Science.gov

Sample records for metatarsus

  1. Articular geometry of the medial tarsometatarsal joint in the foot: comparison of metatarsus primus adductus and metatarsus primus rectus.

    PubMed

    Dykyj, D; Ateshian, G A; Trepal, M J; MacDonald, L R

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional surface geometry of the medial tarsometatarsal joint ("first metatarsocuneiform") of the first ray was analyzed to determine if the shape of the joint is distinct in the medially deviated first metatarsal with metatarsus primus adductus (MPA). Clinical evaluation of 29 cadaver feet identified 13 feet with MPA and 16 with metatarsus primus rectus (MPR). Three-dimensional (3D) coordinates x, y, z of the first metatarsal and medial cuneiform joint facets of the feet were digitized on a Coordinate Measuring Machine (accuracy = 0.01 mm) and the data fitted with B-spline surfaces from which 3D curvature maps were generated. Comparison of means of surface-averaged maximum and minimum principal curvatures and root-mean-square curvatures showed significant (p < .0005) differences between the MPA and MPR subsets, male and female subsets, and metatarsal and cuneiform subsets. These results show that the articular shape of the medial tarsometatarsal joint in feet with MPA is significantly less contoured, or is flatter, than the same joint in normal or MPR feet. Results also showed that the female joints are more curved than male joints, and that metatarsal and cuneiform facets closely conform in shape to each other. These preliminary results may be related to questions concerning the anatomical and functional basis for the first metatarsal deviation, for radiographic presentation of the joint and surgical options in correcting related forefoot deformities. PMID:11777231

  2. Metatarsus adductus

    MedlinePlus

    ... be easily moved into a normal position. The family will be taught how to do these exercises at home. Your child may need to wear a splint or special shoes, called reverse-last shoes, for most of the day. These ...

  3. Computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy of the metatarsus and digits of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and buffalo ( Bos bubalis).

    PubMed

    El-Shafey, A; Kassab, A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed computed tomography (CT) and cross-sectional anatomic reference of the normal metatarsus and digits for the camel and buffalo, as well as to compare between metatarsus and digits in these animals to outstand a basis for diagnosis of their diseases. Advantages, including depiction of detailed cross-sectional anatomy, improved contrast resolution and computer reformatting, make it a potentially valuable diagnostic technique. The hind limbs of 12 healthy adult camel and buffalo were used. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labelled at each level in the corresponding images (CT and anatomic slices). CT images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the metatarsus and digits. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the camel and buffalo metatarsus and digits would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of CT images in these species.

  4. Rare Proximal Diaphyseal Stress Fractures of the Fifth Metatarsal Associated With Metatarsus Adductus.

    PubMed

    Wamelink, Kyle E; Marcoux, John T; Walrath, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Before the report of English surgeon Robert Jones, who sustained a fracture to his fifth metatarsal while dancing around a tent pole, metatarsal fractures were thought to be the result of direct trauma to the foot. The mechanism of metatarsal fractures, in particular, those involving the fifth metatarsal, is now well understood. Patients with an adducted alignment of their forefoot can overload the fifth metatarsal base, putting them at an increased risk of fractures of this bone. Studies have reported that 2 distinct types of proximal diaphyseal or junctional fractures of the fifth metatarsal occur: the acute proximal diaphyseal or transverse proximal diaphyseal fracture and the proximal diaphyseal stress fracture. The radiographic characteristics associated with proximal diaphyseal stress fractures of the fifth metatarsal can vary by the chronicity; however, the findings typically entail a radiolucent fracture line with surrounding reactive sclerosis. In addition, a reduced medullary canal width can be appreciated. In the present retrospective analysis of patients with stress-related trauma to the fifth metatarsal base with an adducted forefoot, 2012 foot trauma cases were reviewed at 3 separate institutions. Of the 2012 cases, 22 (1.11%) met the outlined criteria of stress fractures of the fifth metatarsal base and underlying metatarsus adductus. PMID:27066870

  5. EVALUATION OF METATARSAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE BIOMECHANICS OF 332 NORMAL FEET USING THE METHOD OF MEASURING RELATIVE LENGTHS

    PubMed Central

    Barrôco, Rui; Nery, Caio; Favero, Gabriela; Mombach, Renan; Nascimento, Oswaldo; Jorge, Silvia; Monteiro, Marina; Diedrichs, Letícia; Abreu, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    To identify the mean normal length of the metatarsals and the most common metatarsal formulas through a simple measurement method, thereby providing surgeons with data for planning treatment on symptomatic individuals with biometric abnormalities of the foot. Methods: We evaluated and measured dorsoplantar weight-bearing radiographs of normal adult feet (83 males and 83 females). Results: We found relative mean lengths for metatarsus I of 125.4 mm for males and 115.1 mm for females; for metatarsus II, 127.8 mm for males and 117.3 mm for females; for metatarsus III, 123.4 mm for males and 113.5 mm for females; for metatarsus IV, 114.2 mm for males and 105.3 mm for females; for metatarsus V, 99.5 mm for males and 91.7 mm for females. The mean forefoot width was 87.1 mm for males and 80.8 mm for females. Conclusion: Feet with index minus occurred most frequently in both sexes, although all three metatarsal formulas can be considered to be normal patterns. The mean normal pattern for males and females respectively was the following: metatarsus I 2.4 mm and 2.2 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus III 4.4 mm and 3.8 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus IV 9.2 mm and 8.2 mm shorter than metatarsus III; metatarsus V 14.7 mm and 13.6 mm shorter than metatarsus IV. PMID:27027034

  6. [Treatment of hallux valgus (review of cases operated on from 1976 to 1978 )].

    PubMed

    Bisognini, R; Governali, E

    1983-08-01

    The AA. reporton the long-term check-up (from 4 to 6 years) about 50 cases of big toe valgls treated with regularization of esostosus, correction of 1 metatarsus and plastic-capsule. The valuation of the results, executed on the ground parameters: pain, mobility, functionality, residual deformation, allows the Authors to confirm the validity of that therapeutical procedure.

  7. Bone grafting for reconstructive osteotomies of the foot.

    PubMed

    Alter, S A; Licovski, L

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a literature review of the use of bone grafts in reconstructive osteotomies of the foot. Applications of this techniques, specifically for the calcaneus, cuneiforms, and metatarsal bones, are discussed. Surgical treatment of various conditions such as pes valgus, metatarsus adductus, hallux abducto valgus, and brachymetatarsia are highlighted. PMID:8915865

  8. Increased SCE levels in Mediterranean Italian buffaloes affected by limb malformation (transversal hemimelia).

    PubMed

    Peretti, V; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Restucci, B; Meomartino, L; Ferretti, L; Barbieri, V; Iannuzzi, L

    2008-01-01

    In recent years some buffalo farms in Campania have reported the birth of calves with limb malformation, especially with transversal hemimelia. We investigated 20 Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (8 males and 12 females) from one day to six months of age, of which 10 were affected by transversal hemimelia (group 1) and 10 were healthy controls (group 2). The following clinical and radiological patterns were observed in the malformed animals: hind limbs amputated, the right amputated off the second tarsus bones and the left amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus, and the right thoracic limb hypoplasic (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus (2 females and 1 male); left hind limb amputated off the third tarsus bones (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the tibia (1 female and 1 male); left hind limb amputated off the distal epiphysis metatarsus (1 female); left hind limb amputated off the first phalanx (1 male); right hind limb amputated off the proximal epiphysis metatarsus (1 male). In their malformed limbs all the animals presented more or less developed outlines of claws. The mean rate of SCE/cell in animals with transversal hemimelia was 8.80 +/- 3.19, that of the controls 6.61 +/- 2.73. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). PMID:18467846

  9. Fluorosis as a probable cause of chronic lameness in free ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Clarke, Emily; Beveridge, Ian; Slocombe, Ron; Coulson, Graeme

    2006-12-01

    A population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) inhabiting heathland and farmland surrounding an aluminum smelter at Portland, Victoria, Australia, exhibited clinical signs of lameness. An investigation was undertaken to determine the cause of this lameness. Hematology, necropsy, histopathology, fecal egg count, total worm count, reproductive status, and the population age range were examined and failed to reveal any additional underlying disease state. The specific problem of lameness was addressed with bone histopathology, radiography, quantitative ultrasonography, microradiography, and multielement analysis of bone ash samples. The significant lesions observed were: osteophytosis of the distal tibia and fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsus IV, and proximal coccygeal vertebrae; osteopenia of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus IV; incisor enamel hypoplasia; stained, uneven, and abnormal teeth wear; abnormal bone matrix mineralization and mottling; increased bone density; and elevated bone fluoride levels. Microradiography of affected kangaroos exhibited "black osteons," which are a known manifestation of fluorosis. Collectively, these lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of fluorosis.

  10. Serpentine fibula--polycystic kidney syndrome and Melnick-Needles syndrome are different disorders.

    PubMed

    Majewski, F; Enders, H; Ranke, M B; Voit, T

    1993-11-01

    We report on the third patient with serpentine fibula-polycystic kidney syndrome. Main features in the three reported cases were growth retardation, abnormal face, hirsutism, short neck, bowed forearms and lower legs due to bowed radii and elongated serpentine fibulae, and metatarsus adductus. Two patients including our own were deaf. All were mentally normal, all were female and sporadic. In addition, we report on a girl with Melnick-Needles syndrome and illustrate the similarities and differences between these syndromes. PMID:8276023

  11. Reconstruction of Temporomandibular Joint With a Fibula Free Flap: A Case Report With a Histological Study.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Rodrigo; Campos, Pía; Beytía, Javiera; Martínez, Benjamín

    2015-12-01

    Reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) for congenital or acquired deformities is a major challenge for maxillofacial surgeons. The alternatives for reconstructing the TMJ include free grafts (costochondral, iliac crest, clavicle, or metatarsus), free flaps (fibula), osteogenic distraction, and alloplastic grafts. The lack of biological knowledge of cartilaginous grafts and their reaction to the environment of the TMJ is largely responsible for the inability to predict growth. This report describes the use of a free flap for TMJ reconstruction. PMID:26342950

  12. Extended phenotypes in a boy and his mother with oto-palato-digital-syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Kraschl, Raimund; Kaulfersch, Wilhelm; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We describe additional phenotypic features in a boy and his mother. Both manifested the phenotypic/genotypic correlation of oto-palato-digital syndrome type II. The mother′s radiographs showed wormian bones of the skull, and paranasal bossing, her feet showed bilateral fusion of the cuboid with the lateral cuneiform bone with subsequent development of metatarsus varus associated with dysplastic distal phalanges. PMID:26401283

  13. Effects of aging on the plantar soft tissue properties under the metatarsal heads at different impact velocities.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Chin; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Shau, Yio-Wha; Wang, Chung-Li; Chen, Max Jin-Lung; Chang, King-Jen

    2005-10-01

    The plantar soft tissue properties under the metatarsal heads at different impact velocities in different age groups were measured. Each metatarsus of the left foot in healthy young adults (n = 9, 19 to 35 years old) and in healthy older persons (n = 10, 42 to 72 years old) was examined in vivo using a self-constructed loading-unloading device at low, medium and high impact status; the impact velocities of the device were about 2.5, 5 and 10 cm/s, respectively. The device comprised a 5- to 12-MHz linear-array ultrasound transducer, a miniature load cell and a fixation frame. From low to high impact status, the elastic modulus (E) in young adults significantly increased from about 300 kPa to about 500 kPa. However, the E in the older group did not show this trend. From low to high impact status, the energy dissipation ratio (EDR) of the metatarsus significantly increased from about 30% to about 60% in the young group and significantly increased from about 40% to about 70% in the older group. Most of the metatarsus in the older subjects had significantly greater E and EDR than those in the younger persons.

  14. New Australovenator hind limb elements pertaining to the holotype reveal the most complete Neovenatorid leg.

    PubMed

    White, Matt A; Benson, Roger B J; Tischler, Travis R; Hocknull, Scott A; Cook, Alex G; Barnes, David G; Poropat, Stephen F; Wooldridge, Sarah J; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, David A

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the 'Matilda Site' in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms.

  15. New Australovenator Hind Limb Elements Pertaining to the Holotype Reveal the Most Complete Neovenatorid Leg

    PubMed Central

    White, Matt A.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Tischler, Travis R.; Hocknull, Scott A.; Cook, Alex G.; Barnes, David G.; Poropat, Stephen F.; Wooldridge, Sarah J.; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H. K.; Elliott, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the ‘Matilda Site’ in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms. PMID:23894328

  16. Preoperative Planning and Intraoperative Technique for Accurate Translation of a Distal First Metatarsal Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Wynes, Jacob; Lamm, Bradley M; Andrade, Bijan J; Malay, D Scot

    2016-01-01

    We used preoperative radiographic and intraoperative anatomic measurements to predict and achieve, respectively, the precise amount of capital fragment lateral translation required to restore anatomic balance to the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Correlation was used to relate the amount of capital fragment translation and operative reduction of the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), hallux abductus angle (HAA), tibial sesamoid position (TSP), metatarsus adductus angle, and first metatarsal length. The mean capital fragment lateral translation was 5.54 ± 1.64 mm, and the mean radiographic reductions included a first IMA of 5.04° ± 2.85°, an HAA of 9.39° ± 8.38°, and a TSP of 1.38 ± 0.9. These changes were statistically (p < .001) and clinically (≥32.55%) significant. The mean reduction of the metatarsus adductus angle was 0.66° ± 4.44° and that for the first metatarsal length was 0.33 ± 7.27 mm, and neither of these were statistically (p = .5876 and 0.1247, respectively) or clinically (≤3.5%) significant. Pairwise correlations between the amount of lateral translation of the capital fragment and the first IMA, HAA, and TSP values were moderately positive and statistically significant (r = 0.4412, p = .0166; r = 0.5391, p = .0025; and r = 0.3729, p = .0463; respectively). In contrast, the correlation with metatarsus adductus and the first metatarsal shortening were weak and not statistically significant (r = 0.2296, p = .2308 and r = -0.2394, p = .2109, respectively). The results of our study indicate that predicted preoperative and executed intraoperative lateral translation of the capital fragment correlates with statistically and clinically significant reductions in the first IMA, HAA, and TSP.

  17. Comparison of gross visual and microscopic assessment of four anatomic sites to monitor Besnoitia tarandi in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Ducrocq, Julie; Beauchamp, Guy; Kutz, Susan; Simard, Manon; Elkin, Brett; Croft, Bruno; Taillon, Joëlle; Côté, Steve D; Brodeur, Vincent; Campbell, Mitch; Cooley, Dorothy; Cuyler, Christine; Lair, Stéphane

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a standardized protocol to monitor Besnoitia tarandi prevalence and intensity in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds by: 1) calculating the relative sensitivity and specificity of the gross visual assessment of four anatomical sites compared with microscopic evaluation, and 2) determining which of four anatomical sampling sites was the most sensitive for detecting B. tarandi cysts by microscopy. Sampled tissues consisted of the conjunctiva of the left eye and skin sections from the rostrum, metatarsus, and thigh from 312 harvested caribou. Diagnosis of infection with B. tarandi was based on observation of at least one cyst by microscopic examination. For each tissue, the maximal density of cysts (number of B. tarandi cysts/mm(2) in the section examined) was calculated for a measured area consisting of the dermis extending from the epidermis of the skin to the base of the hair follicles and adnexal structures. For the conjunctiva, the entire submucosa was evaluated. Gross visual evaluation markedly underestimated B. tarandi prevalence in caribou with a relative sensitivity ranging from 0.29 in the conjunctiva to 0.13 in the skin section from the thigh, whereas relative specificities ranged from 0.98 to 1.00. The metatarsus and rostrum skin sections had the highest probabilities of cyst detection of all four anatomical sampling sites. The metatarsus harbored significantly higher densities of B. tarandi cysts than the rostrum, thigh, or conjunctiva. In conclusion, microscopic evaluation of a skin section from the anterior aspect of the mid-third portion of the metatarsal region could be used as a standardized comparative indicator of density of B. tarandi infection in Rangifer.

  18. ‘Doctor, My Son Walks Funny’: A Guide for the Perplexed

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary care physician plays a critical role in reassuring parents about their child's orthopedic development in the lower extremity. Paramount to this reassurance is the ability to understand the normal and natural history of lower extremity development. Family physicians should be able to diagnose and treat metatarsus varus, internal and external tibial torsion, femoral anteversion and femoral retroversion, bow legs, knock knees, and flat feet. The chief complaint often turns out to be only a variation of normal physiological growth and development. PMID:21233928

  19. Chondroblastoma in a metatarsal treated with autogenous fibular graft: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dhatt, Sarvdeep S; Bhagwat, Kishan R; Kumar, Vishal; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a relatively rare tumor that mimics giant cell tumor and displays a predilection for long bones. In the present report, we describe the case of a benign chondroblastoma localized to the second metatarsal in a 20-year-old male who presented with a 2-year history of painless left foot swelling. Treatment of the tumor involved excision of the second metatarsal with use of an autologous structural fibular bone graft to stabilize the metatarsus and second toe. After 27 months of follow-up, the patient was ambulating well in regular shoes, with no clinical or radiographic evidence of tumor recurrence.

  20. A new syndrome with craniofacial and skeletal dysmorphisms and developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Der Kaloustian, V M; Pelletier, M; Costa, T; Blackston, D R; Oudjhane, K

    2001-04-01

    We report a 16-year-old boy with multiple craniofacial and skeletal dysmorphic features including brachycephaly, acrocephaly, hypertelorism, wide palpebral fissures, broad nose, anteverted nares, broad columella, long and smooth philtrum, thin upper lip, macrostomia, carp-like mouth, micrognathia, low-set and posteriorly angulated ears with small and abnormal pinnae, a low posterior hairline, a short neck, hypoplastic and widely-spaced nipples, multiple severe pterygia, an umbilical hernia, metatarsus varus, low implantation of the halluces, and delayed motor and language development. An MRI of the head showed bilateral frontal pachygyria but no sign of heterotopia. The unique features of our patient suggest that he represents a new syndrome.

  1. Congenital Limb Deficiency Associated with Intellectual Disability: Unusual Presentation in Two Subjects.

    PubMed

    Raza, Muhammad Ummear; Ullah, Waheed; Malik, Sajid

    2016-09-01

    Congenital constriction ring (CCR) and symbrachydactyly are two distinct, rare, and heterogeneous limb deficiency conditions which affect the digits. Here, we report on two different individuals with an unusual presentation of limb deficiency accompanying intellectual disability (ID) and certain other malformations. In the first index female, CCR occurred with mild ID, squint eyes, obesity, and metatarsus adductus. The second index male was presented with symbrachydactyly, profound ID, and speech/hearing impairments. The association of limb deficiency conditions with these anomalies is very rare. Differential diagnosis and literature survey have been offered to establish the rarity of these entities. PMID:27671186

  2. The earliest known sauropod dinosaur and the first steps towards sauropod locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Adam M; Kitching, James W

    2003-01-01

    A partial dinosaur skeleton from the Upper Triassic (Norian) sediments of South Africa is described and named Antetonitrus ingenipes. It provides the first informative look at a basal sauropod that was beginning to show adaptations towards graviportal quadrupedalism such as an elongated forelimb, a modified femoral architecture, a shortened metatarsus and a changed distribution of weight across the foot. These adaptations allowed the clade to produce the largest-ever terrestrial animals. However, A. ingenipes lacked specializations of the hand found in more derived sauropods that indicate it retained the ability to grasp. Antetonitrus is older than the recently described Isanosaurus from Thailand and is the oldest known definitive sauropod. PMID:12965005

  3. A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L

    2012-09-01

    Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour.

  4. Chondroblastoma in a metatarsal treated with autogenous fibular graft: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dhatt, Sarvdeep S; Bhagwat, Kishan R; Kumar, Vishal; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a relatively rare tumor that mimics giant cell tumor and displays a predilection for long bones. In the present report, we describe the case of a benign chondroblastoma localized to the second metatarsal in a 20-year-old male who presented with a 2-year history of painless left foot swelling. Treatment of the tumor involved excision of the second metatarsal with use of an autologous structural fibular bone graft to stabilize the metatarsus and second toe. After 27 months of follow-up, the patient was ambulating well in regular shoes, with no clinical or radiographic evidence of tumor recurrence. PMID:22297106

  5. Short-term Outcomes of Induced Membrane Technique in Treatment of Long Bone Defects in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Ali; Mahmodi, Mani; Farahini, Hosein; Moghtadaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Severe defects in long bones can be caused by several factors such as trauma that lead to open wound and secondary infections after surgery. Induced membrane technique is one of the therapeutic strategies that can be used for these patients. Due to importance of this method and lack of information about this technique in Iran. Aim: this study was performed to investigate technical strengths and weakness of induced membrane technique. Material and Methods: This case series study conducted on 21 patients with bone defects in the femur and tibia and metatarsal bones referred to orthopedic clinic of Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran, for induced membrane surgery in 2012-2015. Demographic and clinical data were obtained using history, clinical examinations and observations for each patient. Union achievement was the main outcome of this study, which was confirmed by radiographic findings and physical examination. Obtained data was analyzed by SPSS ver. 16. Results: All patients were male except one and their mean age was 30.52 years old. Bone defects were in tibia, femur and metatarsus in 9, 9 and 3 patients, respectively. Three patients received soft tissue reconstruction with flap before induced membrane surgery. Age, defects size, cigarette addiction and drug use and delay to start the treatment had no significant effect on union status. In total, 90% of patients had successful surgery. Conclusion: using induced membrane technique in patients with defects in their long bone such as tibia, femur and metatarsus would lead to high success for reconstruction. PMID:27703290

  6. Metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in dogs.

    PubMed

    Muir, P; Norris, J L

    1997-08-01

    Metacarpal fractures were more common than metatarsal fractures in this retrospective study of 37 dogs. Fractures of one metacarpal or metatarsal bone occurred in 24 per cent of the dogs, two metacarpal bones in 16 per cent, three metacarpal or metatarsal bones in 19 per cent, and four metacarpal or metatarsal bones in 41 per cent. Eighty-seven per cent of the dogs with fractures of four bones had fracture displacement or malalignment of at least one digit. Progressive fracture healing usually occurred irrespective of stabilisation method. For malaligned fractures, however, external coaptation did not consistently improve alignment. Fracture alignment was consistently improved by open reduction and internal fixation of acute fractures with bone plates. Fractures of four bones occurred most often in the distal metacarpus as opposed to the proximal metatarsus. Therefore, open reduction and internal fixation may be more commonly indicated for severe metacarpal fractures, because fracture displacement or axial malalignment was significantly associated with fractures of the mid or distal regions of the metacarpus or metatarsus (P = 0.052).

  7. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  8. The use of a circular external skeletal fixation device for the management of long bone osteotomies in large ruminants: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Aithal, H P; Singh, G R; Hoque, M; Maiti, S K; Kinjavdekar, P; Pawde, A M; Setia, H C

    2004-08-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of a simple, inexpensive model of circular external fixator (CEF) for use in large ruminants. A simple model of CEF frames consisting of four full rings (13-19 cm diameter, 4 cm wide and 4 mm thick with 18-24 holes) connected by threaded rods (8 mm diameter, 10-15 cm long) and nuts was developed using mild (low carbon) steel and were nickel-plated. In the first phase of the study, three male cow calves were utilized to study the feasibility of application of the fixators in the metatarsus, tibia and radius, in reference of adaptation and tolerance by animals. In the second phase, the fixators were tested in osteotomized bones. Six bull calves of 1.5-2 years of age weighing about 200-250 kg were utilized for this purpose. After preparing the area for aseptic surgery, under xylazine (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.m.)-ketamine (i.v. till effect) general anaesthesia, the test bone (metatarsus, radius and tibia in two animals each) was approached through the medial surface and an osteotomy was created with a saw and chisel at the mid-diaphysis. The pre-constructed 4-ring CEF was mounted on the limb around the test bone in such a way that it formed a cylinder with the axis of the limb at the centre. Each ring was then fixed to the bone with a pair of beaded wires (316 SS) of 3.5 mm diameter. During the post-operative period, the animals were observed for any change in behaviour, tolerance of the fixators, the weight bearing on the test limb, the status of the fixator, and the level of reduction of the osteotomy, alignment and healing at different intervals. The fixation of CEF was easier in the metatarsus and radius than in the tibia. The inner ring diameters found adequate for metatarsus, radius and tibia were 13-15 cm, 15-17 cm and 17-19 cm, respectively. The fixators applied to different bones were well-tolerated, and the animals could lay down, stand and walk freely with the fixator without any problems. All the animals showed

  9. The phylogenetic position of the Tyrannosauridae: implications for theropod systematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtz, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    A new cladistic analysis indicates that the tyrannosaurs were derived members of the Coelurosauria, a group of otherwise small theropods. Desipte certain gross cranial similarities with the large predators of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids are shown to be the sister group to ornithominids and troodontids, which share a derived condition of the metatarsus. The taxa "Carnosauria' and "Deinonychosauria' are shown to be polyphyletic, and the Late Jurassic African form Elaphrosaurus is found to be the sister taxon to Abelisauridae. Purported allosaurid-tyrannosaurid synapomorphies are seen to be largely size-related. The remaining giant tetanurine theropods were found to be progressive distant outgroups to an allosaurid-coelurosaur clade. -from Author

  10. Growth and development of tarsal and metatarsal bones in successfully treated congenital idiopathic clubfoot: early radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Segev, Eitan; Yavor, Ariela; Ezra, Eli; Hemo, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen cases of unilateral clubfoot treated according to Ponseti's technique had the talocalcaneal angles on the anteroposterior and lateral views and the size of the talus, calcaneus, I-V metatarsus measured on radiographs of both feet that were taken at a mean age of 15.2 months (range 8-23). The measurements of talocalcaneal angles and size of the talus, calcaneus, and I, II, and III metatarsi were significantly smaller on the affected side, whereas the values for the IV and V metatarsi were similar on both sides. Clubfoot deformity involves all structures of the foot, but intrinsic compressive forces on the small hindfoot bones induce measurable reduction in their size and spatial orientation. This effect is seen early on the medial but not the lateral long tubular forefoot bones.

  11. Three new species of Misionella from northern Brazil (Araneae, Haplogynae, Filistatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brescovit, Antonio D.; Magalhaes, Ivan L. F.; Cizauskas, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Misionella are described from Brazil: Misionella carajas sp. n. and Misionella aikewara sp. n. from caves in the states of Pará and Tocantins and Misionella pallida sp. n. from natural and synanthropic dry areas in the states of Piauí, Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte and Bahia. These species seem to belong to a distinct group within the genus; the males have an elongate palpal tibia and bulb, a pair of characteristic and hirsute macrosetae in the second metatarsus and the females have internal genitalia with only one pair of spermathecae, with relatively short ducts, lacking the auxiliary receptacles. Their phylogenetic placement and geographic distribution are briefly discussed. PMID:27408535

  12. A new syndrome with craniofacial and skeletal dysmorphisms and developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Der Kaloustian, V M; Pelletier, M; Costa, T; Blackston, D R; Oudjhane, K

    2001-04-01

    We report a 16-year-old boy with multiple craniofacial and skeletal dysmorphic features including brachycephaly, acrocephaly, hypertelorism, wide palpebral fissures, broad nose, anteverted nares, broad columella, long and smooth philtrum, thin upper lip, macrostomia, carp-like mouth, micrognathia, low-set and posteriorly angulated ears with small and abnormal pinnae, a low posterior hairline, a short neck, hypoplastic and widely-spaced nipples, multiple severe pterygia, an umbilical hernia, metatarsus varus, low implantation of the halluces, and delayed motor and language development. An MRI of the head showed bilateral frontal pachygyria but no sign of heterotopia. The unique features of our patient suggest that he represents a new syndrome. PMID:11311002

  13. Orthopaedic implications of multiple gestation pregnancy with triplets.

    PubMed

    Bielski, Robert J; Gesell, Mark W; Teng, Andelle L; Cooper, Daniel H; Muraskas, Jonathan K

    2006-01-01

    Intrauterine crowding has been implicated as a risk factor in several orthopaedic conditions, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), metatarsus adductus, and torticollis. The goal of this study was to see whether orthopaedic conditions associated with intrauterine crowding were more frequent in multiple gestation pregnancies, specifically in triplets. The authors reviewed their experience over a 10-year period with 261 children who were products of triplet pregnancies. They surveyed 13 orthopaedic conditions and found only one condition, torticollis, that had a greater incidence than that reported in single gestation pregnancies. A 0% incidence of DDH was found in these patients. Routine ultrasound screening cannot be recommended in these patients based on these results.

  14. Three new species of Misionella from northern Brazil (Araneae, Haplogynae, Filistatidae).

    PubMed

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Magalhaes, Ivan L F; Cizauskas, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Misionella are described from Brazil: Misionella carajas sp. n. and Misionella aikewara sp. n. from caves in the states of Pará and Tocantins and Misionella pallida sp. n. from natural and synanthropic dry areas in the states of Piauí, Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte and Bahia. These species seem to belong to a distinct group within the genus; the males have an elongate palpal tibia and bulb, a pair of characteristic and hirsute macrosetae in the second metatarsus and the females have internal genitalia with only one pair of spermathecae, with relatively short ducts, lacking the auxiliary receptacles. Their phylogenetic placement and geographic distribution are briefly discussed. PMID:27408535

  15. Scaling of the appendicular skeleton of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    van Sittert, Sybrand; Skinner, John; Mitchell, Graham

    2015-05-01

    Giraffes have remarkably long and slender limb bones, but it is unknown how they grow with regard to body mass, sex, and neck length. In this study, we measured the length, mediolateral (ML) diameter, craniocaudal (CC) diameter and circumference of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia, and metatarsus in 10 fetuses, 21 females, and 23 males of known body masses. Allometric exponents were determined and compared. We found the average bone length increased from 340 ± 50 mm at birth to 700 ± 120 mm at maturity, while average diameters increased from 30 ± 3 to 70 ± 11 mm. Fetal bones increased with positive allometry in length (relative to body mass) and in diameter (relative to body mass and length). In postnatal giraffes bone lengths and diameters increased iso- or negatively allometric relative to increases in body mass, except for the humerus CC diameter which increased with positive allometry. Humerus circumference also increased with positive allometry, that of the radius and tibia isometrically and the femur and metapodials with negative allometry. Relative to increases in bone length, both the humerus and femur widened with positive allometry. In the distal limb bones, ML diameters increased isometrically (radius, metacarpus) or positively allometric (tibia, metatarsus) while the corresponding CC widths increased with negative allometry and isometrically, respectively. Except for the humerus and femur, exponents were not significantly different between corresponding front and hind limb segments. We concluded that the patterns of bone growth in males and females are identical. In fetuses, the growth of the appendicular skeleton is faster than it is after birth which is a pattern opposite to that reported for the neck. Allometric exponents seemed unremarkable compared to the few species described previously, and pointed to the importance of neck elongation rather than leg elongation during evolution. Nevertheless, the front limb bones

  16. Functional aspects of metatarsal head shape in humans, apes, and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Peter J; Almécija, Sergio; Patel, Biren A; Orr, Caley M; Tocheri, Matthew W; Jungers, William L

    2015-09-01

    Modern human metatarsal heads are typically described as "dorsally domed," mediolaterally wide, and dorsally flat. Despite the apparent functional importance of these features in forefoot stability during bipedalism, the distinctiveness of this morphology has not been quantitatively evaluated within a broad comparative framework. In order to use these features to reconstruct fossil hominin locomotor behaviors with any confidence, their connection to human bipedalism should be validated through a comparative analysis of other primates with different locomotor behaviors and foot postures, including species with biomechanical demands potentially similar to those of bipedalism (e.g., terrestrial digitigrady). This study explores shape variation in the distal metatarsus among humans and other extant catarrhines using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3 DGM). Shape differences among species in metatarsal head morphology are well captured by the first two principal components of Procrustes shape coordinates, and these two components summarize most of the variance related to "dorsal doming" and "dorsal expansion." Multivariate statistical tests reveal significant differences among clades in overall shape, and humans are reliably distinguishable from other species by aspects of shape related to a greater degree of dorsal doming. Within quadrupeds, terrestrial species also trend toward more domed metatarsal heads, but not to the extent seen in humans. Certain aspects of distal metatarsus shape are likely related to habitual dorsiflexion of the metatarsophalangeal joints, but the total morphological pattern seen in humans is distinct. These comparative results indicate that this geometric morphometric approach is useful to characterize the complexity of metatarsal head morphology and will help clarify its relationship with function in fossil primates, including early hominins.

  17. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  18. Scaling of the appendicular skeleton of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    van Sittert, Sybrand; Skinner, John; Mitchell, Graham

    2015-05-01

    Giraffes have remarkably long and slender limb bones, but it is unknown how they grow with regard to body mass, sex, and neck length. In this study, we measured the length, mediolateral (ML) diameter, craniocaudal (CC) diameter and circumference of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia, and metatarsus in 10 fetuses, 21 females, and 23 males of known body masses. Allometric exponents were determined and compared. We found the average bone length increased from 340 ± 50 mm at birth to 700 ± 120 mm at maturity, while average diameters increased from 30 ± 3 to 70 ± 11 mm. Fetal bones increased with positive allometry in length (relative to body mass) and in diameter (relative to body mass and length). In postnatal giraffes bone lengths and diameters increased iso- or negatively allometric relative to increases in body mass, except for the humerus CC diameter which increased with positive allometry. Humerus circumference also increased with positive allometry, that of the radius and tibia isometrically and the femur and metapodials with negative allometry. Relative to increases in bone length, both the humerus and femur widened with positive allometry. In the distal limb bones, ML diameters increased isometrically (radius, metacarpus) or positively allometric (tibia, metatarsus) while the corresponding CC widths increased with negative allometry and isometrically, respectively. Except for the humerus and femur, exponents were not significantly different between corresponding front and hind limb segments. We concluded that the patterns of bone growth in males and females are identical. In fetuses, the growth of the appendicular skeleton is faster than it is after birth which is a pattern opposite to that reported for the neck. Allometric exponents seemed unremarkable compared to the few species described previously, and pointed to the importance of neck elongation rather than leg elongation during evolution. Nevertheless, the front limb bones

  19. First ancient DNA sequences from the Late Pleistocene red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Crimea, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanković, Ana; Nadachowski, Adam; Doan, Karolina; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Baca, Mateusz; Socha, Paweł; Wegleński, Piotr; Ridush, Bogdan

    2010-05-01

    The Late Pleistocene has been a period of significant population and species turnover and extinctions among the large mammal fauna. Massive climatic and environmental changes during Pleistocene significantly influenced the distribution and also genetic diversity of plants and animals. The model of glacial refugia and habitat contraction to southern peninsulas in Europe as areas for the survival of temperate animal species during unfavourable Pleistocene glaciations is at present widely accepted. However, both molecular data and the fossil record indicate the presence of northern and perhaps north-eastern refugia in Europe. In recent years, much new palaeontological data have been obtained in the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine, following extensive investigations. The red deer (Cervus elaphus) samples for aDNA studies were collected in Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave, situated on the north edge of Lower Plateau of the Chatyrdag Massif (Crimean Mountains). The cave is a vertical shaft, which functioned as a huge mega-trap over a long period of time (probably most of the Pleistocene). The bone assemblages provided about 5000 bones belonging to more than 40 species. The C. elaphus bones were collected from three different stratigraphical levels, radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method. The bone fragments of four specimens of red deer were used for the DNA isolation and analysis. The mtDNA (Cytochome b) was successfully isolated from three bone fragments and the cytochrome b sequences were amplified by multiplex PCR. The sequences obtained so far allowed for the reconstruction of only preliminary phylogenetic trees. A fragment of metatarsus from level dated to ca. 48,500±2,000 years BP, yielded a sequence of 513 bp, allowing to locate the specimen on the phylogenetic tree within modern C. elaphus specimens from southern and middle Europe. The second bone fragment, a fragment of mandible, collected from level dated approximately to ca. 33,500±400 years BP

  20. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  1. DNA extraction: an anthropologic aspect of bone remains from sixth- to seventh-century ad bone remains.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Saponetti, Sandro Sublimi; Scattarella, Vito; Emanuel, Patrizia; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Volpe, Giuliano; Di Nunno, Cosimo

    2007-12-01

    In the archeological site of the early Christian Episcopal complex of Saint Peter, in Canosa di Puglia (Bari, Italy), during the operations of archaeological excavations, tombs were discovered. They were dated between the sixth and seventh centuries ad with carbon 14 methodology. Five skeletons were found in the 5 tombs: 28A: male individual, 43 years old. The height was 170 cm; the biomass was 65.7 kg. The analysis of the bones indicated several noteworthy pathologies, such as a number of hypoplasia lines of the enamel, the presence of Schmorl hernias on the first 2 lumbar vertebrae, and the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome. 28E was a male individual, with a biologic age of death of between 44 and 60 years. The height was 177 cm. He had a posttraumatic fracture callus of the medial third of the clavicle, with an oblique fracture rima. 29B was a female individual, 44-49 years old. The height was 158.8 cm; the biomass was 64.8 kg. There was Wells bursitis on the ischial tuberosity on both sides. 29E was a male individual, 45-50 years old. The height was 169.47 cm; the biomass was 70.8 kg. The third and the fourth vertebrae showed Baastrup syndrome (compression of the vertebral spine). There were radiologic signs of deformity on the higher edge of the acetabula and results of frequent sprains of the ankles. 31A was a male individual, 47-54 years old. The height was 178.65 cm; the biomass was 81 kg. The vertebral index showed a heavy overloading in the thoracic lumbar region. There were bony formations under the periosteum on both on the higher and medium facets of the first metatarsus and on the higher and lateral facets of the fifth metatarsus on both sides. As the topography indicates, these small ossifications coincided with the contact points between the back of the foot and parts of the upper shoe. From the osseous remains, in particular from the teeth (central incisors), the DNA was extracted and typed to identify potential family ties among all the

  2. The quick and the fast: the evolution of acceleration capacity in Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Herrel, Anthony; Van Damme, Raoul; Irschick, Duncan J

    2006-10-01

    Although of prime ecological relevance, acceleration capacity is a poorly understood locomotor performance trait in terrestrial vertebrates. No empirical data exist on which design characteristics determine acceleration capacity among species and whether these design traits influence other aspects of locomotor performance. In this study we explore how acceleration capacity and sprint speed have evolved in Anolis lizards. We investigate whether the same or different morphological traits (i.e., limb dimensions and muscle mass) correlate with both locomotor traits. Within our sample of Anolis lizards, relative sprint speed and acceleration capacity coevolved. However, whereas the variation in relative acceleration capacity is primarily explained by the variation in relative knee extensor muscle mass, the variation in relative sprint speed is correlated to the variation in relative femur, tibia, and metatarsus length as well as knee extensor muscle mass. The fact that the design features required to excel in either performance trait partly overlap might explain the positive correlation between the variation in relative sprint speed and acceleration capacity. Furthermore, our data show how similar levels of sprint performance can be achieved through different morphological traits (limb segment lengths and muscle mass) suggesting that redundant mapping has potentially played a role in mitigating trade-offs.

  3. Identifying sex and age of apapane and iiwi on Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fancy, S.G.; Pratt, T.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Harada, C.K.; Parent, A.H.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to determine the sex and age of Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were developed on the basis of 189 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured in mist nets on the Island of Hawaii (USA). Both species retain all juvenal primaries and some juvenal secondaries and body feathers after the first prebasic molt and attain full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Apapane in their first basic plumage retain some buff-edged juvenal secondaries (particularly secondaries five and six) and sometimes retain a few gray-brown feathers on the head. The first basic plumage of Iiwi is characterized by secondaries 6-9 being longer and darker than secondaries 1-4 and the presence of a few yellowish juvenal body feathers with black spots at the tips. Adult male Apapane and Iiwi have longer wing, tail, exposed culmen, culmen and tarso-metatarsus lengths than females. Linear discriminant functions are presented to sex adult Apapane and Iiwi from lengths of their wing chord and exposed culmen.

  4. Force transformation in spider strain sensors: white light interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Schaber, Clemens F.; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Barth, Friedrich G.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning white light interferometry and micro-force measurements were applied to analyse stimulus transformation in strain sensors in the spider exoskeleton. Two compound or ‘lyriform’ organs consisting of arrays of closely neighbouring, roughly parallel sensory slits of different lengths were examined. Forces applied to the exoskeleton entail strains in the cuticle, which compress and thereby stimulate the individual slits of the lyriform organs. (i) For the proprioreceptive lyriform organ HS-8 close to the distal joint of the tibia, the compression of the slits at the sensory threshold was as small as 1.4 nm and hardly more than 30 nm, depending on the slit in the array. The corresponding stimulus forces were as small as 0.01 mN. The linearity of the loading curve seems reasonable considering the sensor's relatively narrow biological intensity range of operation. The slits' mechanical sensitivity (slit compression/force) ranged from 106 down to 13 nm mN−1, and gradually decreased with decreasing slit length. (ii) Remarkably, in the vibration-sensitive lyriform organ HS-10 on the metatarsus, the loading curve was exponential. The organ is thus adapted to the detection of a wide range of vibration amplitudes, as they are found under natural conditions. The mechanical sensitivities of the two slits examined in this organ in detail differed roughly threefold (522 and 195 nm mN−1) in the biologically most relevant range, again reflecting stimulus range fractionation among the slits composing the array. PMID:22031733

  5. Morphological adaptation of the calamistrum to the cribellate spinning process in Deinopoidae (Uloboridae, Deinopidae).

    PubMed

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Scholz, Ingo; Orth, Linda; Kappel, Peter; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-02-01

    Spiders are famous for their silk with fascinating mechanical properties. However, some can further produce, process and handle nano fibres, which are used as capture threads. These 'cribellate spiders' bear a specialized setae comb on their metatarsus (calamistrum), which modifies cribellate nano fibres to assemble a puffy structure within the capture thread. Among different species, the calamistrum morphology can differ remarkably. Although a model of thread production has been established for Uloborus plumipes, it is not resolved if/how different shaped calamistra influence the production process. We were able to transfer the model without restrictions to spiders with different shaped calamistra. Fibres are not locked between setae but are passing across a rather smooth surface-like area on the calamistrum. This area can be relocated, explaining the first morphological difference between calamistra, without changing the influence of the calamistrum on fibres. By performing an elongated leg movement, contact between fibres and calamistrum could be adjusted after finishing thread production. This movement has to bring the thread in contact with the second morphological peculiarity: cribellate teeth. We suggest these teeth are used to handle the thread independently of the spinnerets, a feature only necessary for spiders, which do not move during web construction.

  6. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine tarsus.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Julia E; Redding, W Rich; Berry, Clifford; Smallwood, James E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed computed tomographic (CT) anatomic reference for the equine tarsus. CT examinations of the tarsal regions from four clinically and radiographically normal adult horses, which were euthanized for reasons not related to musculoskeletal disease, were included in the study. Limbs were removed at the level of midtibia, and 3-mm contiguous transverse CT images were obtained, starting at a level proximal to the tuber calcanei and continuing distally into the proximal metatarsus. Soft tissue and bone windows were used to image different anatomic features, including bones, joints, and various soft tissue components of the tarsus. Each transverse slice was compared with bone models and dissected specimens to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. The results of the study consist of nine CT images of the equine tarsus. Each image incorporates labeled soft tissue and bone-window images, a directional compass indicating cranial (Cr) or dorsal (D) and lateral (L), and a reconstructed scout image indicating the level through which the transverse slice was made. PMID:12718352

  7. How to avoid complications of distraction osteogenesis for first brachymetatarsia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun-Kee; Chung, Jae-Yoon; Moon, Eun-Sun; Jung, Sung-Taek

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Distraction osteogenesis may be used for the treatment of brachymetatarsia. However, few reports have been published on first metatarsal lengthening by this method. We evaluated the complications of distraction osteogenesis for first brachymetatarsia and here we provide a solution. Patients and methods 16 patients (27 feet) underwent distraction osteogenesis for first brachymetatarsia. Mean age at time of surgery was 20 (12–34) years and mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 5 (2–13) years. A unilateral external fixator was fixed at the medial aspect of the metatarsus. The distraction axis was parallel to the plantar surface of the foot in the sagittal plane and to the second metatarsal axis in the transversal plane. Results First metatarsal length expressed as a proportion of second metatarsal length was 60% (55–64). Average degree of metatarsal lengthening was 42% (34–54), and the average lengthening index was 64 (39–93) days/cm. The most common complication was stiffness of the metatarsophalangeal joint (12 feet). Deformities that included cavus foot and hallux valgus occurred in 3 feet each, and callus fractures occurred in 3 feet. The other complications were pin breakage and pin tract infection in 2 feet each. Interpretation Distraction osteogenesis for first brachymetatarsia can give satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. However, several complications are commonly encountered. This report on complications and their solutions may help those attempting distraction osteogenesis for first brachymetatarsia. PMID:19404807

  8. In vitro and in vivo study of additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds for repairing bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoyuan; Wang, Lei; Pan, Wei; Yang, Fei; Jiang, Wenbo; Wu, Xianbo; Kong, Xiangdong; Dai, Kerong; Hao, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Metallic implants with a low effective modulus can provide early load-bearing and reduce stress shielding, which is favorable for increasing in vivo life-span. In this research, porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with three pore sizes (300~400, 400~500, and 500~700 μm) were manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, with an elastic modulus range of 3.7 to 1.7 GPa. Cytocompatibility in vitro and osseointegration ability in vivo of scaffolds were assessed. hBMSCs numbers increased on all porous scaffolds over time. The group with intended pore sizes of 300 to 400 μm was significantly higher than that of the other two porous scaffolds at days 5 and 7. This group also had higher ALP activity at day 7 in osteogenic differentiation experiment. The scaffold with pore size of 300 to 400 μm was implanted into a 30-mm segmental defect of goat metatarsus. In vivo evaluations indicated that the depth of bone ingrowth increased over time and no implant dislocation occurred during the experiment. Based on its better cytocompatibility and favorable bone ingrowth, the present data showed the capability of the additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with an intended pore size of 300 to 400 μm for large segmental bone defects. PMID:27667204

  9. The first dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation of Nei Mongol, China.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Michael; Pei, Rui; Tan, Qingwei; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The first dromaeosaurid theropod from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation is identified based on an incompletely preserved partially-articulated left leg, increasing the known diversity of its understudied ecosystem. The leg belongs to specimen IVPP V22530 and includes a typical deinonychosaurian pedal phalanx II-2 with a distinct constriction between the enlarged proximal end and the distal condyle as well as a typical deinonychosaurian enlarged pedal phalanx II-3. It possesses a symmetric metatarsus and a slender and long MT V that together suggest it is a dromaeosaurid. Two anatomical traits suggest the leg is microraptorine-like, but a more precise taxonomic referral was not possible: metatarsals II, III and IV are closely appressed distally and the ventral margin of the medial ligament pit of phalanx II-2 is close to the centre of the rounded distal condyle. This taxonomic status invites future efforts to discover additional specimens at the study locality because-whether it is a microraptorine or a close relative-this animal is expected to make important contributions to our understanding of dromaeosaurid evolution and biology. IVPP V22530 also comprises of an isolated dromaeosaurid manual ungual, a proximal portion of a right theropod anterior dorsal rib and an indeterminate bone mass that includes a collection of ribs. Neither the rib fragment nor the bone mass can be confidently referred to Dromaeosauridae, although they may very well belong to the same individual to whom the left leg belongs. PMID:26664809

  10. Cribellate thread production in spiders: Complex processing of nano-fibres into a functional capture thread.

    PubMed

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Kappel, Peter; Adamova, Hana; Baumgartner, Werner; Scholz, Ingo

    2015-11-01

    Spider silk production has been studied intensively in the last years. However, capture threads of cribellate spiders employ an until now often unnoticed alternative of thread production. This thread in general is highly interesting, as it not only involves a controlled arrangement of three types of threads with one being nano-scale fibres (cribellate fibres), but also a special comb-like structure on the metatarsus of the fourth leg (calamistrum) for its production. We found the cribellate fibres organized as a mat, enclosing two parallel larger fibres (axial fibres) and forming the typical puffy structure of cribellate threads. Mat and axial fibres are punctiform connected to each other between two puffs, presumably by the action of the median spinnerets. However, this connection alone does not lead to the typical puffy shape of a cribellate thread. Removing the calamistrum, we found a functional capture thread still being produced, but the puffy shape of the thread was lost. Therefore, the calamistrum is not necessary for the extraction or combination of fibres, but for further processing of the nano-scale cribellate fibres. Using data from Uloborus plumipes we were able to develop a model of the cribellate thread production, probably universally valid for cribellate spiders.

  11. Metatarsal strains are sufficient to cause fatigue fracture during cyclic overloading.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Finestone, A; Sharkey, N; Hamel, A; Mandes, V; Burr, D; Arndt, A; Ekenman, I

    2002-03-01

    Human in vivo tibial strains during vigorous walking have not been found to exceed 1200 microstrains. These values are below those found in ex vivo studies (>3000 microstrains) to cause cortical bone fatigue failure, suggesting that an intermediate bone remodeling response may be associated with tibial stress fractures. Metatarsal stress fractures, however, often develop before there is time for such a response to occur. Simultaneous in vivo axial strains were measured at the mid diaphysis of the second metatarsal and the tibia in two subjects. Peak axial metatarsal compression strains and strain rates were significantly higher than those of the tibia during treadmill walking and jogging both barefoot and with running shoes and during simple calisthenics. During barefoot treadmill walking metatarsal compression strains were greater than 2500 microstrains. During one- and two-leg vertical jumps and broad jumping, both metatarsal compression and tension strains were >3000 microstrains. Compression and tension strains in the metatarsus unlike those of the tibia may be sufficiently high even during moderate exertional activities to cause fatigue failure of bone secondary to the number of loading cycles without an intermediate bone remodeling response. PMID:11934065

  12. A new Agraecina spider species from the Balkan Peninsula (FYR Macedonia) (Araneae: Liocranidae).

    PubMed

    Deltshev, Christo; Wang, Chunxia

    2016-01-01

            Specimens were collected using pitfall traps. Coloration is described from alcohol-preserved specimens. Specimens were examined and measured using a Wild M5A stereomicroscope. Further details were studied and measured under an Olympus BX41 compound microscope. All drawings were made using a drawing apparatus attached to a Leica stereomicroscope. Male palps and female genitalia were examined and illustrated after they were dissected from the spiders' bodies. Photos were taken with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera mounted on an Olympus SZX12 stereomicroscope. The images were montaged using Helicon Focus image stacking software. Measurements of the legs are taken from the dorsal side. Total length of the body includes the chelicerae. All measurements were taken in mm. Abbreviations used in text include: AME, anterior median eyes; ALE, anterior lateral eyes; EM, embolus; MA, median apophysis; CD, copulatory duct; ST, spermatheca; fe, femur; pa, patella; ti, tibia; mt, metatarsus; p, prolateral; d, dorsal; r, retrolateral; v, ventral. Type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural History (NMNHS), Sofia, Bulgaria. PMID:27395163

  13. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot.

    PubMed

    González Riga, Bernardo J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ortiz David, Leonardo D; Calvo, Jorge O; Coria, Juan P

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus--seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight--and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods. PMID:26777391

  14. Revised generic placement of Brachypelma embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and Brachypelma angustum Valerio, 1980, with definition of the taxonomic features for identification of female Sericopelma Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ray; Longhorn, Stuart J

    2015-01-01

    The tarantula genus Sericopelma was originally defined based on male specimens, most notably lacking tibial spurs on leg I. Early female specimens were unrecognised as Sericopelma, and typically placed in Eurypelma - a dumping ground for problem specimens. The first females were only later recognised, but authors failed to adequately define female Sericopelma. Here, the holotypes of the southern-most alleged Brachypelma species, Brachypelma embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and Brachypelma angustum Valerio, 1980 were examined, and finding both to possess defining characteristics of Sericopelma were transferred. The taxonomic attributes to define Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and select other Neotropical genera are discussed, especially for females. As important diagnostic characters for Sericopelma, the single (unilobar) spermathecae swollen at the apex forming a P-shaped cross-section, metatarsus IV with trace scopula, femur IV with a dense retrolateral pad of plumose hair, plus other attributes. Some past confusion in these characters are clarified and Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and Megaphobema mesomelas are discussed. Finally recommendations are given about these taxonomic changes for CITES regulations. PMID:26487826

  15. Revised generic placement of Brachypelma embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and Brachypelma angustum Valerio, 1980, with definition of the taxonomic features for identification of female Sericopelma Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Ray; Longhorn, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The tarantula genus Sericopelma was originally defined based on male specimens, most notably lacking tibial spurs on leg I. Early female specimens were unrecognised as Sericopelma, and typically placed in Eurypelma – a dumping ground for problem specimens. The first females were only later recognised, but authors failed to adequately define female Sericopelma. Here, the holotypes of the southern-most alleged Brachypelma species, Brachypelma embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and Brachypelma angustum Valerio, 1980 were examined, and finding both to possess defining characteristics of Sericopelma were transferred. The taxonomic attributes to define Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and select other Neotropical genera are discussed, especially for females. As important diagnostic characters for Sericopelma, the single (unilobar) spermathecae swollen at the apex forming a P-shaped cross-section, metatarsus IV with trace scopula, femur IV with a dense retrolateral pad of plumose hair, plus other attributes. Some past confusion in these characters are clarified and Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and Megaphobema mesomelas are discussed. Finally recommendations are given about these taxonomic changes for CITES regulations. PMID:26487826

  16. The first dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation of Nei Mongol, China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Rui; Tan, Qingwei; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The first dromaeosaurid theropod from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation is identified based on an incompletely preserved partially-articulated left leg, increasing the known diversity of its understudied ecosystem. The leg belongs to specimen IVPP V22530 and includes a typical deinonychosaurian pedal phalanx II-2 with a distinct constriction between the enlarged proximal end and the distal condyle as well as a typical deinonychosaurian enlarged pedal phalanx II-3. It possesses a symmetric metatarsus and a slender and long MT V that together suggest it is a dromaeosaurid. Two anatomical traits suggest the leg is microraptorine-like, but a more precise taxonomic referral was not possible: metatarsals II, III and IV are closely appressed distally and the ventral margin of the medial ligament pit of phalanx II-2 is close to the centre of the rounded distal condyle. This taxonomic status invites future efforts to discover additional specimens at the study locality because—whether it is a microraptorine or a close relative—this animal is expected to make important contributions to our understanding of dromaeosaurid evolution and biology. IVPP V22530 also comprises of an isolated dromaeosaurid manual ungual, a proximal portion of a right theropod anterior dorsal rib and an indeterminate bone mass that includes a collection of ribs. Neither the rib fragment nor the bone mass can be confidently referred to Dromaeosauridae, although they may very well belong to the same individual to whom the left leg belongs. PMID:26664809

  17. A novel approach to mechanical foot stimulation during human locomotion under body weight support.

    PubMed

    Gravano, S; Ivanenko, Y P; Maccioni, G; Macellari, V; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-04-01

    Input from the foot plays an essential part in perceiving support surfaces and determining kinematic events in human walking. To simulate adequate tactile pressure inputs under body weight support (BWS) conditions that represent an effective form of locomotion training, we here developed a new method of phasic mechanical foot stimulation using light-weight pneumatic insoles placed inside the shoes (under the heel and metatarsus). To test the system, we asked healthy participants to walk on a treadmill with different levels of BWS. The pressure under the stimulated areas of the feet and subjective sensations were higher at high levels of BWS and when applied to the ball and toes rather than heels. Foot stimulation did not disturb significantly the normal motor pattern, and in all participants we evoked a reliable step-synchronized triggering of stimuli for each leg separately. This approach has been performed in a general framework looking for "afferent templates" of human locomotion that could be used for functional sensory stimulation. The proposed technique can be used to imitate or partially restore surrogate contact forces under body weight support conditions.

  18. Morphological adaptation of the calamistrum to the cribellate spinning process in Deinopoidae (Uloboridae, Deinopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Scholz, Ingo; Orth, Linda; Kappel, Peter; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Spiders are famous for their silk with fascinating mechanical properties. However, some can further produce, process and handle nano fibres, which are used as capture threads. These ‘cribellate spiders’ bear a specialized setae comb on their metatarsus (calamistrum), which modifies cribellate nano fibres to assemble a puffy structure within the capture thread. Among different species, the calamistrum morphology can differ remarkably. Although a model of thread production has been established for Uloborus plumipes, it is not resolved if/how different shaped calamistra influence the production process. We were able to transfer the model without restrictions to spiders with different shaped calamistra. Fibres are not locked between setae but are passing across a rather smooth surface-like area on the calamistrum. This area can be relocated, explaining the first morphological difference between calamistra, without changing the influence of the calamistrum on fibres. By performing an elongated leg movement, contact between fibres and calamistrum could be adjusted after finishing thread production. This movement has to bring the thread in contact with the second morphological peculiarity: cribellate teeth. We suggest these teeth are used to handle the thread independently of the spinnerets, a feature only necessary for spiders, which do not move during web construction. PMID:26998332

  19. In vitro and in vivo study of additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds for repairing bone defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoyuan; Wang, Lei; Pan, Wei; Yang, Fei; Jiang, Wenbo; Wu, Xianbo; Kong, Xiangdong; Dai, Kerong; Hao, Yongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Metallic implants with a low effective modulus can provide early load-bearing and reduce stress shielding, which is favorable for increasing in vivo life-span. In this research, porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with three pore sizes (300~400, 400~500, and 500~700 μm) were manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, with an elastic modulus range of 3.7 to 1.7 GPa. Cytocompatibility in vitro and osseointegration ability in vivo of scaffolds were assessed. hBMSCs numbers increased on all porous scaffolds over time. The group with intended pore sizes of 300 to 400 μm was significantly higher than that of the other two porous scaffolds at days 5 and 7. This group also had higher ALP activity at day 7 in osteogenic differentiation experiment. The scaffold with pore size of 300 to 400 μm was implanted into a 30-mm segmental defect of goat metatarsus. In vivo evaluations indicated that the depth of bone ingrowth increased over time and no implant dislocation occurred during the experiment. Based on its better cytocompatibility and favorable bone ingrowth, the present data showed the capability of the additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with an intended pore size of 300 to 400 μm for large segmental bone defects.

  20. Descriptions of the lower limb skeleton of Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Jungers, W L; Larson, S G; Harcourt-Smith, W; Morwood, M J; Sutikna, T; Due Awe, Rokhus; Djubiantono, T

    2009-11-01

    Bones of the lower extremity have been recovered for up to nine different individuals of Homo floresiensis - LB1, LB4, LB6, LB8, LB9, LB10, LB11, LB13, and LB14. LB1 is represented by a bony pelvis (damaged but now repaired), femora, tibiae, fibulae, patellae, and numerous foot bones. LB4/2 is an immature right tibia lacking epiphyses. LB6 includes a fragmentary metatarsal and two pedal phalanges. LB8 is a nearly complete right tibia (shorter than that of LB1). LB9 is a fragment of a hominin femoral diaphysis. LB10 is a proximal hallucal phalanx. LB11 includes pelvic fragments and a fragmentary metatarsal. LB13 is a patellar fragment, and LB14 is a fragment of an acetabulum. All skeletal remains recovered from Liang Bua were extremely fragile, and some were badly damaged when they were removed temporarily from Jakarta. At present, virtually all fossil materials have been returned, stabilized, and hardened. These skeletal remains are described and illustrated photographically. The lower limb skeleton exhibits a uniquely mosaic pattern, with many primitive-like morphologies; we have been unable to find this combination of ancient and derived (more human-like) features in either healthy or pathological modern humans, regardless of body size. Bilateral asymmetries are slight in the postcranium, and muscle markings are clearly delineated on all bones. The long bones are robust, and the thickness of their cortices is well within the ranges seen in healthy modern humans. LB1 is most probably a female based on the shape of her greater sciatic notch, and the marked degree of lateral iliac flaring recalls that seen in australopithecines such as "Lucy" (AL 288-1). The metatarsus has a human-like robusticity formula, but the proximal pedal phalanges are relatively long and robust (and slightly curved). The hallux is fully adducted, but we suspect that a medial longitudinal arch was absent. PMID:19062072

  1. Influence of UVB exposure on the vitamin D status and calcium homoeostasis of growing sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Kovács, S; Wilkens, M R; Liesegang, A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVB) on vitamin D status, intestinal calcium absorption and bone metabolism in growing sheep and goats. The hypothesis was that growing sheep and goats are able to synthesise vitamin D within their skin as a result of UVB exposure and that respective consequences for their vitamin D blood levels and the associated parameters can be shown. Fourteen 18-week-old lambs and goat kids were kept in an UVB-free environment and randomly assigned to two groups. One group was daily exposed to UVB (300 watt) for 12 weeks, and the other served as a control group. Except for the exposure to UVB, all animals were kept under the same conditions and fed according to their requirements. Before the start of the experiment and every second week, blood samples were taken. Also the left metatarsus of each animal was analysed by quantitative computer tomography to test for bone mineral status before the start, in week 7 and at the end of the experiment. After 12 weeks, the animals were slaughtered and samples were taken from skin, gastrointestinal tract and kidney for further analyses. In this study, exposure to UVB led to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25VitD) levels in goat kids, whereas in lambs, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25VitD) levels were increased. In both species UVB-exposed animals showed lower 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) values in skin than their respective control groups. These results indicate that growing goat kids and lambs are able to synthesise vitamin D in the skin when being exposed to UVB.

  2. Dynamic 3D scanning as a markerless method to calculate multi-segment foot kinematics during stance phase: methodology and first application.

    PubMed

    Van den Herrewegen, Inge; Cuppens, Kris; Broeckx, Mario; Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Vander Sloten, Jos; Leardini, Alberto; Peeraer, Louis

    2014-08-22

    Multi-segmental foot kinematics have been analyzed by means of optical marker-sets or by means of inertial sensors, but never by markerless dynamic 3D scanning (D3DScanning). The use of D3DScans implies a radically different approach for the construction of the multi-segment foot model: the foot anatomy is identified via the surface shape instead of distinct landmark points. We propose a 4-segment foot model consisting of the shank (Sha), calcaneus (Cal), metatarsus (Met) and hallux (Hal). These segments are manually selected on a static scan. To track the segments in the dynamic scan, the segments of the static scan are matched on each frame of the dynamic scan using the iterative closest point (ICP) fitting algorithm. Joint rotations are calculated between Sha-Cal, Cal-Met, and Met-Hal. Due to the lower quality scans at heel strike and toe off, the first and last 10% of the stance phase is excluded. The application of the method to 5 healthy subjects, 6 trials each, shows a good repeatability (intra-subject standard deviations between 1° and 2.5°) for Sha-Cal and Cal-Met joints, and inferior results for the Met-Hal joint (>3°). The repeatability seems to be subject-dependent. For the validation, a qualitative comparison with joint kinematics from a corresponding established marker-based multi-segment foot model is made. This shows very consistent patterns of rotation. The ease of subject preparation and also the effective and easy to interpret visual output, make the present technique very attractive for functional analysis of the foot, enhancing usability in clinical practice.

  3. Inherent Strength of the osteo-WEDGE(™) Bone Plate Locking System for Arthrodesis of the First Metatarsocuneiform Joint: A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael E; Chikka, Avanthi; Goel, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    First metatarsocuneiform joint arthrodesis with a locking bone plate and screw system has been effectively used to correct metatarsus primus varus and instability of the first ray. The goal of the present cadaveric biomechanical study was to quantify and compare the inherent strength of the first metatarsocuneiform joint and surrounding bones fixated with the osteo-WEDGE(™) bone plate locking system (OW) with that of intact specimens. Fourteen fresh-frozen adult human cadaveric foot specimens consisting of the first metatarsal and medial cuneiform bones with intact joint capsules and ligaments were used. The OW was implanted in 7 of these specimens at the first metatarsal cuneiform joint (MCJ), and the remaining 7 specimens were left intact. Each of the specimens was then subjected to axial force to simulate dorsiflexion of the first metatarsal using a cantilever bending test setup. Load was applied on the plantar aspect of the first metatarsal head until failure of the construct. The mean load and bending moment on the first MCJ at failure for the implanted specimens were 119.98 ± 56.76 N and 5.57 ± 2.71 Nm, respectively. For the intact specimens, the mean load and bending moment on the first MCJ at failure were 107.93 ± 60.90 N and 6.07 ± 3.18 Nm, respectively. None of the specimens showed catastrophic failure within the physiologic loading limits. These results imply that the mechanical strength of the OW is comparable to that of intact specimens. Thus, the first MCJ and surrounding bones fixated with an OW should be able to effectively withstand the vertical ground reaction forces the same as intact specimens. PMID:26884262

  4. New Bio-Ceramization Processes Applied to Vegetable Hierarchical Structures for Bone Regeneration: An Experimental Model in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Tampieri, Anna; Cabezas-Rodríguez, Rafael; Di Martino, Alessandro; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Lelli, Marco; Martínez-Fernández, Julian; Martini, Lucia; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquin; Salamanna, Francesca; Sandri, Monica; Sprio, Simone; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss is still a major problem in orthopedics. The purpose of this experimental study is to evaluate the safety and regenerative potential of a new scaffold based on a bio-ceramization process for bone regeneration in long diaphyseal defects in a sheep model. The scaffold was obtained by transformation of wood pieces into porous biomorphic silicon carbide (BioSiC®). The process enabled the maintenance of the original wood microstructure, thus exhibiting hierarchically organized porosity and high mechanical strength. To improve cell adhesion and osseointegration, the external surface of the hollow cylinder was made more bioactive by electrodeposition of a uniform layer of collagen fibers that were mineralized with biomimetic hydroxyapatite, whereas the internal part was filled with a bio-hybrid HA/collagen composite. The final scaffold was then implanted in the metatarsus of 15 crossbred (Merinos-Sarda) adult sheep, divided into 3 groups: scaffold alone, scaffold with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) augmentation, and scaffold with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) added during implantation. Radiological analysis was performed at 4, 8, 12 weeks, and 4 months, when animals were sacrificed for the final radiological, histological, and histomorphometric evaluation. In all tested treatments, these analyses highlighted the presence of newly formed bone at the bone scaffolds' interface. Although a lack of substantial effect of PRP was demonstrated, the scaffold+BMSC augmentation showed the highest value of bone-to-implant contact and new bone growth inside the scaffold. The findings of this study suggest the potential of bio-ceramization processes applied to vegetable hierarchical structures for the production of wood-derived bone scaffolds, and document a suitable augmentation procedure in enhancing bone regeneration, particularly when combined with BMSCs. PMID:24099033

  5. Partial gravity unloading inhibits bone healing responses in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Benjamin C; McGilvray, Kirk C; Easley, Jeremiah T; Palmer, Ross H; Santoni, Brandon G; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2014-09-22

    The reduction in mechanical loading associated with space travel results in dramatic decreases in the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical strength of skeletal tissue resulting in increased fracture risk during spaceflight missions. Previous rodent studies have highlighted distinct bone healing differences in animals in gravitational environments versus those during spaceflight. While these data have demonstrated that microgravity has deleterious effects on fracture healing, the direct translation of these results to human skeletal repair remains problematic due to substantial differences between rodent and human bone. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial gravitational unloading on long-bone fracture healing in a previously-developed large animal Haversian bone model. In vivo measurements demonstrated significantly higher orthopedic plate strains (i.e. load burden) in the Partial Unloading (PU) Group as compared to the Full Loading (FL) Group following the 28-day healing period due to inhibited healing in the reduced loading environment. DEXA BMD in the metatarsus of the PU Group decreased 17.6% (p<0.01) at the time of the ostectomy surgery. Four-point bending stiffness of the PU Group was 4.4 times lower than that of the FL Group (p<0.01), while µCT and histomorphometry demonstrated reduced periosteal callus area (p<0.05), mineralizing surface (p<0.05), mineral apposition rate (p<0.001), bone formation rate (p<0.001), and periosteal/endosteal osteoblast numbers (p<0.001/p<0.01, respectively) as well as increased periosteal osteoclast number (p<0.05). These data provide strong evidence that the mechanical environment dramatically affects the fracture healing cascade, and likely has a negative impact on Haversian system healing during spaceflight.

  6. Ultrasonography of the distal limbs in Nellore and Girolando calves 8 to 12 months of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography can be used anywhere and allows rapid, noninvasive differentiation of soft tissue structures of the musculoskeletal system. The objectives of this study were to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the structures of the metacarpo-/metatarsophalangeal and the interphalangeal joints, the appearance of the growth plates of the distal metacarpus/metatarsus and of the proximal phalanx and to measure the cross-sectional dimensions of the DDFT and SDFT in Nellore and Girolando calves eight to 12 months of age. Results In the longitudinal dorsal view the common digital extensor tendon and the digital extensor tendon were depicted as echogenic parallel fiber bundles located directly under the skin. The joint spaces appeared as anechoic interruptions of the hyperechogenic bone surfaces. The normal amount of synovial fluid could not be depicted. The growth plates were seen as anechoic interruptions of the bone surface proximal and distal to the fetlock joint space. In transverse sonograms of the distal palmar/plantar regions, the flexor tendons and branchs of the suspensory ligament were imaged as echogenic structures. The lumen of the digital flexor tendon sheath could not be imaged in these normal cattle. The thin digital distal annular ligament and the reversal of positions of the DDFT and SDFT could be appreciated. No significant differences were found between the cross-sectional measurements of the DDFT and the SDFT from Nellore and Girolando in any age, thoracic/pelvic limbs, right/left sides and lateral/medial digits. Conclusions The results of this study establish important ultrasonographic reference data of the normal structures of the distal limbs and the normal dimensions of the flexor tendons in Nellore and Girolando calves for use in clinical practice. PMID:24774582

  7. Biomechanical stability of novel mechanically adapted open-porous titanium scaffolds in metatarsal bone defects of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wieding, Jan; Lindner, Tobias; Bergschmidt, Philipp; Bader, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Open-porous titanium scaffolds for large segmental bone defects offer advantages like early weight-bearing and limited risk of implant failure. The objective of this experimental study was to determine the biomechanical behavior of novel open-porous titanium scaffolds with mechanical-adapted properties in vivo. Two types of the custom-made, open-porous scaffolds made of Ti6Al4V (Young's modulus: 6-8 GPa and different pore sizes) were implanted into a 20 mm segmental defect in the mid-diaphysis of the metatarsus of sheep, and were stabilized with an osteosynthesis plate. After 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively, torsional testing was performed on the implanted bone and compared to the contralateral non-treated side. Maximum torque, maximum angle, torsional stiffness, fracture energy, shear modulus and shear stress were investigated. Furthermore, bone mineral density (BMD) of the newly formed bone was determined. Mechanical loading capabilities for both scaffolds were similar and about 50% after 12 weeks (e.g., max. torque of approximately 20 Nm). A further increase after 24 weeks was found for most of the investigated parameters. Results for torsional stiffness and shear modulus as well as bone formation depended on the type of scaffold. Increased BMD after 24 weeks was found for one scaffold type but remained constant for the other one. The present data showed the capability of mechanically adapted open-porous titanium scaffolds to function as bone scaffolds for large segmental defects and the influence of the scaffold's stiffness. A further increase in the biomechanical stability can be assumed for longer observation periods of greater than six months.

  8. Correlation between broiler lameness and anatomical measurements of bone using radiographical projections with assessments of consistency across and within radiographs.

    PubMed

    Toscano, M J; Nasr, M A F; Hothersall, B

    2013-09-01

    Lameness represents a major welfare and production issue in the poultry industry with a recent survey estimating 27% of birds lame and 3% unable to walk by 40 d of age. A variety of factors may induce lameness and are typically grouped into 2 broad classes on the basis of being infectious or skeletal in nature with the latter accounting for the majority of cases. The current work sought to build upon a large body of literature assessing the anatomical properties of bone in lame birds. Our specific objectives sought to identify relationships between relevant anatomical properties of the tibia and metatarsus using digital quantification from radiographs of legs and a measure of walking difficulty. Resulting output was statistically analyzed to assess 1) observer reliability for consistency in placing the leg during the radiograph procedure and quantification of the various measures within a radiograph, 2) the relationship between the various measurements of anatomical bone properties and sex, bird mass, and gait score, and 3) the relationship between each measurement and leg symmetry. Our anatomical bone measures were found to be reliable (intra-rater and test-retest reliabilities < 0.75) within radiograph for all measures and 8 of the 10 measures across radiographs. Several measures of bone properties in the tibia correlated to difficulty walking as measured by gait score (P < 0.05), indicating greater angulations with increasing lameness. Of the measures that manifested a gait score × bird mass interaction, heavier birds appeared to exhibit less angulation with increasing difficulty walking with lighter birds the opposite. These interactions suggest possibilities for influencing effects of activity or feed intake on bone mineralization with the bone angulation observed. Our efforts agree with that of others and indicate that angulation of the tibia may be related to lameness, though subsequent efforts involving comprehensive measures of bird activity, growth rates

  9. Vascular anatomy of the metatarsal bones and the interosseous muscles of the foot.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Murat Sahin; Orbay, Hakan; Uysal, Ahmet Cagri; Comert, Ayhan; Tuccar, Eray

    2009-09-01

    Utilization of the metatarsal bones and interosseous muscles in foot reconstruction should be based on the vascular anatomy of the metatarsal bones and interosseous muscles. We studied the vascular anatomy of the metatarsal bones and the interosseous muscles to design a split metacarpal musculoosseous flap and dorsal interosseous muscle flap. Twenty-two feet from eleven cadavers that had been embalmed in formalin were studied. Dissection was done using a dissection microscope (x3.5), delineating meticulously the arcuate artery, dorsal metatarsal arteries and the small branches arising from the metatarsal arteries. The dorsal metatarsal arteries do not course at the midline of the interosseous muscles. The first dorsal metatarsal artery proceeds close to the first metatarsal bone in the first metatarsal space. While proceeding to the distal, it shoots out a branch that individually feeds the lateral head of the first dorsal metatarsal muscle and medial face of the second metatarsus, thereby feeding muscle and bone. Except for this branch, the first dorsal metatarsal gives off segmental and periosteal branches that individually feed the medial heads of the first dorsal metatarsal muscle and first metatarsal bone. The second, third and fourth metatarsal arteries proceed close to the third, fourth and fifth metatarsal bones in the metatarsal spaces. In these courses, the arteries give out segmental branches to both faces of the interosseous muscles and periosteal branches to the medial face of metatarsal bones. For defects or disease of the ankle bones, the metatarsal bones can be split at the medial border distally, and a split metatarsal musculoosseous flap, based proximally on the dorsal metatarsal artery, can be done. Distal intermetatarsal anastomoses between the dorsal and plantar vascular networks enables a split metatarsal musculoosseous flap based distally, including the dorsal metatarsal artery for bony defects of the proximal phalanx.

  10. New bio-ceramization processes applied to vegetable hierarchical structures for bone regeneration: an experimental model in sheep.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Tampieri, Anna; Cabezas-Rodríguez, Rafael; Di Martino, Alessandro; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Lelli, Marco; Martínez-Fernández, Julian; Martini, Lucia; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquin; Salamanna, Francesca; Sandri, Monica; Sprio, Simone; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2014-02-01

    Bone loss is still a major problem in orthopedics. The purpose of this experimental study is to evaluate the safety and regenerative potential of a new scaffold based on a bio-ceramization process for bone regeneration in long diaphyseal defects in a sheep model. The scaffold was obtained by transformation of wood pieces into porous biomorphic silicon carbide (BioSiC®). The process enabled the maintenance of the original wood microstructure, thus exhibiting hierarchically organized porosity and high mechanical strength. To improve cell adhesion and osseointegration, the external surface of the hollow cylinder was made more bioactive by electrodeposition of a uniform layer of collagen fibers that were mineralized with biomimetic hydroxyapatite, whereas the internal part was filled with a bio-hybrid HA/collagen composite. The final scaffold was then implanted in the metatarsus of 15 crossbred (Merinos-Sarda) adult sheep, divided into 3 groups: scaffold alone, scaffold with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) augmentation, and scaffold with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) added during implantation. Radiological analysis was performed at 4, 8, 12 weeks, and 4 months, when animals were sacrificed for the final radiological, histological, and histomorphometric evaluation. In all tested treatments, these analyses highlighted the presence of newly formed bone at the bone scaffolds' interface. Although a lack of substantial effect of PRP was demonstrated, the scaffold+BMSC augmentation showed the highest value of bone-to-implant contact and new bone growth inside the scaffold. The findings of this study suggest the potential of bio-ceramization processes applied to vegetable hierarchical structures for the production of wood-derived bone scaffolds, and document a suitable augmentation procedure in enhancing bone regeneration, particularly when combined with BMSCs.

  11. Descriptions of the lower limb skeleton of Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Jungers, W L; Larson, S G; Harcourt-Smith, W; Morwood, M J; Sutikna, T; Due Awe, Rokhus; Djubiantono, T

    2009-11-01

    Bones of the lower extremity have been recovered for up to nine different individuals of Homo floresiensis - LB1, LB4, LB6, LB8, LB9, LB10, LB11, LB13, and LB14. LB1 is represented by a bony pelvis (damaged but now repaired), femora, tibiae, fibulae, patellae, and numerous foot bones. LB4/2 is an immature right tibia lacking epiphyses. LB6 includes a fragmentary metatarsal and two pedal phalanges. LB8 is a nearly complete right tibia (shorter than that of LB1). LB9 is a fragment of a hominin femoral diaphysis. LB10 is a proximal hallucal phalanx. LB11 includes pelvic fragments and a fragmentary metatarsal. LB13 is a patellar fragment, and LB14 is a fragment of an acetabulum. All skeletal remains recovered from Liang Bua were extremely fragile, and some were badly damaged when they were removed temporarily from Jakarta. At present, virtually all fossil materials have been returned, stabilized, and hardened. These skeletal remains are described and illustrated photographically. The lower limb skeleton exhibits a uniquely mosaic pattern, with many primitive-like morphologies; we have been unable to find this combination of ancient and derived (more human-like) features in either healthy or pathological modern humans, regardless of body size. Bilateral asymmetries are slight in the postcranium, and muscle markings are clearly delineated on all bones. The long bones are robust, and the thickness of their cortices is well within the ranges seen in healthy modern humans. LB1 is most probably a female based on the shape of her greater sciatic notch, and the marked degree of lateral iliac flaring recalls that seen in australopithecines such as "Lucy" (AL 288-1). The metatarsus has a human-like robusticity formula, but the proximal pedal phalanges are relatively long and robust (and slightly curved). The hallux is fully adducted, but we suspect that a medial longitudinal arch was absent.

  12. Large defect-tailored composite scaffolds for in vivo bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ronca, Alfredo; Guarino, Vincenzo; Raucci, Maria Grazia; Salamanna, Francesca; Martini, Lucia; Zeppetelli, Stefania; Fini, Milena; Kon, Elisaveta; Filardo, G; Marcacci, Maurilio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of new strategies to repair large segmental bone defects is currently an open challenge for worldwide clinicians. In the treatment of critical-sized bone defects, an alternative strategy to traditional bone grafting is always more frequently the use of tailor-made scaffolds modelled on the final size and shape of the implant site. Here, poly-ε-caprolactone-based composite scaffolds including poly-L-lactic acid continuous fibres and hyaluronan derivates (i.e. HYAFF11®) have been investigated for the peculiar 3D architecture characterized by interconnected macroporous networks and tunable mechanical properties. Composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid solution in order to support in vivo tissue in-growth. Scaffolds loaded with autologous cells (bone marrow stromal cells) plus platelet-rich plasma and osteoconductive protein such bone morphogenetic protein-7 were also tested to evaluate eventual enhancement in bone regeneration. The morphological and mechanical properties of poly-L-lactic acid-reinforced composite scaffolds have been studied to identify the optimal scaffold design to match the implant-site requirements of sheep metatarsal defects. Dynamic mechanical tests allowed to underline the viscoelastic response of the scaffold - resulting in elastic moduli from 2.5 to 1.3 MPa, suitable to temporarily support the structural function of damaged bone tissue. In vivo preliminary investigations in a sheep model of metatarsus shaft defect also showed the attitude of the scaffold to promote osteogenesis, preferentially in association with bone marrow stromal cell and platelet-rich plasma, even if the highest amount of mature bone was reached in the case of scaffold loaded with human bone morphogenetic protein-7 released via hydrolytic degradation of HYAFF11® phases in the implant site.

  13. Variables associated with Besnoitia tarandi prevalence and cyst density in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations.

    PubMed

    Ducrocq, Julie; Beauchamp, Guy; Kutz, Susan; Simard, Manon; Taillon, Joëlle; Côté, Steeve D; Brodeur, Vincent; Lair, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Besnoitia tarandi has been documented in free-ranging reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp.) since 1922 throughout their arctic and subarctic ranges; however, very little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated variables associated with B. tarandi prevalence and cyst density with the use of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from two migratory herds in northern Quebec: the Rivière-aux-Feuilles and the Rivière-George herds. Diagnosis of infection was made upon the microscopic observation of characteristic cysts in a formalin-fixed section of skin from the anterior aspect of the metatarsus. The density of cysts (number of B. tarandi cysts/mm(2)) was calculated in a section of the dermis extending from the epidermis of the skin to the base of the hair follicles and adnexal structures. Statistically significant associations between B. tarandi prevalence and cyst density, sex, age, and time of harvest were observed. Male caribou had a slightly higher prevalence compared to females, whereas cyst densities were similar between sexes. We found a nonlinear increase in the odds of infection by B. tarandi by age combined with the opposite trend for intensity of infection. Higher B. tarandi prevalence was observed in caribou sampled in the fall compared to June of the same year, suggesting that transmission is increased during the summer. Higher densities of cysts observed during the fall compared to June of the following year may be the result of the elimination of B. tarandi cysts from the dermis during the winter, or lower winter survival of heavily infected caribou. Comparisons of B. tarandi prevalence and density across herds should take into account these different variables.

  14. Feasibility and repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Jessica D.; Williams, Morika D.; Freire, Mila; Griffith, Emily H.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility and inter-session repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were assessed in 24 normal dogs. Cold thermal latencies were evaluated using a thermal probe (0 °C) applied to three pelvic limb sites. Mechanical thresholds were measured using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (EVF) and a blunt-probed pressure algometer (PA) applied to the dorsal aspect of the metatarsus. All QST trials were performed with dogs in lateral recumbency. Collection of cold QST data was easy (feasible) in 19/24 (79%) dogs. However, only 18.4%, 18.9% and 13.2% of cold QST trials elicited a response at the medial tibia, third digital pad and plantar metatarsal regions, respectively. Collection of mechanical QST data was easy (feasible) in 20/24 (83%) dogs for both EVF and PA. At consecutive sampling times, approximately 2 weeks apart, the average EVF sensory thresholds were 414 ± 186 g and 379 ± 166 g, respectively, and the average PA sensory thresholds were 1089 ± 414 g and 1028 ± 331 g, respectively. There was no significant difference in inter-session or inter-limb threshold values for either mechanical QST device. The cold QST protocol in this study was achievable, but did not provide consistently quantifiable results. Both mechanical QST devices tested provided repeatable, reliable sensory threshold measurements in normal, client-owned dogs. These findings contribute to the validation of the EVF and PA as tools to obtain repeated QST data over time in dogs to assess somatosensory processing changes. PMID:24268475

  15. Handheld mechanical nociceptive threshold testing in dairy cows – intra-individual variation, inter-observer agreement and variation over time

    PubMed Central

    Raundal, Peter M; Andersen, Pia H; Toft, Nils; Forkman, Björn; Munksgaard, Lene; Herskin, Mette S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of handheld methodology to assess mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) on cows kept loose-housed. Study design Prospective randomized partial cross-over experimental study. A one-factor (test day) design was used to evaluate MNT over time. Animals One hundred and fifteen healthy, loose-housed Danish Holstein cattle. Methods We evaluated intra-individual variation, inter-observer agreement and variation over time of MNT using two handheld devices and two stimulation sites. Mechanical, ramped stimulations were performed with an algometer (6.5 mm diameter steel probe, 0–10.0 kgf) or an electronic von Frey device (plastic tip with diameter 0.8 mm, 0–1000 gf). Each cow received 5–6 consecutive stimulations within a 2 × 5 cm skin area on the dorsal or lateral aspect of the left third metatarsus until an avoidance reaction occurred. We investigated the difference in precision [expressed as coefficient of variation (CV)] between the combinations of devices and stimulation sites. The inter-observer agreement and the difference in MNT between test day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 24 were investigated for selected combinations. Data were analysed in mixed models and Bland-Altman as relevant. Results The CVs did not differ [range 0.34–0.52 (p = 0.1)]. Difference between observers (95% limits) was 0.2 kgf (2.8) and 4 gf (369) for the algometer and von Frey device, respectively. Mechanical nociceptive threshold increased from 361 on test day one to 495 gf on test day 24 (p < 0.01). Conclusion and clinical relevance All methods showed a high degree of intra-individual variation, and no combination of device and stimulation site showed superior precision. Mean difference between observers was low, and MNT was not consistent over time. Further development of the methods is required before they can be used in research to investigate possible relations between claw lesions and hyperalgesia. PMID:24734991

  16. Effect of castration timing and oral meloxicam administration on growth performance, inflammation, behavior, and carcass quality of beef calves.

    PubMed

    Brown, A C; Powell, J G; Kegley, E B; Gadberry, M S; Reynolds, J L; Hughes, H D; Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Thaxton, Y V; Backes, E A; Richeson, J T

    2015-05-01

    Beef bull calves (n = 62) were assigned randomly, within sire breed, to 1 of 4 treatments at birth. Treatments were 1) surgical castration near birth, 2) surgical castration near birth with oral administration of meloxicam (1 mg/kg BW), 3) surgical castration at weaning (WNG), or 4) surgical castration at weaning with oral administration of meloxicam (1 mg/kg BW; WMX). A subset of calves (n = 7/treatment group) were selected randomly near birth for blood collection, behavioral analyses, and rectal temperature (RT) records for a 7-d postcastration period on d 0 (birth), 1, 3, and 7, and on d 214 (weaning), 214 + 6 h, 215, 217, 221, and 228. Calf standing and lying activity were monitored from the same subsets by recording x- and y-axis positions of an accelerometer attached to the right metatarsus for 7 d postcastration. Calf BW was recorded throughout the entire production cycle, and carcass data were collected at slaughter. For statistical analyses, bulls left intact at birth were considered a positive control (BUL) for observations that occurred before their treatment application at weaning; likewise, bulls castrated at birth were considered a negative control (STR) during postweaning observations. No difference (P > 0.88) occurred in ADG between treatments throughout the preweaning period (d 0 to 214); however, 56-d postweaning ADG was greatest ( P= 0.02) in STR, intermediate in WMX, and least in WNG. At weaning, haptoglobin (Hp) was greater (P ≤ 0.005) for WNG and WMX compared to STR on d 214+6 h, 215, and 217, and Hp was greater (P = 0.05) in WNG compared to WMX on d 217. Neutrophils increased (P < 0.001) and red blood cells decreased (P ≤ 0.03) for WNG and WMX on d 214+6 h and 217, respectively. Postweaning behavior observations indicated that STR calves spent the least proportion of time standing (P = 0.002) when compared to WNG and WMX. Furthermore, WMX calves exhibited a greater proportion of time spent standing (P = 0.03) compared to WNG. Grazing and

  17. [Hands and feet of prosimians primates. Attempts of morphologic characterization].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J N

    2008-08-01

    The length of the carpus and tarsus, the metacarpus and metatarsus, the fingers and toes of 142 prosimian apes was measured. The relationship expressed as a percentage was drawn up for each individual between the length of each osseous part and that of its third metacarpal in order to eliminate the differences related to the size of the rest of the body. This ratio was compared with that of man. The characteristic variations appeared at the level of the subfamilies. CONCERNING THE HAND: The carpus presented the same values as that of man except for that of the indris, which was shorter. The thumb had proportionally the same length as that of man, sometimes longer and sometimes smaller as in the Eulemurs, Hapalidea, Megalapidea, Indrises, Daubentonia and Perodictus. The different metacarpals, including the fourth, were a little shorter than the third. In these subfamilies, the second ray was also often shorter and even much shorter in the Megalapidea and the Perodictus. The other rays were a little longer, in particular the fourth which could exceed the third in rather many subfamilies. CONCERNING THE FOOT: The length of the tarsus was extremely variable. It was twice larger in the Galagoidae, definitely larger in the tarsius and discreetly in the Hapalidae, a little smaller in the other Lemurs and much smaller in the other Prosimian apes, joining in that the near totality of the simians. The hallux was proportionally as long as that of man and sometimes even longer. The metatarsals were sometimes a little longer, sometimes less long, but always appreciably of the same length between them. The other toes were short at the aye aye (daubentonia), of which the foot appeared even smaller than that of man. The toes of the other prosimious resembled much to the fingers and in the propithecus and the perodictus, the fourth took gigantic proportions. There has been establishment of an anatomical relation and functional calculus between the length of the last three rays of

  18. Microbial phytase in finisher diets of White Pekin ducks: effects on growth performance, plasma phosphorus concentration, and leg bone characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orban, J I; Adeola, O; Stroshine, R

    1999-03-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the growth response of White Pekin ducks to inclusion of microbial phytase in finisher diet. In Exp. 1, 1-d-old male ducks (240 total) were reared in litter-floor pens and fed regular starter diet until 3 wk of age. At 3 wk of age, ducks were randomly divided into six groups of 10 ducks each and each group was fed one of four diets. Three finisher diets containing 16% CP and 0.18% available phosphorus (AP) without supplemental P were formulated with microbial phytase (Natuphos) added at 0, 750, or 1,500 phytase units/kg of diet. The fourth diet was a control finisher diet that was supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (DCP) to supply dietary AP of 0.41%. Group BW and feed intake were measured weekly to assess growth response. At 6 wk of age, leg bones (tibia, femur, metatarsus) from five randomly selected ducks were removed and analyzed for bone characteristics. In Exp. 2, a total of 120 ducks reared as in Exp. 1 were randomly divided into six groups of five ducks each and fed one of four diets. A basal finisher diet was formulated to contain 16% CP and 0.18% AP. Monosodium phosphate was added to the basal diet to give dietary AP levels of 0.18, 0.27, and 0.36%. The fourth diet was the basal diet supplemented with microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg of diet). Ducks were fed these diets from 3 to 6 wk of age. At the end of the study, ducks were bled by cardiac puncture and blood plasma was analyzed for P concentration. Leg bones from all ducks were removed and analyzed for bone characteristics as in Exp. 1. Feed intake increased linearly with increased level of dietary phytase, whereas the weight gain response was quadratic only during the last week of Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, there was a quadratic response for weight gain due to dietary AP. Weight gain due to phytase (750 units) was not different from ducks fed diets at 0 or 0.18% AP. Plasma P concentration increased linearly as dietary AP increased. Plasma P levels