of ZZ Ceti helps us refine our stellar structure and evolutionary models, as cooling depends mainly on the core composition and stellar mass. Calibrating white dwarf cooling curves with this measurement will reduce the theoretical uncertainties involved in white dwarf cosmochronometry. Should the 213.13 s period be trapped in the hydrogen envelope, then our determination of its drift rate compared to the expected evolutionary rate suggests an additional source of stellar cooling. Attributing the excess cooling to the emission of axions imposes a constraint on the mass of the hypothetical axion particle.

  20. Effect of cryoprotectant on optimal cooling rate during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Devismita, Dibya; Kumar, Amitesh

    2015-02-01

    The effect of initial Me2SO concentration (cgi) inside the cell lines on the optimal cooling rate is studied using a well established water transport model. A correlation formula is proposed for the determination of optimal cooling rate of freezing biological systems which depends on the cell activation energy, reference membrane permeability, initial Me2SO concentration, and the cell geometrical parameters. Here, the optimal cooling rate is defined as the highest cooling rate for which amount of trapped water inside the cell is equal to 5% of the initial cell water content at an end temperature of -40 °C. It is found that the optimal cooling rate varies linearly with the reference membrane permeability and the ratio of surface area for water transport to the initial volume of intracellular water. The developed correlation is valid for cell activation energy between 20 and 80 kcal/mole and initial Me2SO concentration between 0.1 and 1.3M. It has been observed that the optimal cooling rate does not follow a single trend for the studied initial concentration of Me2SO. However, three regions are identified within which, the variation is almost similar; the three regions are: 0.1 M ≤ cgi ≤ 0.7, 0.7 M ≤ cgi ≤ 0.9, and 0.9 M ≤ cgi ≤ 1.3M. It has been shown that the predicted optimal cooling rate is in a very good agreement with the published experimental/numerical prediction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Cooling Rate on the Durability of PHA Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.

    2001-06-04

    This study was conducted to determine the effect, if any, on the PCT responses of glasses cooled at different rates. Two bounding cooling profiles were used in this study: rapidly quenched and a canister centerline cooling curve. Glasses were selected based on a number of criteria, but mainly to challenge the regions where amorphous phase separation is expected based upon current model predictions. The current DWPF homogeneity constraint, imposed to preclude regions of phase separation, predicted that most of the glasses selected would be phase separated. It was, therefore, important to ensure that deleterious phase separation does not occur at either cooling profile. In this case, deleterious phase separation is defined as the formation of an amorphous phase in the glass that significantly decreases the glass durability as measured by the PCT response.

  2. Computation of atmospheric cooling rates by exact and approximate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgway, William L.; HARSHVARDHAN; Arking, Albert

    1991-01-01

    Infrared fluxes and cooling rates for several standard model atmospheres, with and without water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone, have been calculated using a line-by-line method at 0.01/cm resolution. The sensitivity of the results to the vertical integration scheme and to the model for water vapor continuum absorption is shown. Comparison with similar calculations performed at NOAA/GFDL shows agreement to within 0.5 W/sq m in fluxes at various levels and 0.05 K/d in cooling rates. Comparison with a fast, parameterized radiation code used in climate models reveals a worst case difference, when all gases are included, of 3.7 W/sq m in flux; cooling rate differences are 0.1 K/d or less when integrated over a substantial layer with point differences as large as 0.3 K/d.

  3. Computation of infrared cooling rates in the water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. D.; Arking, A.

    1978-01-01

    A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the far wing approximation to scale transmission along an inhomogeneous path to an equivalent homogeneous path. Rather than using standard conditions for scaling, the reference temperatures and pressures are chosen in this study to correspond to the regions where cooling is most significant. This greatly increased the accuracy of the new method. Compared to line by line calculations, the new method has errors up to 4% of the maximum cooling rate, while a commonly used method based upon the Goody band model (Rodgers and Walshaw, 1966) introduces errors up to 11%. The effect of temperature dependence of transmittance has also been evaluated; the cooling rate errors range up to 11% when the temperature dependence is ignored. In addition to being more accurate, the new method is much faster than those based upon the Goody band model.

  4. Olivine cooling speedometers. [cooling rate indicator for lunar and terrestrial rock thermal histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onorato, P. I. K.; Uhlmann, D. R.; Taylor, L. A.; Coish, R. A.; Gamble, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Several kinetic models of zoning in olivines are discussed at length. The effects on predicted cooling rates of various assumptions used in the analyses are evaluated. It is concluded that the models of Walker et al. (1977) and Taylor et al. (1977) both provide underestimates of the cooling rate required to preserve a given compositional profile, and that both models as well as the model of Taylor et al. (1978) can be used to provide order-of-magnitude estimates of cooling rates. A new model is described which considers diffusion in both solid and liquid during crystallization as well as diffusion in the solid after crystallization is complete. The model provides a description of the compositional gradients which develop during crystallization as well as after cooling at various rates. Applied to olivine crystals nucleated at 1272 C in a high-iron analogue to Lunar Composition 15555, the model predicts only slight compositional gradients - in accord with electron beam microprobe measurements on crystals grown isothermally at this temperature.

  5. Atomic oxygen cooling rate in the F-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, P. K.; Ghosh, S. N.

    1982-04-01

    Similar to the rate of energy loss caused by electron-impact-induced transitions in the fine-structure levels of atomic oxygen, the cooling mechanism of atomic oxygen deriving from momentum-transfer elastic collisions with slow ionospheric electrons is an important energy loss process. A general formula is elaborated for the energy-transfer rate of atomic oxygen by elastic collisions of low-energy electrons with the aid of the electron-oxygen atom collision frequency in the F-region. The calculated average cooling rates are 11,400, 7970, and 2170 eV per cu cm per sec at, respectively, 200, 250, and 300 km. These results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental values of the total electron cooling due to various neutral and ion constituents observed at Arecibo on June 26, 1968, at 0757 hrs by Swartz and Nisbet (1973). It is concluded that the predominant mechanism for the atomic oxygen cooling rate in the F-region is elastic collision with thermal electrons.

  6. A liquid cooled garment temperature controller based on sweat rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A. B.; Blackaby, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    An automatic controller for liquid cooled space suits is reported that utilizes human sweat rate as the primary input signal. The controller is so designed that the coolant inlet temperature is inversely proportional to the subject's latent heat loss as evidenced by evaporative water loss.

  7. Field drying rate differences among three cool-season grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conserving cool-season grasses as silage or hay remains a challenge due to the time required for curing and the unpredictability of weather. We compared the drying rates of three grasses with differing yield potential, morphology, and physical characteristics. Inflorescence-stage meadow fescue, orch...

  8. MEASURING THE EVOLUTIONARY RATE OF COOLING OF ZZ Ceti

    SciTech Connect

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Fraser, Oliver; Riecken, T. S.; Kronberg, M. E.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Corsico, A. H.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, K. I.; Falcon, Ross E.; Reaves, D.; Kepler, S. O.; Romero, A. D.; Chandler, D. W.; Kuehne, J. W.; Sullivan, D. J.; Von Hippel, T.; Mullally, F.; Shipman, H.; and others

    2013-07-01

    We have finally measured the evolutionary rate of cooling of the pulsating hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf ZZ Ceti (Ross 548), as reflected by the drift rate of the 213.13260694 s period. Using 41 yr of time-series photometry from 1970 November to 2012 January, we determine the rate of change of this period with time to be dP/dt = (5.2 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} employing the O - C method and (5.45 {+-} 0.79) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} using a direct nonlinear least squares fit to the entire lightcurve. We adopt the dP/dt obtained from the nonlinear least squares program as our final determination, but augment the corresponding uncertainty to a more realistic value, ultimately arriving at the measurement of dP/dt = (5.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. After correcting for proper motion, the evolutionary rate of cooling of ZZ Ceti is computed to be (3.3 {+-} 1.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. This value is consistent within uncertainties with the measurement of (4.19 {+-} 0.73) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} for another similar pulsating DA white dwarf, G 117-B15A. Measuring the cooling rate of ZZ Ceti helps us refine our stellar structure and evolutionary models, as cooling depends mainly on the core composition and stellar mass. Calibrating white dwarf cooling curves with this measurement will reduce the theoretical uncertainties involved in white dwarf cosmochronometry. Should the 213.13 s period be trapped in the hydrogen envelope, then our determination of its drift rate compared to the expected evolutionary rate suggests an additional source of stellar cooling. Attributing the excess cooling to the emission of axions imposes a constraint on the mass of the hypothetical axion particle.

  9. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  10. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  11. Radiative heating and cooling rates in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, John C.; Lyjak, Lawrence V.

    1986-01-01

    One of the limitations to the accurate calculation of radiative heating and cooling rates in the stratosphere and mesosphere has been the lack of accurate data on the atmospheric temperature and composition. Data from the LIMS experiment on Nimbus-7 has been extended to the South Pole with the aid of other observations. The data have been used as input to codes developed by Ramanathan and Dickinson to calculate the individual components and the net radiative heating rates from 100-0.1 mb. Solar heating due to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, water vapor and oxygen is shown to be nearly balanced by cooling in the thermal infrared spectral region due to carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapor. In the lower stratosphere, infrared transfer by ozone leads to heating that is sensitive to the distribution of tropospheric ozone, clouds and water vapor. The heating and cooling rates are adjusted slightly in order to satisfy the global mass balance. The results are in qualitative agreement with earlier calculations, but show additional detail. There is as strong temporal and vertical variation of cooling in the tropics. Radiative relaxation times are as short as 7 days or less at the stratopause.

  12. Cooling rate effects on structure of amorphous graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoang, Vo

    2015-01-01

    Simple monatomic amorphous 2D models with Honeycomb structure are obtained from 2D simple monatomic liquids with Honeycomb interaction potential (Rechtsman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 228301 (2005)) via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Models are observed by cooling from the melt at various cooling rates. Temperature dependence of thermodynamic and structural properties including total energy, mean ring size, mean coordination number is studied in order to show evolution of structure and thermodynamics upon cooling from the melt. Structural properties of the amorphous Honeycomb structures are studied via radial distribution function (RDF), coordination number and ring distributions together with 2D visualization of the atomic configurations. Amorphous Honeycomb structures contain a large amount of structural defects including new ones which have not been previously reported yet. Cooling rate dependence of structural properties of the obtained amorphous Honeycomb structures is analyzed. Although amorphous graphene has been proposed theoretically and/or recently obtained by the experiments, our understanding of structural properties of the system is still poor. Therefore, our simulations highlight the situation and give deeper understanding of structure and thermodynamics of the glassy state of this novel 2D material.

  13. Cooling Rates in the Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, A. M.; Dixit, A.; Titarenko, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report Ca-in-olivine geospeedometry on 7 samples from IODP Hole 1309D, drilled into the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30°N just west of the mid-Atlantic Ridge. Cooling rates were first calculated using the method of Coogan et al., (2002; 2007) on a total of 20 olivine grains in olivine gabbros and troctolitic gabbros. Apparent rates ranged from 2000 to 72,000 °C/my, with the fastest rates from two samples at about 1000 mbsf, and slower rates from five samples between 294 and 499 mbsf. At shallower depths olivine is almost entirely absent due to alteration. The data was then reprocessed using the recent Fe-dependent calibration of Ca partitioning between olivine and two-pyroxene assemblages (Shejwalkar and Coogan, Lithos, in press). Olivine compositions range from Fo87 to Fo80 in the upper set of samples and Fo69-71 in the two deeper samples. Calculated cooling rates are reduced in all samples except the most Fo-rich, and by a factor of 15 in the most Fe-rich olivines. The result is a much smaller spread in mean cooling rates to 960-5610 °C/my, without any clear depth-dependence. These rates are consistent with published average rates from isotopic closure temperatures, and are comparable to published data from ODP Hole 735b in a similar setting on the southwest Indian Ridge (Coogan et al., 2007), although inclusion of Fe-dependence will probably reduce those rates considerably. Gabbros in the Atlantis Massif have been exhumed by slip on an oceanic detachment fault, but without the extensive high temperature mylonitization seen in ODP Hole 735b. We present models (using Comsol Multiphysics) of the thermal evolution of oceanic core complexes incorporating footwall exhumation and hydrothermal circulation, which appears to have focussed within the detachment fault zone in Hole 1309D. Cooling rates are faster than predicted by purely conductive models but slower than models in which active hydrothermal circulation extends to the depth of gabbro

  14. Hypercapnia increases core temperature cooling rate during snow burial.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Colin K; Radwin, Martin I; Scholand, Mary Beth; Harmston, Chris H; Muetterties, Mark C; Bywater, Tim J

    2004-04-01

    Previous retrospective studies report a core body temperature cooling rate of 3 degrees C/h during avalanche burial. Hypercapnia occurs during avalanche burial secondary to rebreathing expired air, and the effect of hypercapnia on hypothermia during avalanche burial is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the core temperature cooling rate during snow burial under normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. We measured rectal core body temperature (T(re)) in 12 subjects buried in compacted snow dressed in a lightweight clothing insulation system during two different study burials. In one burial, subjects breathed with a device (AvaLung 2, Black Diamond Equipment) that resulted in hypercapnia over 30-60 min. In a control burial, subjects were buried under identical conditions with a modified breathing device that maintained normocapnia. Mean snow temperature was -2.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. Burial time was 49 +/- 14 min in the hypercapnic study and 60 min in the normocapnic study (P = 0.02). Rate of decrease in T(re) was greater with hypercapnia (1.2 degrees C/h by multiple regression analysis, 95% confidence limits of 1.1-1.3 degrees C/h) than with normocapnia (0.7 degrees C/h, 95% confidence limit of 0.6-0.8 degrees C/h). In the hypercapnic study, the fraction of inspired carbon dioxide increased from 1.4 +/- 1.0 to 7.0 +/- 1.4%, minute ventilation increased from 15 +/- 7 to 40 +/- 12 l/min, and oxygen saturation decreased from 97 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 6% (P < 0.01). During the normocapnic study, these parameters remained unchanged. In this study, T(re) cooling rate during snow burial was less than previously reported and was increased by hypercapnia. This may have important implications for prehospital treatment of avalanche burial victims.

  15. Hotter, Faster: A Thermal Model for the H-Chondrite Parent Body Consistent with Chronology and Cooling Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Bennett, M. E., III

    1995-09-01

    predicts post-metamorphic cooling rates through the temperature interval 800-500K of 26 K/Ma for H4, 22 K/Ma for H5, and 16 K/Ma for H6. These values approximately coincide, in both trend and magnitude, with metallographic and fission track cooling rate data for unshocked H chondrites [Lipschutz et al]. _

  16. Metallographic techniques and microstructures: uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    The techniques used for the metallographic analysis of uranium and its alloys are discussed. Sample preparation and characterization procedures are described for: optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. A brief overview of electron optics, electron/sample interactions, signal detectors, and x-ray microanalysis is presented. Typical uranium alloy microstructures observed by these techniques are presented and discussed. The microstructures examined include those produced by the diffusional decomposition of ..gamma..:U-0.75Ti and ..gamma..:U-6Nb, the martensitic decomposition of U-2Mo, U-6Nb, U-0.75Ti and Mulberry, and the aging of quenched U-2Mo.

  17. The method of quantitative automatic metallographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, N. V.; Skeeba, V. Yu

    2017-01-01

    A brief analysis of the existing softwares for computer processing of microstructure photographs is presented. The descriptions of the the software package developed by the author are demonstrated. This software product is intended for quantitative metallographic analysis of digital photographs of the microstructure of materials. It allows calculating the volume fraction and the average size of particles of the structure by several hundred secants (depending on the photographs resolution) in one vision field. Besides, a special module is built in the software allowing assessing the degree of deviation of the shape of different particles and impurities from the spherical one. The article presents the main algorithms, used during the creation of the software product, and formulae according to which the software calculates the parameters of the microstructure. It is shown that the reliability of calculations depends on the quality of preparation of the microstructure.

  18. Relative Cooling Rates of Meteoritic Fe-Ni Metal Determined from Kamacite-Taenite Interface Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Yang, J.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2013-09-01

    The validity of the kamacite/taenite interface method to obtain relative metallorgaphic cooling rates was reinvestigated. Strong support is found for the 50 fold variation in cooling rate across the IVA chemical group.

  19. Modeling Cooling Rates of Martian Flood Basalt Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, D. K.; Jackson, B.; Milazzo, M. P.; Barnes, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Columnar jointing in large basalt flows have been extensively studied and can provide important clues about the emplacement conditions and cooling history of a basalt flow. The recent discovery of basalt columns on Mars in crater walls near Marte Vallis provides an opportunity to infer conditions on early Mars when the Martian basalt flows were laid down. Comparison of the Martian columns to Earth analogs allows us to gain further insight into the early Martian climate, and among the best terrestrial analogs are the basalt columns in the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in eastern Washington. The CRBG is one of the youngest (< 17 Myrs old) and most extensively studied basalt provinces in the world, extending over 163,700 square km with total thickness exceeding 1 km in some places. The morphologies and textures of CRBG basalt columns suggest that in many places flows ~100 m thick cooled at uniform rates, even deep in the flow interior. Such cooling seems to require the presence of water in the column joints since the flow interiors should have cooled much more slowly than the flow margins if conductive cooling dominated. Secondary features, such pillow basalts, likewise suggest the basalt flows were in direct contact with standing water in many places. At the resolution provided by the orbiting HiRISE camera (0.9 m), the Martian basalt columns resemble the CRBG columns in many respects, and so, subject to important caveats, inferences linking the morphologies of the CRBG columns to their thermal histories can be extended in some respects to the Martian columns. In this presentation, we will describe our analysis of the HiRISE images of the Martian columns and what can be reasonably inferred about their thermal histories and the conditions under which they were emplaced. We will also report on a field expedition to the CRBG in eastern Washington State. During that expedition, we surveyed basalt column outcrops on the ground and from the air using Unmanned Aerial

  20. Effect of tropospheric aerosols upon atmospheric infrared cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshvardhan, MR.; Cess, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the impact of wind-blown dust particles upon local climate of arid regions. The case of Northwest India is specifically considered, where a dense layer of dust persists for several months during the summer. In order to examine the effect of this dust layer on the infrared radiative flux and cooling rates, a method is presented for calculating the IR flux within a dusty atmosphere which allows the use of gaseous band models and is applicable in the limit of small single scattering albedo and pronounced forward scattering. The participating components of the atmosphere are assumed to be water vapor and spherical quartz particles only. The atmospheric window is partially filled by including the water vapor continuum bands for which empirically obtained transmission functions have been used. It is shown that radically different conclusions may be drawn on dust effects if the continuum absorption is not considered. The radiative transfer model, when applied to a dusty atmosphere, indicates that there is a moderate enhancement in the atmospheric greenhouse and a 10% increase in the mean IR radiative cooling rate, relative to the dust free case, within the lower troposphere. These results have been compared with previous work by other authors in the context of the possibility of dust layers inhibiting local precipitation.

  1. Cryocrystallography in capillaries: critical glycerol concentrations and cooling rates

    PubMed Central

    Warkentin, Matthew; Stanislavskaia, Valentina; Hammes, Katherine; Thorne, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Capillary tubes have many advantages over multi-well plates for macromol­ecular crystal growth and handling, including the possibility of in situ structure determination. To obtain complete high-resolution X-ray data sets, cryopreservation protocols must be developed to prevent crystalline ice formation and preserve macromolecular crystal order. The minimum glycerol concentrations required to vitrify aqueous solutions during plunging into liquid nitrogen and liquid propane have been determined for capillary diameters from 3.3 mm to 150 µm. For the smallest diameter, the required glycerol concentrations are 30%(w/v) in nitrogen and 20%(w/v) in propane, corresponding to cooling rates of ∼800 and ∼7000 K s−1, respectively. These concentrations are much larger than are required in current best practice using crystals in loops or on microfabricated mounts. In additon, the relation between the minimum cooling rate for vitrification and glycerol concentration has been estimated; this relation is of fundamental importance in developing rational cryopreservation protocols. PMID:19529833

  2. Secular Cooling Rates of the Mantle : Various Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, E.; van den Berg, A. P.; Yuen, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    The history of secular cooling of the mantle is an old important issue, which has been attacked for many years using temperature-dependent viscosity as the primary agent (Tozer, 1972. Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 6, 182-197). In this work we have ventured to look at the impact of variable thermal conductivity on the secular cooling rates predicted by models using just temperature-dependent viscosity. We have found the following salient results. (1) A delayed secular cooling is found as in the constant viscosity models (van den Berg and Yuen, 2002, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 199, 403-413, van den Berg et al., 2002, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 129, 359-375). We have applied an exponential temperature and pressure dependent viscosity model, using thermal viscosity contrast up to 3000 and fixed presssure viscosity contrast of 100 for this verification. (2) A purely depth-dependent thermal conductivity k(P) cannot catch the destructive effect of temperature dependent conductivity on the negative thermal buoynacy of cold downwellings, driving the convective circulation. These k(P) models also lack feedback physics between time-dependent internal heating and variable thermal conductivity k(T,P), thus stressing the need to use k(T,P) whenever there is a strong source of heat present. (3) Large-differences occur between predictions from 2-D numerical models based on Partial Differential Equations (PDE) and averaged parameterized convection models, formulated using an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE), within the framework of integrating the nonlinear ODE for the volume average temperature. The ODE results for this comparison are computed using the time series of volume average quantities (viscosity, conductivity) obtained from the 2-D PDE results. The comparison shows that the 1-2 Gyr delay in secular cooling, characteristic for full convection PDE models, is not reproduced in the ODE results from parameterized convection models. The temperature dependence of the ice thermal

  3. Relict Forsterite in Chondrules: Implications for Cooling Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeney, S.; Ruzicka, A.

    2004-01-01

    Forsterite (Fo(sub 99-100)) is often present in chondrules as relict grains that did not crystallize in situ and as isolated grains outside of chondrules; both are surrounded by ferrous overgrowths which clearly formed at a later time, probably during chondrule formation. We performed microprobe analyses across forsterite-overgrowth interfaces in 12 chondrules and 4 isolated grains in the Sahara-97210 LL3.2 (Sahara), Wells LL3.3, and Chainpur LL3.4 chondrites and modelled diffusional exchange between forsterite and overgrowths, with the goal of constraining the thermal histories during chondrule formation. The cooling rates experienced by chondrules provide an important constraint on the origin and setting of these objects.

  4. Relict Forsterite in Chondrules: Implications for Cooling Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeney, S.; Ruzicka, A.

    2004-01-01

    Forsterite (Fo(sub 99-100)) is often present in chondrules as relict grains that did not crystallize in situ and as isolated grains outside of chondrules; both are surrounded by ferrous overgrowths which clearly formed at a later time, probably during chondrule formation. We performed microprobe analyses across forsterite-overgrowth interfaces in 12 chondrules and 4 isolated grains in the Sahara-97210 LL3.2 (Sahara), Wells LL3.3, and Chainpur LL3.4 chondrites and modelled diffusional exchange between forsterite and overgrowths, with the goal of constraining the thermal histories during chondrule formation. The cooling rates experienced by chondrules provide an important constraint on the origin and setting of these objects.

  5. Los Alamos upgrade in metallographic capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos Wing 9 Hot Cell Facility is in the process of upgrading their metallographic sample preparation and examination capability. The present capability to grind, polish and etch samples from reactor fuels and materials has been in operation for 18 years. Macro photography and alpha and beta-gamma autoradiography are an important part of this capability. Some of the fast breeder reactor experiments have contained sodium as a coolant. Therefore, the capability to distill sodium from some samples scheduled for microstructural examinations is a requirement. Since the reactor fuel samples are highly radioactive and contain plutonium, either as fabricated or as a result of breeding during reactor service, these samples must be handled in shielded hot cells containing alpha boxes to isolate the plutonium and hazardous fission products from personnel and the environment. The present equipment that was designed and built into those alpha boxes has functioned very well for the past 18 years. During that time the technicians have thought of ways to improve the equipment to do the work faster and safer. These ideas and ideas that have been developed during the design of new alpha boxes and new equipment for microstructural sample preparation have provided the concepts for the capability to perform the work faster and maintain the equipment in a safer manner.

  6. Comparison of different cooling rates for fibroblast and keratinocyte cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Naaldijk, Yahaira; Friedrich-Stöckigt, Annett; Sethe, Sebastian; Stolzing, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    Easy, cost-effective and reliable cryopreservation protocols are crucial for the successful and effective application of tissue engineering. Several different protocols are in use, but no comprehensive comparisons across different machine-based and manual methods have been made. Here, we compare the effects of different cooling rates on the post-thaw survival and proliferative capacity of two basic cell lines for skin tissue engineering fibroblasts and keratinocytes, cultured and frozen in suspension or as a monolayer. We demonstrate that effectiveness of cryopreservation cannot be reliably determined immediately after thawing: the results at this stage were not indicative of cell growth in culture 3 days post-thaw. Cryopreservation of fibroblasts in an adherent state greatly diminishes their subsequent growth potential. This was not observed when freezing in suspension. In keratinocytes, however, adherent freezing is as effective as freezing in suspension, which could lead to significant cost and labour savings in a tissue-engineering environment. The 'optimal' cryopreservation protocol depends on cell type and intended use. Where time, ease and cost are dominant factors, the direct freezing into a nitrogen tank (straight freeze) approach remains a viable method. The most effective solution across the board, as measured by viability 3 days post-thaw, was the commonly used, freezing container method. Where machine-controlled cryopreservation is deemed important for tissue-engineering Good Manufacturing Practice, we present results using a portfolio of different cooling rates, identifying the 'optimal' protocol depending on cell type and culture method. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mechanical properties of Rene-41 affected by rate of cooling after solution annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation of Rene-41 cooling rate from 1975 to 1400 degrees F reveals that slow cooling improves high-temperature ductility and provides more uniform properties throughout a manifold. Ambient elongation and impact resistance are not significantly changed.

  8. Grain Coarsening of Cast Magnesium Alloys at High Cooling Rate: A New Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yahia; You, Guoqiang; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Ming-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Most studies in the area of grain refinement have always taken for granted that higher cooling rate results in finer grains. However, when microstructural variation of the as-cast Mg with cooling rate was investigated using a specially designed V-shaped copper mold, the results were different. Although fast cooling during solidification led to microstructural refining in pure Mg, grain coarsening was observed at a higher cooling rate in Mg alloys that were inoculation treated with 1.0wt pctZr and 1.4wt pctCaO, and in the Mg-Al binary alloys. It is considered that the grain coarsening at higher cooling rate was attributed to the smaller constitutional undercooling zone formed at fast cooling due to the high temperature gradient in the three Mg alloys. These results can help in redefining the role of cooling rate in the grain refinement process.

  9. Cooling Rates of Humans in Air and in Water: An Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2012-12-01

    In a previous article I analyzed in detail the physical factors resulting in greater cooling rates of objects in still water than in still air, emphasizing cooling of the human body. By cooling rate I mean the rate of decrease of core temperature uncompensated by metabolism. I concluded that the "correct ratio for humans is closer to 2 than to 10." To support this assertion I subsequently did experiments, which I report following a digression on hypothermia.

  10. How to correct paleointensity data for cooling rate effects? theory, problems, and solutions based on new experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, R.

    2016-12-01

    It has been long recognized that TRM intensity depends on the cooling rate at which it was acquired. As a consequence, a correction for paleointensity data is often required to account for the difference between the laboratory and the ancient cooling rates. The difference between the lab cooling rate and the ancient cooling rate can be at least one order of magnitude for pottery, baked clays, and lava flows, materials that serve as main sources of paleointensity information. The paleointensity literature on these materials reports cooling rate correction factors ranging from nearly zero to over 20%. However, while it is widely accepted that assessing cooling rate effects in paleointensity studies is essential, the practical application of this correction is not straightforward. In this presentation I first review the theoretical framework explaining TRM dependency on cooling rate, the overall published experimental data showing confusing trends of cooling rate effects, and the technique usually used for calculating cooling rate correction. I then present new experimental results from 66 pottery specimens that yielded excellent SD or PSD behavior in Thellier paleointensity experiment and from basalt samples. The specimens were cooled in several different exponential cooling rates simulating the natural cooling functions. The dependency of TRM on the cooling rate is calculated and compared with theoretical predictions. Based on the results I suggest a simple technique for calculating cooling rate correction. The technique assumes exponential cooling rate rather than a constant cooling rate previously employed in cooling rate corrections. The advantages of this approach are simplicity, robustness, and reproducibility.

  11. Experimental characterization of fatigue strength in butt welded joint considering the geometry and the effect of cooling rate of the weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzola, Nelson; Hernández, Edgar

    2017-05-01

    In this work the experimental characterization of fatigue strength in butt welded joints considering the geometry and the post-weld cooling cycle was performed. ASTM A-36 structural steel was used as the base metal for the shielded metal arc welding process, with welding electrode E6013. Two experimental factors were established: weld bead geometry and the post-weld cooling rate. Two levels for each factor, the welding reinforcement (1 and 3 mm), and the rate of cooling, slow (quiet air) and fast (immersion in water) are evaluated respectively. For the uniaxial fatigue tests, 8 samples were selected for each treatment for a total of 32 specimens. The mechanical and fractomechanical properties of fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal in relation to the analysis of failure mechanisms were analysed. The fatigue crack growth rates were estimated based on the counting of microstrations. Furthermore, experimental tests, such as uniaxial tension, microindentation hardness, Charpy impact and metallographic analysis, were made to know the influence of the experimental factors in the fatigue strength. On this research, about the 78.13% of the samples obtained a resistance higher than the recommended one by class FAT 100. The results showed that the geometry of the joint is the factor of greatest influence on fatigue strength for butt welded joints; the greater the weld reinforcement the lower the fatigue strength of the joint. Although it is also important to consider other geometric factors of less impact as it is the weld toe radius and the welding chord width.

  12. Cooling rates of LL, L and H chondrites and constraints on the duration of peak thermal conditions: Diffusion kinetic modeling and implications for fragmentation of asteroids and impact resetting of petrologic types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra; Tirone, Massimiliano; Domanik, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out detailed thermometric and cooling history studies of several LL-, L- and H-chondrites of petrologic types 5 and 6. Among the selected samples, the low-temperature cooling of St. Séverin (LL6) has been constrained in an earlier study by thermochronological data to an average rate of ∼2.6 °C/My below 500 °C. However, numerical simulations of the development of Fe-Mg profiles in Opx-Cpx pairs using this cooling rate grossly misfit the measured compositional profiles. Satisfactory simulation of the latter and low temperature thermochronological constraints requires a two-stage cooling model with a cooling rate of ∼50-200 °C/ky from the peak metamorphic temperature of ∼875 °C down to 450 °C, and then transitioning to very slow cooling with an average rate of ∼2.6 °C/My. Similar rapid high temperature cooling rates (200-600 °C/ky) are also required to successfully model the compositional profiles in the Opx-Cpx pairs in the other samples of L5, L6 chondrites. For the H-chondrite samples, the low temperature cooling rates were determined earlier to be 10-20 °C/My by metallographic method. As in St. Séverin, these cooling rates grossly misfit the compositional profiles in the Opx-Cpx pairs. Modeling of these profiles requires very rapid cooling, ∼200-400 °C/ky, from the peak temperatures (∼810-830 °C), transitioning to the metallographic rates at ∼450-500 °C. We interpret the rapid high temperature cooling rates to the exposure of the samples to surface or near surface conditions as a result of fragmentation of the parent body by asteroidal impacts. Using the thermochronological data, the timing of the presumed impact is constrained to be ∼4555-4560 My before present for St. Séverin. We also deduced similar two stage cooling models in earlier studies of H-chondrites and mesosiderites that could be explained, using the available geochronological data, by impact induced fragmentation at around the same time. Diffusion kinetic

  13. Influence of cooling rate after homogenization on microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 7050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. D.; Yuan, Y. B.; Li, C. B.; You, J. H.; Zhang, X. M.

    2012-08-01

    The influence of cooling rate (0.009-220 °C/s) after homogenization on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength aluminum alloy 7050 was investigated by tensile testing, optical microscope, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. A lower cooling rate after homogenization resulted in lower mechanical properties after aging. The drop in strength was significant when the cooling rate was decreased from 0.5 °C/s to 0.1 °C/s. A lower cooling rate gave rise to a larger amount of remnant S(Al2CuMg) phase and a higher fraction of recrystallization after solution heat treatment. Consequently, the increase in strength after aging due to precipitation hardening and substructure hardening was less significant in the case of slow cooling. This was supposed to be responsible for the lower mechanical properties due to a lower cooling rate after homogenization.

  14. Cooling rate effects in sodium silicate glasses: Bridging the gap between molecular dynamics simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Song, Weiying; Yang, Kai; Krishnan, N. M. Anoop; Wang, Bu; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Mauro, John C.; Sant, Gaurav; Balonis, Magdalena; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2017-08-01

    Although molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are commonly used to predict the structure and properties of glasses, they are intrinsically limited to short time scales, necessitating the use of fast cooling rates. It is therefore challenging to compare results from MD simulations to experimental results for glasses cooled on typical laboratory time scales. Based on MD simulations of a sodium silicate glass with varying cooling rate (from 0.01 to 100 K/ps), here we show that thermal history primarily affects the medium-range order structure, while the short-range order is largely unaffected over the range of cooling rates simulated. This results in a decoupling between the enthalpy and volume relaxation functions, where the enthalpy quickly plateaus as the cooling rate decreases, whereas density exhibits a slower relaxation. Finally, we show that, using the proper extrapolation method, the outcomes of MD simulations can be meaningfully compared to experimental values when extrapolated to slower cooling rates.

  15. Metallographic approach to the investigation of metallic archaeological objects.

    PubMed

    Pinasco, Maria Rosa; Ienco, Maria Giuseppina; Piccardo, Paolo; Pellati, Gabriella; Stagno, Enrica

    2007-07-01

    Metallic objects are considered among the most significant findings in Cultural Heritage and represent the 'culture of Materials' and the habits of an historical period and of a population. They also preserve traces of time: from the transformation of the ores in metal (by smelting) to the degradation from metal to oxidised compounds (by corrosion processes). Metallography, historically devoted to connect the microstructural features to production processes and to chemical-physical-mechanical properties is a powerful and relatively easy approach to characterise metallic findings. All analytical tools and methods in the hands of a metallographer are improved through experience and practice and provide a large number of information (elemental composition, primary and secondary microstructures, surface treatments, corrosion rate, original ores traces) by the preparation of a fairly small microdestructive sample. A wise and careful use of the metallography allows the balance "object sacrifice/knowledge improvement" to lean on the right side contributing to the hard work of rebuilding humankind history. Beside a description of a research protocol some practical examples concerning archaeological findings are presented in this paper.

  16. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. J.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.-K.; Zhang, T.-Y.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 1011–16.6 × 1011 K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate. PMID:26939584

  17. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals.

    PubMed

    Han, J J; Wang, C P; Liu, X J; Wang, Y; Liu, Z-K; Zhang, T-Y; Jiang, J Z

    2016-03-04

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 10(11)-16.6 × 10(11) K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate.

  18. The cooling rates of pahoehoe flows: The importance of lava porosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun C.

    1993-01-01

    Many theoretical models have been put forward to account for the cooling history of a lava flow; however, only limited detailed field data exist to validate these models. To accurately model the cooling of lava flows, data are required, not only on the heat loss mechanisms, but also on the surface skin development and the causes of differing cooling rates. This paper argues that the cause of such variations in the cooling rates are attributed, primarily, to the vesicle content and degassing history of the lava.

  19. Effect of Cooling Rate and Chemical Composition on Microstructure and Properties of Naturally Cooled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Anish; Sahu, Pooja; Neogy, Suman; Chakrabarti, Debalay; Mitra, Rahul; Mukherjee, Subrata; Kundu, Saurabh

    2017-04-01

    Samples from two V-microalloyed steels (0.05 wt pct V) having different C and N levels, namely high-C low-N steel, HCLN (0.22 wt pct C, 0.007 wt pct N) and low-C high-N steel, LCHN (0.06 wt pct C, 0.013 wt pct N) were naturally cooled from 1373 K (1100 °C) to room temperature over a range of cooling rates (0.07 to 3.33 K/s). Samples from a plain C-Mn steel (0.06 wt pct C, 0.007 wt pct N) were also subjected to the same heat treatment for comparison. The effect of cooling rate and steel composition on microstructures, precipitates, and tensile properties has been investigated. Due to the presence of large fraction of harder constituents, like pearlite and bainite, HCLN steel showed higher strength and lower ductility than LCHN steel. LCHN steel, on the other hand, showed good combination of strength and ductility due to its predominantly ferrite matrix with precipitation strengthening. The V-precipitate size was more refined and the precipitate density was higher in HCLN steel than that in LCHN steel. This observation confirms the importance of C content in V-microalloyed steel in terms of precipitation strengthening. An intermediate cooling rate ( 1.4 K/s) has been found to be the optimum choice in order to maximize the precipitation strengthening in V-containing steels.

  20. Effect of Cooling Rate and Chemical Composition on Microstructure and Properties of Naturally Cooled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Anish; Sahu, Pooja; Neogy, Suman; Chakrabarti, Debalay; Mitra, Rahul; Mukherjee, Subrata; Kundu, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Samples from two V-microalloyed steels (0.05 wt pct V) having different C and N levels, namely high-C low-N steel, HCLN (0.22 wt pct C, 0.007 wt pct N) and low-C high-N steel, LCHN (0.06 wt pct C, 0.013 wt pct N) were naturally cooled from 1373 K (1100 °C) to room temperature over a range of cooling rates (0.07 to 3.33 K/s). Samples from a plain C-Mn steel (0.06 wt pct C, 0.007 wt pct N) were also subjected to the same heat treatment for comparison. The effect of cooling rate and steel composition on microstructures, precipitates, and tensile properties has been investigated. Due to the presence of large fraction of harder constituents, like pearlite and bainite, HCLN steel showed higher strength and lower ductility than LCHN steel. LCHN steel, on the other hand, showed good combination of strength and ductility due to its predominantly ferrite matrix with precipitation strengthening. The V-precipitate size was more refined and the precipitate density was higher in HCLN steel than that in LCHN steel. This observation confirms the importance of C content in V-microalloyed steel in terms of precipitation strengthening. An intermediate cooling rate ( 1.4 K/s) has been found to be the optimum choice in order to maximize the precipitation strengthening in V-containing steels.

  1. Influence of cooling rate on the precipitation behavior in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling and relationship to strength

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, F.Z.; Wang, X.M.; Chen, L.; Yang, S.W.; Shang, C.J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2015-04-15

    In this study we elucidate carbide precipitation at varied cooling rates in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling. The study suggests that increasing the cooling rate prevents precipitate formation in the ferrite phase during continuous cooling after finish rolling at 850 °C. At a lower cooling rate of 0.5 °C/s, the microhardness of ferrite grains exhibited maxima because of high volume fraction of fine carbides. A high density of nanoscale carbides with similar precipitation characteristics, including interphase precipitates, was observed at cooling rates of 0.5 and 1 °C/s, but the carbides were marginally larger and the spacing between them was increased with cooling rate. Additionally, carbide precipitation at a high cooling rate was associated with strain-induced precipitation. Through the analysis of selection area electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, lattice imaging, the fine spherical-shaped carbides of size ~ 6–10 nm were identified as MC-type carbides of the type (Ti,Nb,Mo)C and NbC. - Highlights: • We model three cooling rates which have indicated different precipitation behaviors. • We find two types of precipitates including NbC and (Ti,Nb,Mo)C based on HRTEM study. • Increasing cooling rate will decrease volume fraction and size of the precipitates. • There is no absence of interphase precipitation when the cooling rate increases to 5 °C/s.

  2. Soil temperature extrema recovery rates after precipitation cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    From a one dimensional view of temperature alone variations at the Earth's surface manifest themselves in two cyclic patterns of diurnal and annual periods, due principally to the effects of diurnal and seasonal changes in solar heating as well as gains and losses of available moisture. Beside these two well known cyclic patterns, a third cycle has been identified which occurs in values of diurnal maxima and minima soil temperature extrema at 10 cm depth usually over a mesoscale period of roughly 3 to 14 days. This mesoscale period cycle starts with precipitation cooling of soil and is followed by a power curve temperature recovery. The temperature recovery clearly depends on solar heating of the soil with an increased soil moisture content from precipitation combined with evaporation cooling at soil temperatures lowered by precipitation cooling, but is quite regular and universal for vastly different geographical locations, and soil types and structures. The regularity of the power curve recovery allows a predictive model approach over the recovery period. Multivariable linear regression models alloy predictions of both the power of the temperature recovery curve as well as the total temperature recovery amplitude of the mesoscale temperature recovery, from data available one day after the temperature recovery begins.

  3. Effect of cooling rate on achieving thermodynamic equilibrium in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C.; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2016-02-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the structural changes occurring in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x with y = 0.15; 0.28 and 0.45 during cooling from 1773 K to room-temperature under He + 5% H2 atmosphere. We compare the fastest and slowest cooling rates allowed by our apparatus i.e. 2 K s-1 and 0.005 K s-1, respectively. The promptly cooled samples evidenced a phase separation whereas samples cooled slowly did not due to their complete oxidation in contact with the atmosphere during cooling. Besides the composition of the annealing gas mixture, the cooling rate plays a major role on the control of the Oxygen/Metal ratio (O/M) and then on the crystallographic properties of the U1-yPuyO2-x uranium-plutonium mixed oxides.

  4. Transient and residual stresses in dental porcelains as affected by cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, K; Tesk, J A

    1989-06-01

    The development of either transient or residual stress in a slab of dental porcelain during cooling was simulated by use of a super-computer. The temperature dependences of the elastic modulus, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the shear viscosity, and the cooling rate dependence of the glass transition temperature, Tg, were considered in this calculation. Internal stress and viscoelastic creep were computed for several cooling rates. Calculated results display stress profiles which agree reasonably well with reported measured profiles in quenched, tempered glasses. The calculated residual surface stress, sigma, could be fit by the following empirical formula, sigma = kl2(q/q0)n, q is the cooling rate, q0 is a reference cooling rate and l is the half-thickness of the porcelain. The method by which residual stress develops is also discussed. This discussion suggests a method for strengthening of the porcelain by the development of high-compressive residual stress on the surface.

  5. Columnar joint morphology and cooling rate: A starch-water mixture experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toramaru, A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2004-02-01

    An analogue experiment using a starch-water mixture has been carried out in order to understand the effect of cooling rate on the morphological characteristics of a basalt columnar joint. If the contraction of material is essential for the formation of columnar joint structure, the water loss rate by desiccation (hereafter referred to as desiccation rate) in the experiment is analogous to the cooling rate in solidifying basalt. In the experiment the desiccation rate is controlled by varying the distance between the starch-water mixture and a lamp used as the heat source. We find that there are three regimes in the relation between joint formation and desiccation rate: (1) At desiccation rates higher than ˜1.4 × 10-2 (g cm-2 h-1) (normal columnar joint regime), the average cross-sectional area S of a column is inversely proportional to the average desiccation rate, (i.e., S ∝ -δ, with δ = 1). (2) Between that desiccation rate and a critical desiccation rate, 0.8 × 10-2 (g/cm2h), S approaches infinity as decreases close to a critical desiccation rate (i.e., exponent δ monotonically increases from unity to infinity) (critical regime). (3) Below the critical desiccation rate, no columnar structure forms (no columnar joint regime forms). Applying the present experimental result to the formation of basalt column, the basalt columnar cross-sectional area is inversely proportional to the cooling rate with factors including elasticity, crack growth coefficient, thermal expansion, glass transition temperature, and crack density ratio at stress maximum. Also, it can be predicted that there exists a critical cooling rate below which the columnar joint does not form; the presence of a critical regime between the normal columnar jointing and no columnar jointing during a certain cooling rate range can also be predicted. We find that at higher cooling rate the preferred column shape is a pentagon, whereas at lower cooling rate it is a hexagon.

  6. Simplified model evaluation of cooling rates for glass-containing lunar compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhlmann, D. R.; Yinnon, H.; Fang, C.-Y.

    1982-01-01

    The simplified model of glass formation and the development of partial crystallinity in cooled bodies has been applied to lunar compositions 10060, 15028, 15086, 15101, 15286, 15301, 15498, 15499, 60255, 65016, 77017, Apollo 15 green glass and LUNA 24 highland basalt. The critical cooling rates for glass formation predicted by the simplified model are found to be in good agreement (to within an order of magnitude) with those predicted by the exact treatment of crystallization statistics. These predicted critical cooling rates are in even better agreement (a factor of 2) with measured values of the rates required to form glasses of the materials.

  7. Cooling Rate Effects on Dynamics in Supercooled Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Oh, Suhk Kun

    The cooling rate effects in supercooled Al2O3 have been investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. Simulations were done in the basic cube under periodic boundary conditions containing 3000 ions with Born-Mayer type pair potentials. The temperature of the system was decreased linearly in time as T(t)=T0-γt, where γ is the cooling rate. The cooling rate dependence of density, thermal expansion coefficient and enthalpy of the system was found. Structure of amorphous Al2O3 model at the temperature of 0 K was in good agreement with Lamparter's experimental data. The cooling rate dependence of the dynamical heterogeneities in supercooled states has been studied through the comparison of the partial radial distribution functions (PRDFs) for the 10% most mobile or immobile particles with the corresponding mean PRDFs in the models. Also, cooling rate effects on the cluster size distributions of the most mobile or immobile particles have been obtained. Calculations show that the cooling rate effects on the dynamical heterogeneities are pronounced. Finally, the evolution of structural defects and cluster size distributions of the most mobile or immobile particles in the system upon cooling has been studied and presented.

  8. Crystallization history of lunar picritic basalt sample 12002 - Phase-equilibria and cooling-rate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Kirkpatrick, R. J.; Longhi, J.; Hays, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental crystallization of a lunar picrite composition (sample 12002) at controlled linear cooling rates produces systematic changes in the temperature at which crystalline phases appear, in the texture, and in crystal morphology as a function of cooling rate. Phases crystallize in the order olivine, chromium spinel, pyroxene, plagioclase, and ilmenite during equilibrium crystallization, but ilmenite and plagioclase reverse their order of appearance and silica crystallizes in the groundmass during controlled cooling experiments. The partition of iron and magnesium between olivine and liquid is independent of cooling rate, temperature, and pressure. Comparison of the olivine nucleation densities in the lunar sample and in the experiments indicates that the sample began cooling at about 1 deg C/hr. Pyroxene size, chemistry, and growth instability spacings, as well as groundmass coarseness, all suggest that the cooling rate subsequently decreased by as much as a factor of 10 or more. The porphyritic texture of this sample, then, is produced at a decreasing, rather than a discontinuously increasing, cooling rate.

  9. Combining Hf-W Ages, Cooling Rates, and Thermal Models to Estimate the Accretion Time of Iron Meteorite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Dauphas, N.; Wadhwa, M.; Masarik, J.; Janney, P. E.

    2007-12-01

    The 182Hf-182W short-lived chronometer has been widely used to date metal-silicate differentiation processes in the early Solar System. However the presence of cosmogenic effects from exposure to GCR can potentially hamper the use of this system for chronology purposes (e.g. [1,2]). These effects must be corrected for in order to calculate metal-silicate differentiation ages. In this study, high-precision W isotope measurements are presented for 32 iron meteorites from 8 magmatic and 2 non-magmatic groups. Exposure ages and pre- atmospheric size estimates are available for most of these samples [3]. Our precision is better than or comparable to the currently most precise literature data and our results agree with previous work [4]. All magmatic irons have ɛ182W equal within error to or more negative than the Solar System initial derived from a CAI isochron [5]. Iron meteorites from the same magmatic groups show variations in ɛ182W. These are most easily explained by exposure to cosmic rays in space. A correction method was developed to estimate pre-exposure ɛ182W for individual iron meteorite groups. Metal-silicate differentiation in most iron meteorite parent bodies must have occurred within 2 Myr of formation of refractory inclusions. For the first time, we combine 182Hf-182W ages with parent body sizes inferred from metallographic cooling rates in a thermal model to constrain the accretion time of iron meteorite parent bodies. The estimated accretion ages are within 1.5 Myr for most magmatic groups, and could be as early as 0.2 Myr after CAI formation. This is consistent with the study of Bottke et al. [6] who argued that iron meteorite parent bodies could represent an early generation of planetesimals formed in the inner region of the Solar System. [1] Masarik J. (1997) EPSL 152, 181-185. [2] Markowski A. et al. (2006) EPSL 250,104-115. [3] Voshage H. (1984) EPSL 71, 181-194. [4] Markowski A. et al. (2006) EPSL 242, 1-15. [5] Kleine T. et al. (2005) GCA 69

  10. Cooling rates for lunar samples determined with a diffusion model for phosphide exsolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewins, R. H.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical model for diffusion-controlled phase growth has been applied to the exsolution of phosphide lamellae in lunar metal grains. Computer simulations reproduce observed composition profiles, and reveal the influence of cooling rate on dimensional and compositional parameters of phosphide and metal. At lower cooling rates, phosphide lamellae are larger and the concentration of P in the metal host close to the interface is lower. Cooling rates inferred for Apollo 16 samples, based on compositions and dimensions of the phosphide-metal grains, are mostly in the range 1-100 C/day. These rates correspond to burial depths of 5-0.5 m for melt rocks and 3-0.3 m for breccias. This is in good agreement with thicknesses of lunar cooling units determined by other techniques.

  11. Cooling rate estimations based on kinetic modelling of Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Onorato, P. I. K.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A finite one-dimensional kinetic model was developed to estimate the cooling rates of lunar rocks. The model takes into consideration the compositional zonation of olivine and applies Buening and Buseck (1973) data on ion diffusion in olivine. Since the 'as-solidified' profile of a given olivine is not known, a step-function, with infinite gradient, is assumed; the position of this step is based on mass balance considerations of the measured compositional profile. A minimum cooling rate would be associated with the preservation of a given gradient. The linear cooling rates of lunar rocks 12002 and 15555 were estimated by use of the olivine cooling-rate indicator to be 10 C/day and 5 C/day, respectively. These values are lower than those obtained by dynamic crystallization studies (10-20 C/day).

  12. Cooling rate estimations based on kinetic modelling of Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Onorato, P. I. K.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A finite one-dimensional kinetic model was developed to estimate the cooling rates of lunar rocks. The model takes into consideration the compositional zonation of olivine and applies Buening and Buseck (1973) data on ion diffusion in olivine. Since the 'as-solidified' profile of a given olivine is not known, a step-function, with infinite gradient, is assumed; the position of this step is based on mass balance considerations of the measured compositional profile. A minimum cooling rate would be associated with the preservation of a given gradient. The linear cooling rates of lunar rocks 12002 and 15555 were estimated by use of the olivine cooling-rate indicator to be 10 C/day and 5 C/day, respectively. These values are lower than those obtained by dynamic crystallization studies (10-20 C/day).

  13. Cooling rates for lunar samples determined with a diffusion model for phosphide exsolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewins, R. H.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical model for diffusion-controlled phase growth has been applied to the exsolution of phosphide lamellae in lunar metal grains. Computer simulations reproduce observed composition profiles, and reveal the influence of cooling rate on dimensional and compositional parameters of phosphide and metal. At lower cooling rates, phosphide lamellae are larger and the concentration of P in the metal host close to the interface is lower. Cooling rates inferred for Apollo 16 samples, based on compositions and dimensions of the phosphide-metal grains, are mostly in the range 1-100 C/day. These rates correspond to burial depths of 5-0.5 m for melt rocks and 3-0.3 m for breccias. This is in good agreement with thicknesses of lunar cooling units determined by other techniques.

  14. Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Eutectoid Steel Under Cyclic Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Soma; Subhani, Amir Raza; Show, Bijay Kumar; Maity, Joydeep

    2017-07-01

    A systematic study has been carried out to ascertain the effect of cooling rate on structure and mechanical properties of eutectoid steel subjected to a novel incomplete austenitization-based cyclic heat treatment process up to 4 cycles. Each cycle consists of a short-duration holding (6 min) at 775 °C (above A1) followed by cooling at different rates (furnace cooling, forced air cooling and ice-brine quenching). Microstructure and properties are found to be strongly dependent on cooling rate. In pearlitic transformation regime, lamellar disintegration completes in 61 h and 48 min for cyclic furnace cooling. This leads to a spheroidized structure possessing a lower hardness and strength than that obtained in as-received annealed condition. On contrary, lamellar disintegration does not occur for cyclic forced air cooling with high air flow rate (78 m3 h-1). Rather, a novel microstructure consisting of submicroscopic cementite particles in a `interweaved pearlite' matrix is developed after 4 cycles. This provides an enhancement in hardness (395 HV), yield strength (473 MPa) and UTS (830 MPa) along with retention of a reasonable ductility (%Elongation = 19) as compared to as-received annealed condition (hardness = 222 HV, YS = 358 MPa, UTS = 740 MPa, %Elongation = 21).

  15. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Dendrite Coherency Point During Solidification of Al2024 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoncheh, M. H.; Shabestari, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Most research related to dendrite coherency point (DCP) has been done on cast aluminum alloys and at a low cooling rate condition. In this research, the DCP of a wrought aluminum alloy is calculated in the range of high cooling rates used in the direct-chill casting process. The two-thermocouple thermal analysis technique was used to determine the DCP of Al2024 alloy. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of different cooling rates on the dendrite coherency characteristics of Al2024. The cooling rates used in the present study range from 0.4 to 17.5 °C s-1. Also, the effect of 1.2 wt pct Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner on the DCP was studied. To calculate the solid fraction at dendrite coherency, solid fraction versus time is plotted based on Newtonian technique. The results show that by increasing the cooling rate, both time and temperature of dendrite coherency are decreased. Also, by adding the Al-5Ti-1B master alloy, dendrite coherency temperature is reduced and dendrite impingement is postponed. To reduce casting defects occurring during equiaxed solidification, e.g., macrosegregation, porosities, and hot tearing, these two operations which lead to postpone the transition from mass to inter-dendritic feeding, or dendrite coherency, can be useful. By increasing the cooling rate, solid fraction at dendrite coherency increases initially and then decreases at higher cooling rates. Presence of grain refiner leads to increasing of solid fraction at DCP. Thus, by delaying the dendrite coherency and increasing the solid fraction at DCP, semi-solid forming can be performed on parts with higher solid fraction and less shrinkage. Microstructural evaluation was carried out to present the correlation between the cooling rate and solid fraction in 2024 aluminum alloy.

  16. Apparent Cooling Rate of 7°C per Hour in an Avalanche Victim.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Mathias; Putzer, Gabriel; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Avalanche victims can become hypothermic within 35 minutes of snow burial. However, reported cooling rates for avalanche victims are highly variable and it is poorly understood how much cooling is influenced by general factors (body composition, clothing, ambient conditions, duration of burial, and metabolism), unknown inter-individual factors or other phenomena (e.g., afterdrop). We report an apparent cooling rate of ∼7°C in ∼60 minutes in a healthy backcountry skier who was rewarmed with forced air and warm fluids and was discharged after 2 weeks without neurological sequelae.

  17. Infrared cooling rate calculations in operational general circulation models - Comparisons with benchmark computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Lacis, A. A.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Fels, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of several parameterized models is described with respect to numerical prediction and climate research at GFDL, NCAR, and GISS. The radiation codes of the models were compared to benchmark calculations and other codes for the intercomparison of radiation codes in climate models (ICRCCM). Cooling rates and fluxes calculated from the models are examined in terms of their application to established general circulation models (GCMs) from the three research institutions. The newest radiation parameterization techniques show the most significant agreement with the benchmark line-by-line (LBL) results. The LBL cooling rates correspond to cooling rate profiles from the models, but the parameterization of the water vapor continuum demonstrates uncertain results. These uncertainties affect the understanding of some lower tropospheric cooling, and therefore more accurate parameterization of the water vapor continuum, as well as the weaker absorption bands of CO2 and O3 is recommended.

  18. Can Reptile Embryos Influence Their Own Rates of Heating and Cooling?

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei-Guo; Tu, Ming-Chung; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations have assumed that embryos lack the capacity of physiological thermoregulation until they are large enough for their own metabolic heat production to influence nest temperatures. Contrary to intuition, reptile embryos may be capable of physiological thermoregulation. In our experiments, egg-sized objects (dead or infertile eggs, water-filled balloons, glass jars) cooled down more rapidly than they heated up, whereas live snake eggs heated more rapidly than they cooled. In a nest with diel thermal fluctuations, that hysteresis could increase the embryo’s effective incubation temperature. The mechanisms for controlling rates of thermal exchange are unclear, but may involve facultative adjustment of blood flow. Heart rates of snake embryos were higher during cooling than during heating, the opposite pattern to that seen in adult reptiles. Our data challenge the view of reptile eggs as thermally passive, and suggest that embryos of reptile species with large eggs can influence their own rates of heating and cooling. PMID:23826200

  19. Influence of cooling rate on activity of ionotropic glutamate receptors in brain slices at hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Mokrushin, Anatoly A; Pavlinova, Larisa I; Borovikov, Sergey E

    2014-08-01

    Hypothermia is a known approach in the treatment of neurological pathologies. Mild hypothermia enhances the therapeutic window for application of medicines, while deep hypothermia is often accompanied by complications, including problems in the recovery of brain functions. The purpose of present study was to investigate the functioning of glutamate ionotropic receptors in brain slices cooled with different rates during mild, moderate and deep hypothermia. Using a system of gradual cooling combined with electrophysiological recordings in slices, we have shown that synaptic activity mediated by the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat olfactory cortex was strongly dependent on the rate of lowering the temperature. High cooling rate caused a progressive decrease in glutamate receptor activity in brain slices during gradual cooling from mild to deep hypothermia. On the contrary, low cooling rate slightly changed the synaptic responses in deep hypothermia. The short-term potentiation may be induced in slices by electric tetanization at 16 °C in this case. Hence, low cooling rate promoted preservation of neuronal activity and plasticity in the brain tissue.

  20. Precise control of agarose media pore structure by regulating cooling rate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Li, Xiunan; Zhao, Dawei; Li, Yaqiong; Shi, Hong; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-09-19

    A porous structure is the key factor to successful chromatography separation. Agarose gel as one of the most popular porous media has been extensively used in chromatography separation. As the cooling process in the agarose gelation procedure can directly influence the pore structure, ten kinds of 4% agarose media with different cooling rates from 0.132 to 16.7°C/min were synthesized, and the pore structure was determined accurately by using low-field NMR spectroscopy. The curves of pore structure and cooling rate can be divided into two stages with the boundary of 6°C/min. In stage I, the pore structure met a power equation with the decrease of the cooling rate, and in stage II, the process reached a plateau. Confirmatory experiments proved that, by adjusting the cooling rate, a precise control of the pore structure of agarose media can be realized, furthermore, cooling rate optimization was an effective way to control the pore size of agarose media and can further tailor the pore structure for more effective separation of different proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace element partitioning between taenite and kamacite - Relationship to the cooling rates of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Malvin, Daniel J.; Wasson, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine Ni, Co, Cu, Ga, As, Au, W, Re and Ir in taenite lamellae isolated by acid dissolution from eight iron meteorites from groups IA, IIIAB and IVA. Taenite is enriched in Ni, Cu, Ga, As, Au, W, Re and Ir relative to kamacite, whereas taenite is depleted in Co. Taenite/kamacite partition ratios in slowly cooled IAB meteorites are farther from unity than those in rapidly cooled IVA meteorites. Taenite/kamacite partition ratios for Cu, Ir, Au and Co may be sensitive cooling rate indicators.

  2. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure of friction-stir welded AA1100 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, D.; Mironov, S.; Sato, Y. S.; Kokawa, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the microstructural changes occurring during cooling of friction-stir welded aluminum alloy AA1100 were evaluated. To this end, friction-stir welding (FSW) was performed in a wide range of cooling rates of 20-62 K/s and the evolved microstructures were studied by using electron backscatter diffraction. Below 0.6 Tm (Tm being the melting point), the stir zone material was found to experience no significant changes during cooling. At higher FSW temperatures, however, notable changes occurred in the welded material, including grain growth, sharpening of texture, reduction of the fraction of high-angle boundaries and material softening.

  3. Investigating Cooling Rates of a Controlled Lava Flow using Infrared Imaging and Three Heat Diffusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlow, S.; Lev, E.; Zappa, C. J.; Karson, J.; Wysocki, B.

    2011-12-01

    Observation and investigation of surface cooling rates of active lava flows can help constrain thermal parameters necessary for creating of more precise lava flow models. To understand how the lava cools, temperature data was collected using an infrared video camera. We explored three models of the release of heat from lava stream; one based on heat conduction, another based on crust thickness and radiation, and a third model based on radiative cooling and variable crust thickness. The lava flow, part of the Syracuse University Lava Project (http://lavaproject.syr.edu), was made by pouring molten basalt at 1300 Celsius from a furnace into a narrow trench of sand. Hanging roughly 2 m over the trench, the infrared camera, records the lava's surface temperature for the duration of the flow. We determine the average surface temperature of the lava flow at a fixed location downstream as the mean of the lateral cross section of each frame of the IR imagery. From the recorded IR frames, we calculate the mean cross-channel temperature for each downstream distance. We then examine how this mean temperature evolves over time, and plot cooling curves for selected down-stream positions. We then compared the observed cooling behavior to that predicted by three cooling models: a conductive cooling model, a radiative cooling model with constant crust thickness, and a radiative cooling model with variable crust thickness. All three models are solutions to the one-dimensional heat equation. To create the best fit for the conductive model, we constrained thermal diffusivity and to create the best fit for the radiative model, we constrained crust thickness. From the comparison of our data to the models we can conclude that the lava flow's cooling is primarily driven by radiation.

  4. Numerical simulation of cooling rates in vitrification systems used for oocyte cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Sansinena, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2011-08-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation is of key importance in the preservation and propagation of germplasm. Interest in oocyte cryopreservation has increased in recent years due to the application of assisted reproductive technologies in farm animals such as in vitro fertilization, nuclear transfer and the need for the establishment of ova/gene banks worldwide. However, the cryopreservation of the female gamete has been met with limited success mainly due to its small surface-area:volume ratio. In the past decade, several vitrification devices such as open pulled straws (OPS), fine and ultra fine pipette tips, nylon loops and polyethylene films have been introduced in order to manipulate minimal volumes and achieve high cooling rates. However, experimental comparison of cooling rates presents difficulties mainly because of the reduced size of these systems. To circumvent this limitation, a numerical simulation of cooling rates of various vitrification systems immersed in liquid nitrogen was conducted solving the non-stationary heat transfer partial differential equation using finite element method. Results indicate the nylon loop (Cryoloop®) is the most efficient heat transfer system analyzed, with a predicted cooling rate of 180,000°C/min for an external heat transfer coefficient h= 1000 W/m(2)K when cooling from 20 to -130°C; in contrast, the open pulled straw method (OPS) showed the lowest performance with a cooling rate of 5521°C/min considering the same value of external heat transfer coefficient. Predicted cooling rates of Miniflex® and Cryotop® (polyethylene film system) were 6164 and 37,500°C/min, respectively, for the same heat transfer coefficient. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Consequences of partial body warming and cooling for the drives to local sweat rates.

    PubMed

    Werner, J; Heising, M

    1990-01-01

    Climatic chamber experiments were carried out on young, healthy male students. The ambient temperature was 36 degrees C, while local warming of one extremity was compensated for by heatflow-equivalent cooling of the ipsilateral extremity by on-line calculation of the heat balance. When warming the arm and cooling the leg (type 1 experiments), a slight, but not statistically significant increase of local sweat rates at these extremities was recorded. However, when cooling the arm and warming the leg (type 2 experiments), both corresponding local sweat rates declined. The divergent results are interpreted in terms of previously reported different central weighting factors for skin temperatures as determined: (1) by the weighting for the area, or (2) by the weighting for the area and the sensitivity of the local sweat rate to warming and cooling. This means that the central processing of the mean skin temperature may be different for cooling and warming and that in both cases values can be different from recorded (area weighted) skin temperature. Calculating this modified mean skin temperature, we conclude that type 1 experiments may be interpreted by the hypothesis that the central regulator has a status very near an overall heat-balance, whereas type 2 experiments, although also carried out at heat-balance, may be centrally evaluated as predominant cooling. In these experiments again the central drives representing the whole body thermal state seem to override both the direct and centrally mediated local drives.

  6. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full testing in SULTAN: 1. The mechanical role of copper strands in a CICC

    DOE PAGES

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; ...

    2015-06-22

    Cables made with Nb3Sn-based superconductor strands will provide the 13 T maximum peak magnetic field of the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils and they must survive up to 60,000 electromagnetic cycles. Accordingly, prototype designs of CS cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICC) were electromagnetically tested over multiple magnetic field cycles and warm-up-cool-down scenarios in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. We report here a post mortem metallographic analysis of two CS CICC prototypes which exhibited some rate of irreversible performance degradation during cycling. The standard ITER CS CICC cable design uses a combination of superconducting and Cu strands, and because the Lorentz force on themore » strand is proportional to the transport current in the strand, removing the copper strands (while increasing the Cu:SC ratio of the superconducting strands) was proposed as one way of reducing the strand load. In this study we compare the two alternative CICCs, with and without Cu strands, keeping in mind that the degradation after SULTAN test was lower for the CICC without Cu strands. The post mortem metallographic evaluation revealed that the overall strand transverse movement was 20% lower in the CICC without Cu strands and that the tensile filament fractures found were less, both indications of an overall reduction in high tensile strain regions. Furthermore, it was interesting to see that the Cu strands in the mixed cable design (with higher degradation) helped reduce the contact stresses on the high pressure side of the CICC, but in either case, the strain reduction mechanisms were not enough to suppress cyclic degradation. Advantages and disadvantages of each conductor design are discussed here aimed to understand the sources of the degradation.« less

  7. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full testing in SULTAN: 1. The mechanical role of copper strands in a CICC

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Blum, Timothy; Devred, Arnaud; Jewell, Matthew C.; Pong, Ian; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-06-22

    Cables made with Nb3Sn-based superconductor strands will provide the 13 T maximum peak magnetic field of the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils and they must survive up to 60,000 electromagnetic cycles. Accordingly, prototype designs of CS cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICC) were electromagnetically tested over multiple magnetic field cycles and warm-up-cool-down scenarios in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. We report here a post mortem metallographic analysis of two CS CICC prototypes which exhibited some rate of irreversible performance degradation during cycling. The standard ITER CS CICC cable design uses a combination of superconducting and Cu strands, and because the Lorentz force on the strand is proportional to the transport current in the strand, removing the copper strands (while increasing the Cu:SC ratio of the superconducting strands) was proposed as one way of reducing the strand load. In this study we compare the two alternative CICCs, with and without Cu strands, keeping in mind that the degradation after SULTAN test was lower for the CICC without Cu strands. The post mortem metallographic evaluation revealed that the overall strand transverse movement was 20% lower in the CICC without Cu strands and that the tensile filament fractures found were less, both indications of an overall reduction in high tensile strain regions. Furthermore, it was interesting to see that the Cu strands in the mixed cable design (with higher degradation) helped reduce the contact stresses on the high pressure side of the CICC, but in either case, the strain reduction mechanisms were not enough to suppress cyclic degradation. Advantages and disadvantages of each conductor design are discussed here aimed to understand the sources of the degradation.

  8. Titanium defect structure change after gas-phase hydrogenation at different temperatures and cooling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, Andrey A.; Laptev, Roman S.; Kudiiarov, Viktor N.; Volokitina, Tatiana L.

    2016-11-01

    Influence of gas-phase hydrogenation temperature and cooling rate on defect structure of commercially pure titanium alloy was experimentally studied by means of positron annihilation spectroscopy. The change of temperature in the process of gas-phase hydrogenation was in the range of 500-700°C, while the change of cooling rate was in the range of 0.4-10.4°C/min. With increasing of gas-phase hydrogenation temperature, significant increase of hydrogen sorption rate was found. High temperature gas-phase hydrogenation of commercially pure titanium alloy lead to the formation of vacancy and hydrogen-vacancy complexes. For the same concentration of hydrogen, temperature variation or variation of cooling rate had no effect on the type of defect. However, this variation provides significant changes in defect concentration.

  9. Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Karapetian, Emil; Aguilar, Guillermo; Kimel, Sol; Lavernia, Enrique J; Nelson, J Stuart

    2003-01-07

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to protect the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery. To date, the relative influence of the fundamental spray parameters on surface cooling remains incompletely understood. This study explores the effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity on the surface heat flux during CSC. It is shown that the effect of mass flow rate on the surface heat flux is much more important compared to that of droplet velocity. However, for fully atomized sprays with small flow rates, droplet velocity can make a substantial difference in the surface heat flux.

  10. Cooling rate dependence of solidification for liquid aluminium: a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Z Y; Dong, K J; Tian, Z A; Liu, R S; Wang, Z; Wang, J G

    2016-06-29

    The effect of the cooling rate on the solidification process of liquid aluminium is studied using a large-scale molecular dynamics method. It is found that there are various types of short-range order (SRO) structures in the liquid, among which the icosahedral (ICO)-like structures are dominant. These SRO structures are in dynamic fluctuation and transform each other. The effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure is very weak at high temperatures and in supercooled liquids, and it appears only below the liquid-solid transition temperature. Fast cooling rates favour the formation of amorphous structures with ICO-like features, while slow cooling rates favour the formation of FCC crystalline structures. Furthermore, FCC and HCP structures can coexist in crystalline structures. It is also found that nanocrystalline aluminium can be achieved at appropriate cooling rates, and its formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated by tracing the evolution of nanoclusters. The arrangement of FCC and HCP atoms in the nanograins displays various twinned structures as observed using visualization analysis, which is different from the layering or phase separation structures observed in the solidification of Lennard-Jones fluids and some metal liquids.

  11. Cooling-rate dependence of kinetic and mechanical stabilities of simulated glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Hannah; Flenner, Elijah; Szamel, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Glasses created through vapor deposition on a substrate maintained at a proper temperature possess higher kinetic and mechanical stabilities than glasses created by cooling at a constant rate. Molecular dynamics simulations are being increasingly used to understand why vapor deposition improves glasses' stability. There are, however, few detailed molecular dynamics studies of the dependence of the properties of glasses cooled at a constant rate on the rate of cooling. Thus, there is no clear benchmark for comparing ultrastable simulated glasses to simulated glasses prepared through cooling at a constant rate. Here, we examine the dependence of the properties of simulated glasses on the cooling rate used in their preparation. We examine the kinetic stability by measuring the time it takes for a glass to transform back to a liquid upon heating and heterogeneous dynamics during heating. We also examine properties of the energy landscape, and we evaluate mechanical stability by calculating the shear modulus of the glass. The methods outlined here can be used to assess kinetic and mechanical stabilities of simulated glasses generated using specialized algorithms and provide a benchmark for those algorithms.

  12. The effects of cooling rates and type of freezing extenders on cryosurvival of rat sperm

    PubMed Central

    Varisli, Omer; Scott, Hollie; Agca, Cansu; Agca, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of rat sperm is very challenging due to its sensitivity to various stress factors. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal cooling rate and extender for epididymal sperm of outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) and inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. The epididymal sperm from 10–12 weeks old sexually mature SD and F344 strains were suspended in five different freezing extenders, namely HEPES buffered Tyrode’s lactate (TL-HEPES), modified Kreb’s Ringer bicarbonate (mKRB), 3% dehydrated skim milk (SM), Salamon’s Tris-citrate (TRIS), and tes/tris (TES). All extenders contained 20% egg yolk, 0.75% Equex Paste and 0.1 M raffinose or 0.1 M sucrose. The sperm samples in each extender were cooled to 4°C and held for 45 min for equilibration before freezing. The equilibrated sperm samples in each extender were placed onto a shallow quartz dish inserted into Linkam Cryostage (BCS 196). The samples were then cooled to a final temperature of −150 °C by using various cooling rates (10, 40, 70, and 100 °C/min). For thawing, the quartz dish containing the sperm samples were rapidly removed from the Linkam cryo-stage and placed on a 37 °C slide warmer and held for 1 min before motility analysis. Sperm membrane and acrosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed by SYBR-14/Propidium iodide, Alexa Fluor-488-PNA conjugate and JC-1, respectively. The total motility, acrosomal integrity, membrane integrity and MMP values were compared among cooling rates and extenders. Both cooling rate and type of extender had significant effect on cryosurvival (P<0.05). Sperm motility increased as cooling rate was increased for both strains (P<0.05). Highest cryosurvival was achieved when 100 °C/min cooling rate was used in combination with TES extender containing 20% egg yolk, 0.75% Equex paste and either 0.1 M sucrose or raffinose (P < 0.05). This study showed that TES extender containing 0.1 M raffinose or sucrose with 70

  13. Cooling Rate Dependent Ellipsometry Measurements to Determine the Dynamics of Thin Glassy Films.

    PubMed

    Glor, Ethan C; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2016-01-26

    This report aims to fully describe the experimental technique of using ellipsometry for cooling rate dependent Tg (CR-Tg) experiments. These measurements are simple high-throughput characterization experiments, which can determine the glass transition temperature (Tg), average dynamics, fragility and the expansion coefficient of the super-cooled liquid and glassy states for a variety of glassy materials. This technique allows for these parameters to be measured in a single experiment, while other methods must combine a variety of different techniques to investigate all of these properties. Measurements of dynamics close to Tg are particularly challenging. The advantage of cooling rate dependent Tg measurements over other methods which directly probe bulk and surface relaxation dynamics is that they are relatively quick and simple experiments, which do not utilize fluorophores or other complicated experimental techniques. Furthermore, this technique probes the average dynamics of technologically relevant thin films in temperature and relaxation time (τα) regimes relevant to the glass transition (τα > 100 sec). The limitation to using ellipsometry for cooling rate dependent Tg experiments is that it cannot probe relaxation times relevant to measurements of viscosity (τα < 1 sec). Other cooling rate dependent Tg measurement techniques, however, can extend the CR-Tg method to faster relaxation times. Furthermore, this technique can be used for any glassy system so long as the integrity of the film remains throughout the experiment.

  14. Apparent I-Xe Cooling Rates of Chondrules Compared with Silicates from the Colomera Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P.; Pravdivseva, O. V.

    2004-01-01

    In I-Xe dating, a regular pattern of increasing Xe-129/128Xe-128 ratio with increasing extraction temperature is often observed. If one makes the crude assumption that the temperatures at which the Xe is extracted in the laboratory is approximately the same as the temperature at which those sites closed 4.6 Ga ago, a (zeroth order) model cooling rate can be found. In order to test and refine this model we can apply the cooling theory of Dodson to those extraction steps approaching the I-Xe isochrons. Using an Arrhenius plot for these temperature fractions, and assuming that an only single phase is involved, the effective diffusion parameters can be estimated (frequency factor and activation energy). From the apparent (zeroth order) cooling rate, the closure temperature can be estimated from the Dodson equation. This model closure temperature can then be compared with the actual laboratory temperature at which the isochron begins. The ratio of the closure temperature and the temperature corresponding to the start of the isochron provides the ratio of the two temperature scales, incorporation and extraction. The actual cooling rate is then given by the apparent (zeroth order) cooling rate times the temperature scale factor. Figure 1 shows Arrhenius plots for I-Xe data

  15. The influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J.W.

    1988-09-01

    The emergence of high energy density welding, laser surface modification and rapid solidification as commonly used metallurgical processing techniques has greatly increased the range of cooling rates that can be accessed during the solidification of metals and alloys. The microstructures which develop during these rapid cooling conditions may be significantly different from those which develop during low cooling rate conditions as the result of access to new metastable phases with the additional kinetic limitations that accompany rapid solidification. This investigation explores the influence of cooling rate on a series of seven ternary alloys which span the line of two-fold saturation in the Fe-Ni-Cr system. High speed electron beam surface melting was used to resolidify these alloys at scan speeds up to 5 m/s. The resulting cooling rates were estimated from dendrite arm spacing measurements and were confirmed by heat flow modeling to vary from 7 /times/ 10/sup 0/ /degree/C/s to 8 /times/ 10/sup 6/ /degree/C/s. The microstructures that developed from each solidification condition were examined using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer. These results were used to create diagrams to predict the primary mode of solidification, the ferrite content and the complex microstructural morphologies which develop as a function of interface velocity and composition. 158 refs., 90 figs., 45 tabs.

  16. Evaporation Loss of Light Elements as a Function of Cooling Rate: Logarithmic Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Yong-Liang; Hewins, Roger H.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about the evaporation loss of light elements is important to our understanding of chondrule formation processes. The evaporative loss of light elements (such as B and Li) as a function of cooling rate is of special interest because recent investigations of the distribution of Li, Be and B in meteoritic chondrules have revealed that Li varies by 25 times, and B and Be varies by about 10 times. Therefore, if we can extrapolate and interpolate with confidence the evaporation loss of B and Li (and other light elements such as K, Na) at a wide range of cooling rates of interest based upon limited experimental data, we would be able to assess the full range of scenarios relating to chondrule formation processes. Here, we propose that evaporation loss of light elements as a function of cooling rate should obey the logarithmic law.

  17. Evaporation Loss of Light Elements as a Function of Cooling Rate: Logarithmic Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Yong-Liang; Hewins, Roger H.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about the evaporation loss of light elements is important to our understanding of chondrule formation processes. The evaporative loss of light elements (such as B and Li) as a function of cooling rate is of special interest because recent investigations of the distribution of Li, Be and B in meteoritic chondrules have revealed that Li varies by 25 times, and B and Be varies by about 10 times. Therefore, if we can extrapolate and interpolate with confidence the evaporation loss of B and Li (and other light elements such as K, Na) at a wide range of cooling rates of interest based upon limited experimental data, we would be able to assess the full range of scenarios relating to chondrule formation processes. Here, we propose that evaporation loss of light elements as a function of cooling rate should obey the logarithmic law.

  18. The cooling rate dependence of cation distributions in CoFe2O4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; O'Handley, Robert C.; Kalonji, Gretchen

    1989-01-01

    The room-temperature cation distributions in bulk CoFe2O4 samples, cooled at rates between less than 0.01 and about 1000 C/sec, have been determined using Mossbauer spectroscopy in an 80-kOe magnetic field. With increasing cooling rate, the quenched structure departs increasingly from the mostly ordered cation distribution ordinarily observed at room temperature. However, the cation disorder appears to saturate just short of a random distribution at very high cooling rates. These results are interpreted in terms of a simple relaxation model of cation redistribution kinetics. The disordered cation distributions should lead to increased magnetization and decreased coercivity in CoFe2O4.

  19. Structural origin underlying the effect of cooling rate on solidification point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen-Hui; Han, Xiu-Jun; Luan, Ying-Wei; Li, Jian-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Solidification behaviors of liquid aluminum at different cooling rates were examined via classical molecular dynamics simulation with an embedded atom method potential. The results demonstrate that solidification point decreases with increasing cooling rate. To explain this phenomenon, solid-like cluster in liquid was analyzed by the structural analysis method of bond order parameters. The results reveal that the size of the largest solid-like cluster in deeply undercooled liquid decreases with the increase of cooling rate, which can provide a structural interpretation to the above phenomenon. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB012900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51171115), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai City, China (Grant No. 10ZR1415700), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100073120008), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Universities of China. This work is partially supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  20. Influence of Weld Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Alloy 718 Weldments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaprasad, K.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.

    2008-09-01

    Even though alloy 718 is the best for welding among all nickel-base superalloys, the formation of the Laves phase in welds is a major concern. The presence of this phase drastically degrades mechanical properties of the welds. To study the influence of weld cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of alloy 718 weldments, two distinct welding processes were adopted—gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welding. The EB welding resulted in finer and relatively discrete Laves phase in lower quantity due to higher cooling rates prevailing in this process. On the other hand, due to lower cooling rates, GTA weld fusion zones exhibited coarse Laves with higher niobium. Depletion of the primary strengthening element niobium in the surrounding regions of Laves promoted crack propagation. Because EB welds had finer and lower amount of Laves, EB weldments exhibited superior mechanical properties compared with GTA weldments.

  1. Influence of Steel Grade on Surface Cooling Rates and Heat Flux during Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Kumar, T. S.

    2013-07-01

    Immersion quenching is one of the most widely used processes for achieving martensitic and bainitic steels. The efficiency and quality of quenching are generally tested using standard quench probes for obtaining the cooling curves. A host of parameters like quenchant type, steel grade, bath agitation, section thickness, etc., affect the cooling curves. Cooling curve analyses covered under ASTM standards cannot be used to assess the performance of a quenchant for different grades of steel, as they use a common material for the probe. This article reports the development of equipment, which, in conjunction with mathematical models, can be used for obtaining cooling curves for a specific steel/quenchant combination. The mathematical models couple nonlinear transient inverse heat transfer with phase transformation, resulting in cooling curves specific to the steel grade-quenchant combination. The austenite decomposition models were based on an approach consistent with both the TTT diagram of the steel and Fe-C equilibrium phase diagrams. The TTT diagrams for the specific chemistry of the specimens and the thermophysical properties of the individual phases as functions of temperature were obtained using JMatPro software. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for computing surface temperature and heat flux at the mid-section of a 25-mm diameter by 100-mm-long cylindrical specimen of two types of steels in two different quenchants. A low alloy steel (EN19) and a plain carbon steel (C45) were used for bringing out the influence of austenite transformation on surface cooling rates and heat flux. Two types of industrial quenchants (i) a mineral oil, and (ii) an aqueous solution of polymer were used. The results showed that the cooling curves, cooling rate curves, and the surface heat flux depended on the steel grade with the quenchant remaining the same.

  2. Cooling rate effects in thermoluminescence dosimetry grade lithium flouride. Implications for practical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mason, E W; McKinlay, A F; Clark, I

    1976-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the effects of cooling rates in the range of 10(-1) to 2 X 10(5) degrees C min-1 applied to TLD-700, LiF thermoluminescence dosemeters has shown that the 'transfer sensitivity' effect observed by Booth, Johnson and Attix (1972) is only of importance for cooling rates greater than 10(3) degrees C min-1. Although it is concluded that for practical dosimetry purposes the effect may be ignored it is not clear why Booth et al. observed such large changes and until this discrepancy is explained it is recommended that a low temperature pre-irradiation anneal should be used.

  3. Cooling rates of neutron stars and the young neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Dmitry G.; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Shternin, Peter S.; Heinke, Craig O.; Potekhin, Alexander Y.

    2011-03-01

    We explore the thermal state of the neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant using the recent result of Ho & Heinke that the thermal radiation of this star is well described by a carbon atmosphere model and the emission comes from the entire stellar surface. Starting from neutron star cooling theory, we formulate a robust method to extract neutrino cooling rates of thermally relaxed stars at the neutrino cooling stage from observations of thermal surface radiation. We show how to compare these rates with the rates of standard candles - stars with non-superfluid nucleon cores cooling slowly via the modified Urca process. We find that the internal temperature of standard candles is a well-defined function of the stellar compactness parameter x=rg/R, irrespective of the equation of state of neutron star matter (R and rg are circumferential and gravitational radii, respectively). We demonstrate that the data on the Cassiopeia A neutron star can be explained in terms of three parameters: fℓ, the neutrino cooling efficiency with respect to the standard candle; the compactness x; and the amount of light elements in the heat-blanketing envelope. For an ordinary (iron) heat-blanketing envelope or a low-mass (≲ 10-13 M⊙) carbon envelope, we find the efficiency fℓ˜ 1 (standard cooling) for x≲ 0.5 and fℓ˜ 0.02 (slower cooling) for a maximum compactness x≈ 0.7. A heat blanket containing the maximum mass (˜10-8 M⊙) of light elements increases fℓ by a factor of 50. We also examine the (unlikely) possibility that the star is still thermally non-relaxed.

  4. Temperatures and cooling rates recorded in REE in coexisting pyroxenes in ophiolitic and abyssal peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Nick; Liang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Mantle peridotites from ophiolites are commonly interpreted as having mid-ocean ridge (MOR) or supra-subduction zone (SSZ) affinity. Recently, an REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer was developed (Liang et al., 2013) that has higher closure temperatures (designated as TREE) than major element based two-pyroxene thermometers for mafic and ultramafic rocks that experienced cooling. The REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer has the potential to extract meaningful cooling rates from ophiolitic peridotites and thus shed new light on the thermal history of the different tectonic regimes. We calculated TREE for available literature data from abyssal peridotites, subcontinental (SC) peridotites, and ophiolites around the world (Alps, Coast Range, Corsica, New Caledonia, Oman, Othris, Puerto Rico, Russia, and Turkey), and augmented the data with new measurements for peridotites from the Trinity and Josephine ophiolites and the Mariana trench. TREE are compared to major element based thermometers, including the two-pyroxene thermometer of Brey and Köhler (1990) (TBKN). Samples with SC affinity have TREE and TBKN in good agreement. Samples with MOR and SSZ affinity have near-solidus TREE but TBKN hundreds of degrees lower. Closure temperatures for REE and Fe-Mg in pyroxenes were calculated to compare cooling rates among abyssal peridotites, MOR ophiolites, and SSZ ophiolites. Abyssal peridotites appear to cool more rapidly than peridotites from most ophiolites. On average, SSZ ophiolites have lower closure temperatures than abyssal peridotites and many ophiolites with MOR affinity. We propose that these lower temperatures can be attributed to the residence time in the cooling oceanic lithosphere prior to obduction. MOR ophiolites define a continuum spanning cooling rates from SSZ ophiolites to abyssal peridotites. Consistent high closure temperatures for abyssal peridotites and the Oman and Corsica ophiolites suggests hydrothermal circulation and/or rapid cooling events (e.g., normal

  5. Probing polymer crystallization at processing-relevant cooling rates with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, Dario; Portale, Giuseppe; Androsch, René

    2015-12-17

    Processing of polymeric materials to produce any kind of goods, from films to complex objects, involves application of flow fields on the polymer melt, accompanied or followed by its rapid cooling. Typically, polymers solidify at cooling rates which span over a wide range, from a few to hundreds of °C/s. A novel method to probe polymer crystallization at processing-relevant cooling rates is proposed. Using a custom-built quenching device, thin polymer films are ballistically cooled from the melt at rates between approximately 10 and 200 °C/s. Thanks to highly brilliant synchrotron radiation and to state-of-the-art X-ray detectors, the crystallization process is followed in real-time, recording about 20 wide angle X-ray diffraction patterns per second while monitoring the instantaneous sample temperature. The method is applied to a series of industrially relevant polymers, such as isotactic polypropylene, its copolymers and virgin and nucleated polyamide-6. Their crystallization behaviour during rapid cooling is discussed, with particular attention to the occurrence of polymorphism, which deeply impact material’s properties.

  6. New metallographic preparation techniques for tantalum and tantalum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, A.M.; Bingert, S.R.; Reiswig, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Two new metallographic techniques have been developed for tantalum and its alloys. The first is a chemical polishing method that can even be used on specimens immediately after grinding on silicon carbide papers. The second is an etching technique that even delineates low-angle grain boundaries, making it particularly suitable for quantitative grain size measurements. It has also been determined that these are suitable for the preparation of a surprisingly large variety of other metals and alloys, including, titanium, tungsten, Ti-6Al-4V, molybdenum, a Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni alloy, a Ti-Ta-Sc alloy, Fansteel 85, and a Hf-Zr alloy to name a few.

  7. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  8. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  9. Modeling Thermospheric Energetics: Implications of Cooling Rate Measurements by TIMED/SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Infrared radiation from the lower thermosphere has a significant effect on thermospheric temperature throughout its altitude range. Energy deposited in the upper thermosphere is conducted downward to altitudes where collisional processes with heterogeneous molecules are effective in exciting radiative transitions. Thus, exospheric temperature is strongly influenced by the infrared cooling rates. Measurements from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite have provided the global distribution and temporal variation of the two most important cooling rates, from the 15-micron band of carbon dioxide, and the 5.3-micron band of nitric oxide, both excited in the thermosphere primarily by collisions with atomic oxygen [e.g., Mlynczak et al., JGR, 2010]. Because these measurements are of the cooling rate itself, they are nearly independent of assumptions concerning carbon dioxide or nitric oxide density, atomic oxygen density, temperature, and rate coefficients, and so provide strong constraints on global models. Simulations using the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) have obtained reasonable agreement with global nitric oxide cooling rates, on daily and solar-cycle time scales alike [c.f., Qian et al., JGR, 2010; Solomon et al., JGR, 2012]. This may be somewhat surprising, or serendipitous, considering the complexity of the production and chemistry of thermospheric nitric oxide, but is a hopeful indication of the model's ability to describe thermospheric temperature structure and variability. However, initial model simulations of 15-micron carbon dioxide emission have been significantly lower than the SABER measurements. This indicates that there may be issues with the carbon dioxide densities, with the atomic oxygen density, or with the rate coefficient for their interaction. Simply increasing any of these to bring the cooling rate into agreement with SABER measurements will have the additional effect of

  10. Long-term caloric restriction reduces metabolic rate and heart rate under cool and thermoneutral conditions in FBNF1 rats.

    PubMed

    Knight, W David; Witte, M M; Parsons, A D; Gierach, M; Overton, J Michael

    2011-05-01

    The long-term metabolic and cardiovascular responses to caloric restriction (CR) are poorly understood. We examined the responses to one year of CR in FBNF1 rats housed in cool (COOL; T(a)=15 °C) or thermoneutral (TMN; T(a)=30 °C) conditions. Rats were acclimated to COOL or TMN for 2 months, instrumented for cardiovascular telemetry and studied in calorimeters. Baseline caloric intake, oxygen consumption (VO(2)), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were determined prior to assignment to ad lib (AL) or CR groups (30-40% CR) within each T(a) (n = 8). Groups of rats were studied after 10 weeks CR, one year CR, and after 4 days of re-feeding. Both 10 weeks and one year of CR reduced HR and VO(2) irrespective of T(a). Evaluation of the relationship between metabolic organ mass (liver, heart, brain, and kidney mass) and energy expenditure revealed a clear shift induced by CR to reduce expenditure per unit metabolic mass in both COOL and TMN groups. Re-feeding resulted in prompt elevations of HR and VO(2) to levels observed in control rats. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that long term CR produces sustained reductions in metabolic rate and heart rate in rats.

  11. Effect of particulate thermophoresis in reducing the fouling rate advantages of effusion-cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    To predict small-particle diffusional mass transfer (deposition), including particle thermophoresis, transpiration cooling, and variable properties, the coupled ordinary differential equations governing self-similar laminar boundary layers are solved numerically. Under typical combustion turbine conditions, although diffusional deposition rates can be dramatically reduced by transpiration cooling (e.g., by some 5-decades for mainstream submicron particles corresponding to a Schmidt number of about 100 and a wall transpiration-cooled to Tw/Te = 0.8), actual deposition rate reductions will be smaller than previously expected (by about 1 decade for particles with Sc of about 100), owing to thermophoretic particle drift caused by the colder wall. Such microdroplets, small enough to behave like heavy molecules in combustion systems, are often important because they can cause adherence of the much larger ash particles which inertially impact on the same surface.

  12. Effect of particulate thermophoresis in reducing the fouling rate advantages of effusion-cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    To predict small-particle diffusional mass transfer (deposition), including particle thermophoresis, transpiration cooling, and variable properties, the coupled ordinary differential equations governing self-similar laminar boundary layers are solved numerically. Under typical combustion turbine conditions, although diffusional deposition rates can be dramatically reduced by transpiration cooling (e.g., by some 5-decades for mainstream submicron particles corresponding to a Schmidt number of about 100 and a wall transpiration-cooled to Tw/Te = 0.8), actual deposition rate reductions will be smaller than previously expected (by about 1 decade for particles with Sc of about 100), owing to thermophoretic particle drift caused by the colder wall. Such microdroplets, small enough to behave like heavy molecules in combustion systems, are often important because they can cause adherence of the much larger ash particles which inertially impact on the same surface.

  13. Interdependence between Cooling Rate, Microstructure and Porosity in Mg Alloy AE42

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Rhee, Hongjoo; Felicelli, Sergio D.; Sabau, Adrian S; Berry, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity is a major concern in the production of light metal parts. This work aims to identify some of the mechanisms of microporosity formation during the gravity-poured castings of magnesium alloy AE42. Two graphite plate molds and a ceramic cylindrical mold were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates. Temperature data during cooling was acquired with type K thermocouples at 60 Hz at two or three locations of each casting. The microstructure of samples extracted from the regions of measured temperature was then characterized with optical metallography. The results of this study revealed the existence of oxide film defects, similar to those observed in aluminum alloys. The cooling rates showed significant effect on the formation of porosity.

  14. Ice nucleation in the upper troposphere: Sensitivity to aerosol number density, temperature, and cooling rate

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.J.; Toon, O.B.

    1994-09-01

    We have investigated the processes that control ice crystal nucleation in the upper troposphere using a numerical model. Nucleation of ice resulting from cooling was simulated for a range of aerosol number densities, initial temperatures, and cooling rates. In contrast to observations of stratus clouds, we find that the number of ice crystals that nucleate in cirrus is relatively insensitive to the number of aerosols present. The ice crystal size distribution at the end of the nucleation process is unaffected by the assumed initial aerosol number density. Essentially, nucleation continues until enough ice crystals are present such that their deposition growth rapidly depletes the vapor and shuts off any further nucleation. However, the number of ice crystals nucleated increases rapidly with decreasing initial temperature and increasing cooling rate. This temperature dependence alone could explain the large ice crystal number density observed in very cold tropical cirrus.

  15. Influence of current ramp rate on voltage current measurement of a conduction-cooled HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, I.; Korpela, A.; Lehtonen, J.; Mikkonen, R.

    2008-06-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) have notably different voltage current characteristic compared to the low-temperature superconductors (LTS). Due to the anisotropy and slanted electric field - current density characteristics the loss of stability in a Bi-2223/Ag magnet is viewed as a global temperature increase inside the coil rather than a local normal zone. Therefore, the quench current depends strongly on the cooling conditions. In this paper a finite element method based analysis method is presented and example runs are carried out in order to explain in detail the influence of the current ramp rate and cooling on the voltage current characteristics of a conduction-cooled Bi-2223/Ag coil at 20 and 45 K. The results show that in certain operation conditions the coil critical current has a maximum value with respect to the ramp rate used in the measurements.

  16. Pāhoehoe flow cooling, discharge, and coverage rates from thermal image chronometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dehn, Jonathan; Hamilton, Christopher M.; Harris, A. J. L.; Herd, Richard A.; James, M.R.; Lodato, Luigi; Steffke, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Theoretically- and empirically-derived cooling rates for active pāhoehoe lava flows show that surface cooling is controlled by conductive heat loss through a crust that is thickening with the square root of time. The model is based on a linear relationship that links log(time) with surface cooling. This predictable cooling behavior can be used assess the age of recently emplaced sheet flows from their surface temperatures. Using a single thermal image, or image mosaic, this allows quantification of the variation in areal coverage rates and lava discharge rates over 48 hour periods prior to image capture. For pāhoehoe sheet flow at Kīlauea (Hawai`i) this gives coverage rates of 1–5 m2/min at discharge rates of 0.01–0.05 m3/s, increasing to ∼40 m2/min at 0.4–0.5 m3/s. Our thermal chronometry approach represents a quick and easy method of tracking flow advance over a three-day period using a single, thermal snap-shot.

  17. Experimental test of the heating and cooling rate effect on blocking temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Thomas; Paterson, Greig A.; Cao, Changqian; Muxworthy, Adrian R.

    2017-07-01

    The cooling rates at which rocks acquire thermoremanent magnetizations (TRMs), affect their unblocking temperatures in thermal demagnetization experiments; similarly the heating rates at which the thermal demagnetization experiments are done also affect the unblocking temperature. We have tested the effects of variable cooling and heating rates on the unblocking temperatures of two natural non-interacting, magnetically uniform (single-domain, SD) (titano)magnetite samples and a synthetic SD magnetoferritin sample. While previous studies have only considered unblocking temperatures for stepwise thermal demagnetization data (i.e. the room-temperature magnetization after incremental heating), in this work we derive an expression for continuous thermal demagnetization of both TRMs and viscous remanent magnetizations (VRMs) and relate the heating rate to an effective equivalent hold time of a stepwise thermal demagnetization experiment. Through our analysis we reach four main conclusions: First, the theoretical expressions for the heating/cooling rate effect do not accurately predict experimentally observed blocking temperatures. Empirically, the relation can be modified incorporating a factor that amplifies both the temperature and the heating rate dependence of the heating/cooling rate effect. Using these correction factors, Pullaiah nomograms can accurately predict blocking temperatures of both TRMs and VRMs for continuous heating/cooling. Second, demagnetization temperatures are approximately predicted by published 'Pullaiah nomograms', but blocking occurs gradually over temperature intervals of 5-40 K. Third, the theoretically predicted temperatures correspond to ∼54-82 per cent blocking, depending on the sample. Fourth, the blocking temperatures can be used to obtain estimates of the atomic attempt time τ0, which were found to be 3 × 10-10 s for large grained (titano)magnetite, 1 × 10-13 s for small grained (titano)magnetite below the Verwey transition and 9

  18. Optimization of Cooling Water Flow Rate in Nuclear and Thermal Power Plants Based on a Mathematical Model of Cooling Systems{sup 1}

    SciTech Connect

    Murav’ev, V. P. Kochetkov, A. V.; Glazova, E. G.

    2016-09-15

    A mathematical model and algorithms are proposed for automatic calculation of the optimum flow rate of cooling water in nuclear and thermal power plants with cooling systems of arbitrary complexity. An unlimited number of configuration and design variants are assumed with the possibility of obtaining a result for any computational time interval, from monthly to hourly. The structural solutions corresponding to an optimum cooling water flow rate can be used for subsequent engineering-economic evaluation of the best cooling system variant. The computerized mathematical model and algorithms make it possible to determine the availability and degree of structural changes for the cooling system in all stages of the life cycle of a plant.

  19. Evaluation of Cryoprotectant and Cooling Rate for Sperm Cryopreservation in the Euryhaline Fish Medaka Oryzias latipes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiping; Norris, Michelle; Winn, Richard; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2017-01-01

    Medaka Oryzias latipes is a well-recognized biomedical fish model because of advantageous features such as small body size, transparency of embryos, and established techniques for gene knockout and modification. The goal of this study was to evaluate two critical factors, cryoprotectant and cooling rate, for sperm cryopreservation in 0.25-ml French straws. The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the acute toxicity of methanol, 2-methoxyethanol (ME), dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), N, N- dimethylacetamide (DMA), N, N,-dimethyl formamide (DMF), and glycerol with concentrations of 5, 10, and 15% for 60 min of incubation at 4 °C; 2) evaluate cooling rates from 5 to 25 °C/min for freezing and their interaction with cryoprotectants, and 3) test fertility of thawed sperm cryopreserved with selected cryoprotectants and associated cooling rates. Evaluation of cryoprotectant toxicity showed that methanol and ME (5 and 10%) did not change the sperm motility after 30 min; Me2SO, DMA, and DMF (10 and 15%) and glycerol (5, 10 and 15%) significantly decreased the motility of sperm within 1 min after mixing. Based on these results, methanol and ME were selected as cryoprotectants (10%) to evaluate with different cooling rates (from 5 °C/min to 25 °C/min) and were compared to Me2SO and DMF (10%) (based on their use as cryoprotectants in previous publications). Post-thaw motility was affected by cryoprotectant, cooling rate, and their interaction (P ≤ 0.000). The highest post-thaw motility (50 ± 10%) was observed at a cooling rate of 10 °C/min with methanol as cryoprotectant. Comparable post-thaw motility (37 ± 12%) was obtained at a cooling rate of 15 °C/min with ME as cryoprotectant. With DMF, post-thaw motility at all cooling rates was ≤ 10% which was significantly lower than that of methanol and ME. With Me2SO, post-thaw motilities were less than 1% at all cooling rates, and significantly lower compared to the other three cryoprotectants (P ≤ 0.000). When sperm from

  20. Evaluation of cryoprotectant and cooling rate for sperm cryopreservation in the euryhaline fish medaka Oryzias latipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiping; Norris, Michelle; Winn, Richard; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2010-10-01

    Medaka Oryzias latipes is a well-recognized biomedical fish model because of advantageous features such as small body size, transparency of embryos, and established techniques for gene knockout and modification. The goal of this study was to evaluate two critical factors, cryoprotectant and cooling rate, for sperm cryopreservation in 0.25-ml French straws. The objectives were to: (1) evaluate the acute toxicity of methanol, 2-methoxyethanol (ME), dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), and glycerol with concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 15% for 60min of incubation at 4°C; (2) evaluate cooling rates from 5 to 25°C/min for freezing and their interaction with cryoprotectants, and (3) test fertility of thawed sperm cryopreserved with selected cryoprotectants and associated cooling rates. Evaluation of cryoprotectant toxicity showed that methanol and ME (5% and 10%) did not change the sperm motility after 30min; Me(2)SO, DMA, and DMF (10% and 15%) and glycerol (5%, 10% and 15%) significantly decreased the motility of sperm within 1min after mixing. Based on these results, methanol and ME were selected as cryoprotectants (10%) to evaluate with different cooling rates (from 5 to 25°C/min) and were compared to Me(2)SO and DMF (10%) (based on their use as cryoprotectants in previous publications). Post-thaw motility was affected by cryoprotectant, cooling rate, and their interaction (P⩽0.000). The highest post-thaw motility (50±10%) was observed at a cooling rate of 10°C/min with methanol as cryoprotectant. Comparable post-thaw motility (37±12%) was obtained at a cooling rate of 15°C/min with ME as cryoprotectant. With DMF, post-thaw motility at all cooling rates was ⩽10% which was significantly lower than that of methanol and ME. With Me(2)SO, post-thaw motilities were less than 1% at all cooling rates, and significantly lower compared to the other three cryoprotectants (P⩽0.000). When sperm from individual males

  1. Alcohol lowers the vasoconstriction threshold in humans without affecting core cooling rate during mild cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C E; Bristow, G K; Elias, D A; Giesbrecht, G G

    1996-01-01

    Elevated blood alcohol levels are often seen in hypothermia and hyperthermia related deaths, leading to the belief that alcohol renders humans poikilothermic. We examined the core temperature (Tco) thresholds for sweating, vasoconstriction and shivering as well as core cooling rates of seven subjects immersed in 28 degrees C water. On two separate days, subjects exercised on an underwater cycle ergometer to elevate Tco above the sweating threshold. They then rested and cooled until they shivered vigorously. Subjects drank orange juice (7 ml.kg-1) prior to immersion during the control trial and 1 ml.kg-1 absolute ethanol, added to orange juice in a 1:6 ratio, during the alcohol trial. Mean blood alcohol concentration (breath analysis) was 0.097 +/- 0.010 g% at the start of cooling and 0.077 +/- 0.008 g% at the end of the cooling period. Alcohol lowered the vasoconstriction threshold by 0.32 +/- 0.2 degrees C and elevated finger tip blood flow, but had no effect on thresholds for sweating and shivering or core cooling rate. Considering these minor effects it is unlikely that moderate alcohol consumption predisposes individuals to hypothermia or hyperthermia via impaired thermoregulation, but rather likely due to behavioral factors.

  2. The Solidification Behavior of AA2618 Aluminum Alloy and the Influence of Cooling Rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulin; Liu, Ming; Luo, Lei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2014-12-09

    In AA2618 aluminum alloy, the iron- and nickel-rich intermetallics formed during solidification are of great effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. However, the solidification behavior of the alloy and the formation mechanism of the intermetallics during solidification of the alloy are not clear. This research fills the gap and contributes to understanding the intermetallic of the alloy. The results showed that cooling rate was of great influence on the formation of the intermetallics. Under the condition of slow cooling, the as-cast microstructures of the alloy were complex with many coarse eutectic compounds including Al₉FeNi, Al₇(CuNi)₅, Si, Al₂Cu and Al₂CuMg. The phase Al₉FeNi was the dominant intermetallic compound, which precipitated at the earlier stage of the solidification by eutectic reaction L → α-Al + Al₉FeNi. Increasing the cooling rate would suppress the formation of the coarse eutectic intermetallics. Under the condition of near-rapid cooling, the as-cast microstructures of the alloy consisted of metastable intermetallics Al₉FeNi and Al₂Cu; the equilibrium eutectic compounds were suppressed. This research concluded that intermetallics could be refined to a great extent by near-rapid cooling.

  3. The Solidification Behavior of AA2618 Aluminum Alloy and the Influence of Cooling Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulin; Liu, Ming; Luo, Lei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2014-01-01

    In AA2618 aluminum alloy, the iron- and nickel-rich intermetallics formed during solidification are of great effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. However, the solidification behavior of the alloy and the formation mechanism of the intermetallics during solidification of the alloy are not clear. This research fills the gap and contributes to understanding the intermetallic of the alloy. The results showed that cooling rate was of great influence on the formation of the intermetallics. Under the condition of slow cooling, the as-cast microstructures of the alloy were complex with many coarse eutectic compounds including Al9FeNi, Al7(CuNi)5, Si, Al2Cu and Al2CuMg. The phase Al9FeNi was the dominant intermetallic compound, which precipitated at the earlier stage of the solidification by eutectic reaction L → α-Al + Al9FeNi. Increasing the cooling rate would suppress the formation of the coarse eutectic intermetallics. Under the condition of near-rapid cooling, the as-cast microstructures of the alloy consisted of metastable intermetallics Al9FeNi and Al2Cu; the equilibrium eutectic compounds were suppressed. This research concluded that intermetallics could be refined to a great extent by near-rapid cooling. PMID:28788281

  4. Effect of Cooling Rates on Shape and Crystal Size Distributions of Mefenamic Acid Polymorph in Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudalip, S. K. Abdul; Adam, F.; Parveen, J.; Abu Bakar, M. R.; Amran, N.; Sulaiman, S. Z.; Che Man, R.; Arshad, Z. I. Mohd; Shaarani, S. Md.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigate the effect of cooling rates on mefenamic acid crystallisation in ethyl acetate. The cooling rate was varied from 0.2 to 5 °C/min. The in-line conductivity system and turbidity system were employed to detect the onset of the crystallization process. The crystals produced were analysed using optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the crystals produced at different cooling rates were needle-like and exhibit polymorphic form type I. However, the aspect ratio and crystal size distributions were varied with the increased of cooling rate. A high crystals aspect ratio and narrower CSD (100-900 μm) was obtained at cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min. Thus, can be suggested as the most suitable cooling rate for crystallization of mefenamic acid in ethyl acetate.

  5. Rapid cooling rates at an active mid-ocean ridge from zircon thermochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Perfit, Michael R.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Smith, Matthew C.; Cotsonika, Laurie A.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Ridley, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic spreading ridges are Earth's most productive crust generating environment, but mechanisms and rates of crustal accretion and heat loss are debated. Existing observations on cooling rates are ambiguous regarding the prevalence of conductive vs. convective cooling of lower oceanic crust. Here, we report the discovery and dating of zircon in mid-ocean ridge dacite lavas that constrain magmatic differentiation and cooling rates at an active spreading center. Dacitic lavas erupted on the southern Cleft segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge, an intermediate-rate spreading center, near the intersection with the Blanco transform fault. Their U–Th zircon crystallization ages (29.3-4.6+4.8 ka; 1δ standard error s.e.) overlap with the (U–Th)/He zircon eruption age (32.7 ± 1.6 ka) within uncertainty. Based on similar 238U-230Th disequilibria between southern Cleft dacite glass separates and young mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) erupted nearby, differentiation must have occurred rapidly, within ~ 10–20 ka at most. Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicates crystallization at 850–900 °C and pressures > 70–150 MPa are calculated from H2O solubility models. These time-temperature constraints translate into a magma cooling rate of ~ 2 × 10-2 °C/a. This rate is at least one order-of-magnitude faster than those calculated for zircon-bearing plutonic rocks from slow spreading ridges. Such short intervals for differentiation and cooling can only be resolved through uranium-series (238U–230Th) decay in young lavas, and are best explained by dissipating heat convectively at high crustal permeability.

  6. BOREAS: Mass Loss Rate of a Cool, Late-type Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Saar, Steven H.

    2011-08-01

    The basic mechanisms responsible for producing winds from cool, late-type stars are still largely unknown. We take inspiration from recent progress in understanding solar wind acceleration to develop a physically motivated model of the time-steady mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars and evolved giants. This model follows the energy flux of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence from a subsurface convection zone to its eventual dissipation and escape through open magnetic flux tubes. We show how Alfven waves and turbulence can produce winds in either a hot corona or a cool extended chromosphere, and we specify the conditions that determine whether or not coronal heating occurs. These models do not utilize arbitrary normalization factors, but instead predict the mass loss rate directly from a star's fundamental properties. We take account of stellar magnetic activity by extending standard age-activity-rotation indicators to include the evolution of the filling factor of strong photospheric magnetic fields. We compared the predicted mass loss rates with observed values for 47 stars and found significantly better agreement than was obtained from the popular scaling laws of Reimers, Schroeder, and Cuntz. The algorithm used to compute cool-star mass loss rates is provided as a self-contained and efficient IDL computer code. We anticipate that the results from this kind of model can be incorporated straightforwardly into stellar evolution calculations and population synthesis techniques.

  7. Testing a Predictive Theoretical Model for the Mass Loss Rates of Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Saar, Steven H.

    2011-11-01

    The basic mechanisms responsible for producing winds from cool, late-type stars are still largely unknown. We take inspiration from recent progress in understanding solar wind acceleration to develop a physically motivated model of the time-steady mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars and evolved giants. This model follows the energy flux of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence from a subsurface convection zone to its eventual dissipation and escape through open magnetic flux tubes. We show how Alfvén waves and turbulence can produce winds in either a hot corona or a cool extended chromosphere, and we specify the conditions that determine whether or not coronal heating occurs. These models do not utilize arbitrary normalization factors, but instead predict the mass loss rate directly from a star's fundamental properties. We take account of stellar magnetic activity by extending standard age-activity-rotation indicators to include the evolution of the filling factor of strong photospheric magnetic fields. We compared the predicted mass loss rates with observed values for 47 stars and found significantly better agreement than was obtained from the popular scaling laws of Reimers, Schröder, and Cuntz. The algorithm used to compute cool-star mass loss rates is provided as a self-contained and efficient computer code. We anticipate that the results from this kind of model can be incorporated straightforwardly into stellar evolution calculations and population synthesis techniques.

  8. The effect of cooling rates on the apparent fragility of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Zach; Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the behavior of the kinetic fragility parameter D* as different cooling rates are applied to samples of the Zr{sub 57}Cu{sub 15.4}Ni{sub 12.6}Al{sub 10}Nb{sub 5} and Zr{sub 58.5}Cu{sub 15.6}Ni{sub 12.8}Al{sub 10.3}Nb{sub 2.8} bulk metallic glass formers. The glassy samples are heated into the supercooled liquid region using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cooled back into the glassy state with sets of different cooling rates, q{sub C}. The shifts in the glass transition are measured by determining the onset glass transition temperature, T{sub g}{sup onset}, as well as the limiting fictive temperature, T{sub f}{sup '}, upon reheating with a set of heating rates, q{sub H}. We then model the data by assuming a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-type behavior in the structural relaxation time, {tau}, and observe an apparent increase in the kinetic fragility parameter for slower cooling rates. These results show that fragilities calculated from DSC scans, where q{sub H}=q{sub C} are in good agreement with those from equilibrium viscosity data recently obtained by three-point beam-bending.

  9. AN EMPIRICAL MEASURE OF THE RATE OF WHITE DWARF COOLING IN 47 TUCANAE

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsbury, R.; Heyl, J.; Richer, H. B.; Woodley, K. A. E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca E-mail: kwoodley@phas.ubc.ca; and others

    2012-11-20

    We present an empirical determination of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Using spectral models, we determine temperatures for 887 objects from Wide Field Camera 3 data, as well as 292 objects from data taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We make the assumption that the rate of white dwarf formation in the cluster is constant. Stellar evolution models are then used to determine the rate at which objects are leaving the main sequence, which must be the same as the rate at which objects are arriving on the white dwarf sequence in our field. The result is an empirically derived relation between temperature (T {sub eff}) and time (t) on the white dwarf cooling sequence. Comparing this result to theoretical cooling models, we find general agreement with the expected slopes between 20,000 K and 30,000 K and between 6000 K and 20,000 K, but the transition to the Mestel cooling rate of T {sub eff}{proportional_to}t {sup -0.4} is found to occur at hotter temperatures, and more abruptly than is predicted by any of these models.

  10. Effect of cooling rate during solidification on the structure of high-speed steel powder particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ershova, L.S.; Smirnov, V.P.

    1985-08-01

    The structure and properties of a P/M high-speed steel form during solidification, hot plastic working, and subsequent heat treatment are the focus here. The character of steel structure variation under the action of high cooling rates during solidification has not yet been sufficiently investigated, therefore it is of interest to study the interrelationship between these factors. An R6M5F3 steel powder was produced by the atomization of molten metal in an apparatus constructed at the Ukranian Scientific-Research Institute of Special Steels, and divided into several fractions. A study was then made of the effect of cooling rate on the phase composition of the steel, degree of alloying of its solid solution and the microstructure and microhardness of the material. As a result of a higher rate of cooling, the amount of metastable M2C carbide inclusions in the structure of P/M R6M5F3 steel increases and the degree of bulk alloying of its grains grows. The increase in the microhardness of powder particles brought about by cooling at a higher rate is due to the formation of finer carbide inclusions during solidification, grain refinement, and an increased degree of alloying of the gamma and alpha solid solutions being formed.

  11. Effect of cooling rate on structural and electromagnetic properties of high-carbon ferrochrome powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-ping; Chen, Jin; Hao, Jiu-jiu; Guo, Li-na; Liu, Jin-ying

    2016-03-01

    The structural and electromagnetic properties of high-carbon ferrochrome powders (HCFCP) obtained at different cooling rates were respectively investigated by means of optical microscope, X-ray diffractometer, electron probe as well as the vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The results show that the cell structure of main phase, (Cr,Fe)7C3, transforms from hexagonal to orthogonal with the improvement of cooling rate. Meanwhile the mass ratio of Cr to Fe in (Cr,Fe)7C3 gradually declines, while that for CrFe goes up. Both the real part and the imaginary part of relative complex permittivity of HCFCP are in an increasing order with cooling rate rising in most frequencies. For comparison, the relative complex permeability presents an opposite changing tendency. The peaks of the imaginary part of relative complex permeability appearing in low and high frequencies are attributed to nature resonance. The reflection loss of HCFCP gradually decreases as cooling rate reduces and frequency enhances. At 2.45 GHz, the algebraic sum of dielectric loss factor and magnetic loss factor increases first and then decreases in the temperature extent from 298 K to 1273 K.

  12. Comparing paleointensity methods: Importance of the cooling-rate effect on microwave estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletti, W.; Hartmann, G. A.; Hill, M. J.; Biggin, A. J.; Trindade, R. I.

    2013-12-01

    The strength of the past Earth's magnetic field can be inferred from the fossil magnetism of rocks and baked archeological materials. Nowadays, three techniques are used which take advantage of the proportionality between the magnetization intensity in these material and the intensity of the ambient field in which they cooled down from high temperatures - the classical Thellier-Thellier method (TT), the Triaxe method (TR) and the Microwave method (MW). In order to compare these methods, we present new MW that are compared to TT and TR paleointensity data previously obtained on well-characterized archeological bricks from Northeast Brazil, and reevaluate MW and TT paleointensity data from Southwestern Pacific islands. We note that the MW paleointensity data on both collections presented a bias towards higher fields when compared to the other double-heating paleointensity estimates. A simple theoretical approach suggests that the MW bias in NE Brazil and SW Pacific is due to a cooling-rate effect on MW estimates. We then corrected theoretically and experimentally the MW cooling-rate effects, increasing dramatically the degree of consistency between the previous and new results (reducing maximum discrepancies in NE Brazil from 25% to 8%, and in SW Pacific from 12% to 5%). Our results demonstrate the equivalence of microwave and thermal procedures despite the different ways in which the energy is transferred into the spin system (electromagnetic and lattice vibrations). Finally, our results on bricks and ceramics indicate very fast cooling-times after MW steps of less than 1 minute when compared to the several hours cooling in the oven during manufacture, highlighting the need for systematic cooling-rate corrections to be applied in MW paleointensity studies in the future.

  13. Numerical model of crustal accretion and cooling rates of fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machetel, P.; Garrido, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    We designed a thermo-mechanical numerical model for fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge with variable viscosity, hydrothermal cooling, latent heat release, sheeted dyke layer, and variable melt intrusion possibilities. The model allows for modulating several accretion possibilities such as the "gabbro glacier" (G), the "sheeted sills" (S) or the "mixed shallow and MTZ lenses" (M). These three crustal accretion modes have been explored assuming viscosity contrasts of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude between strong and weak phases and various hydrothermal cooling conditions depending on the cracking temperatures value. Mass conservation (stream-function), momentum (vorticity) and temperature equations are solved in 2-D cartesian geometry using 2-D, alternate direction, implicit and semi-implicit finite-difference scheme. In a first step, an Eulerian approach is used solving iteratively the motion and temperature equations until reaching steady states. With this procedure, the temperature patterns and motions that are obtained for the various crustal intrusion modes and hydrothermal cooling hypotheses display significant differences near the mid-ocean ridge axis. In a second step, a Lagrangian approach is used, recording the thermal histories and cooling rates of tracers travelling from the ridge axis to their final emplacements in the crust far from the mid-ocean ridge axis. The results show that the tracer's thermal histories are depending on the temperature patterns and the crustal accretion modes near the mid-ocean ridge axis. The instantaneous cooling rates obtained from these thermal histories betray these discrepancies and might therefore be used to characterize the crustal accretion mode at the ridge axis. These deciphering effects are even more pronounced if we consider the average cooling rates occurring over a prescribed temperature range. Two situations were tested at 1275-1125 °C and 1050-850 °C. The first temperature range covers mainly the crystallization range

  14. Hypotheses of calculation of the water flow rate evaporated in a wet cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Bourillot, C.

    1983-08-01

    The method developed by Poppe at the University of Hannover to calculate the thermal performance of a wet cooling tower fill is presented. The formulation of Poppe is then validated using full-scale test data from a wet cooling tower at the power station at Neurath, Federal Republic of Germany. It is shown that the Poppe method predicts the evaporated water flow rate almost perfectly and the condensate content of the warm air with good accuracy over a wide range of ambient conditions. The simplifying assumptions of the Merkel theory are discussed, and the errors linked to these assumptions are systematically described, then illustrated with the test data.

  15. The relationship between sperm quality in cool-shipped semen and embryo recovery rate in horses.

    PubMed

    Love, C C; Noble, J K; Standridge, S A; Bearden, C T; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D; Cavinder, C A

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the quality of cool-shipped stallion semen and fertility has not been adequately described. This study evaluated sperm quality of cool-shipped semen from 459 ejaculates (N = 130 stallions) that were used for insemination of 196 embryo donor mares (n = 496 estrous cycles). Embryo recovery rate (ERR; %) increased, as all sperm measures (e.g., motility, viability, DNA quality, morphology, concentration, and total number) increased. Threshold values are reported for each sperm quality measure (e.g., total sperm motility ≥ 65%) that separate two ERR groups (e.g., average: ∼50% ERR; high: ∼65% ERR).

  16. Sperm cryopreservation of the Indian major carp, Labeo calbasu: effects of cryoprotectants, cooling rates and thawing rates on egg fertilization.

    PubMed

    Nahiduzzaman, Md; Hassan, Md Mahbubul; Roy, Pankoz Kumar; Hossain, Md Akhtar; Hossain, Mostafa Ali Reza; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-12-01

    A sperm cryopreservation protocol for the Indian major carp, Labeo calbasu, was developed for long-term preservation and artificial fertilization. Milt collected from mature male fish were placed in Alsever's solution (296mOsmolkg(-1)) to immobilize the sperm. Cryoprotectant toxicity was evaluated by motility assessment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol at 5, 10 and 15% concentrations. DMSO was more toxic at higher concentrations than methanol, and consequently 15% DMSO was excluded from further study. A one-step cooling protocol (from 5 to 80°C) with two cooling rates (5 and 10°C/min) was carried out in a computer-controlled freezer (FREEZE CONTROL(®) CL-3300; Australia). Based on post-thaw motility, the 10°C/min cooling rate with either 10% DMSO or 10% methanol yielded significantly higher (P=0.011) post-thaw motility than the other rate and cryoprotectant concentrations. Sperm thawed at 40°C for 15s and fresh sperm were used to fertilize freshly collected L. calbasu eggs and significant differences were observed (P=0.001) in percent fertilization between cryopreserved and fresh sperm as well as among different sperm-to-egg ratios (P=0.001). The highest fertilization and hatching rates were observed for thawed sperm at a sperm-to-egg ratio of 4.1×10(5):1. The cryopreservation protocol developed can facilitate hatchery operations and long-term conservation of genetic resources of L. calbasu.

  17. Effect of cooling rate on solidification of Al-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbagi, A.; Delshad Khatibi, P.; Henein, H.; Lengsdorf, R.; Herlach, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Particles of Al-Ni alloys with different compositions (Al-50 wt-% Ni and Al-36 wt-% Ni) were produced using a drop tube-impulse system, known as Impulse Atomization. The microstructure of these rapidly solidified particles was compared with those solidified in a DSC at low cooling rates (0.083 and 0.33 K/sec). Also, the microstructure of the sample solidified in microgravity on-board of the TEXUS 44 sounding rocket was analyzed. Neutron diffraction was used to investigate the phases formed during different solidification processes. From SEM micrographs and neutron diffraction it was found that the inner parts of the TEXUS sample and the sample that was cooled at 0.083 K/sec contain almost no eutectic structure. The outer rim of the TEXUS sample showed the highest amount of Al3Ni and lowest amount of Al3Ni2 Increasing the cooling rate from 0.083 to 0.33 K/sec increased the Al3Ni/Al3Ni2 ratio. Opposite trend was observed in the impulse-atomized particles, where increasing the cooling rate decreased the Al3Ni/Al3Ni2 ratio.

  18. Cooling rate dependence of simulated Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryltsev, R. E.; Klumov, B. A.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Shunyaev, K. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom model potential, we study structural evolution of Cu64.5Zr35.5 alloy during the cooling in a wide range of cooling rates γ ∈ (1.5 ṡ 109, 1013) K/s. Investigating short- and medium-range orders, we show that the structure of Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass essentially depends on cooling rate. In particular, a decrease of the cooling rate leads to an increase of abundances of both the icosahedral-like clusters and Frank-Kasper Z16 polyhedra. The amounts of these clusters in the glassy state drastically increase at the γmin = 1.5 ṡ 109 K/s. Analysing the structure of the glass at γmin, we observe the formation of nano-sized crystalline grain of Cu2Zr intermetallic compound with the structure of Cu2Mg Laves phase. The structure of this compound is isomorphous with that for Cu5Zr intermetallic compound. Both crystal lattices consist of two types of clusters: Cu-centered 13-atom icosahedral-like cluster and Zr-centered 17-atom Frank-Kasper polyhedron Z16. That suggests the same structural motifs for the metallic glass and intermetallic compounds of Cu-Zr system and explains the drastic increase of the abundances of these clusters observed at γmin.

  19. Cooling rate dependence of simulated Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass structure.

    PubMed

    Ryltsev, R E; Klumov, B A; Chtchelkatchev, N M; Shunyaev, K Yu

    2016-07-21

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom model potential, we study structural evolution of Cu64.5Zr35.5 alloy during the cooling in a wide range of cooling rates γ ∈ (1.5 ⋅ 10(9), 10(13)) K/s. Investigating short- and medium-range orders, we show that the structure of Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass essentially depends on cooling rate. In particular, a decrease of the cooling rate leads to an increase of abundances of both the icosahedral-like clusters and Frank-Kasper Z16 polyhedra. The amounts of these clusters in the glassy state drastically increase at the γmin = 1.5 ⋅ 10(9) K/s. Analysing the structure of the glass at γmin, we observe the formation of nano-sized crystalline grain of Cu2Zr intermetallic compound with the structure of Cu2Mg Laves phase. The structure of this compound is isomorphous with that for Cu5Zr intermetallic compound. Both crystal lattices consist of two types of clusters: Cu-centered 13-atom icosahedral-like cluster and Zr-centered 17-atom Frank-Kasper polyhedron Z16. That suggests the same structural motifs for the metallic glass and intermetallic compounds of Cu-Zr system and explains the drastic increase of the abundances of these clusters observed at γmin.

  20. Effect of cooling rate on shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to a zirconia ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Komine, Futoshi; Saito, Ayako; Kobayashi, Kazuhisa; Koizuka, Mai; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooling rates after firing procedures of veneering porcelain on shear bond strength between veneering porcelain and a zirconium dioxide (zirconia; ZrO₂) ceramic material. A total of 48 ZrO₂ disks were divided equally into three groups. Two veneering porcelains that are recommended for ZrO₂ material - Cerabien ZR (CZR), IPS e.max Ceram (EMX) - and one that is recommended for metal ceramics - Super Porcelain AAA (AAA) were assessed. Each group was then further divided into two subgroups (n = 8) according to cooling time (0 or 4 min) after porcelain firing. Specimens were fabricated by veneering the porcelain on the ZrO₂ disks, after which shear bond testing was conducted. Bond strength differed significantly by cooling time in ZrO₂-AAA (P < 0.001) and ZrO₂-EMX (P = 0.001) specimens. There was no significant difference in shear bond strength with respect to cooling time in ZrO₂-CZR specimens (P = 0.382). The duration of cooling from firing temperature to room temperature may affect the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to a zirconia material depending on porcelain material used.

  1. Tolerance of brown bear spermatozoa to conditions of pre-freezing cooling rate and equilibration time.

    PubMed

    López-Urueña, E; Alvarez, M; Gomes-Alves, S; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragan, S; Anel-López, L; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2014-06-01

    Specific protocols for the cryopreservation of endangered Cantabrian brown bear spermatozoa are critical to create a genetic resource bank. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cooling rates and equilibration time before freezing on post-thawed brown bear spermatozoa quality. Electroejaculates from 11 mature bears were extended to 100 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL in a TES-Tris-Fructose-based extender, cryopreserved following performance of the respective cooling/equilibration protocol each sample was assigned to, and stored at -196 °C for further assessment. Before freezing, after thawing, and after 1 hour's incubation post-thawing at 37 °C (thermal stress test), the quality of the samples was assessed for motility by computer-assisted semen analysis, and for viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide), acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate /propidium iodide), and sperm chromatin stability (SCSA) by flow cytometry. In experiment 1, three cooling rates (0.25 °C/min, 1 °C/min, and 4 °C/min) to 5 °C were assessed. After thawing, total motility (%TM) was higher and percentage of damaged acrosomes (%dACR) was lower (P < 0.05) for 0.25 °C/min than for 4 °C/min. The thermal stress test data indicated equally poor quality (P < 0.05) for the 4 °C/min cooled samples in viability (%VIAB), %dACR, %TM, and progressive motility (%PM). In experiment 2, the effect of a pre-freezing equilibration period at 5 °C for 1 hour (cooling at 0.25 °C/min) was evaluated. Samples kept at 5 °C for 1 hour showed higher (P < 0.05) values than the nonequilibrated ones for both thawing (%dACR) and thermal stress test (%VIAB, %TM, and %PM). In experiment 3, samples stored without cooling and equilibration (direct freezing) were compared with the samples cooled at 0.25 °C/min and equilibrated for 1 hour (control freezing). Using thermal stress test, we observed that direct freezing causes damage in viability, acrosomal status, and motility of spermatozoa

  2. Is intracellular ice formation the cause of death of mouse sperm frozen at high cooling rates?

    PubMed

    Mazur, Peter; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2002-05-01

    Mouse spermatozoa in 18% raffinose and 3.8% Oxyrase in 0.25 x PBS exhibit high motilities when frozen to -70 degrees C at 20-130 degrees C/min and then rapidly warmed. However, survival is <10% when they are frozen at 260 or 530 degrees C/min, presumably because, at those high rates, intracellular water cannot leave rapidly enough to prevent extensive supercooling and this supercooling leads to nucleation and freezing in situ (intracellular ice formation [IIF]). The probability of IIF as a function of cooling rate can be computed by coupled differential equations that describe the extent of the loss of cell water during freezing and from knowledge of the temperature at which the supercooled protoplasm of the cell can nucleate. Calculation of the kinetics of dehydration requires values for the hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of the cell and for its activation energy (Ea). Using literature values for these parameters in mouse sperm, we calculated curves of water volume versus temperature for four cooling rates between 250 and 2000 degrees C/min. The intracellular nucleation temperature was inferred to be -20 degrees C or above based on the greatly reduced motilities of sperm that underwent rapid cooling to a minimum temperature of between -20 and -70 degrees C. Combining that information regarding nucleation temperature with the computed dehydration curves leads to the conclusion that intracellular freezing should occur only in cells that are cooled at 2000 degrees C/min and not in cells that are cooled at 250-1000 degrees C/min. The calculated rate of 2000 degrees C/min for IIF is approximately eightfold higher than the experimentally inferred value of 260 degrees C/min. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.

  3. Cooling rates and crystallization dynamics of shallow level pegmatite-aplite dikes, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webber, Karen L.; Simmons, William B.; Falster, Alexander U.; Foord, Eugene E.

    1999-01-01

    Pegmatites of the Pala and Mesa Grande Pegmatite Districts, San Diego County, California are typically thin, sheet-like composite pegmatite-aplite dikes. Aplitic portions of many dikes display pronounced mineralogical layering referred to as "line rock," characterized by fine-grained, garnet-rich bands alternating with albite- and quartz-rich bands. Thermal modeling was performed for four dikes in San Diego County including the 1 m thick Himalaya dike, the 2 m thick Mission dike, the 8 m thick George Ashley dike, and the 25 m thick Stewart dike. Calculations were based on conductive cooling equations accounting for latent heat of crystallization, a melt emplacement temperature of 650 °C into 150 °C fractured, gabbroic country rock at a depth of 5 km, and an estimated 3 wt% initial H2O content in the melt. Cooling to -5 cm/s. Crystal size distribution (CSD) studies of garnet from layered aplites suggest growth rates of about 10-6 cm/s. These results indicate that the dikes cooled and crystallized rapidly, with variable nucleation rates but high overall crystal-growth rates. Initial high nucleation rates coincident with emplacement and strong undercooling can account for the millimeter-size aplite grains. Lower nucleation rates coupled with high growth rates can explain the decimeter-size minerals in the hanging walls, cores, and miarolitic cavities of the pegmatites. The presence of tourmaline and/or lepidolite throughout these dikes suggests that although the melts were initially H2O-undersaturated, high melt concentrations of incompatible (or fluxing) components such as B, F, and Li (±H2O), aided in the development of large pegmatitic crystals that grew rapidly in the short times suggested by the conductive cooling models.

  4. Geomagnetic superchrons and time variations in the cooling rate of the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos are used to explore the relationship between geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, and time variations in the rate of the cooling of the core. We develop a parameterization of the average reversal frequency from numerical dynamos in terms of the core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit of this parameterization to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reversed Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic GPTS imply a core heat flux approximately 20% higher than at present-day. Low heat flux and slow cooling of the core inferred during the Kiaman Reversed Polarity Superchron is qualitatively consistent with predictions from mantle global circulation models (mantle GCMs) that show a reduction in mantle convective activity during the time of Pangea, whereas these same mantle GCMs and most plate motion reconstructions predict fast core cooling during the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron, suggesting that the cooling rate of the core is not generally in phase with variations in plate motions.

  5. Cooling rate of an active Hawaiian lava flow from nighttime spectroradiometer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Luke P.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    A narrow-band spectroradiometer has been used to make nighttime measurements of the Phase 50 eruption of Pu'u O'o, on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. On February 19, 1992, a GER spectroradiometer was used to determine the cooling rate of an active lava flow. This instrument collects 12-bit data between 0.35 to 3.0 microns at a spectral resolution of 1-5 nm. Thirteen spectra of a single area on a pahoehoe flow field were collected over a 59 minute period (21:27-22:26 HST) from which the cooling of the lava surface has been investigated. A two-component thermal mixing model (Flynn, 1992) applied to data for the flow immediately on emplacement gave a best-fit crustal temperature of 768 C, a hot component at 1150 C, and a hot radiating area of 3.6 percent of the total area. Over a 52-minute period (within the time interval between flow resurfacings) the lava flow crust cooled by 358 to 410 C at a rate that was as high as 15 C/min. The observations have significance both for satellite observations of active volcanoes and for numerical models of the cooling of lava flows during their emplacement.

  6. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure of Laser-Remelted INCONEL 718 Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaocheng; Li, Zhuguo; Nie, Pulin; Wu, Yixiong

    2013-12-01

    The rapid cooling rate was achieved during laser remelting with high scanning speed. The microstructure and precipitations in the INCONEL 718 remelted layer were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and solid phase microextraction (SPME). The phase transition temperatures were carried out by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results showed that columnar-dendritic and equiaxial structures appeared in different regions of the remelted layer. The dendritic spacing of the columnar dendrite and equiaxed grain size decreased with increasing scanning speed. The precipitations in the remelted layer consisted of Laves, granular phase, and a small quantity of quadrangular nitride (Ti, Nb)N. The granular phase Nb(Al, Ti) was precipitated at about 1272 K (999 °C) with the spontaneous decomposition of the supersaturation Laves during the cooling stage, and the small-size granule became coarsened to 0.2 to 0.9 μm during the cooling stage. The noncoherent relationship existed between the granular phase and austenite, and the coarsening of granule was related to the cube root of the diffusion coefficient, interfacial energy, and diffusion time. The microhardness of the remelted layer was increased by increasing the cooling rate due to the Nb atomic solid solution strengthening caused by the distorted elastic stress field and the short-range internal stress.

  7. Diffusion kinetics of samarium and neodymium in garnet, and a method for determining cooling rates of rocks

    PubMed

    Ganguly; Tirone; Hervig

    1998-08-07

    Experimental determinations of the diffusion coefficients of samarium and neodymium in almandine garnet and theoretical considerations show that one cannot assign a sufficiently restricted range of closure temperature, TC, to the samarium-neodymium decay system in garnet for the purpose of constraining the cooling rate. However, it is shown that the samarium-neodymium cooling age of garnet can be used to calculate both cooling rate and TC if the temperature and age at the peak metamorphic conditions are known.

  8. A potential metallographic technique for the investigation of pipe bombings.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Graham A; Inal, Osman T; Romero, Van D

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to develop a metallographic method for the investigation of pipe bombings. Three common pipe materials, ASTM A53 steel, AISI 304L stainless steel, and 6061-T6 aluminum, were shock-loaded using five high explosives and three propellants. The explosives used were ANFO, Composition C4, C6 detasheet, nitroglycerine-based dynamite, and flake TNT. The propellants used were FFFFg black powder. Red Dot smokeless powder, and Turbo Fuel A. The post-blast microstructure, hardness, and, in the case of 304L, transformed martensite content were examined for each test. The damage done to the microstructure was found to increase with increasing detonation velocity of the explosives and increase in pressure generated by the shock-metal interaction. Material hardness and, in the case of 304L, martensite content showed a sharp increase followed by a plateau as the shock pressure and detonation velocity increased.

  9. A Specially Constructed Metallograph for Use at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Joe E; Buchele, Donald R; Long, Roger A

    1951-01-01

    A Metallographic microscope was developed with provision for heating a specimen to 1800 F in protective atmospheres, that is, vacuum or gas. A special objective was constructed of reflecting elements with an unusually long working distance (7/16 in.) and a high numerical aperture (0.5). Changes in specimen microstructure were observed and recorded on 35-millimeter motion-picture film. The resulting pictures were projected as motion pictures and individual frames were cut and enlargements made for close observation. Structural changes upon heating a 0.35-percent annealed carbon steel and a 5-percent tin phosphor bronze specimen were observed and recorded. Newly formed microstructure were revealed by selective vacuum etching and specimen relief resulting from recrystallization and varying grain orientation.

  10. Long-term stability of global erosion rates and weathering during late-Cenozoic cooling.

    PubMed

    Willenbring, Jane K; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2010-05-13

    Over geologic timescales, CO(2) is emitted from the Earth's interior and is removed from the atmosphere by silicate rock weathering and organic carbon burial. This balance is thought to have stabilized greenhouse conditions within a range that ensured habitable conditions. Changes in this balance have been attributed to changes in topographic relief, where varying rates of continental rock weathering and erosion are superimposed on fluctuations in organic carbon burial. Geological strata provide an indirect yet imperfectly preserved record of this change through changing rates of sedimentation. Widespread observations of a recent (0-5-Myr) fourfold increase in global sedimentation rates require a global mechanism to explain them. Accelerated uplift and global cooling have been given as possible causes, but because of the links between rates of erosion and the correlated rate of weathering, an increase in the drawdown of CO(2) that is predicted to follow may be the cause of global climate change instead. However, globally, rates of uplift cannot increase everywhere in the way that apparent sedimentation rates do. Moreover, proxy records of past atmospheric CO(2) provide no evidence for this large reduction in recent CO(2) concentrations. Here we question whether this increase in global weathering and erosion actually occurred and whether the apparent increase in the sedimentation rate is due to observational biases in the sedimentary record. As evidence, we recast the ocean dissolved (10)Be/(9)Be isotope system as a weathering proxy spanning the past approximately 12 Myr (ref. 14). This proxy indicates stable weathering fluxes during the late-Cenozoic era. The sum of these observations shows neither clear evidence for increased erosion nor clear evidence for a pulse in weathered material to the ocean. We conclude that processes different from an increase in denudation caused Cenozoic global cooling, and that global cooling had no profound effect on spatially and

  11. Reassessing the cooling rate and geologic setting of Martian meteorites MIL 03346 and NWA 817

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Frank; Chaussidon, Marc; Mendybaev, Ruslan; Kite, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Lithium concentration and isotopic fractionation profiles across augite grains from two Martian meteorites - MIL 03346 and NWA 817 - were used to determine their thermal history and implications for their geologic setting. The iron-magnesium zoning and associated magnesium isotopic fractionation of olivine grains from NWA 817 were also measured and provide a separate estimate of the cooling rate. The observed correlation of concentration with isotopic fractionation provides the essential evidence that the zoning of these grains was in fact due to diffusion and thus can be used as a measure of their cooling rate. The diffusion rate of lithium in augite depends on the oxygen fugacity, which has to be taken into account when determining a cooling rate based on the lithium zoning. The Fe-Mg exchange in olivine is much less sensitive to oxygen fugacity, but it is significantly anisotropic and for this reason we determined the direction relative to crystallographic axes of the line along which the Fe-Mg zoning was measured. We found that the cooling rate of NWA 817 determined from the lithium zoning in augite grains and that based on the Fe-Mg zoning of olivines are in good agreement at an oxygen fugacity close to that of quartz-fayalite-magnetite oxygen buffer. The cooling rate of MIL 03346 was found to be resolvably faster than that of NWA 817 - of the order of 1 °C/h for the former and of the order of 0.2 °C/h for the latter. An important observation regarding the history of MIL 03346 and NWA 817 is that the lithium and Fe-Mg zoning are only observed where the augite or olivine is in contact with the mesostasis, which implies that they were already about 80% crystallized at the time diffusion began. The augite and olivine core compositions while very homogeneous are not in equilibrium with each other, which we interpret to imply that prior to the rapid cooling there must have been a protracted period of the order of years above the solidus, during which the much

  12. A New DTA Method for Measuring Critical Cooling Rate for Glass Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.; Reis, Signo T.; Brow, Richard K.; Holand, Wolfram; Rheinberger, Volker

    2004-01-01

    A new differential thermal analysis (DTA) experimental method has been developed to determine the critical cooling rate for glass formation, R(sub c). The method, which is found especially suitable for melts that, upon cooling, have a small heat of crystallization or a very slow crystallization rate, has been verified using a 38Na2O-62SiO2 (mol%) melt with a known R(sub c) (-approx. 19 C/min), then used to determine R(sub c) for two complex lithium silicate glass forming melts. The new method is rapid, easy to conduct and yields values for R(sub c) that are in excellent agreement with the R(sub c)-values measured by standard DTA techniques.

  13. A New DTA Method for Measuring Critical Cooling Rate for Glass Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.; Reis, Signo T.; Brow, Richard K.; Holand, Wolfram; Rheinberger, Volker

    2004-01-01

    A new differential thermal analysis (DTA) experimental method has been developed to determine the critical cooling rate for glass formation, R(sub c). The method, which is found especially suitable for melts that, upon cooling, have a small heat of crystallization or a very slow crystallization rate, has been verified using a 38Na2O-62SiO2 (mol%) melt with a known R(sub c) (-approx. 19 C/min), then used to determine R(sub c) for two complex lithium silicate glass forming melts. The new method is rapid, easy to conduct and yields values for R(sub c) that are in excellent agreement with the R(sub c)-values measured by standard DTA techniques.

  14. Survival of Plant Tissue at Super-Low Temperature VI. Effects of Cooling and Rewarming Rates on Survival.

    PubMed

    Sakai, A; Yoshida, S

    1967-12-01

    The survival rates of the cortical parenchymal cells of mulberry tree were determined as a function of cooling and rewarming rates. When cooling was carried out slowly at 1 degrees to 15 degrees per minute, all of the cells still remained viable even when rewarmed either rapidly or slowly. Survival rates gradually decreased to zero as the cooling rate increased from about 15 degrees to 2000 degrees per minute. In the intermediate cooling rates, when the cells were cooled at the rates lower than 14 degrees per minute, from -2.2 degrees to about -10 degrees , these cells could survive subsequent rapid cooling and rewarming.However, at cooling rates above 1000 degrees per minute and with rapid rewarming, the effect of cooling rate reversed and survival increased, reaching a maximum at about 200,000 degrees per minute. As the cooling rate increased above 15 degrees per minute, survival rates became increasingly dependent on the rewarming rate, with rapid rewarming becoming less deleterious than slow rewarming.The temperature range at which damage occurred during rewarming following removal from liquid nitrogen and in which growth rate of ice crystallization was greatest, was -30 degrees to -40 degrees . The survival rates even in the prefrozen cells at -30 degrees decreased considerably by keeping them at -30 degrees for 10 minutes after removal from liquid nitrogen. This fact indicates that intracellular freezable water remains to some degree even in the prefrozen cells at -30 degrees . After removal from liquid nitrogen, all cells retained their viability, when they were passed rapidly through a temperature range between -50 degrees and -2.5 degrees within about 2 seconds, namely at the rates greater than 1000 degrees per minute.These observations are explained in terms of the size of the crystals formed within the cortical cells.

  15. Theoretical estimation of the radiative cooling rate in the Jovian troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuto; Hashimoto, George L.; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Onishi, Masanori; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    Jupiter exhibits characteristic cloud activities but their physical mechanism remains poorly understood. Recently, Sugiyama et al. (2014) demonstrated that the Jovian cloud convection may have a significant intermittency in the generation of cumulonimbus clouds with the typical interval length controlled by the radiative cooling rate in the upper troposphere. In spite of such importance as a controlling factor of cloud activity, the tropospheric radiative cooling rate profile has never been systematically quantified for the Jovian system. In the Jovian troposphere, condensable species (NH3, H2S, H2O) and their condensates might significantly contribute to radiative transfer.Here we show numerical estimates of radiative cooling rate profile under Jovian troposphere condition by using our non-gray radiative transfer model that contains optical properties of gas species (H2, He, H2O, CH4, NH3, H2S, and PH3) and cloud layers made of H2O, NH4SH, and NH3 ice particles. The temperature profile is determined by the radiative-convective equilibrium state satisfying an observed potential temperature of Jovian troposphere. The mean vertical distributions of gas and cloud are given on the basis of the latest hydrodynamic simulation of Jovian cloud convection (Sugiyama et al., 2014) and cosmochemical consideration.The modeled atmosphere has the tropopause at ~0.38 bar level. The radiative cooling rate reaches the maximum 15 x 10-3 K/Jovian day at ~0.5 bar level, then decreases with depth and approaches zero below 5 bar level. This profile is largely determined by the thermal absorption and emission due to gaseous NH3 and H2 with a slight modification by solar heating due to CH4. The cloud layers are found to have only a weak effect on either radiative cooling or heating because their opacities in the longwave radiation are estimated to be very small, which agrees with the observed 5-micron spectrum with high brightness temperatures. The uncertainty in H2O abundance in deep

  16. Improvement of a Simple and Cost-Effective Passive Cooling Rate-Controlled Device for Cell/Tissue Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Jianye; Zhou, Xiaoming; Peng, Ji; Zhang, Zhengliang; Shen, Lingxiao; Gao, Frankliu; Cao, Yunxia

    2017-08-22

    The currently used commercial cooling-rate control device is the liquid nitrogen controlled rate freezer (LNF), which has some shortcomings such as high cost, high liquid nitrogen consumption, and potential operational risks in quality control. Based on thermophysical properties of new materials, we improved, manufactured, and optimized a reliable yet simple device named the "passive cooling rate-controlled device (PCD)" with real-time temperature tracing. In this study, using the improved PCD we cryopreserved human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and compared the results with a standard commercial CryoMed LNF. The temperature profiles and cooling rates of the HUVEC samples in a cryopreservation solution (with dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] in 10% v/v concentration) were measured and automatically recorded by the PCD during the controlled cooling process. This study and experimental results showed that the HUVEC survival rates after cryopreservation using the PCD have no significant difference from those using the CryoMed LNF and that the improved PCD is a user-friendly, reliable, and low-cost device to ensure an optimal slow cooling rate ranging from -0.5 to -1°C/min for the cryopreservation. Considering the advantages of low cost, durability, reliability, and no liquid nitrogen consumption for the cooling process, it is concluded that the PCD is an excellent controlled cooling device to achieve a desired optimal cooling rate for cell/tissue cryopreservation.

  17. Cooling Rate Study of Nickel-Rich Material During Thermal Treatment and Quench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Fransua; Murguia, Silvia Briseno (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    To investigate quench cracking that results from water quenching after heat treatment of binary and Ni-rich material, cooling rates of specimens were measured during quenching and hardness post-thermal treatment. For specific applications binary Ni-Ti is customarily thermally treated and quenched to attain desired mechanical properties and hardness. However, one problem emerging from this method is thermal cracking, either during the heat treatment process or during the specimen's application. This can result in material and equipment failure as well as financial losses. The objective of the study is to investigate the internal cooling rate of 60-NiTi during quenching and determine possible factors causing thermal cracking. Cubic (1 in.3) samples of both material were heat treated in air at 1000 deg C for 2 hrs and quenched in room temperature water using two methods: (1) dropped in the water and (2) agitated in the water. Hardness of the two fore-mentioned methods was measured post heat treatment. Results indicate that the quenching method had an effect on cooling rate during quenching but hardness was observed to be essentially the same through the thickness of the samples.

  18. Effect of cooling rate on mechanical properties of carbon fibre fabric and polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Seok; Kim, Jong Won

    2017-09-01

    In this study, thermoplastic composites were fabricated using carbon fibre fabric and polypropylene. The effects of the cooling rate, which is a process parameter, on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The degree of crystallinity, tensile properties, flexural properties, drop-weight impact, interlaminar fracture toughness, and fracture surface of the fabricated composites were investigated for composites prepared at cooling rates of 0.6, 1.1, 3.2, and 7.1 °C min‑1. The increase in the cooling rate during composite fabrication was found to decrease the stiffness of the composite because the degree of crystallinity of the matrix decreased. In addition, the tensile and flexural properties were somewhat reduced, but the energy absorption and fracture toughness were significantly increased owing to the increased ductility. Therefore, the results of this study can be applied to material-design scenarios in which the tensile and flexural properties are somewhat reduced, but high damage tolerance is required in composite material.

  19. Influence of cooling rates and addition of Equex pasta on cooled and frozen-thawed semen of generic gray (Canis lupus) and Mexican gray wolves (C. l. baileyi).

    PubMed

    Zindl, C; Asa, C S; Günzel-Apel, A-R

    2006-10-01

    A current priority for the preservation of the endangered Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) is the development of a sperm-based genome resource bank for subsequent use in artificial insemination. To optimize the quality of cryopreserved sperm, the procedures involved in processing semen before and during freezing need to be improved. The aim of this study were to examine the effects of: (i) different cooling periods before freezing and (ii) addition of Equex pasta (Minitüb, Tübingen, Germany) on the characteristics of sperm from the generic gray wolf and the Mexican gray wolf after cooling and cryopreservation. For Mexican wolf sperm, cooling for 0.5 and 1.0 h had a less detrimental effect on cell morphology than cooling for 2.5 h, whereas the slower cooling rate (2.5 h) had a less detrimental effect on functional parameters and seemed to cause less damage to plasma membrane and acrosome integrity than 0.5 and 1.0 h. For the generic gray wolf, cooling semen for 2.5 h had less detrimental effect on plasma membrane integrity and viability; together with the 0.5 h cooling time, it yielded the highest percentages of intact acrosomes. As previously shown in the domestic dog, Equex pasta had no beneficial effect on sperm characteristics in either wolf species.

  20. Reflective Blankets Do Not Effect Cooling Rates after Running in Hot, Humid Conditions.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kory A; Evanich, John J; Eberman, Lindsey E

    Reflective blankets (RB) are often provided at the conclusion of endurance events, even in extreme environments. The implications could be dangerous if increased core body temperature (CBT) is exacerbated by RB. To evaluate the effect of RB on cooling rate for individuals walking or sitting after intense running. Pilot, randomized control trial experimental design. Environmental chamber. Recreational runners (age=25±5y; mass=76.8±16.7kg; height=177±9cm) completed an 8km (actual mean distance=7.5±1.1km). We randomly assigned participants into one of four groups: walking with blanket (WB=5), walking without blanket (WNB=5), sitting with blanket (SB=5), or sitting without blanket (SNB=4). Participants ran on a treadmill at their own pace until volitional exhaustion, achieving the 8km distance, or experiencing CBT=40°C. Every three minutes during the running (time determined by pace) and cooling protocol (62 min in chamber), we measured CBT, HR, and Borg scale, and environmental conditions. We evaluated cooling rate, peak physiological variables, pace, and environment by condition using a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric one-way ANOVAs. We identified similar exercise sessions (df=3; CBT χ(2)=0.921, p=0.82; HR χ(2)=7.446, p=0.06; Borg χ(2)= 5.732, p=0.13; pace χ(2)=0.747, p=0.86) and similar environmental characteristics between conditions (df=3; Wet Bulb Globe Temperature=26.18±2.78°C, χ(2)=1.552, p=0.67). No significant differences between conditions on cooling rate (df=3, χ(2)=2.301, p=0.512) were found, suggesting RBs neither cool nor heat the body, whether seated (SB=0.021±0.011deg/min; SNB=0.029±0.002deg/min) or walking (WB=0.015±0.025deg/min; WNB=0.021±0.011deg/min) in a hot, humid environment. CBT in distance runners is not altered by the use of a RB during a seated or walking cool down after a strenuous run.

  1. Effect of cooling-heating rate on sol-gel transformation of fish gelatin-gum arabic complex coacervate phase.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Mohammad; Chung, Donghwa

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize influence of different cooling and heating rates on gelation of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervate phase using rheological measurements. For the coacervate phase prepared at 10°C, the gelling temperature, melting temperature, gel strength, and stress relaxation decreased with increasing cooling or heating rate, however, no gelation was observed at the highest cooling rate of 0.05°C/min. Similar trends were obtained for the coacervates phase prepared at 30°C, but the gelation did not occur at a cooling rate of 0.033 or 0.05°C/min. The results indicated that rheological properties of FG-GA coacervate gels were highly dependent to the cooling process, where more thermos-stable and stronger gels formed at slower cooling. This was probably because of higher degree of molecular rearrangements, more hydrogen bindings, and formation of greater junction zones into the gel network at slower cooling rates. However, all of the FG-GA coacervate gels obtained at different cooling rates were classified as a weak physical gel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cooling rate effects on thermal, structural, and microstructural properties of bio-hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Gutierrez, Cristian F; Palechor-Ocampo, Anderzon F; Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Millán-Malo, Beatriz M; Rodriguez-García, Mario E

    2016-02-01

    This article is focused on the study of cooling rate effects on the thermal, structural, and microstructural properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from bovine bone. A three-step process was used to obtain BIO-HAp: hydrothermal, calcinations, and cooling. Calcined samples in a furnace and cooling in air (HAp-CAir), water (HAp-CW), and liquid nitrogen (HAp-CN2), as well as an air cooled sample inside the furnace (HAp-CFAir), were studied. According to this study, the low cooling rate that was achieved for air cooled samples inside the furnace produce single crystal BIO-HAp with better crystalline quality; other samples exhibited polycrystalline structures forming micron and submicron grains. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of an intelligent system for cooling rate and fill control in GMAW

    SciTech Connect

    Einerson, C.J.; Smartt, H.B.; Johnson, J.A.; Taylor, P.L.; Moore, K.L.

    1992-09-01

    A control strategy for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is developed in which the welding system detects certain existing conditions and adjusts the process in accordance to pre-specified rules. This strategy is used to control the reinforcement and weld bead centerline cooling rate during welding. Relationships between heat and mass transfer rates to the base metal and the required electrode speed and welding speed for specific open circuit voltages are taught to a artificial neural network. Control rules are programmed into a fuzzy logic system. TRADITOINAL CONTROL OF THE GMAW PROCESS is based on the use of explicit welding procedures detailing allowable parameter ranges on a pass by pass basis for a given weld. The present work is an exploration of a completely different approach to welding control. In this work the objectives are to produce welds having desired weld bead reinforcements while maintaining the weld bead centerline cooling rate at preselected values. The need for this specific control is related to fabrication requirements for specific types of pressure vessels. The control strategy involves measuring weld joint transverse cross-sectional area ahead of the welding torch and the weld bead centerline cooling rate behind the weld pool, both by means of video (2), calculating the required process parameters necessary to obtain the needed heat and mass transfer rates (in appropriate dimensions) by means of an artificial neural network, and controlling the heat transfer rate by means of a fuzzy logic controller (3). The result is a welding machine that senses the welding conditions and responds to those conditions on the basis of logical rules, as opposed to producing a weld based on a specific procedure.

  4. Elastocaloric cooling processes: The influence of material strain and strain rate on efficiency and temperature span

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Marvin; Schütze, Andreas; Seelecke, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the influence of material strain and strain rate on efficiency and temperature span of elastocaloric cooling processes. The elastocaloric material, a newly developed quaternary Ni-Ti-Cu-V alloy, is characterized at different maximum strains and strain rates. The experiments are performed with a specially designed test setup, which enables the measurement of mechanical and thermal process parameters. The material efficiency is compared to the efficiency of the Carnot process at equivalent thermal operation conditions. This method allows for a direct comparison of the investigated material with other caloric materials.

  5. Size distribution of inclusions in 12%Cr stainless steel with a wide range of solidification cooling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Han-song; Li, Jian-guo

    2015-11-01

    The effect of solidification cooling rate on the size and distribution of inclusions in 12%Cr stainless steel was investigated. A wide range of solidification cooling rates (from 0.05 to 106 K·s-1) was achieved using various solidification processes, including conventional casting, laser remelting, and melt spinning. The size and distribution of inclusions in the steel were observed and statistically collected. For comparison, mathematical models were used to calculate the sizes of inclusions at different solidification cooling rates. Both the statistical size determined from observations and that predicted from calculations tended to decrease with increasing cooling rate; however, the experimental and calculated results did not agree well with each other at excessively high or low cooling rate. The reasons for this discrepancy were theoretically analyzed. For the size distribution of inclusions, the effect of cooling rate on the number densities of large-sized (> 2 μm) inclusions and small-sized (≤ 2 μm) inclusions were distinct. The number density of inclusions larger than 1 µm was not affected when the cooing rate was less than or equal to 6 K·s-1 because inclusion precipitation was suppressed by the increased cooling rate.

  6. In Situ Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction during Solidification of Mg15Gd: Effect of Cooling Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szakács, G.; Mendis, C. L.; Tolnai, D.; Stark, A.; Schell, N.; Ovri, H.; Wolff, M.; Kainer, K. U.; Gröbner, J.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.; Hort, N.

    In situ synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments were performed during the solidification of Mg15Gd at the P07 (HEMS) Beamline of PETRA III at DESY. The measurements were carried out in the chamber of a modified DIL 805A/D dilatometer with a beam energy of 100 keV. The temperature was controlled by type S thermocouples welded on the steel lid of the graphite crucibles containing the samples. The two dimensional diffraction patterns were recorded with a Perkin Elmer 1621 Flatpanel. The phase evolution observed during cooling at rates of 5, 20 and 100 K/min show formation of GdMg3 at elevated temperatures, which transforms into GdMg5 during continued cooling. Phases were identified with the information from the Pearsońs database for crystalline structures. This is different from that predicted with thermodynamic databases. Although the equilibrium phase diagram suggests a simple eutectic solidification, the experiments show a metastable phase formation and its transformation. The formation of GdMg3 becomes more pronounced at higher cooling rates.

  7. Estimates of Collisional Cooling and Quenching Rates for Atomic and Molecular Ion Collisions with Ultracold Atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Winthrop; Wells, James

    2009-05-01

    Translational cross sections and rate coefficients for cold ion-neutral elastic and charge-exchange collisions (either atomic or molecular) are >> larger (˜10^6 a.u.) than neutral-neutral collisions at the same CM energy. This is due to the long range polarization potential V(R) = -C4/R^4, where C4 is proportional to the polarizability of the neutral partner. Thus collisions between ultracold alkali atoms (trapped in a magneto-optic trap or MOT) and low-energy ions can be used for sympathetic cooling experiments. We are building a prototype hybrid-trap apparatus [1] that applies these principles to collisions of Ca^+ ions (which can be laser pre-cooled) with MOT-trapped ultracold Na atoms. Some calculations on this system and other related ion-neutral systems have been published [2] and some initial experiments on other ion-neutral species have begun [3]. Estimates of cooling and quenching rates in the low K-mK CM energy range for Ca+ on Na and other cases will be presented and possible experiments described. [1] Winthrop W. Smith, Oleg P. Makarov and Jian Lin, J. Modern Optics 52, 2253 (2005). [2] R. Côt'e and A. Dalgarno, Phys. Rev. A 62, 012709 (2000); R. Côt'e, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5316 (2000). [3] A. Grier, M. Cetina, F.Orucevic, and V. Vuletic, ArXiv atom-ph/0808.3620.

  8. Effect of head and face insulation on cooling rate during snow burial.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Crouch, Andre K; Dorais, Andrew; McDevitt, Marion; Wilson, Courtney; Harmston, Chris H; Radwin, Marty I; Grissom, Colin K

    2015-03-01

    Avalanche victims are subjected to a number of physiological stressors during burial. We simulated avalanche burial to monitor physiological data and determine whether wearing head and face insulation slows cooling rate during snow burial. In addition, we sought to compare 3 different types of temperature measurement methods. Nine subjects underwent 2 burials each, 1 with head and face insulation and 1 without. Burials consisted of a 60-minute burial phase followed by a 60-minute rewarming phase. Temperature was measured via 3 methods: esophageal probe, ingestible capsule, and rectal probe. Cooling and rewarming rates were not statistically different between the 2 testing conditions when measured by the 3 measurement methods. All temperature measurement methods correlated significantly. Head and face insulation did not protect the simulated avalanche victim from faster cooling or rewarming. Because the 3 temperature measurement methods correlated, the ingestible capsule may provide an advantageous noninvasive method for snow burial and future hypothermia studies if interruptions in data transmission can be minimized. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of photochemical models on calculated equilibria and cooling rates in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D.; Lindzen, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Simplified models were developed for radiative heating and cooling and for ozone photochemistry in the region 22-60 km. The latter permit the inclusion of nitrogen and hydrogen reactions in addition to simple oxygen reactions. The simplicity of the scheme facilitates the use of a wide variety of cooling and reaction rates. It is shown that joint radiative-photochemical equilibrium is appropriate to the mean state of the atmosphere between 35 and 60 km. The relaxation of perturbations from joint radiative-photochemical equilibrium was also investigated. In all cases the coupling between temperature dependent ozone photochemistry and radiation lead to a reduction of the thermal relaxation time from its purely radiative value. The latter, which amounts to about 10 days, is reduced to 2-4 days at heights of 31-35 km. This greatly enhances the dissipation of waves traveling through the stratosphere.

  10. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  11. Hardening by cooling rate control and post-firing heat treatment in Pd-Ag-Sn alloy for bonding porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Young-Jun; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the hardening effect by controlling the cooling rate during the porcelain firing process and performing an additional post-firing heat treatment in a Pd-Ag-Sn alloy. The most effective cooling rate for alloy hardening was determined by cooling the specimens at various cooling rates after oxidation treatment. A subsequent porcelain firing simulation followed by cooling at the selected cooling rate was performed. A post-firing heat treatment was then done at 600°C in a porcelain furnace. The hardening mechanism was characterized by a hardness test, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Alloy softening occurred during the porcelain firing process followed by cooling at a controlled cooling rate. A post-firing heat treatment allowed apparent precipitation hardening. It is advisable to perform a postfiring heat treatment at 600°C in a porcelain furnace by annealing metal substructure after porcelain fusing.

  12. Cooling rates of mid-ocean ridge lava deduced from clinopyroxene spherulites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James E.; Befus, Kenneth S.; Miller, Nathan R.; Monecke, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We present a compositional analysis of spherulites and their surrounding groundmass in basaltic andesite lava samples collected from the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. The spherulites consist of radiating dendritic branches of clinopyroxene, and contain abundant vesicles that are stretched parallel to the branches. Stretched vesicles require that the spherulites grew when the groundmass was liquid, and thus while it was hotter than its glass transition. Although chemical components incompatible in clinopyroxene should have been enriched in the melt by spherulite growth, no compositional variations occur at a scale larger than the 10 μm-wide slit aperture used for laser ablation ICP-MS. The absence of large-scale gradients implies that the spherulites grew faster than the elements could diffuse ~ 10 μm. Because diffusion is temperature controlled, cooling must have been rapid enough to prevent movement. If the spherulites nucleated when the melt was at between 1380 and 1223 K (i.e., undercooled by 0 to 157 K), then the constant concentrations of Li, Na, and K, the fastest diffusing elements analyzed, require temperature to have cooled faster than 106-7 K min- 1. If, instead, the spherulites nucleated at undercoolings of 357 to 465 K (or as cold as 915 K, equal to the glass transition temperature), then the cooling rate could have been as slow as those inferred for glassy rinds on submarine lavas by relaxation geospeedometry. At all possible cooling rates, however, the spherulites must have grown as fast as ~ 103-5 μm s- 1 to reach their final sizes of 1.4 to 3.2 mm. We speculate that the rapid growth resulted from low kinetic barriers to clinopyroxene growth in the basaltic andesite melt.

  13. Impact of irrigation flow rate and intrapericardial fluid on cooled-tip epicardial radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Arash; O'Neill, Padraig Gearoid; Pujara, Deep K; Singh, Steve K; Bowers, Mark R; Allen, Shelley L; d'Avila, André

    2016-08-01

    The optimal irrigation flow rate (IFR) during epicardial radiofrequency (RF) ablation has not been established. This study specifically examined the impact of IFR and intrapericardial fluid (IPF) accumulation during epicardial RF ablation. Altogether, 452 ex vivo RF applications (10 g for 60 seconds) delivered to the epicardial surface of bovine myocardium using 3 open-irrigated ablation catheters (ThermoCool SmartTouch, ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF, and FlexAbility) and 50 in vivo RF applications delivered (ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF) in 4 healthy adult swine in the presence or absence of IPF were examined. Ex vivo, RF was delivered at low (≤3 mL/min), reduced (5-7 mL/min), and high (≥10 mL/min) IFRs using intermediate (25-35 W) and high (35-45 W) power. In vivo, applications were delivered (at 9.3 ± 2.2 g for 60 seconds at 39 W) using reduced (5 mL/min) and high (15 mL/min) IFRs. Ex vivo, surface lesion diameter inversely correlated with IFR, whereas maximum lesion diameter and depth did not differ. While steam pops occurred more frequently at low IFR using high power (ThermoCool SmartTouch and ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF), tissue disruption was rare and did not vary with IFR. In vivo, charring/steam pop was not detected. Although there were no discernible differences in lesion size with IFR, surface lesion diameter, maximum diameter, depth, and volume were all smaller in the presence of IPF at both IFRs. Cooled-tip epicardial RF ablation created using reduced IFRs (5-7 mL/min) yields lesion sizes similar to those created using high IFRs (≥10 mL/min) without an increase in steam pop/tissue disruption, whereas the presence of IPF significantly reduces the lesion size. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increase in rate of force development with skin cooling during isometric knee extension.

    PubMed

    Shimose, Ryota; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Tadano, Chigaya; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Yona, Masae; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Muro, Masuo

    2014-12-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) plays an important role when performing rapid and forceful movements. Cold-induced afferent input with transient skin cooling (SC) can modulate neural drive. However, the relationship between RFD and SC is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SC increases RFD during isometric knee extension. Fifteen young healthy men (25 ± 8 yrs old) contracted their quadriceps muscle as fast and forcefully as possible with or without SC. Skin cooling was administered to the front of the thigh. Torque and electromyographic activity were measured simultaneously. Peak torque was not affected by SC. Skin cooling induced a significant increase in RFD at the phase 0-30 and 0-50 ms. The root mean square of the electromyography of vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis at the phases 0-30-50-100 ms increased significantly or tended to increase with SC. These results suggest that SC may increase neural drive and improve RFD in the very early phases of contraction.

  15. Zirconium in rutile speedometry: New constraints on lower crustal cooling rates and residence temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Terrence; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Bowring, Samuel A.; Schoene, Blair; Mahan, Kevin H.

    2012-02-01

    The incorporation of zirconium into the mineral rutile (TiO2) has been both empirically and experimentally calibrated as a measure of rutile crystallization temperatures (Watson et al., 2006). This temperature sensitive system has been employed as a geothermometer with applications to a number of different geologic settings and rock types. Experimentally measured kinetics for Zr diffusion in rutile (Cherniak et al., 2007) indicate that Zr can be lost to temperature dependent diffusion, warranting further investigation of the geologic significance of calculated temperatures. Coupling diffusion kinetics with numerical solutions to the diffusion equation provides a means to forward model the time and temperature dependency of the system. Modeled results indicate a strong dependency of Zr concentration in rutile on both: 1) initial cooling rate following high-temperature metamorphism/crystallization and 2) temperature and duration of long-term geologic residence. Zr concentrations measured in rutile from lower crustal xenoliths that resided at 25-45 km depths for 2000 My, reveal Zr concentrations in the approximate grain center that are consistent with temperatures measured by independent thermometers. Forward models for Zr diffusion show that preserving a Zr record of these initial temperatures in the center of a rutile crystal with a 50 μm radius requires rapid cooling (> 300 °C/Ma) from magmatic/metamorphic temperatures followed by a long-term residence (2000 My) at temperatures < 550 °C. This provides a new way to determine cooling rates between 900 and 500 °C and for constraining the temperature of the deep crust. Modeled temperature-time paths using combined rutile Zr and U-Pb geochronological data permit evaluation/refinement of published diffusion kinetics. Properly quantified, this system can be utilized as a high temperature geo-speedometer: a powerful tool for evaluating heat transfer rates at these very high and often unconstrained temperatures.

  16. Cooling rate and stress relaxation in silica melts and glasses via microsecond molecular dyanmics

    DOE PAGES

    Lane, J. Matthew D.

    2015-07-22

    We have conducted extremely long molecular dynamics simulations of glasses to microsecond times, which close the gap between experimental and atomistic simulation time scales by two to three orders of magnitude. The static, thermal, and structural properties of silica glass are reported for glass cooling rates down to 5×109 K/s and viscoelastic response in silica melts and glasses are studied over nine decades of time. We finally present results from relaxation of hydrostatic compressive stress in silica and show that time-temperature superposition holds in these systems for temperatures from 3500 to 1000 K.

  17. Cooling rate and stress relaxation in silica melts and glasses via microsecond molecular dyanmics

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J. Matthew D.

    2015-07-22

    We have conducted extremely long molecular dynamics simulations of glasses to microsecond times, which close the gap between experimental and atomistic simulation time scales by two to three orders of magnitude. The static, thermal, and structural properties of silica glass are reported for glass cooling rates down to 5×109 K/s and viscoelastic response in silica melts and glasses are studied over nine decades of time. We finally present results from relaxation of hydrostatic compressive stress in silica and show that time-temperature superposition holds in these systems for temperatures from 3500 to 1000 K.

  18. The Effect of Cooling Rate on the Apparent Bond Strength of Porcelain-Metal Couples,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-06

    patients by modern restorative dentistry. Dental porcelain when fused to a metal substructure, provides acceptable esthetics and improved strength to...AD-A097 492 ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC F/G 11/2 THE EFFECT OF COOLING RATE ON THE APPARENT BOND STRENGTH OF POR-’ETC(U) MAR 81 J...porcelain- metal couples John W. Guinn, III, B.S., D.D.S. William H. Griswold, B.S., D.D.S. Stanley G. Vermilyea, B.S.,D.M.D., M.S. U.S. Army Dental

  19. Calculation of the gain coefficient in cryogenically cooled Yb : YAG disks at high heat generation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Vadimova, O L; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Palashov, O V; Perevezentsev, E A; Khazanov, Efim A

    2013-03-31

    We have calculated the stored energy and gain coefficient in disk gain elements cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The problem has been solved with allowance for intense heat generation, amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic lasing, without averaging over any spatial coordinate. The numerical simulation results agree well with experimental data, in particular at high heat generation rates. Experimental data and theoretical analysis indicate that composite disk gain elements containing an undoped region can store considerably more energy due to suppression of amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic lasing. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  20. Cold {sup 52}Cr elastic and inelastic collision-rate determination using evaporative cooling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Scott V.; Carvalho, Robert de; Doyle, John M.

    2007-06-15

    Elastic and inelastic collision-rate constants of {sup 52}Cr in the temperature range of 20 mK to 1 K are inferred from the evaporative cooling of buffer gas loaded atomic chromium. Using a model that describes the dynamics of the trapped chromium cloud during evaporation, we find g{sub el}=2.15(+2.5,-1.2)x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3}/s and g{sub in}=1.36(+1.2,-0.7)x10{sup -12} cm{sup 3}/s, consistent with theory but in disagreement with previously reported measurements.

  1. Classical nucleation theory explains the critical cooling rate of cryoprotectant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warkentin, Matt; Thorne, Robert

    2011-03-01

    We have measured critical cooling rates for a range of concentrations of different solutes in aqueous solutions. Our results show that the glass formability of aqueous solutions is exponential in the concentration for all solutes tested, with a different characteristic concentration for each solute. This characteristic correlates with the Stokes radius of the solute. A simple modification of critical droplet theory relates the characteristic concentration to the critical nucleation radius in pure water, and explains the relationship between the Stokes radius and the exponential characteristic. This simple, general theory of glass formability in aqueous solutions is important at a fundamental level, and will also have broad consequences for the field of cryobiology.

  2. Effect of cooling rate on timing and dynamics of crystallization within a man-made magma body

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, N.W.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. )

    1992-01-01

    A 1.3 [times] 10[sup 7] g, 3 m diameter, hemispheric-shaped, man-made mafic melt produced by inductance heating was allowed to cool naturally, dropping from a maximum temperature of 1,500 C to 500 C in 6 days. The cooled melt was found to be almost completely crystalline, and is composed dominantly of unzoned pyroxene and plagioclase. A thermal arrest, a 20 hr period of constant temperature (1,140 C) observed during cooling resulted from the release of latent heat during crystallization. However, crystallization within the central part of the melt probably began at a higher temperature, as indicated by thermal perturbations between 1,300 C and 1,140 C. Comparison of results from simple conductive cooling models with the observed cooling curves influenced by latent heat input allows estimates of the timing of crystalline growth. Growth rates for plagioclase and pyroxene are estimated to range between 10[sup [minus]5] and 10[sup [minus]6] cm/sec. Although the melt was physically, chemically, and thermally homogeneous at the time that cooling was initiated, the crystal morphology and composition varies systematically with distance from the edge of the melt, presumably as a function of cooling rate and degree of undercooling at the time that crystallization was initiated. Crystals near the edge of the melt, where cooling was most rapid are characterized by disequilibrium skeletal or spherulitic morphologies. With increased proximity to the interior, and progressively slower cooling rates, crystal morphology grade from chain-like to lath-like, and finally to tabular in the slowest-cooled areas. The chemical composition of the diopsidic pyroxene also varies as function of growth rate. Crystals that grew near the edge of the melt are enriched with respect to Al, and depleted with respect to Mg as compared to crystals from the central area.

  3. On the Lower Limit of Chondrule Cooling Rates: The Significance of Iron Loss in Dynamic Crystallization Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, Julie M.; Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1999-01-01

    Lofgren (1989) and the further analysis of Lofgren's 1989 experiments by Jones and Lofgren (1993) established that cooling rates as slow as 5 C/hour produced analog textures and major and minor element zoning profiles in minerals, implying that a lower limit on chondrule cooling rate may be approximately 5 C/hour These results, however, are in conflict with those reported by Radomsky and Hewins (1990). In their paper, Radomsky and Hewins (1990) established a lower limit on chondrule cooling rates of I 100 C/hour a factor of 20 higher than that suggested by Jones and Lofgren (1993). The higher cooling rates suggested by Radomsky and Hewins (1990) have gained considerable favor within the meteoritic community largely because it appears more consistent with the preservation of Na in chondrules, which tends to volatilize at the slower cooling rates. In their study, however, Radomsky and Hewins (1990) did not use Pt hang wires that were coated or saturated with Fe. The lack of such techniques likely facilitated Fe loss from their experimental chondrules to the hang wire during formation (Jones and Lofgren, 1993). The effect of Fe loss could produce an inaccurate determination of cooling rates since these rates are largely determined by the Mg-Fe distributions in individual crystals.

  4. Simulation of Cooling Rate Effects on Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Crack Formation in Direct Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Li, Wei; Chen, Xueyang; Zhang, Yunlu; Newkirk, Joe; Liou, Frank; Dietrich, David

    2017-03-01

    Transient temperature history is vital in direct laser deposition (DLD) as it reveals the cooling rate at specific temperatures. Cooling rate directly relates to phase transformation and types of microstructure formed in deposits. In this paper, finite element analysis simulation was employed to study the transient temperature history and cooling rate at different experimental setups in the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb DLD process. An innovative prediction strategy was developed to model with a moving Gaussian distribution heat source and element birth and death technology in ANSYS®, and fabricate crack-free deposits. This approach helps to understand and analyze the impact of cooling rate and also explain phase information gathered from x-ray diffraction.

  5. Weakly doped InP layers prepared by liquid phase epitaxy using a modulated cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krukovskyi, R.; Mykhashchuk, Y.; Kost, Y.; Krukovskyi, S.; Saldan, I.

    2017-04-01

    Epitaxial structures based on InP are widely used to manufacture a number of devices such as microwave transistors, light-emitting diodes, lasers and Gunn diodes. However, their temporary instability caused by heterogeneity of resistivity along the layer thickness and the influence of various external or internal factors prompts the need for the development of a new reliable technology for their preparation. Weak doping by Yb, Al and Sn together with modulation of the cooling rate applied to prepare InP epitaxial layers is suggested to be adopted within the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method. The experimental results confirm the optimized conditions created to get a uniform electron concentration in the active n-InP layer. A sharp profile of electron concentration in the n+-InP(substrate)/n-InP/n+-InP epitaxial structure was observed experimentally at the proposed modulated cooling rate of 0.3 °С-1.5 °С min-1. The proposed technological method can be used to control the electrical and physical properties of InP epitaxial layers to be used in Gunn diodes.

  6. The effects of cooling rate XD trademark TiAl weld microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E. ); Hill, M.A.; Schwarz, R.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Fusion zone microstructures of an electron beam (EB) welded XD{trademark} Ti-48at % Al + 6.5 vol% TiB{sub 2} alloy revealed the presence of a plate-like microstructural constituent which was absent in the base metal. The volume fraction of this phase increased with increasing cooling rate and correlated with increased weld cracking frequency. To determine whether this phase was a product of solidification from the melt or a product of a solid-state transformation, weld microstructures were compared to those cycled in a Gleebel 1500/20 Thermal-Mechanical Test System which was programmed to simulate the solid-state portion of the weld cooling rates (as predicted by a Rosenthal analysis). Both weld and simulation microstructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The plate-like phase found in the weld microstructures was identified as TiB{sub 2} occurring upon rapid solidification of the melted weld metal. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  7. DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR CONDENSATION IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NEBULAR COOLING RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, T.; Maul, J.; Schoenhense, G.; Marosits, E.; Hoppe, P.; Ott, U.; Palme, H.

    2009-09-10

    We have identified in an acid resistant residue of the carbonaceous chondrite Murchison a large number (458) of highly refractory metal nuggets (RMNs) that once were most likely hosted by Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). While osmium isotopic ratios of two randomly selected particles rule out a presolar origin, the bulk chemistry of 88 particles with sizes in the submicron range determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy shows striking agreement with predictions of single-phase equilibrium condensation calculations. Both chemical composition and morphology strongly favor a condensation origin. Particularly important is the presence of structurally incompatible elements in particles with a single-crystal structure, which also suggests the absence of secondary alteration. The metal particles represent the most pristine early solar system material found so far and allow estimation of the cooling rate of the gaseous environment from which the first solids formed by condensation. The resulting value of 0.5 K yr{sup -1} is at least 4 orders of magnitude lower than the cooling rate of molten CAIs. It is thus possible, for the first time, to see through the complex structure of most CAIs and infer the thermal history of the gaseous reservoir from which their components formed by condensation.

  8. Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiAl3 Particles in Al-4Ti Master Alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Fu, Lu; He, Jiansheng

    2017-02-27

    The Al-4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys at different cooling rates were characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that various morphologies of TiAl3 particles in the Al-4Ti master alloy could be acquired at different cooling rates. Petal-like, blocky, and flake-like TiAl3 particles in the Al-4Ti master alloy were respectively acquired at the cooling rates of 3.36 K/s, 2.57 K/s, and 0.31 K/s. It was also found that the morphology of TiAl3 particles in the prepared master alloy changed from petal-like to blocky, then finally to flake-like, with the decrease of cooling rate. In addition, the morphology of the TiAl3 particles has no effect on the phase inversion temperature of Al-4Ti master alloy.

  9. Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiAl3 Particles in Al–4Ti Master Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Fu, Lu; He, Jiansheng

    2017-01-01

    The Al–4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys at different cooling rates were characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that various morphologies of TiAl3 particles in the Al–4Ti master alloy could be acquired at different cooling rates. Petal-like, blocky, and flake-like TiAl3 particles in the Al–4Ti master alloy were respectively acquired at the cooling rates of 3.36 K/s, 2.57 K/s, and 0.31 K/s. It was also found that the morphology of TiAl3 particles in the prepared master alloy changed from petal-like to blocky, then finally to flake-like, with the decrease of cooling rate. In addition, the morphology of the TiAl3 particles has no effect on the phase inversion temperature of Al–4Ti master alloy. PMID:28772598

  10. An improved thermoregulatory model for cooling garment applications with transient metabolic rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westin, Johan K.

    Current state-of-the-art thermoregulatory models do not predict body temperatures with the accuracies that are required for the development of automatic cooling control in liquid cooling garment (LCG) systems. Automatic cooling control would be beneficial in a variety of space, aviation, military, and industrial environments for optimizing cooling efficiency, for making LCGs as portable and practical as possible, for alleviating the individual from manual cooling control, and for improving thermal comfort and cognitive performance. In this study, we adopt the Fiala thermoregulatory model, which has previously demonstrated state-of-the-art predictive abilities in air environments, for use in LCG environments. We validate the numerical formulation with analytical solutions to the bioheat equation, and find our model to be accurate and stable with a variety of different grid configurations. We then compare the thermoregulatory model's tissue temperature predictions with experimental data where individuals, equipped with an LCG, exercise according to a 700 W rectangular type activity schedule. The root mean square (RMS) deviation between the model response and the mean experimental group response is 0.16°C for the rectal temperature and 0.70°C for the mean skin temperature, which is within state-of-the-art variations. However, with a mean absolute body heat storage error 3¯ BHS of 9.7 W˙h, the model fails to satisfy the +/-6.5 W˙h accuracy that is required for the automatic LCG cooling control development. In order to improve model predictions, we modify the blood flow dynamics of the thermoregulatory model. Instead of using step responses to changing requirements, we introduce exponential responses to the muscle blood flow and the vasoconstriction command. We find that such modifications have an insignificant effect on temperature predictions. However, a new vasoconstriction dependency, i.e. the rate of change of hypothalamus temperature weighted by the

  11. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Linton, David

    2015-05-22

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1∼2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites.

  12. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Linton, David

    2015-05-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1˜2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites.

  13. Analysis of isothermal and cooling rate dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling rate dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nuclei (IN) all have the same IN surface area (ISA), however the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses physically observable parameters including the total number of droplets (Ntot) and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically levitated droplets, droplets in a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC), the Leipzig aerosol cloud interaction simulator (LACIS), and the aerosol interaction and dynamics in the atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber. Observed time dependent isothermal frozen fractions exhibiting non-exponential behavior with time can be readily explained by this model considering varying ISA. An

  14. Body size, but not cooling rate, affects supercooling points in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel A; Martin, Adam R; Porter, Sanford D

    2008-10-01

    The level of an animal's stress resistance is set by multiple intrinsic physiological and extrinsic environmental parameters. Body size is a critical intrinsic parameter that affects numerous fitness-related organismal traits including fecundity, survival, mating success, and stress resistance. The rate of cooling is a critical extrinsic environmental factor that can affect thermal stress resistance. Workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), display considerable variation in adult body size. Therefore, developing ecologically realistic models of thermotolerance in this species requires a consideration of body size. We tested the hypothesis that body size and cooling rate would interact to set the supercooling point in fire ant workers by exposing workers of a range of body sizes to three different cooling regimens: a very fast ramp of -10 degrees C/min, an intermediate ramp of -1 degrees C/min, and an ecologically relevant slow ramp of -0.1 degrees C/min. Specifically, we asked whether large workers were more susceptible to differences in cooling rate than smaller workers. We found that body size had a considerable effect on supercooling point with the largest workers freezing at a temperature approximately 3 degrees C higher than the smallest workers. Cooling rate had a very small effect on supercooling point, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Therefore, the allometry of supercooling points across the range of worker body sizes does not change with cooling rate.

  15. Effect of Glaze Cooling Rate on Mechanical Properties of Conventional and Pressed Porcelain on Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Longhini, Diogo; Rocha, Cibele Oliveira de Melo; Medeiros, Igor Studart; Fonseca, Renata Garcia; Adabo, Gelson Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a conventional and a pressed porcelain for zirconia core as to biaxial flexural strength (BFS), apparent fracture toughness (FT) and microstructure composition, and to investigate the effect of glaze cooling rate on the BFS of the zirconia/porcelain bilayers. Monolayers of conventional porcelain Vita VM9 and pressed porcelain Vita PM9 (n=15) (12 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thick) were prepared for the BFS test (MPa). Apparent fracture toughness (MPa.m1/2) was measured by indentation technique (n=15). t-Student test was performed for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to analyze the porcelain's microstructure. For the BFS of bilayers, zirconia discs (12 mm diameter x 1 mm thick) (Vita In-Ceram YZ) were veneered with the two porcelains (1 mm thick). After the glaze firing simulation, the specimens were submitted to fast or slow cooling (n=15). Apparent fracture toughness (MPa.m1/2) was measured on the porcelain surface of bilayers (n=15) and residual stress was calculated. Two-way ANOVA (porcelain and cooling method) was used for the bilayer analysis (a=0.05). Vita PM9 monolayer exhibited significantly higher BFS (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference (p=0.41) in the FT between the porcelains. For bilayer specimens, the two-way ANOVA for BFS was significant for the porcelain variable only (p<0.01) better for Vita PM9/zirconia. Two-way ANOVA for the FT for the bilayers was not significant for any variable. All groups showed compressive residual stresses. The pressed porcelain seems to be mechanically more effective for zirconia veneering.

  16. Surface Forcing of the Infrared Cooling Profile over the Tibetan Plateau. Part II: Cooling-Rate Variation over Large-Scale Plateau Domain during Summer Monsoon Transition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-05-01

    During the summer east Asian monsoon transition period in 1979, a meteorological field experiment entitled the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Meteorological Experiment (QXPMEX-79) was conducted over the entire Tibetan Plateau. Data collected on and around the plateau during this period, in conjunction with a medium spectral-resolution infrared radiative transfer model, are used to gain an understanding of how elevation and surface biophysical factors, which are highly variable over the large-scale plateau domain, regulate the spatial distribution of clear-sky infrared cooling during the transition phase of the summer monsoon.The spatial distribution of longwave cooling over the plateau is significantly influenced by variations in biophysical composition, topography, and elevation, the surface thermal diurnal cycle, and various climatological factors. An important factor is soil moisture. Bulk clear-sky longwave cooling rates are larger in the southeast sector of the plateau than in the north. This is because rainfall is greatest in the southeast, whereas the north is highly desertified and relative longwave radiative heating by the surface is greatest. Another important phenomenon is that the locale of a large-scale east-west-aligned spatial gradient in radiative cooling propagates northward with time. During the premonsoon period (May-June), the location of the strong spatial gradient is found in the southeastern margin of the plateau. Due to changes in surface and atmospheric conditions after the summer monsoon commences, the high gradient sector is shifted to the central Qinghai region. Furthermore, an overall decrease in longwave cooling takes place in the lower atmosphere immediately prior to the arrival of the active monsoon.The magnitude of longwave cooling is significantly affected by skin-temperature boundary conditions at plateau altitudes. If skin-temperature discontinuities across the surface-atmosphere interface are neglected, bulk cooling rates will be in

  17. A novel optical freezing array for the examination of cooling rate dependence in heterogeneous ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budke, Carsten; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Koop, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Homogeneous ice nucleation is a stochastic process, implying that it is not only temperature but also time dependent. For heterogeneous ice nucleation it is still under debate whether there is a significant time dependence or not. In case of minor time dependence it is probably sufficient to use a singular or slightly modified singular approach, which mainly supposes temperature dependence and just small stochastic variations. We contribute to this discussion using a novel optical freezing array termed BINARY (Bielefeld Ice Nucleation ARraY). The setup consists of an array of microliter-sized droplets on a Peltier cooling stage. The droplets are separated from each other with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) spacer to prevent a Bergeron-Findeisen process, in which the first freezing droplets grow at the expense of the remaining liquid ones due to their vapor pressure differences. An automatic detection of nucleation events is realized optically by the change in brightness during freezing. Different types of ice nucleating agents were tested with the presented setup, e. g. pollen and clay mineral dust. Exemplarily, cooling rate dependent measurements are shown for the heterogeneous ice nucleation induced by Snomax®. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project BIOCLOUDS (KO 2944/1-1) and through the research unit INUIT (FOR 1525) under KO 2944/2-1. We particularly thank our INUIT partners for fruitful collaboration and sharing of ideas and IN samples.

  18. Influence of cooling rate on cracking and plastic deformation during impact and indentation of borosilicate glasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehnder, Christoffer; Bruns, Sebastian; Peltzer, Jan-Niklas; Durst, Karsten; Korte-Kerzel, Sandra; Möncke, Doris

    2017-03-01

    The influence of a changing glass topology on local mechanical properties was studied in a multi-technique nanomechanical approach. The glass response against sharp contacts can result in structural densification, plastic flow or crack initiation. Using instrumented indentation testing, the mechanical response was studied in different strain rate regimes for a sodium-boro-silicate glass (NBS) exhibiting altering structures due to varying processing conditions. Comparison with data from former studies as well as with literature data on other glass structures helped to elucidate the role of the borate and silicate sub-networks and to understand the overall mechanical properties of the mixed glass systems. A peculiarity of some of the NBS glasses tested in this study is the fact that the connectivity of the borate and silicate entities depends on the sample’s thermal history. While the influence on macroscopic material properties such as E and H is minor, the onset of cracking indeed is influenced by those structural changes within the glass. Rapidly quenched glass shows an improved crack resistance, which is even more pronounced at high strain rates. Studies on various processing conditions further indicate that this transition is closely related to the cooling rate around Tg. The strain rate dependence of cracking is discussed in terms of the occurrence of shear deformation and densification.

  19. Supercooling effects in Cu-10 wt pct Co alloys solidified at different cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munitz, A.; Elder-Randall, S. P.; Abbaschian, R.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic levitation and electron beam surface melting were employed to study the effects of supercooling and cooling rate on the solidification of Cu-10 wt pct Co alloys. Two major effects were observed in the supercooled alloys: the nucleation of a metastable copper-rich phase which contains 13 wt pct to 20 wt pct Co in samples supercooled between 105 and 150 K and liquid phase separation which occurs in samples supercooled 150 K or more. The microstructure of the electron beam melted surfaces consisted of very fine spheres which were similar to those of the sample supercooled more than 150 K but with a refined microstructure. The results indicate that a dynamic bulk supercooling of 150 K may exist in the molten pool during the solidification of electron beam melted surfaces.

  20. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating, Ar diffusion properties, and cooling rate determinations of severely shocked chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Hirsch, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The ages of Ar-40/Ar-39 chondrites were computed to be 4.29 to 1.0 Gyr, with degassing times of 0.5 to 1.0 Gyr. The values of the diffusion parameter for Ar in Arrhenius plots show linear relationships which correspond to the degassing of different mineral phases with distinct K/Ca ratios and different average temperatures for Ar release. The experimental values of the diffusion parameter for the high-temperature phase of severely shocked chondrites are 10 to the -7th to 10 to the -5th/s for the shock-heating temperatures in the 950-1200 C range; the inferred reheating temperatures and the fraction of the Ar-40 loss during the reheating event suggest post-shock cooling rates and burial depths of 0.01-0.0001 C/s and 0.5-2m, respectively.

  1. High cooling rate crystallization study at the surface of thermoplastic parts and thermal contact resistance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Boyard, Nicolas; Sobotka, Vincent; Delaunay, Didier

    2016-10-01

    The recent development of fast scanning calorimeters allows the measurement of the crystallization kinetics in all the temperature range between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature. The use of sample of several hundred nanograms raises the question of the representativeness of the measure. In this context, we propose a different approach, where a piston at 30°C impacts a molten polypropylene at 210°C. The surface temperature of the polymer part was measured with an optical fibre associated with a photodetector. The cooling rate reached 64K/s during the first two seconds. An additional information was given by a heat flux sensor, which allowed the direct measurement of the thermal contact resistance between the polymer and the piston. The crystallization at surface, coupled with heat transfer was studied.

  2. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating, Ar diffusion properties, and cooling rate determinations of severely shocked chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Hirsch, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The ages of Ar-40/Ar-39 chondrites were computed to be 4.29 to 1.0 Gyr, with degassing times of 0.5 to 1.0 Gyr. The values of the diffusion parameter for Ar in Arrhenius plots show linear relationships which correspond to the degassing of different mineral phases with distinct K/Ca ratios and different average temperatures for Ar release. The experimental values of the diffusion parameter for the high-temperature phase of severely shocked chondrites are 10 to the -7th to 10 to the -5th/s for the shock-heating temperatures in the 950-1200 C range; the inferred reheating temperatures and the fraction of the Ar-40 loss during the reheating event suggest post-shock cooling rates and burial depths of 0.01-0.0001 C/s and 0.5-2m, respectively.

  3. Influence of postexercise cooling techniques on heart rate variability in men.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Anthony S; Sinclair, Wade H; Patterson, Mark J; Rudzki, Stephan; Tulppo, Mikko P; Fogarty, Alison L; Winter, Sue

    2009-06-01

    The reduction of core body temperature (T(C)) is vitally important in the treatment of hyperthermia; however, little is known regarding the impact of cooling treatments on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of three field-based hyperthermia treatments on the neural control of HR via heart rate variability (HRV). Following exercise-induced hyperthermia (T(C) approximately 40.0 degrees C) in a warm environment (34.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C), nine healthy, active men were treated during recovery, in a randomized order, with intravenous cold saline infusion (IV) or ice packs (ICE) or fan cooling with intermittent water spray (FAN) for 40 min. During each treatment, HR dynamics via power spectral (VLF, LF, HF), Poincare plot (SD1, SD2), approximate entropy (ApEn) and short- (alpha(1)) and long-term (alpha(2)) fractal scaling analyses were determined every 10 min. At recovery onset, HR and T(C) were similar between treatments and were significantly reduced over the 40 min recovery period. During recovery, HR and alpha(2) were significantly reduced from initial levels but were significantly greater for IV compared with ICE and FAN. In contrast, VLF, LF, HF, SD1, SD2 and ApEn increased during recovery, with all being significantly lower for IV compared with ICE and/or FAN. The present results demonstrated that IV, compared with ICE and FAN, resulted in significantly greater HR, reduced spectral and geometrical HRV, lower HR complexity and reduced long-term HR control, indicative of reduced vagal and/or increased sympathetic modulation. Specific treatments for exercise-induced hyperthermia may result in an altered sympathovagal balance that requires further examination.

  4. Influence of fO 2 and cooling rate on the kinetics and energetics of Fe-rich basalt crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Julia E.

    2006-08-01

    Cooling rate and fO 2 are each varied over several orders of magnitude in a matrix of 1-atm constant-rate cooling experiments using synthetic basalt. The modes and compositions of olivine, pyroxene and titanomagnetite are sensitive to oxygen fugacity (ranging from QFM - 4 to QFM + 5 log units), whereas their textures respond to the degree of undercooling as modulated by cooling rate (ranging from 2.8 to 231 °C h - 1 ). Key results pertain to the trends in mineral composition, melt differentiation, and crystal texture development: (1) The degree of pyroxene compositional zoning in a given experiment increases with decreasing cooling rate. For a given cooling rate, the Ti/Al ratio and MgO crystal-melt partitioning coefficients for pyroxene are inversely correlated with fO 2, and the Mg contents of Ca-rich pyroxene and titanomagnetite increase with increasing fO 2. Both trends are inferred to result from the fO 2 control over melt Fe 3+/Fe 2+ ratio. (2) Reducing conditions lead to greater crystal contents than do oxidizing conditions, yet for any given cooling rate the compositions of matrix glasses are progressively more evolved as fO 2 increases. The liquid lines of descent followed by residual melts are tholeiitic at reducing conditions and calc-alkaline at oxidizing conditions. The greater viscosities of residual liquids evolving toward silica enrichment at high fO 2 may be responsible for declining solidification efficiency with increasing fO 2. (3) Up to three distinct crystal populations of titanomagnetite, olivine, and pyroxene crystals, identified in each charge using qualitative morphologic criteria, are quantified in terms of volume fraction and the surface area per unit volume, SvP [mm - 1 ]. The presence of distinct populations suggests that nucleation of given mineral phases occurs episodically. The balance between thermodynamic driving force and kinetic inhibiting factors is optimized for the greatest number of pyroxene nucleation events at

  5. NOTE: Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetian, Emil; Aguilar, Guillermo; Kimel, Sol; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to protect the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery. To date, the relative influence of the fundamental spray parameters on surface cooling remains incompletely understood. This study explores the effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity on the surface heat flux during CSC. It is shown that the effect of mass flow rate on the surface heat flux is much more important compared to that of droplet velocity. However, for fully atomized sprays with small flow rates, droplet velocity can make a substantial difference in the surface heat flux.

  6. Tuning the Mechanical and Antimicrobial Performance of a Cu-Based Metallic Glass Composite through Cooling Rate Control and Annealing.

    PubMed

    Villapún, Victor M; Esat, F; Bull, S; Dover, L G; González, S

    2017-05-06

    The influence of cooling rate on the wear and antimicrobial performance of a Cu52Z41Al₇ (at. %) bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite was studied and the results compared to those of the annealed sample (850 °C for 48 h) and to pure copper. The aim of this basic research is to explore the potential use of the material in preventing the spread of infections. The cooling rate is controlled by changing the mould diameter (2 mm and 3 mm) upon suction casting and controlling the mould temperature (chiller on and off). For the highest cooling rate conditions CuZr is formed but CuZr₂ starts to crystallise as the cooling rate decreases, resulting in an increase in the wear resistance and brittleness, as measured by scratch tests. A decrease in the cooling rate also increases the antimicrobial performance, as shown by different methodologies (European, American and Japanese standards). Annealing leads to the formation of new intermetallic phases (Cu10Zr₇ and Cu₂ZrAl) resulting in maximum scratch hardness and antimicrobial performance. However, the annealed sample corrodes during the antimicrobial tests (within 1 h of contact with broth). The antibacterial activity of copper was proved to be higher than that of any of the other materials tested but it exhibits very poor wear properties. Cu-rich BMG composites with optimised microstructure would be preferable for some applications where the durability requirements are higher than the antimicrobial needs.

  7. Cooling rate effects on the structure and transformation behavior of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohan, Nicoleta-Monica; Suru, Marius-Gabriel; Pricop, Bogdan; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2014-11-01

    Different fragments of a hot-rolled and homogenized Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy (SMA) were subjected to thermal cycling by means of a differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) device. During thermal cycling, heating was performed at the same constant rate of increasing temperature while cooling was carried out at different rates of decreasing temperature. For each cooling rate, the temperature decreased in the same thermal interval. During each cooling stage, an exothermic peak (maximum) was observed on the DSC thermogram. This peak was associated with forward martensitic transformation. The DSC thermograms were analyzed with PROTEUS software: the critical martensitic transformation start (Ms) and finish (Mf) temperatures were determined by means of integral and tangent methods, and the dissipated heat was evaluated by the area between the corresponding maximum plot and a sigmoid baseline. The effects of the increase in cooling rate, assessed from a calorimetric viewpoint, consisted in the augmentation of the exothermic peak and the delay of direct martensitic transformation. The latter had the tendency to move to lower critical transformation temperatures. The martensite plates changed in morphology by becoming more oriented and by an augmenting in surface relief, which corresponded with the increase in cooling rate as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  8. Dendritic Growth and Microstructure Evolution with Different Cooling Rates in Ti48Al2Cr2Nb Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Hu, Rui; Zhang, Tiebang; Kou, Hongchao; Wang, Jun; Yang, Guang; Li, Jinshan

    2016-01-01

    The influence of cooling rates on the dendritic growth and microstructure evolution of Ti48Al2Cr2Nb alloy is studied by electromagnetic levitation combined with copper mold casting. The different cooling rates of the conical as-cast sample with diameters from 4.7 to 0.8 mm were calculated by ANSYS software. The results show that primary dendrite arm spacing decreases with increase in cooling rate. Peritectic transformation (L + β → α) and the transformation of α → (α2 + γ) are restrained at cooling rate of 2.3 × 104 K s-1. With further increase in cooling rate (2.6 × 104 K s-1), a fine and homogeneous microstructure can be observed in the conical casting sample with the diameter of 0.8 mm. It consists of a large amount of massive γ phase, lath-like γ phase, and only few lamellar structures (α2 + γ). The formation of the microstructure in the alloy is attributed to the strong chilling, giving rise to the high undercooling and the high dislocation density during rapid solidification.

  9. Pregnancy rates after artificial insemination with cooled stallion spermatozoa either with or without single layer centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Richter, J; Martinsson, G; Stuhtmann, G; Hoogewijs, M; Roels, K; Dalin, A-M

    2014-11-01

    A successful outcome after artificial insemination with cooled semen is dependent on many factors, the sperm quality of the ejaculate being one. Previous studies have shown that spermatozoa with good motility, normal morphology, and good chromatin integrity can be selected by means of colloid centrifugation, particularly single layer centrifugation (SLC) using species-specific colloids. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an insemination trial with spermatozoa from "normal" ejaculates, i.e., from stallions with no known fertility problem, to determine whether the improvements in sperm quality seen in SLC-selected sperm samples compared with uncentrifuged controls in laboratory tests are reflected in an increased pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In a multicentre study, SLC-selected sperm samples and uncentrifuged controls from eight stallions were inseminated into approximately 10 mares per treatment per stallion. Ultrasound examination was carried out approximately 16 days after insemination to detect an embryonic vesicle. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 45% for controls and 69% for SLC-selected sperm samples, which is statistically significant (P < 0.0018). Thus, the improvement in sperm quality reported previously for SLC-selected sperm samples is associated with an increase in pregnancy rate, even for ejaculates from stallions with no known fertility problem.

  10. Dependence of the width of the glass transition interval on cooling and heating rates.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Jürn W P; Tropin, Timur V

    2013-01-21

    In a preceding paper [J. W. P. Schmelzer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 074512 (2012)], a general kinetic criterion of glass formation has been advanced allowing one to determine theoretically the dependence of the glass transition temperature on cooling and heating rates (or similarly on the rate of change of any appropriate control parameter determining the transition of a stable or metastable equilibrium system into a frozen-in, non-equilibrium state of the system, a glass). In the present paper, this criterion is employed in order to develop analytical expressions for the dependence of the upper and lower boundaries and of the width of the glass transition interval on the rate of change of the external control parameters. It is shown, in addition, that the width of the glass transition range is strongly correlated with the entropy production at the glass transition temperature. The analytical results are supplemented by numerical computations. Analytical results and numerical computations as well as existing experimental data are shown to be in good agreement.

  11. Dependence of the width of the glass transition interval on cooling and heating rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzer, Jürn W. P.; Tropin, Timur V.

    2013-01-01

    In a preceding paper [J. W. P. Schmelzer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 074512 (2012), 10.1063/1.3685510], a general kinetic criterion of glass formation has been advanced allowing one to determine theoretically the dependence of the glass transition temperature on cooling and heating rates (or similarly on the rate of change of any appropriate control parameter determining the transition of a stable or metastable equilibrium system into a frozen-in, non-equilibrium state of the system, a glass). In the present paper, this criterion is employed in order to develop analytical expressions for the dependence of the upper and lower boundaries and of the width of the glass transition interval on the rate of change of the external control parameters. It is shown, in addition, that the width of the glass transition range is strongly correlated with the entropy production at the glass transition temperature. The analytical results are supplemented by numerical computations. Analytical results and numerical computations as well as existing experimental data are shown to be in good agreement.

  12. Crystallization processes in an artificial magma: variations in crystal shape, growth rate and composition with melt cooling history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Nelia W.; Jacobs, Gary K.; Naney, Michael T.

    1995-07-01

    A large (4.8 m3, 1.3×107 g) artificial mafic melt with a bulk composition similar to that of a basalt (but with a high CaO content of 17 wt %) was generated during a demonstration of in situ vitrification and was allowed to cool naturally. During the melting process, convection was vigorous, resulting in a chemically and thermally homogeneous melt body. Once heating was complete, the cooling rate was rapid with the temperature dropping from 1500° C to 500° C in ˜6 days within the interior of the 3 m diameter, 1.5 m thick body. A ˜20 h period of constant temperature (1140° C) observed during cooling was the result of latent heat released by widespread crystallization. The final crystalline assemblage consists of diopsidic to hedenbergitic pyroxene and anorthitic feldspar, with a subordinate amount of potassic feldspar, plus a small amount of evolved glass. The compositions and proportions of phases agree well with those predicted by the MELTS thermodynamic model. Thermal and textural evidence suggest that convection within the melt ceased coincident with formation of the first crystals. Textural investigation of core samples reveals large (up to 1 cm in length) acicular diopsidic pyroxenes in a matrix of smaller feldspar and zoned pyroxene crystals (˜500 μm in length). Crystal shape and pyroxene composition vary as a function of position within the solidified body, as a function of cooling rate. Both crystal size and degree of crystallinity are highest in the central, most slowly-cooled parts of the rock. Crystal shape is characterized by tabular, equilibrium-growth forms in the slowly-cooled areas, grading to highly skeletal, dendritic forms at the rapidly-cooled edges of the body. The pyroxene crystals are dominantly homogeneous diopside, but crystals are characterized by thin Fe-rich hedenbergitic rims. These rims were deposited when Mg in the melt was depleted by diopside growth, and melt temperature had cooled sufficiently to allow Fe-rich pyroxene

  13. Impact of Cooling Rate-Induced Recrystallization on High G Mechanical Shock and Thermal Cycling in Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Bieler, Thomas R.; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical stability and thermo-mechanical fatigue performance of solder joints with low silver content Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (wt.%) (SAC105) alloy based on different cooling rates are investigated in high G level shock environment and thermal cycling conditions. The cooling rate-controlled samples ranging from 1°C/min to 75°C/min cooling rate, not only show differences in microstructure, where a fine poly-granular microstructure develops in the case of fast cooling versus normal cooling, but also show various shock performances based on the microstructure changes. The fast cooling rate improves the high G shock performance by over 90% compared to the normal cooled SAC105 alloy air-cooling environment commonly used after assembly reflow. The microstructure effect on thermal cycling performance is also discussed, which is analyzed based on the Sn grain orientation, interconnect stability, and solder joint bulk microstructure.

  14. Effects of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Morphology of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwa-Teng; Huang, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure and morphology of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder. In the experiments, rapid cooling (P1: 63.17°C/s) of SAC305 solder resulted in high tensile strength (60.8 MPa) with no significant loss in ductility (strain >40%) due to the formation of fine-grained primary β-Sn (average size ˜14 μm) surrounded by a network-like fine eutectic structure consisting of β-Sn and particle-like Ag3Sn compound. As the cooling rate was reduced, the morphology of the Ag3Sn compound evolved progressively from a particle- to a needle-like form and finally to a leaf- or plate-like form. The cooling rate significantly affected the β-Sn grain size and the morphology of the Ag3Sn compound. Water cooling (at the fastest cooling rate of 100°C/s) of a solder sample resulted in a microstructure consisting of the finest structure of Ag3Sn and β-Sn with no Cu6Sn5, consequently exhibiting the highest hardness of the various specimens. By contrast, after cooling at the slowest rate of 0.008°C/s, the sample exhibited a coarse eutectic structure consisting of large plate-like Ag3Sn compound and isolated long rod-like Cu6Sn5 precipitates. This coarse structure resulted in both lower hardness and poorer tensile strength.

  15. A Gradient in Cooling Rate Beneath the Moho at the Oman Ophiolite: Fresh Insights into Cooling Processes at Mid-Ocean Ridges from REE-Based Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Liang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Wadi Tayin massif in the southern Oman ophiolite has a more than 10 km thick mantle section and is believed to have formed in a mid-ocean ridge like environment with an intermediate to fast spreading rate. Previously, [1] used major element geothermometers to investigate spatial variations in temperatures recorded in mantle peridotites and observed that samples near the paleo-Moho have higher closure temperatures than samples at the base of the mantle section. Motivated by these observations, we measured major and trace elements in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in peridotites from depths of ~1-8km beneath the Moho to determine closure temperatures of REE in the samples using the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer [2]. Clinopyroxene are depleted in LREE and have REE concentrations that vary depending on distance from the Moho. Samples nearer the Moho have lower REE concentrations than those deeper in the section (e.g., chondrite normalized Yb ranges from ~1.5 at the Moho to 4 at 8km depth), consistent with near fractional melting along a mantle adiabat. Orthopyroxene are highly depleted in LREE but measurements of middle to heavy REE have good reproducibility. We find that REE-in-two-pyroxene temperatures decrease with increasing distance from the Moho, ranging from 1325±10°C near the Moho to 1063±24°C near the base of the mantle section. Using methods from [3], we calculate cooling rates of >1000°C/Myr near the Moho, dropping to rates of <10°C/Myr at the bottom of the section. The faster cooling rate is inconsistent with conductive cooling models. Fast cooling of the mantle lithosphere could be facilitated by infiltration of seawater to or beneath the petrologic Moho. This can explain why abyssal peridotites from ultra-slow spreading centers (which lack a crustal section) have cooling rates comparable to those of Oman peridotites [3]. [1] Hanghøj et al. (2010), JPet 51(1-2), 201-227. [2] Liang et al. (2013), GCA 102, 246-260. [3] Dygert & Liang (2015

  16. On the Lower Limit of Chondrule Cooling Rates: The Significance of Iron Loss in Dynamic Crystallization Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, Julie M.; Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1998-01-01

    It is unlikely that the presence of chondrules, and thus their formation, within the protoplanetary nebula would be predicted if it were not for their ubiquitous presence in most chondritic meteorites. The study of these enigmatic, igneous objects has a direct influence on how meteoritic and solar system researchers model the processes operating and the materials present within our protoplanetary nebula. Key to understanding chondrule formation is a determination of constraints on their thermal histories. The three important variables in this history are their peak melting temperatures, the duration of their melting at peak temperatures, and the rate at which these object cool. Although these three variables are interdependent, it is cooling rate that provides the most powerful constraint. Cooling rate has a direct affect on the development of both crystal morphology and the elemental distributions within these grains. To date, experiments have indicated that chondrule cooling rates are in the range of 10's to 100's of degrees per hour for porphyritic chondrules (the most abundant type). The cooling rate for radial and barred chondrules is thought to be more rapid. To generate these cooling rates (rapid relative to the cooling of the nebula as a whole, but slow compared to simple black body radiation) the environment of chondrule formation must have been localized, and the abundance of solid materials must have been greatly enhanced above a gas of solar composition. Thus accurate determinations of chondrule cooling rates is critical in understanding both their formation and the nebular environment in which they formed. In a quest to more accurately determine the lower limit on cooling rates and to determine in more detail the effects of Fe loss from a molten sample to Pt wire loops, Weinbruch et al. have explored this issue experimentally and reevaluated the findings of Radomsky and Hewins in light of their new results. The basic conclusions of their paper are an

  17. The Influence of Cooling Rates on the Paleointensities of Volcanic Glasses Tested on Synthetic and Natural Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Aulock, F. W.; Ferk, A.; Leonhardt, R.; Hess, K. U.; Cordonnier, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2009-05-01

    For a better understanding of the ancient magnetic field of the earth, paleointensities are essential. Pristine glass is often dominated by single domain magnetic remanence and alteration can be excluded to the most extent. However a major biasing factor is the magnetic cooling rate dependency. In this study, we validate the method used to correct this effect. A natural phonolitic glass sample from Tenerife, Spain was homogenized at 1600 ° C in order to let the volatiles escape. It was then tempered at 900 ° C for 10 h to grow a sufficient amount of magnetic remanence carriers. Six samples of this glass were heated above the glass transition temperature and cooled down with constant rates of 0.1 to 15 Kmin-1 in a SiC furnace with bifilar winding in the present ambient magnetic field of Munich (˜48 μT). Rock magnetic measurements suggest SD titanomagnetites with different Ti impurities but did not show trends related to the cooling rates. Modified Thellier experiments (MT4) were performed, showing a mean intensity of 56.3 ±0.9 μT, which is considerably too high. However, after performing the cooling rate correction reasonable intensities of about 46 μT were obtained. To apply the correction method to natural samples, a vertical profile through a Lava flow in Tenerife was drilled and the natural cooling rates of the samples were estimated by relaxation geospeedometry. The structure of glass depends strongly on its thermal history. Structural relaxation processes are expressed in properties, such as the heat capacity (Cp) which was measured in several heating/cooling cycles across the glass transition interval. By modelling the Cp-T curves, the natural cooling rates were obtained. They show an unsymmetrical gradient of 10 Kmin-1 at the top and the bottom and 0.05 Kmin-1 inside the flow. The cooling rates were used to correct the paleointensity data of the flow. The mean uncorrected paleointensities are about 67 μT, with anisotropy correction about 69 μT and

  18. A new estimate of the chondrule cooling rate deduced from an analysis of compositional zoning of relict olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-03-01

    Compositional zoning in chondrule phenocrysts records the crystallization environments in the early solar nebula. We modeled the growth of olivine phenocrysts from a silicate melt and proposed a new fractional crystallization model that provides a relation between the zoning profile and the cooling rate. In our model, we took elemental partitioning at a growing solid-liquid interface and time-dependent solute diffusion in the liquid into consideration. We assumed a local equilibrium condition, namely, that the compositions at the interface are equal to the equilibrium ones at a given temperature. We carried out numerical simulations of the fractional crystallization in one-dimensional planar geometry. The simulations revealed that under a constant cooling rate the growth velocity increases exponentially with time and a linear zoning profile forms in the solid as a result. We derived analytic formulae of the zoning profile, which reproduced the numerical results for wide ranges of crystallization conditions. The formulae provide a useful tool to estimate the cooling rate from the compositional zoning. Applying the formulae to low-FeO relict olivine grains in type II porphyritic chondrules observed by Wasson and Rubin, we estimate the cooling rate to be ∼200-2000 K s{sup –1}, which is greater than that expected from furnace-based experiments by orders of magnitude. Appropriate solar nebula environments for such rapid cooling conditions are discussed.

  19. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Mechanical Strength of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Sheets in Press Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, D.; Yoneyama, T.; Kawamoto, K.; Okamoto, M.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effect of the cooling rate of the carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) sheets on the mechanical property in the press forming within 1 min cycle time. In order to pay attention only to the compression stage after the deformation stage in press forming, a flat sheet of dimensions 200 mm × 100 mm × 3 mm was produced. It was fabricated by stacking 15 CFRTP sheets of 0.2-mm-thick plain woven fabric impregnated with PA6, preheating them to 280 °C and pressing them at 5 MPa using a die cooled from near the melting temperature of PA6 with various cooling rates. Cooling rate of -26 °C/s with pressure holding time (defined in this study as the period that the pressure sensor detects high pressure) of 7 s and that of -4.4 °C/s with pressure holding time of 18 s gave a flexural strength of 536 and 733 MPa, respectively. It was found that the cooling rate during pressure holding is related to the mechanical property of press-formed CFRTP part.

  20. Effects of Treatment Duration and Cooling Rate on Pure Aluminum Solidification Upon Pulse Magneto-Oscillation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edry, Itzhak; Mordechai, Tomer; Frage, Nachum; Hayun, Shmuel

    2016-03-01

    The effect of pulse magneto-oscillation (PMO) treatment on casting grain size has been widely investigated. Nevertheless, its mechanism remains unclear, especially when PMO is applied at different periods during solidification, namely when only applied above the melting point. In the present work, the effect of PMO treatment applied at different segments during solidification was investigated. It was found that the dendrite fragmentation model may well explain the effect of PMO applied during the dendrite growth stage. However, only the cavities activation model may account for the effect when PMO is conducted above the melting point. In current study, the effect of PMO treatment on grain size was also investigated at various cooling rates. It was established that the cooling rate had only a slight effect on grain size when PMO treatment was applied. Thus, PMO treatment may provide homogeneous grain size distribution in castings with different wall thicknesses that solidified with various cooling rates.

  1. Modeling of the cooling rate effect on the residual stress formation in the cantala fiber/recycled HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probotinanto, Yosafat C.; Raharjo, Wijang W.; Budiana, Eko P.

    2016-03-01

    Residual stress has great influence on the mechanical properties of polymer composites. Therefore, its formation during the manufacturing process needs to be investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the influences of cooling rate on the residual stress distribution of the cantala/rHDPE composite by simulation. The simulation was done by using a SOLID227 element type of ANSYS. The cooling rates that used in this study are 0.5°C/minute, 1°C/minute, and 60°C/minute. The values of the residual stress correspond to the increasing of the cooling rate are 1171.31 kPa, 1171.42 kPa, 1172.36 kPa. In the radial direction, the residual stress was tensile inside the fibers, while in the longitudinal direction, the tensile residual stress occurred in the matrix zones and compressive in the fiber zones.

  2. Heart rate variability in sleeping preterm neonates exposed to cool and warm thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen; Léké, André; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks). Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions). An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies.

  3. Cooling rates dependence of medium-range order development in C u64 .5Z r35 .5 metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, F.; Wang, C. Z.; Mendelev, M. I.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-02-01

    The atomic structure of metallic glasses (MGs) plays an important role in their properties. Numerous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have revealed icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) as a dominant motif in Cu-Zr metallic glasses. However, the cooling rates utilized in most of the MD simulations (usually on the order of 1010 -13K /s ) can be too high to allow the structure to relax into the actual structures. By performing a long sub-Tg annealing of the C u64.5Z r35.5 alloy model at 700 K up to 2.0 μ s using MD simulations, we systematically address the evolution of medium-range order (MRO) as the cooling rates in MD simulations approach the experimental cooling rates (usually 103 -6K /s ). By reducing the effective cooling rates to as low as 2.8 ×107K /s , we found a significant enhancement of the ISRO and Bergman-type MRO. Comparing to the widely used face-, edge-, or vertex-sharing icosahedra, we propose that the Bergman-type MRO is a much more unambiguous metric to characterize the MRO in Cu-Zr MGs. By analyzing the network formed by interpenetrating icosahedra using the graphical theory, we show that the degree of interpenetration of the icosahedra centers increases with decreasing cooling rates. The network becomes aggressively assortative, indicating that higher degree nodes tend to cluster and form backbones in the MG. All these results show that the networks in the models prepared using lower cooling rates strongly deviate from a stringlike morphology.

  4. Cooling rate and thermal structure determined from progressive magnetization of the dacite dome at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.; Denlinger, R.P.; Rosenbaum, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Our study of a magnetic anomaly associated with the recently active dacite dome at Mount St. Helens suggests that the dome consists of a hot, nonmagnetized core surrounded by a cool, magnetized carapace and flanking talus. Temporal changes in the magnetic anomaly indicate that the magnetized carapace thickened at an average rate of 0.03 ?? 0.01 m/d from 1984 to 1986. Petrographic and rock magnetic properties of dome samples indicate that the dominant process responsible for these changes is magnetization of extensively oxidized rock at progressively deeper levels within the dome as the rock cools through its blocking temperature, rather than subsequent changes in magnetization caused by further oxidation. Newly extruded material cools rapidly for a short period as heat is conducted outward in response to convective heat loss from its surface. The cooling rate gradually declines for several weeks, and thereafter the material cools at a relatively constant rate by convective heat loss from its interior along fractures that propagate inward. -from Authors

  5. Metallographic preparation of Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy for analysis by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, M G; Martínez-Flores, E E; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Escalera, M Dolores

    2014-08-01

    Samples of Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy (Zinalco) that will be heavily deformed were prepared using five different manual mechanical metallographic methods. Samples were analyzed before tensile testing using the orientation imaging microscopy-electron backscatter diffraction (OIM-EBSD) technique. The effect of type and particle size during the final polishing stages for this material were studied in order to identify a method that produces a flat, damage free surface with a roughness of about 50 nm and clean from oxide layers, thereby producing diffraction patterns with high image quality (IQ) and adequate confidence indexes (CI). Our results show that final polishing with alumina and silica, as was previously suggested by other research groups for alloys that are difficult to prepare or alloys with low melting point, are not suitable for manual metallographic preparation of this alloy. Indexes of IQ and CI can be used to evaluate methods of metallographic preparation of samples studied using the OIM-EBSD technique.

  6. Field drying rate differences amoung cool-season grasses harvested for hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Making high-quality, cool-season grass hay is a challenge, due to the field drying time needed to reach the appropriate moisture content and the high probability of rain in the spring when hay is typically produced. This study was conducted to determine if cool-season grasses with different yield po...

  7. Effect of cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration on intracellular ice formation of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) eggs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chiang-Yi; Yeh, Yu-Hui Flora; Lee, Po-Ting; Lin, Ta-Te

    2013-08-01

    The intracellular ice formation (IIF) behavior of Haliotis diversicolor (small abalone) eggs is investigated in this study, in relation to controlling the cooling rate and the concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The IIF phenomena are monitored under a self-developed thermoelectric cooling (TEC) cryomicroscope system which can achieve accurate temperature control without the use of liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the isothermal and ramp control is within ±0.5 °C. The IIF results indicate that the IIF of small abalone eggs is well suppressed at cooling rates of 1.5, 3, 7 and 12 °C/min with 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0M DMSO in sea water. As 2.0M DMSO in sea water is the minimum concentration that has sufficient IIF suppression, it is selected as the suspension solution for the cryopreservation of small abalone eggs in order to consider the solution's toxicity effect. Moreover, IIF characteristics of the cumulative probability of IIF temperature distribution are shown to be well fitted by the Weibull probabilistic distribution. According to our IIF results and the Weibull distribution parameters, we conclude that cooling at 1.5 °C/min from 20 to -50 °C with 2.0M DMSO in sea water is more feasible than other combinations of cooling rates and DMSO concentrations in our experiments. Applying this protocol and observing the subsequent osmotic activity, 48.8% of small abalone eggs are osmotically active after thawing. In addition, the higher the cooling rate, the less chance of osmotically active eggs. A separate fertility test experiment, with a cryopreservation protocol of 1.5 °C/min cooling rate and 2.0M DMSO in sea water, achieves a hatching rate of 23.7%. This study is the first to characterize the IIF behavior of small abalone eggs in regard to the cooling rate and the DMSO concentration. The Weibull probabilistic model fitting in this study is an approach that can be applied by other researchers for effective cryopreservation variability estimation and

  8. Radiative energy balance of Venus: An approach to parameterize thermal cooling and solar heating rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Arnold, G.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal cooling rates QC and solar heating rates QH in the atmosphere of Venus at altitudes between 0 and 100 km are investigated using the radiative transfer and radiative balance simulation techniques described by Haus et al. (2015b, 2016). QC strongly responds to temperature profile and cloud parameter changes, while QH is less sensitive to these parameters. The latter mainly depends on solar insolation conditions and the unknown UV absorber distribution. A parameterization approach is developed that permits a fast and reliable calculation of temperature change rates Q for different atmospheric model parameters and that can be applied in General Circulation Models to investigate atmospheric dynamics. A separation of temperature, cloud parameter, and unknown UV absorber influences is performed. The temperature response parameterization relies on a specific altitude and latitude-dependent cloud model. It is based on an algorithm that characterizes Q responses to a broad range of temperature perturbations at each level of the atmosphere using the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) as basis temperature model. The cloud response parameterization considers different temperature conditions and a range of individual cloud mode factors that additionally change cloud optical depths as determined by the initial latitude-dependent model. A QH response parameterization for abundance changes of the unknown UV absorber is also included. Deviations between accurate calculation and parameterization results are in the order of a few tenths of K/day at altitudes below 90 km. The parameterization approach is used to investigate atmospheric radiative equilibrium (RE) conditions. Polar mesospheric RE temperatures above the cloud top are up to 70 K lower and equatorial temperatures up to 10 K higher than observed values. This radiative forcing field is balanced by dynamical processes that maintain the observed thermal structure.

  9. Effect of Cooling Rate and Oxygen Fugacity on the Crystallization of the Queen Alexandra Range 94201 Martian Melt Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koizumi, E.; Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.; Schwandt, C.; Monkawa, A.; Miyamoto, M.

    2002-01-01

    Although many basaltic shergottites have been recently found in north African deserts, QUE94201 basaltic shergottite (QUE) is still important because of its particular mineralogical and petrological features. This meteorite is thought to represent its parent melt composition [1 -3] and to crystallize under most reduced condition in this group [1,4]. We performed experimental study by using the synthetic glass that has the same composition as the bulk of QUE. After homogenization for 48 hours at 1300 C, isothermal and cooling experiments were done under various conditions (e.g. temperature, cooling rates, and redox states). Our goals are (1) to verify that QUE really represents its parent melt composition, (2) to estimate a cooling rate of this meteorite, (3) to clarify the crystallization sequences of present minerals, and (4) to verity that this meteorite really crystallized under reduced condition.

  10. Ocean Zircon - constraints on cooling histories, spreading rate, and modes of crustal accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; Baines, G.; Grimes, C. B.; Wooden, J.

    2009-12-01

    Igneous zircon is an ubiquitous component of evolved gabbroic rocks (including gabbro norite, Fe-Ti oxide and/or amphibole-bearing gabbro, quartz diorite, and tonalite) found in oceanic lithosphere. Ion microprobe analysis by SHRIMP-RG has allowed characterization of a large set of trace elements from these zircon, which help define a robust method for discriminating source in provenance studies. U/Yb and Th/Yb vs. Hf, Y, or other HREE reveal distinct chemical fields discriminating between ocean and continental-derived zircon in ancient environments. Decreasing Ti correlates with enrichment in Hf and U, suggesting growth from fractionating melt. Ti-in-zircon temperatures range from ~1000-600°C (corrected for aTiO2=0.7,aSiO2=1.0,P=2 kbar), with intra-sample variation typically ~60-180°C. Individual grains show up to 120°C temperature variation, corresponding to concentric CL zoning, but not to sector zoning. Individual zircons from a single sample can have differing Ti concentrations, suggesting that each zircon may record different parts of the crystallization history over a temperature range of up to ~200°C. This observation is consistent with previous single-grain TIMS dating of zircon from five samples recording an age range up to 90-235ka (Lissenberg et al, 2009). Combining SIMS Ti-in-zircon temperatures with TIMS U-Pb zircon ages can constrain cooling rates over the temperature interval of ~900-700°C. Rare single zircon crystals show distinct cores and rims that record up to 2.5 m.y. of inheritance, testifying to the complexity of crustal growth at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges. U/Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon collected from in-situ ocean lithosphere also constrain plate spreading rates, helps calibrate marine magnetic anomalies, provides constraints on the timing of both magmatism and denudation, and contributes to knowledge of the rates and duration of crustal growth at mid-ocean ridges. Spreading rate estimates based on zircon geochronology from

  11. Projected Life of the SLAC Linac Braze Joints: Braze integrity and corrosion of cooling water hardware on accelerator sections

    SciTech Connect

    Glesener, W.F.; Garwin, E.L.; /SLAC

    2006-07-17

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the condition of braze joints and cooling water hardware from an accelerator section after prolonged use. Metallographic analysis was used to examine critical sites on an accelerator section that had been in use for more than 30 years. The end flange assembly showed no internal operational damage or external environmental effects. The cavity cylinder stack showed no internal operational damage however the internal surface was highly oxidized. The internal surface of the cooling water tubing was uniformly corroding at a rate of about 1 mil per year and showed no evidence of pitting. Tee fitting internal surfaces are corroding at non-uniform rates due to general corrosion and pitting. Remaining service life of the cooling water jacket is estimated to be about 20 years or year 2027. At this time, water supply pressure will exceed allowable fitting pressure due to corrosion of tubing walls.

  12. Metallographic screening of grain boundary engineered type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hanning, F. Engelberg, D.L.

    2014-08-15

    An electrochemical etching method for the identification of grain boundary engineered type 304 austenitic stainless steel microstructures is described. The method can be applied for rapid microstructure screening to complement electron backscatter diffraction analysis. A threshold parameter to identify grain boundary engineered microstructure is proposed, and the application of metallographic etching for characterising the degree of grain boundary engineering discussed. - Highlights: • As-received (annealed) and grain boundary engineered microstructures were compared. • Electro-chemical polarisation in nitric acid solutions was carried out. • A metallographic screening method has been developed. • The screening method complements EBSD analysis for microstructure identification.

  13. Paleointensity estimates from oceanic gabbros: Effects of hydrothermal alteration and cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Yoichi

    2013-09-01

    Gabbros recovered by previous ocean drillings were investigated in paleointensity and rock magnetic experiments. The young ages of the samples (ca. 0.78-1.3 Ma) enable a direct comparison between the plutonic paleointensity and volcanic data. Microscopic observations revealed two kinds of magnetite: needle-shaped exsolution in plagioclase and aggregate associated with the hydrothermal alteration of olivine. In Shaw paleointensity experiments, some samples revealed reasonable estimates, while some others showed an anomalously low ratio of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) versus thermoremanent magnetization (TRM). First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams indicated that the reasonable NRM/TRM were from non-interacting single domain magnetite exsolved in plagioclase, while the anomalously low NRM/TRM were from secondary magnetite associated with olivine. From the paleointensity results, the mean virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) was calculated to be 8.2 ±2.1 [1022Am2]. Volcanic records in the PINT database for 0.78-1.3 Ma revealed a mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) of 6.3 ± 0.73 [1022Am2]. The difference between them is consistent with the theoretical prediction of the cooling rate effect on paleointensity. These results indicate that oceanic gabbros are reliable paleointensity recorders.

  14. Influence of Cooling Rate on Phase Formationin Spray-Formed H13 Tool Steel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Mchugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia

    2006-04-01

    Spray forming is an effective way to process many tool steels into near-net-shape molds, dies and related tooling. The general approach involves depositing atomized droplets onto a refractory pattern in order to image the pattern’s features. The pattern is removed and the die is fitted into a standard holding fixture. This approach results in significant cost and lead-time savings compared to conventional machining, Spray-formed dies perform well in many industrial forming operations, oftentimes exhibiting extended die life over conventional dies. Care must be exercised when spray forming tool steel dies to minimize porosity and control the nature and distribution of phases and residual stresses. Selection of post-deposition heat treatment is important to tailor the die’s properties (hardness, strength, impact energy, etc.) for a particular application. This paper examines how the cooling rate and other processing parameters during spray processing and heat treatment of H13 tool steel influence phase formation. Results of case studies on spray-formed die performance in forging, extrusion and die casting, conducted by industry during production runs, will be described.

  15. Structural relaxation time and cooling rate of a melt in the glass transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Sydykov, B. S.

    2015-03-01

    The nature of the parameter involved in the Bartenev equation qτg = C relating the cooling rate of a glass-forming melt to its structural relaxation time in the glass transition region is discussed on the basis of the Volkenshtein-Ptitsyn theory using a number of known relationships. It is established that parameter C for amorphous substances with the same fragility is linearly temperature dependent. This parameter is shown to equal the narrow temperature range δ T g characterizing the liquid-glass transition region (by Nemilov); i.e., C = δ T g. It is concluded that δ T g for most glassy systems is only ˜0.7% of the glass transition temperature T g. The narrowness of temperature range δ T g is explained by the small fluctuation volume fraction f g "frozen" at the glass transition temperature. The concept of a close relationship between constant C and the structural order at T g (i.e., the characteristic of the inner state of a nonequilibrium "frozen" amorphous system) is developed.

  16. Multiple Igneous Bodies for Nakhlites and Chassignites as Inferred from Olivine Cooling Rates using Calcium Zoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Nakhlites and chassignites are ultramafic cumulate rocks of clinopyroxene and olivine, respec-tively, considered to have been formed in a thick lava flow or shallow intrusion near the Martian surface [e.g., 1,2]. Although more than 100 Martian meteorites have been found so far, most of them are shergottites and only nine nakhlites and three chassignites are known (considering paired samples) [3]. In contrast to shergottites which show large variations in both mineralogy and ages, nakhlites and chassignites are suggested to have been petrogenetically related, crystallized at about the same time and been ejected by the same impact event because of their identical crystallization (approximately 1.3 Ga) and cosmic-ray exposure (10-11 My) ages [e.g., 1]. In this study we discuss the possibility of a common igneous body for all samples belonging to these two groups as suggested by previous studies [e.g., 4]. To do this we estimated cooling rates of olivine using Ca zoning profiles, especially by paying attention to the newest samples of each group (NWA 10720 nakhlite and NWA 8694 chassignite).

  17. Palaeointensity determination on an early medieval kiln from Switzerland and the effect of cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadini, F.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Hedley, I. G.; Pesonen, L. J.

    The archaeomagnetic intensity reference curve for Western Europe lacks data during the period from 600 to 1000 AD. Baked clay from the walls of a pottery kiln at Reinach (Switzerland), archaeologically dated to the beginning of the 9th century AD, and having a 14C date of 1250 ± 50 BP, was investigated in order to refine the ancient geomagnetic field intensity during this period. A previous study to test the suitability of the material has shown that the magnetic properties of the baked clay from this Reinach kiln are appropriate for an archaeomagnetic study, and furthermore an archaeomagnetic directional date agrees well with the 14C date. A series of palaeointensity measurements was carried out in Sofia (Bulgaria). Here we present the results obtained from the same material, as performed in Helsinki (Finland) using different techniques. The comparison of the results shows significant differences between the two datasets. Based on the literature data, the discrepancy can be explained in terms of the different cooling rates of the samples used during the experiments in the two laboratories. Nevertheless, the results show that the geomagnetic field intensity had a high mean value of 86.85 ± 1.49 μT when the kiln was last used. This observation is consistent with recent studies from France covering the period during which the Reinach kiln functioned.

  18. Investigation of structural defects in In-doped CdZnTe under different in-situ annealing cooling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiaobing; Min, Jiahua; Liang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jijun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Liuqing; Ling, Yunpeng; Duan, Lei; Shen, Yue

    2015-09-01

    The In-doped Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT) crystals were grown by the modified Vertical Bridgeman method and treated by in-situ annealing with six different cooling rates. Photo-Induced Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS) and IR microscopy were employed to investigate the evolution mechanism of point defects and bulk defects (mainly Te inclusions) in the CZT crystals with different cooling rates. Related optical and electrical properties were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and I-V measurements. The results indicated that cooling at slow rate (10-20 K/h) could decrease the concentration of point defects, such as A center, Cd vacancy (VCd2-), Te antisite (TeCd2+) and so on, while the Te inclusions are of larger dimension and lower concentration. Otherwise, the faster cooling rate (50-60 K/h), the higher concentration of these point defects, and Te inclusion present small size but much larger concentration. Moreover, cooling too fast or too slow significantly degrades the optical and electrical properties. When cooled at 30-40 K/h, the concentration of internal point defects is the lowest, suggesting that VCd2- compensated with TeCd2+ to reach a new equilibrium corresponding to the theory of quasichemical defect reactions (QCDR). In addition, a certain concentration of TeCd2+ was beneficial to pin the Fermi-level, and the Te inclusions presented lowest total volume fraction, which made the crystals perform great with higher resistivity and infrared transmittance.

  19. Evaporative tunnel cooling of dairy cows in the southeast. I: effect on body temperature and respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Smith, T R; Chapa, A; Willard, S; Herndon, C; Williams, R J; Crouch, J; Riley, T; Pogue, D

    2006-10-01

    The techniques used to mitigate the effects of heat stress on lactating dairy cows are often overwhelmed in the southeastern United States, where elevated heat and humidity often persist for extended periods. A model free-stall barn located at the North Mississippi Branch Experiment Station in Holly Springs was used to evaluate the potential of tunnel ventilation with evaporative cooling to alleviate heat stress in lactating dairy cows. Two studies were conducted using 2 groups of 10 lactating Holsteins housed in the tunnel barn (inside) and 2 groups of matched herdmates housed in an adjacent covered free-stall barn (outside), which was cooled by fans and sprinklers during 2001 or by shade and fans alone in 2003. Peak daytime temperatures inside were 5.2 +/- 0.18 degrees C below that outside in 2001 and 3.1 +/- 0.20 degrees C lower in 2003. Although evaporative cooling increased humidity by 22%, cows housed in the tunnel barn received 84% less exposure to moderate heat stress (temperature-humidity index > 80) in both years. Cooling cows with evaporative tunnel ventilation reduced respiration rates by 15.5 +/- 0.56 breaths/min and rectal temperatures by 0.6 +/- 0.02 degrees C compared with shade and fans alone in 2003. Cooling cows with evaporative tunnel ventilation reduced respiration rates by 13.1 +/- 0.78 breaths/min and rectal temperatures by 0.4 +/- 0.03 degrees C compared with fans and sprinklers in 2001. Thus, tunnel ventilation cooling dramatically reduced the exposure to heat stress and improved the comfort of lactating dairy cows when compared with traditional cooling technologies under the conditions present in the southeastern United States.

  20. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  1. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 solar mass per year. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar mass per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  2. Structural and phase transformations in iron-based alloy obtained in conditions of high cooling rate crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevskaya, Zh. G.; Khimich, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    The production of parts by selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is accompanied by the formation of nonequilibrium structures. This is caused by the crystallization of alloys with high cooling rates. To evaluate the influence of cooling rate on the process of structural and phase transformations in the Fe-8Si-5Al-2C alloy, the electron beam melting of plasma coating was carried out. The dendritic structure was formed in the molten pool. The distance between dendritic branches of the second order was 2-5 µm. This corresponds to the cooling rate of about 103 K/s. The electron microscopy has shown that dendrites were formed by α-phase, while γ-phase was localized between α-phase crystals in form of intercalations. The secondary phases (intermetallic, aluminum and iron carbosilicides, aluminates and iron carboaluminates) are of sub-micron size and located in the α- and γ-phase boundary intersections or within the grains of the main phase. The microhardness of the alloy increases twofold. This suggests that complex hardening by solid-solution and dispersed hardening by the secondary phase particles occurs during crystallization with the above-mentioned cooling rate.

  3. Effects of Cooling Rate and Solute Content on the Grain Refinement of Mg-Gd-Y Alloys by Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jichun; Easton, Mark A.; Zhang, Mingxing; Qiu, Dong; Xiong, Xiangyuan; Liu, Wencai; Wu, Guohua

    2014-09-01

    The effect of Al additions on grain refinement of Mg-Gd-Y alloys with different solute contents at different cooling rates has been investigated. For all alloys, significant grain refinement was due to the formation of Al2(Gd x Y1- x ) nucleant particles. The number density and size distribution of Al2(Gd x Y1- x ) were affected by both solute content and the cooling rate. Grain sizes ( d gs) of Mg-Gd-Y base alloys and of Mg-Gd-Y-Al alloys were related to solute content (defined by the growth restriction factor, Q), cooling rate (), and area number density ( ρ ns) and size ( d p) of nucleant particles that can be activated. It is found that grain sizes of Mg-Gd-Y base alloys follow the relationship , while grain sizes of Al-refined samples follow the relationship , where a, b, a', and b' were constants. In addition, the grain refinement effect of Al additions was more susceptible to solute content and the cooling rate than that of Zr which is regarded as the most efficient grain refiner for Mg alloys.

  4. Cooling rates and body temperature regulation of hibernating echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Nicol, Stewart C; Andersen, Niels A

    2007-02-01

    Echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) are amongst the largest deep hibernators, but it is difficult to get them to hibernate normally under laboratory conditions. We measured body temperature (Tb) in 14 free-ranging echidnas using implanted data-loggers. Cooling during entry into hibernation bouts followed a Newtonian cooling curve, and conductances calculated from cooling curves were identical to those observed in cold exposed euthermic echidnas. Comparison with a reference soil temperature demonstrated that echidnas showed behavioural thermoregulation during hibernation; early in the hibernation season echidnas preferred to hibernate in cool areas, while during the coldest months they moved to warmer hibernacula, giving a preferred Tb in the range 8-10 degrees C. Thermal buffering against excessive variation in Tb may be as important as maintaining a low Tb.

  5. Transpiration cooling of hypersonic blunt bodies with finite rate surface reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henline, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The convective heat flux blockage to blunt body and hypersonic vehicles by transpiration cooling are presented. The general problem of mass addition to laminar boundary layers is reviewed. Results of similarity analysis of the boundary layer problem are provided for surface heat flux with transpiration cooling. Detailed non-similar results are presented from the numerical program, BLIMPK. Comparisons are made with the similarity theory. The effects of surface catalysis are investigated.

  6. Cooling rate and thermal structure determined from progressive magnetization of the dacite dome at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dzurisin, D. ); Denlinger, R.P. ); Rosenbaum, J.G. )

    1990-03-10

    The study suggests that the dome consists of a hot, nonmagnetized core surrounded by a cool magnetized carapace and flanking talus. Temporal changes in the magnetic anomaly indicate that the magnetized carapace thickened at an average rate of 0.03 {plus minus} 0.01 m/d from 1984 to 1986. Petrographic and rock magnetic properties of dome samples indicate that the dominant process responsible for these changes is magnetization of extensively oxidized rock at progressively deeper levels within the dome as the rock cools through its blocking temperature, rather than subsequent changes in magetization caused by further oxidation. Newly extruded material cools rapidly for a short period as heat is conducted outward in response to convective heat loss from its surface. The cooling rate gradually declines for several weeks, and thereafter the material cools at a relatively constant rate by convective heat loss from its interior along fractures that propagate inward. The rate of internal convective heat loss through fractures varies with rainfall, snowmelt, and large-scale fracturing during subsequent eruptive episodes. In accordance with a model for solidification of the 1959 lava lake at Kilauea Iki, Hawaii, the authors picture the dome's magnetized carapace as being a two-phase, porous, convective zone separated from the nonmagnetized core of the dome by a thin, single-phase conductive zone. As a consequence of the heat balance between the conductive and convective zones, the blocking-temperature isotherm migrates inward at a relatively constant rate. If the dome remains inactive, the time scale for its complete magnetization is estimated to be 18-36 years, a forecast which can be refined by shallow drilling into the dome and by continuing studies of its growing magnetic anomaly.

  7. Effect of Rolling Temperature and Ultrafast Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qibin; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yu; Wang, Guodong

    2016-07-01

    Microstructure can vary significantly through thickness after ultrafast cooling of rolled steel plates, impacting their mechanical properties. This study examined the microstructure, microstructural banding at centerline, and mechanical properties through thickness for different ultrafast cooling conditions and rolling temperatures. One set of steels (UC1 and UC2) were ultrafast-cooled (UFC) at 40 K/s after finish rolling at 1223 K and 1193 K (950 °C and 910 °C), respectively, while the second set (LC) was cooled by laminar cooling at 17 K/s after finish rolling at 1238 K (965 °C). UFC produced microstructural variation through thickness; highly dislocated lath-type bainitic ferrite was formed near the surface, whereas the primary microstructure was acicular ferrite and irregular polygonal ferrite in the interior of UC1 and UC2 steels, respectively. However, UFC has the advantage of suppression of microstructural banding in centerline segregation regions. The ferrite grain size in both UFC-cooled steels was refined to ~5 μm, increasing strength and toughness. The optimum combination of properties was obtained in UC2 steel with appropriate low finish rolling temperature, being attributed to the distinct microstructure resulting from work-hardened austenite before UFC.

  8. Cryopreservation of lipid-rich seeds: effect of moisture content and cooling rate on germination.

    PubMed

    González-Benito, E M; Pérez-García, F

    2001-01-01

    The effect of fast and slow cooling on germination of seeds from two Brassicaceae species (Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav., Brassica napus L. var. oleifera (Moench) DC cv. Bingo) and cypselas from three Compositae species (Onopordum nervosum Boiss., Onopordum acanthium L., Helianthus annuus L. cv. Viky) at different moisture contents was studied. Seed lipid content (dry weight basis) ranged from 15% (O. nervosum) to 41% (H. annuus). For each species, seeds with four moisture contents were cryopreserved either by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen or by previous cooling at 10 degrees C/min from room temperature to -50 degrees C. In three species (E. vesicaria, B. napus, and H. annuus) germination of air-dried (6.2-8.9% moisture content) seeds cooled by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen was not significantly different from germination of control seeds (air-dried, non-cooled). In the two Onorpordum species the best response among cooling treatments was observed when air-dried seeds were slowly cooled.

  9. Effects of egg yolk and cooling rate on the survival of refrigerated red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santos, M R; Esteso, M C; Soler, A J; Montoro, V; Garde, J J

    2006-04-01

    Egg yolk is a common component to sperm refrigeration for most of the deer species, the role of which is to protect sperm membranes against cold shock. In addition, there have been many studies of conservation of ejaculated semen from stags, but few have been reported for epididymal spermatozoa. This work was designed to investigate the combined effects of cooling rates (slow: 0.23 degrees C/min vs rapid: 4.2 degrees C/min) from room temperature to 5 degrees C, and egg-yolk concentration (0, 5 or 20%) in the extender on the survival of Iberian red deer epididymal spermatozoa refrigerated at 5 degrees C. Heterospermic sperm samples were diluted to a final sperm concentration approximately 400x10(6) sperm/ml with a Tris-citrate-fructose (TCF)-egg-yolk diluent. Sperm quality was in vitro judged by microscopic assessments of individual sperm motility [sperm motility index (SMI)], and of plasma membrane (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and acrosome (NAR) integrities. Our results first showed that the presence of egg yolk in the extender significantly improves (p=0.01) the viability and sperm motility after sperm dilution. In addition, acrosome and plasma membrane integrities post-refrigeration did not differ significantly between cooling procedures; however, the SMI differed significantly between cooling procedures (slow: 46.6% vs rapid: 50.0%; p=0.01). Our results also showed that sperm quality was significantly (p<0.01) affected by the combined effects of egg-yolk concentration and cooling procedure, being rapid cooling with 20% of egg yolk the most suitable combination for epididymal sperm refrigeration. In conclusion, egg-yolk improved red deer epididymal spermatozoa characteristics after dilution. Rapid cooling protocol using TCF with 20% egg-yolk significantly improved sperm motility of red deer epididymal spermatozoa after cooling.

  10. Metallographic preparation technique for hot-dip galvanized and galvannealed coatings on steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, C.E.; Goggins, K.M.; Benscoter, A.O.; Marder, A.R. )

    1993-09-01

    A new metallographic technique for hot-dip galvanized and galvannealed coatings has been developed. The new polishing procedure and etchant have shown excellent results on commercial hot-dip galvanized and galvanneal coatings, as well as on laboratory-simulated hot-dip galvanneal produced under a variety of thermal processing parameters.

  11. Influence of the cooling rate and the blend ratio on the physical stability of co-amorphous naproxen/indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Andreas; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-12-01

    Co-amorphization represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method and the blend ratio play major roles with regard to the resulting physical stability. Therefore, in the present study, co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin (NAP/IND) was prepared by melt-quenching at three different cooling rates and at ten different NAP/IND blend ratios. The samples were analyzed using XRPD and FTIR, both directly after preparation and during storage to investigate their physical stabilities. All cooling methods led to fully amorphous samples, but with significantly different physical stabilities. Samples prepared by fast cooling had a higher degree of crystallinity after 300d of storage than samples prepared by intermediate cooling and slow cooling. Intermediate cooling was subsequently used to prepare co-amorphous NAP/IND at different blend ratios. In a previous study, it was postulated that the equimolar (0.5:0.5) co-amorphous blend of NAP/IND is most stable. However, in the present study the physically most stable blend was found for a NAP/IND ratio of 0.6:0.4, which also represents the eutectic composition of the crystalline NAP/γ-IND system. This indicates that the eutectic point may be of major importance for the stability of binary co-amorphous systems. Slight deviations from the optimal naproxen molar fraction led to significant recrystallization during storage. Either naproxen or γ-indomethacin recrystallized until a naproxen molar fraction of about 0.6 in the residual co-amorphous phase was reached again. In conclusion, the physical stability of co-amorphous NAP/IND may be significantly improved, if suitable preparation conditions and the optimal phase composition are chosen.

  12. Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Surya Prakash

    Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the tensile strength gain in wire drawn low carbon steels using design of experiments. The probable reasons for variations in tensile strength gain are analyzed by observing the microstructural changes during experiments. Microstructural analysis was done extensively using optical microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and it was found that the tensile strength gain variation is mainly caused by the increase in the dislocation density in wire rod and wire due to high cooling rate and high laying head temperature, within the range considered. This research concludes that a low carbon wire rod can be produced with minimum tensile strength gain, lower dislocation density and finer ferrite grain size by maintaining a low cooling rate in the StelmorRTM cooling zone and low laying head temperature, which is the temperature at which the wire rod coils are laid on the Stelmor RTM deck. It is also concluded from the results of the present study that: (1) The lowest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 (0.07 wt.% Carbon) with low cooling rate of 14°F/s and low laying head temperature of 1500°F. (2) The highest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 with high cooling rate of 26°F/s and high laying head temperature of 1650°F. (3) The effect of StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature and their interaction are found to be the significant factors causing the variation in wire tensile strength gain. The StelmorRTM cooling rate has the most significant effect on tensile strength gain among the three factors. (4) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength

  13. Petrographic evidence for nonlinear cooling rates and a volcanic origin for Apollo 15 KREEP basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1987-01-01

    The results of petrographic studies of Apollo 15 KREEP basalt fragments are discussed. The Apollo 15 KREEP basalts display a wide range of grain size and texture, with some samples showing evidence for a two-stage (slow early, fast late) cooling in the form of phenocrysts, glomerocrysts, and large proportions of residual quenched glass. Two-stage cooling is common in volcanic, dynamic environments. The inference that these and other Apollo 15 KREEP basalts are volcanic requires a reexamination of the chemical and isotopic constraints on the genesis and regenesis of KREEP and early lunar evolution.

  14. A major revision of iron meteorite cooling rates - an experimental study of the growth of the Widmanstaetten pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, C.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1985-02-01

    Intragranular kamacite has been experimentally grown in Fe-Ni-P alloys containing between 5 and 10 percent by weight Ni and between 0 and 1.0 percent by weight P. The nucleation and growth process of these precipitates is studied using analytical electron microscopy techniques. A numerical model is developed to simulate the growth of intragranular kamacite in Fe-Ni-P alloys based on the experimental results, and this model is used to revise the existing cooling rate estimates of iron meteorites from observed Widmanstaetten patterns. It is found that heterogeneous sites like phospides are necessary for the nucleation of intragranular kamacite in the Fe-Ni-P system, and that kamacite size depends largely on the bulk Ni content and the cooling rate and to a lesser extent on the P concentration. The cooling rates predicted by the new model are two orders of magnitude greater than those previously estimated. To accommodate the new rates, meteorite parent bodies need only be a few kilometers in diameter.

  15. The effect of composition and cooling rate on the structure of rapidly solidified (Fe, Ni)3Al-C alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, S. A.; Koch, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The quench rate-metastable structure dependence in the Fe-20Ni-8Al-2C wt pct alloy has been experimentally studied. The nonequilibrium gamma-prime and gamma phases were noted in foils 65-100 microns thick, while at higher quench rates (thinner samples) the matrix was found to be in a disordered fcc gamma phase with kappa carbide precipitates. With the addition of silicon to the alloys, the nonequilibrium gamma-prime and gamma structures are observed at higher cooling rates.

  16. The effect of composition and cooling rate on the structure of rapidly solidified (Fe, Ni)3Al-C alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, S. A.; Koch, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The quench rate-metastable structure dependence in the Fe-20Ni-8Al-2C wt pct alloy has been experimentally studied. The nonequilibrium gamma-prime and gamma phases were noted in foils 65-100 microns thick, while at higher quench rates (thinner samples) the matrix was found to be in a disordered fcc gamma phase with kappa carbide precipitates. With the addition of silicon to the alloys, the nonequilibrium gamma-prime and gamma structures are observed at higher cooling rates.

  17. Effect of Temperature, Fractional Deformation, and Cooling Rate on the Structure and Properties of Steel 09GNB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodzhaspirov, G. E.; Sulyagin, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of temperature, divisibility of deformation, and cooling rate in high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTTMT) on the structure and mechanical properties of low-alloy steel 09GNB is studied. The steel is used as a high-strength material for the production of offshore structures, strips, and other welded articles. The study is performed using the method of experimental design where the parameters are fractional deformation (number of passes in rolling), final temperature of the deformation, and rate of post-deformation cooling. The results of the experiments are used to construct regression equations describing the qualitative and quantitative effect of the parameters of HTTMT on the mechanical properties of the steel. Microstructure and fracture surfaces of the steel are analyzed.

  18. Lipid tubule self-assembly: Length dependence on cooling rate through a first-order phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Dessen, A.; Blanchard, J.S.; Sacchettni, J.C.; Quemard, A.; Jacobs, W.R. Jr.

    1995-03-17

    The formation kinetics and self-assembly of multilamellar tubules of the diacetylenic phosphoilipid 1,2-bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycerol-3-phospocholine formed under controlled cooling rates were studied by x-ray diffraction and optical, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy. Tubule formation was driven by a reversible first-order phase transition from an intralamellar, chain-melted L{sub {alpha}} phase to a chain-frozen L{sub {beta}} phase. These observations are the basis of a highly efficient method of tubule production in which tubule lengths can be controlled, between 1 and 100 micrometers, by varying the cooling rate. These tubules can be made in suspensions with 10 percent lipoid by mass, far exceeding the lipid solubility limit. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  19. The effect of ultrasound irradiation on the convective heat transfer rate during immersion cooling of a stationary sphere.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Hossein; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhang, Zhihang

    2012-11-01

    It has been proven that ultrasound irradiation can enhance the rate of heat transfer processes. The objective of this work was to study the heat transfer phenomenon, mainly the heat exchange at the surface, as affected by ultrasound irradiation around a stationary copper sphere (k=386W m(-1)K(-1), C(p)=384J kg(-1)K(-1), ρ=8660kg m(-3)) during cooling. The sphere (0.01m in diameter) was immersed in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (-10°C) in an ultrasonic cooling system that included a refrigerated circulator, a flow meter, an ultrasound generator and an ultrasonic bath. The temperature of the sphere was recorded using a data logger equipped with a T-type thermocouple in the center of the sphere. The temperature of the cooling medium was also monitored by four thermocouples situated at different places in the bath. The sphere was located at different positions (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06m) above the transducer surface of the bath calculated considering the center of the sphere as the center of the reference system and was exposed to different intensities of ultrasound (0, 120, 190, 450, 890, 1800, 2800, 3400 and 4100W m(-2)) during cooling. The frequency of the ultrasound was 25kHz. It was demonstrated that ultrasound irradiation can increase the rate of heat transfer significantly, resulting in considerably shorter cooling times. Higher intensities caused higher cooling rates, and Nu values were increased from about 23-27 to 25-108 depending on the intensity of ultrasound and the position of the sphere. However, high intensities of ultrasound led to the generation of heat at the surface of the sphere, thus limiting the lowest final temperature achieved. An analytical solution was developed considering the heat generation and was fitted to the experimental data with R(2) values in the range of 0.910-0.998. Visual observations revealed that both cavitation and acoustic streaming were important for heat transfer phenomenon. Cavitation clouds at the surface of the sphere

  20. Effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and microhardness of the CuZrAgAl alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Blandin, J.J.; Suery, M.; Kapelski, G.

    2012-08-15

    The effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and microhardness of the Cu{sub 40}Zr{sub 44}Ag{sub 8}Al{sub 8} (at.%) alloy has been studied. The crystalline phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and identified as AlCu{sub 2}Zr, Cu{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} and CuZr{sub 2}. The solidification sequence was established as following: the Cu{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phase forms first in the periphery of the rod, then following with AlCu{sub 2}Zr phase in the rod center and finally CuZr{sub 2} crystals in Cu-depleted areas. The effect of crystals on the mechanical properties of the Cu{sub 40}Zr{sub 44}Ag{sub 8}Al{sub 8} alloy was also estimated through the microhardness. According to the value of microhardness, inhomogeneous structure of the amorphous matrix is more easily formed for the alloy in the low cooling rate (i.e., 9 mm) as compared with the alloy with fully amorphous state in the large cooling rate (i.e., 3 mm). This inhomogeneous structure was attributed to the composition change of amorphous matrix arising from the forming of crystalline phases due to the low cooling rate. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystalline phases in the Cu{sub 40}Zr{sub 44}Ag{sub 8}Al{sub 8} alloy were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solidification sequence of Cu{sub 40}Zr{sub 44}Ag{sub 8}Al{sub 8} alloy was verified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The softening and hardening of alloy could be observed due to the crystallization.

  1. Measurements of solar and terrestrial heating and cooling rate profiles in Arctic and sub-tropic stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Matthias; Lauermann, Felix; Ehrlich, André; Siebert, Holger; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Stratocumulus covers approximately 20 % (annually averaged) of the Earth's surface and thus strongly influences the atmospheric and surface radiative energy budget resulting in radiative cooling and heating effects. Globally, the solar cooling effect of the widespread sub-tropical stratocumulus dominates. However, in the Arctic the solar cloud albedo effect (cooling) is often smaller than the thermal-infrared greenhouse effect (warming), which is a result of the lower incoming solar radiation and the low cloud base height. Therefore, Arctic stratocumulus mostly warms the atmosphere and surface below the cloud. Additionally, different environmental conditions lead to differences between sub-tropical and Arctic stratocumulus. Broadband pyranometers and pyrgeometers will be used to measure heating and cooling rate profiles in and above stratocumulus. For this purpose two slowly moving platforms are used (helicopter and tethered balloon) in order to consider for the long response times of both broadband radiation sensors. Two new instrument packages are developed for the applied tethered balloon and helicopter platforms, which will be operated within Arctic and sub-tropical stratocumulus, respectively. In June 2017, the balloon will be launched from a sea ice floe north of 80 °N during the Arctic Balloon-borne profiling Experiment (ABEX) as part of (AC)3 (Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes and Feedback Mechanisms) Transregional Collaborative Research Center. The helicopter will sample sub-tropical stratocumulus over the Azores in July 2017.

  2. Influence of Both Cooling Rate and TeO2 Addition on the Properties of YBCO Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Yasser Momtaz Zaki; Hassan, Mervat Said; Abd-Elatif, Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Composite of superconducting system YBCO-TeO2 was synthesized utilizing solid-state reaction technique. Different weight percentages of TeO2 were mixed with a basic mixture [YBCO] for the synthesis of [YBa2Cu3O7- y ]1- x (TeO2) x composites. These mixtures were sintered at 1213 K (940 °C) for 24 hours and the samples cooled down by two different ways. The first way carried out via slowly cooling in furnace with the rate of 274 K/min to 275 K/min (1 °C/min to 2 °C/min) and the second one is quenching in oxygen gas. The XRD analysis showed that YBCO orthorhombic phase is the major phase appeared in all samples with different TeO2 content regardless of the cooling way. Additionally, minor unknown secondary phases appeared and enlarged with increasing TeO2 addition. Although quenched samples showed a phase difference between the sample's outer surface (orthorhombic) and its interior (tetragonal), the slowly cooled one did not clearly show such distinction. Moreover, doping YBCO with TeO2 leads to increase in the sample bulk density and reduction in their degradation degree in the wet atmosphere.

  3. Influence of cooling rate on secondary phase precipitation and proeutectoid phase transformation of micro-alloyed steel containing vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Kun; Meng, Lingtao; Liu, Qing; Liu, Bo; Huang, Yunhua

    2016-05-01

    During continuous casting process of low carbon micro-alloyed steel containing vanadium, the evolution of strand surface microstructure and the precipitation of secondary phase particles (mainly V(C, N)) are significantly influenced by cooling rate. In this paper, influence of cooling rate on the precipitation behavior of proeutectoid α-ferrite at the γ-austenite grain boundary and in the steel matrix are in situ observed and analyzed through high temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. The relationship between cooling rate and precipitation of V(C, N) from steel continuous casting bloom surface microstructure is further studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectrometer. Relative results have shown the effect of V(C, N) precipitation on α-ferrite phase transformation is mainly revealed in two aspects: (i) Precipitated V(C, N) particles act as inoculant particles to promote proeutectoid ferrite nucleation. (ii) Local carbon concentration along the γ-austenite grain boundaries is decreased with the precipitation of V(C, N), which in turn promotes α-ferrite precipitation.

  4. Cooling rate dependence of structural order in Al90Sm10 metallic glass

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Feng; ...

    2016-07-07

    Here, the atomic structure of Al90Sm10 metallic glass is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. By performing a long sub-Tg annealing, we developed a glass model closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. Using the cluster alignment method, we found that “3661” cluster is the dominating short-range order in the glass samples. The connection and arrangement of “3661” clusters, which define the medium-range order in the system, are enhanced significantly in the sub-Tg annealed sample as compared with the fast cooled glass samples. Unlike some strong binary glass formers such as Cu64.5Zr35.5, the clusters representing the short-rangemore » order do not form an interconnected interpenetrating network in Al90Sm10, which has only marginal glass formability.« less

  5. Gamma ray heating and neutrino cooling rates due to weak interaction processes on sd-shell nuclei in stellar cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayaz, Muhammad; Nabi, Jameel-Un; Majid, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Gamma ray heating and neutrino cooling rates, due to weak interaction processes, on sd-shell nuclei in stellar core are calculated using the proton neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation theory. The recent extensive experimental mass compilation of Wang et al. (Chin. Phys. C 36:1603, 2012), other improved model input parameters including nuclear quadrupole deformation (Raman et al. in At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 78(1):1-128, 2001; Möller et al. in At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 109:1-204, 2016) and physical constants are taken into account in the current calculation. The purpose of this work is two fold, one is to improve the earlier calculation of weak rates performed by Nabi and Klapdor-Kleingrothaus (At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 71:149, 1999a) using the same theory. We further compare our results with previous calculations. The selected sd-shell nuclei, considered in this work, are of special interest for the evolution of O-Ne-Mg core in 8-10 M_{⊙} stars due to competitive gamma ray heating rates and cooling by URCA processes. The outcome of these competitions is to determine, whether the stars end up as a white dwarf (Nabi in Phys. Rev. C 78(4):045801, 2008b), an electron-capture supernova (Jones et al. in Astrophys. J. 772(2):150, 2013) or Fe core-collapse supernova (Suzuki et al. in Astrophys. J. 817(2):163, 2016). The selected sd-shell nuclei for calculation of associated weak-interaction rates include ^{20,23}O, ^{20,23}F, ^{20,23,24}Ne, {}^{20,23-25}Na, and {}^{23-25}Mg. The cooling and heating rates are calculated for density range (10 ≤ ρ (g cm^{-3}) ≤ 10^{11}) and temperature range (0.01× 109≤ T(K)≤ 30× 109). The calculated gamma heating rates are orders of magnitude bigger than the shell model rates (except for ^{25}Mg at low densities). At high temperatures the gamma heating rates are in reasonable agreement. The calculated cooling rates are up to an order of magnitude bigger for odd-A nuclei.

  6. Development of a Reliable, Low-cost, Controlled Cooling Rate Instrument for the Cryopreservation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Zhiquan; Kang, Xianjiang; Chen, Hsiuhung; Zhou, Xiaoming; Purtteman, Jester; Yadock, David; Heimfeld, Shelly; Gao, Dayong

    2011-01-01

    An optimal cooling rate is one of the critical factors influencing the survival of cells during cryopreservation. In this paper we describe a novel device, named the box-in-box, which was developed for optimal cryopreservation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). This work presents the design of the device, a mathematical formulation describing the expected temperature histories of samples during the freezing process, along with actual experimental results of thermal profile tests. In experiments, when the box-in-box device was transferred from room temperature to a −80 °C freezer, a cooling rate of −1~−3.5 °C/min, which has been widely used for the cryopreservation of HSC, was achieved. In order to further evaluate this device, HSC cryopreservation was compared between the box-in-box device and a commercially available controlled rate freezer (CryoMed). The experimental data, including total cell population and CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell recovery rates, viability, and cell culture colony assays, showed that box-in-box worked as well as CryoMed instrument. There was no significant difference in either survival rate or the culture/colony outcome between the two devices. In conclusion, the box-in-box device can work as a cheap, durable, reliable and maintenance-free instrument for the cryopreservation of HSC. This concept of a box-in-box may also be adapted to other cooling rates to support cryopreservation in a wide variety of tissues and cells. PMID:19929459

  7. Development of an intelligent system for cooling rate and fill control in GMAW. [Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

    SciTech Connect

    Einerson, C.J.; Smartt, H.B.; Johnson, J.A.; Taylor, P.L. ); Moore, K.L. )

    1992-01-01

    A control strategy for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is developed in which the welding system detects certain existing conditions and adjusts the process in accordance to pre-specified rules. This strategy is used to control the reinforcement and weld bead centerline cooling rate during welding. Relationships between heat and mass transfer rates to the base metal and the required electrode speed and welding speed for specific open circuit voltages are taught to a artificial neural network. Control rules are programmed into a fuzzy logic system. TRADITOINAL CONTROL OF THE GMAW PROCESS is based on the use of explicit welding procedures detailing allowable parameter ranges on a pass by pass basis for a given weld. The present work is an exploration of a completely different approach to welding control. In this work the objectives are to produce welds having desired weld bead reinforcements while maintaining the weld bead centerline cooling rate at preselected values. The need for this specific control is related to fabrication requirements for specific types of pressure vessels. The control strategy involves measuring weld joint transverse cross-sectional area ahead of the welding torch and the weld bead centerline cooling rate behind the weld pool, both by means of video (2), calculating the required process parameters necessary to obtain the needed heat and mass transfer rates (in appropriate dimensions) by means of an artificial neural network, and controlling the heat transfer rate by means of a fuzzy logic controller (3). The result is a welding machine that senses the welding conditions and responds to those conditions on the basis of logical rules, as opposed to producing a weld based on a specific procedure.

  8. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ˜103 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application

  9. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their

  10. A study of the thermoregulatory characteristics of a liquid-cooled garment with automatic temperature control based on sweat rate: Experimental investigation and biothermal man-model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A. B.; Blackaby, J. R.; Miles, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental results for three subjects walking on a treadmill at exercise rates of up to 590 watts showed that thermal comfort could be maintained in a liquid cooled garment by using an automatic temperature controller based on sweat rate. The addition of head- and neck-cooling to an Apollo type liquid cooled garment increased its effectiveness and resulted in greater subjective comfort. The biothermal model of man developed in the second portion of the study utilized heat rates and exchange coefficients based on the experimental data, and included the cooling provisions of a liquid-cooled garment with automatic temperature control based on sweat rate. Simulation results were good approximations of the experimental results.

  11. Metallographic analysis and fire dynamics simulation for electrical fire scene reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jen-Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrated the use of metallographic analysis and NIST's Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program to identify the cause of an actual electrical fire. A severely carbonized steel plate and a cable with a bead were found inside a damaged switchboard from the debris of a factory fire. By metallographic analysis, the copper spatter on the steel plate was found to imply a short circuit has occurred and that this was the probable ignition source of the fire was supported by the presence of a small amount of copper oxide and by the cavities with the tree-like grain microstructures in the bead. The heat estimated to have been released per unit area of the switchboard in question (approximately 236.29 MJ/m(2)) served as key input data for applying the FDS simulation of the blaze. The simulation indicated that thermal insulation polyethylene (PE) played an important role in the rapid fire spread.

  12. Cooling rate and ice-crystal measurement in biological specimens plunged into liquid ethane, propane, and Freon 22.

    PubMed

    Ryan, K P; Bald, W B; Neumann, K; Simonsberger, P; Purse, D H; Nicholson, D N

    1990-06-01

    Specimens sandwiched between copper planchettes were plunged up to a depth of 430 mm into coolants used for cryofixation. Hydrated gelatin containing a miniature thermocouple was used to mimic the behaviour of tissue during freezing. Gelatin and red blood cells were used for ice-crystal analysis. Ethane produced the fastest cooling rates and the smallest ice-crystal profiles, and Freon 22 produced the slowest cooling rates and the largest crystal profiles. Smaller crystal profiles were often seen in the centre of the specimens than in subsurface zones. The results show that ethane, rather than propane, should be used for freezing metal-sandwiched freeze-fracture specimens by the plunging method, and probably also in the jet-cooling method. They further suggest that good cryofixation could occur at the centre of thin specimens rather than only at their surfaces. Comparison between theoretical and experimental ice-crystal sizes was satisfactory, indicating that where the experimental parameters can be defined then realistic predictions can be made regarding cryofixation results.

  13. Effects of cooling rate and stabilization annealing on fatigue behavior of β-processed Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Wongyu; Jeong, Daeho; Lee, Dongjun; Sung, Hyokyung; Kwon, Yongnam; Kim, Sangshik

    2017-07-01

    The effects of stabilization annealing and cooling rate on high cycle fatigue (HCF) and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of β-processed Ti64 alloys were examined. After β-process heating above β transus, two different cooling rates of air cooling (β-annealing) and water quenching (β-quenching) were utilized. Selected specimens were then underwent stabilization annealing. The tensile tests, HCF and FCP tests on conducted on the β-processed Ti64 specimens with and without stabilization annealing. No notable microstructural and mechanical changes with stabilization annealing was observed for the β-annealed Ti64 alloys. However, significant effect of stabilization annealing was found on the FCP behavior of β-quenched Ti64 alloys, which appeared to be related to the built-up of residual stress after quenching. The mechanical behavior of β-processed Ti64 alloys with and with stabilization annealing was discussed based on the micrographic examination, including crack growth path and crack nucleation site, and fractographic analysis.

  14. Metallographic Studies of Erosion and Thermo-Chemical Cracking of Cannon Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    tdaotUr *r block number; The characteristic erosion features of fired cannons and the closely related surface alterations on laboratory simulation samples...of cannon tubes during firing have been described in keynote and contributed papers at Tri-Service Conferences and in the fracture mechanics and...metallurgical literature.^"^ The results of visual inspection and metallographic examination of the bore surfaces of fired cannon tubes have clearly

  15. Synthesis, Elemental Analysis, and Metallographic Preparation of Lithium (Li)-Silicon (Si) Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Cynthia A. Lundgren, Jan L. Allen, and Jeff Wolfenstine ARL-TR-5818 November 2011 Approved...Metallographic Preparation of Lithium (Li)-Silicon (Si) Alloys Joshua B. Ratchford, Bruce A. Poese, Cynthia A. Lundgren, Jan L. Allen, and Jeff... Cynthia A. Lundgren, Jan L. Allen, and Jeff Wolfenstine 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  16. Thermal Disk Winds in X-Ray Binaries: Realistic Heating and Cooling Rates Give Rise to Slow, but Massive, Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, N.; Proga, D.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.

    2017-02-01

    A number of X-ray binaries exhibit clear evidence for the presence of disk winds in the high/soft state. A promising driving mechanism for these outflows is mass loss driven by the thermal expansion of X-ray heated material in the outer disk atmosphere. Higginbottom & Proga recently demonstrated that the properties of thermally driven winds depend critically on the shape of the thermal equilibrium curve, since this determines the thermal stability of the irradiated material. For a given spectral energy distribution, the thermal equilibrium curve depends on an exact balance between the various heating and cooling mechanisms at work. Most previous work on thermally driven disk winds relied on an analytical approximation to these rates. Here, we use the photoionization code cloudy to generate realistic heating and cooling rates which we then use in a 2.5D hydrodynamic model computed in ZEUS to simulate thermal winds in a typical black hole X-ray binary. We find that these heating and cooling rates produce a significantly more complex thermal equilibrium curve, with dramatically different stability properties. The resulting flow, calculated in the optically thin limit, is qualitatively different from flows calculated using approximate analytical rates. Specifically, our thermal disk wind is much denser and slower, with a mass-loss rate that is a factor of two higher and characteristic velocities that are a factor of three lower. The low velocity of the flow—{v}\\max ≃ 200 km s-1—may be difficult to reconcile with observations. However, the high mass-loss rate—15 × the accretion rate—is promising, since it has the potential to destabilize the disk. Thermally driven disk winds may therefore provide a mechanism for state changes.

  17. H-chondrite parent asteroid: A multistage cooling, fragmentation and re-accretion history constrained by thermometric studies, diffusion kinetic modeling and geochronological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra; Tirone, Massimiliano; Chakraborty, Sumit; Domanik, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    We present a detailed thermometric study and cooling history analysis of selected H-chondrites from the petrologic types 4-6 on the basis of their mineralogical properties, and integrate these data with other available constraints on the cooling rates to develop a comprehensive model for the cooling, fragmentation and re-accretion history of the parent asteroid. Temperatures have been determined on the basis of two-pyroxene (2-Px) and spinel (Spnl)-orthopyroxene (Opx)/olivine (Ol) thermometers using the average of line scans and distributed spot analysis of coexisting pairs in each set. All of these minerals have been found to be compositionally homogeneous from ˜1 to 2 μm from the interface within the resolution of microprobe analysis. The thermometric results for the H5 (Allegan and Richardton) and H6 (Guarena and Kernouvé) samples are very similar. Also, while the 2-Px temperature increases by ˜90 °C from H4 to H5/6, a reverse trend is observed for the Spnl-Opx/Ol temperatures implying compositional resetting of these pairs during cooling. For the H4 sample (Forest Vale) all thermometric results are similar. The cooling rates calculated from numerical modeling of the compositional profiles in Opx-Cpx pairs in H5 and H6, corrected for the spatial averaging or convolution effect in microprobe analysis, are ˜25-100 °C/ky, which are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the cooling rates implied by in situ cooling in an onion-shell parent body model. Similar numerical simulation of the compositional profile in Opx-Spnl pair in H4 yields a cooling rate ˜50 °C/ky, which is in very good agreement with recent metallographic cooling rate of this sample and geochronological constraints on the cooling T-t path. Numerical simulation suggests that the slow cooling of the H5/6 samples at a rate of ˜15 °C/My, as deduced by recent metallographic study, could not have commenced at a temperature above ˜700 °C since, otherwise, the simulated compositional profile fails

  18. Species variation in osmotic, cryoprotectant, and cooling rate tolerance in poultry, eagle, and Peregrine Falcon spermatozoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanco, J.M.; Gee, G.; Wildt, D.E.; Donoghue, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Potential factors influencing spermatozoa survival to cryopreservation and thawing were analyzed across a range of the following avian species: domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Studies focused on spermatozoa tolerance to the following: 1) osmotic stress, 2) different extracellular concentrations of the cryoprotectant dimethylacetamide (DMA), 3) equilibration times of 1 versus 4 h, 4) equilibration temperature of 4 versus 21 degrees C, and 5) rapid versus slow cooling before cryopreservation and standard thawing. Sperm viability was assessed with the live/dead stain (SYBR14/ propidium iodine). Sperm viability at osmolalities >/=800 mOsm was higher (P: /=2.06 M), experienced decreased (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species, except the golden eagle and peregrine falcon. Number of surviving spermatozoa diminished progressively with increasing DMA concentrations in all species. Increased equilibration temperature (from 4 to 21 degrees C) markedly reduced (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species except the Bonelli's eagle and turkey. Rapid cooling was detrimental (P: < 0.05) to spermatozoa from all species except the imperial eagle and the chicken. These results demonstrate that avian spermatozoa differ remarkably in response to osmotic changes, DMA concentrations, equilibration time, temperature, and survival after fast or slow freezing. These differences emphasize the need for species-specific studies in the development and enhancement of assisted breeding for poultry and endangered species.

  19. Effect of time of progesterone supplementation on serum progesterone and the conception rate of cooled Holstein heifers during the summer.

    PubMed

    Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Pérez-Velázquez, Rolando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macias-Cruz, Ulises; Diaz-Molina, Raúl; Rivera-Acuña, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of progesterone supplementation at two different times on serum progesterone (P4 ) concentration, conception rate and resynchronization of cooled Holstein heifers in summer, 90 heifers were randomly assigned to two groups: (i) heifers subjected to TAI (timed artificial insemination) and progesterone supplementation from days 4 to 14 after TAI (S1; n = 45); and (ii) heifers under the same TAI protocol as S1 and progesterone supplementation from days 17 to 22 after TAI (S2 ; n = 45). The groups S1 and S2 were cooled 10 days before and 21 days after TAI. Respiratory rate, body surface temperature, vaginal temperature and rectal temperature recorded during the experiment were not different (P > 0.05) between S1 and S2 groups. Progesterone concentration was not different (P > 0.05) in S1 compared to S2 . The conception rates on days 30 and 55 were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Progesterone supplementation did not increase either conception rate or concentrations of P4 in heifers during the summer. Heifers not pregnant to first service in the group S2 were resynchronized (77.7%) for a second breeding. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Garnet-biotite diffusion mechanisms in complex high-grade orogenic belts: Understanding and constraining petrological cooling rates in granulites from Ribeira Fold Belt (SE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bento dos Santos, Telmo M.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Fonseca, Paulo E.

    2014-12-01

    Cooling rates based on the retrograde diffusion of Fe2+ and Mg between garnet and biotite inclusions commonly show two contrasting scenarios: a) narrow closure temperature range with apparent absence of retrograde diffusion; or b) high result dispersion due to compositional variations in garnet and biotite. Cooling rates from migmatites, felsic and mafic granulites from Ribeira Fold Belt (SE Brazil) also show these two scenarios. Although the former can be explained by very fast cooling, the latter is often the result of open-system behaviour caused by deformation. Retrogressive cooling during the exhumation of granulite-facies rocks is often processed by thrusting and shearing which may cause plastic deformation, fractures and cracks in the garnet megablasts, allowing chemical diffusion outside the garnet megablast - biotite inclusion system. However, a careful use of garnets and biotites with large Fe/Mg variation and software that reduces result dispersion provides a good correlation between closure temperatures and the size of biotite inclusions which are mostly due to diffusion and compositional readjustment to thermal evolution during retrogression. Results show that felsic and mafic granulites have low cooling rates (1-2 °C/Ma) at higher temperatures and high cooling rates (˜100 °C/Ma) at lower temperatures, suggesting a two-step cooling/exhumation process, whereas migmatites show a small decrease in cooling rates during cooling (from 2.0 to 0.5 °C/Ma). These results agree with previously obtained thermochronological data, which indicates that this method is a valid tool to obtain meaningful petrological cooling rates in complex high-grade orogenic belts, such as the Ribeira Fold Belt.

  1. Ice-Water Immersion and Cold-Water Immersion Provide Similar Cooling Rates in Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Clements, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J; Knight, J; McClung, Joseph M; Blake, Alan S; Meenen, Paula M; Gilmer, Allison M; Caldwell, Kellie A

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ice-water immersion or cold-water immersion is the more effective treatment for rapidly cooling hyperthermic runners. DESIGN AND SETTING: 17 heat-acclimated highly trained distance runners (age = 28 +/- 2 years, height = 180 +/- 2 cm, weight = 68.5 +/- 2.1 kg, body fat = 11.2 +/- 1.3%, training volume = 89 +/- 10 km/wk) completed a hilly trail run (approximately 19 km and 86 minutes) in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature = 27 +/- 1 degrees C) at an individually selected "comfortable" pace on 3 occasions 1 week apart. The random, crossover design included (1) distance run, then 12 minutes of ice-water immersion (5.15 +/- 0.20 degrees C), (2) distance run, then 12 minutes of cold-water immersion (14.03 +/- 0.28 degrees C), or (3) distance run, then 12 minutes of mock immersion (no water, air temperature = 28.88 +/- 0.76 degrees C). MEASUREMENTS: Each subject was immersed from the shoulders to the hip joints for 12 minutes in a tub. Three minutes elapsed between the distance run and the start of immersion. Rectal temperature was recorded at the start of immersion, at each minute of immersion, and 3, 6, 10, and 15 minutes postimmersion. No rehydration occurred during any trial. RESULTS: Length of distance run, time to complete distance run, rectal temperature, and percentage of dehydration after distance run were similar (P >.05) among all trials, as was the wet-bulb globe temperature. No differences (P >.05) for cooling rates were found when comparing ice-water immersion, cold-water immersion, and mock immersion at the start of immersion to 4 minutes, 4 to 8 minutes, and the start of immersion to 8 minutes. Ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion cooling rates were similar (P >.05) to each other and greater (P <.05) than mock immersion at 8 to 12 minutes, the start of immersion to 10 minutes, and the start of immersion to every other time point thereafter. Rectal temperatures were similar (P >.05) between ice-water immersion and

  2. Ice-Water Immersion and Cold-Water Immersion Provide Similar Cooling Rates in Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Julie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Knight, J. Chad; McClung, Joseph M.; Blake, Alan S.; Meenen, Paula M.; Gilmer, Allison M.; Caldwell, Kellie A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether ice-water immersion or cold-water immersion is the more effective treatment for rapidly cooling hyperthermic runners. Design and Setting: 17 heat-acclimated highly trained distance runners (age = 28 ± 2 years, height = 180 ± 2 cm, weight = 68.5 ± 2.1 kg, body fat = 11.2 ± 1.3%, training volume = 89 ± 10 km/wk) completed a hilly trail run (approximately 19 km and 86 minutes) in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature = 27 ± 1°C) at an individually selected “comfortable” pace on 3 occasions 1 week apart. The random, crossover design included (1) distance run, then 12 minutes of ice-water immersion (5.15 ± 0.20°C), (2) distance run, then 12 minutes of cold-water immersion (14.03 ± 0.28°C), or (3) distance run, then 12 minutes of mock immersion (no water, air temperature = 28.88 ± 0.76°C). Measurements: Each subject was immersed from the shoulders to the hip joints for 12 minutes in a tub. Three minutes elapsed between the distance run and the start of immersion. Rectal temperature was recorded at the start of immersion, at each minute of immersion, and 3, 6, 10, and 15 minutes postimmersion. No rehydration occurred during any trial. Results: Length of distance run, time to complete distance run, rectal temperature, and percentage of dehydration after distance run were similar (P > .05) among all trials, as was the wet-bulb globe temperature. No differences (P > .05) for cooling rates were found when comparing ice-water immersion, cold-water immersion, and mock immersion at the start of immersion to 4 minutes, 4 to 8 minutes, and the start of immersion to 8 minutes. Ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion cooling rates were similar (P > .05) to each other and greater (P < .05) than mock immersion at 8 to 12 minutes, the start of immersion to 10 minutes, and the start of immersion to every other time point thereafter. Rectal temperatures were similar (P > .05) between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion at the

  3. Enhanced Homogeneities of Microstructure and Property in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Extruded Product by Cooling Rate After Homogenization Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Xue, Jie; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-07-01

    A method to improve the homogeneities of microstructure and mechanical property in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu extruded product, which changes cooling rate after homogenization treatment to obtain the different distribution characteristics of the precipitates, was proposed and the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated. The results show that the precipitates in the water-quenched billet are of mainly coarse particles with the content of about 2.0%, while a large number of needle-shaped precipitates are dispersively distributed in the furnace-cooled billet with the content of about 9.8%. Numerous precipitates distributed dispersively can improve the homogeneities of microstructure and mechanical property of the alloy during extrusion. For example, when the water-quenched billets are extruded at 390 and 430 °C followed by solution-aging treatment, the average grain sizes of the two bars are 3.4 and 8.1 μm, and the elongations to failure are 7.0 and 9.2%, respectively. When the furnace-cooled billets are extruded at 390 and 430 °C followed by solution-aging treatment, the average grain sizes of the two bars are 3.1 and 3.5 μm, respectively, and the elongations are basically the same, indicating the better microstructure homogeneity and mechanical properties.

  4. Enhanced Homogeneities of Microstructure and Property in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Extruded Product by Cooling Rate After Homogenization Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Xue, Jie; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-08-01

    A method to improve the homogeneities of microstructure and mechanical property in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu extruded product, which changes cooling rate after homogenization treatment to obtain the different distribution characteristics of the precipitates, was proposed and the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated. The results show that the precipitates in the water-quenched billet are of mainly coarse particles with the content of about 2.0%, while a large number of needle-shaped precipitates are dispersively distributed in the furnace-cooled billet with the content of about 9.8%. Numerous precipitates distributed dispersively can improve the homogeneities of microstructure and mechanical property of the alloy during extrusion. For example, when the water-quenched billets are extruded at 390 and 430 °C followed by solution-aging treatment, the average grain sizes of the two bars are 3.4 and 8.1 μm, and the elongations to failure are 7.0 and 9.2%, respectively. When the furnace-cooled billets are extruded at 390 and 430 °C followed by solution-aging treatment, the average grain sizes of the two bars are 3.1 and 3.5 μm, respectively, and the elongations are basically the same, indicating the better microstructure homogeneity and mechanical properties.

  5. Production of bovine cloned embryos with donor cells frozen at a slow cooling rate in a conventional freezer (20 C)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Usually, fibroblasts are frozen in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 10% v/v) at a cooling rate of 1 C/min in a low-temperature (80 C) freezer (LTF) before storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2); however, a LTF is not always available. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apoptosis and viability of bovine fibroblasts frozen in a LTF or conventional freezer (CF; 20 C) and their subsequent ability for development to blastocyst stage after fusion with enucleated bovine oocytes. Percentages of live cells frozen in LTF (49.5%) and CF (50.6%) were similar, but significantly less than non-frozen control (88%). In both CF and LTF, percentages of live apoptotic cells exposed to LN2 after freezing were lower (4% and 5%, respectively) as compared with unexposed cells (10% and 18%, respectively). Cells frozen in a CF had fewer cell doublings/24 h (0.45) and required more days (9.1) to reach 100% confluence at the first passage (P) after thawing and plating as compared with cells frozen in a LTF (0.96 and 4.0 days, respectively). Hypoploidy at P12 was higher than at P4 in cells frozen in either a CF (37.5% vs. 19.2%) or in a LTF (30.0% vs. 15.4%). A second-generation cryo-solution reduced the incidence of necrosis (29.4%) at 0 h after thawing as compared with that of a first generation cryo-solution (DMEM + DMSO, 60.2%). The percentage of apoptosis in live cells was affected by cooling rate (CF = 1.9% vs. LFT = 0.7%). Development of bovine cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage was not affected by cooling rate or freezer type. ?? 2009 Cambridge University Press.

  6. Influence of cooling rate and boron content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled high strength interstitial-free steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. I.; Lee, Y.

    2012-10-01

    A pilot hot strip rolling and cooling test that simulates an actual hot strip rolling and continuous cooling process was performed. We then examined the effect of cooling rates ranging from 0.1 °Cs-1 to 100 °Cs-1 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength interstitial-free (IF) steels containing 0.003 wt% of boron, 0.0005 wt% of boron and no boron. The mechanical properties and microstructures of the boron-added high strength IF steels were analyzed using uni-axial tensile test and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) following the pilot hot strip rolling and cooling test. Results show that the microstructure of high strength IF steel with no boron is influenced significantly by cooling rates. There is a critical cooling rate for building up polygonal ferrite (PF) grains. PF grains do not occur when high strength IF steels with a boron content of 0.0005 wt% and 0.003 wt% undergo a cooling rate of 5.0 °Cs-1, however widmanstätten ferrite (WF), granular ferrite (GF) and quasi-polygonal ferrite (QF) grains are present. Under the same hot rolling and slow cooling conditions, high strength IF steel with no boron has recrystallized PF grains. On the contrary, high strength IF steel with boron cooled at above 3 °Cs-1 doesn't have GF or QF grains, and subsequently generates the unrecrystallized ferritic grains and WF grains, which increase the yield and tensile strengths. It is deduced that we need to control both the cooling rate and coiling temperature when boron-added high strength IF steel sheet is manufactured in an actual hot strip rolling mill.

  7. Calculation of the critical cooling rate for amorphous Pd/77.5/Si/16.5/Cu/6/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, J.; Tyagi, S.; Lord, A. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The viscosity of the molten alloy Pd(77.5)Si(16.5)Cu(6) has been determined from 744 to 1000 C using an oscillating cup viscometer. Using these data (together with other pertinent physical data available for this alloy) in existing crystallization theory indicates that it could be made amorphous at cooling rates as low as 5-10 K/sec. This analysis assumes strictly homogeneous nucleation. Containerless solidification will be one good testing ground for the results of this analysis.

  8. Liquidus temperatures of komatiites and the effect of cooling rate on element partitioning between olivine and komatiitic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossi, Paolo A.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.

    2016-05-01

    Archean komatiites are the hottest magmas preserved on Earth and are thus unique probes of its thermal evolution. Estimating their eruption temperatures remains problematic, however, because the uppermost (A1, A2) zones of komatiite flows contain randomly oriented spinifex-textured olivines, indicative of rapid cooling and growth. Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and assumed komatiitic liquid typically shows departures from equilibrium, extending towards higher K_{{D}}^{{{{Fe}}^{2 + } - {{Mg}}}}. If these higher values are a disequilibrium effect, using them to calculate parental magma composition would lead to errors in estimated liquidus temperatures. In order to investigate this possibility, we have performed experiments on two komatiite compositions, the classic Barberton Aluminium Undepleted Komatiite (AUK) sample 49J (32.2 % MgO) and Munro AUK sample 422/95 (23 % MgO). Isothermal experiments to constrain phase equilibria on 49J at atmospheric pressure, between 1360 and 1600 °C at 1.7 log units below and 1.1 above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer reveal a liquidus temperature ( T liq) of 1616 °C, 40 °C lower than a previous estimate. The K_{{D}}^{{Σ {{Fe}}{-}{{Mg}}}} ranges between 0.320 and 0.295 at FMQ - 1.7, with a slight negative dependence on temperature. To replicate the conditions that prevailed during the quenching of komatiites in their upper chill zones, experiments with a constant cooling rate at FMQ - 1.7 were performed on 422/95 ( T liq = 1450 °C) at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 6.5 and 16 °C/min. Olivine morphology changes from euhedral to tabular at low cooling rates, hopper at intermediate, and skeletal and chain structures at high rates. Concurrently, the K_{{D}}^{{Σ {{Fe}}{-}{{Mg}}}} increases monotonically from an equilibrium value of 0.305 to 0.376 at 16 °C/min, reflecting the inability of unwanted cations to diffuse away from the growing olivine. The high K_{{D}}^{{Σ {{Fe}}{-}{{Mg}}}} between olivine and komatiitic liquid caused by

  9. NQR study of local structures and cooling rate dependent superconductivity in La sub 2 CuO sub 4+. delta

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, A.P.; Ahrens, E.T.; Hammel, P.C.; Heffner, R.H.; Thompson, J.D.; Canfield, P.C.; Fisk, Z. ); Schirber, J.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Structural properties of oxygen-annealed polycrystals of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4 + {delta}} ({delta}{approximately}0.03) have been studied using {sup 139}La NQR spectroscopy. Superconducting critical temperatures were found to depend on the rate of cooling through a narrow temperature range at about 195K. Preliminary analysis of the {sup 139}La NQR spectra suggest that the oxygen-rich phase-separated region is composed of two structurally distinct phases, both of which are metallic and super-conducting. One phase has a structure closely related to the stoichiometric oxygen-poor compound. The second shows a considerable amount of apical oxygen disorder, a large shift in NQR frequency {nu}{sub Q}, and a volume fraction which increases with cooling rate. The formation of the second phase below {minus}200K is indicative of the freezing Of CuO{sub 6} octahedral tilting. Abrupt shifts in {nu}{sub Q} above {Tc} were also observed for both phases, suggestive of a local structural anomaly or charge transfer to the Cu-O plane.

  10. Effect of soda lime flux on evaluation of the critical cooling rate of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xutong; Tian, Zhuang; Zeng, Mo; Nollmann, Niklas; Wilde, Gerhard; Tang, Chengying

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we propose an experimental method based on the Barandiaran-Colmenero relation for evaluating the critical cooling rate (Rc) of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon. In this method, to determine the inherent Rc of glass ribbon, heterogeneous nucleation is suppressed during the differential scanning calorimeter measurement process by adding soda lime flux. The Rc values of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon were determined before and after soda lime treatment. The experimental results indicate that the Rc values of the treated and non-treated ribbon are 10.27 and 148.39 K/s, respectively. The Rc value of the treated sample is in good agreement with a previous experimental result. Johnson's relation gives Rc = 22.86 K/s, which confirms the validity of the present results. The results indicate that soda lime flux greatly suppresses heterogeneous nucleation during the measurement process and the inherent Rc of Pd82Si18 is revised. This method provides a new way for evaluating the critical cooling rate by suppressing heterogeneous nucleation.

  11. Numerical studies of fast ion slowing down rates in cool magnetized plasma using LSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Eugene S.; Kolmes, Elijah; Cohen, Samuel A.; Rognlien, Tom; Cohen, Bruce; Meier, Eric; Welch, Dale R.

    2016-10-01

    In MFE devices, rapid transport of fusion products from the core into the scrape-off layer (SOL) could perform the dual roles of energy and ash removal. The first-orbit trajectories of most fusion products from small field-reversed configuration (FRC) devices will traverse the SOL, allowing those particles to deposit their energy in the SOL and be exhausted along the open field lines. Thus, the fast ion slowing-down time should affect the energy balance of an FRC reactor and its neutron emissions. However, the dynamics of fast ion energy loss processes under the conditions expected in the FRC SOL (with ρe <λDe) are analytically complex, and not yet fully understood. We use LSP, a 3D electromagnetic PIC code, to examine the effects of SOL density and background B-field on the slowing-down time of fast ions in a cool plasma. As we use explicit algorithms, these simulations must spatially resolve both ρe and λDe, as well as temporally resolve both Ωe and ωpe, increasing computation time. Scaling studies of the fast ion charge (Z) and background plasma density are in good agreement with unmagnetized slowing down theory. Notably, Z-scaling represents a viable way to dramatically reduce the required CPU time for each simulation. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. Metallographic examination of damaged N reactor spent nuclear fuel element SFEC5,4378

    SciTech Connect

    Marschman, S.C.; Pyecha, T.D.; Abrefah, J.

    1997-08-01

    N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is currently residing underwater in the K Basins at the Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. This report presents results of the metallographic examination of specimens cut from an SNF element (Mark IV-E) with breached cladding. The element had resided in the K-West (KW) Storage Basin for at least 10 years after it was discharged from the N-Reactor. The storage containers in the KW Basin were nominally closed, isolating the SNF elements from the open pool environment. Seven specimens from this Mark IV-E outer fuel element were examined using an optical metallograph. Included were two specimens that had been subjected to a conditioning process recommended by the Independent Technical Assessment Team, two specimens that had been subjected to a conditioning process recommended in the Integrated Process Strategy Report, and three that were in the as-received, as-cut condition. One of the as-received specimens had been cut from the damaged (or breached) end of the element. All other specimens were cut from the undamaged mid-region of the fuel element. The specimens were visually examined to (1) identify uranium hydride inclusions present in the uranium metal fuel, (2) measure the thickness of the oxide layer formed on the uranium edges and assess the apparent integrity and adhesion of the oxide layer, and (3) look for features in the microstructure that might provide an insight into the various corrosion processes that occurred during underwater storage in the KW Basin. These features included, but were not limited to, the integrity of the cladding and the fuel-to-cladding bond, obvious anomalies in the microstructure, excessive pitting or friability of the fuel matrix, and obvious anomalies in the distribution of uranium hydride or uranium carbide inclusions. Also, the observed metallographic features of the conditioned specimens were compared with those of the as-received (unconditioned) specimens. 11 refs., 93 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Preliminary metallographic studies of ball fatigue under rolling-contact conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, H Robert; Butler, Robert H

    1957-01-01

    The metallurgical results produced on balls tested in the rolling-contact fatigue spin rig were studied by metallographic examination. Origin and progression of fatigue failures were observed. These evaluations were made on SAE 52100 and AISI M-1 balls fatigue tested at room temperature (80 F) and 200 to 250 F. Most failures originated subsurface in shear; inclusions, structure changes, and directionalism adversely affected ball fatigue life. Structures in the maximum-shear-stress region of the balls of both materials were stable at room temperature and unstable at 200 to 250 F. Failures were of the same type as those found in full-scale bearings.

  14. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  15. Analysis of isothermal and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    DOE PAGES

    Alpert, Peter A.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2016-02-24

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature, T, and relative humidity, RH, at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nucleating particles (INPs) all have the same INP surface area (ISA); however, the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimentalmore » data is rarely questioned. Descriptions of ice active sites and variability of contact angles have been successfully formulated to describe ice nucleation experimental data in previous research; however, we consider the ability of a stochastic freezing model founded on classical nucleation theory to reproduce previous results and to explain experimental uncertainties and data scatter. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses parameters including the total number of droplets, Ntot, and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA-dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically

  16. Analysis of isothermal and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2016-02-01

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature, T, and relative humidity, RH, at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nucleating particles (INPs) all have the same INP surface area (ISA); however, the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. Descriptions of ice active sites and variability of contact angles have been successfully formulated to describe ice nucleation experimental data in previous research; however, we consider the ability of a stochastic freezing model founded on classical nucleation theory to reproduce previous results and to explain experimental uncertainties and data scatter. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses parameters including the total number of droplets, Ntot, and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA-dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically levitated droplets

  17. Spatial variations in cooling rate in the mantle section of the Samail ophiolite in Oman: Implications for formation of lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Nick; Kelemen, Peter B.; Liang, Yan

    2017-05-01

    To understand how the mantle cools beneath mid-ocean ridge spreading centers, we applied a REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer and major element thermometers to peridotites from the Wadi Tayin massif in the southern part of the Samail ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman, which represent more than 10 km of structural depth beneath the paleo-Moho. Closure temperatures for REEs in pyroxenes deduced from the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer (TREE) decrease smoothly and systematically with depth in the section, from >1300 °C near the crust to <1100 °C near the metamorphic sole, consistent with previously observed, similar variations in mineral thermometers with lower cooling temperatures. Estimated cooling rates decrease from ∼0.3 °C/y just below the crust-mantle transition zone (MTZ) to ∼10-3 °C/y at a depth of six km below the MTZ. Cooling rates derived from Ca-in-olivine thermometry also decrease moving deeper into the section. These variations in cooling rate are most consistent with conductive cooling of the mantle beneath a cold overlying crust. In turn, this suggests that hydrothermal circulation extended to the MTZ near the axis of the fast-spreading ridge where the igneous crust of the Samail ophiolite formed. These observations are consistent with the Sheeted Sills model for accretion of lower oceanic crust, and with previous work demonstrating very rapid cooling rates in the crust of the Wadi Tayin massif. Our observations, combined with previous results, suggest that efficient hydrothermal circulation beneath fast spreading centers cools the uppermost mantle from magmatic temperatures to <1000 °C as quickly as tectonic exhumation at amagmatic spreading centers. In contrast, thermometers sensitive to cooling over lower temperature intervals indicate that the Wadi Tayin peridotites cooled more slowly than tectonically exhumed peridotites sampled near the seafloor along mid-ocean ridges. Hydrothermal cooling of the crust may have waned, so that the crust

  18. Assessing inflow rates in atomic cooling haloes: implications for direct collapse black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Volonteri, M.

    2015-09-01

    Supermassive black holes are not only common in the present-day galaxies, but billion solar masses black holes also powered z ≥ 6 quasars. One efficient way to form such black holes is the collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud into a so-called direct collapse black hole. The main requirement for this scenario is the presence of large accretion rates of ≥ 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1 to form a supermassive star. It is not yet clear how and under what conditions such accretion rates can be obtained. The prime aim of this work is to determine the mass accretion rates under non-isothermal collapse conditions. We perform high-resolution cosmological simulations for three primordial haloes of a few times 107 M⊙ illuminated by an external UV flux, J21 = 100-1000. We find that a rotationally supported structure of about parsec size is assembled, with an aspect ratio between 0.25 and 1 depending upon the thermodynamical properties. Rotational support, however, does not halt collapse, and mass inflow rates of ˜ 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1 can be obtained in the presence of even a moderate UV background flux of strength J21 ≥ 100. To assess whether such large accretion rates can be maintained over longer time-scales, we employed sink particles, confirming the persistence of accretion rates of ˜ 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1. We propose that complete isothermal collapse and molecular hydrogen suppression may not always be necessary to form supermassive stars, precursors of black hole seeds. Sufficiently high inflow rates can be obtained for UV flux J21 = 500-1000, at least for some cases. This value brings the estimate of the abundance of direct collapse black hole seeds closer to that high-redshift quasars.

  19. Growth Behavior of Intermetallic Compounds in Cu/Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solder Joints with Different Rates of Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Linmei; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMC) in Cu/Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints, including the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer and Ag3Sn, and Cu6Sn5 in the solder, were investigated when different cooling methods—quenched water, cooling in air, and cooling in a furnace after reflow—were used. For the solder joint quenched in water, no obvious Cu6Sn5 or Ag3Sn was detected in the solder, and the thickness of interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer was slightly thinner than that of the joint cooled in air. On the basis of results from scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry, a mechanism is proposed for growth of IMC in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder during solidification. The rate of cooling has a substantial effect on the morphology and size of Ag3Sn, which evolved into large plate-like shapes when the joint was cooled slowly in a furnace. However, the morphology of Ag3Sn was branch-like or particle-like when the joint was cooled in air. This is attributed to re-growth of Ag3Sn grains via substantial atomic diffusion during the high-temperature stage of furnace cooling.

  20. Assessment of external heat transfer coefficient during oocyte vitrification in liquid and slush nitrogen using numerical simulations to determine cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-01-01

    In oocyte vitrification, plunging directly into liquid nitrogen favor film boiling and strong nitrogen vaporization. A survey of literature values of heat transfer coefficients (h) for film boiling of small metal objects with different geometries plunged in liquid nitrogen revealed values between 125 to 1000 W per per square m per K. These h values were used in a numerical simulation of cooling rates of two oocyte vitrification devices (open-pulled straw and Cryotop), plunged in liquid and slush nitrogen conditions. Heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was considered a linear mathematical problem and was solved using the finite element method applying the variational formulation. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the cooling process of the systems. Predicted cooling rates for OPS and Cryotop when cooled at -196 degree C (liquid nitrogen) or -207 degree C (average for slush nitrogen) for heat transfer coefficients estimated to be representative of film boiling, indicated lowering the cooling temperature produces only a maximum 10 percent increase in cooling rates; confirming the main benefit of plunging in slush over liquid nitrogen does not arise from their temperature difference. Numerical simulations also demonstrated that a hypothetical four-fold increase in the cooling rate of vitrification devices when plunging in slush nitrogen would be explained by an increase in heat transfer coefficient. This improvement in heat transfer (i.e., high cooling rates) in slush nitrogen is attributed to less or null film boiling when a sample is placed in slush (mixture of liquid and solid nitrogen) because it first melts the solid nitrogen before causing the liquid to boil and form a film.

  1. Electron Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Timothy J. P.

    1991-08-01

    Electron cooling is a method of reducing the 6 -dimensional phase space volume of a stored ion beam. The technique was invented by Budker and first developed by him and his colleagues at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk. Further studies of electron cooling were subsequently performed at CERN and Fermilab. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) an electron cooling system was designed, built, and commissioned in 1988. This was the highest energy system built to date (270 keV for cooling 500 MeV protons) and the first such system to be used as an instrument for performing nuclear and atomic physics experiments. This dissertation summarizes the design principles; measurements of the longitudinal drag rate (cooling force), equilibrium cooled beam properties and effective longitudinal electron beam temperature. These measurements are compared with theory and with the measured performance of other cooling systems. In addition the feasibility of extending this technology to energies an order of magnitude higher are discussed.

  2. An Investigation of Microstructure and Microhardness of Sn-Cu and Sn-Ag Solders as Functions of Alloy Composition and Cooling Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sun-Kyoung; Kang, Sung K.; Shih, Da-Yuan; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2009-02-01

    The microstructure and microhardness of Sn- xAg and Sn- xCu solders were investigated as functions of alloy composition and cooling rate. The Ag compositions examined varied from 0.5 wt.% to 3.5 wt.%, while Cu varied from 0.5 wt.% to 2.0 wt.%. Three cooling rates were employed during solidification: 0.02°C/s (furnace cooling), about 10°C/s (air cooling), and 100°C/s or higher (rapid solidification). Sn grain size and orientation were observed by cross-polarization light microscopy and electron-backscattering diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The microhardness was measured to correlate the mechanical properties with alloy compositions and cooling rates. From this study, it was found that both alloy composition and cooling rate can significantly affect the Sn grain size and hardness in Sn-rich solders. The critical factors that affect the microstructure-property relationships of Sn-rich solders are discussed, including grain size, crystal orientation, dendrite cells, twin boundaries, and intermetallic compounds (IMC).

  3. Constraining cooling rates of UHP metamorphic rocks with closure temperature geospeedometry: a case study from the Dabie orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, M. K.; Shimizu, N.; Wang, Z.; Zheng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    UHP metamorphic rocks can reach peak temperatures and pressures >800°C and >3GPa, and provide unique opportunities for studying geochemical processes in subduction zones. How and how fast they were exhumed are, however, still outstanding questions. Here we report SIMS-based Zr concentrations in rutiles from an eclogite sample from Huangzhen in the South Dabie low-T/UHP zone, east-central China, and present a closure temperature-based approach to constrain the cooling/exhumation rate of UHP rocks. Li et al. (2004) put peak metamorphism at a time prior to 236.1 ± 4.2 Ma., but estimates for peak temperatures and pressures in South Dabie vary wildly depending on the rock suite. The fine-grained eclogites in the Dabie orogen were estimated to have reached conditions of 641-839 °C and 2.00-3.54 GPa (Shi and Wang, 2006) based on Fe-Mg partition thermometry and metamorphic phase equilibria. These samples were reported to contain quartz, zircon, and rutile phases that reached thermodynamic equilibrium with each other. In this study, Zr concentrations of rutiles were obtained using the Cameca IMS 1280 ion microprobe at Northeast National Ion Microprobe Facility, by converting secondary ion intensity ratios, 90Zr/46Ti, to concentrations using rutile standards described by Luvizotto et al. (2009), with analytical uncertainties of 5.1%. Temperatures were then calculated using the method of Ferry and Watson (2007). It was found that Zr concentrations range from 38.6(2.4) to 134.6(4.5) ppm, resulting in a temperature range of 504(24) to 583(27)°C for 72 grains with size spanning from 62 to 440 microns cross in long axis. Minor rim-ward decrease of Zr content was observed with no appreciable temperature decrease. Assuming that the rutiles grew at one stage during the peak metamorphism and that their Zr concentrations were independent of pressure, a cooling rate can be estimated for the target sample. By applying the Dodson (1973) formula for closure temperature in conjunction

  4. Experimental constraints on heating and cooling rates of refractory inclusions in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; DRAKE; HILDEBRAND; JONES; LEWIS; TREIMAN; WARK

    1987-01-01

    The refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites were the subject of considerable interest since their discovery. These inclusions contain minerals that are predicted to be some of the earliest condensates from the solar nebula, and contain a plethora of isotopic anomalies of unknown origin. Of particular interest are those coarse-grained inclusions that contain refractory metal particles (Fe, Ni, Pt, Ru, Os Ir). Experimental studies of these inclusions in terrestrial laboratories are, however, complicated because the dense particles tend to settle out of a molten or partially molten silicate material. Heating experiments in the Space Station technology and microgravity in order to observe the effects of metal nuggets (which may act as heterogeneous nucleation sites) on nucleation rates in silicate systems and to measure simultaneously the relative volatilization rate of siderophile and lithophile species. Neither experiment is possible in the terrestrial environment.

  5. Studies in Optimizing the Film Flow Rate for Liquid Film Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-19

    in order to investigate the effects of gas stream momentum flux on the optimal liquid flow rate. This paper summarizes the results of these tests...investigates the ability of laser focus displacement meter (LFD) to measure the thickness of shear-driven liquid films driven by gas -phase momentum...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Subscripts 1 = property in gas 2 = property in liqud film a = air ave = average D

  6. Heat transfer in a microvascular network: the effect of heart rate on heating and cooling in reptiles (Pogona barbata and Varanus varius).

    PubMed

    Seebacher, F

    2000-03-21

    Thermally-induced changes in heart rate and blood flow in reptiles are believed to be of selective advantage by allowing animal to exert some control over rates of heating and cooling. This notion has become one of the principal paradigms in reptilian thermal physiology. However, the functional significance of changes in heart rate is unclear, because the effect of heart rate and blood flow on total animal heat transfer is not known. I used heat transfer theory to determine the importance of heat transfer by blood flow relative to conduction. I validated theoretical predictions by comparing them with field data from two species of lizard, bearded dragons (Pogona barbata) and lace monitors (Varanus varius). Heart rates measured in free-ranging lizards in the field were significantly higher during heating than during cooling, and heart rates decreased with body mass. Convective heat transfer by blood flow increased with heart rate. Rates of heat transfer by both blood flow and conduction decreased with mass, but the mass scaling exponents were different. Hence, rate of conductive heat transfer decreased more rapidly with increasing mass than did heat transfer by blood flow, so that the relative importance of blood flow in total animal heat transfer increased with mass. The functional significance of changes in heart rate and, hence, rates of heat transfer, in response to heating and cooling in lizards was quantified. For example, by increasing heart rate when entering a heating environment in the morning, and decreasing heart rate when the environment cools in the evening a Pogona can spend up to 44 min longer per day with body temperature within its preferred range. It was concluded that changes in heart rate in response to heating and cooling confer a selective advantage at least on reptiles of mass similar to that of the study animals (0. 21-5.6 kg).

  7. Constrains on Crustal Accretion Obtained from Cooling Rate Calculations with a Thermo-Mechanical Model of Fast-Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, C. J.; Machetel, P.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a thermo-mechanical model designed to find steady-state solutions of motion and temperature with variable viscosity, heat diffusion, heat advection, hydrothermal cooling and latent heat release. Cases analogous to the "gabbro glacier" (G accretion structure), "sheeted sills" (S structure) and "mixed shallow and MTZ lenses" (M structure) were computed with and without sheeted dyke level modeling. The results show that thermal patterns near the ridge mainly depend on hydrothermal cooling. Several hydrothermal cooling cracking temperature have been used in order to illustrate the present scientific debate on the penetration depth and efficiency of hydrothermal flows. Second, higher cooling rates are obtained for the G structures. Third, whereas the subsolidus cooling rates, SCR, decrease monotonically with depth, the igneous cooling rates, ICR, display local minima at the merging levels of the upper and lower lenses. It appears that ICR reveal the near-ridge thermal and mechanical structures, whereas the lower value of the initial-to-closure temperature ranges used for SCR cause shifts farther from the ridge that reduces the ability of SCR to discriminate the ridge thermo-mechanical configuration. It also indicates that the common assumption that ICR and SCR should be similar is probably over-simplified. Finally, the cooling rates obtained bears the clear signature of the three intrusion hypothesis. The results show that numerical modeling of the lower crust's thermo-mechanical properties may provide new insights to discriminate among hypotheses related to G, M and S structures for fast-spreading ridges.; Thermal history obtained for the Gabro Glacier (top panels), Mixed shallow and MTZ zone (middle panels) and Sheeted Sills hypothesis (bottom panels)for the magma intrusion at ridge. Columns corresponds to various hydrothermal cooling and viscosity hypothesis.

  8. Gender-specific cold responses induce a similar body-cooling rate but different neuroendocrine and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there are any gender differences in body-heating strategies during cold stress and whether the immune and neuroendocrine responses to physiological stress differ between men and women. Thirty-two participants (18 men and 14 women) were exposed to acute cold stress by immersion to the manubrium level in 14 °C water. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5 °C or for a maximum of 170 min. The responses to cold stress of various indicators of body temperature, insulation, metabolism, shivering, stress, and endocrine and immune function were compared between men and women. During cold stress, TRE and muscle and mean skin temperatures decreased in all subjects (P<0.001). These variables and the TRE cooling rate did not differ between men and women. The insulative response was greater in women (P<0.05), whereas metabolic heat production and shivering were greater (P<0.05) in men. Indicators of cold strain did not differ between men and women, but men exhibited larger changes in the indicators of neuroendocrine (epinephrine level) and in immune (tumor necrosis factor-α level) responses (both P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that men exhibited a greater metabolic response and shivering thermogenesis during acute cold stress, whereas women exhibited a greater insulative response. Despite the similar experience of cold strain in men and women, the neuroendocrine and immune responses were larger in men. Contrary to our expectations, the cooling rate was similar in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High cloud variations with surface temperature from 2002 to 2015: Contributions to atmospheric radiative cooling rate and precipitation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Gu, Yu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Liu, Shaw Chen

    2017-05-01

    The global mean precipitation is largely constrained by atmospheric radiative cooling rates (Qr), which are sensitive to changes in high cloud fraction. We investigate variations of high cloud fraction with surface temperature (Ts) from July 2002 to June 2015 and compute their radiative effects on Qr using the Fu-Liou-Gu plane-parallel radiation model. We find that the tropical mean (30°S-30°N) high cloud fraction decreases with increasing Ts at a rate of about -1.0 ± 0.34% K-1 from 2002 to 2015, which leads to an enhanced atmospheric cooling around 0.86 W m-2 K-1. On the other hand, the northern midlatitudes (30°N-60°N) high cloud fraction increases with surface warming at a rate of 1.85 ± 0.65% K-1 and the near-global mean (60°S-60°N) high cloud fraction shows a statistically insignificant decreasing trend with increasing Ts over the analysis period. Dividing high clouds into cirrus, cirrostratus, and deep convective clouds, we find that cirrus cloud fraction increases with surface warming at a rate of 0.32 ± 0.11% K-1 (0.01 ± 0.17% K-1) for the near-global mean (tropical mean), while cirrostratus and deep convective clouds decrease with surface warming at a rate of -0.02 ± 0.18% K-1 and -0.33 ± 0.18% K-1 for the near-global mean and -0.64 ± 0.23% K-1 and -0.37 ± 0.13% K-1 for the tropical mean, respectively. High cloud fraction response to feedback to Ts accounts for approximately 1.9 ± 0.7% and 16.0 ± 6.1% of the increase in precipitation per unit surface warming over the period of 2002-2015 for the near-global mean and the tropical mean, respectively.

  10. The effect of different cooling rates and coping thicknesses on the failure load of zirconia-ceramic crowns after fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu Lung; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Shim, June-Sung; Kim, Sunjai

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different coping thicknesses and veneer ceramic cooling rates on the failure load of zirconia-ceramic crowns. Zirconia copings of two different thicknesses (0.5 mm or 1.5 mm; n=20 each) were fabricated from scanning 40 identical abutment models using a dental computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing system. Zirconia-ceramic crowns were completed by veneering feldspathic ceramics under different cooling rates (conventional or slow, n=20 each), resulting in 4 different groups (CONV05, SLOW05, CONV15, SLOW15; n=10 per group). Each crown was cemented on the abutment. 300,000 cycles of a 50-N load and thermocycling were applied on the crown, and then, a monotonic load was applied on each crown until failure. The mean failure loads were evaluated with two-way analysis of variance (P=.05). No cohesive or adhesive failure was observed after fatigue loading with thermocycling. Among the 4 groups, SLOW15 group (slow cooling and 1.5 mm chipping thickness) resulted in a significantly greater mean failure load than the other groups (P<.001). Coping fractures were only observed in SLOW15 group. The failure load of zirconia-ceramic crowns was significantly influenced by cooling rate as well as coping thickness. Under conventional cooling conditions, the mean failure load was not influenced by the coping thickness; however, under slow cooling conditions, the mean failure load was significantly influenced by the coping thickness.

  11. Effectiveness of eugenol sedation to reduce the metabolic rates of cool and warm water fish at high loading densities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Hartleb, Christopher F.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of eugenol (AQUI-S®20E, 10% active eugenol) sedation on cool water, yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchill), and warm water, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fish metabolic rates were assessed. Both species were exposed to 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L−1 eugenol using static respirometry. In 17°C water and loading densities of 60, 120 and 240 g L−1, yellow perch controls (0 mg L−1 eugenol) had metabolic rates of 329.6–400.0 mg O2 kg−1 h−1, while yellow perch exposed to 20 and 30 mg L−1 eugenol had significantly reduced metabolic rates of 258.4–325.6 and 189.1–271.0 mg O2 kg−1 h−1 respectively. Nile tilapia exposed to 30 mg L−1 eugenol had a significantly reduced metabolic rate (424.5 ± 42.3 mg O2 kg−1 h−1) relative to the 0 mg L−1 eugenol control (546.6 ± 53.5 mg O2 kg−1 h−1) at a loading density of 120 g L−1 in 22°C water. No significant differences in metabolic rates for Nile tilapia were found at 240 or 360 g L−1 loading densities when exposed to eugenol. Results suggest that eugenol sedation may benefit yellow perch welfare at high densities (e.g. live transport) due to a reduction in metabolic rates, while further research is needed to assess the benefits of eugenol sedation on Nile tilapia at high loading densities.

  12. Cool Bands: Wing bands decrease rate of heating, but not equilibrium temperature in Anartia fatima.

    PubMed

    Brashears, Jake; Aiello, Annette; Seymoure, Brett M

    2016-02-01

    Butterflies regulate their internal thoracic temperature in order to optimize performance activities (e.g. flight, foraging). Previous research has shown that butterfly wings, particularly the innermost portions, play a role in thermoregulation. We investigated to see whether a lightly colored wing band would alter the thermal properties of the banded peacock butterfly (Anartia fatima) with two within subject experiments in a laboratory setting: (1) band color manipulation in which euthanized individuals were heated to thermal equilibrium with the band unaltered and then again with the wing darkened; (2) wing ablation in which individuals already run through experiment 1 were heated to equilibrium two more times; once with the outer portion of the wing including the band removed and then with the entire wing removed. Individuals were spread so that the dorsal surface of the wing was exposed to illumination from a lamp suspended above. Twelve Anartia fatima males were collected in Panama and were run through experiment one. Four individuals were run through experiment two. We found no effect of darkening the band on the internal thoracic equilibrium temperature, but the darkened band did increase the rate of heating. The wing ablation experiment revealed that wing removal lowered the internal thoracic equilibrium temperature but did not affect the heating rate. Therefore we show that butterfly bands may be important in butterfly thermoregulation and we discuss the importance of the wing band on thermoregulatory abilities in Anartia fatima with respect to the butterfly's natural history. We conclude that the wing band may allow butterflies to reduce heat stress induced by their warm environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of heat transfer in liquid and slush nitrogen by numerical simulation of cooling rates for French straws used for sperm cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Sansinena, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-05-01

    Slush nitrogen (SN(2)) is a mixture of solid nitrogen and liquid nitrogen, with an average temperature of -207 °C. To investigate whether plunging a French plastic straw (commonly used for sperm cryopreservation) in SN(2) substantially increases cooling rates with respect to liquid nitrogen (LN(2)), a numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was used to predict cooling rates. Calculations performed using heat transfer coefficients in the range of film boiling confirmed the main benefit of plunging a straw in slush over LN(2) did not arise from their temperature difference (-207 vs. -196 °C), but rather from an increase in the external heat transfer coefficient. Numerical simulations using high heat transfer (h) coefficients (assumed to prevail in SN(2)) suggested that plunging in SN(2) would increase cooling rates of French straw. This increase of cooling rates was attributed to a less or null film boiling responsible for low heat transfer coefficients in liquid nitrogen when the straw is placed in the solid-liquid mixture or slush. In addition, predicted cooling rates of French straws in SN(2) tended to level-off for high h values, suggesting heat transfer was dictated by heat conduction within the liquid filled plastic straw. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intracellular ice formation in mouse zygotes and early morulae vs. cooling rate and temperature-experimental vs. theory.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Seki, Shinsuke; Paredes, Estefania; Qiu, Juan; Shi, Yanbin; Zhang, Zhenqiang; Ma, Chao; Jiang, Shuyan; Li, Jiaqi; Yuan, Feng; Wang, Shu; Shao, Xiaoguang; Mazur, Peter

    2016-10-01

    In this study, mature female mice of the ICR strain were induced to superovultate, mated, and collected at either zygote or early morula stages. Embryos suspended in 1 M ethylene glycol in PBS containing 10 mg/L Snomax for 15 min, then transferred in sample holder to Linkam cryostage, cooled to and seeded at 7 °C, and then observed and photographed while being cooled to -70 °C at 0.5-20 °C/min. Intracellular ice formation (IIF) was observed as abrupt ''flashing''. Two types of flashing or IIF were observed in this study. Extracellular freezing occurred at a mean of -7.7 °C. In morulae, about 25% turned dark within ±1 °C of extracellular ice formation (EIF). These we refer to as "high temperature'' flashers. In zygotes, there were no high temperature flashers. All the zygotes flashed at temperatures well below the temperature for EIF. Presumably high temperature flashers were a consequence of membrane damage prior to EIF or damage from EIF. We shall not discuss them further. In the majority of cases, IIF occurred well below -7.7 °C; these we call ''low temperature'' flashers. None flashed with cooling rate (CR) of 0.5 °C/min in either zygotes or morulae. Nearly all flashed with CR of 4 °C/min or higher, but the distribution of temperatures is much broader with morulae than with zygotes. Also, the mean flashing temperature is much higher with morulae (-20.9 °C) than with zygotes (-40.3 °C). We computed the kinetics of water loss with respect to CR and temperature in both mouse zygotes and in morulae based on published estimates of Lp and it is Ea. The resulting dehydration curves combined with knowledge of the embryo nucleation temperature permits an estimate of the likelihood of IIF as a function of CR and subzero temperature. The agreement between these computed probabilities and the observed values are good. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of heat transfer mode on heart rate responses and hysteresis during heating and cooling in the estuarine crocodile Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Craig E; Seebacher, Frank

    2003-04-01

    The effect of heating and cooling on heart rate in the estuarine crocodile Crocodylus porosus was studied in response to different heat transfer mechanisms and heat loads. Three heating treatments were investigated. C. porosus were: (1) exposed to a radiant heat source under dry conditions; (2) heated via radiant energy while half-submerged in flowing water at 23 degrees C and (3) heated via convective transfer by increasing water temperature from 23 degrees C to 35 degrees C. Cooling was achieved in all treatments by removing the heat source and with C. porosus half-submerged in flowing water at 23 degrees C. In all treatments, the heart rate of C. porosus increased markedly in response to heating and decreased rapidly with the removal of the heat source. Heart rate during heating was significantly faster than during cooling at any given body temperature, i.e. there was a significant heart rate hysteresis. There were two identifiable responses to heating and cooling. During the initial stages of applying or removing the heat source, there was a dramatic increase or decrease in heart rate ('rapid response'), respectively, indicating a possible cardiac reflex. This rapid change in heart rate with only a small change or no change in body temperature (<0.5 degrees C) resulted in Q(10) values greater than 4000, calling into question the usefulness of this measure on heart rate during the initial stages of heating and cooling. In the later phases of heating and cooling, heart rate changed with body temperature, with Q(10) values of 2-3. The magnitude of the heart rate response differed between treatments, with radiant heating during submergence eliciting the smallest response. The heart rate of C. porosus outside of the 'rapid response' periods was found to be a function of the heat load experienced at the animal surface, as well as on the mode of heat transfer. Heart rate increased or decreased rapidly when C. porosus experienced large positive (above 25 W) or negative

  16. Effect of cooling rate on the crystal polymorphism in beta-nucleated isotactic polypropylene as revealed by a combined WAXS/FSC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, Alicyn Marie; Wonderling, Nichole; Gohn, Anne; Williams, Jason; Mileva, Daniela; Gahleitner, Markus; Androsch, René

    2016-05-01

    The efficiency of γ-quinacridone to nucleate β-crystal formation in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) at rapid cooling has been evaluated by a combination of fast scanning chip calorimetry (FSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). For samples with different amount of γ-quinacridone, FSC experiments revealed information about a critical cooling rate above which the crystallization temperature decreases to below 105 °C, that is, to temperatures at which the growth rate of α-crystals is higher than that of β-crystals. Microfocus WAXS analysis was then applied to gain information about the competition of formation of β- and α-crystals in samples prepared at defined cooling conditions at rates up to 1000 K/s in the FSC. For iPP containing 1 and 500 ppm γ-quinacridone, the crystallization temperature is lower than 105 °C on cooling faster about 10 and 70 K/s, respectively, which then on further increase of the cooling rate leads to a distinct reduction of the β-crystal fraction.

  17. Investigation on the Effect of Mold Constraints and Cooling Rate on Residual Stress During the Sand-Casting Process of 1086 Steel by Employing a Thermomechanical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghani, Amir; Davami, Parviz; Varahram, Naser; Shabani, Mohsen Ostad

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the effects of mold constraints and cooling rate on residual stress were analyzed during the shaped casting process. For this purpose, an H-shaped sample was designed in which the contraction of its middle portion is highly restricted by the mold during the cooling process. The effects of an increasing cooling rate combined with mold constraints were analyzed by reducing the thickness of the middle portion in the second sample. A three-dimensional coupled temperature-displacement analysis was performed in finite-element code ABAQUS to simulate residual stress distribution, and then numerical results were verified by the hole-drilling strain-gauge method. It was concluded that the mold constraints have a greater effect on the values of residual stress than the cooling rate (thin section) in steel sand casting. Increasing the cooling rate would increase the amount of residual stress, only in the presence of mold constraints. It is also suggested that employing the elastic-plastic stress model for the sand mold will satisfy the experimental results and avoid exaggerated values of residual stress in simulation.

  18. Analysis of isothermal and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Peter A.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2016-02-24

    Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature, T, and relative humidity, RH, at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nucleating particles (INPs) all have the same INP surface area (ISA); however, the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. Descriptions of ice active sites and variability of contact angles have been successfully formulated to describe ice nucleation experimental data in previous research; however, we consider the ability of a stochastic freezing model founded on classical nucleation theory to reproduce previous results and to explain experimental uncertainties and data scatter. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses parameters including the total number of droplets, Ntot, and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA-dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing.

    The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or

  19. The Fe2(+)-Mg interdiffusion in orthopyroxene: Constraints from cation ordering and structural data and implications for cooling rates of meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Tazzoli, V.

    1993-01-01

    Orthopyroxene crystals in a number of meteorites exhibit compositional zoning of Fe and Mg, which provide important constraint on their cooling rates. However, attempts to model cooling rate of these crystals from Fe-Mg zoning profiles suffer from the lack of any measured or theoretically well constrained Fe-Mg interdiffusion data in OP(x) It has been assumed that Fe-Mg interdiffusion in OP(x) only slightly slower than that in olivine. The purpose of this paper is to (1) calculate the Fe-Mg fractionation, and (2) provide analytical formulation relating cooling rate to the length of the diffusion zone across the interface of the overgrowth of a mineral on itself with application to Mg diffusion profile across OP(x) growth on OP(x) in certain mesosiderites.

  20. The effects of cooling rate on the structure and luminescent properties of undoped and doped SrAl2O4 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Claudiane dos S.; Andrade, Adriano B.; Montes, Paulo J. R.; Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E. G.

    2017-10-01

    Undoped and doped SrAl2O4 were synthesized by the Proteic sol-gel method using different cooling rates. The structural properties were investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The concentration of monoclinic and hexagonal phases in each sample calcined at the same temperature but with different cooling rates was determined via XRD Rietveld refinement. The effect of different cooling rates on the radioluminescence (RL) properties of undoped and doped SrAl2O4 phosphor also was investigated and the results suggest that the Eu3+ → Eu2+ reduction process depend on the relative concentration of monoclinic and hexagonal phases in the sample.

  1. Theoretical prediction of the effect of heat transfer parameters on cooling rates of liquid-filled plastic straws used for cryopreservation of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sansinen, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Baez, R; Chirife, J

    2010-01-01

    Heat transfer plays a key role in cryopreservation of liquid semen in plastic straws. The effect of several parameters on the cooling rate of a liquid-filled polypropylene straw when plunged into liquid nitrogen was investigated using a theoretical model. The geometry of the straw containing the liquid was assimilated as two concentric finite cylinders of different materials: the fluid and the straw; the unsteady-state heat conduction equation for concentric cylinders was numerically solved. Parameters studied include external (convection) heat transfer coefficient (h), the thermal properties of straw manufacturing material and wall thickness. It was concluded that the single most important parameter affecting the cooling rate of a liquid column contained in a straw is the external heat transfer coefficient in LN2. Consequently, in order to attain maximum cooling rates, conditions have to be designed to obtain the highest possible heat transfer coefficient when the plastic straw is plunged in liquid nitrogen.

  2. The Influence of Cooling Rate During Crystallization on the Effective Partitioning Coefficient in High-Entropy Alloys from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Kamil; Bala, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz; Koziel, Tomasz; Stępień, Milena; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    An influence of two different cooling rates on the microstructure and dispersion of the components of high-entropy alloy from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe system has been examined. For investigated alloys, the effective partitioning coefficient has been calculated. This factor indicates the degree of segregation of elements and allows for the specification of the differences between dendrites and interdendritic regions. The obtained results allow for the conclusion that the cooling rate substantially affect the growth of dendrites and the volume fraction of interdendritic regions as well as the partitioning of elements in the alloy. Furthermore, the obtained results made it possible to compare the influence of the cooling rate and the chemical composition on the dispersion of the alloying elements.

  3. Effects of cooling rate, saturation temperature, and agitation on the metastable zone width of DL-malic acid-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Leng, Yixin; Huang, Chunxiang; Yue, Mingxuan; Tan, Qian

    2015-09-01

    A study of metastable zone width (MSZW) and nucleation parameters for a cooling crystallization of DL-malic acid-water system is described in this paper. Experimental determination of the MSZW was performed using a laser method in order to carry out the estimation of nucleation parameters. Measured MSZWs can be affected by a variety of parameters, such as cooling rate, saturation temperature, agitation rate, and so on. In this work, the MSZWs were found to decrease with an increase of saturation temperature, and levels of agitation, while it increased with an increase of cooling rate. Two classical theoretical approaches, Nyvlt's approach and self-consistent Nyvlt-like approach were used to analyze the experimental data on MSZWs.

  4. Thermophoretically enhanced mass transport rates to solid and transpiration-cooled walls across turbulent (law-of-the-wall) boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Rosner, Daniel E.

    1985-01-01

    Convective-diffusion mass transfer rate predictions are made for both solid wall and transpiration-cooled 'law-of-the-wall' nonisothermal turbulent boundary layers (TBLs), including the mechanism of thermophoresis, i.e., small particle mass transport 'down a temperature gradient'. The present calculations are confined to low mass-loading situations but span the entire particle size range from vapor molecules to particles near the onset of inertial ('eddy') impaction. It is shown that, when Sc is much greater than 1, thermophoresis greatly increases particle deposition rates to internally cooled solid walls, but only partially offsets the appreciable reduction in deposition rates associated with dust-free gas-transpiration-cooled surfaces. Thus, efficient particle sampling from hot dusty gases can be carried out using transpiration 'shielded' probe surfaces.

  5. Thermophoretically enhanced mass transport rates to solid and transpiration-cooled walls across turbulent (law-of-the-wall) boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Rosner, Daniel E.

    1985-01-01

    Convective-diffusion mass transfer rate predictions are made for both solid wall and transpiration-cooled 'law-of-the-wall' nonisothermal turbulent boundary layers (TBLs), including the mechanism of thermophoresis, i.e., small particle mass transport 'down a temperature gradient'. The present calculations are confined to low mass-loading situations but span the entire particle size range from vapor molecules to particles near the onset of inertial ('eddy') impaction. It is shown that, when Sc is much greater than 1, thermophoresis greatly increases particle deposition rates to internally cooled solid walls, but only partially offsets the appreciable reduction in deposition rates associated with dust-free gas-transpiration-cooled surfaces. Thus, efficient particle sampling from hot dusty gases can be carried out using transpiration 'shielded' probe surfaces.

  6. Ionization rates relevant to laser cooling of hydrogen. Final report, 1 August 1987-31 January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, R.S.

    1988-06-01

    Laser cooling of atomic hydrogen has practical importance is a wide variety of applications ranging from relativistic neutral-particle beam weapons to atomic clocks and exotic fuels. A laser beam suitable for atomic hydrogen cooling needs to be high-intensity, narrow-band, coherent, and broadly tunable in the region around Lyman-alpha (1216 A). The author produced a source meeting these criteria. He studied, characterized, and optimized this source for conditions important to laser cooling. In an introductory section, he discusses the physics and potential practical applications of laser cooling and tunable VUV sources. Specific results obtained during the six months of this contract.

  7. How metallographic preparation affects the microstructure of WC/Co thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Glancy, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    Variations in the metallographic preparation of coatings such as WC/Co can have a significant effect on the resulting microstructure. The main area of concern is the variation of apparent void content (AVC) or porosity. Improper preparation technique will often result in smearing which can mask much of the inherent AVC. Vacuum impregnation of the specimens with an epoxy/fluorescence dye combination makes it possible to differentiate AVC from preparation artifacts. Specimens mounted using this method showed less sensitivity to polishing techniques than those mounted by conventional hot-compression methods. Therefore, it is recommended to vacuum impregnate all specimens that are prone to smearing. Once the true structure of the specimen has been determined, alternate mounting and polishing methods may be implemented as long as the resulting microstructure matches that of the impregnated specimen.

  8. Effect of composition, cooling rate, and solidification velocity on the microstructural development of molybdenum-bearing stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perricone, Matthew J.

    A series of Mo-bearing stainless steel compositions ranging from 0 to 10 wt% Mo were analyzed over a range of laser welding conditions to evaluate the effect of composition, cooling rate, and solidification velocity on microstructural development. Of particular engineering interest are alloys expected to solidify as primary delta-ferrite and transform in the solid state to gamma-austenite. Such compositions are essentially immune to solidification cracking and can potentially eliminate microsegregation (due to primary ferrite solidification) while still having high toughness and no magnetic signature at room temperature (transformation to austenite). A total of 64 Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo compositions were chosen based on multi-component phase stability diagrams calculated using the CALPHAD method. Alloys were created using the arc button melting process and laser welds were prepared on each alloy at constant power and travel speeds ranging from 4.2 mm/s to 42 mm/s. The cooling rates of these processes were estimated to range from 10 °C/s for are buttons to 105 °C/s for the fastest laser welds. Microstructural analysis was completed to determine primary solidification mode and the nature of solid state transformation behavior. Good agreement was observed between experimental observations and predictions from thermodynamic calculations. No shift in solidification mode was observed from primary delta-ferrite to primary gamma-austenite in the range of welding conditions studied. Metastable microstructural features were observed in many laser weld fusion zones, as well as a massive transformation from delta-ferrite to gamma-austenite in many of the alloys exhibiting primary delta-ferrite solidification. Evidence of epitaxial massive growth without nucleation was also found in primary delta-ferrite alloys with intercellular gamma-austenite already present from a solidification reaction. The resulting single phase gamma-austenite in both cases exhibited a homogenous distribution of

  9. Analysis of aerospace nickel-cadmium battery cells. [cadmium migration as seen by scanning electron microscopy and metallographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Various steps followed in analyzing the electrolyte, separator, and electrodes are reviewed. Specific emphasis is given to scanning electron microscopic and metallographic analysis of the plates. Cadmium migration is defined, its effects and causes are examined, and methods for its reduction in cells are suggested.

  10. Analysis of aerospace nickel-cadmium battery cells. [cadmium migration as seen by scanning electron microscopy and metallographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Various steps followed in analyzing the electrolyte, separator, and electrodes are reviewed. Specific emphasis is given to scanning electron microscopic and metallographic analysis of the plates. Cadmium migration is defined, its effects and causes are examined, and methods for its reduction in cells are suggested.

  11. Evidence of critical cooling rates in the nonisothermal crystallization of triacylglycerols: a case for the existence and selection of growth modes of a lipid crystal network.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S

    2010-03-16

    The isoconversional method, a model-free analysis of the kinetics of liquid-solid transformations, was used to determine the effective activation energy of the nonisothermal crystallization of melts of pure and complex systems of triacylglycerols (TAGs). The method was applied to data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the heat of crystallization of purified 1,3-dilauroyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (LSL) and commercially available cocoa butter melts. The method conclusively demonstrated the existence of specific growth modes and critical rates of cooling at specific degrees of conversion. The existence of critical rates suggests that the crystallization mechanism is composed of growth modes that can be effectively treated as mutually exclusive, each being predominant for one range of cooling rates and extent of conversion. Importantly, the data suggests that knowledge of the critical cooling rates at specific rates of conversion can be exploited to select preferred growth modes for lipid networks, with concomitant benefits of structural organization and resultant physical functionality. Differences in transport phenomena induced by different cooling rates suggest the existence of thresholds for particular growth mechanisms and help to explain the overall complexity of lipid crystallization. The results of this model-free analysis may be attributed to the relative importance of nucleation and growth at different stages of crystallization. A mechanistic explanation based on the competing effects of the thermodynamic driving force and limiting heat and transport phenomena is provided to explain the observed behavior. This work, furthermore, offers satisfactory explanations for the noted effect of cooling-rate-induced changes in the physical functionality of lipid networks.

  12. Effect of cryoprotectant solution and of cooling rate on crystallization temperature in cryopreserved Hypericum perforatum cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Misianiková, Anna; Zubrická, Daniela; Petijová, Linda; Brunákova, Katarina; Cellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for hypericins and hyperforins, the unique pharmaceuticals found in the Hypericum genus, requires the development of effective tools for long-term storage of cells and tissues with unique biochemical profiles. To determine the temperature of crystallization (T(C)) and of ice formation of 14 cryoprotectant mixtures (CMs) for their use in cryoprotection of H. perforatum L. cell suspensions and to evaluate the impact of the lowest Tc on post-cryogenic recovery. T(C) was determined by real-time microscopy of ice formation during slow cooling to -196° C and heating to 20° C. Exposure of cells to CMs CM2 (PVS3) containing sucrose and glycerol or CM12 and CM13 containing sucrose, glycerol, dimethylsulfoxide and ethylene glycol decreased T(C) below -60° C, prevented intracellular crystallization and considerably reduced both the size of crystals and the rate of extracellular ice propagation. The selected CMs proved suitable for cryopreservation of H. perforatum cell suspensions with the maximum of 58 % post-thaw recovery.

  13. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.2BaTiO3 Composite Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Ge, Jinguo; Liu, Haixiang; Xu, Liufeng; Bo, Anbing

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure, interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer, microhardness, tensile properties, and fracture surfaces of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.2BaTiO3 composite solder were explored under three different cooling conditions (water-, air-, and furnace-cooled) during solidification. The average grain size was refined and the volume fraction of primary β-Sn dendrites increased with increasing cooling rate. The thickness of the IMC layer increased as the cooling rate was decreased, and the morphology also transformed from scallop shaped, for a rapid cooling rate, to irregular shaped for slower cooling; a Cu3Sn IMC layer was detected between the Cu6Sn5 IMC and copper substrate under the furnace-cooled condition, but not in water- or air-cooled specimens. The mechanical properties, including the microhardness and tensile properties, improved with rapid solidification due to the combined effects of grain refinement and a secondary strengthening mechanism. Fracture surfaces after tensile tests showed that the amount of dimples decreased and a cleavage-like pattern increased as the cooling rate was decreased from the water-cooled to furnace-cooled condition, so the fracture process transformed from ductile to mixed-mode fracture. A refined microstructure and excellent mechanical properties were obtained for the rapidly cooled sample.

  14. Fearsome Flashes: A Study Of The Evolution Of Flaring Rates In Cool Stars Using Kepler Cluster Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven

    Strong solar flares can damage power grids, satellites, interrupt communications and GPS information, and threaten astronauts and high latitude air travelers. Despite the potential cost, their frequency is poorly determined. Beyond purely current terrestrial concerns, how the rate of large flares (and associated coronal mass ejections [CMEs], high-energy particle fluxes and far UV emission) varies over the stellar lifetime holds considerable astrophysical interest. These include: the contributions of flares to coronal energy budgets; the importance of flares and CMEs to terrestrial and exoplanet atmospheric and biological evolution; and importance of CME mass loss for angular momentum evolution. We will explore the rate of strong flares and its variation with stellar age, mass and rotation by studying Kepler data of cool stars in two open clusters NGC 6811 (age ~ 1 Gyr) and NGC 6819 (~2.5 Gyr). We will use two flare analysis methods to build white-light flare distributions for cluster stars. One subtracts a low-pass filtered version of the data and analyzes the residue for positive flux deviations, the other does a statistical analysis of the flux deviations vs. time lags compared with a model. For near- solar stars, a known solar relation can then be used to estimate X-ray production by the white-light flares. For stars much hotter or cooler or with significantly different chromospheric density, we will use particle code flare models including bombardment effects to estimate how the X-ray to white light scaling changes. With the X-ray values, we can estimate far UV fluxes and CME rates, building a picture of the flare effects; with the two cluster ages, we can make a first estimate of the solar rate (by projecting to the Sun's age) and begin to build up an understanding of flare rate evolution with mass and age. Our proposal falls squarely in the "Stellar Astrophysics and Exoplanets" research area, and is relevant to NASA astrophysics goals in promoting better

  15. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  16. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  17. Investigations on the heat transport capability of a cryogenic oscillating heat pipe and its application in achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell vitrification cryopreservation☆

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Ma, Hongbin; Jiao, Anjun; Critser, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretically, direct vitrification of cell suspensions with relatively low concentrations (~1 M) of permeating cryoprotective agents (CPA) is suitable for cryopreservation of almost all cell types and can be accomplished by ultra-fast cooling rates that are on the order of 106–7 K/min. However, the methods and devices currently available for cell cryopreservation cannot achieve such high cooling rates. In this study, we constructed a novel cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (COHP) using liquid nitrogen as its working fluid and investigated its heat transport capability to assess its application for achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell cryopreservation. The experimental results showed that the apparent heat transfer coefficient of the COHP can reach 2 × 105 W/m2·K, which is two orders of the magnitude higher than traditional heat pipes. Theoretical analyzes showed that the average local heat transfer coefficient in the thin film evaporation region of the COHP can reach 1.2 × 106 W/m2·K, which is approximately 103 times higher than that achievable with standard pool-boiling approaches. Based on these results, a novel device design applying the COHP and microfabrication techniques is proposed and its efficiency for cell vitrification is demonstrated through numerical simulation. The estimated average cooling rates achieved through this approach is 106–7 K/min, which is much faster than the currently available methods and sufficient for achieving vitrification with relatively low concentrations of CPA. PMID:18430413

  18. Thermal History of São João Nepomuceno (IVA) Iron Meteorite Inferred from Ganguly's Cooling Rate Model and 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Varela, M. E.

    2016-08-01

    The intracrystalline Fe-Mg distribution in orthopyroxenes, as measured by means of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and associated to Ganguly’s cooling rate numerical method, are used to infer the thermal history of São João Nepomuceno (IVA) meteorite.

  19. Investigations on the heat transport capability of a cryogenic oscillating heat pipe and its application in achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell vitrification cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Ma, Hongbin; Jiao, Anjun; Critser, John K

    2008-06-01

    Theoretically, direct vitrification of cell suspensions with relatively low concentrations ( approximately 1 M) of permeating cryoprotective agents (CPA) is suitable for cryopreservation of almost all cell types and can be accomplished by ultra-fast cooling rates that are on the order of 10(6-7) K/min. However, the methods and devices currently available for cell cryopreservation cannot achieve such high cooling rates. In this study, we constructed a novel cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (COHP) using liquid nitrogen as its working fluid and investigated its heat transport capability to assess its application for achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell cryopreservation. The experimental results showed that the apparent heat transfer coefficient of the COHP can reach 2 x 10(5) W/m(2).K, which is two orders of the magnitude higher than traditional heat pipes. Theoretical analyzes showed that the average local heat transfer coefficient in the thin film evaporation region of the COHP can reach 1.2 x 10(6) W/m(2).K, which is approximately 10(3) times higher than that achievable with standard pool-boiling approaches. Based on these results, a novel device design applying the COHP and microfabrication techniques is proposed and its efficiency for cell vitrification is demonstrated through numerical simulation. The estimated average cooling rates achieved through this approach is 10(6-7)K/min, which is much faster than the currently available methods and sufficient for achieving vitrification with relatively low concentrations of CPA.

  20. The effect of different cooling rates and coping thicknesses on the failure load of zirconia-ceramic crowns after fatigue loading

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yu Lung; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Shim, June-Sung

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different coping thicknesses and veneer ceramic cooling rates on the failure load of zirconia-ceramic crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia copings of two different thicknesses (0.5 mm or 1.5 mm; n=20 each) were fabricated from scanning 40 identical abutment models using a dental computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing system. Zirconia-ceramic crowns were completed by veneering feldspathic ceramics under different cooling rates (conventional or slow, n=20 each), resulting in 4 different groups (CONV05, SLOW05, CONV15, SLOW15; n=10 per group). Each crown was cemented on the abutment. 300,000 cycles of a 50-N load and thermocycling were applied on the crown, and then, a monotonic load was applied on each crown until failure. The mean failure loads were evaluated with two-way analysis of variance (P=.05). RESULTS No cohesive or adhesive failure was observed after fatigue loading with thermocycling. Among the 4 groups, SLOW15 group (slow cooling and 1.5 mm chipping thickness) resulted in a significantly greater mean failure load than the other groups (P<.001). Coping fractures were only observed in SLOW15 group. CONCLUSION The failure load of zirconia-ceramic crowns was significantly influenced by cooling rate as well as coping thickness. Under conventional cooling conditions, the mean failure load was not influenced by the coping thickness; however, under slow cooling conditions, the mean failure load was significantly influenced by the coping thickness. PMID:28680545

  1. Influence of thrust belt geometry and shortening rate on thermochronometer cooling ages: Insights from thermokinematic and erosion modeling of the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in thermochronology and numerical modeling offer the potential to associate the age of thermochronometric samples to both exhumational and deformational processes. However, understanding how these components are related in compressional systems requires linking the geometry and magnitude of fault slip to the distribution and amount of erosion. To address this, we apply a 2-D thermokinematic model to a forward modeled balanced cross section to quantify the cooling history in fold-thrust belt settings. The restored cross section provides a kinematic path of rocks and structures necessary to reproduce the surface geology. By assigning ages to displacement amounts, we produced a range of potential velocity vectors used to calculate heat transport, erosion, and rock cooling. We test the predicted ages against a suite of previously published thermochronometric data from the Bhutan Himalaya to explore the utility of the data to constrain the timing, rate, and geometry of fault motion as well as variations in the exhumation rate. We evaluate the cooling history associated with a constant rate of shortening of 18 mm/yr, rates that are 2.0, 1.5, 0.75, and 0.5 times the constant rate, and rates that vary with time to determine which kinematic history best matches the measured cooling ages. The combination of relatively old apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He measured ages and younger (15-9 Ma) 40Ar/39Ar ages from white mica is best matched with faster rates (relative to constant rates) between 11.5 and 8 Ma and slower than constant rates from 17 to 11.5 Ma and 8 Ma to present.

  2. Cooling rates and depth of detachment faulting of the Atlantis Massif and Kane oceanic core complexes at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoolmeesters, N.; Cheadle, M. J.; John, B. E.; Grimes, C. B.; Reiners, P. W.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the cooling history of lithosphere exposed in oceanic core complexes helps establish denudation rates, depth of detachment faulting, and depth of gabbro emplacement. We use thermochronometric data to constrain the crystallization history of gabbros hosted in the footwalls of the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30°N (IODP Hole U1309D), and the Kane Oceanic Core Complex at 23°N, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Combined U-Pb zircon crystallization ages taken with (U-Th)/He zircon ages allows the determination of the cooling rate of rocks sampled from these core complexes. The closure temperature for U-Pb in zircons from oceanic gabbros is ~800+/-50°C; the closure temperature for the (U-Th)/He system in zircon is ~220°C for these rapidly cooled rocks. Intermediate temperatures can be potentially constrained by multi-component remnant magnetization (300-600°C). Thus thermochronometry and geomagnetic studies help delimit the cooling history from ~800°C to 200°C (John et al., 2004). We have determined (U-Th)/He ages for nine samples from depths ranging between 40 and 1415 mbsf in IODP Hole U1309D, which together with U-Pb zircon ages, constrain the cooling rate of gabbros emplaced into the central dome of Atlantis Massif. Assuming monotonic cooling, cooling rates vary from 1293 (+827 -395) °C/My (for the ~800°C to ~220°C temperature interval) to 284 (+97 -62) °C/My (for ~220°C to present day). Downhole variation in (U-Th)/He age, combined with the present day geothermal gradient constrained by the bottom hole temperature of ~120°C, also limits the orientation of the ~200°C isotherm as the core complex was denuded. Assuming a conservative detachment fault slip rate of 16km/Ma, the age difference between the U-Pb and (U-Th)/He ages constrains the vertical distance between the ~800°C and the ~220°C isotherms to be ~6km. This distance, together with a plausible depth of 1-2km to the 220°C isotherm implies that the detachment fault at Atlantis

  3. Metallographic and Numerical Investigation of the EC-FOREVER-4 Test

    SciTech Connect

    Willschuetz, H.-G.; Altstadt, E.; Mueller, G.; Boehmert, J.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2004-07-01

    Assuming the hypothetical scenario of a severe accident with subsequent core meltdown and formation of a melt pool in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) leads to the question about the behavior of the RPV. One accident management strategy could be to stabilize the in-vessel debris configuration in the RPV as one major barrier against uncontrolled release of heat and radio nuclides. To get an improved understanding and knowledge of the melt pool convection and the vessel creep and possible failure processes and modes occurring during the late phase of a core melt down accident the FOREVER-experiments (Failure Of Reactor Vessel Retention) have been performed at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety of the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm. These experiments are simulating the behavior of the lower head of the RPV under the thermal loads of a convecting melt pool with decay heating, and under the pressure loads that the vessel experiences in a depressurization scenario. The geometrical scale of the experiments is 1:10 compared to a common LWR. Accompanying the experiments metallographic and numerical work is performed at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. An axisymmetric Finite Element model is developed based on the multi-purpose code ANSYS/Multiphysics. First the temperature field within the melt pool and within the vessel wall is evaluated. The transient structural mechanical calculations are then performed applying a creep model which takes into account large temperature, stress and strain variations. For a failure prediction it is necessary to introduce a damage measure. This is done according to a model proposed by Lemaitre. The microstructural investigation gives an insight to the material state of the vessel wall at different positions. This can be compared with the numerical damage value calculated in the Finite Element Model. This paper deals with the experimental, numerical, and metallographic results of the

  4. Low temperature mechanical properties, fractographic and metallographic evaluation of several alloy steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical properties are presented of alloy steels, 4130, 4140, 4340, 6150, and 8740. Test specimens were manufactured from approximately 1.00 inch (2.54 cm) diameter bar stock which had been heat treated to two different hardness levels. The following mechanical tests were performed at temperatures of 80 F (+26.7 C), 0 F (-17.8 C), -100 F (-73 C), and -200 F (-129 C): (1) tensile test (Ultimate, yield, modulus, elongation, and reduction of area), (2) notched tensile test, (3) charpy V-notched impact test (impact energy), and (4) double shear strength test (ultimate and yield). The test data indicate excellent tensile strength, notched/unnotched tensile ratios, ductility, impact, and shear properties at all test temperatures, except at -200 F (-129 C) where the impact strength of the higher strength group of alloy steels, 4130 (Rc-37) and 4140 (Rc-44) decreased to approximately 9 ft. lbs. (12 joules) and 6 ft. lbs. (8 joules), respectively. Chemical, metallographic, and fractographic analyses were also performed to evaluate microstructure, microhardness and the effect of decrease in temperature on the ductile to brittle failure transition.

  5. Metallographic and hardness examinations of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head samples

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, G. E.

    1994-03-01

    Fifteen steel samples were removed from the lower pressure vessel head of the damaged TMI-2 nuclear reactor to assess the thermal threat to the head posed by 15 to 20 metric tons of molten core debris relocating there during the accident. Full sections of thirteen of the samples and partial sections of the other two samples underwent hardness and metallographic examinations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These examinations have shown that eleven of the fifteen samples did not exceed the ferrite-austenite transformation temperature of 727 C during the accident. The remaining four samples did show evidence of having a much more severe thermal history. The samples from core grid positions F-10 and G-8 are believed to have experienced temperatures of 1,040 to 1,060 C for about 30 minutes. Samples from positions E-8 and E-6 appear to have been subjected to 1,075 to 1,100 C for approximately 30 minutes.

  6. A quantitative-metallographic study of the sintering behaviour of dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Yeprem, H.A.; Tueredi, E.; Karagoez, S. . E-mail: karagoez@kou.edu.tr

    2004-07-15

    Grain growth of the MgO phase during sintering of natural dolomite from Selcuklu-Konya in Turkey was studied in the temperature range 1600-1700 deg. C. For comparison purposes, iron oxide (98.66% mill scale) was added up to 1.5%. The compositions of the phases formed during sintering were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Quantitative-metallographic analyses were performed on images taken by SEM. For the automatic image analysis of dolomite microstructures, material (atomic number) contrast with backscattered electrons (BSEs) was utilized because it yields higher phase contrast compared to secondary electrons (SEs). Iron oxide additions to dolomite result in dense dolomite structures at given sintering temperatures, where phases with low melting temperatures are developed. During liquid phase sintering, periclase is enriched with iron, which destabilizes the MgO phase. The relevant kinetic exponents for MgO in the natural doloma and 0.5% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} added doloma were 6 and 2, and the activation energies were 108 and 243 kJ/mol, respectively.

  7. Cooling rate correction and Detection of mineralogical evolution during Thellier-Thellier's experiments on baked clays. Applications to French protohistoric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanos, P.; Hervé, G.; Chauvin, A.; Perron d'Arc, M.

    2011-12-01

    Archaeointensity protocols have been considerably improved since the last years to better detect multidomain (MD) grains effects or mineralogical evolutions during Thellier's experiments. Current published data respect more strict criteria and take into account the anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM). However the effect of the cooling rate on the intensity of the TRM acquired during cooling, which depends on the type of the ferromagnetic grains, remains difficult to precisely quantify. The main problem is to estimate the true cooling rate of the archeological structures and usually a 24 hours cooling is assumed. An experimental study of 35 small bricks baked in two kilns during summer 2007 and 2008 (in Sallèles d'Aude, southern France) gives new elements about the cooling rate correction. The used kilns are of two different sizes, similar to classical archaeological structures. Intensity of the geomagnetic field (43 μT) in the kilns and the temperature decrease during the cooling (around 12 hours for the small kiln and 70 hours for the other one) were measured. Discrepancies between the TRM intensity after fast (1.5 hour in the laboratory) and low cooling of 24 hours are over a very wide range between -5 and +30%. The use of the true cooling rate of the kilns (respectively 12 and 72 hours) gives mean archaeointensities (43.8±1.8 μT and 42.7±2.2 μT) corresponding to the intensity of the field measured within them. By applying the usual cooling of 24 hours, the intensity of the field is underestimated by 3 μT in the small kiln and is overestimated by 3 μT in the bigger kiln. Consequently, a wrong cooling rate correction may explain the dispersion between archaeointensities. The second aspect of the presentation corresponds to the detection of mineralogical evolution during successive heatings of the Thellier-Thellier's protocol. This problem is particularly important for the millennia BC in Europe, as very well heated structures are less common

  8. Metallographic anlaysis and strength investigation of different Be-Cu joints in the temperature range RT-3500C

    SciTech Connect

    Gervash, A.A.; Giniatouline, R.N.; Mazul, I.V.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this work is to estimate the strength and structure of different Be-Cu joining techniques. Brazing, diffusion bonding and joint rolling methods were chosen as ITER Be-Cu joint method candidates. Selected for ITER application Be-Cu joints were produced as technological plates (30-50 mm x 50-100 mm x thickness). AR samples for farther investigations were cutted out from initial technological plates. To compare mechanical strength of selected Be-Cu joints tensile and shearing tests of chosen candidates were carried out in the temperature range RT - 350{degrees}C. The metallographic analysis of Be-Cu crosssection was also done. Preliminary results of these tests as well as metallographic analysis data are presented. The industrial possibilities of producing required for ITER full scale Be-Cu joints are discussed.

  9. Volvo laboratory study of zinc-coated steel sheet-introduction and metallographic characterization of the coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, P.; Otterberg, R.

    1989-01-01

    An outline of the Volvo laboratory study of zinc-coated steel sheet is presented. Fourteen different coatings were included in this study. They were all commercially available hot-dip zinc, electrolytic zinc and zinc-rich paint coatings. Not only pure zinc but also coatings alloyed with iron, aluminum and nickel were studied. One-, two- and three-layer coatings were also included. All fourteen coatings are metallographically characterized in this paper.

  10. Effects of cooling rate and glycerol concentration on the structure of the frozen kidney: assessment by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bischof, J; Hunt, C J; Rubinsky, B; Burgess, A; Pegg, D E

    1990-06-01

    An experimental technique, employing a directional solidification stage for controlled freezing of tissue samples and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy for observation of the structure of the frozen-hydrated samples, was used to study freezing processes in the kidney. Parametric studies in which the cooling rate during freezing and the concentration of glycerol in the tissue were varied confirmed the results of earlier freeze-substitution studies. The results suggest a mechanism for ice propagation in the kidney similar to that already proposed for the liver, in which ice originates in, and is subsequently propagated through, the peritubular vasculature. The ice front dehydrates the cells and tubular structures encountered in its path, thus preventing intraluminal freezing. At higher rates of cooling and increased concentrations of glycerol there is less dehydration of cortical structure and intraluminal freezing occurs.

  11. Influence of cooling rate in planar thermally assisted magnetic random access memory: Improved writeability due to spin-transfer-torque influence

    SciTech Connect

    Chavent, A.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Creuzet, C.; Alvarez-Hérault, J.; Vila, L.; Sousa, R. C.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.

    2015-09-14

    This paper investigates the effect of a controlled cooling rate on magnetic field reversal assisted by spin transfer torque (STT) in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory. By using a gradual linear decrease of the voltage at the end of the write pulse, the STT decays more slowly or at least at the same rate as the temperature. This condition is necessary to make sure that the storage layer magnetization remains in the desired written direction during cooling of the cell. The influence of the write current pulse decay rate was investigated on two exchange biased synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) electrodes. For a NiFe based electrode, a significant improvement in writing reproducibility was observed using a gradual linear voltage transition. The write error rate decreases by a factor of 10 when increasing the write pulse fall-time from ∼3 ns to 70 ns. For comparison, a second CoFe/NiFe based electrode was also reversed by magnetic field assisted by STT. In this case, no difference between sharp and linear write pulse fall shape was observed. We attribute this observation to the higher thermal stability of the CoFe/NiFe electrode during cooling. In real-time measurements of the magnetization reversal, it was found that Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling in the SyF electrode vanishes for the highest pulse voltages that were used due to the high temperature reached during write. As a result, during the cooling phase, the final state is reached through a spin-flop transition of the SyF storage layer.

  12. Porosity formation in AI-9 Wt Pct Si-3 Wt Pct Cu alloy systems: Metallographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, N.; Samuel, A. M.; Samuel, F. H.

    1996-02-01

    The formation of porosity in Al-9 wt Pct Si-3 wt Pct Cu-X alloys was studied as a function of (1) the hydrogen content of the melt; (2) the melt treatment additives, namely, modifier (Sr), grain refiner (TiB2), and primary silicon refiner (P); (3) alloying elements for precipitation hardening such as Mg and Zn; (4) intermetallics (α-iron, β-iron, sludge, and Al2Cu); and (5) solidification conditions (so-lidification time and solidus velocity). The results were statistically analyzed, based on the quanti-tative image analysis data of the porosity observed in samples obtained from a set of 72 solidification experiments. Metallographic aspects of pore size and pore morphology related to the preceding parameters and the possible mechanisms of porosity formation are highlighted in this article. The results show that a melt hydrogen content of 0.1 mL/100 g Al has the same effect on percentage porosity as that obtained with an addition of 185 ppm strontium to the melt. Grain refiner particles, phosphorus, and magnesium reduce percentage porosity, although in different magnitudes. A Mg-Sr or Mg-GR combination further reduces the percentage porosity observed in the casting. The β needles of the Al5FeSi intermetallic phase are very active as pore nucleation sites. All intermetallics, viz. β needles, α-Chinese script phase, Al2Cu phase, and sludge restrict pore growth and expansion. In-creasing the local solidification time or the solidus velocity increases the pore parameters. Pore growth in the two cases is attributed, respectively, to a diffusion-controlled growth process and to the formation of hot spots.

  13. Structure formation in sugar containing pectin gels - influence of tartaric acid content (pH) and cooling rate on the gelation of high-methoxylated pectin.

    PubMed

    Kastner, H; Kern, K; Wilde, R; Berthold, A; Einhorn-Stoll, U; Drusch, S

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was the application of a recently published method, using structuring parameters calculated from dG'/dt, for the characterisation of the pectin sugar acid gelation process. The influence of cooling rate and pH on structure formation of HM pectin gels containing 65 wt.% sucrose were investigated. The results show that the structure formation process as well as the properties of the final gels strongly depended on both parameters. With increasing cooling rates from 0.5 to 1.0 K/min the initial structuring temperature slightly decreased and the maximum structuring velocity increased. The lower the cooling rates, the firmer and more elastic were the final gels. With increasing acid content (decreasing pH from 2.5-2.0) the initial structuring temperatures were nearly constant. The final gel properties varied visibly but not systematically. Gels with the lowest and highest pH were less elastic and weaker compared to those with medium acid concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cooling rate after hot rolling and of multistage strain aging on the drawability of low-carbon-steel wire rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, A. Karimi; Maccagno, T. M.; Jonas, J. J.

    1995-05-01

    Tensile testing was used to simulate the multistage strain aging occurring in low-C steel during the relatively short intervals between dies in a multiple-die wire-drawing machine. The effects were examined of three simulated post-hot-rolling cooling rates and three thermal treatments on the strain-aging susceptibility of a high- and a low-N steel. This was measured by applying a 6 pct tensile strain, followed by aging at either 65° or 100 °C for 20 seconds, and then pulling the specimen to failure at room temperature. Increases in flow stress and decreases in the elongation to fracture both indicated high susceptibility to strain aging. It was found that the nitrogen content, the cooling rate from the hot-rolling temperature to about 300 °C, as well as the cooling rate below 300 °C, all have dramatic effects on the strain-aging behavior. Moreover, multistage strain aging is more severe than single-stage strain aging. The implications of these observations on increasing the drawability of low-carbon-steel wire are discussed.

  15. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of air blast cooling and vacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (P<0.05) than air blast cooling and immersion vacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force.

  16. Cooling rate dependence of structural order in Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10} metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Feng Ye, Zhuo; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-07-07

    The atomic structure of Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10} metallic glass is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. By performing a long sub-T{sub g} annealing, we developed a glass model closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. Using the cluster alignment method, we found that “3661” cluster is the dominating short-range order in the glass samples. The connection and arrangement of “3661” clusters, which define the medium-range order in the system, are enhanced significantly in the sub-T{sub g} annealed sample as compared with the fast cooled glass samples. Unlike some strong binary glass formers such as Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5}, the clusters representing the short-range order do not form an interconnected interpenetrating network in Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10,} which has only marginal glass formability.

  17. Convergence of the Critical Cooling Rate for Protoplanetary Disk Fragmentation Achieved: The Key Role of Numerical Dissipation of Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongping; Mayer, Lucio; Meru, Farzana

    2017-09-01

    We carry out simulations of gravitationally unstable disks using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and the novel Lagrangian meshless finite mass (MFM) scheme in the GIZMO code. Our aim is to understand the cause of the nonconvergence of the cooling boundary for fragmentation reported in the literature. We run SPH simulations with two different artificial viscosity implementations and compare them with MFM, which does not employ any artificial viscosity. With MFM we demonstrate convergence of the critical cooling timescale for fragmentation at {β }{crit}≈ 3. Nonconvergence persists in SPH codes. We show how the nonconvergence problem is caused by artificial fragmentation triggered by excessive dissipation of angular momentum in domains with large velocity derivatives. With increased resolution, such domains become more prominent. Vorticity lags behind density, due to numerical viscous dissipation in these regions, promoting collapse with longer cooling times. Such effect is shown to be dominant over the competing tendency of artificial viscosity to diminish with increasing resolution. When the initial conditions are first relaxed for several orbits, the flow is more regular, with lower shear and vorticity in nonaxisymmetric regions, aiding convergence. Yet MFM is the only method that converges exactly. Our findings are of general interest, as numerical dissipation via artificial viscosity or advection errors can also occur in grid-based codes. Indeed, for the FARGO code values of {β }{crit} significantly higher than our converged estimate have been reported in the literature. Finally, we discuss implications for giant planet formation via disk instability.

  18. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  19. Use of hypometabolic TRIS extenders and high cooling rate refrigeration for cryopreservation of stallion sperm: presence and sensitivity of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).

    PubMed

    Córdova, Alex; Strobel, Pablo; Vallejo, Andrés; Valenzuela, Pamela; Ulloa, Omar; Burgos, Rafael A; Menarim, Bruno; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ratto, Marcelo; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the use of hypometabolic TRIS extenders in the presence or the absence of AMPK activators as well as the utilization of high cooling rates in the refrigeration step on the freezability of stallion sperm. Twelve ejaculates were cryopreserved using Botucrio® as a control extender and a basic TRIS extender (HM-0) separately supplemented with 10 mM metformin, 2mM 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), 2 mM Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), 40 μM compound C AMPK inhibitor or 2 mM AMP+40 μM compound C. Our results showed that the utilization of a hypometabolic TRIS extender supplemented or not with AMP or metformin significantly improves stallion sperm freezability when compared with a commercial extender. Additionally, high cooling rates do not affect stallion sperm quality after cooling and post-thawing. Finally, stallion spermatozoa present several putative AMPK sperm isoforms that do not seem to respond to classical activators, but do respond to the Compound C inhibitor.

  20. Hydrogen film cooling of a small hydrogen-oxygen thrust chamber and its effect on erosion rates of various ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, N.; Roberts, W. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine what arrangement of film-coolant-injection orifices should be used to decrease the erosion rates of small, high temperature, high pressure ablative thrust chambers without incurring a large penalty in combustion performance. All of the film cooling was supplied through holes in a ring between the outer row of injector elements and the chamber wall. The best arrangement, which had twice the number of holes as there were outer row injection elements, was also the simplest. The performance penalties, presented as a reduction in characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency, were 0.8 and 2.8 percentage points for the 10 and 20 percent cooling flows, respectively, The best film-coolant injector was then used to obtain erosion rates for 19 ablative materials. The throat erosion rate was reduced by a factor of 2.5 with a 10 percent coolant flow. Only the more expensive silica phenolic materials had low enough erosion rates to be considered for use in the nozzle throat. However, some of the cheaper materials might qualify for use in other areas of small nozzles with large throat diameters where the higher erosion rates are more acceptable.

  1. Metallographic Preparation of Space Shuttle Reaction Control System Thruster Electron Beam Welds for Electron Backscatter Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, James

    2011-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) thruster failed during a firing test at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Las Cruces, New Mexico. The firing test was being conducted to investigate a previous electrical malfunction. A number of cracks were found associated with the fuel closure plate/injector assembly (Fig 1). The firing test failure generated a flight constraint to the launch of STS-133. A team comprised of several NASA centers and other research institutes was assembled to investigate and determine the root cause of the failure. The JSC Materials Evaluation Laboratory was asked to compare and characterize the outboard circumferential electron beam (EB) weld between the fuel closure plate (Titanium 6Al-4V) and the injector (Niobium C-103 alloy) of four different RCS thrusters, including the failed RCS thruster. Several metallographic challenges in grinding/polishing, and particularly in etching were encountered because of the differences in hardness, ductility, and chemical resistance between the two alloys and the bimetallic weld. Segments from each thruster were sectioned from the outboard weld. The segments were hot-compression mounted using a conductive, carbon-filled epoxy. A grinding/polishing procedure for titanium alloys was used [1]. This procedure worked well on the titanium; but a thin, disturbed layer was visible on the niobium surface by means of polarized light. Once polished, each sample was micrographed using bright field, differential interference contrast optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using a backscatter electron (BSE) detector. No typical weld anomalies were observed in any of the cross sections. However, areas of large atomic contrast were clearly visible in the weld nugget, particularly along fusion line interfaces between the titanium and the niobium. This prompted the need to better understand the chemistry and microstructure of the weld (Fig 2). Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS

  2. Cooking-related pediatric burns: risk factors and the role of differential cooling rates among commonly implicated substances.

    PubMed

    Dissanaike, Sharmila; Boshart, Kimberly; Coleman, Alan; Wishnew, Jenna; Hester, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Cooking-related injuries are a common problem worldwide, resulting in more pediatric burns than any other cause. We identified risk factors-associated mechanisms and determined cooling curves for common substances. A retrospective review of children admitted to a Level I burn center between 2001 and 2006 was performed. Variables including injury mechanism, age, sex, race, burn area, length of stay, and outcome were recorded. Commonly implicated substances were identified, and cooling curves for each were measured at room temperature. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for cooking injury. A total of 541 pediatric burn patients were admitted, of whom 123 had cooking-related injuries. Common substances involved included soup (27%), grease (26%), coffee (18%), beans (9%), and menudo (2.3%), a traditional Mexican soup based on tripe, hominy, and chile. Children with cooking injuries were significantly younger than other groups, with a mean age of 2.7 years. The most common mechanism was the child pulling the substance down from a height, accounting for nearly half of all injuries. This resulted in a characteristic scald pattern involving a wide area across chest and shoulders narrowing to a point near the pelvis. The average burn area was 7%, associated with a hospital stay of 4 days and mortality below 1%. Analysis of cooling curves revealed surprising variation in heat retention, with semisolid or high-density liquids posing a markedly increased burn risk. Cooking injuries predominantly affect toddlers, with clearly recognized mechanisms and risk factors. Injury prevention measures should be targeted accordingly.

  3. Groundmass crystallisation and cooling rates of lava-like ignimbrites: the Grey's Landing ignimbrite, southern Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. S.; Cordonnier, B.; Rowe, M. C.; Szymanowski, D.; Bachmann, O.; Andrews, G. D. M.

    2015-10-01

    Constraining magmatic and eruptive processes is key to understanding how volcanoes operate. However, reconstructing eruptive and pre-eruptive processes requires the ability to see through any post-eruptive modification of the deposit. The well-preserved Grey's Landing ignimbrite from the central Snake River Plain provides an opportunity to systematically investigate the post-eruptive processes occurring through a single deposit sheet. Despite overall compositional homogeneity in both bulk and glass compositions, the Grey's Landing ignimbrite does preserve differences in the abundance of Li in plagioclase crystals which are strongly associated with the host lithology. Li abundances in plagioclase from the quickly cooled upper and basal vitrophyres are typically low (average 5 ppm, n = 262) while plagioclase from the microcrystalline interior of the deposit has higher Li contents (average 33 ppm, n = 773). Given that no other trace elemental parameter in plagioclase varies, we interpret the variability in Li to reflect a post-depositional process. Groundmass crystallisation of a rhyolite like Grey's Landing requires ˜50 % crystallisation of sanidine and variable amounts of a silica-rich phase (quartz, tridymite, cristobalite) and plagioclase to satisfy mass balance. We suggest the low affinity of Li for sanidine causes migration of groundmass Li into plagioclase during crystallisation. Even within the microcrystalline interior of the deposit, the morphology of the groundmass varies. The more marginal, finer-grained regions are dominated by cristobalite as the SiO2-rich phase while tridymite and quartz are additionally found in the more slowly cooled, coarser-grained portions of thick sections of the ignimbrite. Numerical models of cooling and crystallisation tested against field observations indicate that the groundmass crystallisation occurred relatively rapidly following emplacement (a maximum of a few years where the ignimbrite is thickest). These numerical

  4. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  5. Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: 2. Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and the halocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, S. A.; Iacono, M. J.

    1995-08-01

    A line-by-line model (LBLRTM) has been applied to the calculation of clear-sky longwave fluxes and cooling rates for atmospheres including CO2, O3, CH4, N2O, CCl4, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-22 in addition to water vapor. The present paper continues the approach developed in an earlier article in which the radiative properties of atmospheres with water vapor alone were reported. Tropospheric water vapor continues to be of principal importance for the longwave region due to the spectral extent of its absorbing properties, while the absorption bands of other trace species have influence over limited spectral domains. The principal effects of adding carbon dioxide are to reduce the role of the water vapor in the lower troposphere and to provide 72% of the 13.0 K d-1 cooling rate at the stratopause. In general, the introduction of uniformly mixed trace species into atmospheres with significant amounts of water vapor has the effect of reducing the cooling associated with water vapor, providing an apparent net atmospheric heating. The radiative consequences of doubling carbon dioxide from the present level are consistent with these results. For the midlatitude summer atmosphere the heating associated with ozone that occurs from 500 to 20 mbar reaches a maximum of 0.25 K d-1 at 50 mbar and partially offsets the cooling of 1.0 K d-1 contributed by H2O and CO2 at this level. In the stratosphere the 704 cm-1 band of ozone, not included in many radiation models, contributes 25% of the ozone cooling rate. Radiative effects associated with anticipated 10-year constituent profile changes, 1990-2000, are presented from both a spectral and spectrally integrated perspective. The effect of the trace gases has been studied for three atmospheres: tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter. Using these results and making a reasonable approximation for the polar regions, we obtain a value for the longwave flux at the top of the atmosphere of 265.5 W m-2, in close agreement with

  6. Cooling rate dependence of structural order in Al90Sm10 metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2016-07-07

    Here, the atomic structure of Al90Sm10 metallic glass is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. By performing a long sub-Tg annealing, we developed a glass model closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. Using the cluster alignment method, we found that “3661” cluster is the dominating short-range order in the glass samples. The connection and arrangement of “3661” clusters, which define the medium-range order in the system, are enhanced significantly in the sub-Tg annealed sample as compared with the fast cooled glass samples. Unlike some strong binary glass formers such as Cu64.5Zr35.5, the clusters representing the short-range order do not form an interconnected interpenetrating network in Al90Sm10, which has only marginal glass formability.

  7. Cooling rate dependence of structural order in Al90Sm10 metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2016-07-07

    Here, the atomic structure of Al90Sm10 metallic glass is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. By performing a long sub-Tg annealing, we developed a glass model closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. Using the cluster alignment method, we found that “3661” cluster is the dominating short-range order in the glass samples. The connection and arrangement of “3661” clusters, which define the medium-range order in the system, are enhanced significantly in the sub-Tg annealed sample as compared with the fast cooled glass samples. Unlike some strong binary glass formers such as Cu64.5Zr35.5, the clusters representing the short-range order do not form an interconnected interpenetrating network in Al90Sm10, which has only marginal glass formability.

  8. Cooling in a compound bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Hu, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Electron cooling in the Fermilab Recycler ring is found to create correlation between longitudinal and transverse tails of the antiproton distribution. By separating the core of the beam from the tail and cooling the tail using 'gated' stochastic cooling while applying electron cooling on the entire beam, one may be able to significantly increase the overall cooling rate. In this paper, we describe the procedure and first experimental results.

  9. A possible difference in cooling rates recorded in REE in coexisting pyroxenes in peridotites from supra-subduction ophiolites and mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. J.; Liang, Y.; Kelley, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recently a REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer was developed for mafic and ultramafic rocks [1]. This new thermometer is based on temperature sensitive REE partition coefficients between coexisting pyroxenes and calibrated against laboratory partitioning data. Because REE diffusion rates in pyroxene are relatively slow, the thermometer reads a higher temperature than major element based pyroxene thermometers. The difference between major and trace element derived temperatures depends primarily on cooling rate. Here we report new trace element data for peridotites from Trinity and Josephine ophiolites and a modern supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite analogue (the Mariana trench) determined by laser ablation ICP-MS. We inverted temperatures from the new data and globally distributed ophiolitic peridotite from eight literature studies (Figure 1). Data quality was carefully monitored leaving temperatures from 65 samples. Individual ophiolites usually have temperatures clustered within a range of a few hundred degrees, but the temperature range for the global dataset is greater than 700°C (688-1401°C). Temperatures calculated for the same samples using the two pyroxene thermometer of Brey and Köhler [2] are considerably lower (564-1049°C). REE temperatures are plotted against the major element temperatures [2] in Figure 1. Abyssal peridotites reported in [1] are shown by the peach field. Much of the ophiolite data plots farther from the blue 1:1 line than the abyssal peridotites, suggesting SSZ lithospheric mantle may cool more rapidly at those ophiolites. Fast cooling can be attributed to one or more dynamic differences between mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environments and supra-subduction environments, such as enhanced hydrothermal circulation, thinner oceanic crust, or rapid cooling due to basin closure and obduction. We note that several ophiolites appear to cool more slowly than the abyssal peridotites, however in those samples geochemical evidence suggests secondary

  10. Production of bovine cloned embryos with donor cells frozen at a slow cooling rate in a conventional freezer (-20 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Chacón, Liliana; Gómez, Martha C; Jenkins, Jill A; Leibo, Stanley P; Wirtu, Gemechu; Dresser, Betsy L; Pope, C Earle

    2009-11-01

    SummaryUsually, fibroblasts are frozen in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 10% v/v) at a cooling rate of 1 degrees C/min in a low-temperature (-80 degrees C) freezer (LTF) before storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2); however, a LTF is not always available. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apoptosis and viability of bovine fibroblasts frozen in a LTF or conventional freezer (CF; -20 degrees C) and their subsequent ability for development to blastocyst stage after fusion with enucleated bovine oocytes. Percentages of live cells frozen in LTF (49.5%) and CF (50.6%) were similar, but significantly less than non-frozen control (88%). In both CF and LTF, percentages of live apoptotic cells exposed to LN2 after freezing were lower (4% and 5%, respectively) as compared with unexposed cells (10% and 18%, respectively). Cells frozen in a CF had fewer cell doublings/24 h (0.45) and required more days (9.1) to reach 100% confluence at the first passage (P) after thawing and plating as compared with cells frozen in a LTF (0.96 and 4.0 days, respectively). Hypoploidy at P12 was higher than at P4 in cells frozen in either a CF (37.5% vs. 19.2%) or in a LTF (30.0% vs. 15.4%). A second-generation cryo-solution reduced the incidence of necrosis (29.4%) at 0 h after thawing as compared with that of a first generation cryo-solution (DMEM + DMSO, 60.2%). The percentage of apoptosis in live cells was affected by cooling rate (CF = 1.9% vs. LFT = 0.7%). Development of bovine cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage was not affected by cooling rate or freezer type.

  11. Effects of cooling rate and Al on MnS formation in medium-carbon non-quenched and tempered steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng-long; Wang, Fu-ming; Li, Chang-rong; Yang, Zhan-bing; Meng, Qing-yong; Tao, Su-fen

    2015-06-01

    The effect of Al on the morphology of MnS in medium-carbon non-quenched and tempered steel was investigated at three different cooling rates of 0.24, 0.43, and 200°C·s-1. The formation mechanisms of three types of MnS were elucidated based on phase diagram information combined with crystal growth models. The morphology of MnS is governed by the precipitation mode and the growth conditions. A monotectic reaction and subsequent fast solidification lead to globular Type I MnS. Type II MnS inclusions with different morphological characteristics form as a result of a eutectic reaction followed by the growth in the Fe matrix. Type III MnS presents a divorced eutectic morphology. At the cooling rate of 0.24°C·s-1, the precipitation of dispersed Type III MnS is significantly enhanced by the addition of 0.044wt% acid-soluble Al (Als), while Type II MnS clusters prefer to form in steels with either 0.034wt% or 0.052wt% Als. At the relatively higher cooling rates of 200°C·s-1 and 0.43°C·s-1, the formation of Type I and Type II MnS inclusions is promoted, and the influence of Al is negligible. The results of this work are expected to be employed in practice to improve the mechanical properties of non-quenched and tempered steels.

  12. Effect of clothing insulation beneath an immersion coverall on the rate of body cooling in cold water.

    PubMed

    Marcus, P; Richards, S

    1978-03-01

    Deep body and skin temperatures were measured on nine subjects during a 1 h immersion in water at 2.5 degrees C whilst wearing an RAF Mark 10 immersion coverall. With no additional insulation, mean skin temperature fell 13.1 degrees C and deep body temperature 0.74 degrees C. When a full Acrilan pile suit was worn beneath the coverall mean skin temperature fell 8.3 degrees C and deep body temperature 0.33 degrees C. With insulation covering the trunk and upper limbs alone, mean skin temperature fell 9.9 degrees C and deep body temperature 0.45 degrees C. Conclusions are drawn concerning the effects on body cooling of changes in insulation of aircrew clothing assemblies designed to protect against immersion in cold water.

  13. The stratosphere - Climatologies of the radiative heating and cooling rates and the diabatically diagnosed net circulation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Linwood B.; Boughner, Robert E.; Lambeth, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Stratospheric solar, IR, and net radiative heating are calculated on a monthly basis using solar and IR radiative codes and satellite derived distributions of ozone, water vapor, and temperature. Divergence-free, zonally averaged, advective fields are diagnosed using the calculated diabatic heating; associated stream functions are derived. The stratospheric transport of inert tracers is studied. Analysis of the diagnosed advective fields reveal that: (1) entry into the mid- to upper stratosphere of tropospheric air is mainly from altitude regions of + or - 10 deg at the equatorial tropopause; (2) at latitudes poleward of + or - 15 deg, tracers transported from the troposphere into the stratosphere are transported toward the pole and then downward and out of the stratosphere; and (3) the presence of net cooling cells in the lower stratospheric polar regions is important. The interannual variability of the diabatic circulation is estimated using heating and advection fields derived from LIMS data.

  14. Formation of perched lava ponds on basaltic volcanoes: Interaction between cooling rate and flow geometry allows estimation of lava effusion rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L.; Parfitt, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Perched lava ponds are infrequent but distinctive topographic features formed during some basaltic eruptions. Two such ponds, each approximately 150 m in diameter, formed during the 1968 eruption at Napau Crater and the 1974 eruption of Mauna Ulu, both on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Each one formed where a channelized, high volume flux lava flow encountered a sharp reduction of slope: the flow spread out radially and stalled, forming a well-defined terminal levee enclosing a nearly circular lava pond. We describe a model of how cooling limits the motion of lava spreading radially into a pond and compare this with the case of a channelized flow. The difference in geometry has a major effect, such that the size of a pond is a good indicator of the volume flux of the lava forming it. Lateral spreading on distal shallow slopes is a major factor limiting the lengths of lava flows.

  15. Disequilibrium dihedral angles as a proxy for cooling rate: new opportunities for decoding the effects of liquid migration in dolerites and basalts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holness, Marian; Richardson, Chris; Philpotts, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    The geometry of clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions in mafic rocks, measured by the median dihedral angle, Θcpp, is created during solidification, with junction geometry a function of the initial impingement angle of the two plagioclase grains together with the relative rates of growth of augite and plagioclase. Rapid solidification results in Θcpp ~78˚, whereas more slowly cooled rocks have higher Θcpp. Θcpp varies symmetrically across dolerite sills, with the lowest values at the margins. Simple thermal models of sills, based on a crystallization interval of 1200-1000°C and including consideration of latent heat, suggest that Θcpp ~78° signifies crystallisation times of less than a few years. The symmetrical variation of Θcpp across the sills is in marked contrast to the variation of average plagioclase grain size - generally the coarsest rocks are in the upper third of the sills. The straightforward mapping of Θcpp onto crystallization times means dihedral angles provide a robust measure of cooling rates, in contrast to the more commonly used method based on crystal size distributions which is limited by an incomplete knowledge of crystal growth rates. While sills lose heat equally from both top and bottom surfaces, lava flows and lakes primarily cool from the upper surface, especially when flooded with water. This is reflected in a highly asymmetric Θcpp variation, with maximum values close to the floor. Comparison of average plagioclase grain size, calculated extent of compaction and Θcpp through the thickest part of the Holyoke Flood-Basalt Flow, sampled at North Branford and Tariffville, demonstrates the slowest-cooled parts of the body (i.e. that part with maximum Θcpp and % compaction) underlie those of maximum grain size. We interpret the horizon with the coarsest grain size to contain significant volumes of relatively evolved liquids, derived by compaction of the underlying layers, in which crystallization continued to

  16. Cooling rates and the depth of detachment faulting at oceanic core complexes: Evidence from zircon Pb/U and (U-Th)/He ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, Craig B.; Cheadle, Michael J.; John, Barbara E.; Reiners, P.W.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic detachment faulting represents a distinct mode of seafloor spreading at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges, but many questions persist about the thermal evolution and depth of faulting. We present new Pb/U and (U-Th)/He zircon ages and combine them with magnetic anomaly ages to define the cooling histories of gabbroic crust exposed by oceanic detachment faults at three sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) holes 1270D and 1275D near the 15??20???N Transform, and Atlantis Massif at 30??N). Closure temperatures for the Pb/U (???800??C-850??C) and (U-Th)/He (???210??C) isotopic systems in zircon bracket acquisition of magnetic remanence, collectively providing a temperature-time history during faulting. Results indicate cooling to ???200??C in 0.3-0.5 Myr after zircon crystallization, recording time-averaged cooling rates of ???1000??C- 2000??C/Myr. Assuming the footwalls were denuded along single continuous faults, differences in Pb/U and (U-Th)/He zircon ages together with independently determined slip rates allow the distance between the ???850??C and ???200??C isotherms along the fault plane to be estimated. Calculated distances are 8.4 ?? 4.2 km and 5.0 2.1 km from holes 1275D and 1270D and 8.4 ?? 1.4 km at Atlantis Massif. Estimating an initial subsurface fault dip of 50 and a depth of 1.5 km to the 200??C isotherm leads to the prediction that the ???850??C isotherm lies ???5-7 km below seafloor at the time of faulting. These depth estimates for active fault systems are consistent with depths of microseismicity observed beneath the hypothesized detachment fault at the TAG hydrothermal field and high-temperature fault rocks recovered from many oceanic detachment faults. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. NASA Microclimate Cooling Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this outline form presentation is to present NASA's challenges in microclimate cooling as related to the spacesuit. An overview of spacesuit flight-rated personal cooling systems is presented, which includes a brief history of cooling systems from Gemini through Space Station missions. The roles of the liquid cooling garment, thermal environment extremes, the sublimator, multi-layer insulation, and helmet visor UV and solar coatings are reviewed. A second section is presented on advanced personal cooling systems studies, which include heat acquisition studies on cooling garments, heat rejection studies on water boiler & radiators, thermal storage studies, and insulation studies. Past and present research and development and challenges are summarized for the advanced studies.

  18. Effects of alloying elements on the strength and cooling rate sensitivity of ultra-low carbon alloy steel weld metals. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilaros, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of weld cooling rate on the strength of autogenous GTAW deposited weld metal. The basic weld metal composition was based on a low carbon bainite metallurgical system. The weld metal yield strength goal was 130 ksi, needed to surpass the current HY-13O weld metal requirements. Vacuum Induction Melted (VIM) heats of steel were produced and processed into 3/4` thickness plates. The autogenous gas tungsten arc welds (GTAW) on the parent steel plates were produced under two different heat input conditions. Tensile specimens were produced from the weldments; specimens from certain heats were subjected to gleeble thermal simulations of multi-pass welding conditions using the Gleeble 1500. All specimens were then evaluated for yield and ultimate tensile strength. From the data presented, it was found that the experimental compositions studied were less sensitive to cooling rate than current HY-130 welding consumables. The compositions tested approached the target yield strength of 130 ksi, but further work is necessary in this area.

  19. NQR study of local structures and cooling rate dependent superconductivity in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, A.P.; Ahrens, E.T.; Hammel, P.C.; Heffner, R.H.; Thompson, J.D.; Canfield, P.C.; Fisk, Z.; Schirber, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    Structural properties of oxygen-annealed polycrystals of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4 + {delta}} ({delta}{approximately}0.03) have been studied using {sup 139}La NQR spectroscopy. Superconducting critical temperatures were found to depend on the rate of cooling through a narrow temperature range at about 195K. Preliminary analysis of the {sup 139}La NQR spectra suggest that the oxygen-rich phase-separated region is composed of two structurally distinct phases, both of which are metallic and super-conducting. One phase has a structure closely related to the stoichiometric oxygen-poor compound. The second shows a considerable amount of apical oxygen disorder, a large shift in NQR frequency {nu}{sub Q}, and a volume fraction which increases with cooling rate. The formation of the second phase below {minus}200K is indicative of the freezing Of CuO{sub 6} octahedral tilting. Abrupt shifts in {nu}{sub Q} above {Tc} were also observed for both phases, suggestive of a local structural anomaly or charge transfer to the Cu-O plane.

  20. A case study demonstration of the soil temperature extrema recovery rates after precipitation cooling at 10-cm soil depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1991-01-01

    Since the invention of maximum and minimum thermometers in the 18th century, diurnal temperature extrema have been taken for air worldwide. At some stations, these extrema temperatures were collected at various soil depths also, and the behavior of these temperatures at a 10-cm depth at the Tifton Experimental Station in Georgia is presented. After a precipitation cooling event, the diurnal temperature maxima drop to a minimum value and then start a recovery to higher values (similar to thermal inertia). This recovery represents a measure of response to heating as a function of soil moisture and soil property. Eight different curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years, and both power and exponential curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years. Both power and exponential curve fits were consistently found to be statistically accurate least-square fit representations of the raw data recovery values. The predictive procedures used here were multivariate regression analyses, which are applicable to soils at a variety of depths besides the 10-cm depth presented.

  1. Investigating the warming and cooling rates of human cadavers by development of a gel-filled model to validate core temperature.

    PubMed

    Eagle, M J; Rooney, P; Kearney, J N

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Services (within NHS Blood and Transplant) plans to bring deceased donors to its state of the art retrieval suite at its new centre in Speke, Liverpool in air-conditioned transport at circa 20 degrees C but without dedicated active cooling. The aim of this study was to determine how quickly a refrigerated body would warm at different ambient temperatures using a gel-filled model. Two models of a human body were prepared consisting of neoprene wetsuits filled with approximately 7 or 18 l of a viscous solution, which once set has similar properties to ballistics gel. This gel consisted of 47.5% distilled water, 47.5% glycerol and 5% agar. Final "dummy" weights were 7.4 and 18.6 kg respectively, representing "virtual" weights of approximately 40 kg and 70 kg. A K-class thermocouple probe was then inserted into a "rectal" position within each model and the models were cooled to a series of different core temperatures: 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 15 degrees C and then were placed in an orbital incubator set at 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C ambient temperature. The rate of temperature increase, in the dummy, was measured, until the model's core temperature was close to the ambient temperature. This was done in triplicate for each size model and ambient temperature. Data indicate that increase in core temperature depends on the size of the model and the initial core temperature. For an equivalent donor weight of 70 kg and background temperature of 20 degrees C, core temperature rises from 5 degrees C to 9.2 degrees C; 10 degrees C to 13.3 degrees C and 15 degrees C to 15.5 degrees C after 2 h. The final core temperatures after 2 h are likely to retard bacterial growth, movement or contamination during transport. Cooling rate data indicated that a 70 kg donor equivalent cooled from 37 degrees C to 15 degrees C within 6 h in a cold room at 4 degrees C. This work has shown that a body can be transported without refrigeration and not cause further tissue deterioration

  2. Radiative power and electron cooling rates for oxygen in steady-state and transient plasmas at densities beyond the coronal limit

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, C.; Skinner, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a time-dependent, collisional-radiative model to calculate radiative power and electron cooling rates for oxygen at intermediate densities (10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ less than or equal to n/sub e/ less than or equal to 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/) where the usual coronal approximation is not valid. Large differences from coronal values are predicted. The behavior of the steady-state radiative power loss coefficient, L/sub Z, is investigated as the electron density is increased. Generalized power loss coefficients applicable to transient plasmas are derived and applied to ionizing and recombining oxygen plasmas. Time-dependent effects are found to play a large role both in terms of the total radiated power and the net electron energy loss rate. 41 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  4. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viability of in vivo-derived pig embryos vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, N; Nishida, K; Misumi, K; Hirayama, Y; Yamashita, S; Hoshi, H; Misawa, H; Akiyama, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshioka, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.75±0.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.33±0.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.88±0.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.53±0.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (P<0.01, r=0.538). A total of 29 vitrified embryos after warming and measuring the oxygen consumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability.

  5. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspers, Fritz; Möhl, Dieter

    2004-10-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the 'azimuthal' schemes.

  6. A theoretically estimated optimal cooling rate for the cryopreservation of sperm cells from a live-bearing fish, the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri.

    PubMed

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Tiersch, Terrence R; Devireddy, Ram V

    2005-06-01

    Sperm cryopreservation of live-bearing fishes, such as those of the genus Xiphophorus is only beginning to be studied, although these fishes are valuable models for biomedical research and are commercially raised as ornamental fish for use in aquariums. To explore optimization of techniques for sperm cryopreservation of these fishes, this study measured the volumetric shrinkage response during freezing of sperm cells of Xiphophorus helleri by use of a shape-independent differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) technique. Volumetric shrinkage during freezing of X. helleri sperm cell suspensions was obtained in the presence of extracellular ice at a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min in three different media: (1) Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) without cryoprotective agents (CPAs); (2) HBSS with 14% (v/v) glycerol; and (3) HBSS with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The sperm cell was modeled as a cylinder of 33.3 microm in length and 0.59 microm in diameter with an osmotically inactive cell volume (V(b)) of 0.6V(o), where V(o) is the isotonic or initial cell volume. By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally determined volumetric shrinkage data, the best-fit membrane permeability parameters (reference membrane permeability to water, L(pg) or L(pg)[cpa] and the activation energy, E(Lp) or E(Lp)[cpa]) of the Xiphophorus helleri sperm cell membrane were determined. The best-fit membrane permeability parameters at 20 degrees C/min in the absence of CPAs were: L(pg)=0.776 x 10(-15)m3/Ns (0.0046 microm/min atm), and E(Lp)=50.1 kJ/mol (11.97 kcal/mol) (R2=0.997). The corresponding parameters in the presence of 14% glycerol were L(pg)[cpa]=1.063 x 10(-15)m3/Ns (0.0063 microm/min atm), and E(Lp)[cpa]=83.81 kJ/mol (20.04 kcal/mol) (R2=0.997). The parameters in the presence of 10% DMSO were L(pg)[cpa]=1.4 x 10(-15)m3/Ns (0.0083 microm/min atm), and E(Lp)[cpa]=90.96 kJ/mol (21.75 kcal/mol) (R2=0.996). Parameters obtained in this study suggested that the

  7. Effect of the Solidification Rate on Microstructure of Cast Mg Alloys at Low Superheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Gregory; Rimkus, Nathan; Murphy, Aeriel; Boehmcke, Paige; El-Kaddah, Nagy

    This paper investigates the effect of cooling rate on the grain size and microstructure of Mg AZ31B alloy cast at a superheat of 8°C using the Magnetic Suspension Melting (MSM) process, which is capable of melting and casting at superheats less than 5°C. In this study, the Mg alloy was unidirectionally solidified in a bottom-chill mold with stainless steel and copper chill blocks. The solidification parameters, namely growth velocity (V) and temperature gradient (G), were determined from numerical simulation of the cooling curves, which was found to be in good agreement with measurements. For the investigated solidification rates, metallographic examination showed globular solidification morphology, and the grain size was inversely proportional to the square root of the cooling rate. Microprobe analysis of the cast ingots also showed that Al segregation occurs primarily at the grain boundaries, and the solidification rate affects the size and distribution of both the secondary α phase and the intermetallic Mg17Al12 phase.

  8. The Cooling History and Structure of the Ordinary Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1996-01-01

    Most major meteorite classes exhibit significant ranges of metamorphism. The effects of metamorphism have been extensively characterized, but the heat source(s) and the metamorphic environment are unknown. Proposed beat sources include Al-26, Fe-60, electromagnetic induction, and impact. It is typically assumed that metamorphism occurred in parent bodies of some sort, but it uncertain whether these bodies were highly structured ("onion skins") or were chaotic mixes of material ("rubble piles"). The lack of simple trends of metallographic cooling rates with petrologic type has been considered supportive of both concepts. In this study, we use induced thermoluminescence (TL) as an indicator of thermal history. The TL of ordinary chondrites is produced by sodic feldspar, and the induced TL peak temperature is related to its crystallographic order/disorder. Ordered feldspar has TL peak temperatures of approx. 120 C, and disordered feldspar has TL peak temperatures of approx. 220 C. While ordered feldspar can be easily disordered in the laboratory by heating above 650 C and is easily quenched in the disordered form, producing ordered feldspar requires cooling at geologic cooling rates. We have measured the induced TL properties of 101 equilibrated ordinary chondrites, including 49 H, 29 L, and 23 LL chondrites. For the H chondrites there is an apparent trend of decreasing induced TL peak temperature with increasing petrologic type. H4 chondrites exhibit a tight range of TL peak temperatures, 190 C - 200 C, while H6 chondrites exhibit TL peak temperatures between 180 C and 190 C. H5 chondrites cover the range between H4 and H6, and also extend up to 210 C. Similar results are obtained for LL chondfiles and most L6 chondrites have lower induced TL peak temperatures than L5 chondrites.

  9. Metallographic problems of the production of parts from continuously cast high-speed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supov, A. V.; Aleksandrova, N. M.; Paren'kov, S. A.; Kakabadze, R. V.; Pavlov, V. P.

    1998-09-01

    It has been assumed until recently that high-speed steels cannot be produced by the method of continuous casting. Numerous attempts to use this highly efficient technology for manufacturing such steels have failed because of breakage of the cast preforms. A solution was sought in improving the design of the continuous-casting machines (CCM), increasing the level of their automation, and using rational compositions of slag-forming mixtures (SFM). The idea was that a high-speed steel can be cast only in vertical CCM. The present work concerns regimes of secondary cooling under which the structures formed in high-speed steels provide a ductility sufficient for bending the continuously cast preform without failure. Steel R6M5 cast continuously in such a machine can easily be machined into hot-rolled preforms for sheets, wire, silver-steel rods, and other final products without a forging stage.

  10. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  11. Shear Fracture of Dual Phase AHSS in the Process of Stamping: Macroscopic Failure Mode and Micro-level Metallographical Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wurong; Wei, Xicheng; Yang, Jun; Shi, Gang

    2011-08-01

    Due to its excellent strength and formability combinations, dual phase (DP) steels offer the potential to improve the vehicle crashworthiness performance without increasing car body weight and have been increasingly used into new vehicles. However, a new type of crack mode termed as shear fracture is accompanied with the application of these high strength DP steel sheets. With the cup drawing experiment to identify the limit drawing ratio (LDR) of three DP AHSS with strength level from 600 MPa to 1000 MPa, the study compared and categorized the macroscopic failure mode of these three types of materials. The metallographical observation along the direction of crack was conducted for the DP steels to discover the micro-level propagation mechanism of the fracture.

  12. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  13. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  14. Can Protracted Tectonic Constraints Associated to a Slow Cooling Rate Prevail for 35 My ? The Study Case of the Quartzo Syenite of Ibituruna (SE-Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchez, A.; Petitgirard, S.; Egydia-Silva, M.; Bruguier, O.; Camps, P.; Monie, P.; Babinski, M.; Mondou, M.

    2008-12-01

    could be explained by a very slow cooling rate on the whole area or a protracted deformation, or more probably, a mixing of the two phenomena. A few clues indicate a low cooling rate such as: i) equilibrated microstructure in the syenite (triple junction) ii) thermal overgrowths on zircons iii) post- kinematic grain growth of quartz in the mylonites. Using 40Ar-39Ar ages extracted from minerals of the different units, we are able to deduce the primary stages of the thermal history which clearly describe a low cooling rate, with 3 degrees C per My between 570 and 500 My, and 5 degrees C per My between 500 and 460 My. While combining AMS, field and thin rock sections observations with isotopic dating and thermochronolgy, it is still difficult to decipher on the mystery of the Ibituruna syenite emplacement. However, through this study we demonstrate the necessity to use and cross as much as possible techniques in order to clear up hidden zones. Such results might be characteristic to particulars regimes associated to hot orogens with HT-LP conditions with a slow cooling rate and protracted tectonic constraints or multiple deformation stage at High Temperature.

  15. Effects of short immersion time and cooling rates of copperizing process to the evolution of microstructures and copper behavior in the dead mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatimurti, Wikan; Sutarsis, Cunika, Aprida Ulya

    2017-01-01

    In a dead mild steel with maximum carbon content of 0.15%, carbon does not contribute much to its strength. By adding copper as an alloying element, a balance between strength and ductility could be obtained through grain refining, solid solution, or Cu precipitation. This research aimed to analyse the changes in microstructures and copper behaviour on AISI 1006, including the phases formed, composition, and Cu dispersion. The addition of cooper was done by immersing steel into molten copper or so we called, copperizing using the principles of diffusion. Specimens were cut with 6 × 3 × 0.3 cm measurement then preheated to 900°C and melting the copper at 1100°C. Subsequently, the immersion of the specimens into molten copper varied to 5 and 7 minutes, and also varying the cooling rate to annealing, normalizing, and quenching. A series of test being conduct were optical microscope test, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the longer the immersion time and slower cooling rate, the more Cu diffused causing smaller grain size with the highest Cu diffused recorded was 0.277% in the copperized AISI 1006 steel with 7 minutes of immersion and was annealed. The grain size reduced to 23041.5404 µm2. The annealed specimens show ferrite phase, the normalized ones show polygonal ferrite phase, while the quenched ones show granular bainite phase. The phase formed is single phase Cu. In addition, the normalized and quenched specimens show that Cu dissolved in Fe crystal forming solid solution.

  16. Characterization of novel microstructures in Al-Fe-V-Si and Al-Fe-V-Si-Y alloys processed at intermediate cooling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Ryan

    Samples of an Al-Fe-V-Si alloy with and without small Y additions were prepared by copper wedge-mold casting. Analysis of the microstructures developed at intermediate cooling rates revealed the formation of an atypical morphology of the cubic alpha-Al12(Fe/V)3Si phase (Im 3 space group with a = 1.26 nm) in the form of a microeutectic with alpha-Al that forms in relatively thick sections. This structure was determined to exhibit promising hardness and thermal stability when compared to the commercial rapidly solidified and processed Al-Fe-V-Si (RS8009) alloy. In addition, convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and selected area electron diffraction (SAD) were used to characterize a competing intermetallic phase, namely, a hexagonal phase identified as h-AlFeSi (P6/mmm space group with a = 2.45 nm c = 1.25 nm) with evidence of a structural relationship to the icosahedral quasicrystalline (QC) phase (it is a QC approximant) and a further relationship to the more desirable alpha-Al12(Fe/V) 3Si phase, which is also a QC approximant. The analysis confirmed the findings of earlier studies in this system, which suggested the same structural relationships using different methods. As will be shown, both phases form across a range of cooling rates and appear to have good thermal stabilities. Additions of Y to the alloy were also studied and found to cause the formation of primary YV2Al20 particles on the order of 1 microm in diameter distributed throughout the microstructure, which otherwise appeared essentially identical to that of the Y-free 8009 alloy. The implications of these results on the possible development of these structures will be discussed in some detail.

  17. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  18. Cool & Connected

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cool & Connected planning assistance program helps communities develop strategies and an action plan for using broadband to promote environmentally and economically sustainable community development.

  19. The Formation Rate of R11 Hydrate (CCl3F·17H2O) Utilized as a Cool Storage Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shigetake; Oowa, Masaru; Akiya, Takaji; Nakaiwa, Masaru

    An equationon the formation rate of R11 hydrate in water and aqueous alcohol solutions is derived on basis of a dispersed liquid interface reaction model. From the equation, the relation between percent conversion(β) of R11 and elapse time (θ) is obtained by; -(1⁄m)ln(1-β)=kAΔTnθ where, m is conversion coefficient (R11 in hydrate⁄hydrate = 0.3095), k is over-all coefficient of mass trnsfer [kg⁄m2h°C], A is surface area of dispersed liquid (R11) [m2⁄kg], and ΔT is supercooling degree [°C]. Using above equation, the experimental date of the previous paper are analyzed, and it is found that these date are well applied to the equation. From these results, it can be considered that the formation rate of R11 hydrate in water and the aqueous solutions of ethanol (3.6% and 10%), n-propanol(0.9%) and n-butanol(1.9%) is principally governed by the dispersed liquid interface reaction, not by the crystal growth of R11 hydrate.

  20. Variations in transpiration rate and leaf cell turgor maintenance in saplings of deciduous broad-leaved tree species common in cool temperate forests in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takami; Tanaka, Tadashi; Tanabe, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Yoosuke; Morikawa, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    To clarify mechanisms underlying variation in transpiration rate among deciduous broad-leaved tree species, we measured diurnal changes in stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential, and calculated the maximum transpiration rate (Emax), leaf-specific hydraulic conductance (K(s-l)) and difference between the soil water potential and the daily minimum leaf water potential (Psis - Psi(l,min)). Pressure-volume (P-V) measurements were made on leaves. Saplings of eight broad-leaved tree species that are common in Japanese cool temperate forests were studied. Maximum transpiration rate varied significantly among species. There was a statistically significant difference in Psis - Psi(l,min), but not in K(s-l). Species with large Emax also had large Psis - Psi(l,min) and gs. The results of the P-V analyses showed that species with a large Psis - Psi(l,min) maintained turgor even at low leaf water potentials. The similar daily minimum leaf pressure potentials (Psip) across all eight species indicate that Psip values below this minimum are critical. Based on these results, we suggest that the leaf cell capacity for turgor maintenance strongly affects Psis - Psi(l,min) and consequently Emax via stomatal regulation.

  1. HST Studies of the Chromospheres, Wind, and Mass-Loss Rates of Cool Giant and Supergiant Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    UV spectra of K-M giant and supergiant stars and of carbon stars have been acquired with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These spectra have been used to measure chromospheric flow and turbulent velocities, study the acceleration of their stellar winds, acquire constraints on their outer atmospheric structure, and enable estimates of their mass-loss rates. Results from our observations of the giant stars Gamma Dra (K5 III hybrid), Alpha Tau (K5 III), Gamma Cru (M3.4 III), Mu Gem (M3 IIIab), and 30 Her (MG III), the supergiants Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Lambda Vel (K5 Ib), and the carbon stars TX Psc (NO; C6,2) and TW Hor (NO; C7,2) will be summarized and compared. The high resolution and wavelength accuracy of these data have allowed the direct measurement of the acceleration of the stellar winds in the chromospheres of several of these stars (from initial velocities of 3-9 km/s to upper velocities of 15-25 km/s) and of the chromospheric macroturbulence (-25-35 km/s). The high signal-to-noise and large dynamic range of these spectra have allowed the detection and identification of numerous new emission features, including weak C IV emission indicative of hot transition-region plasma in the non-coronal giant Alpha Tau, many new fluorescent lines of Fe II, and the first detection of fluorescent molecular hydrogen emission and of Ca II recombination lines in the UV spectrum of a giant star. The UV spectrum of two carbon stars have been studied with unprecedented resolution and reveal extraordinarily complicated Mg II lines nearly smothered by circumstellar absorptions. Finally, comparison of synthetic UV emission line profiles computed with the Lamers et al. (1987) Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) code with observations of chromospheric emission lines overlain with wind absorption features provides estimates of the mass-loss rates for four of these stars.

  2. HST Studies of the Chromospheres, Wind, and Mass-Loss Rates of Cool Giant and Supergiant Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    UV spectra of K-M giant and supergiant stars and of carbon stars have been acquired with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These spectra have been used to measure chromospheric flow and turbulent velocities, study the acceleration of their stellar winds, acquire constraints on their outer atmospheric structure, and enable estimates of their mass-loss rates. Results from our observations of the giant stars Gamma Dra (K5 III hybrid), Alpha Tau (K5 III), Gamma Cru (M3.4 III), Mu Gem (M3 IIIab), and 30 Her (MG III), the supergiants Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Lambda Vel (K5 Ib), and the carbon stars TX Psc (NO; C6,2) and TW Hor (NO; C7,2) will be summarized and compared. The high resolution and wavelength accuracy of these data have allowed the direct measurement of the acceleration of the stellar winds in the chromospheres of several of these stars (from initial velocities of 3-9 km/s to upper velocities of 15-25 km/s) and of the chromospheric macroturbulence (-25-35 km/s). The high signal-to-noise and large dynamic range of these spectra have allowed the detection and identification of numerous new emission features, including weak C IV emission indicative of hot transition-region plasma in the non-coronal giant Alpha Tau, many new fluorescent lines of Fe II, and the first detection of fluorescent molecular hydrogen emission and of Ca II recombination lines in the UV spectrum of a giant star. The UV spectrum of two carbon stars have been studied with unprecedented resolution and reveal extraordinarily complicated Mg II lines nearly smothered by circumstellar absorptions. Finally, comparison of synthetic UV emission line profiles computed with the Lamers et al. (1987) Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) code with observations of chromospheric emission lines overlain with wind absorption features provides estimates of the mass-loss rates for four of these stars.

  3. Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  5. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  6. Cool barnacles: Do common biogenic structures enhance or retard rates of deterioration of intertidal rocks and concrete?

    PubMed

    Coombes, Martin A; Viles, Heather A; Naylor, Larissa A; La Marca, Emanuela Claudia

    2017-02-15

    Sedentary and mobile organisms grow profusely on hard substrates within the coastal zone and contribute to the deterioration of coastal engineering structures and the geomorphic evolution of rocky shores by both enhancing and retarding weathering and erosion. There is a lack of quantitative evidence for the direction and magnitude of these effects. This study assesses the influence of globally-abundant intertidal organisms, barnacles, by measuring the response of limestone, granite and marine-grade concrete colonised with varying percentage covers of Chthamalus spp. under simulated, temperate intertidal conditions. Temperature regimes at 5 and 10mm below the surface of each material demonstrated a consistent and statistically significant negative relationship between barnacle abundance and indicators of thermal breakdown. With a 95% cover of barnacles, subsurface peak temperatures were reduced by 1.59°C for limestone, 5.54°C for concrete and 5.97°C for granite in comparison to no barnacle cover. The amplitudes of short-term (15-30min) thermal fluctuations conducive to breakdown via 'fatigue' effects were also buffered by 0.70°C in limestone, 1.50°C in concrete and 1.63°C in granite. Furthermore, concentrations of potentially damaging salt ions were consistently lower under barnacles in limestone and concrete. These results indicate that barnacles do not enhance, but likely reduce rates of mechanical breakdown on rock and concrete by buffering near-surface thermal cycling and reducing salt ion ingress. In these ways, we highlight the potential role of barnacles as agents of bioprotection. These findings support growing international efforts to enhance the ecological value of hard coastal structures by facilitating their colonisation (where appropriate) through design interventions.

  7. Personal Cooling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Cool Head, a personal cooling system for use in heat stress occupations, is a spinoff of a channeled cooling garment for space wear. It is portable and includes a heat exchanger, control display unit, liquid reservoir and temperature control unit. The user can eliminate 40 to 60 percent of his body's heat storage and lower heart rate by 50 to 80 beats a minute. The system is used by the Army, Navy, crop dusting pilots, heavy equipment operators and auto racing drivers and is marketed by Life Enhancement Technologies, LLC. Further applications are under consideration.

  8. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints with and without intentionally incorporated Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} reinforcements

    SciTech Connect

    Sigelko, J.; Choi, S.; Subramanian, K.N.; Lucas, J.P.; Bieler, T.R.

    1999-11-01

    Solidification of eutectic Sn-Ag solder, with and without Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} composite reinforcements, on copper substrates, was investigated at two different cooling rates. The size, orientation, randomness, and overall morphology of the dendritic microstructure were examined as a function of cooling rate. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} particle reinforcements were found to act as nucleation sites for dendrites, in addition to sites on the substrate/solder interface. The mechanical properties of these solders were also examined as a function of cooling rate. Solder joints with a lower load-carrying area were found to exhibit higher shear strength, but reduced ductility when compared to solder joints with more load carrying area.

  9. High-efficiency impurity activation by precise control of cooling rate during atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet annealing of 4H-SiC wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Keisuke; Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Ashihara, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Shohei; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated high-temperature and rapid annealing of a silicon carbide (SiC) wafer by atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet (TPJ) irradiation for impurity activation. To reduce the temperature gradient in the SiC wafer, a DC current preheating system and the lateral back-and-forth motion of the wafer were introduced. A maximum surface temperature of 1835 °C within 2.4 s without sample breakage was achieved, and aluminum (Al), phosphorus (P), and arsenic (As) activations in SiC were demonstrated. We have investigated precise control of heating rate (Rh) and cooling rate (Rc) during rapid annealing of P+-implanted 4H-SiC and its impact on impurity activation. No dependence of resistivity on Rh was observed, while increasing Rc significantly decreased resistivity. A minimum resistivity of 0.0025 Ω·cm and a maximum carrier concentration of 2.9 × 1020 cm-3 were obtained at Rc = 568 °C/s.

  10. Local cooling effect on perforation rates comparing the 980-1470 nm laser wavelengths used with endovenous laser ablation: double blind in vitro experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, I A; Dumantepe, M; Yurdakul, I; Kehlibar, T; Ozler, A

    2014-03-01

    Endovenous laser treatment (EVLA) is fast gaining acceptance as an alternative to open surgery for the treatment of saphenous vein incompetence. The method of action of these techniques is based on heat, making tumescence anaesthesia necessity. Heat-induced complications may occur with inadequate application of tumescent anaesthesia. Our hypothesis was, local cooling effect of tumescent anaesthesia on tunica adventitia might be kept undamaged from disruption due to the thermal injury. We experimented with two popular laser wavelengths (980 and 1470 nm) and with two different thermal media (+4 and +24) in vitro for perforation. Twenty different 12 cm length vein pieces were numbered randomly to set up four groups of the experiment. Endovenous laser procedures were applied in same manner in a unique design test tube with same energy density per pieces on same duration (10 W/second) (linear endovenous energy density 60 J/cm). Procedure video was recorded for macroscopic perforations. All postprocedure vein segments were examined microscopically. Activities of both wavelengths were much better in cold medium (P < 0.05). Cold tumescent anaesthesia reduces the bleeding complication rate. But the performance of 1470 nm laser was better than that of 980 nm in cold environment (P = 0.0136). It can be commented that reducing the ambient temperature is more beneficial than modifying the laser wavelength on perforation rates. Therefore we suppose tumescent anaesthesia temperature is effective on perforation independently from the wavelengths or type of the laser fibre.

  11. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  12. Cool Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    ILC, Dover Division's lightweight cooling garment, called Cool Vest was designed to eliminate the harmful effects of heat stress; increases tolerance time in hot environments by almost 300 percent. Made of urethane-coated nylon used in Apollo, it works to keep the body cool, circulating chilled water throughout the lining by means of a small battery-powered pump. A pocket houses the pump, battery and the coolant which can be ice or a frozen gel, a valve control allows temperature regulation. One version is self-contained and portable for unrestrained movement, another has an umbilical line attached to an external source of coolant, such as standard tap water, when extended mobility is not required. It is reported from customers that the Cool Vest pays for itself in increased productivity in very high temperatures.

  13. Cool School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

  14. Curve fits of predicted inviscid stagnation-point radiative heating rates, cooling factors, and shock standoff distances for hyperbolic earth entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Sullivan, E. M.; Margolis, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    Curve-fit formulas are presented for the stagnation-point radiative heating rate, cooling factor, and shock standoff distance for inviscid flow over blunt bodies at conditions corresponding to high-speed earth entry. The data which were curve fitted were calculated by using a technique which utilizes a one-strip integral method and a detailed nongray radiation model to generate a radiatively coupled flow-field solution for air in chemical and local thermodynamic equilibrium. The range of free-stream parameters considered were altitudes from about 55 to 70 km and velocities from about 11 to 16 km.sec. Spherical bodies with nose radii from 30 to 450 cm and elliptical bodies with major-to-minor axis ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were treated. Powerlaw formulas are proposed and a least-squares logarithmic fit is used to evaluate the constants. It is shown that the data can be described in this manner with an average deviation of about 3 percent (or less) and a maximum deviation of about 10 percent (or less). The curve-fit formulas provide an effective and economic means for making preliminary design studies for situations involving high-speed earth entry.

  15. More accurate determination of the quantity of ice crystallized at low cooling rates in the glycerol and 1,2-propanediol aqueous solutions: comparison with equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Boutron, P

    1984-04-01

    It is generally assumed that when cells are cooled at rates close to those corresponding to the maximum of survival, once supercooling has ceased, above the eutectic melting temperature the extracellular ice is in equilibrium with the residual solution. This did not seem evident to us due to the difficulty of ice crystallization in cryoprotective solutions. The maximum quantities of ice crystallized in glycerol and 1,2-propanediol solutions have been calculated from the area of the solidification and fusion peaks obtained with a Perkin-Elmer DSC-2 differential scanning calorimeter. The accuracy has been improved by several corrections: better defined baseline, thermal variation of the heat of fusion of the ice, heat of solution of the water from its melting with the residual solution. More ice crystallizes in the glycerol than in the 1,2-propanediol solutions, of which the amorphous residue contains about 40 to 55% 1,2-propanediol. The equilibrium values are unknown in the presence of 1,2-propanediol. With glycerol, in our experiments, the maximum is first lower than the equilibrium but approaches it as the concentration increases. It is not completely determined by the colligative properties of the solutes.

  16. Metallographic Analysis of Brush Bristle and Integrity Testing of Brush Seal in Shroud Ring of T-700 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George A.; Bill, Robert C.; Hull, David R.; Csavina, Kristine R.

    1995-01-01

    Post-test investigation of a T-700 engine brush seal found regions void of bristles ('yanked out'), regions of bent-over bristles near the inlet, some 'snapped' bristles near the fence, and a more uniform 'smeared' bristle interface between the first and last axial rows of bristles. Several bristles were cut from the brush seal, wax mounted, polished, and analyzed. Metallographic analysis of the bristles near the rub tip showed tungsten-rich phases uniformly distributed throughout the bristle with no apparent change within 1 to 2 micron of the interface except for possibly a small amount of titanium, which would represent a transfer from the rotor. Analysis of the bristle wear face showed nonuniform tungsten, which is indicative of material resolidification. The cut end contained oxides and internal fractures; the worn end was covered with oxide scale. Material losses due to wear and elastoplastic deformation within the shear zone and third-body lubrication effects in the contact zone are discussed.

  17. Metallographic examinations of Type 304 stainless steel (heat 9T2796) tested in high-temperature uniaxial and multiaxial experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Houck, C.W.

    1984-03-01

    The results obtained from a number of metallographic examinations of Type 304 stainless steel specimens were compiled. Samples were obtained from uniaxial and multiaxial tests covering a very broad span of temperatures and times. Special emphasis was on the identification of failure modes, cracking patterns, grain distortion, and grain-boundary microstructures. Uniaxial specimens exhibited the following sequence of failure modes with increasing temperature and time: ductile plastic tearing, ductile plastic shear, wedge cracking, and microvoid cracking. Over most of the temperature range examined (482 to 871/sup 0/C), M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitated on grain boundaries at long times. Sigma phase and possibly ferrite were often present in the stressed areas at temperatures as low as 482/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F). These metallurgical features promoted a severe loss in creep ductility at long times and low temperatures. Most multiaxial tests were performed under conditions that promoted wedge cracking. Stress gradients also favored surface crack initiation rather than bulk damage. Testing times for multiaxial tests were less than 10,000 h; hence, there was insufficient time for the development of embrittling features such as microvoids, sigma, and ferrite. Long-time multiaxial tests to failure are recommended.

  18. Drowning of a barrier coastline under rapid rates of relative sea-level rise during the 8.2 ka cooling event: Cause or coincidence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellett, C.; Hodgson, D. M.; Lang, A.; Mauz, B.; Plater, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Examples where barrier landforms and deposits are preserved offshore of a highstand shoreline are rare on contemporary continental shelves, and in the rock record. Therefore, understanding of the conditions required for preservation and the sedimentary processes-response to such factors is limited and heavily dependent on simulation models. Here, an integrated dataset of multibeam bathymetry and 2D seismic reflection profiles has uncovered an exceptionally well preserved drowned barrier complex at Hastings Bank, on the English Channel continental shelf, offshore of southeast England. Mapping of nine seismic stratigraphic units calibrated with lithological information from multiple vibrocores has enabled the interpretation of fluvial, shoreface, barrier, washover fan, back-barrier and tidal environments of deposition. Stratigraphic architecture is used as the basis for landscape evolution reconstructions that reveal phases of barrier progradation, degradation and retreat. Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of shoreface and beach deposits revealed ages in the range of 8.4 ± 0.2 ka and 7.8 ± 0.2 ka. These ages indicate the barrier developed under rapid rates of early Holocene sea-level rise and more specifically, correlate to the time period surrounding the 8.2 ka cooling event and associated sea-level 'jump'. To preserve a barrier beach including the barrier foreshore under such rapid rates of relative sea-level rise, sediment supply would have to be sufficient to keep pace to prevent the shoreline responding through continuous reworking, i.e. rollover. Further, the rate of transgression is conditioned by inherited topography with higher rates of retreat, and hence greater potential for drowning, expected across the shallowly dipping substrate. Using Hastings Bank as an example, it has also been demonstrated that the morphodynamic state of the barrier complex in terms of its ability to respond dynamically to relative sea-level rise, conditions its

  19. Igneous Cooling Rate constraints on the Accretion of the lower Oceanic Crust in Mid-ocean Ridges: Insights from a new Thermo-mechanical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, C. J.; Machetel, P.

    2005-12-01

    We report the results of a new thermo-mechanical model of crustal flow beneath fast spreading mid-ocean ridges to investigate both the effect of deep, near off-axis hydrothermal convection on the thermal structure of the magma chamber and the role of variable number of melt intrusions on the accretion of the oceanic crust. In our model the melt is injected at the center of the axial magma chamber with a 'needle' with adjustable porosity at different depths allowing the simulation of different arrangements of melt injection and supply within the magma chamber. Conversely to previous models, the shape of the magma chamber -defined as the isotherm where 95% solidification of the melt occurs- is not imposed but computed from the steady state reached by the thermal field considering the heat diffusion and advection and the latent heat of crystallization. The motion equation is solved for a temperature and phase dependent viscosity. The thermal diffusivity is also dependent on temperature and depth, with a higher diffusivity in the upper plutonic crust to account for more efficient hydrothermal cooling at these crustal levels. In agreement with previous non-dynamic thermal models, our results show that near, deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation strongly affects the shape of the axial magma by tightening isotherms in the upper half of the plutonic oceanic crust where hydrothermal cooling is more efficient. Different accretion modes have however little effect on the shape of the magma chamber, but result in variable arrangements of flow lines ranging from tent-shape in a single-lens accretion scenario to sub-horizontal in "sheeted-sill" intrusion models. For different intrusion models, we computed the average Igneous Cooling Rates (ICR) of gabbros by dividing the crystallization temperature interval of gabbros by the integrated time, from the initial intrusion to the point where it crossed the 950 °C isotherm where total solidification of gabbro occurs, along individual

  20. Influence of cooling rate on the ability of frozen-thawed sperm to bind to heterologous zona pellucida, as assessed by competitive in vitro binding assays in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and tigrina (Leopardus tigrinus).

    PubMed

    Baudi, D L K; Jewgenow, K; Pukazhenthi, B S; Spercoski, K M; Santos, A S; Reghelin, A L S; Candido, M V; Javorouski, M L; Müller, G; Morais, R N

    2008-01-15

    We evaluated the influence of two cooling rates (from 25 to 5 degrees C) on post-thaw function of frozen sperm in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n=3 males) and tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n=4 males). Seven normospermic (>70% normal sperm) electroejaculates from each species were diluted with a 4% glycerol freezing medium, divided into two aliquots, and assigned to one of two cooling rates: fast or slow (0.7 or 0.16 degrees C/min, respectively). Sperm motility index (SMI) and percentage of sperm with an intact acrosome were assessed before freezing and after thawing, and the ability of sperm to bind to the zona pellucida of IVM domestic cat oocytes were assessed in a competitive in vitro sperm-binding assay. Regardless of the cooling rate, frozen-thawed sperm from both species exhibited a SMI of 50; approximately 20 and approximately 32% of post-thaw sperm had an intact acrosome in ocelots and tigrinas, respectively (P<0.05). The mean (+/-S.E.M.) number of sperm bound per oocyte was higher for fast-cooled (8.5+/-1.3) than slow-cooled (2.5+/-0.3; P<0.01) ocelot sperm. In contrast, more tigrina sperm bound to domestic cat oocytes when cooled slowly versus quickly (5.8+/-0.9 versus 2.7+/-0.4, P<0.05). In conclusion, cryopreservation decreased sperm function in both species, and the oocyte-binding assay was the most efficient method to detect functional differences in post-thaw sperm.

  1. Correlation of thermophoretically-modified small particle diffusional deposition rates in forced convection systems with variable properties, transpiration cooling and/or viscous dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A cooled object (heat exchanger tube or turbine blade) is considered to be immersed in a hot fluid stream containing trace amounts of suspended vapors and/or small particles. Numerical prediction calculations were done for self-similar laminar boundary layers and law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers. Correlations are presented for the effect of thermophoresis in the absence of transpiration cooling and viscous dissipation; the effect of real suction and blowing in the absence of thermophoresis; the effect of viscous dissipation on thermophoresis in the absence of transpiration cooling; and the combined effect of viscous dissipation and transpiration cooling on thermophoresis. The final correlation, St/St-sub-zero, is insensitive to particle properties, Euler number, and local mainstream temperature.

  2. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  3. Cooling Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  4. Cooling vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, J.; Kane, J.; Coverdale, J.

    1977-01-01

    Inexpensive vest of heat-sealable urethane material, when strapped to person's body, presents significant uncomplicated cooling system for environments where heavy accumulation of metabolic heat exists. Garment is applicable to occupations where physical exertion is required under heavy protective clothing.

  5. Cool Andromeda

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-28

    In this new view of the Andromeda, also known as M31, galaxy from the Herschel space observatory, cool lanes of forming stars are revealed in the finest detail yet. M31 is the nearest major galaxy to our own Milky Way at a distance of 2.5 million light-ye

  6. Methods of beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

  7. Group IVA irons: New constraints on the crystallization and cooling history of an asteroidal core with a complex history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Walker, R. J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Yang, J.; McDonough, W. F.; Rumble, D.; Chabot, N. L.; Ash, R. D.; Corrigan, C. M.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    , consistent with an oxidized parent body. The depletions in Ga may reflect decreased siderophilic behavior in a relatively oxidized body, and more favorable partitioning into the silicate portion of the parent body. Phosphate inclusions in EET show Δ 17O values within the range measured for silicates in IVA iron meteorites. EET has a typical ataxitic microstructure with precipitates of kamacite within a matrix of plessite. Chemical and isotopic evidence for a genetic relation between EET and group IVA is strong, but the high Ni content and the newly determined, rapid cooling rate of this meteorite show that it should continue to be classified as ungrouped. Previously reported metallographic cooling rates for IVA iron meteorites have been interpreted to indicate an inwardly crystallizing, ˜150 km radius metallic body with little or no silicate mantle. Hence, the IVA group was likely formed as a mass of molten metal separated from a much larger parent body that was broken apart by a large impact. Given the apparent genetic relation with IVA, EET was most likely generated via crystal-liquid fractionation in another, smaller body spawned from the same initial liquid during the impact event that generated the IVA body.

  8. Cool Sportswear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  9. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  10. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  11. Cooling technique

    DOEpatents

    Salamon, Todd R; Vyas, Brijesh; Kota, Krishna; Simon, Elina

    2017-01-31

    An apparatus and a method are provided. Use is made of a wick structure configured to receive a liquid and generate vapor in when such wick structure is heated by heat transferred from heat sources to be cooled off. A vapor channel is provided configured to receive the vapor generated and direct said vapor away from the wick structure. In some embodiments, heat conductors are used to transfer the heat from the heat sources to the liquid in the wick structure.

  12. Extreme rapid warming yields high functional survivals of vitrified 8-cell mouse embryos even when suspended in a half-strength vitrification solution and cooled at moderate rates to −196°C✰

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Jin, Bo; Mazu, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To cryopreserve cells, it is essential to avoid intracellular ice formation during cooling and warming. One way to do so is to subject them to procedures that convert cell water into a non-crystalline glass. Current belief is that to achieve this vitrification, cells must be suspended in very high concentrations of glass-inducing solutes (i.e., ≥ 6 molal) and cooled at very high rates (i.e., >> 1,000°C/min). We report here that both these beliefs are incorrect with respect to the vitrification of 8-cell mouse embryos. In this study, precompaction 8-cell embryos were vitrified in several dilutions of EAFS10/10 using various cooling rates and warming rates. Survival was based on morphology, osmotic functionality, and on the ability to develop to expanded blastocysts. With a warming rate of 117,500°C/min, the percentages of embryos vitrified in 1×, 0.75×, and 0.5× EAFS that developed to blastocysts were 93%, 92%, and 86%, respectively. And the percentages of morphological survivors that developed to expanded blastocysts were 100%, 92%, and 97%, respectively. Even when the solute concentration of the EAFS was reduced to 33% of normal, we obtained 40% functional survival of these 8-cell embryos. PMID:24333434

  13. A study on the effect of various design parameters on the natural circulation flow rate of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, B. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a study on the effect of various design parameters such as the channel gap width, heat flux distribution, down-comer pipe size and two-phase flow slip ratio on the natural circulation flow rate is performed based on a physical model for a natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of an EU-APR1400, and these effects on the natural circulation flow rate are analyzed and compared with the minimum flow rate required for the safe operation of the system. (authors)

  14. [The influence of cooling rates and medium tonicity on Escherichia coli B/r survival after heating with different lethal temperatures].

    PubMed

    Morozov, I I; Morozova, G V; Petin, V G

    2005-01-01

    Cell thermosensitivity of Escherichia coli B/r increases with the cooling rise, especially in hypertonic conditions after heating at 50, 55 and 60 degrees C. A certain relationship is suggested between the observed phenomenon and the osmotic homeostasis system of microorganisms under condition of thermogenic and tonic stress.

  15. Brain cooling therapy.

    PubMed

    Gancia, P; Pomero, G

    2010-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (whole body or selective head cooling) is becoming standard of care for brain injury in infants with perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Brain cooling reduces the rate of apoptosis and early necrosis, reduces cerebral metabolic rate and the release of nitric oxide and free radicals. Animal models of perinatal brain injury show histological and functional improvement due to of early hypothermia. The brain protection depends on the temperature and time delay between insult and beginning of treatment (more effective with cooling to 33 +/- 0.5 degrees C, and less than 6 hours after hypoxic-ischemic insult). Recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews in human neonates show reduction in mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disability at 12-24 months of age, with more favourable effects in the less severe forms of HIE. The authors describe their experience in 53 term newborns with moderate-severe HIE treated with whole body cooling between 2001 and 2009, and studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and general movements (GMs) assessment. The creation of a network connecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with the level I-II hospitals of the reference area, as part of regional network, is of paramount importance to enroll potential candidates and to start therapeutic hypothermia within optimal time window.

  16. Effect of cooling rate on the phase structure and magnetic properties of Fe26.7Co28.5Ni28.5Si4.6B8.7P3 high entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen; Han, Zhenhua; Li, Fushan

    2017-08-01

    The effect of cooling rate on phase structure and magnetic properties of the Fe26.7Co28.5Ni28.5Si4.6B8.7P3 high entropy alloy (HEA) was investigated. The HEA forms into amorphous phase by melt spinning method at high cooling rate and FCC solid solution phase at low cooling rate. The soft magnetic properties of the amorphous phase (saturation magnetization Bs of 1.07T and coercivity Hc of 4 A/m) are better than that of the solid solution phase (Bs of 1.0 T and Hc of 168 A/m). In order to study the phase evolution of the present HEA, anneal experiments were conducted. It is found that crystallization products of amorphous phase are solid solution phase which constitute much of FCC and a small amount of BCC. BCC phase transforms into FCC phase, and then into BCC phase with the increase of annealing temperature.

  17. Cooling device

    SciTech Connect

    Teske, L.

    1984-02-21

    A cooling device is claimed for coal dust comprising a housing, a motor-driven conveyor system therein to transport the coal dust over coolable trays in the housing and conveyor-wheel arms of spiral curvature for moving the coal dust from one or more inlets to one or more outlets via a series of communicating passages in the trays over which the conveyor-wheel arms pass under actuation of a hydraulic motor mounted above the housing and driving a vertical shaft, to which the conveyor-wheel arms are attached, extending centrally downwardly through the housing.

  18. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  19. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Valeri

    2006-03-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Plank equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  20. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Planck equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  1. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri

    2006-03-20

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Plank equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  2. Sympathetic cooling in a large ion crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guin-Dar; Duan, L.-M.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the dynamics and steady state of a linear ion array when some of the ions are continuously laser cooled. We calculate the ions' local temperature measured by its position fluctuation under various trapping and cooling configurations, taking into account background heating due to the noisy environment. For a large system, we demonstrate that by arranging the cooling ions evenly in the array, one can suppress the overall heating considerably. We also investigate the effect of different cooling rates and find that the optimal cooling efficiency is achieved by an intermediate cooling rate. We discuss the relaxation time for the ions to approach the steady state, and show that with periodic arrangement of the cooling ions, the cooling efficiency does not scale down with the system size.

  3. Cooling Methods in Heat Stroke.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Grissom, Colin K

    2016-04-01

    Heat stroke is an illness with a high risk of mortality or morbidity, which can occur in the young and fit (exertional heat stroke) as well as the elderly and infirm (nonexertional heat stroke). In the United States, from 2006 to 2010, there were at least 3332 deaths attributed to heat stroke. To summarize the available evidence on the principal cooling methods used in the treatment of heat stroke. Although it is generally agreed that rapid, effective cooling increases survival in heat stroke, there continues to be debate on the optimal cooling method. Large, controlled clinical trials on heat stroke are lacking. Cooling techniques applied to healthy volunteers in experimental models of heat stroke have not worked as rapidly in actual patients with heat stroke. The best available evidence has come from large case series using ice-water immersion or evaporation plus convection to cool heat-stroke patients. Ice-water immersion has been shown to be highly effective in exertional heat stroke, with a zero fatality rate in large case series of younger, fit patients. In older patients with nonexertional heat stroke, studies have more often promoted evaporative plus convective cooling. Evaporative plus convective cooling may be augmented by crushed ice or ice packs applied diffusely to the body. Chilled intravenous fluids may also supplement primary cooling. Based on current evidence, ice packs applied strategically to the neck, axilla, and groin; cooling blankets; and intravascular or external cooling devices are not recommended as primary cooling methods in heat stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Turbine airfoil film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hylton, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on developing more accurate analytical models for predicting turbine airfoil external heat transfer rates. Performance goals of new engines require highly refined, accurate design tools to meet durability requirements. In order to obtain improvements in analytical capabilities, programs are required which focus on enhancing analytical techniques through verification of new models by comparison with relevant experimental data. The objectives of the current program are to develop an analytical approach, based on boundary layer theory, for predicting the effects of airfoil film cooling on downstream heat transfer rates and to verify the resulting analytical method by comparison of predictions with hot cascade data obtained under this program.

  5. Magnetothermal instability in cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The effect of magnetic fields on thermal instability in cooling flows is investigated using linear, Eulerian perturbation analysis. As contrasted with the zero magnetic-field case, hydromagnetic stresses support perturbations against acceleration caused by buoyancy - comoving evolution results and global growth rates are straightforward to obtain for a given cooling flow entropy distribution. In addition, background and induced magnetic fields ensure that conductive damping of thermal instability is greatly reduced.

  6. Magnetothermal instability in cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The effect of magnetic fields on thermal instability in cooling flows is investigated using linear, Eulerian perturbation analysis. As contrasted with the zero magnetic-field case, hydromagnetic stresses support perturbations against acceleration caused by buoyancy - comoving evolution results and global growth rates are straightforward to obtain for a given cooling flow entropy distribution. In addition, background and induced magnetic fields ensure that conductive damping of thermal instability is greatly reduced.

  7. Spatially-selective optical pumping cooling and Two-Isotope Collision-Assisted Zeeman cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rebekah Ferrier

    In this thesis I describe two non-evaporative cooling schemes for cooling Rb atoms. The first is a Sisyphus-like ultracold gas cooling scheme called Spatially-selecTive Optical Pumping (STOP) cooling. In principle, STOP cooling has wide applicability to both atoms and molecules. STOP cooling works by exploiting the fact that atoms or molecules in a confining potential can be optically pumped out of an otherwise dark state in a spatially-selective way. Selecting atoms or molecules for optical pumping out of a dark state in a region of high potential energy and then waiting a fixed time after the optical pumping allows for the creation of a group of high kinetic energy atoms or molecules moving in a known direction. These can then be slowed using external fields (such as the scattering force from a resonant laser beam) and optically pumped back into the dark state, cooling the gas and closing the cooling cycle. I present theoretical modeling of the STOP cooling technique, including predictions of achievable cooling rates. I have conducted an experimental study of the cooling technique for a single cooling cycle, observing one dimensional cooling rates in excess of 100 micro-K per second in an ultracold gas of 87 Rb atoms. I will also comment on the prospects for improving the cooling performance beyond that presented in this work. The second cooling scheme I investigated is called Two-Isotope Collision Assisted Zeeman (2-CAZ) cooling. Through a combination of spin-exchange collisions in a magnetic field and optical pumping, it is possible to cool a gas of atoms without requiring the loss of atoms from the gas. I investigated 2-CAZ cooling using 85Rb and 87Rb. I was able to experimentally confirm that the measured 2-CAZ cooling rate agreed with a cooling rate predicted though a simple analytic model. As part of the measured cooling rate, I quantitatively characterized the heating rates associated with our actual implementation of this cooling technique and found

  8. Cooling loads in laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.K.; Cook, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for a laboratory must be designed with consideration for safety, air cleanliness, and space temperature. The primary safety concern is to ensure proper coordination between fume hood exhaust and makeup air supply. Air cleanliness is maintained by properly filtering supply air, by delivering adequate room air changes, and by ensuring proper pressure relationships between the laboratory and adjacent spaces. Space temperature is maintained by supplying enough cooling air to offset the amount of heat generated in the room. Each of these factors must be considered, and the one that results in the largest ventilation rate is used to establish the supply and exhaust airflows. The project described in this paper illustrates a case where cooling load is the determining factor in the sizing of the air systems.

  9. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  10. 3D Sisyphus Cooling of Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejtemaee, S.; Haljan, P. C.

    2017-07-01

    Using a laser polarization gradient, we realize 3D Sisyphus cooling of Yb+ 171 ions confined in and near the Lamb-Dicke regime in a linear Paul trap. The cooling rate and final mean motional energy of a single ion are characterized as a function of laser intensity and compared to semiclassical and quantum simulations. Sisyphus cooling is also applied to a linear string of four ions to obtain a mean energy of 1-3 quanta for all vibrational modes, an approximately order of magnitude reduction below Doppler cooled energies. This is used to enable subsequent, efficient sideband laser cooling.

  11. New Analysis Method Application in Metallographic Images through the Construction of Mosaics Via Speeded Up Robust Features and Scale Invariant Feature Transform

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças Filho, Pedro Pedrosa; Moreira, Francisco Diego Lima; Xavier, Francisco Geilson de Lima; Gomes, Samuel Luz; dos Santos, José Ciro; Freitas, Francisco Nélio Costa; Freitas, Rodrigo Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In many applications in metallography and analysis, many regions need to be considered and not only the current region. In cases where there are analyses with multiple images, the specialist should also evaluate neighboring areas. For example, in metallurgy, welding technology is derived from conventional testing and metallographic analysis. In welding, these tests allow us to know the features of the metal, especially in the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ); the region most likely for natural metallurgical problems to occur in welding. The expanse of the Heat-Affected Zone exceeds the size of the area observed through a microscope and typically requires multiple images to be mounted on a larger picture surface to allow for the study of the entire heat affected zone. This image stitching process is performed manually and is subject to all the inherent flaws of the human being due to results of fatigue and distraction. The analyzing of grain growth is also necessary in the examination of multiple regions, although not necessarily neighboring regions, but this analysis would be a useful tool to aid a specialist. In areas such as microscopic metallography, which study metallurgical products with the aid of a microscope, the assembly of mosaics is done manually, which consumes a lot of time and is also subject to failures due to human limitations. The mosaic technique is used in the construct of environment or scenes with corresponding characteristics between themselves. Through several small images, and with corresponding characteristics between themselves, a new model is generated in a larger size. This article proposes the use of Digital Image Processing for the automatization of the construction of these mosaics in metallographic images. The use of this proposed method is meant to significantly reduce the time required to build the mosaic and reduce the possibility of failures in assembling the final image; therefore increasing efficiency in obtaining results and

  12. New Analysis Method Application in Metallographic Images through the Construction of Mosaics Via Speeded Up Robust Features and Scale Invariant Feature Transform.

    PubMed

    Filho, Pedro Pedrosa Rebouças; Moreira, Francisco Diego Lima; Xavier, Francisco Geilson de Lima; Gomes, Samuel Luz; Santos, José Ciro Dos; Freitas, Francisco Nélio Costa; Freitas, Rodrigo Guimarães

    2015-06-25

    In many applications in metallography and analysis, many regions need to be considered and not only the current region. In cases where there are analyses with multiple images, the specialist should also evaluate neighboring areas. For example, in metallurgy, welding technology is derived from conventional testing and metallographic analysis. In welding, these tests allow us to know the features of the metal, especially in the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ); the region most likely for natural metallurgical problems to occur in welding. The expanse of the Heat-Affected Zone exceeds the size of the area observed through a microscope and typically requires multiple images to be mounted on a larger picture surface to allow for the study of the entire heat affected zone. This image stitching process is performed manually and is subject to all the inherent flaws of the human being due to results of fatigue and distraction. The analyzing of grain growth is also necessary in the examination of multiple regions, although not necessarily neighboring regions, but this analysis would be a useful tool to aid a specialist. In areas such as microscopic metallography, which study metallurgical products with the aid of a microscope, the assembly of mosaics is done manually, which consumes a lot of time and is also subject to failures due to human limitations. The mosaic technique is used in the construct of environment or scenes with corresponding characteristics between themselves. Through several small images, and with corresponding characteristics between themselves, a new model is generated in a larger size. This article proposes the use of Digital Image Processing for the automatization of the construction of these mosaics in metallographic images. The use of this proposed method is meant to significantly reduce the time required to build the mosaic and reduce the possibility of failures in assembling the final image; therefore increasing efficiency in obtaining results and

  13. [Body cooling capacity of water circulated cooling pants during lower body exercise in a hot environment].

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takao; Idota, Nozomi; Nagano, Chikage; Horie, Seichi; Sogabe, Yasuhiro; Monji, Koichi

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the body cooling capacity of water-circulated cooling pants during lower body exercise in a hot environment. Five subjects were asked to ride a bicycle ergometer and to keep a work rate of 75 W continuously for 20 minutes. They then rest on the ergometer for 15 minutes, in a climate chamber kept at WBGT = 31.5 degrees C. They repeated the same procedure three times under three different conditions; 1) wearing cooling pants with cold water supply; 2) wearing cooling pants without water supply; 3) wearing short pants instead of cooling pants. Esophageal temperature and heart rate of the subjects, when their cooling pants were supplied with cold water, were lower compared with the condition without water supply, and were almost the same as the condition wearing short pants. Water-circulated cooling pants should effectively cool the body at work where the worker has to wear pants that cover his legs to prevent injury.

  14. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1335-90 - Cool-down procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cool-down procedure. 86.1335-90... § 86.1335-90 Cool-down procedure. (a) This cool-down procedure applies to Otto-cycle and diesel engines... at any desired flow rate. The thermostat may be removed or blocked open during the cool-down but...

  16. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  17. Debuncher Cooling Limitations to Stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1991-08-13

    During the January studies period we performed studies to determine the effect that debuncher cooling has on the stacking rate. Two different sets of measurements were made separated by about a week. Most measurements reported here are in PBAR log 16, page 243-247. These measurements were made by changing the accelerator timeline to give about 6 seconds between 29's, and then gating the cooling systems to simulate reduced cycle times. For the measurement of the momentum cooling effectiveness the gating switches could not be made to work, so the timeline was changed for each measurement. The cooling power of all three systems was about 800 watts for the tests reported here. We now regularly run at 1200 watts per system.

  18. Effect of the medium characteristics and the heating and cooling rates on the nonisothermal heat resistance of Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 spores.

    PubMed

    Esteban, María-Dolores; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Fernández, Pablo S; Palop, Alfredo

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, highly thermo-resistant mesophilic spore-forming bacteria belonging to the species Bacillus sporothermodurans have caused non-sterility problems in industrial sterilization processes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the heating medium characteristics (pH and buffer/food) on the thermal inactivation of B. sporothermodurans spores when exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal heating and cooling treatments and the suitability of non-linear Weibull and Geeraaerd models to predict the survivors of these thermal treatments. Thermal treatments were carried out in pH 3, 5 and 7 McIlvaine buffer and in a courgette soup. Isothermal survival curves showed shoulders that were accurately characterized by means of both models. A clear effect of the pH of the heating medium was observed, decreasing the D120 value from pH 7 to pH 3 buffer down to one third. Differences in heat resistance were similar, regardless of the model used and were kept at all temperatures tested. The heat resistance in courgette soup was similar to that shown in pH 7 buffer. When the heat resistance values obtained under isothermal conditions were used to predict the survival in the non-isothermical experiments, the predictions estimated the experimental data quite accurately, both with Weibull and Geeraerd models.

  19. Wear and metallographic analysis of WaveOne and reciproc NiTi instruments before and after three uses in root canals.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Chiara; Paolucci, Alessandro; Ruggeri, Oddone; Bossù, Maurizio; Polimeni, Antonella; Gatto, Maria Rosaria Antonella; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Prati, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocating instruments made from M-wire alloy have been proposed to reduce the risk of fracture. No information is available on the surface alteration after single and multiple uses in root canals. Two reciprocating NiTi instruments were used on extracted teeth up to three times. ESEM/EDS analysis was conducted to determine defects, alterations, and wear features of the apical third of instruments and metallographic analysis was performed on the cross-section of new and used instruments to compare alloy properties. Topography of apical portion was evaluated by AFM before and after uses. Extracted single-rooted teeth were divided into two groups and instrumented according to the manufacturer's recommendations with: (A) WaveOne Primary and (B) Reciproc R25. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the number of canals instrumented: 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Chi square test was performed to verify homogeneity of defects distribution and GLM to evaluate the differences of RMS at baseline and after use for both groups (