Science.gov

Sample records for methamphetamine hydrochloride drugs

  1. Identification of impurities and statistical classification of methamphetamine hydrochloride drugs seized in the China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian Xin; Zhang, Da Ming; Han, Xu Guang

    2008-01-01

    A total of 48 methamphetamine hydrochloride samples from eight seizures were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and a flame ionization detector (GC–FID). Major impurities detected include 1,2-dimethyl-3-phenylaziridine, Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene. These data are suggestive of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine as the main precursor of the methamphetamine hydrochloride samples seized during 2006–2007. Additionally the presence of 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene is indicative that six seizures were synthesized via the more specific ephedrine/hydriodic acid/red phosphorus method. In addition, five impurities were found for the first time in methamphetamine hydrochloride samples. Seventeen impurity peaks were selected from the GC–FID chromatograms. The peak areas of the selected peaks were then grouped for cluster analysis. PMID:19008060

  2. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ...

  3. Residual methamphetamine in decontaminated clandestine drug laboratories.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Glen; Daniell, William; Treser, Charles

    2009-03-01

    This pilot cross-sectional study examined three previously decontaminated residential clandestine drug laboratories (CDLs) in Washington State to determine the distribution and magnitude of residual methamphetamine concentrations relative to the state decontamination standard. A total of 159 discrete random methamphetamine wipe samples were collected from the three CDLs, focusing on the master bedroom, bathroom, living room, and kitchen at each site. Additional samples were collected from specific non-random locations likely to be contacted by future residents (e.g., door knobs and light switches). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile organic chemicals. Overall, 59% of random samples and 75% of contact point samples contained methamphetamine in excess of the state decontamination standard (0.1 micro g/100 cm(2)). At each site, methamphetamine concentrations were generally higher and more variable in rooms where methamphetamine was prepared and used. Even compared with the less stringent standard adopted in Colorado (0.5 micro g/100cm(2)), a substantial number of samples at each site still demonstrated excessive residual methamphetamine (random samples, 25%; contact samples, 44%). Independent oversight of CDL decontamination in residential structures is warranted to protect public health. Further research on the efficacy of CDL decontamination procedures and subsequent verification of methods is needed.

  4. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    Methamphetamine - meth for short - is a very addictive stimulant drug. It is a powder that can be made into ... injected into your body with a needle. Crystal meth is smoked in a small glass pipe. Meth ...

  5. Methamphetamine use in nonurban and urban drug court clients.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Tindall, Michele Staton; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Leukefeld, Carl

    2005-06-01

    Population-based surveys suggest that methamphetamine use and abuse may be rising in the United States. However, little is known about methamphetamine use in eastern sections of the United States, particularly nonurban areas. The purpose of the present study was (a) to explore reported methamphetamine use and its correlates among Kentucky drug court clients and(b) to determine whether differences exist between methamphetamine users by drug court location. Of the 500 drug court clients surveyed, approximately 32% n=161) reported lifetime methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine users and nonusers differed in their drug-use profiles, self-reported criminal history, and number of criminal offenses. Nonurban and urban methamphetamine users differed in their drug-use profiles, psychological functioning, self-reported criminal history, and number of criminal offenses. These results suggest that differences exist between these populations and clinicians, and criminal justice officials may need to consider these differences when planning treatment and rehabilitation strategies.

  6. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... confidencial Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Methamphetamine METHAMPHETAMINE To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Ice Methamphetamine Pipe Ice Methamphetamine Bag Desoxyn Gradumet 5mg Desoxyn ...

  7. Methamphetamine (Meth)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Methamphetamine (Meth) KidsHealth > For Teens > Methamphetamine (Meth) A A ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Meth What Is Methamphetamine? Methamphetamine, or meth, is a powerful stimulant drug. ...

  8. Methamphetamine (Meth)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Methamphetamine (Meth) KidsHealth > For Teens > Methamphetamine (Meth) Print A ... Quit? Avoiding Meth en español Metanfetamina What Is Methamphetamine? Methamphetamine, or meth, is a powerful stimulant drug. ...

  9. Resolution of methamphetamine stereoisomers in urine drug testing: urinary excretion of R(-)-methamphetamine following use of nasal inhalers.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R L; Ramos, J M; Bogema, S C; Poklis, A

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether R(-)-methamphetamine inhaled from nasal inhalers produces positive methamphetamine results in currently used urine drug screening procedures and to present a rapid method for distinguishing the optical isomers of methamphetamine. Urine from three subjects inhaling from a Vicks Nasal Inhaler every 20 min for six hours tested positive for methamphetamine by EMIT, Toxilab, TDx, and GC/MS. The chiral derivatizing reagent N-trifluoroacetyl-L-prolyl chloride (L-TPC) was used to form methamphetamine diastereomers allowing rapid identification of each stereoisomer of methamphetamine present in the urine samples. Urine samples positive for amphetamines during routine drug screening were determined to consist of a racemic mixture of methamphetamine. The isomeric composition of methamphetamine present in a urine sample indicates the probable source of the drug.

  10. An electrochemiluminescent sensor for methamphetamine hydrochloride based on multiwall carbon nanotube/ionic liquid composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong; Wang, Youmei; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a composite paste electrode consisted of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) was developed for fabrication of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor. The electrochemical and ECL behaviors of this sensor were investigated in detail. This ECL sensor exhibited extraordinary stability during long-term potential cycling. It was found that the light emission of this ECL sensor could be enhanced by methamphetamine hydrochloride (MA.HCl) dramatically. Based on which, a new method based on this ECL sensor has been developed for determination of MA.HCl. The method exhibited a good reproducibility, wide-range linearity, high sensitivity and stability with a detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio=3) of 8.0 x 10(-9)mol/L, and the relative standard deviation was 3.1% for 1 x 10(-5)mol/L MA.HCl (n=10).

  11. [Methamphetamine--a drug of pregnant female drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Charousová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse is still a serious problem of nowadays. One of the most abused drugs in the Czech Republic is methamphetamine (MA). MA is strongly addictive substance with high disposition to abuse. It belongs to the group of synthetic amphetamines that together with cocaine and caffeine are classified as psychomotor stimulant drugs. Lately, the growing problem is drug abuse of pregnant women. MA is popular drug in pregnant women dependent on addictive substances. Drugs abused during pregnancy are risky not only for the mother, but may induce changes in developing organism that may have permanent consequences. Prenatal exposure to MA may have teratogenic effects by inducing malformations or impair postnatal functional development of offspring. The impairing effects may last until adulthood and may affect even next generation. Mechanism of these long-term consequences is not fully explained yet. The present review summarizes the existing information.

  12. Cryogenic terahertz spectrum of (+)-methamphetamine hydrochloride and assignment using solid-state density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Hakey, Patrick M; Allis, Damian G; Ouellette, Wayne; Korter, Timothy M

    2009-04-30

    The cryogenic terahertz spectrum of (+)-methamphetamine hydrochloride from 10.0 to 100.0 cm(-1) is presented, as is the complete structural analysis and vibrational assignment of the compound using solid-state density functional theory. This cryogenic investigation reveals multiple spectral features that were not previously reported in room-temperature terahertz studies of the title compound. Modeling of the compound employed eight density functionals utilizing both solid-state and isolated-molecule methods. The results clearly indicate the necessity of solid-state simulations for the accurate assignment of solid-state THz spectra. Assignment of the observed spectral features to specific atomic motions is based on the BP density functional, which provided the best-fit solid-state simulation of the experimental spectrum. The seven experimental spectral features are the result of thirteen infrared-active vibrational modes predicted at a BP/DNP level of theory with more than 90% of the total spectral intensity associated with external crystal vibrations.

  13. An Exploration of the Relationship between the Use of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamonica, Aukje K.; Boeri, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns of use of prescription drugs and methamphetamine. We drew our sample from a study about 130 active and inactive methamphetamine users and focused on 16 participants with a recent history of methamphetamine and prescription drug use. We collected in-depth interviews to explore relationships in use trajectory patterns.…

  14. An Exploration of the Relationship between the Use of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamonica, Aukje K.; Boeri, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns of use of prescription drugs and methamphetamine. We drew our sample from a study about 130 active and inactive methamphetamine users and focused on 16 participants with a recent history of methamphetamine and prescription drug use. We collected in-depth interviews to explore relationships in use trajectory patterns.…

  15. Mexico's methamphetamine precursor chemical interventions: impacts on drug treatment admissions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James K; Bojorquez, Ietza; Campollo, Octavio; Liu, Lon-Mu; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle

    2010-11-01

    To help counter problems related to methamphetamine, Mexico has implemented interventions targeting pseudoephedrine and ephedrine, the precursor chemicals commonly used in the drug's synthesis. This study examines whether the interventions impacted methamphetamine treatment admissions-an indicator of methamphetamine consequences. Quasi-experiment: autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)-based intervention time-series analysis. precursor chemical restrictions implemented beginning November 2005; major rogue precursor chemical company closed (including possibly the largest single drug-cash seizure in history) March 2007; precursor chemicals banned from Mexico (North America's first precursor ban) August 2008. Mexico and Texas (1996-2008). Monthly treatment admissions for methamphetamine (intervention series) and cocaine, heroin and alcohol (quasi-control series). The precursor restriction was associated with temporary methamphetamine admissions decreases of 12% in Mexico and 11% in Texas. The company closure was associated with decreases of 56% in Mexico and 48% in Texas; these decreases generally remained to the end of the study period. Neither intervention was associated with significant changes in the Mexico or Texas quasi-control series. The analysis of Mexico's ban was indeterminate due largely to a short post-ban series. This study, one of the first quasi-experimental analyses of an illicit-drug policy in Mexico, indicates that the country's precursor interventions were associated with positive impacts domestically and in one of the Unites States' most populous states--Texas. These interventions, coupled with previous US and Canadian interventions, amount to a new, relatively cohesive level of methamphetamine precursor control across North America's largest nations, raising the possibility that the impacts found here could continue for an extended period. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Store methamphetamine in a safe place so that no one else can take it accidentally or on purpose. ... unable to lose weight. Methamphetamine is in a class of medications called central nervous system stimulants. It works by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain.

  17. Extinction of Drug Cue Reactivity in Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Price, Kimber L.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Tolliver, Bryan K.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2010-01-01

    Conditioned responses to drug-related environmental cues (such as craving) play a critical role in relapse to drug use. Animal models demonstrate that repeated exposure to drug-associated cues in the absence of drug administration leads to the extinction of conditioned responses, but the few existing clinical trials focused on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues in drug-dependent individuals show equivocal results. The current study examined drug-related cue reactivity and response extinction in a laboratory setting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methamphetamine cue-elicited craving was extinguished during two sessions of repeated (3) within-session exposures to multi-modal (picture, video, and in-vivo) cues, with no evidence of spontaneous recovery between sessions. A trend was noted for a greater attenuation of response in participants with longer (4-7 day) inter-session intervals. These results indicate that extinction of drug-cue conditioned responding occurs in methamphetamine-dependent individuals, offering promise for the development of extinction- based treatment strategies. PMID:20538262

  18. Extinction of drug cue reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Price, Kimber L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Tolliver, Bryan K; DeSantis, Stacia M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-09-01

    Conditioned responses to drug-related environmental cues (such as craving) play a critical role in relapse to drug use. Animal models demonstrate that repeated exposure to drug-associated cues in the absence of drug administration leads to the extinction of conditioned responses, but the few existing clinical trials focused on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues in drug-dependent individuals show equivocal results. The current study examined drug-related cue reactivity and response extinction in a laboratory setting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methamphetamine cue-elicited craving was extinguished during two sessions of repeated (3) within-session exposures to multi-modal (picture, video, and in-vivo) cues, with no evidence of spontaneous recovery between sessions. A trend was noted for a greater attenuation of response in participants with longer (4-7 day) inter-session intervals. These results indicate that extinction of drug cue conditioned responding occurs in methamphetamine-dependent individuals, offering promise for the development of extinction- based treatment strategies.

  19. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1989-06-01

    In this review, attention is paid to chromatographic and mass spectral properties of already identified impurities found to be present in frequently abused drug preparations of illegal origin of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The most commonly employed methods of synthesis of drugs of this type are briefly described. Special emphasis is given to the Leuckart route, found to be the preferred method, in the illicit production of amphetamine. Furthermore, some isolation and preconcentration methods for the contaminants are discussed. The importance of identifying impurities present in amphetamine or methamphetamine cannot be overestimated. These impurities originate mostly from the improper purification in the end stage of the different syntheses used in the clandestine manufacture of the substances; it is possible to differentiate between the several kinds of illegal drug preparations, synthesized by various methods, by means of so-called "route specific" impurities. Finally, a survey is given of the impurities already known to be present in amphetamine and methamphetamine, together with their mass spectral and some chromatographic properties.

  20. The Novel Pyrrolidine Nor-Lobelane Analog UKCP-110 [cis-2,5-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride] Inhibits VMAT2 Function, Methamphetamine-Evoked Dopamine Release, and Methamphetamine Self-Administration in RatsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Joshua S.; Siripurapu, Kiran B.; Nickell, Justin R.; Horton, David B.; Denehy, Emily D.; Vartak, Ashish; Crooks, Peter A.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Both lobeline and lobelane attenuate methamphetamine self-administration in rats by decreasing methamphetamine-induced dopamine release via interaction with vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). A novel derivative of nor-lobelane, cis-2,5-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-110), and its trans-isomers, (2R,5R)-trans-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-111) and (2S,5S)-trans-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-112), were evaluated for inhibition of [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [3H]dopamine uptake by using a rat synaptic vesicle preparation to assess VMAT2 interaction. Compounds were evaluated for inhibition of [3H]nicotine and [3H]methyllycaconitine binding to assess interaction with the major nicotinic receptor subtypes. In addition, compounds were evaluated for inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked endogenous dopamine release by using striatal slices. The most promising compound, UKCP-110, was evaluated for its ability to decrease methamphetamine self-administration and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus cues and for its effect on food-maintained operant responding. UKCP-110, UKCP-111, and UKCP-112 inhibited [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding (Ki = 2.66 ± 0.37, 1.05 ± 0.10, and 3.80 ± 0.31 μM, respectively) and had high potency inhibiting [3H]dopamine uptake (Ki = 0.028 ± 0.001, 0.046 ± 0.008, 0.043 ± 0.004 μM, respectively), but lacked affinity at nicotinic receptors. Although the trans-isomers did not alter methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, UKCP-110 inhibited (IC50 = 1.8 ± 0.2 μM; Imax = 67.18 ± 6.11 μM) methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release. At high concentrations, UKCP-110 also increased extracellular dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. It is noteworthy that UKCP-110 decreased the number of methamphetamine self-infusions, while having no effect on food-reinforced behavior or the methamphetamine stimulus cue. Thus, UKCP-110 represents a new lead in the development of novel pharmacotherapies for

  1. Exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine drug laboratories in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jackie; Edwards, John; Walker, Stewart

    2016-09-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine in residential homes may represent significant hazards and exposures not only to those involved in the manufacture of the drugs but also to others living in the home (including children), neighbours and first responders to the premises. These hazards are associated with the nature and improper storage and use of precursor chemicals, intermediate chemicals and wastes, gases and methamphetamine residues generated during manufacture and the drugs themselves. Many of these compounds are persistent and result in exposures inside a home not only during manufacture but after the laboratory has been seized or removed. Hence new occupants of buildings formerly used to manufacture methamphetamine may be unknowingly exposed to these hazards. Children are most susceptible to these hazards and evidence is available in the literature to indicate that these exposures may result in immediate and long-term adverse health effects. The assessment of exposure within the home can be undertaken by measuring contaminant levels or collecting appropriate biological data from individuals exposed. To gain a better understanding of the available data and key issues associated with these approaches to the characterisation of exposure, a review of the published literature has been undertaken.

  2. Pharmacogenetic treatments for drug addiction: cocaine, amphetamine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Haile, Colin N; Kosten, Thomas R; Kosten, Therese A

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics uses genetic variation to predict individual differences in response to medications and holds much promise to improve treatment of addictive disorders. To review how genetic variation affects responses to cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine and how this information may guide pharmacotherapy. We performed a cross-referenced literature search on pharmacogenetics, cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. We describe functional genetic variants for enzymes dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine D4 receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; C-1021T) in the DbetaH gene is relevant to paranoia associated with disulfiram pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. Individuals with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) of the SLC6A3 gene 3'-untranslated region polymorphism of DAT1 have altered responses to drugs. The 10/10 repeat respond poorly to methylphenidate pharmacotherapy and the 9/9 DAT1 variant show blunted euphoria and physiological response to amphetamine. COMT, D4 receptor, and BDNF polymorphisms are linked to methamphetamine abuse and psychosis. Disulfiram and methylphenidate pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction are optimized by considering polymorphisms affecting DbetaH and DAT1 respectively. Altered subjective effects for amphetamine in DAT1 VNTR variants suggest a 'protected' phenotype. Pharmacogenetic-based treatments for psychostimulant addiction are critical for successful treatment.

  3. Effect of drug-paired exteroceptive stimulus presentations on methamphetamine reinstatement in rats.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Keith L; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of drug-paired cues on methamphetamine reinstatement. Three groups of rats were trained to self-administer 0.1 mg/kg/infusion methamphetamine. Each methamphetamine infusion was accompanied by a 6 s flashing light+tone stimulus (cues). After training, the groups were then given 12, daily extinction sessions either with or without response-contingent drug-paired cues and then tested for 1 mg/kg i.p. methamphetamine priming-induced reinstatement either with or without cues. Methamphetamine priming significantly reinstated drug-appropriate responding regardless of whether response-contingent cues were omitted during both extinction and testing, presented during both extinction and testing, or omitted during extinction but presented during reinstatement testing. The group in which cues were omitted during extinction and presented during reinstatement exhibited significantly greater reinstatement than did the other two groups. A separate group of rats was also tested demonstrating that response-contingent presentation of previously methamphetamine-paired cues alone, without methamphetamine priming, significantly reinstated drug-appropriate responding. These data show that methamphetamine priming produces a robust reinstatement effect which can be influenced by drug-paired cues.

  4. Utility of preclinical drug versus food choice procedures to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    Substance use disorders are diagnosed as a manifestation of inappropriate behavioral allocation toward abused drugs and away from other behaviors maintained by more adaptive nondrug reinforcers (e.g., money and social relationships). Substance use disorder treatment goals include not only decreasing drug-maintained behavior but also promoting behavioral reallocation toward these socially adaptive alternative reinforcers. Preclinical drug self-administration procedures that offer concurrent access to both drug and nondrug reinforcers provide a translationally relevant dependent measure of behavioral allocation that may be useful for candidate medication evaluation. In contrast to other abused drugs, such as heroin or cocaine, preclinical methamphetamine versus food choice procedures have been a more recent development. We hypothesize that preclinical to clinical translatability would be improved by the evaluation of repeated pharmacological treatment effects on methamphetamine self-administration under a methamphetamine versus food choice procedure. In support of this hypothesis, a literature review suggests strong concordance between preclinical pharmacological treatment effects on methamphetamine versus food choice in nonhuman primates and clinical medication treatment effects on methamphetamine self-administration in human laboratory studies or methamphetamine abuse metrics in clinical trials. In conclusion, this literature suggests preclinical methamphetamine versus food choice procedures may be useful in developing innovative pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorder. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Methamphetamine. Stimulant of the 1990s?

    PubMed Central

    Derlet, R. W.; Heischober, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the past several years, the use of a smokable form of methamphetamine hydrochloride called "ice" has increased rapidly. The heaviest use has occurred on the West Coast and in Hawaii. Many regional emergency departments treat more methamphetamine users than cocaine-intoxicated patients. The ease of synthesis from inexpensive and readily available chemicals makes possible the rampant abuse of a dangerous drug that can produce a euphoria similar to that induced by cocaine. Clinicians should be familiar with the medical effects and treatment of acute methamphetamine toxicity. PMID:2293467

  6. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Methamphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Long-term use of methamphetamines can cause brain damage that causes problems with memory and body movement, mood swings, and violent behavior. When used in larger doses, methamphetamines can cause ...

  7. Self-vaccination by methamphetamine glycation products chemically links chronic drug abuse and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Treweek, Jennifer; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Janda, Kim D.

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is spreading rapidly throughout the United States and is characterized by significant health consequences. The powerfully rewarding effects of methamphetamine are attributed to multiple neuropharmacological actions such as its ability to block plasma membrane transporters of all monoamines, reduce dopamine transporter expression, and inhibit monoamine oxidase activity while increasing tyrosine hydroxylase activity. However, subsequent neuroreceptor changes including monoamine deficits complement this striking increase in monoamine release. Chronic methamphetamine abuse, as studied via self-administration paradigms in rodents, causes progressive dopaminergic neurotoxicity, a neuroanatomical change accompanied by increasing drug tolerance and escalating intake, two behavioral parameters of addiction. We have recently proposed that methamphetamine covalently glycates endogenous proteins. Such an event spurs antibody production against these immunoconjugates, possibly leading to drug sequestration by antibody binding of drug. Here we demonstrate that this drug-dependent glycation mechanism is operative in vivo through the dose-dependent detection of antibodies against methamphetamine-derived advanced glycation end products in rats chronically self-administering methamphetamine. Furthermore, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, evidence of potent immunoactivation, were also detected. Given the known role of advanced glycation end products in the alteration of protein function in vivo and the participation of these molecules in various diseases, methamphetamine-derived advanced glycation end products provide an unrecognized molecular mechanism for the development of vasculitis and other cardiovascular maladies reported with high incidence in chronic methamphetamine users. PMID:17592122

  8. Illegal Methamphetamine Drug Laboratories: A New Challenge for Environmental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeers, Vicki M.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on clandestine drug laboratories for manufacturing methamphetamine; the formation of an interagency steering committee to address the problem; and the role Environmental Health professionals need to play as the problem becomes more prevalent across the United States. Provides background information on methamphetamine characteristics and…

  9. Illegal Methamphetamine Drug Laboratories: A New Challenge for Environmental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeers, Vicki M.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on clandestine drug laboratories for manufacturing methamphetamine; the formation of an interagency steering committee to address the problem; and the role Environmental Health professionals need to play as the problem becomes more prevalent across the United States. Provides background information on methamphetamine characteristics and…

  10. The War on Drugs: Methamphetamine, Public Health, and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Carlos; Nicosia, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In mid-1995, a government effort to reduce the supply of methamphetamine precursors successfully disrupted the methamphetamine market and interrupted a trajectory of increasing usage. The price of methamphetamine tripled and purity declined from 90 percent to 20 percent. Simultaneously, amphetaminerelated hospital and treatment admissions dropped 50 percent and 35 percent, respectively. Methamphetamine use among arrestees declined 55 percent. Although felony methamphetamine arrests fell 50 percent, there is no evidence of substantial reductions in property or violent crime. The impact was largely temporary. The price returned to its original level within four months; purity, hospital admissions, treatment admissions, and arrests approached preintervention levels within eighteen months. (JEL I12, K42) PMID:20543969

  11. Tetracycline hydrochloride: A potential clinical drug for radioprotection.

    PubMed

    Alok, Amit; Chaudhury, N K

    2016-02-05

    Radiation exposure in planned scenario necessarily requires radioprotector for protection against radiation injuries in tissues and organs. A large number of potential radioprotectors have been investigated but no approved radioprotector is available. Hence, in quest for radioprotector, repurposing of clinical drug is an approach which aims at finding the radioprotective potential of known drugs so that in case of untoward accident the knowledge could be translated to drug usage. In this study, we have investigated the radical scavenging properties of tetracycline pertaining to radioprotection. Our study suggests that tetracycline hydrochloride efficiently scavenges free radicals in ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay has demonstrated its ability to scavenge gamma radiation induced free radicals by lowering the formation of malondialdehyde. Radiation causes damage to macromolecules and hence the protection offered by tetracycline hydrochloride to DNA and protein shows its radioprotective potential. Plasmid DNA relaxation study with pBR322 has shown that tetracycline hydrochloride confers dose modification factor (DMF) of 2 and 4 at 100 μM and 250 μM concentration respectively. Tetracycline hydrochloride has also protected bovine serum albumin (BSA) from radiation induced degradation. The ex vivo studies for lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential further substantiate our findings. The whole body animal survival study has shown the drug to offer 20% protection at a lethal radiation dose of 9 Gy. This study demonstrates the radioprotective potential of the drug by providing some insight into ex vivo and in vivo efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The anxiogenic drug yohimbine reinstates methamphetamine seeking in a rat model of drug relapse.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Jack D; Bossert, Jennifer M; Liu, Shirley Y; Shaham, Yavin

    2004-06-01

    Brain noradrenaline is involved in footshock stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in a rat relapse model. We studied whether yohimbine, an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that increases noradrenaline release and induces anxiety-like responses in human and nonhuman subjects, would reinstate methamphetamine seeking in rats. In experiment 1, the effect of yohimbine (1.25-2.5 mg/kg) on reinstatement was compared with that of intermittent footshock (5 min;.2-.6 mA) in rats that were trained to lever press for intravenous methamphetamine (9-11 days) and subsequently underwent 7 days of extinction training. In experiment 2, the effect of yohimbine on reinstatement of drug seeking was determined during early (1 day) and late (21 or 51 days) withdrawal periods. On the test days, rats were first given 3-hour extinction sessions and were then tested for reinstatement induced by yohimbine. In experiment 1, both yohimbine and footshock stress reinstated methamphetamine seeking after extinction. In experiment 2, extinction responding was higher after 21 or 51 withdrawal days than after 1 withdrawal day. In contrast, no significant time-dependent changes in yohimbine-induced reinstatement were observed. Results indicate that yohimbine is a potent stimulus for reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in a rat relapse model.

  13. Dermal exposure to methamphetamine hydrochloride contaminated residential surfaces: surface pH values, volatility, and in vitro human skin.

    PubMed

    Salocks, Charles B; Hui, Xiaoying; Lamel, Sonia; Qiao, Peter; Sanborn, James R; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated pH effects on [(14)C] d-methamphetamine hydrochloride ([(14)C]-meth HCl) percutaneous penetration in vitro and volatility and stability in aqueous solution, on solid surface, or human skin using the finite dose technique and flow through diffusion cells. Results show that when the pH level exceeds 4 or 5, the nonvolatile [(14)C]-meth HCl salt becomes unstable, likely converting to its volatile freebase form. Additionally, contaminated smooth, dense surfaces retain and transfer more [(14)C]-meth HCl than those with rough, loose surfaces, especially under acidic conditions. Skin surface pH is a critical factor affecting the rate and magnitude of dermal absorption. [(14)C]-Meth HCl penetrates into and through the human cadaver skin quickly following exposure. [(14)C]-Meth HCl retained in the skin layer is released into the receptor fluid even if the contact material has been removed. Future exploration of decontaminant and removal procedure efficacies and their effect on dermal penetration of [(14)C]-meth HCl is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drug abstinence and cognitive control in methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Galloway, Gantt P; Moore, Charles D; Waters, Christy; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-10-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (MA) abuse is associated with disruption of frontostriatal function as well as deficits in cognitive control. To examine the relationship between drug use patterns and cognitive deficits, we pooled previously published behavioral data with new data collected using the Stroop Attention Test. Subject groups are composed of 38 MA-abusing individuals who recently initiated abstinence (36.1 +/- 8.8 years of age), 27 MA-abusing individuals who had initiated abstinence more than 1 year prior to study (38.7 +/- 7.7 years of age), and 33 non-substance-abusing controls (33.9 +/- 8.5 years of age). The recently abstinent MA-abusing individuals exhibited greater Stroop reaction time (RT) interference compared with both the control group (p = .001) and the long-term abstinent MA-abusing individuals (p = .01). No difference was seen between long-term abstinent MA-abusing individuals and controls (p = .87). Stroop RT interference correlated positively with both duration of drug use (p = .003) and drug abstinence (p = .05). The data in the current study provide evidence that cognitive function may improve with protracted drug abstinence.

  15. Methods in systems biology of experimental methamphetamine drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Kobeissy, Firas H; Sadasivan, Shankar; Buchanan, Melinda; Zhang, Zhiqun; Gold, Mark S; Wang, Kevin K W

    2010-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (METH) as recreational drugs is a growing problem worldwide with recent concerns that it might cause long-lasting harmful effects to the human brain. METH is an illicit drug that is known to exert neurotoxic effects on both dopaminergic and serotonergic neural systems. Our laboratory has been studying the biochemical mechanisms underlying METH-induced neurotoxic effects both in vivo and in vitro. Our psychoproteomics METH abuse research focuses on the global alteration of cortical protein expression in rats treated with acute METH. In our analysis, an altered protein expression was identified using a multistep protein separation/proteomic platform. Differential changes of the selected proteins were further confirmed by quantitative immunoblotting. Our study identified 82 differentially expressed proteins, 40 of which were downregulated and 42 of which were upregulated post acute METH treatment. In this chapter, we describe the current protocols for the neuronal cell culture in vitro and the in vivo rat model of acute METH treatment (4 x 10 mg/kg) coupled with the description current bioinformatics analysis utilized to analyze the different implicated interaction protein/gene maps that reflected on the altered functions observed. These methods and protocols are discussed in the paradigm of the acute model of METH drug abuse and neuronal cell culture and can be applied on other models of substance abuse such as on MDMA or cocaine.

  16. Ontogeny of the adrenal response to (+)-methamphetamine in neonatal rats: the effect of prior drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Schaefer, Tori L; Furay, Amy R; Ehrman, Lisa A; Vorhees, Charles V

    2006-09-01

    We examined the ontogeny of the corticosterone response to (+)-methamphetamine in neonatal rats. In experiment-1, animals were injected with 10 mg/kg of (+)-methamphetamine or saline and plasma corticosterone levels were examined in separate groups 30 or 105 min later on postnatal day (P) 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, or 19. The adrenal response to methamphetamine was best described by a U-shaped function with the nadir of corticosterone release occurring between P7 and P13. Experiment-2 was similar except that the effect of four consecutive days of exposure to (+)-methamphetamine (four times daily at 2 h intervals with 10 mg/kg) was assessed with a single final dose early on the fifth day (i.e. P1-5, 3-7, 5-9, 7-11, 9-13, 11-15, 13-17, 15-19). The 30 min corticosterone response after multiple methamphetamine doses was augmented compared to single exposures, with the exception of the two earliest dosing intervals ending on P5 and P7, where the responses were lower. In addition, at 105 min, the levels of corticosterone were attenuated relative to a single drug administration. With the exception of animals receiving methamphetamine from P15 to P19, thymus weights were unaffected. The data demonstrate that (+)-methamphetamine is a robust activator of corticosterone release in developing animals and this release is extensively modified by age and previous drug exposure.

  17. Transitioning illicit drug preferences and emerging user identities in Ohio: The proliferation of methamphetamine use among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Karen Coen; Hoffer, Lee D

    2017-07-05

    Understanding the social dynamics of local methamphetamine markets is critical to improving community health and reducing social costs associated with illicit drug use. We examine a local drug market in Summit County, Ohio, wherein methamphetamine users ascribe themselves different ethnic identities from those long associated with the drug elsewhere in the United States. Qualitative interviews with 52 study participants demonstrate that very poor and homeless White males and females are now using methamphetamine; however, even more surprising is that 31 of the participants identified themselves as poor or homeless, male or female African, Native, biracial, or multiracial Americans. The drug use trajectory of these 31 participants in particular involved a transition from a historical preference for crack to a present one for methamphetamine and, in some cases, a preference for concurrent use of methamphetamine and heroin. Many of these methamphetamine users also emphasized their ethnic identity to distinguish themselves as nonproducers of methamphetamine in comparison to Whites, who are commonly associated with methamphetamine production. Findings appear to suggest an emergent means of identity management resulting from the ethnic diversity of users in this methamphetamine market. These findings may have relevance in other communities with similar demographics and drug markets and may hold important implications for drug treatment, policy-making, and law enforcement professionals' work associated with methamphetamine users, producers, and distributors.

  18. Crystal methamphetamine injection predicts slower HIV RNA suppression among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Nadia; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2011-07-01

    We examined the impact of crystal methamphetamine injection on HIV RNA suppression among a prospective cohort of HIV-positive injection drug users initiating antiretroviral therapy. A multivariate Cox regression analysis found crystal methamphetamine injection to be negatively associated with viral load suppression (RH=0.63 [95% CI: 0.40-0.98]; p=0.039). This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate an association between crystal methamphetamine use and HIV RNA suppression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetics membrane disruption due to drug interactions of chlorpromazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Nussio, Matthew R; Sykes, Matthew J; Miners, John O; Shapter, Joseph G

    2009-01-20

    Drug-membrane interactions assume considerable importance in pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism. Here, we present the interaction of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) with supported phospholipid bilayers. It was demonstrated that CPZ binds rapidly to phospholipid bilayers, disturbing the molecular ordering of the phospholipids. These interactions were observed to follow first order kinetics, with an activation energy of approximately 420 kJ mol(-1). Time-dependent membrane disruption was also observed for the interaction with CPZ, such that holes appeared in the phospholipid bilayer after the interaction of CPZ. For this process of membrane disruption, "lag-burst" kinetics was demonstrated.

  20. American Indian methamphetamine and other drug use in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Venner, Kamilla L; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Foley, Kevin; Davis, Meredith P; Houck, Jon M; Willie, Ericke L; Begaye, Peter

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AIs) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwestern AI participants (N = 81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and clients/relatives views on methamphetamine. We conducted a telephone survey of staff (N = 100) from agencies across New Mexico to assess perceptions of methamphetamine use among people working with AI populations. We collected and analyzed self-reported drug use data from 300 AI clients/relatives who completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the context of treatment at three diverse addiction treatment programs. Each focus group offered a unique perspective about the effect of drugs and alcohol on each respective community. Though data from the phone surveys and ASIs suggested concerning rates of methamphetamine use, with women more adversely affected by substance use in general, alcohol was identified as the biggest substance use problem for AI populations in the Southwest. There appears to be agreement that methamphetamine use is a significant problem in these communities, but that alcohol is much more prevalent and problematic. There was less agreement about what should be done to prevent and treat methamphetamine use. Future research should attend to regional and tribal differences due to variability in drug use patterns, and should focus on identifying and improving dissemination of effective substance use interventions.

  1. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of a Water Soluble Drug, Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Shah, M.; Agrawal, Y. K.; Garala, K.; Ramkishan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand and investigate the relationship between experimental factors and their responses in the preparation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride based solid lipid nanoparticles. A quadratic relationship was studied by developing central composite rotatable design. Amount of lipid and drug, stirring speed and stirring time were selected as experimental factors while particle size, zeta potential and drug entrapment were used as responses. Prior to the experimental design, a qualitative prescreening study was performed to check the effect of various solid lipids and their combinations. Results showed that changing the amount of lipid, stirring speed and stirring time had a noticeable influence on the entrapment efficiencies and particle size of the prepared solid lipid nanoparticles. The particle size of a solid lipid nanoparticle was in the range of 159-246 nm and drug encapsulation efficiencies were marginally improved by choosing a binary mixture of physically incompatible solid lipids. Release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride from solid lipid nanoparticle was considerably slow, and it shows Higuchi matrix model as the best fitted model. Study of solid lipid nanoparticle suggested that the lipid based carrier system could potentially be exploited as a delivery system with improved drug entrapment efficiency and controlled drug release for water soluble actives. PMID:23716872

  2. Distribution of methamphetamine and amphetamine in drug abusers' head hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Eunyoung; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun

    2009-09-10

    In order to aid the interpretation of hair results from methamphetamine (MA) abusers the MA and amphetamine (AP) concentrations in 2070 hair samples were statistically evaluated. The MA and AP concentrations in hair were put into three groups arbitrarily representing low, medium and high ranges and the metabolite-to-parent drug ratios of each group were examined. The concentration ranges proposed here were also applied to the interpretation of five authentic cases. The low, medium and high ranges of MA were 0.5-4.2, 4.2-24.5 and 24.5-608.9 ng/mg and those of AP were 0.1-0.4, 0.4-1.7 and 1.7-41.4 ng/mg. The AP-to-MA ratios showed large variation but a tendency that it decreased as the MA ranges increased. This evaluation was very useful to presume the severity of individuals' MA abuse and to provide law enforcement agencies more understandable information. It could also facilitate the court's decision regarding specific circumstances surrounding the drug-related crimes.

  3. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels

    PubMed Central

    Bershad, Anya K.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Seiden, Jacob A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”), appears to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of two other “social” drugs on plasma oxytocin levels: methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin. In Study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended three sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10mg or 20mg) or placebo under double blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In Study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received one beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither drug increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified. PMID:25853370

  4. PREDICTING ADHERENCE TO TREATMENT FOR METHAMPHETAMINE DEPENDENCE FROM NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL AND DRUG USE VARIABLES*

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Andy C.; London, Edythe D.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Kitchen, Christina M. R.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Heinzerling, Keith G.; Kalechstein, Ari D.; Shoptaw, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Although some individuals who abuse methamphetamine have considerable cognitive deficits, no prior studies have examined whether neurocognitive functioning is associated with outcome of treatment for methamphetamine dependence. In an outpatient clinical trial of bupropion combined with cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management (Shoptaw et al., 2008), 60 methamphetamine-dependent adults completed three tests of reaction time and working memory at baseline. Other variables that were collected at baseline included measures of drug use, mood/psychiatric functioning, employment, social context, legal status, and medical status. We evaluated the relative predictive value of all baseline measures for treatment outcome using Classification and Regression Trees (CART; Breiman, 1984), a nonparametric statistical technique that produces easily interpretable decision rules for classifying subjects that are particularly useful in clinical settings. Outcome measures were whether or not a participant completed the trial and whether or not most urine tests showed abstinence from methamphetamine abuse. Urine-verified methamphetamine abuse at the beginning of the study was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome; two psychosocial measures (e.g., nicotine dependence and Global Assessment of Functioning) also offered some predictive value. A few reaction time and working memory variables were related to treatment outcome, but these cognitive measures did not significantly aid prediction after adjusting for methamphetamine usage at the beginning of the study. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that research groups seeking to identify new predictors of treatment outcome compare the predictors to methamphetamine usage variables to assure that unique predictive power is attained. PMID:19608354

  5. Design and Evaluation of Chronomodulated Drug Delivery of Tramadol Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Alekya, Thota; Narendar, Dudhipala; Mahipal, Donthi; Arjun, Narala; Nagaraj, Banala

    2017-09-26

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disease which requires chronotherapy as it occurs during early morning. Tramadol hydrochloride (TH) is an analgesic drug, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the present investigation was to develop chronomodulated drug delivery system of tramadol hydrochloride such that it releases the drug early in the morning, during which the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis worsen. To develop chronomodulated drug delivery system of TH, initially core tablets of TH were prepared using three different supradisintegrants followed by coating with pH dependent polymer of Eudragit S100. The prepared core tablets are evaluated for physical parameters and an optimal system was identified. Further, coating composition of Eudragit S100 was optimized and coating tablets of TH was prepared. The prepared coated tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, drug content and in vitro release studies in 0.1N HCl, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. Formulation with 7.5% of coating solution (ES2) had shown a significant drug release after a lag time of 3 h (in pH 6.8 medium), 6 h (in pH 6.8 medium) and 8 h (in pH 7.4 medium), respectively. DSC studies revealed that no interaction between core and coated materials with drug was observed. Thus, chronomodulated drug delivery system of TH was formulated and assuming that if a tablet is administered around 9 pm to 10 pm, the drug release starts after a lag time of 6 h i. e., around 3am to 4 am. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Methamphetamine Users in a Community-Based Drug Court: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jennifer L.; Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines men and women methamphetamine (meth) users who participated in a community-based drug court. The treatment of female drug users is a particularly salient issue because of the concerns with relapse and recidivism. For the current study, we studied the impact of the drug court by gender on a group of high-risk/high-need meth…

  7. Methamphetamine Users in a Community-Based Drug Court: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jennifer L.; Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines men and women methamphetamine (meth) users who participated in a community-based drug court. The treatment of female drug users is a particularly salient issue because of the concerns with relapse and recidivism. For the current study, we studied the impact of the drug court by gender on a group of high-risk/high-need meth…

  8. Adverse Health Effects Associated with Living in a Former Methamphetamine Drug Laboratory - Victoria, Australia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jackie; Kenneally, Michaela E; Edwards, John W; Walker, G Stewart

    2017-01-06

    The manufacture of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories occurs in various locations, including residential houses and apartments. Unlike the controlled manufacture of chemicals and drugs, clandestine manufacture results in the uncontrolled storage, use, generation, and disposal of a wide range of chemicals and the deposit of methamphetamine drug residues on indoor surfaces (1). These residues have been found at high levels on porous and nonporous surfaces and have been shown to persist for months to years (1). Persons exposed to these environments often have poorly defined exposures and health effects. It is commonly assumed that these levels of exposure are low compared with those related to illicit drug use or therapeutic use of amphetamine-based drugs for managing behavioral issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (2). In 2015, a family that was unknowingly exposed to methamphetamine residues in a house in Australia was found to have adverse health effects and elevated methamphetamine levels in hair samples, highlighting the potential for public health risks for persons who might live in methamphetamine-contaminated dwellings. This case study highlights the importance of the identification and effective decontamination of former clandestine drug laboratories.

  9. Theories of addiction: methamphetamine users' explanations for continuing drug use and relapse.

    PubMed

    Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard; Kalechstein, Ari D; Tziortzis, Desey; Jacobsen, Caitlin A

    2009-01-01

    A variety of preclinical models have been constructed to emphasize unique aspects of addiction-like behavior. These include Negative Reinforcement ("Pain Avoidance"), Positive Reinforcement ("Pleasure Seeking"), Incentive Salience ("Craving"), Stimulus Response Learning ("Habits"), and Inhibitory Control Dysfunction ("Impulsivity"). We used a survey to better understand why methamphetamine-dependent research volunteers (N = 73) continue to use methamphetamine, or relapse to methamphetamine use after a period of cessation of use. All participants met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine abuse or dependence, and did not meet criteria for other current Axis I psychiatric disorders or dependence on other drugs of abuse, other than nicotine. The questionnaire consisted of a series of face-valid questions regarding drug use, which in this case referred to methamphetamine use. Examples of questions include: "Do you use drugs mostly to make bad feelings like boredom, loneliness, or apathy go away?", "Do you use drugs mostly because you want to get high?", "Do you use drugs mostly because of cravings?", "Do you find yourself getting ready to take drugs without thinking about it?", and "Do you impulsively take drugs?". The scale was anchored at 1 (not at all) and 7 (very much). For each question, the numbers of participants rating each question negatively (1 or 2), neither negatively or affirmatively (3-5), and affirmatively (6 or 7) were tabulated. The greatest number of respondents (56%) affirmed that they used drugs due to "pleasure seeking." The next highest categories selected were "impulsivity" (27%) and "habits"(25%). Surprisingly, many participants reported that "pain avoidance" (30%) and "craving" (30%) were not important for their drug use. Results from this study support the contention that methamphetamine users (and probably other drug users as well) are more heterogeneous than is often appreciated, and imply that treatment development might be more successful if

  10. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Methamphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body and brain, especially with repeated use. Long-term use of methamphetamines can cause brain damage that causes problems with memory and body movement, mood swings, and violent behavior. ...

  11. Predicting adherence to treatment for methamphetamine dependence from neuropsychological and drug use variables.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andy C; London, Edythe D; Sugar, Catherine A; Kitchen, Christina M R; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Heinzerling, Keith G; Kalechstein, Ari D; Shoptaw, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Although some individuals who abuse methamphetamine have considerable cognitive deficits, no prior studies have examined whether neurocognitive functioning is associated with outcome of treatment for methamphetamine dependence. In an outpatient clinical trial of bupropion combined with cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management (Shoptaw, S., Heinzerling, K.G., Rotheram-Fuller, E., Steward, T., Wang, J., Swanson, A.N., De La Garza, R., Newton, T., Ling, W., 2008. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 96, 222-232.), 60 methamphetamine-dependent adults completed three tests of reaction time and working memory at baseline. Other variables that were collected at baseline included measures of drug use, mood/psychiatric functioning, employment, social context, legal status, and medical status. We evaluated the relative predictive value of all baseline measures for treatment outcome using Classification and Regression Trees (CART; Breiman, L., Friedman, J.H., Olshen, R.A., Stone, C.J., 1984. Classification and Regression Trees. Wadsworth, Belmont, CA.), a nonparametric statistical technique that produces easily interpretable decision rules for classifying subjects that are particularly useful in clinical settings. Outcome measures were whether or not a participant completed the trial and whether or not most urine tests showed abstinence from methamphetamine abuse. Urine-verified methamphetamine abuse at the beginning of the study was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome; two psychosocial measures (e.g., nicotine dependence and Global Assessment of Functioning) also offered some predictive value. A few reaction time and working memory variables were related to treatment outcome, but these cognitive measures did not significantly aid prediction after adjusting for methamphetamine usage at the beginning of the study. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that research

  12. Methamphetamine injection and syringe sharing among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kanna; Wood, Evan; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kaplan, Karyn; Qi, Jiezhi; Kerr, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The recent growth in methamphetamine use internationally has raised concerns about the relationship between methamphetamine use and HIV infection. However, the risks associated with methamphetamine injection have not been fully described, particularly outside of Western countries. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between methamphetamine injection and syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDU) in Bangkok, Thailand. Using bivariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression, we examined the prevalence of methamphetamine injection and the relationship between more than weekly methamphetamine injection and syringe sharing among a community-recruited sample of IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. During June and July 2009, 311 IDU participated in this study, including 91 (29.3%) women. In total, 114 (36.7%) participants reported having injected methamphetamine ("yaba") twice or more per week in the past six months. In multivariate analyses, after adjustment for potential social, demographic and behavioral confounders, syringe sharing remained independently associated with injecting methamphetamine more than once per week (adjusted odds ratio=2.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.59-5.15). Over one-third of a community-recruited sample of Thai IDU reported more than weekly injection of methamphetamine, and methamphetamine injection was independently associated with syringe sharing. Essential HIV prevention services targeting IDU, such as syringe exchange and evidence-based addiction treatment, should be included in interventional efforts to address methamphetamine use in Thailand. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine and its metabolite, amphetamine following controlled oral administration to humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Insook; Oyler, Jonathan M; Moolchan, Eric T; Cone, Edward J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2004-12-01

    Methamphetamine is widely abused for its euphoric effects. Our objectives were to characterize the urinary pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine and amphetamine after controlled methamphetamine administration to humans and to improve the interpretation of urine drug test results. Participants (n = 8) received 4 daily 10-mg (low) oral doses of sustained-release (d)-methamphetamine hydrochloride within 7 days. After 4 weeks, 5 participants received 4 daily 20-mg (high) oral doses. All urine specimens were collected during the study. Methamphetamine and amphetamine were measured by GC-MS/PCI. Maximum excretion rates ranged from 403 to 4919 microg/h for methamphetamine and 59 to 735 microg/h for amphetamine with no relationship between dose and excretion rate. The mean molar percentage of dose in the urine as total methamphetamine and amphetamine were 57.5 +/- 21.7% (low dose) and 40.9 +/- 8.5% (high dose). Mean urinary terminal elimination half-lives across doses were 23.6 +/- 6.6 hours for methamphetamine and 20.7 +/- 7.3 hours for amphetamine. Methamphetamine renal clearance across doses was 175 +/- 102 mL/min. The mean amphetamine/methamphetamine percentage ratio based on the area under the urinary excretion-time curve increased over time from 13.4 +/- 6.5% to 35.7 +/- 26.6%. Slow urinary excretion results in drug accumulation and increases in detection time windows. Our findings also support the presence of an active renal excretion mechanism for methamphetamine.

  14. Properties of olopatadine hydrochloride, a new antiallergic/antihistaminic drug.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kenji; Hasegawa, Kazuhide; Tamura, Tadafumi; Miyake, Kiyomi; Matsubara, Masahiro; Masaki, Shigehiro; Karasawa, Akira; Urayama, Naoko; Horikoshi, Kaori; Kajita, Jiro; Hasegawa, Masanori; Taniguchi, Koji; Komada, Toshio; Kawamoto, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride (CAS 140462-76-6, KW-4679, AL-4943A; hereinafter referred to as olopatadine) is a novel antiallergic drug that is a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist possessing inhibitory effects on the release of inflammatory lipid mediators such as leukotriene and thromboxane from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and eosinophils. Olopatadine also inhibits the tachykininergic contractions in guinea pig bronchi by prejunctional inhibition of peripheral sensory nerves. Oral administration of olopatadine at doses of 0.03 mg/kg or higher reduces the symptoms of experimental allergic cutaneous responses and rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized animals. Preclinical and clinical evaluations have demonstrated that olopatadine is a safe drug. After oral administration to healthy volunteers, olopatadine was rapidly and extensively absorbed. Unlike most other antiallergic drugs which are eliminated via hepatic metabolism, olopatadine is mainly excreted into urine. Olopatadine did not affect cytochrome P450 activities in human liver microsomes and consequently drug-drug metabolic interactions are unlikely. In double-masked clinical trials, olopatadine was shown to be effective at alleviating symptoms of allergic diseases. The drug (Allelock) was approved in Japan for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, eczema dermatitis, prurigo, cutaneous pruritus, psoriasis vulgaris and erythema exsudativum multiforme in December, 2000. An ophthalmic solution of olopatadine is also useful for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis: this formulation (Patanol) was approved in the USA and the European Union for the treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis in 1996 and 2002, respectively.

  15. Studying Psychosocial Barriers to Drug Treatment Among Chinese Methamphetamine Users Using A 3-Step Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichuan; Kelly, Brian C; Liu, Tieqiao; Hao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Given the growth in methamphetamine use in China during the 21st century, we assessed perceived psychosocial barriers to drug treatment among this population. Using a sample of 303 methamphetamine users recruited via Respondent Driven Sampling, we use Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify possible distinct latent groups among Chinese methamphetamine users on the basis of their perceptions of psychosocial barriers to drug treatment. After covariates were included to predict latent class membership, the 3-step modeling approach was applied. Our findings indicate that the Chinese methamphetamine using population was heterogeneous on perceptions of drug treatment barriers; four distinct latent classes (subpopulations) were identified--Unsupported Deniers, Deniers, Privacy Anxious, and Low Barriers--and individual characteristics shaped the probability of class membership. Efforts to link Chinese methamphetamine users to treatment may require a multi-faceted approach that attends to differing perceptions about impediments to drug treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. American Indian Methamphetamine and other Drug use in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Forcehimes, A.A.; Venner, K.L; Bogenschutz, M.P.; Foley, K.; Davis, M. P.; Houck, J. M.; Willie, E. L.; Begaye, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AI) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. Methods (1) We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwest AI participants (N=81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and clients/relatives views on methamphetamine (2) We conducted a telephone survey of staff (N=100) from agencies across New Mexico to assess perceptions of methamphetamine use among people working with AI populations. (3) We collected and analyzed self-reported drug use data from 300 AI clients/relatives who completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the context of treatment at three diverse addiction treatment programs. Results Each focus group offered a unique perspective about the effect of drugs and alcohol on each respective community. Though data from the phone surveys and ASIs suggested concerning rates of methamphetamine use, with women more adversely affected by substance use in general, alcohol was identified as the biggest substance use problem for AI populations in the Southwest. Conclusions There appears to be agreement that methamphetamine use is a significant problem in these communities, but that alcohol is much more prevalent and problematic. There was less agreement about what should be done to prevent and treat methamphetamine use. Future research should attend to regional and tribal differences due to variability in drug use patterns, and should focus on identifying and improving dissemination of effective substance use interventions. PMID:21988577

  17. Meth mouth severity in response to drug-use patterns and dental access in methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronni E; Morisky, Donald E; Silverstein, Steven J

    2013-06-01

    Meth mouth is the rapid development of tooth decay in methamphetamine users. Our study questioned whether drug-use patterns and dental care access are risk factors affecting the severity of meth mouth. Participants received dental examinations, and the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were counted and used to measure meth mouth severity.

  18. Examining Correlates of Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in Pregnant American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…

  19. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hobkirk, Andréa L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Green, Kimberly T.; Beckham, Jean C.; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women. PMID:25479528

  20. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2015-03-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of MDA (the "love drug") and methamphetamine in Toronto by unsuspecting users of ecstasy (MDMA).

    PubMed

    Kalasinsky, Kathryn S; Hugel, John; Kish, Stephen J

    2004-09-01

    It has recently been reported that purity of illicit tablets of ecstasy (MDMA) is now high. Our objective was to confirm whether hair of drug users, who request only ecstasy from their supplier, contains MDMA in the absence of other drugs. GC-MS analysis of scalp hair segments disclosed the presence of MDMA in 19 of 21 subjects and amphetamine/methamphetamine in eight subjects. Surprisingly, seven subjects had hair levels of the MDMA metabolite, MDA, equal to or greater than those of MDMA, suggesting use of MDA in addition to that of MDMA. These amphetamine derivatives might be included by clandestine laboratories to enhance effects of the drug cocktail or because of a perception that MDA synthesis might be simpler than that of MDMA. Drug users and investigators examining possible brain neurotoxic effects of MDMA need to consider that "ecstasy" tablets can contain MDA and methamphetamine despite no demand for the drugs.

  2. Nullifying drug-induced sensitization: behavioral and electrophysiological evaluations of dopaminergic and serotonergic ligands in methamphetamine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    McDaid, J; Tedford, C E; Mackie, A R; Dallimore, J E; Mickiewicz, A L; Shen, F; Angle, J M; Napier, T C

    2007-01-05

    Repeated exposure to methamphetamine produces a persistent enhancement of the acute motor effects of the drug, commonly referred to as behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization involves monoaminergic projections to several forebrain nuclei. We recently revealed that the ventral pallidum (VP) may also be involved. In this study, we sought to establish if treatments with antagonists or partial agonists to monoaminergic receptors could "reverse" methamphetamine-induced behavioral and VP neuronal sensitization. Behavioral sensitization was obtained in rats with five once-daily s.c. injections of 2.5mg/kg methamphetamine, an effect that persisted for at least 60 days. After the development of sensitization, 15 once-daily treatments of mirtazapine (a 5-HT(2/3), alpha(2) and H(1) antagonist), SKF38393 (D(1) partial agonist) or SCH23390 (dopamine D(1) antagonist) nullified indices of motor sensitization as assessed by measuring the motoric response to an acute methamphetamine challenge 30 days after the fifth repeated methamphetamine treatment. VP neurons recorded in vivo from methamphetamine-sensitized rats at the 30-day withdrawal time also showed a robust downward shift in the excitatory responses observed to an acute i.v. methamphetamine challenge in non-sensitized rats. This decreased excitatory effect was reversed by mirtazapine, but not by other antagonists that were tested. These data suggest a potential therapeutic benefit for mirtazapine in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction, and point to a possible role for the VP in the sensitization process to methamphetamine.

  3. Microparticulate and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for metformin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Meltem; Sahin, Selma

    2016-10-01

    Metformin hydrochloride is a biguanide derivative widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, prescribed nearly to 120 million people worldwide. Metformin has a relatively low oral bioavailability (about 50-60%). Although the major effect of metformin is to decrease hepatic glucose output as an antihyperglycemic agent, its inhibitory effects on the proliferation of some cancer cells (e.g. prostate, breast, glioma cells) have been demonstrated in the cell culture studies. Development of novel formulation (e.g. microparticles, nanoparticles) strategies for metformin might be useful to improve its bioavailability, to reduce the dosing frequency, to decrease gastrointestinal side effects and toxicity and to be helpful for effective use of metformin in cancer treatment. The main aim of this review is to summarize metformin HCl-loaded micro- and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. The literature was rewieved with regard to the physicochemical, pharmacological properties of metformin, and also its mechanism of action in type 2 diabetes and cancer. In addition, micro- and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems developed for metformin were gathered from the literature and the results were discussed. Metformin is an oral antihyperglycemic agent and also has potential antitumorigenic effects. The repeated applications of high doses of metformin (as immediate release formulations) are needed for an effective treatment due to its low oral bioavailability and short biological half-life. Drug delivery systems are very useful systems to overcome the difficulties associated with conventional dosage forms of metformin and also for its effective use in cancer treatment.

  4. 78 FR 38053 - Determination That OPANA ER (Oxymorphone Hydrochloride) Drug Products Covered by New Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that OPANA ER (oxymorphone hydrochloride (HCl)) Extended-Release Tablet products approved under new drug application (NDA) 21-610 were not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination means that FDA will not begin procedures to withdraw approval of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) that refer to these drug products, and it will allow FDA to continue to approve ANDAs for oxymorphone HCl extended-release tablets if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met.

  5. An assessment of sensing technologies for the detection of clandestine methamphetamine drug laboratories.

    PubMed

    Man, Gabriel; Stoeber, Boris; Walus, Konrad

    2009-08-10

    Clandestine drug laboratories involved in the production of illicit drugs represent one of the most significant social challenges facing most societies. In North America, clandestine methamphetamine production is particularly important and is associated with significant impact on health, safety, and the environment. Many of these production laboratories are temporary and capable of producing large quantities of prohibited drugs in production cycles that can often span less than 48 h, making timely discovery essential. This paper offers an assessment of sensing technologies capable of detecting the effluents commonly released during the production cycle for the various production methods. A brief review of the most common methamphetamine manufacturing processes is provided, and the target gases are identified. Each of these manufacturing processes has a unique temporal chemical signature and it is possible that this signature can be used to distinguish a methamphetamine laboratory from other legitimate sources of these gases. In the context of the target gases, this paper provides an assessment of both commercial and research stage sensor technology. The results of this assessment are used to draw conclusions about the most suitable sensing technologies for methamphetamine laboratory detection.

  6. Enacting multiple methamphetamines: the ontological politics of public discourse and consumer accounts of a drug and its effects.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Moore, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade in Australia, methamphetamine has come to be seen as a significant issue for drug research, policy and practice. Concerns have been expressed over its potency, the increasing prevalence of its use and its potential for producing greater levels, and more severe forms, of harm compared to amphetamine or other drugs. In this article, we critically examine some of the ways in which methamphetamine and its effects are produced and reproduced within and through Australian public discourse, focusing in particular on the associations made between methamphetamine and psychosis. We show how public discourse enacts methamphetamine as an anterior, stable, singular and definite object routinely linked to the severe psychological 'harm' of psychosis. We contrast the enactment of methamphetamine within public discourse with how methamphetamine is enacted by consumers of the drug. In their accounts, consumers perform different methamphetamine objects and offer different interpretations of the relationships of these objects to psychological problems and of the ontological nature (i.e. relating to what is real, what is, what exists) of these problems. In examining public discourse and consumer accounts, we challenge conventional ontological understandings of methamphetamine as anterior, singular, stable and definite, and of its psychological effects as indicative of pathology. In line with recent critical social research on drugs, we draw on social studies of science and technology that focus on the performativity of scientific knowledge and material practices. We suggest that recognising the ontological contingency, and therefore the multiplicity, of methamphetamine offers a critical counterpoint to conventional research, policy and practice accounts of methamphetamine and its psychological effects.

  7. Methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation.

  8. Quinpirole hydrochloride, a potential anti-parkinsonism drug.

    PubMed

    Koller, W; Herbster, G; Anderson, D; Wack, R; Gordon, J

    1987-08-01

    Quinpirole hydrochloride, a putative dopamine agonist, was investigated in animal models of central dopaminergic activity, to evaluate its possible role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The drug induced stereotyped sniffing in rats but, unlike apomorphine, did not produce a maximal behavioural response (stereotyped gnawing). Pretreatment with neuroleptics blocked the stereotypy induced by quinpirole. Quinpirole reversed the effects of reserpine and alpha-methyl-paratyrosine, caused dose-dependent contralateral rotations in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra induced by 6-hydroxydopamine and induced vomiting in dogs. Small doses of quinpirole decreased locomotor activity, an effect presumably mediated by pre-synaptic autoreceptors. Quinpirole bound to D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of the rat. The chronic injection of both subthreshold and suprathreshold doses, failed to induce behavioral supersensitivity. These data indicate that quinpirole can stimulate central dopaminergic receptors, and that it is a partial agonist with direct-acting properties. Quinpirole differs from other dopaminergic drugs and may be useful for the therapy of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Nookala, Anantha R; Li, Junhao; Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  10. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K.; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  11. Crystal methamphetamine and initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Buxton, Jane; Shoveller, Jeannie; Richardson, Chris; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-12-10

    Although injection drug use is known to result in a range of health-related harms, including transmission of HIV and fatal overdose, little is known about the possible role of synthetic drugs in injection initiation. We sought to determine the effect of crystal methamphetamine use on risk of injection initiation among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. We used Cox regression analyses to identify predictors of injection initiation among injection-naive street-involved youth enrolled in the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, British Columbia. Data on circumstances of first injection were also obtained. Between October 2005 and November 2010, a total of 395 drug injection-naive, street-involved youth provided 1434 observations, with 64 (16.2%) participants initiating injection drug use during the follow-up period, for a cumulative incidence of 21.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-41.7) per 100 person-years. In multivariable analysis, recent noninjection use of crystal methamphetamine was positively associated with subsequent injection initiation (adjusted hazard ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.31-2.85). The drug of first injection was most commonly reported as crystal methamphetamine (14/31 [45%]). Noninjection use of crystal methamphetamine predicted subsequent injection initiation, and crystal methamphetamine was the most commonly used drug at the time of first injection. Evidence-based strategies to prevent transition to injection drug use among crystal methamphetamine users are urgently needed.

  12. “High On My Own Supply”: Correlates of Drug Dealing among Heterosexually-identified Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Volkmann, Tyson; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Although rates of methamphetamine use continue to increase throughout the United States, little is known about the individuals who sell methamphetamine at the street level. This exploratory study examined the prevalence and correlates of drug-dealing behavior in a sample of 404 heterosexually-identified methamphetamine users who were participants in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, CA. Twenty-nine percent of participants (N = 116) reported “dealing” methamphetamine in the past two months. In a multivariate logistic regression, methamphetamine dealing was associated with being male (OR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.16 – 3.39), younger age (OR = 1.87 per year; 95% CI 1.10 – 3.17), more frequent use of methamphetamine (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.59 – 4.57), injecting methamphetamine (OR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.79 – 5.37), and higher hostility scores (OR = 1.07 per unit increase; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.13). These characteristics, particularly intensity of drug use and hostility, may be associated with greater resistance to drug treatment and lower success in treatment programs. PMID:21999496

  13. Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Jain, P S

    2010-01-01

    A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol-triethylamine (4:6 v/v). The system was found to give a compact spot for ambroxol hydrochloride (R(f) value of 0.53 +/- 0.02). Densitometric analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2) = 0.9966 +/- 0.0013 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 100-1000 ng/spot. The mean value +/- standard deviation of slope and intercept were 164.85 +/- 0.72 and 1168.3 +/- 8.26 with respect to peak area. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 and 30 ng/spot, respectively. Ambroxol hydrochloride was subjected to oxidation and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under oxidation and heat conditions. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to oxidation and heat. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective, and accurate for the estimation of said drug. Stability indicating of new chemical entities is an important part for the drug development of ambroxol hydrochloride and for its estimation in plasma and other biological fluids; the novel Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride as bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and dosage forms. This work is to determine the purity of the drug available from the various sources by detecting

  14. 77 FR 20987 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder; Penicillin G Potassium in Drinking Water; Tetracycline Powder AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The...

  15. Precursor medications as a source of methamphetamine and/or amphetamine positive drug testing results.

    PubMed

    Cody, John T

    2002-05-01

    Medical Review Officer interpretation of laboratory results is an important component of drug testing programs. The clinical evaluation of laboratory results to assess the possibility of appropriate medical use of a drug is a task with many different facets, depending on the drug class considered. This intercession prevents the reporting of positive results unless it is apparent that drugs were used illicitly. In addition to the commonly encountered prescribed drugs that yield positive drug testing results, other sources of positive results must be considered. This review describes a series of compounds referred to as "precursor" drugs that are metabolized by the body to amphetamine and/or methamphetamine. These compounds lead to positive results for amphetamines even though neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine were used, a possibility that must be considered in the review of laboratory results. Description of the drugs, their clinical indications, and results seen following administration are provided. This information allows for the informed evaluation of results with regard to the potential involvement of these drugs.

  16. Trends in methamphetamine use in young injection drug users in San Francisco from 1998 to 2004: the UFO Study.

    PubMed

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Hahn, Judith A; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer; Davidson, Peter; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

    2008-05-01

    To describe temporal trends in methamphetamine use among young injection drug users (IDU) in San Francisco. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data collected for a longitudinal study of young IDU from 1998 to 2004. Participants were 1445 young IDU (<30 years old) who reported injection in the previous month, English-speaking, and recruited by street outreach methods. We examined trends for: lifetime (ever) and recent (30-day) methamphetamine use, including injected and non-injected, and by age group and sexual risk behaviour [men who have sex with men injecting drug users (MSM-IDU), male IDU (non-MSM) and female IDU]. In 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2004 we interviewed 237, 276, 431, 310, 147 and 44 participants, respectively. Overall, median age was 22 years [interquartile range (IQR) 20-25], 30.3% were women and median duration of injecting was 4.4 years (IQR 2-7). Prevalence of methamphetamine use was high, with 50.1% reporting recent injection, but overall there were no temporal increases in reported 'ever' injected use. Recent methamphetamine injection (past 30 days) increased significantly, and peaked at 60% in 2003. MSM-IDU had higher methamphetamine injection ever (92.3%) and recently (59.5%) compared to heterosexual male (non-MSM) IDU (81.6% and 47.3%, respectively) and to female IDU (78.4% and 46.1%, respectively). Despite reports of ubiquitous increases in methamphetamine use, there were no significant increases in 6 years in ever injecting methamphetamine overall among young IDU. MSM-IDU who reported the highest methamphetamine use overall reported some increases in recent injected use. The methamphetamine 'epidemic' was probably under way among young IDU earlier than other populations.

  17. Trends in methamphetamine use in young injection drug users in San Francisco from 1998 to 2004: the UFO Study

    PubMed Central

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Hahn, Judith A.; Lum, Paula J.; Evans, Jennifer; Davidson, Peter; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Aims To describe temporal trends in methamphetamine use among young injection drug users (IDU) in San Francisco. Design and Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data collected for a longitudinal study of young IDU from 1998 to 2004. Participants were 1445 young IDU (< 30 years old) who reported injection in the previous month, English-speaking, and recruited by street outreach methods. We examined trends for: lifetime (ever) and recent (30-day) methamphetamine use, including injected and non-injected, and by age group and sexual risk behaviour [men who have sex with men injecting drug users (MSM-IDU), male IDU (non-MSM) and female IDU]. Results In 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2004 we interviewed 237, 276, 431, 310, 147 and 44 participants, respectively. Overall, median age was 22 years [interquartile range (IQR) 20 – 25], 30.3% were women and median duration of injecting was 4.4 years (IQR 2 – 7). Prevalence of methamphetamine use was high, with 50.1% reporting recent injection, but overall there were no temporal increases in reported ‘ever’ injected use. Recent methamphetamine injection (past 30 days) increased significantly, and peaked at 60% in 2003. MSM-IDU had higher methamphetamine injection ever (92.3%) and recently (59.5%) compared to heterosexual male (non-MSM) IDU (81.6% and 47.3%, respectively) and to female IDU (78.4% and 46.1%, respectively). Conclusions Despite reports of ubiquitous increases in methamphetamine use, there were no significant increases in 6 years in ever injecting methamphetamine overall among young IDU. MSM-IDU who reported the highest methamphetamine use overall reported some increases in recent injected use. The methamphetamine ‘epidemic’ was probably under way among young IDU earlier than other populations. PMID:18368610

  18. Gray-matter volume, midbrain dopamine D2/D3 receptors and drug craving in methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Morales, A M; Kohno, M; Robertson, C L; Dean, A C; Mandelkern, M A; London, E D

    2015-06-01

    Dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic system has a critical role in clinical features of addiction. Despite evidence suggesting that midbrain dopamine receptors influence amphetamine-induced dopamine release and that dopamine is involved in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity, associations between dopamine receptors and gray-matter volume have been unexplored in methamphetamine users. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging and [(18)F]fallypride positron emission tomography, respectively, to measure gray-matter volume (in 58 methamphetamine users) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (binding potential relative to nondisplaceable uptake of the radiotracer, BPnd) (in 31 methamphetamine users and 37 control participants). Relationships between these measures and self-reported drug craving were examined. Although no difference in midbrain D2/D3 BPnd was detected between methamphetamine and control groups, midbrain D2/D3 BPnd was positively correlated with gray-matter volume in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, insula, hippocampus and temporal cortex in methamphetamine users, but not in control participants (group-by-midbrain D2/D3 BPnd interaction, P<0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). Craving for methamphetamine was negatively associated with gray-matter volume in the insula, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, cerebellum and thalamus (P<0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). A relationship between midbrain D2/D3 BPnd and methamphetamine craving was not detected. Lower midbrain D2/D3 BPnd may increase vulnerability to deficits in gray-matter volume in mesocorticolimbic circuitry in methamphetamine users, possibly reflecting greater dopamine-induced toxicity. Identifying factors that influence prefrontal and limbic volume, such as midbrain BPnd, may be important for understanding the basis of drug craving, a key factor in the maintenance of substance-use disorders.

  19. Gray-Matter Volume, Midbrain Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors and Drug Craving in Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Angelica A.; Kohno, Milky; Robertson, Chelsea L.; Dean, Andy C.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic system plays a critical role in clinical features of addiction. Despite evidence suggesting that midbrain dopamine receptors influence amphetamine-induced dopamine release and that dopamine is involved in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity, associations between dopamine receptors and gray-matter volume have been unexplored in methamphetamine users. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography, respectively, to measure gray-matter volume (in 58 methamphetamine users) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (binding potential relative to nondisplaceable uptake of the radiotracer, BPnd) (in 31 methamphetamine users and 37 control participants). Relationships between these measures and self-reported drug craving were examined. Although no difference in midbrain D2/D3 BPnd was detected between methamphetamine and control groups, midbrain D2/D3 BPnd was positively correlated with gray-matter volume in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, insula, hippocampus and temporal cortex in methamphetamine users, but not in control participants (group-by-midbrain D2/D3 BPnd interaction, p<0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). Craving for methamphetamine was negatively associated with gray-matter volume in the insula, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, cerebellum, and thalamus (p<0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). A relationship between midbrain D2/D3 BPnd and methamphetamine craving was not detected. Lower midbrain D2/D3 BPnd may increase vulnerability to deficits in gray-matter volume in mesocorticolimbic circuitry in methamphetamine users, possibly reflecting greater dopamine-induced toxicity. Identifying factors that influence prefrontal and limbic volume, such as midbrain BPnd, may be important for understanding the basis of drug craving, a key factor in the maintenance of substance use disorders. PMID:25896164

  20. Methamphetamine activates reward circuitry in drug naïve human subjects.

    PubMed

    Völlm, Birgit A; de Araujo, Ivan E; Cowen, Philip J; Rolls, Edmund T; Kringelbach, Morten L; Smith, Katharine A; Jezzard, Peter; Heal, Ronald J; Matthews, Paul M

    2004-09-01

    Amphetamines are highly addictive drugs that have pronounced effects on emotional and cognitive behavior in humans. These effects are mediated through their potent dopaminergic agonistic properties. Dopamine has also been implicated in the modulation of responses of the 'reward circuit' in animal and human studies. In this study we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the brain circuitry involved in the psychostimulant effect of methamphetamine in psychostimulant-naïve human subjects. Seven healthy volunteers were scanned in a 3T MR imaging system. They received single-blind intravenous infusions of methamphetamine (0.15 mg/kg), and rated their experience of 'mind-racing' on a button press throughout the experiment. Data were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping methods. Amphetamine administration activated the medial orbitofrontal cortex, the rostral part of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum. Ratings of 'mind-racing' after methamphetamine infusion correlated with activations in the rostral part of the anterior cingulate cortex and in the ventral striatum. In addition, activations in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were independent of motor and related responses involved in making the ratings. These findings indicate that the first administration of a psychostimulant to human subjects activates classical reward circuitry. Our data also support recent hypotheses suggesting a central role for the orbitofrontal cortex in drug reinforcement and the development of addiction.

  1. Second generation lipid nanoparticles (NLC) as an oral drug carrier for delivery of lercanidipine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ranpise, Nisharani S; Korabu, Swati S; Ghodake, Vinod N

    2014-04-01

    Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension. It is a poor water soluble drug with absolute bioavailability of 10%. The aim of this study was to design lercanidipine hydrochloride-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers to investigate whether the bioavailability of the same can be improved by oral delivery. Lercanidipine hydrochloride nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the method of solvent evaporation at a high temperature and solidification by freeze drying. The nanostructured lipid carriers were evaluated for particle size analysis, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug diffusion, ex vivo permeation studies and pharmacodynamic study. The resultant nanostructured lipid carriers had a mean size of 214.97 nm and a zeta potential of -31.6 ± 1.5 mV. More than 70% lercanidipine hydrochloride was entrapped in the NLCs. The SEM studies indicated the formation of type 2 nanostructured lipid carriers. The in vitro release studies demonstrated 19.36% release in acidic buffer pH 1.2 indicating that the drug entrapped in the nanostructured lipid carriers remains entrapped at acidic pH. The ex vivo studies indicated that the drug release was enhanced from 10% to 60.54% at blood pH in 24h. The in vivo pharmacodynamic study showed that NLCs released lercanidipine hydrochloride in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time as compared to plain drug. These results clearly indicate that nanostructured lipid carriers are a potential controlled release formulation for lercanidipine hydrochloride and may be a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of hypertension.

  2. Repeated exposure to methamphetamine causes long-lasting presynaptic corticostriatal depression that is renormalized with drug readministration.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Nigel S; Zhang, Hui; Joyce, John A; Scarlis, Christine A; Hanan, Whitney; Wu, Nan-Ping; André, Véronique M; Cohen, Rachel; Cepeda, Carlos; Levine, Michael S; Harleton, Erin; Sulzer, David

    2008-04-10

    Addiction-associated behaviors such as drug craving and relapse are hypothesized to result from synaptic changes that persist long after withdrawal and are renormalized by drug reinstatement, although such chronic synaptic effects have not been identified. We report that exposure to the dopamine releaser methamphetamine for 10 days elicits a long-lasting (>4 month) depression at corticostriatal terminals that is reversed by methamphetamine readministration. Both methamphetamine-induced chronic presynaptic depression and the drug's selective renormalization in drug-experienced animals are independent of corresponding long-term changes in synaptic dopamine release but are due to alterations in D1 dopamine and cholinergic receptor systems. These mechanisms might provide a synaptic basis that underlies addiction and habit learning and their long-term maintenance.

  3. Patterns of methamphetamine abuse and their consequences.

    PubMed

    Cho, Arthur K; Melega, William P

    2002-01-01

    The abuse of methamphetamine (METH) continues to increase throughout all age groups in different regions of the United States. "Ice," the popularized jargon for (+) methamphetamine hydrochloride, is the predominant drug form that is now consumed. "Ice" is effectively absorbed after either smoking or snorting and it is this rapid influx of drug that produces effects similar to those after intravenous administration. The intensity of METH actions in the central and peripheral nervous system shows tolerance after chronic administration, indicating that neuroadaptations have occurred. Thus, the physiological processes and corresponding biochemical mechanisms that regulate neuronal function have been changed by METH exposure. These biological alterations contribute to the craving and dependence associated with METH abuse and the withdrawal syndrome upon abstinence. However, these changes in behavior may also result from METH-induced neurotoxicity. This article reviews aspects of METH pharmacokinetics and related molecular pharmacodynamics that represent METH pharmacology and then relates those actions to their potential to produce neurotoxicity in humans.

  4. Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Initiating Methamphetamine Injection: Implications for Drug Use and HIV Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL.; Wood, Evan; Shoveller, Jean A.; Buxton, Jane A.; Montaner, Julio SG.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of initiating methamphetamine injection among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU). We conducted a longitudinal analysis of IDU participating in a prospective study between June 2001 and May 2008 in Vancouver, Canada. IDU who had never reported injecting methamphetamine at the study's commencement were eligible. We used Cox proportional hazards models to identify the predictors of initiating methamphetamine injection. The outcome was time to first report of methamphetamine injection. Time-updated independent variables of interest included sociodemo-graphic characteristics, drug use patterns, and social, economic and environmental factors. Of 1317 eligible individuals, the median age was 39.9 and 522 (39.6%) were female. At the study's conclusion, 200 (15.2%) participants had initiated injecting methamphetamine (incidence density: 4.3 per 100 person-years). In multivariate analysis, age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.96 per year older, 95%CI: 0.95–0.98), female sex (aHR: 0.58, 95%CI: 0.41–0.82), sexual abuse (aHR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.18–2.23), using drugs in Vancouver's drug scene epicentre (aHR: 2.15 95%CI: 1.49–3.10), homelessness (aHR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.01–2.04), non-injection crack cocaine use (aHR: 2.06, 95%CI: 1.36–3.14), and non-injection methamphetamine use (aHR: 3.69, 95%CI: 2.03–6.70) were associated with initiating methamphetamine injection. We observed a high incidence of methamphetamine initiation, particularly among young IDU, stimulant users, homeless individuals, and those involved in the city's open drug scene. These data should be useful for the development of a broad set of interventions aimed at reducing initiation into methamphetamine injection among IDU. PMID:21274628

  5. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and the methamphetamine they contain is being used as a substitute for amphetamine tablets... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers...

  6. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and the methamphetamine they contain is being used as a substitute for amphetamine tablets... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers...

  7. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and the methamphetamine they contain is being used as a substitute for amphetamine tablets... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers...

  8. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and the methamphetamine they contain is being used as a substitute for amphetamine tablets... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers...

  9. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and the methamphetamine they contain is being used as a substitute for amphetamine tablets... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers...

  10. Behavioral and antinociceptive effects of different psychostimulant drugs in prenatally methamphetamine-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamotová, A; Šlamberová, R

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (METH) increases nociceptive sensitivity in adult rats. As the strong analgesics have high abuse potential and drugs of abuse are known to have analgesic properties, the aim was to study analgesic effect of different psychostimulants in control and prenatally METH-exposed rats. Latencies of withdrawal reflexes of hind limbs and the tail on thermal nociceptive stimuli were repeatedly measured in 15-min intervals after the application of 5 mg/kg s.c. of amphetamine (AMPH), methamphetamine (METH), cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or morphine (MOR). In all groups, AMPH induced on hind limbs stronger analgesia than METH and MDMA whereas COC and MOR were practically without any effect. On the tail, effect of AMPH did not differ from that of MOR. All psychostimulants increased defecation in comparison with MOR and in all groups the number of defecation boluses positively correlated with analgesia of the hind limbs. We did not confirm that prenatal exposure to METH makes adult rats more sensitive either to same drug or to other psychostimulants. The different analgesic potencies of psychostimulants and MOR at different body sites indicate the possible existence of a somatotopic organization of pain inhibition, which is controlled by different mechanisms.

  11. Preparation and controlled release of mesoporous MCM-41/propranolol hydrochloride composite drug.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qing-Zhou

    2013-01-01

    This article used MCM-41 as a carrier for the assembly of propranolol hydrochloride by the impregnation method. By means of chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and low-temperature N(2) adsorption-desorption at 77 K, the characterization was made for the prepared materials. The propranolol hydrochloride guest assembly capacity was 316.20 ± 0.31 mg/g (drug/MCM-41). Powder XRD test results indicated that during the process of incorporation, the frameworks of the MCM-41 were not destroyed and the crystalline degrees of the host-guest nanocomposite materials prepared still remained highly ordered. Characterization by SEM and TEM showed that the composite material presented spherical particle and the average particle size of composite material was 186 nm. FT-IR spectra showed that the MCM-41 framework existed well in the (MCM-41)-propranolol hydrochloride composite. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption results at 77 K showed that the guest partially occupied the channels of the molecular sieves. Results of the release of the prepared composite drug in simulated body fluid indicated that the drug can release up to 32 h and its maximum released amount was 99.20 ± 0.11%. In the simulated gastric juice release pattern of drug, the maximum time for the drug release was discovered to be 6 h and the maximum cumulative released amount of propranolol hydrochloride was 45.13 ± 0.23%. The drug sustained-release time was 10 h in simulated intestinal fluid and the maximum cumulative released amount was 62.05 ± 0.13%. The prepared MCM-41 is a well-controlled drug delivery carrier.

  12. Substance abuse and HIV: considerations with regard to methamphetamines and other recreational drugs for nursing practice and research.

    PubMed

    Gorman, E M; Carroll, R T

    2000-01-01

    Substance use continues to be closely associated with both HIV infection and treatment considerations in all at-risk populations. Among those groups heretofore not well characterized epidemiologically or clinically are those dual-risk men who have sex with other men (MSM) and use and/or inject drugs. Of particular current concern with regard to drug-using MSM is the growth in popularity of a group of recreational or so-called party drugs associated with specific social and sexual environments and networks. Chief among these drugs are hallucinogens, such as MDMA, ketamine, and GHB, and stimulants, such as cocaine, amphetamines, and methamphetamine. Increased methamphetamine use by MSM is particularly alarming because of its reported associations with high-risk injecting and sexual behaviors. Preliminary data are reported from an ethnographic exploration of MSM methamphetamine users in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Case studies drawn from the data illustrate the complex and variable patterns of methamphetamine use among MSM. Finally, implications for nursing are discussed, and "upstream nursing" is suggested as a means of patient advocacy for HIV nurses working with substance-using populations.

  13. Analysis of pharmaceutical impurities in the methamphetamine crystals seized for drug trafficking in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sanggil; Heo, Sewoong; Choi, Hyeyoung; Kim, Eunmi; Chung, Heesun; Lee, Jaesin

    2013-04-10

    Some methamphetamine (MA) crystals contain pharmaceutical impurities. They often come from the co-ingredients of cold drugs used for extracting ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Though these impurities are not so commonly encountered, they reflect the trends in precursor chemicals and manufacturing sources. As a result of monitoring impurities in the MA crystals seized in Korea during 2006-2011, 10 species of pharmaceutical impurities were identified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. They may be co-ingredients of the legal drugs used as a source of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. In contrast, some of them are presumed to be adulterants added during or after clandestine synthesis. It is interesting that some of these have been identified in the MA crystals seized in other countries in the same year. Species of pharmaceutical impurities in the MA crystals increased particularly in 2010, indicating a change in precursor chemicals and/or manufacturing sources.

  14. Methamphetamine Use in Club Subcultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, methamphetamine developed a peculiar geographic distribution in the United States, with limited diffusion in the Northeast. While use within gay clubs received attention, methamphetamine in club subcultures more broadly remains less clear. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we provide a descriptive assessment of methamphetamine use in club subcultures. Methamphetamine use in club subcultures often has instrumental purposes. The context of initiation into methamphetamine use and its close connection to cocaine shape later patterns of use. Viewing meth solely as a gay party drug misses a significant part of the population and may misguide public health strategies to reduce methamphetamine use in the Northeast. PMID:23848380

  15. Sexual Risk Behavior Associated with Co-administration of Methamphetamine and Other Drugs in a Sample of HIV-positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual risk behavior and co-administration of methamphetamine with other drugs in a sample of 341 HIV-positive MSM. Those who reported methamphetamine co-administration in the past two months (65%) reported significantly more unprotected anal and oral sex and a greater number of casual, anonymous, and paid sex partners in this timeframe compared to men who used methamphetamine alone. Two primary patterns of co-administration were identified: 1) drug combinations motivated by sexual performance and enhancement (e.g., methamphetamine, poppers, sildenafil) and 2) “party drug” combinations (e.g., methamphetamine, GHB, ketamine). Implications for further research and possible applications to risk-reduction interventions are discussed. PMID:19219667

  16. Drug Discrimination in Methamphetamine-Trained Rats: Effects of Cholinergic Nicotinic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rajeev I.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that acetylcholine nicotinic systems may contribute importantly to the abuse-related effects of d-methamphetamine (d-MA). The present study was conducted to compare the effects of indirect dopamine (DA) agonists (d-amphetamine, d-MA, and l-methamphetamine), full [(−)-nicotine, anabaseine, (+)-epibatidine, (−)-epibatidine, isoarecolone] and partial (varenicline) nicotinic agonists, and other cholinergic compounds (mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide, methyllycaconitine, atropine, scopolamine, rivastigmine, and donepezil) in rats trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg i.p. d-MA from saline. All indirect DA agonists fully substituted for d-MA in a dose-related manner. Among nicotinic agonists, only (−)-nicotine fully substituted for d-MA in a dose-dependent manner, whereas all other nicotinic agonists and, to a limited extent, muscarinic antagonists produced partial d-MA-like responding. Other cholinergic compounds failed to produce d-MA-like discriminative stimulus effects. In drug interaction studies, varenicline served to dose-dependently attenuate the d-MA-like effects of (−)-nicotine, whereas mecamylamine, but not varenicline, reduced the discriminative stimulus effects of the training dose of d-MA. Differences between (−)-nicotine and other nicotinic agonists may be related to their ability to activate the DA system. These results provide further evidence that nicotinic mechanisms may be useful neurochemical targets for the development of therapeutics for the management of monoaminergic stimulant abuse and addiction. PMID:20847037

  17. Predictors of methamphetamine psychosis: history of ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors and drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Salo, Ruth; Fassbender, Catherine; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Ursu, Stefan; Leamon, Martin H; Carter, Cameron

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this study was to extend our previous research that reported a significant association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-relevant childhood behaviors and the frequency of methamphetamine (MA)-induced psychotic symptoms in an expanded sample. 190 participants who met DSM-IV criteria for MA dependence were administered the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire that assessed MA-induced psychosis. Data related to MA exposure, comorbid drug use, education, familial psychiatric history and assessments of ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors as measured by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were collected. Although WURS scores did not differ between 145 MAP+ and 45 MAP- subjects, MAP+ subjects with higher WURS scores were significantly more likely to report more frequent psychosis. Although mean daily MA dosage did not differ between the MAP+ and MAP- subjects, MAP+ subjects who consumed larger doses of MA were significantly more likely to experience frequent psychosis. These data suggest that ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors may interact with MA exposure to reflect a neurobiological vulnerability related to the emergence of frequent MA-induced psychotic symptoms. These results may elucidate factors that contribute to the psychiatric sequelae of MA abuse. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MDMA, methamphetamine and their combination: possible lessons for party drug users from recent preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Kelly J; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    The substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') and methamphetamine (METH, 'ice', 'speed') are increasingly popular drugs amongst party-drug users. Studies with humans have investigated the acute and possible long-term adverse effects of these drugs, yet outcomes of such studies are often ambiguous due to a variety of confounding factors. Studies employing animal models have value in determining the acute and long-term effects of MDMA and METH on brain and behaviour. Self-administration studies show that intravenous METH is a particularly potent reinforcer in rats and other species. In contrast, MDMA appears to have powerful effects in enhancing social behaviour in laboratory animals. Brief exposure to MDMA or METH may produce long-term reductions in dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain and alterations in the density of various receptor and transporter proteins. However it is still unclear, particularly in the case of MDMA, whether this reflects a 'neurotoxic' effect of the drug. Lasting alterations in social behaviour, anxiety, depressive symptoms and memory have been demonstrated in laboratory rats given MDMA or METH and this matches long-term changes reported in some human studies. Recent laboratory studies suggest that MDMA/METH combinations may produce greater adverse neurochemical and behavioural effects than either drug alone. This is of some concern given recent evidence that party drug users may be frequently exposed to this combination of drugs.

  19. Effect of tacrine hydrochloride on hepatic drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Danbury, T C; Eccles, M; Ford, J; Roberts, C J

    1999-01-01

    The aim was to assess tacrine hydrochloride (THA) as an inhibitor of rat hepatic oxidative enzymes. A model of hepatic microsome oxidative metabolism was established using antipyrine (AP) incubated with NADPH. AP and its metabolites, 3-hydroxymethyl antipyrine (HMA). 4-hydroxy antipyrine (OHA) and norantipyrine (NORA) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Aliquots of 200, 400 and 600 microg/ml antipyrine were incubated with the microsomal preparation alone, with 20 microg/ml cimetidine or with 40, 80 or 200 microg/ml THA. Cimetidine inhibited HMA production by 35-38% (P<0.001) and OHA production by 49-52% (P<0.001). Incubation with the 3 concentrations of THA inhibited HMA production by 17%, 24% and 41% (P<0.001) and OHA production by 52%, 55% and 79%, respectively (P<0.001). NORA was identifiable when antipyrine was incubated with NADPH alone, but could not be identified after incubation with either cimetidine or THA. This study has shown that THA causes the inhibition of AP metabolism to HMA, OHA and possibly NORA. We suggest THA is an inhibitor of three different hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzyme sub-families.

  20. A comparison of symptoms and drug use between patients with methamphetamine associated psychoses and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in two acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Medhus, Sigrid; Mordal, Jon; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-03-30

    Psychosis induced by the use of amphetamine or methamphetamine leads to dramatic symptoms and frequent readmissions and poses diagnostic challenges. Earlier studies have often relied on history taking and/or urine samples to reveal drug use. The aim of this study was to compare the psychotic symptoms of two groups: (1) acutely admitted patients who tested positive for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with drug-induced or methamphetamine-induced psychoses and (2) acutely admitted patients who tested negative for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Blood and urine samples were used. In addition, we investigated whether the severity of symptoms, in those who tested positive, was related to the blood concentration of methamphetamine. Of 285 patients who volunteered blood and/or urine samples within 48h of admission, 37 (13%) had recently taken methamphetamine. Positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups were compared by PANSS using the positive subscale. The results showed no differences in positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups. The severity of positive psychotic symptoms in patients with three different levels of urine/blood methamphetamine concentrations, were compared. We found no clinically or statistically significant relationship between blood methamphetamine levels and severity of psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination and characterization of two degradant impurities in bendamustine hydrochloride drug product.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhua; Zou, Limin; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Liandi; Liao, Mingyi; Li, Xiaoqiang; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    Bendamustine hydrochloride is an alkylating antitumor agent with a good efficacy in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Under the stressed conditions, two degradant impurities in bendamustine hydrochloride drug product were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. These two degradant impurities were isolated from preparative liquid chromatography, and were further characterized using Q-TOF/MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Based on the MS and NMR spectral data, they were characterized as 4-[5-(2-chloro-ethylamino)-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl] butyric acid hydrochloride (impurity-A) and 4-{5-[[2-(4-{5-[bis-(2-chloroethyl) amino]-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl}-butyryloxy)-ethyl]-(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1-methyl-3a, 7a-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl} butyric acid hydrochloride (impurity-B). Isolation, structural elucidation of these two impurities by spectral data (Q-TOF/MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, D2O exchange NMR and two-dimensional NMR) and the probable formation mechanism of the impurities were discussed.

  2. Similarity and Difference in Drug Addiction Process Between Heroin- and Methamphetamine-Dependent Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyun; Li, Wei-Xiu; Zhi-Min, Liu

    2017-03-21

    This study aimed to compare the drug addiction process between Chinese heroin- and methamphetamine (MA)-dependent users via a modified 4-stage addiction model (experimentation, occasional use, regular use, and compulsive use). A descriptive study was conducted among 683 eligible participants. In the statistical analysis, we selected 340 heroin- and 295 MA-dependent users without illicit drug use prior to onset of heroin or MA use. The addiction process of heroin-dependent users was shorter than that of MA-dependent users, with shorter transitions from the onset of drug-use to the first drug craving (19.5 vs. 50.0 days), regular use (30.0 vs. 60.0 days), and compulsive use (50.0 vs. 85.0 days). However, no significant differences in the addiction process were observed in frequency of drug administration, except that heroin users reported more administrations of the drug (20.0 vs. 15.0) before progressing to the stage of compulsive drug use. A larger proportion of regular heroin users progressed to use illicit drugs recklessly than did MA users. Most heroin and MA users reported psychological dependence as their primary motivation for compulsive drug use, but more heroin users selected uncomfortable symptoms upon ceasing drug use as further reason to continue. Our results suggest that typical heroin and MA users may experience a similar four-stage addiction process, but MA users might undergo a longer addiction process (in days). More research is necessary to further explore factors influencing the drug addiction process.

  3. Application of Design of Experiment for Floating Drug Delivery of Tapentadol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Swati C.; Patil, Somnath; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply design of experiment (DOE) to optimize floating drug delivery of tapentadol hydrochloride. Tapentadol hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid used as a centrally acting analgesic and effective in both experimental and clinical pain. The half-life of the drug is about 4 hours and oral dose is 50 to 250 mg twice a day. For optimization 32 full factorial design was employed for formulation of tapentadol hydrochloride tablets. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. Combination of polymers Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum was used to achieve controlled release effect. The concentration of polymers was considered as the independent variables and dependent variables were floating lag time and swelling index of the tablets. From the factorial batches, it was observed that formulation containing combination of 20% sodium bicarbonate and 10% citric acid shows optimum floating ability whereas the formulation containing 20% Xanthan gum and 28% Locust bean gum shows optimum sustained drug release pattern with adequate floating. PMID:23878616

  4. Application of design of experiment for floating drug delivery of tapentadol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Jagdale, Swati C; Patil, Somnath; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply design of experiment (DOE) to optimize floating drug delivery of tapentadol hydrochloride. Tapentadol hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid used as a centrally acting analgesic and effective in both experimental and clinical pain. The half-life of the drug is about 4 hours and oral dose is 50 to 250 mg twice a day. For optimization 3(2) full factorial design was employed for formulation of tapentadol hydrochloride tablets. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. Combination of polymers Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum was used to achieve controlled release effect. The concentration of polymers was considered as the independent variables and dependent variables were floating lag time and swelling index of the tablets. From the factorial batches, it was observed that formulation containing combination of 20% sodium bicarbonate and 10% citric acid shows optimum floating ability whereas the formulation containing 20% Xanthan gum and 28% Locust bean gum shows optimum sustained drug release pattern with adequate floating.

  5. Walking on thin ice! Identifying methamphetamine "drug mules" on digital plain radiography.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rashid, S N; Mohamad Saini, S B; Abdul Hamid, S; Muhammad, S J; Mahmud, R; Thali, M J; Flach, P M

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of identifying methamphetamine (MA) internal payloads in "drug mules" by plain abdominal digital radiography (DR). The study consisted of 35 individuals suspected of internal MA drug containers. A total of 59 supine digital radiographs were collected. An overall calculation regarding the diagnostic accuracy for all "drug mules" and a specific evaluation concerning the radiological appearance of drug packs as well as the rate of clearance and complications in correlation with the reader's experience were performed. The gold standard was the presence of secured drug packs in the faeces. There were 16 true-positive "drug mules" identified. DR of all drug carriers for Group 1 (forensic imaging experienced readers, n = 2) exhibited a sensitivity of 100%, a mean specificity of 76.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 78.5%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% and a mean accuracy 87.2%. Group 2 (inexperienced readers, n = 3) showed a lower sensitivity (93.7%), a mean specificity of 86%, a PPV of 86.5%, an NPV of 94.1% and a mean accuracy of 89.5%. The interrater agreement within Group 1 was 0.72 and within Group 2 averaged to 0.79, indicating a fair to very good agreement. DR is a valuable screening tool in cases of MA body packers with huge internal payloads being associated with a high diagnostic insecurity. Diagnostic insecurity on plain films may be overcome by low-dose CT as a cross-sectional imaging modality and addressed by improved radiological education in reporting drug carriers on imaging. Diagnostic signs (double-condom and halo signs) on digital plain radiography are specific in MA "drug mules", although DR is associated with high diagnostic insecurity and underreports the total internal payload.

  6. Walking on thin ice! Identifying methamphetaminedrug mules” on digital plain radiography

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rashid, S N; Mohamad Saini, S B; Abdul Hamid, S; Muhammad, S J; Mahmud, R; Thali, M J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of identifying methamphetamine (MA) internal payloads in “drug mules” by plain abdominal digital radiography (DR). Methods: The study consisted of 35 individuals suspected of internal MA drug containers. A total of 59 supine digital radiographs were collected. An overall calculation regarding the diagnostic accuracy for all “drug mules” and a specific evaluation concerning the radiological appearance of drug packs as well as the rate of clearance and complications in correlation with the reader's experience were performed. The gold standard was the presence of secured drug packs in the faeces. Results: There were 16 true-positive “drug mules” identified. DR of all drug carriers for Group 1 (forensic imaging experienced readers, n = 2) exhibited a sensitivity of 100%, a mean specificity of 76.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 78.5%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% and a mean accuracy 87.2%. Group 2 (inexperienced readers, n = 3) showed a lower sensitivity (93.7%), a mean specificity of 86%, a PPV of 86.5%, an NPV of 94.1% and a mean accuracy of 89.5%. The interrater agreement within Group 1 was 0.72 and within Group 2 averaged to 0.79, indicating a fair to very good agreement. Conclusion: DR is a valuable screening tool in cases of MA body packers with huge internal payloads being associated with a high diagnostic insecurity. Diagnostic insecurity on plain films may be overcome by low-dose CT as a cross-sectional imaging modality and addressed by improved radiological education in reporting drug carriers on imaging. Advances in knowledge: Diagnostic signs (double-condom and halo signs) on digital plain radiography are specific in MA “drug mules”, although DR is associated with high diagnostic insecurity and underreports the total internal payload. PMID:24472728

  7. Detection of methamphetamine in the presence of nicotine using in situ chemical derivatization and ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Mariela L; Harrington, Peter B

    2004-02-15

    The detection of methamphetamine in the presence of nicotine has been successfully accomplished using in situ chemical derivatization with propyl chloroformate as the derivatization reagent and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The rapid detection of methamphetamine is important for forensic scientists in order to establish a chain of evidence and link criminals to the crime scene. Nicotine is pervasive in clandestine drug laboratories from cigarette smoke residue. It has been demonstrated that nicotine obscures the methamphetamine peaks in ion mobility spectrometers due to their similar charge affinities and ion mobilities, which makes their detection a challenging task. As a consequence, false positive or negative responses may arise. In situ chemical derivatization poses as a sensitive, accurate, and reproducible alternative to remove the nicotine background when detecting nanogram amounts of methamphetamine. The derivatization agent was coated onto the sample disk, and the derivatization product corresponding to propyl methamphetamine carbamate was detected. In the present study, in situ chemical derivatization was demonstrated to be a feasible method to detect methamphetamine hydrochloride as the carbamate derivative, which was baseline-resolved from the nicotine peak. Alternating least squares (ALS) was used to model the datasets. A mixture containing both compounds revealed reduced mobilities of 1.61 cm(2)/V.s and 1.54 cm(2)/V.s for methamphetamine and nicotine, respectively. The reduced mobility of propyl methamphetamine carbamate was found at 1.35 cm(2)/V.s.

  8. A novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 inhibits methamphetamine self-administration and relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Song, Rui; Yang, Ri-Fang; Wu, Ning; Li, Jin

    2014-11-15

    Growing preclinical evidence suggests that dopamine D3 receptor antagonists are promising for the treatment of addiction. We have previously reported a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 with better pharmacokinetic behaviours and pharmacotherapeutic efficacy than other tested compounds in attenuating the reward and relapse of cocaine. In the present study, we investigated whether YQA14 can similarly inhibit methamphetamine self-administration and cue- or methamphetamine-trigged reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviour. The research illustrated that systemic administration of YQA14 (6.25-25mg/kg, i.p. 20min prior to methamphetamine) failed to alter methamphetamine (0.05mg/kg) self-administration under fixed-ratio 2. However, YQA14 (6.25-25mg/kg, i.p. 20min prior to methamphetamine) significantly and dose-dependently reduced methamphetamine self-administration under fixed-ratio 2 by a low dose (0.006, 0.0125, 0.025mg/kg) of methamphetamine and shifted the dose curve right and down. Further, YQA14 also lowered the break point under progressive-ratio reinforcement conditions in rats. Finally, YQA14 also significantly inhibited cue- or methamphetamine-triggered reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behaviour. Overall, our findings suggest that blockade of the dopamine D3 receptor by YQA14 attenuated the rewarding and incentive motivational effects of methamphetamine in rats and may have pharmacotherapeutic potential in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Thus, YQA14 deserves further investigation as a promising medication for the treatment of addiction.

  9. Occupational exposure to methamphetamine in workers preparing training AIDS for drug detection dogs.

    PubMed

    Stout, P R; Horn, C K; Klette, K L; Given, J

    2006-10-01

    As a part of ongoing testing of personnel preparing training aids for drug detection dogs at the Naval Criminal Investigative Service Regional Forensic Laboratory, personnel handling methamphetamine (MTH) were subject to voluntary urine drug testing. This provided a model of potential unwitting or environmental exposure contribution to MTH concentrations in urine. Urine samples were collected from multiple individuals on the day before, the day of, and the day after the individuals had handled up to 500-g quantities of MTH during the assembly of training aids. Personnel wore gloves, dust masks, and lab coats during the preparation of training aids. A total of 101 urine samples were analyzed for the presence of MTH and amphetamine (AMP) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction and derivatization. Urine samples collected during and after personnel handled drug yielded a mean MTH concentration of 48 ng/mL with a maximum concentration of 262 ng/mL and a minimum detected concentration of approximately 1.6 ng/mL. Thirty-five of the 52 post drug-handling samples had detectable MTH. Ten of the samples had MTH concentrations above the method limit of quantitation of 15 ng/mL. Only one sample had a concentration greater than 50 ng/mL. None of the samples had detectable AMP. From this limited study, it was evident that handling of MTH under these conditions resulted in minimal exposure and small but detectable concentrations of MTH in urine.

  10. Ecstasy (MDMA), methamphetamine, and date rape (drug-facilitated sexual assault): a consideration of the issues.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Karl L R; Theron, Lynn

    2006-03-01

    The term "date rape drug" has traditionally been applied by the media to powerful sedatives, such as gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), which can render a person unconscious and hence unable to resist and/or recall an assault. However, some law enforcement agents and others have recently obtained convictions by arguing that the empathy-generating and sensual effects of MDMA, and an occasional increase in disinhibition and sexual desire linked with methamphetamine use, remove a person's ability to give a reasoned consent, turning the person into "a helpless slave" to their own sexual desires and those of the alleged perpetrator. The argument holds that the victim becomes part of the assault because they may appear to be cooperating and colluding with activity which they would not have consented to without taking these drugs. This interpretation of the term "date rape" has been fed by data that sometimes finds MDMA and amphetamines in samples taken from sexual assault victims, and hence these prosecutions sometimes rely on expert testimony from toxicologists, pathologists and police officers rather than psychologists and psychiatrists who are expert in the human effects of these drugs. Some of those in the latter group have dismissed claims that MDMA is an aphrodisiac or a date rape drug as myths propagated by the media. In this article, these arguments and their respective strengths and weaknesses will be examined to assist professionals and others who may become involved in these cases.

  11. Physical and chemical stability of palonosetron hydrochloride with five common parenteral drugs during simulated Y-site administration.

    PubMed

    Kupie, Thomas C; Trusley, Craig; Ben, Michel; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2008-09-15

    The physical and chemical compatibility of palonosetron hydrochloride with atropine sulfate, famotidine, heparin sodium, lidocaine hydrochloride, and potassium chloride during simulated Y-site administration were studied. Test samples were prepared in duplicate by separately mixing 7.5-mL samples of undiluted palonosetron hydrochloride 50 microg/mL with 7.5-mL samples of atropine sulfate 0.4 mg/mL, famotidine 2 mg/mL, undiluted heparin sodium 100 units/mL, lidocaine hydrochloride 10 mg/mL, and potassium chloride 0.1 meq/mL diluted in 5% dextrose in colorless 15-mL borosilicate glass screw-cap culture tubes with polypropylene caps. Physical stability of the admixtures was assessed by visual examination and by measuring turbidity and particle size and content. Chemical stability of atropine sulfate, famotidine, heparin sodium, and lidocaine hydrochloride was assessed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Potassium chloride concentration was determined by indirect potentiometry using a potassiumion selective electrode. All of the samples of palonosetron hydrochloride with the test drugs were initially clear and colorless in normal fluorescent room light and when viewed with a Tyndall beam. Changes in turbidity for the samples were minor throughout the study. Measured particulates of 10 mum or larger were found to be few in number in all samples and remained so throughout the observation period. The admixtures remained colorless throughout the study. No loss of palonosetron hydrochloride occurred with any of the drugs over four hours. Similarly, little or no loss of the other drugs occurred in four hours. Palonosetron hydrochloride is physically and chemically stable with atropine sulfate, famotidine, heparin sodium, lidocaine hydrochloride, and potassium chloride during simulated Y-site administration.

  12. Thai War on Drugs: measuring changes in methamphetamine and other substance use by school students through matched cross sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Daosodsai, Paiboon; Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Daosodsai, Sopida; Syed, Qutub

    2007-08-01

    In 2003 the Thai government announced a radical shift in drug policy with the implementation of a War on Drugs. Although consequences of this controversial measure (e.g. drug dealer deaths) have received widespread attention relatively little work has evaluated changes in substance use. We used two anonymous representative samples of secondary school students to compare drug use in Northeast Thailand before (1998; n=4217) and after (2004/5; n=3489) the War on Drugs. Results indicate that reported levels of current illicit drug use reduced significantly between 1998 and 2004/5 (for methamphetamine from 4.2% to 0.9%). By examining trends in year of first methamphetamine use we identify that observed reductions in drug initiation are temporally consistent with the War on Drugs. However, while prevalence of alcohol use has also fallen, there was a three-fold increase in daily alcohol use. We suggest that this rise, combined with other negative impacts of 'wars' on drugs, means drug control requires a public health perspective that sees eliminating drug use as part of a wider strategy that has improvement in population health, not just drug prevention, as its core objective.

  13. Dental Disease Prevalence among Methamphetamine and Poly-drug Users in an Urban Setting: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Carolyn; Krishnan, Sumathi; Hursh, Kevin; Yu, Michelle; Johnson, Paul; Page, Kimberly; Shiboski, Caroline H.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Rampant tooth decay has been reported among methamphetamine users. We investigated the prevalence of dental disease and associated risk behaviors in methamphetamine users compared to heroin users. Methods This pilot project is a cross-sectional study of an on-going cohort of young adult injection-drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco. An oral health questionnaire was administered by a research-assistant, and two dentists performed clinical examinations to record the Decayed-Missing-Filled-Surfaces (DMFS) index, presence of residual roots, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and salivary hypofunction. Results The prevalence of dental disease among 58 young adult IDUs was strikingly high compared to the U.S. general population, however, there was no difference in the level of dental disease between the methamphetamine and heroin users in this study. The mean DMFS and number of decayed surfaces exceeded 28 in both groups. Conclusions While no difference in dental disease between methamphetamine and heroin users was detected, we found a high prevalence of caries and caries-associated behaviors in this sample of young adult IDUs. Clinical Implications Given the high level of dental disease observed in this population of young adult IDUs, one next step may be to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of providing low-intensity preventative measures (e.g., distribution of chlorhexidine rinses, xylitol gum, application of fluoride varnishes) through outreach workers. PMID:22942146

  14. Methamphetamine abuse and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, D T; Rhodus, N L

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive powerful stimulant that increases wakefulness and physical activity and produces other effects including cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, hallucinations, and violent behavior. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is estimated at 35 million people worldwide and 10.4 million people in the United States. In the United States, the prevalence of methamphetamine use is beginning to decline but methamphetamine trafficking and use are still significant problems. Dental patients who abuse methamphetamine can present with poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, rampant caries ('Meth mouth'), and excessive tooth wear. Dental management of methamphetamine users requires obtaining a thorough medical history and performing a careful oral examination. The most important factor in treating the oral effects of methamphetamine is for the patient to stop using the drug. Continued abuse will make it difficult to increase salivary flow and hinder the patient's ability to improve nutrition and oral hygiene. Local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors should be used with care in patients taking methamphetamine because they may result in cardiac dysrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular accidents. Thus, dental management of patients who use methamphetamine can be challenging. Dentists need to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients.

  15. The rewarding properties of methamphetamine in an invertebrate model of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Adedeji, Adekunle; Huber, Robert; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    The rewarding properties of drugs in the mammalian system depend on their ability to activate appetitive motivational states. The associated underlying mechanism is strongly conserved in evolution and invertebrates have recently emerged as a powerful new model in addiction research. The natural reward system in crayfish has surprisingly proven sensitive to human drugs of abuse, providing a new model for research into the basic biological mechanisms of drug addiction. In this study, we examined the presence of natural reward systems in crayfish, and then characterized its sensitivity to 2.5 μg/g, 5.0 μg/g and 10.0 μg/g doses of methamphetamine (METH). Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, we demonstrated that irrespective of the number of doses of METH injected into the pericardial system, crayfish seek out a particular tactile environment that had previously been paired with the METH. This study demonstrates that crayfish offer a comparative and complementary approach in addiction research. It contributes an evolutionary context to our understanding of a key component in learning and of natural reward as an important life-sustaining process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Executive functions among individuals with methamphetamine or alcohol as drugs of choice: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Bechara, Antoine; Martin, Eileen M

    2007-02-01

    Substance dependent individuals (SDIs) are frequently, but not invariably, impaired on tasks of executive functions. In this study, we examine patterns of executive performance among subjects with different self-reported "drug of choice" (defined as substance used>80% of the time prior to abstinence). Subjects were 33 abstinent SDIs receiving inpatient treatment and 19 non-SDI normal controls (NC) well-matched on age, sex, ethnicity, and VIQ, who were assessed using the Iowa Gambling Task (GT) and a delayed non-match to sample task (DNM): measures of decision making and working memory, respectively. Seventeen SDIs identified alcohol (AL group) and 16 SDIs identified methamphetamine (METH group) as their drug of choice. Overall, the METH group performed more poorly than the NC and AL groups on both tasks, with the largest differences observed in working memory. The AL group was not significantly impaired overall compared to NCs on either task, but showed subtle abnormalities of GT performance similar to the METH group. These preliminary findings suggest that self-reported drug of choice on admission to treatment may be associated with different patterns of executive performance during early recovery.

  17. The Feasibility of Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk and Drug Use among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, Karen F.; Lehman, Wayne E.; Min, Sung-Joon; Lance, Shannon P.; Speer, Nicole; Booth, Robert E.; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a feasibility study that examined contingency management among out-of-treatment, heterosexual methamphetamine users and the reduction of drug use and HIV risk. Fifty-eight meth users were recruited through street outreach in Denver from November 2006 through March 2007. The low sample size reflects that this was a pilot study to see if CM is feasible in an out-of-treatment, street-recruited population of meth users. Secondary aims were to examine if reductions and drug use and risk behavior could be found. Subjects were randomly assigned to contingency management (CM) or CM plus strengths-based case management (CM/SBCM), with follow-up at 4 and 8 months. Participants were primarily White (90%), 52% male and averaged 38 years old. Eighty-three percent attended at least one CM session, with 29% attending at least fifteen. All participants reduced meth use significantly at follow-up. Those who attended more sessions submitted more stimulant-free urines than those who attended fewer sessions. Participants assigned to CM/SBCM attended more sessions and earned more vouchers than clients in CM. Similarly, participants reported reduced needle-sharing and sex risk. Findings demonstrate that CM and SBCM may help meth users reduce drug use and HIV risk. PMID:23493796

  18. Combating Methamphetamine Use in the Community: The Efficacy of the Drug Court Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle; Hartman, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine use was historically a problem facing Western states; however, in recent years it has methodically spread throughout the nation. Methamphetamine use impacts communities, families, and the criminal justice system in a variety of ways. As such, many jurisdictions are developing policies to reduce the sale and consumption of this drug…

  19. Combating Methamphetamine Use in the Community: The Efficacy of the Drug Court Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle; Hartman, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine use was historically a problem facing Western states; however, in recent years it has methodically spread throughout the nation. Methamphetamine use impacts communities, families, and the criminal justice system in a variety of ways. As such, many jurisdictions are developing policies to reduce the sale and consumption of this drug…

  20. Compulsive methamphetamine taking under punishment is associated with greater cue-induced drug seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Torres, Oscar V; Jayanthi, Subramanian; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Krasnova, Irina N; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2017-03-09

    Methamphetamine (METH) addicts lose control over drug consumption despite suffering multiple adverse medicolegal consequences. To mimic the negative events associated with drug addiction in humans, we recently introduced a rat model of self-administration (SA) with response-contingent punishment on METH intake. These procedures allowed us to distinguish between two addiction-like phenotypes in rats, those that sustained METH taking despite negative consequences (shock-resistant, SR) and rats that significantly reduced their METH intake (shock-sensitive, SS). Here, we further developed our adverse consequence model and examined incubation of METH craving by measuring cue-induced drug seeking in SR and SS rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer METH (0.1mg/kg/injection) or saline intravenously (i.v.) during twenty-two 9-h sessions that consisted of 3 separate 3-h sessions separated by 30min. Subsequently, rats were subjected to incremental footshocks during thirteen additional 9-h METH SA sessions performed in a fashion identical to the training phase. Cue-induced drug craving was then assessed at 2 and 21days after the footshock phase. All rats escalated their intake of METH, with both phenotypes showing similar drug taking patterns during SA training. In addition, rats that continued their METH intake despite negative consequences showed even greater cue-induced drug craving following withdrawal than the rats that reduced METH intake following negative consequences. Taken together, our adverse consequence-based model highlights the possibility of identifying rats by addiction-like phenotypes and subsequent vulnerability to relapse-like behaviors. The use of similar SA models should help in the development of better therapeutic approaches to treat different stages of METH addiction.

  1. A thermodynamic study of the amphiphilic phenothiazine drug thioridazine hydrochloride in water/ethanol solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Mohammad Arif; Barbosa, Silvia; Taboada, Pablo; Castro, Emilio; Siddiq, Mohammad; Mosquera, Víctor

    2006-09-01

    The thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of the tricyclic antidepressant amphiphilic phenothiazine drug thioridazine hydrochloride in the temperature range 20-50 °C and in the presence of ethanol have been measured. The phenothiazine tranquillizing drugs have interesting association characteristics that derive from their rigid, tricyclic hydrophobic groups. Thioridazine hydrochloride is a drug used in treatment of mental illness that shows side effects. Therefore, it is interesting to study the change of its physico-chemical properties with temperature and with the surrounding environment to understand the action mechanism of the drug. Densities, conductivities, and surface tension were measured to obtain surface and bulk solution properties. Critical concentrations, cc, at different temperatures and in the presence of ethanol, and partition coefficients, K, have been calculated, the latter using an indirect method based in the pseudophase model with the help of apparent molar volume data. This method has the advantage that allows calculating the distribution coefficients at solubilizate concentrations below the saturation. Conductivity data show two critical concentrations. The second critical concentration is not clear by density data. The effect of the alcohol is to decrease the first critical concentration due to a decrease in headgroup repulsion. The molar apparent volumes at infinite dilution and in the aggregate in water and in presence of ethanol have been also obtained.

  2. Initiation of methamphetamine use among young Thai drug users: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Susan G.; German, Danielle; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Methamphetamine (MA) has become the leading drug of abuse in northern Thailand over the past several years, particularly among youth. The current qualitative study examines factors associated with MA initiation. Methods Between March 2002 and January 2003, 48 in-depth interviews with young MA users were conducted in advance of a randomized, MA harm reduction, peer outreach intervention trial. The interviews were conducted in Chiang Mai city and the surrounding district. Data were inductively analyzed using the constant comparative method common to grounded theory methods. Atlas-ti was used for data management. Results Participants were 57% male and had a median age of 20 years (range: 15–31). A culture of MA ubiquity characterized participants’ initiation stories. Drug ubiquity encompassed three elements: the extent of MA use within peer networks; the availability of MA; and exposure to MA prior to initiation. All participants were introduced to MA by people close to them, most often by their friends. Internal reasons for trying MA were curiosity, a way to lose weight or enhance hard work, and a way to “forget life’s problems.” With the prevalence of MA use among participants’ peers, initiation was characterized as inevitable. Conclusions Initiation was characterized as ubiquitous in terms of peer networks’ use and availability. Due to the prevalent norm of MA use, these data indicate that interventions targeting social networks and young Thais prior to MA initiation are needed. PMID:18155028

  3. Methamphetamine Preconditioning Causes Differential Changes in Striatal Transcriptional Responses to Large Doses of the Drug

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Brannock, Christie; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T.; Beauvais, Genevieve; Hodges, Amber B.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Krasnova, Irina N.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a toxic drug of abuse, which can cause significant decreases in the levels of monoamines in various brain regions. However, animals treated with progressively increasing doses of METH over several weeks are protected against the toxic effects of the drug. In the present study, we tested the possibility that this pattern of METH injections might be associated with transcriptional changes in the rat striatum, an area of the brain which is known to be very sensitive to METH toxicity and which is protected by METH preconditioning. We found that the presence and absence of preconditioning followed by injection of large doses of METH caused differential expression in different sets of striatal genes. Quantitative PCR confirmed METH-induced changes in some genes of interest. These include small heat shock 27 kD proteins 1 and 2 (HspB1 and HspB2), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1). Our observations are consistent with previous studies which have reported that ischemic or pharmacological preconditioning can cause reprogramming of gene expression after lethal ischemic insults. These studies add to the growing literature on the effects of preconditioning on the brain transcriptome. PMID:21731535

  4. Role of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in methamphetamine-induced drug dependence in mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Bing, Guoying; Chae, Jong Seok; Kim, Tae Woo; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2009-12-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and cytochrome P-450 (CYP) ensure the rapid detoxification of epoxides generated during the oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics. Although CYP has been demonstrated to modulate methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral effects, little is known about the role of the mEH gene on these effects. We examined the role of mEH gene expression in METH-induced conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization by using mEH(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Extracellular dopamine (DA) levels and DA uptake into synaptosomes were assessed by using an in vivo microdialysis and [(3)H]DA uptake assay. We applied double-label immunocytochemistry to characterize mEH-positive cellular types. METH-induced behavioral responses paralleled striatal c-Fos-like immunoreactivity. METH treatment resulted in increased extracellular DA levels in the nucleus accumbens but decreased synaptosomal DA uptake in the striatum. These behavioral and neurochemical changes were more pronounced in the mEH(-/-) mice than in WT mice. In WT mice, mEH-like immunoreactivity was expressed in astrocytes labeled by GFAP or S100B after METH treatment. The results suggest that epoxide intermediates mediate METH drug dependence and that astrocytic reactions of mEH protein are important in the endogenous modulation in response to METH drug dependence. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Cross-border activities and association with current methamphetamine use among Chinese injection drug users (IDUs) in a China-Myanmar border region.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua

    2014-05-01

    Methamphetamine has become one of the most widely used illicit substances in the world. We measured the prevalence and identified the correlates of methamphetamine use amongst current injection drug users (IDUs) in a China-Myanmar border region. A cross-sectional survey including interviews and serological testing was conducted in 2012. Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression indentified factors associated with current methamphetamine use. Among 370 IDUs recruited, prevalence of lifetime and current methamphetamine use was 84.2% and 75.2% respectively. Amongst 293 current users, 18.1% ever purchased methamphetamine from Myanmar while 8.9% ever used it there during the past 6 months. IDUs who had cross-border activities, including purchasing drugs (AOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) and visiting family/friends, doing business or odd jobs in Myanmar (AOR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.24) were more likely to use methamphetamine in the past six months. Other factors independently associated with current methamphetamine use included being younger (aged  ≤ 25 years, AOR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.41), being syphilis positive (AOR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.33), having used previously self-used needle/syringe (AOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.34) and recently received prevention services (AOR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.28). Methamphetamine has become another major drug of use and poses the serious concern among injecting drug users living in the China/Myanmar border region. The bi-national cooperation is urgently needed to develop targeted effective intervention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alterations of prefrontal cortical microRNAs in methamphetamine self-administering rats: From controlled drug intake to escalated drug intake.

    PubMed

    Du, Hao-Yue; Cao, Dan-Ni; Chen, Ying; Wang, Lv; Wu, Ning; Li, Jin

    2016-01-12

    Drug addiction is a process that transits from recreative and regular drug use into compulsive drug use. The two patterns of drug use, controlled drug intake and escalated drug intake, represent different stages in the development of drug addiction; and escalation of drug use is a hallmark of addiction. Accumulating studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key regulatory roles in drug addiction. However, the molecular adaptations in escalation of drug use, as well as the difference in the adaptations between escalated and controlled drug use, remain unclear. In the present study, 28 altered miRNAs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were found in the groups of controlled methamphetamine self-administration (1h/session) and escalated self-administration (6h/session), and some of them were validated. Compared with saline control group, miR-186 was verified to be up-regulated while miR-195 and miR-329 were down-regulated in the rats with controlled methamphetamine use. In the rats with escalated drug use, miR-127, miR-186, miR-222 and miR-24 were verified to be up-regulated while miR-329 was down-regulated compared with controls. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis indicated that the predicted targets of these verified miRNAs involved in the processes of neuronal apoptosis and synaptic plasticity. However, the putative regulated molecules may be different between controlled and escalated drug use groups. Taken together, we detected the altered miRNAs in rat PFC under the conditions of controlled methamphetamine use and escalated use respectively, which may extend our understanding of the molecular adaptations underlying the transition from controlled drug use to addiction.

  7. Neonatal methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release in rats is inhibited by adrenal autotransplantation without altering the effect of the drug on hippocampal serotonin.

    PubMed

    Grace, Curtis E; Schaefer, Tori L; Gudelsky, Gary A; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2010-01-01

    Rat neonatal methamphetamine exposure results in corticosterone release and learning and memory impairments in later life; effects also observed after neonatal stress. Previous attempts to test the role of corticosterone release after methamphetamine using corticosterone inhibitors were unsuccessful and adrenalectomy caused reductions in hippocampal serotonin greater than those caused by methamphetamine alone. Here we tested whether adrenal autotransplantation could be used to attenuate methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release without also altering the effects of the drug on serotonin. Adrenal autotransplantation surgery occurred on postnatal day 9 followed by methamphetamine or saline treatment from postnatal day 11-20 (10mg/kg/dosex4/day). Plasma corticosterone and hippocampal serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were determined 30min following the first treatment on each day between postnatal days 11-20. Adrenal autotransplantation attenuated neonatal methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release by approximately 70% initially, approximately 55% midway through treatment, and approximately 25% by the end of treatment. Methamphetamine reduced serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus in the ADXA rats to the same degree as in SHAM rats. The data show that neonatal adrenal autotransplantation is an effective method for partially reducing treatment-induced corticosterone release while providing sufficient corticosterone to sustain normal growth and development. The method should be applicable to other models of developmental stress/corticosterone release.

  8. The methamphetamine problem

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Niall

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to the characteristics of methamphetamine. Explored within are the drug's effects on those who consume it as well as the history and prevalence of its use. The highly addictive nature of methamphetamine is compounded by its affordability and the ease with which it is produced, with North America and East Asia having become established as heartlands for both consumption and manufacture. The paper discusses recent cultural depictions of the drug and also the role that mental health professionals may take in designing and delivering interventions to treat methamphetamine addiction. PMID:26755964

  9. Young Thai women who use methamphetamine: intersection of sexual partnerships, drug use, and social networks.

    PubMed

    German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan G; Latkin, Carl A; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Thomson, Nicholas; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D

    2008-04-01

    Given high rates of methamphetamine (MA) use among young people in Thailand and evidence of an association between MA and increased sexual risk behaviour, we examined the association between women's recent sexual partnerships, social network characteristics and drug and alcohol use. Female participants (n=320) in an HIV behavioural trial among young (18-25 years) MA users in Chiang Mai completed a drug and sexual behaviour survey and social network inventory. Multinomial regression analyses accounting for clustered data examined individual and network characteristics associated with recent sexual partnership category. We compared women with only one male partner in the past year (39%) to those with multiple male partners (37%) and those with only female partners (24%). Differences in levels of drug and alcohol use and social and sexual network characteristics were dependent on recent sexual partnership profiles. The multiple partner group reported an average of five male partners in the past year; 12% reported consistent condom use in the past 30 days. Compared to both groups, women with multiple male partners used MA more frequently, had larger non-sex networks with more MA users, were more likely to have an MA-using sex partner, and received less emotional support from their partners. Women with multiple male partners and only female partners reported more frequent alcohol use. Policy and intervention efforts targeting drug use and sexual behaviour among young Thai women are drastically needed and may benefit from consideration of the diversity within the population. These data point to the need for targeted prevention approaches that take into account the varying characteristics and social influences of these different groups of women.

  10. Polypeptide with electroactive endgroups as sensing platform for the abused drug 'methamphetamine' by bioelectrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Demir, Bilal; Yilmaz, Tulay; Guler, Emine; Gumus, Z Pinar; Akbulut, Huseyin; Aldemir, Ebru; Coskunol, Hakan; Colak, Demet Goen; Cianga, Ioan; Yamada, Shuhei; Timur, Suna; Endo, Takeshi; Yagci, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Affinity-type sensors have emerged as outstanding platforms in the detection of diagnostic protein markers, nucleic acids and drugs. Thus, these novel platforms containing antibodies could be integrated into the monitoring systems for abused drugs. Herein, we established a novel detection platform for the analysis of a common illicit drug; methamphetamine (METH). Initially, a fluorescent-labeled polypeptide (EDOT-BTDA-Pala), derived from L-alanine N-carboxyanhydride (L-Ala-NCA) via ring-opening polymerization using 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-5,6-diamine (EDOT-NH2-BTDA) as initiator, was employed as a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) covering host, in order to immobilize the METH-selective antibody. Prior to the examination of analytical features, GCE/EDOT-BTDA-Pala/Antibody surface was successfully characterized in the way of electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and microscopic techniques (scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy). As for the analytical characterization, linearity and limit of detection (LOD) were found as 10-100µg/mL with an equation of y=0.0429x-0.2347, (R(2)=0.996) and 13.07µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, sample application using artificial urine, saliva and serum samples spiked with METH (10, 25, 50µg/mL) were performed and LC-MS/MS system was used for further confirmation. The described platform can be adapted to monitor the other types of abused drugs by using suitably selected biorecognition elements.

  11. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-10-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol- or heroin-use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation-seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. PMID:21550758

  13. Associations Between Family History of Substance Use, Childhood Trauma, and Age of First Drug Use in Persons With Methamphetamine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Svingen, Leah; Dykstra, Rita E; Simpson, Jamie L; Jaffe, Anna E; Bevins, Rick A; Carlo, Gustavo; DiLillo, David; Grant, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association among family history of substance use problems, childhood maltreatment, and age of first drug use in a sample of men and women seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Various forms of childhood maltreatment were considered as mediators of the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. Participants (N = 99, 40% women, mean age 33) who were under treatment for methamphetamine dependence completed a baseline interview that obtained demographic information, past substance use by participants, history of drug/alcohol problems in their family of origin, and age at first use of any drug (excluding alcohol and tobacco). The Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form was used to assess child maltreatment experiences before the age of 18. Family history of substance use problems and childhood physical (but not emotional or sexual) trauma significantly predicted age of first drug use. Further, childhood physical trauma mediated the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. These findings suggest that the experience of childhood physical abuse may be an important mechanism through which family history of substance use is associated with an earlier age of first drug use.

  14. Development of a dual test procedure for DNA typing and methamphetamine detection using a trace amount of stimulant-containing blood.

    PubMed

    Irii, Toshiaki; Maebashi, Kyoko; Fukui, Kenji; Sohma, Ryoko; Matsumoto, Sari; Takasu, Shojiro; Iwadate, Kimiharu

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of drug-related crimes, such as violation of the Stimulant Drug Control Law, requires identifying the used drug (mainly stimulant drugs, methamphetamine hydrochloride) from a drug solution and the DNA type of the drug user from a trace of blood left in the syringe used to inject the drug. In current standard test procedures, DNA typing and methamphetamine detection are performed as independent tests that use two separate portions of a precious sample. The sample can be entirely used up by either analysis. Therefore, we developed a new procedure involving partial lysis of a stimulant-containing blood sample followed by separation of the lysate into a precipitate for DNA typing and a liquid-phase fraction for methamphetamine detection. The method enables these two tests to be run in parallel using a single portion of sample. Samples were prepared by adding methamphetamine hydrochloride water solution to blood. Samples were lysed with Proteinase K in PBS at 56°C for 20min, cooled at -20°C after adding methanol, and then centrifuged at 15,000rpm. Based on the biopolymer-precipitating ability of alcohol, the precipitate was used for DNA typing and the liquid-phase fraction for methamphetamine detection. For DNA typing, the precipitate was dissolved and DNA was extracted, quantified, and subjected to STR analysis using the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit. For methamphetamine detection, the liquid-phase fraction was evaporated with N2 gas after adding 20μL acetic acid and passed through an extraction column; the substances captured in the column were eluted with a solvent, derivatized, and quantitatively detected using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. This method was simple and could be completed in approximately 2h. Both DNA typing and methamphetamine detection were possible, which suggests that this method may be valuable for use in criminal investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical features of patients with designer-drug-related disorder in Japan: a comparison with patients with methamphetamine- and hypnotic/anxiolytic-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tachimori, Hisateru; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features of designer-drug-abusing patients through comparisons with methamphetamine-abusing patients and hypnotics/anxiolytics-abusing patients. Information on 126 designer-drug-abusing patients, 138 methamphetamine-abusing patients, and 87 hypnotics/anxiolytics-abusing patients was extracted from the 2012 database of 'The Nationwide Mental Hospital Survey on Drug-related Psychiatric Disorders' and the clinical variables of designer-drug-abusing patients compared with those of the other two groups. Multivariate analysis indicated the following significant differences between designer-drug-abusing patients and the other two types of patients: designer-drug-abusing patients were younger, included more men, had higher education and fewer relationships with antisocial groups, and included more patients meeting ICD-10 F1 sub-classification categories of 'Harmful use' and 'Psychotic disorders' than methamphetamine-abusing patients. Compared with hypnotics/anxiolytics-abusing patients, designer-drug-abusing patients were younger, included more men and more patients meeting criteria for 'Psychotic disorders', and more frequently cited 'peer pressure', 'unable to refuse', and 'seeking stimulation' as reasons for using the drug. The advent of designer drugs has created a new class of drug abuse, and abuse of designer drugs may carry a strong psychosis-inducing risk, exceeding that of methamphetamine. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. The relationship between sleep and drug use characteristics in participants with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, James J.; Garza, Richard De La; Jackson, Brian J.; Verrico, Christopher D.; Ho, Allyson; Iqbal, Tabish; Newton, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the relationship between self-reported sleep habits, daytime sleepiness, and drug use variables in individuals with cocaine and methamphetamine (METH) use disorders. Participants with a cocaine or meth use disorder completed questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a Demographic/Drug use form. Participants with a cocaine (N=51) or meth use disorder (N=85) were separated into those with either high or low sleep deficits. In participants with a cocaine use disorder, ANOVA revealed significantly higher ESS scores among those defined as “poor sleepers” (with a PSQI score >5) when compared to those defined as “good sleepers” (with a PSQI score ≤5). In addition, poor sleepers reported using cocaine for more days out of the past 30 when compared to good sleepers. Interestingly, good sleepers reported using more grams of cocaine/day compared to poor sleepers. In participants with a METH use disorder, ANOVA revealed significantly higher ESS scores among poor sleepers when compared to good sleepers. Finally, individuals with a METH use disorder that endorsed elevated daytime sleepiness also had significantly higher PSQI scores when compared to those with normal daytime sleepiness. The results indicate that drug use variables, such as recent and daily use, may affect sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in individuals with stimulant use disorders; however, further investigations (i.e. in cocaine and METH users that do not meet criteria for a cocaine or METH use disorder) must be conducted in order to provide more conclusive evidence of the impact these usage variables may have on these sleep characteristics. PMID:24951161

  17. The relationship between sleep and drug use characteristics in participants with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, James J; De La Garza, Richard; Jackson, Brian J; Verrico, Christopher D; Ho, Allyson; Iqbal, Tabish; Newton, Thomas F

    2014-10-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the relationship between self-reported sleep habits, daytime sleepiness, and drug use variables in individuals with cocaine and methamphetamine (METH) use disorders. Participants with a cocaine or meth use disorder completed questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a demographic/drug use form. Participants with a cocaine (N=51) or meth use disorder (N=85) were separated into those with either high or low sleep deficits. In participants with a cocaine use disorder, ANOVA revealed significantly higher ESS scores among those defined as "poor sleepers" (with a PSQI score >5) when compared to those defined as "good sleepers" (with a PSQI score ≤5). In addition, poor sleepers reported using cocaine for more days out of the past 30 when compared to good sleepers. Interestingly, good sleepers reported using more grams of cocaine/day compared to poor sleepers. In participants with a METH use disorder, ANOVA revealed significantly higher ESS scores among poor sleepers when compared to good sleepers. Finally, individuals with a METH use disorder that endorsed elevated daytime sleepiness also had significantly higher PSQI scores when compared to those with normal daytime sleepiness. The results indicate that drug use variables, such as recent and daily use, may affect sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in individuals with stimulant use disorders; however, further investigations (i.e. in cocaine and METH users that do not meet criteria for a cocaine or METH use disorder) must be conducted in order to provide more conclusive evidence of the impact these usage variables may have on these sleep characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of methamphetamine on cognitive functions of adult female rats prenatally exposed to the same drug.

    PubMed

    Macúchová, E; Nohejlová-Deykun, K; Slamberová, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and application of the same drug in adulthood on cognitive functions of adult female rats. Animals were prenatally exposed to MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (control group). The cognitive function was tested as ability of spatial learning in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Each day of the experiment animals received an injection of MA (1 mg/kg) or saline. Our results demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure did not affect the latency to reach the hidden platform or the distance traveled during the Place Navigation Test; however, the speed of swimming was increased in prenatally MA-exposed rats compared to controls regardless of the treatment in adulthood. MA treatment in adulthood increased the latency and distance when compared to controls regardless of the prenatal exposure. Neither prenatal exposure, nor treatment in adulthood affected memory retrieval. As far as the estrous cycle is concerned, our results showed that prenatally MA-exposed females in proestrus/estrus swam faster than females in diestrus. This effect of estrous cycle was not apparent in control females. In conclusion, our results indicate that postnatal, but not prenatal exposure to MA affects learning of adult female rats.

  19. An examination of drug craving over time in abstinent methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Gantt P; Singleton, Edward G; Buscemi, Raymond; Baggott, Matthew J; Dickerhoof, René M; Mendelson, John E

    2010-01-01

    Craving for addictive drugs may predict relapse in abstinent addicts. To assess relationships between craving and use, we examined changes in craving for methamphetamine (MA) in a sample of 865 outpatients in a multisite 16-week MA-treatment study. Craving was assessed on a 0-100 scale, and MA use was assessed by self-report and confirmed by urinalysis. We hypothesized that the magnitude of craving would decline (decay) with increased time of abstinence, and that decay would be greater for more frequent MA users, and greater for intravenous (IV) users and smokers as compared to those who used MA intranasally. Craving declined significantly as the number of weeks of consecutive abstinence increased. Rate of decay was greater for IV users and smokers as compared to both intranasal users and oral users, but not for more frequent users of MA. Rate of decay was independent of age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The trajectory to 0 (no) craving was 1 week shorter for females than males because females had significantly lower pretreatment craving scores compared to males. This study confirms that the sooner MA-dependent people are able to quit using and the longer that they are able to stay abstinent, the more likely it is that their craving for MA will decrease over time. 

  20. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse XXI. Effect of para-substituents on benzene ring of methamphetamine on drug incorporation into rat hair.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Y; Hanajiri, R

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the effect of para-substituents on the benzene ring of methamphetamine on drug incorporation into hair from blood, the plasma AUCs and hair concentrations of 7 methamphetamines [methamphetamine(MA), p-hydroxymethamphetamine(OHMA), p-bromomethamphetamine (BMA), p-aminomethamphetamine (AMA), p-nitromethamphetamine (NMA), p-methoxymethamphetamine (MOMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] plus propylhexedrine(PHX) in DA rats was determined after intraperitoneal injection at 5 mg/kg, with single dose for the plasma AUC and 10 doses for the hair concentration. Drug incorporation rates into hair (ICRs) were calculated by dividing each hair concentration by each plasma AUC. Comparing the highest value (NMA) to the lowest one (OHMA), the ICR of NMA was 31.7 times larger than that of OHMA. Using the ICR of MA which has no substitute on the benzene ring as a base point, nitro, bromo, methylenedioxy, methoxy and amino groups raised the drug incorporation into rat hair in this order. On the other hand, hydroxy substitution showed a negative effect on the ICR. In comparison between the ICRs of MA and PHX, it was found that the benzene ring shows higher affinity to melanin and less lipophilicity than the cyclohexyl ring. Our results showed that there is a relatively strong effect of the functional groups on drug incorporation into hair. The combination of melanin affinity and lipophilicity are clearly correlated with their ICR.

  1. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section 862....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section 862....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section 862....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section 862....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section 862....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine...

  6. Effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on fetal growth and drug withdrawal symptoms in infants born at term.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lynne; Yonekura, M Lynn; Wallace, Toni; Berman, Nancy; Kuo, Jennifer; Berkowitz, Carol

    2003-02-01

    To determine fetal growth and the incidence of withdrawal symptoms in term infants exposed to methamphetamine in utero, we retrospectively identified neonates whose mothers used methamphetamine during pregnancy and matched them to unexposed newborns. Exclusion criteria included multiple and preterm gestations. Although there were no differences in infant growth parameters between the methamphetamine-exposed and methamphetamine-unexposed neonates, methamphetamine exposure throughout gestation was associated with decreased growth relative to infants exposed only for the first two trimesters. In addition, there were significantly more small for gestational age infants in the methamphetamine group compared with the unexposed group. Methamphetamine-exposed infants whose mothers smoked had significantly decreased growth relative to infants exposed to methamphetamine alone. Withdrawal symptoms (as determined by a previously reported scoring system) requiring pharmacologic intervention were observed in 4% of methamphetamine-exposed infants. These preliminary findings indicate that methamphetamine use is associated with growth restriction in infants born at term.

  7. Pavlovian drug discrimination with bupropion as a feature positive occasion setter: substitution by methamphetamine and nicotine, but not cocaine.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jamie L; Li, Chia; Bevins, Rick A

    2009-04-01

    Bupropion can serve as a discriminative stimulus (S(D)) in an operant drug discrimination task, and a variety of stimulants substitute for the bupropion S(D). There are no reports, however, of bupropion functioning as a Pavlovian occasion setter (i.e. feature positive modulator). The present experiment seeks to fill this gap in the literature by training bupropion in rats as a feature positive modulator that disambiguates when a light will be paired with sucrose. Specifically, on bupropion (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) sessions, offset of 15-second cue lights were followed by brief delivery of liquid sucrose; saline sessions were similar except no sucrose was available. Rats readily acquired the discrimination with more conditioned responding to the light on bupropion sessions. Bupropion is approved for use as a smoking cessation aid, and more recently has drawn attention as a potential pharmacotherapy for cocaine and methamphetamine abuse. Accordingly, after discrimination training, we tested the ability of cocaine (1-10 mg/kg), methamphetamine (0.1 to 1 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.00625 to 0.2 mg/kg) to substitute for the bupropion feature. Nicotine (0.05 mg/kg) and methamphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) substituted fully for bupropion; cocaine did not substitute. These results extend previous research on shared stimulus properties between bupropion and other stimulants to a Pavlovian occasion setting function. Further, this is the first report of nicotine and methamphetamine substitution for bupropion. The overlap in stimulus properties might explain the effectiveness of bupropion as a smoking cessation aid and highlight the possible utility of bupropion for treatment of stimulant use disorder.

  8. Pavlovian drug discrimination with bupropion as a feature positive occasion setter: Substitution by methamphetamine and nicotine, but not cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Li, Chia; Bevins, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    Bupropion can serve as a discriminative stimulus (SD) in an operant drug discrimination task, and a variety of stimulants substitute for the bupropion SD. There are no reports, however, of bupropion functioning as a Pavlovian occasion setter (i.e., feature positive modulator). The present experiment seeks to fill this gap in the literature by training bupropion in rats as a feature positive modulator that disambiguates when a light will be paired with sucrose. Specifically, on bupropion (10 mg/kg IP) sessions, offset of 15-sec cue lights were followed by brief delivery of liquid sucrose; saline sessions were similar except no sucrose was available. Rats readily acquired the discrimination with more conditioned responding to the light on bupropion sessions. Bupropion is approved for use as a smoking cessation aid, and more recently has drawn attention as a potential pharmacotherapy for cocaine and methamphetamine abuse. Accordingly, after discrimination training we tested the ability of cocaine (1 to 10 mg/kg), methamphetamine (0.1 to 1 mg/kg), and nicotine (0.00625 to 0.2 mg/kg) to substitute for the bupropion feature. Nicotine (0.05 mg/kg) and methamphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) substituted fully for bupropion; cocaine did not substitute. These results extend previous research on shared stimulus properties between bupropion and other stimulants to a Pavlovian occasion setting function. Further, this is the first report of nicotine and methamphetamine substitution for bupropion. The overlap in stimulus properties might explain the effectiveness of bupropion as a smoking cessation aid and highlight the possible utility of bupropion for treatment of stimulant use disorder. PMID:19076926

  9. Characterization of the guinea pig animal model and subsequent comparison of the behavioral effects of selective dopaminergic drugs and methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kiera-Nicole; Pellom, Samuel T.; Oliver, Ericka; Chirwa, Sanika

    2014-01-01

    Though not commonly used in behavior tests guinea pigs may offer subtle behavior repertoires that better mimic human activity and warrant study. To test this, 31 Hartley guinea pigs (male, 200–250 g) were evaluated in PhenoTyper cages using the video-tracking EthoVision XT 7.0 software. Results showed that guinea pigs spent more time in the hidden zone (small box in corner of cage) than the food/water zone, or arena zone. Guinea pigs exhibited thigmotaxis (a wall following strategy) and were active throughout the light and dark phases. Eating and drinking occurred throughout the light and dark phases. An injection of 0.25 mg/kg SCH23390, the dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) antagonist, produced significant decreases in time spent in the hidden zone. There were insignificant changes in time spent in the hidden zone for guinea pigs treated with 7.5 mg SKF38393 (D1R agonist), 1.0 mg/kg sulpiride (D2R antagonist), and 1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg methamphetamine. Locomotor activity profiles were unchanged after injections of saline, SKF38393, SCH23390 and sulpiride. By contrast, a single injection or repeated administration for 7 days of low-dose methamphetamine induced transient hyperactivity but this declined to baseline levels over the 22-hour observation period. Guinea pigs treated with high-dose methamphetamine displayed sustained hyperactivity and travelled significantly greater distances over the circadian cycle. Subsequent 7-day treatment with high-dose methamphetamine induced motor sensitization and significant increases in total distances moved relative to single drug injections or saline controls. These results highlight the versatility and unique features of the guinea pig for studying brain-behavior interactions. PMID:24436154

  10. Characterization of the guinea pig animal model and subsequent comparison of the behavioral effects of selective dopaminergic drugs and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kiera-Nicole; Pellom, Samuel T; Oliver, Ericka; Chirwa, Sanika

    2014-05-01

    Although not commonly used in behavior tests guinea pigs may offer subtle behavior repertoires that better mimic human activity and warrant study. To test this, 31 Hartley guinea pigs (male, 200-250 g) were evaluated in PhenoTyper cages using the video-tracking EthoVision XT 7.0 software. Results showed that guinea pigs spent more time in the hidden zone (small box in corner of cage) than the food/water zone, or arena zone. Guinea pigs exhibited thigmotaxis (a wall following strategy) and were active throughout the light and dark phases. Eating and drinking occurred throughout the light and dark phases. An injection of 0.25 mg/kg SCH23390, the dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) antagonist, produced significant decreases in time spent in the hidden zone. There were insignificant changes in time spent in the hidden zone for guinea pigs treated with 7.5 mg SKF38393 (D1R agonist), 1.0 mg/kg sulpiride (D2R antagonist), and 1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg methamphetamine. Locomotor activity profiles were unchanged after injections of saline, SKF38393, SCH23390, and sulpiride. By contrast, a single injection or repeated administration for 7 days of low-dose methamphetamine induced transient hyperactivity but this declined to baseline levels over the 22-h observation period. Guinea pigs treated with high-dose methamphetamine displayed sustained hyperactivity and travelled significantly greater distances over the circadian cycle. Subsequent 7-day treatment with high-dose methamphetamine induced motor sensitization and significant increases in total distances moved relative to single drug injections or saline controls. These results highlight the versatility and unique features of the guinea pig for studying brain-behavior interactions.

  11. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in predicting drug–drug interactions for sarpogrelate hydrochloride in humans

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jee Sun; Kim, Doyun; Park, Jung Bae; Heo, Hyunjin; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Seo, Jae Hong; Oh, Euichaul; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluating the potential risk of metabolic drug–drug interactions (DDIs) is clinically important. Objective To develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for sarpogrelate hydrochloride and its active metabolite, (R,S)-1-{2-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-phenoxy}-3-(dimethylamino)-2-propanol (M-1), in order to predict DDIs between sarpogrelate and the clinically relevant cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 substrates, metoprolol, desipramine, dextromethorphan, imipramine, and tolterodine. Methods The PBPK model was developed, incorporating the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of sarpogrelate hydrochloride, and M-1 based on the findings from in vitro and in vivo studies. Subsequently, the model was verified by comparing the predicted concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters of sarpogrelate and M-1 to the observed clinical data. Finally, the verified model was used to simulate clinical DDIs between sarpogrelate hydrochloride and sensitive CYP2D6 substrates. The predictive performance of the model was assessed by comparing predicted results to observed data after coadministering sarpogrelate hydrochloride and metoprolol. Results The developed PBPK model accurately predicted sarpogrelate and M-1 plasma concentration profiles after single or multiple doses of sarpogrelate hydrochloride. The simulated ratios of area under the curve and maximum plasma concentration of metoprolol in the presence of sarpogrelate hydrochloride to baseline were in good agreement with the observed ratios. The predicted fold-increases in the area under the curve ratios of metoprolol, desipramine, imipramine, dextromethorphan, and tolterodine following single and multiple sarpogrelate hydrochloride oral doses were within the range of ≥1.25, but <2-fold, indicating that sarpogrelate hydrochloride is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 in vivo. Collectively, the predicted low DDIs suggest that sarpogrelate hydrochloride has limited potential for causing

  12. Vibrational spectra and density functional theoretical calculations on the anti-neurodegenerative drug: Orphenadrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Bismi; Hubert Joe, I

    2012-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis and quantum chemical computations based on density functional theory have been performed on the anti-neuro-degenerative drug Orphenadrine hydrochloride. The geometry, intermolecular hydrogen bond, and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the title molecule have been investigated with the help of B3LYP method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with the experimental data. The various intramolecular interactions have been exposed by natural bond orbital analysis. The distribution of Mulliken atomic charges and bending of natural hybrid orbitals also reflect the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The analysis of the electron density of HOMO and LUMO gives an idea of the delocalization and low value of energy gap indicates electron transport in the molecule and thereby bioactivity. Effective docking of the drug molecule with NMDA receptor subunit 3A also enhances its bioactive nature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tramadol hydrochloride: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse side effects, co-administration of drugs and new drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Vazzana, M; Andreani, T; Fangueiro, J; Faggio, C; Silva, C; Santini, A; Garcia, M L; Silva, A M; Souto, E B

    2015-03-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride (TrHC) is a synthetic analgesic drug exhibiting opioid and non-opioid properties, acting mainly on the central nervous system. It has been mostly used to treat pain, although its use to treat anxiety and depression has also been documented. These properties arise from the fact that they inhibit serotonin (5-HT) reuptake augmenting 5-HT concentration on the synaptic cleft. Despite this, TrHC has also been described to have several side effects which are mainly due to its fast metabolization and excretion which in turn requires multiple doses per day. To surpass this limitation, new pharmaceutical formulations are being developed intending the protection, target and sustained delivery as well as a reduction on daily dose aiming a reduction on the side effects. In the present work we have revised the efficacy, safety, biological and adverse effects of TrHC, and the added value of developing a novel drug delivery system for topical administration.

  14. Characterization of Route Specific Impurities Found in Methamphetamine Synthesized by the Leuckart and Reductive Amination Methods

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Impurity profiling of seized methamphetamine can provide very useful information in criminal investigations and, specifically, on drug trafficking routes, sources of supply, and relationships between seizures. Particularly important is the identification of “route specific” impurities or those which indicate the synthetic method used for manufacture in illicit laboratories. Previous researchers have suggested impurities which are characteristic of the Leuckart and reductive amination (Al/Hg) methods of preparation. However, to date and importantly, these two synthetic methods have not been compared in a single study utilizing methamphetamine hydrochloride synthesized in-house and, therefore, of known synthetic origin. Using the same starting material, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P), 40 batches of methamphetamine hydrochloride were synthesized by the Leuckart and reductive amination methods (20 batches per method). Both basic and acidic impurities were extracted separately and analyzed by GC/MS. From this controlled study, two route specific impurities for the Leuckart method and one route specific impurity for the reductive amination method are reported. The intra- and inter-batch variation of these route specific impurities was assessed. Also, the variation of the “target impurities” recently recommended for methamphetamine profiling is discussed in relation to their variation within and between production batches synthesized using the Leuckart and reductive amination routes. PMID:19637924

  15. Methamphetamine and ethanol interactions in humans.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, J; Jones, R T; Upton, R; Jacob, P

    1995-05-01

    Methamphetamine and ethanol are commonly used together. We examined the effects of intravenous methamphetamine (30 mg), oral ethanol (1 gm/kg), and the combination of methamphetamine (30 mg) and ethanol (1 gm/kg). Eight methamphetamine and ethanol users were studied in a double-blind, double-placebo, within-subject, balanced Latin-square design. Ethanol was administered in six drinks over 30 minutes. Methamphetamine was injected 60 minutes after the first drink was begun. Cardiovascular, subjective, and neuropsychologic effects of the drug combinations were measured for 6 hours. Methamphetamine and amphetamine in plasma and urine were measured by capillary gas chromatography for 48 hours. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. Compared with methamphetamine alone, the combination increased heart rate but decreased systolic blood pressure. The net cardiovascular effect was an increase in rate pressure product, an index of cardiac work and myocardial oxygen consumption. The combination diminished the subjective effects of ethanol while not affecting the subjective effects of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were not altered by the concurrent administration of ethanol, with the exception of lowering the apparent volume of distribution at steady state for methamphetamine. As a potent sympathomimetic drug with alpha-agonist-like effects, methamphetamine increased systolic blood pressure, with minimal change in heart rate. The concurrent administration of methamphetamine and ethanol increased cardiac work, which could produce more adverse cardiovascular effects than either drug taken alone. The increased perceived global intoxication may explain the popularity of this drug combination.

  16. Doxorubicin hydrochloride-oleic acid conjugate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for tumor specific drug release.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuangni; Minh, Le Van; Li, Na; Garamus, Vasil M; Handge, Ulrich A; Liu, Jianwen; Zhang, Rongguang; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Zou, Aihua

    2016-09-01

    The hydrophilic drug Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) paired with oleic acid (OA) was successfully incorporated into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) by a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) method. Drug nanovehicles with proper physico-chemical characteristics (less than 200nm with narrow size distribution, spherical shape, layered internal organization, and negative electrical charge) were prepared and characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. The drug loading and entrapment efficiency of DOX-OA/NLCs were 4.09% and 97.80%, respectively. A pH-dependent DOX release from DOX-OA/NLCs, i.e., fast at pH 3.8 and 5.7 and sustained at pH 7.4, was obtained. A cytotoxicity assay showed that DOX-OA/NLCs had comparable cytotoxicity to pure DOX and were favorably taken up by HCT 116 cells. The intracellular distribution of DOX was also studied using a confocal laser scanning microscope. All of these results demonstrated that DOX-OA/NLCs could be a promising drug delivery system with tumor-specific DOX release for cancer treatment.

  17. Is the self-report of recent cocaine or methamphetamine use reliable in illicit stimulant drug users who present to the Emergency Department with chest pain?

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon O; Vivier, Patrick M; Diercks, Deborah B

    2009-08-01

    Use of illicit drugs results in an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, which is often seen in the Emergency Department (ED). Chest pain is frequently associated with cocaine and methamphetamine use. To determine if the self-report of recent cocaine or methamphetamine use is reliable in illicit stimulant drug users who present to the ED with chest pain. A retrospective review of patients presenting to the ED from July 1, 2004 through June 30, 2006 was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: age >or= 18 years, chief complaint of chest pain, documented social history of drug abuse, positive urine toxicology screen and myoglobin and troponin levels measured, sent from the ED. For the 318 patients who met the inclusion criteria, the self-report rate of cocaine or methamphetamine use was 51.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.57). No difference was found in the self-report rate between users of methamphetamine vs. cocaine (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.7-1.7). There also was no difference in the self-report rate by patient age < 50 years compared to patient age >or= 50 years (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.42-1.08). The self-report rate for males compared to females was not significantly different (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.54-1.4). Patients who had a positive troponin were not significantly more likely to self-report drug use than patients who did not have a positive troponin (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.55-2.2). The self-report rate among cocaine- or methamphetamine-using patients presenting to the ED with chest pain was 51.8%. There seems to be no significant difference in the self-report rate among those who use methamphetamine vs. those who use cocaine, nor by gender, nor stratified by age over 50 years.

  18. Erlotinib hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Minna, John D; Dowell, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    Erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva; OSI Pharmaceuticals/Genentech/Roche), a member of a class of targeted anticancer drugs that inhibit the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor, was approved by the US FDA in November 2004 for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. It is the first such drug to demonstrate an increase in survival in Phase III trials in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

  19. Development of a drug assay using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, S.M.; Roe, J.N.; Andresen, B.D.; Myrick, M.L.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1990-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect low levels of several chemical compounds, including the drugs of abuse -- cocaine hydrochloride and methamphetamine hydrochloride. Raman spectra of these substances have also been taken over optical fibers using red-wavelength excitation. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the remote red-wavelength excitation. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the remote determination of various target chemicals using diode excitation and diode array detection. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Statistical optimization of controlled release microspheres containing cetirizine hydrochloride as a model for water soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    El-Say, Khalid M; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama A A; Hosny, Khaled M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Kharshoum, Rasha M; Fahmy, Usama A; Alsawahli, Majed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to improve the encapsulation efficiency of cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ) microspheres as a model for water soluble drugs and control its release by applying response surface methodology. A 3(3) Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effect of drug/polymer ratio (X1), surfactant concentration (X2) and stirring speed (X3), on the mean particle size (Y1), percentage encapsulation efficiency (Y2) and cumulative percent drug released for 12 h (Y3). Emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique was applied utilizing Eudragit RS100 as coating polymer and span 80 as surfactant. All formulations were evaluated for micromeritic properties and morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The relative bioavailability of the optimized microspheres was compared with CTZ marketed product after oral administration on healthy human volunteers using a double blind, randomized, cross-over design. The results revealed that the mean particle sizes of the microspheres ranged from 62 to 348 µm and the efficiency of entrapment ranged from 36.3% to 70.1%. The optimized CTZ microspheres exhibited a slow and controlled release over 12 h. The pharmacokinetic data of optimized CTZ microspheres showed prolonged tmax, decreased Cmax and AUC0-∞ value of 3309 ± 211 ng h/ml indicating improved relative bioavailability by 169.4% compared with marketed tablets.

  1. Improvement of some pharmaceutical properties of drugs by cyclodextrin complexation. 4. Chlorpromazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ammar, H O; Ghorab, M; el-Nahhas, S A; Omar, S M; Ghorab, M M

    1995-12-01

    The potentiality of interaction of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was investigated by spectrophotometry, vapour pressure osmometry and DSC thermograms. The results revealed a very strong evidence for molecular interaction between CPZ and beta-CD. The continuous variation method was used to elucidate the stoichiometry of such interaction by spectrophotometric as well as vapour pressure measurements. Both types of data revealed the formation of a 1:1 complex. The stability constant of the complex was determined at different temperatures by the vapour pressure osmometric method. The enthalpy and entropy of interaction were evaluated and the results indicate that the interaction is exothermic. The CPZ/beta-CD complex was prepared, lyophilized and photochemical stability of the drug, its physical mixture with beta-CD as well as the prepared complex was investigated at different pH-values in presence of different buffer systems. The results revealed that the stability of the drug is greatly improved in presence of beta-CD and the great dependency of stability on the pH of the solution is decreased in presence of beta-CD. The partition coefficient of CPZ and its complex with beta-CD was determined. The data reveal a higher p.c. of the complex compared to the parent drug. The effect of beta-CD on the bioavailability of CPZ was investigated by measuring the miotic response intensity in volunteers receiving a single oral dose of the drug, drug/beta-CD physical mixture or complex. The results revealed a distinct improvement of the biological performance of CPZ by beta-CD as evidenced by an increased intensity of drug action and its duration as well as augmenting its bioavailability without affecting the time for maximum effect.

  2. Recoveries of trace pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine residues from impermeable household surfaces: implications for sampling methods used during remediation of clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, A F Lim; Miskelly, Gordon M

    2010-04-15

    Evaluation of the risk posed by contaminants present during and after decontamination of clandestine methamphetamine laboratories requires a connection between the levels of contaminants measured and those actually present at the scene. The recoveries of pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine from glass, stainless steel, and a range of impermeable surfaces likely to be found in a clandestine laboratory were examined, using GC-MS of derivatized samples as the analytical method. When surfaces had been cleaned prior to drug deposition, wiping with water-dampened filter paper can recover 60-80% of pseudoephedrine immediately after deposition, and at least 50% of the pseudoephedrine still present on a surface after 2 days when deposited at a surface concentration of 2.5 microg/100 cm(2). Wiping with methanol-dampened filter paper could recover 60-90% of the methamphetamine immediately after deposition, and could recover at least 50-60% of the methamphetamine still present after 2 days when 0.6 microg/100 cm(2) was initially deposited on the surface. Recoveries were lower for surfaces that had not been pre-cleaned. Methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed significant volatility in both the free base and hydrochloride forms, with experiments in an enclosed format showing up to half the recovered drug being present on a glass plate held about 4mm above a substrate contaminated with one of the drugs at the above surface concentrations after 2 days. It is therefore important to remove any visible bulk contaminants and remove obvious pseudoephedrine or methamphetamine-contaminated surfaces prior to heating, ventilation or sealing of a clandestine laboratory to avoid redistribution of material around the site. A revised method for pseudoephedrine analysis was developed that could also detect the pseudoephedrine-formaldehyde adduct that can form from trace pseudoephedrine present at clandestine laboratories.

  3. Suppressive effects of the expectorant drug ambroxol hydrochloride on quartz-induced lung inflammation in F344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanie, Shohei; Yokohira, Masanao; Yamakawa, Keiko; Nakano-Narusawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Shota; Hashimoto, Nozomi; Imaida, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant proteins (SPs) are essential to respiratory structure and function. The expectorant drug ambroxol hydrochloride is clinically prescribed to stimulate pulmonary surfactant and airway serous secretion. Therefore, ambroxol hydrochloride may affect SP production and pulmonary inflammation. Lung toxicity of fine particles of various materials has been examined previously in our in vivo bioassay using the intratracheal (i.t.) instillation approach. In the present study, we evaluated modulatory effects of ambroxol hydrochloride on quartz-induced lung inflammation in F344 rats. Male 6-week-old F344 rats were exposed by i.t. instillation to 2 mg of quartz particles suspended in 0.2 mL of saline. Ambroxol hydrochloride was administered at 0, 12, and 120 ppm in rat basal diet for 28 days, and then formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung, liver, and kidney samples were prepared. No changes in general condition, body and organ weights, or food consumption upon exposure to quartz were noted. The mean ambroxol intake in rats of the 12 ppm group was comparable to the human conventional dose. Histopathology of lung lesions was evaluated, and the degree of inflammation was scored. At 120 ppm, ambroxol hydrochloride significantly decreased individual lung inflammation scores for pulmonary edema and lymph follicle proliferation around the bronchiole, as well as the total inflammation score, in quartz-treated rats. Expression of SP-C in the type II alveolar cells and macrophages was greater in inflammatory lesions than in non-inflamed areas. Ambroxol treatment did not affect expression of SP-B and SP-C. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ambroxol hydrochloride relieves quartz-induced lung inflammation. PMID:28458453

  4. Drugs and the Brain: Learning the Impact of Methamphetamine Abuse on the Brain through a Virtual Brain Exhibit in the Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Annetta, Leonard; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn Y.

    2011-01-01

    "Drugs and the Brain: A Serious Game," a prototype museum exhibit, was designed to employ virtual models of the brain into a video game format. It was done to create a fun and engaging way of conveying knowledge and concepts about neuroscience, as well as the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain. The purpose of this study is to…

  5. Drugs and the Brain: Learning the Impact of Methamphetamine Abuse on the Brain through a Virtual Brain Exhibit in the Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Annetta, Leonard; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn Y.

    2011-01-01

    "Drugs and the Brain: A Serious Game," a prototype museum exhibit, was designed to employ virtual models of the brain into a video game format. It was done to create a fun and engaging way of conveying knowledge and concepts about neuroscience, as well as the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain. The purpose of this study is to…

  6. Chemical stability of tramadol hydrochloride injection admixed with selected pain drugs

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, V; Pitonzo, R; Bavetta, S; Polidori, P; Sidoti, MG

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tramadol hydrochloride (HCl) and ketorolac tromethamine are analgesic drugs, which are commonly used in combination in postoperative pain management. According to some studies, metoclopramide and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as adjuvant agents can improve analgesia and decrease the need for other pain drugs. Materials and Methods: The chemical stability of tramadol HCl combined with ketorolac tromethamine and metoclopramide HCl has been studied using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method. Calibration curves were produced using linear regression of the peak area against concentration of each drug, with an r2 value ≥ 0.96. Our aim was to investigate the stability of admixture solution of tramadol HCl combined with ketorolac tromethamine and metoclopramide HCl for 48 h (25°C) and 5 days (5°C), with MgSO4, which has never been assessed. Results: Data obtained for admixtures prepared and stored at temperatures of 25°C and 5°C, show that all drugs have reached at least 98% of the initial concentration. Conclusions: For the purpose of pre-preparing drug admixtures to use with confidence, tramadol HCl infusions may be prepared in advance and then thawed before use in clinical units. On the basis of our results, the intravenous mixture of tramadol (7.69 mg/mL), metoclopramide (0.19 mg/mL), ketorolac (1.15 mg/mL), and magnesium sulfate (77 mg/mL) may be considered for a possible commercial formulation. PMID:23071920

  7. Multifunctional liposomes for nasal delivery of the anti-Alzheimer drug tacrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Corace, Giuseppe; Angeloni, Cristina; Malaguti, Marco; Hrelia, Silvana; Stein, Paul C; Brandl, Martin; Gotti, Roberto; Luppi, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of multifunctional liposomes for nasal administration of tacrine hydrochloride. Liposomes were prepared using traditional excipients (cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine), partly enriched with α-tocopherol and/or Omega3 fatty acids. This approach was chosen in order to obtain at the same time two positive results: an enhanced drug permeation through nasal mucosa and a concomitant neuroprotective effect. Several liposome formulations were prepared using the Reverse Phase Evaporation technique followed by membrane filter extrusion. In particular, liposome capacity to enhance drug permeation was evaluated by means of membrane permeation and cellular uptake studies. Furthermore, liposome effect on neuronal viability and intracellular ROS production was evaluated as well as their cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress. All liposome formulations showed a mean diameter in the range of 175 nm to 219 nm with polydispersity index lower than 0.22, a lightly negative zeta potential and excellent encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, along with good mucoadhesive properties, multifunctional liposomes showed a markedly increase in tacrine permeability, which can be related to liposome fusion with cellular membrane, a hypothesis, which was also supported by cellular uptake studies. Finally, the addition of α-tocopherol without Omega3 fatty acids, was found to increase the neuroprotective activity and antioxidant properties of liposomes.

  8. Neuroimmune Basis of Methamphetamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Loftis, Jennifer M.; Janowsky, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Although it is not known which antigen-specific immune responses (or if antigen-specific immune responses) are relevant or required for methamphetamine's neurotoxic effects, it is apparent that methamphetamine exposure is associated with significant effects on adaptive and innate immunity. Alterations in lymphocyte activity and number, changes in cytokine signaling, impairments in phagocytic functions, and glial activation and gliosis have all been reported. These drug-induced changes in immune response, particularly within the CNS, are now thought to play a critical role in the addiction process for methamphetamine dependence as well as for other substance use disorders. In Section 2, methamphetamine's effects on glial cell (e.g., microglia and astrocytes) activity and inflammatory signaling cascades are summarized, including how alterations in immune cell function can induce the neurotoxic and addictive effects of methamphetamine. Section 2 also describes neurotransmitter involvement in the modulation of methamphetamine's inflammatory effects. Section 3 discusses the very recent use of pharmacological and genetic animal models which have helped elucidate the behavioral effects of methamphetamine's neurotoxic effects and the role of the immune system. Section 4 is focused on the effects of methamphetamine on blood–brain barrier integrity and associated immune consequences. Clinical considerations such as the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV and/or HCV on brain structure and function are included in Section 4. Finally, in Section 5, immune-based treatment strategies are reviewed, with a focus on vaccine development, neuroimmune therapies, and other anti-inflammatory approaches. PMID:25175865

  9. Neuroimmune basis of methamphetamine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Jennifer M; Janowsky, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Although it is not known which antigen-specific immune responses (or if antigen-specific immune responses) are relevant or required for methamphetamine's neurotoxic effects, it is apparent that methamphetamine exposure is associated with significant effects on adaptive and innate immunity. Alterations in lymphocyte activity and number, changes in cytokine signaling, impairments in phagocytic functions, and glial activation and gliosis have all been reported. These drug-induced changes in immune response, particularly within the CNS, are now thought to play a critical role in the addiction process for methamphetamine dependence as well as for other substance use disorders. In Section 2, methamphetamine's effects on glial cell (e.g., microglia and astrocytes) activity and inflammatory signaling cascades are summarized, including how alterations in immune cell function can induce the neurotoxic and addictive effects of methamphetamine. Section 2 also describes neurotransmitter involvement in the modulation of methamphetamine's inflammatory effects. Section 3 discusses the very recent use of pharmacological and genetic animal models which have helped elucidate the behavioral effects of methamphetamine's neurotoxic effects and the role of the immune system. Section 4 is focused on the effects of methamphetamine on blood-brain barrier integrity and associated immune consequences. Clinical considerations such as the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV and/or HCV on brain structure and function are included in Section 4. Finally, in Section 5, immune-based treatment strategies are reviewed, with a focus on vaccine development, neuroimmune therapies, and other anti-inflammatory approaches.

  10. Fast Dissolving Sublingual Films of Ondansetron Hydrochloride: Effect of Additives on in vitro Drug Release and Mucosal Permeation

    PubMed Central

    Koland, M; Sandeep, VP; Charyulu, NR

    2010-01-01

    Ondansetron hydrochloride, a 5 HT3 antagonist is a powerful antiemetic drug which has oral bioavailability of 60% due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 5 h. To overcome the above draw back, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate fast dissolving films of ondansetron hydrochloride for sublingual administration. The films were prepared from polymers such as polyvinylalcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Carbopol 934P in different ratios by solvent casting method. Propylene glycol or PEG 400 as plasticizers and mannitol or sodium saccharin as sweeteners were also included. The IR spectral studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer or with other additives. Satisfactory results were obtained when subjected to physico-chemical tests such as uniformity of weight, thickness, surface pH, folding endurance, uniformity of drug content, swelling index, bioadhesive strength, and tensile strength. Films were also subjected to in vitro drug release studies by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug permeation studies were carried out using porcine membrane model. In vitro release studies indicated 81–96% release within 7 min and 66–80% within 7 min during ex vivo studies. Drug permeation of 66–77% was observed through porcine mucosa within 40 min. Higher percentage of drug release was observed from films containing the sweeteners. The stability studies conducted for a period of 8 weeks showed no appreciable change in drug content, surface pH, and in vitro drug release. PMID:21042474

  11. Fast Dissolving Sublingual Films of Ondansetron Hydrochloride: Effect of Additives on in vitro Drug Release and Mucosal Permeation.

    PubMed

    Koland, M; Sandeep, Vp; Charyulu, Nr

    2010-07-01

    Ondansetron hydrochloride, a 5 HT3 antagonist is a powerful antiemetic drug which has oral bioavailability of 60% due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 5 h. To overcome the above draw back, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate fast dissolving films of ondansetron hydrochloride for sublingual administration. The films were prepared from polymers such as polyvinylalcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Carbopol 934P in different ratios by solvent casting method. Propylene glycol or PEG 400 as plasticizers and mannitol or sodium saccharin as sweeteners were also included. The IR spectral studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer or with other additives. Satisfactory results were obtained when subjected to physico-chemical tests such as uniformity of weight, thickness, surface pH, folding endurance, uniformity of drug content, swelling index, bioadhesive strength, and tensile strength. Films were also subjected to in vitro drug release studies by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug permeation studies were carried out using porcine membrane model. In vitro release studies indicated 81-96% release within 7 min and 66-80% within 7 min during ex vivo studies. Drug permeation of 66-77% was observed through porcine mucosa within 40 min. Higher percentage of drug release was observed from films containing the sweeteners. The stability studies conducted for a period of 8 weeks showed no appreciable change in drug content, surface pH, and in vitro drug release.

  12. Adverse drug reaction to metoclopramide hydrochloride in a macaw with proventricular dilatation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Massey, J G

    1993-08-15

    A 4-year-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) with a history of chronic vomiting was treated with metoclopramide hydrochloride. After the second treatment, ataxia, torticollis, and opisthotonos became evident. These signs resolved with the administration of diphenhydramine hydrochloride. Despite supportive care, the bird died several days later. Histologic lesions were suggestive of proventricular dilatation syndrome.

  13. Effect of an electronic control device exposure on a methamphetamine-intoxicated animal model.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Donald M; Ho, Jeffrey D; Cole, Jon B; Reardon, Robert F; Lundin, Erik J; Terwey, Karen S; Falvey, Dan G; Miner, James R

    2010-04-01

    Because of the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse worldwide, it is not uncommon for subjects in law enforcement encounters to be methamphetamine-intoxicated. Methamphetamine has been present in arrest-related death cases in which an electronic control device (ECD) was used. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the cardiac effects of an ECD in a methamphetamine intoxication model. Sixteen anesthetized Dorset sheep (26-78 kg) received 0.0 mg/kg (control animals, n = 4), 0.5 mg/kg (n = 4), 1.0 mg/kg (n = 4), or 1.5 mg/kg (n = 4) of methamphetamine hydrochloride as a slow intravenous (IV) bolus during continuous cardiac monitoring. The animals received the following exposures in sequence from a TASER X26 ECD beginning at 30 minutes after the administration of the drug: 1) 5-second continuous exposure, 2) 15-second intermittent exposure, 3) 30-second intermittent exposure, and 4) 40-second intermittent exposure. Darts were inserted at the sternal notch and the cardiac apex, to a depth of 9 mm. Cardiac motion was determined by thoracotomy (smaller animals, < or = 32 kg) or echocardiography (larger animals, > 68 kg). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Animals given methamphetamine demonstrated signs of methamphetamine toxicity with tachycardia, hypertension, and atrial and ventricular ectopy in the 30-minute period immediately after administration of the drug. Smaller animals (n = 8, < or = 32 kg, mean = 29.4 kg) had supraventricular dysrhythmias immediately after the ECD exposures. Larger animals (n = 8, > 68 kg, mean = 72.4) had only sinus tachycardia after the exposures. One of the smaller animals had frequent episodes of ventricular ectopy after two exposures, including runs of delayed onset, nonsustained six- to eight-beat unifocal and multifocal ventricular tachycardia that spontaneously resolved. This animal had significant ectopy prior to the exposures as well. Thoracotomy performed on three smaller animals

  14. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Erynne A; Marsh, Katherine M; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B; Chiu, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as "meth mouth," there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use.

  15. Levels of neural progenitors in the hippocampus predict memory impairment and relapse to drug seeking as a function of excessive methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-04-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended access) on

  16. Levels of Neural Progenitors in the Hippocampus Predict Memory Impairment and Relapse to Drug Seeking as a Function of Excessive Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended

  17. Pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and clinical properties of olopatadine hydrochloride, a new antiallergic drug.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kenji; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Kaise, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Etsuo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Mukouyama, Akimichi

    2002-04-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine, 11-[(Z)-3-(dimethylamino)propylidene]-6,11-dihydrodibenz[b,e]oxepin-2-acetic acid monohydrochloride) is a novel antiallergic/histamine H1-receptor antagonistic drug that was synthesized and evaluated in our laboratories. Oral administration of olopatadine at doses of 0.03 mg/kg or higher inhibited the symptoms of experimental allergic skin responses, rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma in sensitized guinea pigs and rats. Olopatadine is a selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist possessing inhibitory effects on the release of inflammatory lipid mediators such as leukotriene and thromboxane from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and eosinophils. Olopatadine also inhibited the tachykininergic contraction in the guinea pig bronchi by prejunctional inhibition of peripheral sensory nerves. Olopatadine exerted no significant effects on action potential duration in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, myocardium and human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel. Olopatadine was highly and rapidly absorbed in healthy human volunteers. The urinary excretion of olopatadine accounted for not less than 58% and the contribution of metabolism was considerably low in the clearance of olopatadine in humans. Olopatadine is one of the few renal clearance drugs in antiallergic drugs. Olopatadine was shown to be useful for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in double-blind clinical trials. Olopatadine was approved in Japan for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, eczema dermatitis, prurigo, pruritus cutaneous, psoriasis vulgaris and erythema exsudativum multiforme in December, 2000. Ophthalmic solution of olopatadine was also approved in the United States for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in December, 1996 (Appendix: also in the European Union, it was approved in February 2002).

  18. The effect of enzyme-inducing antiseizure drugs on the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of procarbazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Stuart A; Carson, Kathryn A; Batchelor, Tracy T; Lesser, Glenn; Mikkelsen, Tom; Alavi, Jane B; Phuphanich, Surasak; Hammour, Tarek; Fisher, Joy D; Supko, Jeffrey G

    2006-09-01

    Procarbazine hydrochloride (PCB) is one of the few anticancer drugs with activity against high-grade gliomas. This study was conducted to determine if the maximum tolerated dose and pharmacokinetics of PCB are affected by the concurrent use of enzyme-inducing antiseizure drugs (EIASD). Adults with recurrent high-grade glioma were divided into cohorts who were (+) and were not (-) taking EIASDs. PCB was given orally for 5 consecutive days each month. Six patients were evaluated at each dose level beginning with 200 mg/m2/d and escalated using the modified continual reassessment method. Toxicity and response were assessed. Pharmacokinetic studies were done with a new electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay. Forty-nine patients were evaluated. The maximum tolerated dose was 393 mg/m2/d for the +EIASD group and the highest dose evaluated in -EIASD patients was 334 mg/m2/d. Myelosuppression was the primary dose-limiting toxicity. Significant hepatic dysfunction occurred in three patients in the +EIASD cohort. Four partial responses (8%) and no complete responses were observed. PCB exhibited linear pharmacokinetics with no significant differences between the two cohorts. A marked increase in peak PCB levels was noted on day 5 relative to day 1, which was not attributable to drug accumulation. This study suggests that (a) EIASD use does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of PCB; (b) changes in the peak plasma concentration of PCB, consistent with decreased apparent oral clearance due to autoinhibition of hepatic metabolism, occur with daily dosing; and (c) severe hepatic dysfunction may accompany this administration schedule.

  19. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Mata, Mariana M; Napier, T Celeste; Graves, Steven M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L

    2015-04-05

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the co-morbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n=18) or be given saline (control; n=16) for 14 days. One day after the last operant session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD200(+) and CD11b/c(+) lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administered methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4(+) T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4(+) T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8(+) T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Our data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Mariana M.; Napier, T. Celeste; Graves, Steven M.; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the comorbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n = 18) or be given saline (control; n = 16) for 14 days. One day after the last self-administration session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γand TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4+, CD8+, CD200+ and CD11b/c+ lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administer methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4+ T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8+ T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Or data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. PMID:25678251

  1. Methamphetamine induces the release of endothelin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Woo; Jones, Susan M; Hostetter, Trisha A; Iliff, Jeffrey J; West, G Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a potent psychostimulant drug of abuse that increases release and blocks reuptake of dopamine, producing intense euphoria, factors that may contribute to its widespread abuse. It also produces severe neurotoxicity resulting from oxidative stress, DNA damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, microgliosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke have been reported after intravenous and oral abuse of methamphetamine. Several studies have shown that methamphetamine causes vasoconstriction of vessels. This study investigates the effect of methamphetamine on endothelin-1 (ET-1) release in mouse brain endothelial cells by ELISA. ET-1 transcription as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and transcription were measured following methamphetamine treatment. We also examine the effect of methamphetamine on isolated cerebral arteriolar vessels from C57BL/6 mice. Penetrating middle cerebral arterioles were cannulated at both ends with a micropipette system. Methamphetamine was applied extraluminally, and the vascular response was investigated. Methamphetamine treatment of mouse brain endothelial cells resulted in ET-1 release and a transient increase in ET-1 message. The activity and transcription of eNOS were only slightly enhanced after 24 hr of treatment with methamphetamine. In addition, methamphetamine caused significant vasoconstriction of isolated mouse intracerebral arterioles. The vasoconstrictive effect of methamphetamine was attenuated by coapplication of the endothelin receptor antagonist PD145065. These findings suggest that vasoconstriction induced by methamphetamine is mediated through the endothelin receptor and may involve an endothelin-dependent pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hair analysis for drug abuse: I. Determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Y; Takahashi, K; Shimamine, M; Takeda, Y

    1991-01-01

    Determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using stable isotope-labeled internal standards, 2-methylamino-1-phenylpropane-2,3,3,3-d4 and 2-amino-1-phenylpropane-2,3,3,3-d4. Extraction of hair with methanol/5M hydrochloric acid (20:1) using ultrasonication was chosen as the standard method. The calibration curves for amphetamines in the hair were linear from 1 to 100 ng/mg (r greater than 0.99). The detection limit was 0.5 ng/mg at the 95% confidence level. The coefficients of variation (CV) (n = 8) of analysis using the spiked hair with methamphetamine were from 0.7 to 6%. The CV (n = 8) of analysis of the methamphetamine abuser's hair was 17.5%. Sectional analysis of monkey and human hair after methamphetamine ingestion suggested a good correlation between the duration of drug use and drug distribution in the hair.

  3. Structure activity studies of an analgesic drug tapentadol hydrochloride by spectroscopic and quantum chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    Tapentadol is a novel opioid pain reliever drug with a dual mechanism of action, having potency between morphine and tramadol. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out for tapentadol hydrochloride (TAP.Cl) to determine the properties. The geometry is optimised and the structural properties of the compound were determined from the optimised geometry by B3LYP method using 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded in the solid phase in the region of 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. Frontier molecular orbital energies, LUMO-HOMO energy gap, ionisation potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness and chemical potential are also calculated. The stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalisation has been analysed using NBO analysis. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule are analysed.

  4. Gradient HPLC analysis of raloxifene hydrochloride and its application to drug quality control.

    PubMed

    Basavaiah, Kanakapura; Anil Kumar, Urdigere Rangachar; Tharpa, Kalsang

    2008-09-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) in pure drug and in tablets was developed using gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The devised method involved separation of RLX on a reversed phase Hypersil ODS column and determination with UV detection at 284 nm. The standard curve was linear (R = 0.999) over the concentration range of 50-600 microg mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.04 microg mL-1 and a quantification limit of 0.16 microg mL-1. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the method were established according to the current ICH guidelines. Intra-day RSD values at three QC levels (250, 450 and 550 microg mL-1) were 0.2-0.5%, based on the peak area. The intra-day relative error (er) was between 0.2 and 0.5%. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of RLX in tablets and the results were statistically compared with those obtained by a literature method. Accuracy, evaluated by means of the spike recovery method, was the excellent with percent recovery in the range 97.7-103.2 with precision in the range 1.6-2.2%. No interference was observed from the co-formulated substances. The method was economical in terms of the time taken and the amount of solvent used.

  5. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of designer drugs: hydrochlorides of metaphedrone and pentedrone.

    PubMed

    Trzybiński, Damian; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Ossowski, Tadeusz; Trynda, Anna; Sikorski, Artur

    2013-10-10

    This article, written as a result of cooperation between a police forensic laboratory and an academic institution, outlines the possibility of applying single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis as an effective method of identifying designer drugs in forensic analysis. This technique allows crystalline samples to be determined with full assurance about their identity, even in the case of new substances for which no reference standards yet exist. Here, single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystal specimens obtained from two samples were performed. Solution and refinement of the structures demonstrated that the target compounds were metaphedrone and pentedrone hydrochlorides - synthetic cathinone derivatives used as recreational stimulants. In addition to the identification of the title compounds, this paper gives a first report on their crystal structures. Once the CIF-files containing the crystal structure data of the title compounds have been deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database - the world repository of small molecule crystal structures - it will be possible to identify single crystals of the title compounds quickly on the basis of simple parameters (lattice parameters a, b, c, α, β, γ and unit cell volume). This description of the relationship between the geometrical parameters of moieties and the analysis of intermolecular interactions occurring in crystals of the title compounds extends knowledge about the synthetic derivatives of cathinone and may play a role in future studies, leading to a better understanding of their characteristic properties.

  6. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Drug-Doped Salmon DNA Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Reddy Dugasani, Sreekantha; Ha, Taewoo; Paulson, Bjorn; Hwang, Taehyun; Kim, Taesung; Hoon Kim, Jae; Oh, Kyunghwan; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-07-01

    Double-stranded salmon DNA (SDNA) was doped with doxorubicin hydrochloride drug molecules (DOX) to determine the binding between DOX and SDNA, and DOX optimum doping concentration in SDNA. SDNA thin films were prepared with various concentrations of DOX by drop-casting on oxygen plasma treated glass and quartz substrates. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the binding sites for DOX in SDNA, and electrical and photoluminescence (PL) analyses were used to determine the optimum doping concentration of DOX. The FTIR spectra showed that up to a concentration of 30 μM of DOX, there was a tendency for binding with a periodic orientation via intercalation between nucleosides. The current and PL intensity increased as the DOX concentration increased up to 30 μM, and then as the concentration of DOX further increased, we observed a decrease in current as well as PL quenching. Finally, the optical band gap and second band onset of the transmittance spectra were analyzed to further verify the DOX binding and optimum doping concentration into SDNA thin films as a function of the DOX concentration.

  7. The behavioral pharmacology of butaclamol hydrochloride (AY-23,028), a new potent neuroleptic drug.

    PubMed

    Voith, K; Herr, F

    1975-04-30

    Butaclamol hydrochloride (AY-23,028) is a member of a new chemical class for which antipsychotic activity in humans has recently been demonstrated. The compound antagonized amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in rats, amphetamine toxicity in aggregated mice and apomorphine-induced emesis in dogs. It depressed both discriminated avoidance and continuous lever-pressing behavior in rats and inhibited ambulation and rearing in the open field. At higher doses, AY-23,028 induced catalepsy. Adrenergic blocking activity, measured by the antagonism of epinephrine-induced mortality, was weak. These pharmacological actions are characteristic of neuroleptic drugs. In the dose range where the aforementioned effects were observed AY-23,028 did not antagonize either the tetrabenazine-induced ptosis or the tremorine syndrome and did not cause either hypothermia or ataxia. The potency and onset of action of AY-23,028 were comparable to those of fluphenazine but AY-23,028 was of longer duration. The results are discussed in relation to current concepts of neuroleptic mechanisms.

  8. The antimycotic drugs itraconazole and terbinafine hydrochloride induce the production of human β-defensin-3 in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Naoko; Kano, Rui; Ishikawa, Takeko; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2011-04-01

    The antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is produced by epidermal keratinocytes, and exhibits broad killing activity against bacteria or fungi. Prostaglandin D(2) enhances hBD-3 production in human keratinocytes by stimulating a transcription factor, activator protein-1 via chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper 2 cells (CRTH2). Prostaglandin H(2), a precursor of prostaglandin D(2) can be converted to thromboxane A(2). Certain antimycotic drugs act on keratinocytes and modulate their production of chemokines. In this in vitro study, we examined the effects of antimycotics on hBD-3 production in human keratinocytes. Antimycotics itraconazole and terbinafine hydrochloride increased hBD-3 secretion and mRNA levels in parallel to the enhanced activity of activator protein-1, expression and phosphorylation of activator protein-1 component, c-Fos, but fluconazole was ineffective. These effects were abrogated by CRTH2 antagonist. Itraconazole and terbinafine hydrochloride increased prostaglandin D(2) release from keratinocytes and reduced the release of thromboxane B(2), a thromboxane A(2) metabolite. The conditioned medium from itraconazole or terbinafine hydrochloride-treated keratinocytes inhibited the growth of Candida albicans dependently on hBD-3. These results suggest that itraconazole and terbinafine hydrochloride may enhance c-Fos expression and phosphorylation, activator protein-1 activity and hBD-3 production by increasing prostaglandin D(2) release from keratinocytes. These antimycotic drugs may suppress thromboxane A(2) synthesis and redirect the conversion of prostaglandin H(2) towards prostaglandin D(2). The induction of hBD-3 in keratinocytes is another possible mechanism for the antimycrobial effects of these drugs, which may augment the cutaneous defense activity against infection.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Heroin–Methamphetamine Co-Injection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Meredith C.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Rangel, Gudelia; Armenta, Richard F.; Gaines, Tommi L.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the western United States–Mexico border region are known to inject both heroin and methamphetamine, little is known about the prevalence and risks associated with co-injection of this depressant–stimulant combination (also known as “goofball” and “Mexican speedball”). Method: Baseline data from parallel cohort studies of PWID conducted concurrently in San Diego, CA, and Tijuana, Mexico, were used to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of heroin–methamphetamine co-injection. PWID older than 18 years of age who reported injecting illicit drugs in the past month (N = 1,311; 32.7% female) were recruited in San Diego (n = 576) and Tijuana (n = 735) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify correlates of heroin–methamphetamine co-injection. Results: The prevalence of co-injection in the past 6 months was 39.9% overall and was higher in Tijuana (55.8%) than in San Diego (19.8%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for study cohort, distributive syringe sharing, purchasing syringes prefilled with drugs, finding it hard to get new syringes, reporting great or urgent need for treatment, and younger age were independently associated with co-injection. Past-6-month overdose was significantly associated with higher odds of co-injection in San Diego than in Tijuana. Conclusions: These findings indicate that heroin–methamphetamine co-injection is more common in Tijuana than in San Diego, yet this practice was only associated with overdose in San Diego. Heroin–methamphetamine co-injection was also independently associated with HIV-associated injection risk behaviors. Overdose-prevention interventions should address co-injection of depressants and stimulants. PMID:27588536

  10. Illicit methamphetamine: analysis, synthesis, and availability.

    PubMed

    Puder, K S; Kagan, D V; Morgan, J P

    1988-01-01

    Methamphetamine has been marketed illicitly since the 1960s. Much of the street material was illicitly synthesized. Although methamphetamine quality was variable in the past decade, it has emerged since 1978 as the only street stimulant which is likely to contain what it purports to contain. Although there is a small volume of legitimate methamphetamine still made by the pharmaceutical industry, most material analyzed by street-drug laboratories appears to have been illegitimately synthesized and not diverted. For a decade, relatively little methamphetamine was submitted to street-drug analytical labs. In recent years, although the absolute volume of methamphetamine submissions changed little, this drug made up the bulk of alleged stimulant samples submitted to such facilities because of the paucity of amphetamine submissions. Methamphetamine synthesis and use appears to constitute a small but continuing portion of the illicit drug market.

  11. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test.

  12. A critical role of striatal A2A R-mGlu5 R interactions in modulating the psychomotor and drug-seeking effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Wright, Sherie R; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Yoo, Ji-Hoon; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants is a major public health problem with no available treatment. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R) co-localize with metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors (mGlu5 R) in the striatum and functionally interact to modulate behaviours induced by addictive substances, such as alcohol. Using genetic and pharmacological antagonism of A2A R in mice, we investigated whether A2A R-mGlu5 R interaction can regulate the locomotor, stereotypic and drug-seeking effect of methamphetamine and cocaine, two drugs that exhibit distinct mechanism of action. Genetic deletion of A2A R, as well as combined administration of sub-threshold doses of the selective A2A R antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.01 mg/kg, i.p.) with the mGlu5 R antagonist, 3-((2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.), prevented methamphetamine- but not cocaine-induced hyperactivity and stereotypic rearing behaviour. This drug combination also prevented methamphetamine-rewarding effects in a conditioned-place preference paradigm. Moreover, mGlu5 R binding was reduced in the nucleus accumbens core of A2A R knockout (KO) mice supporting an interaction between these receptors in a brain region crucial in mediating addiction processes. Chronic methamphetamine, but not cocaine administration, resulted in a significant increase in striatal mGlu5 R binding in wild-type mice, which was absent in the A2A R KO mice. These data are in support of a critical role of striatal A2A R-mGlu5 R functional interaction in mediating the ambulatory, stereotypic and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine but not cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion or stereotypy. The present study highlights a distinct and selective mechanistic role for this receptor interaction in regulating methamphetamine-induced behaviours and suggests that combined antagonism of A2A R and mGlu5 R may represent a novel therapy for methamphetamine addiction.

  13. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride: A Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Mankaran; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Gurmeet

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride for allergic and respiratory disorders. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisite for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate were optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug excipient compatibility and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of Cetirizine Hydrochloride were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly, provide rapid onset of action, and enhance the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:26556203

  14. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Two Coformulated Drugs with Highly Different Concentrations. Application on Vildagliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaazaa, H. E.; Elzanfaly, E. S.; Soudi, A. T.; Salem, M. Y.

    2016-03-01

    A new smart simple validated spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of two drugs one of which is in a very low concentration compared to the other. The method is based on spiking and dilution then simple mathematical manipulation of the absorbance spectra. This method was applied for the determination of a binary mixture of vildagliptin and metformin hydrochloride in the ratio 50:850 in laboratory prepared mixtures containing both drugs in this ratio and in pharmaceutical dosage form with good recoveries. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines and can be used for routine quality control testing.

  15. Application of ORAL.screen saliva drug test for the screening of methamphetamine, MDMA, and MDEA incorporated in hair.

    PubMed

    Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Shima, Noriaki; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2004-03-01

    By the use of a one-step immunoassay drug test for oral fluid, a convenient and fairly sensitive screening method has been devised for methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) incorporated in hair. These drugs, in a 10-mg portion of hair, were extracted into 5M HCl/methanol (1:20, v/v), and the extract reconstituted in 100 micro L water was assayed with the saliva drug test ORAL.screen trade mark. The limits of detection were 0.5 ng/mg hair for d-MA, 0.8 ng/mg for dl-MDMA, and 1.0 ng/mg for dl-MDEA. The results are in good agreement with those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. Although all positive results must be confirmed by either GC-MS or a specific alternative methodology, this method provided a simple screening, suitable for drug enforcement purposes, while requiring only a 10-mg hair specimen.

  16. Relationship between discriminative stimulus effects and plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels of intramuscular methamphetamine in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Smith, Douglas A; Kisor, David F; Poklis, Justin L

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a globally abused drug that is metabolized to amphetamine, which also produces abuse-related behavioral effects. However, the contributing role of methamphetamine metabolism to amphetamine in methamphetamine's abuse-related subjective effects is unknown. This preclinical study was designed to determine 1) the relationship between plasma methamphetamine levels and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects and 2) the contribution of the methamphetamine metabolite amphetamine in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys. Adult male rhesus monkeys (n=3) were trained to discriminate 0.18mg/kg intramuscular (+)-methamphetamine from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Time course of saline, (+)-methamphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg), and (+)-amphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg) discriminative stimulus effects were determined. Parallel pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in the same monkeys to determine plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels after methamphetamine administration and amphetamine levels after amphetamine administration for correlation with behavior in the discrimination procedure. Both methamphetamine and amphetamine produced full, ≥90%, methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects. Amphetamine displayed a slightly, but significantly, longer duration of action than methamphetamine in the discrimination procedure. Both methamphetamine and amphetamine behavioral effects were related to methamphetamine and amphetamine plasma levels by a clockwise hysteresis loop indicating acute tolerance had developed to the discriminative stimulus effects. Furthermore, amphetamine levels after methamphetamine administration were absent when methamphetamine stimulus effects were greatest and peaked when methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects returned to saline-like levels. Overall, these results demonstrate the methamphetamine metabolite amphetamine does not contribute to

  17. Increased risk of Parkinson's disease in individuals hospitalized with conditions related to the use of methamphetamine or other amphetamine-type drugs.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Russell C; Cunningham, James K; Sykes, Jenna; Kish, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Since methamphetamine and other amphetamine-type stimulants (meth/amphetamine) can damage dopaminergic neurons, researchers have long speculated that these drugs may predispose users to develop Parkinson's disease (PD), a dopamine deficiency neurological disorder. We employed a retrospective population-based cohort study using all linked statewide California inpatient hospital episodes and death records from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2005. Patients at least 30 years of age were followed for up to 16 years. Competing risks analysis was used to determine whether the meth/amphetamine cohort had elevated risk of developing PD (ICD-9 332.0; ICD-10 G20) in comparison to a matched population-proxy appendicitis group and a matched cocaine drug control group. Individuals admitted to hospital with meth/amphetamine-related conditions (n=40,472; ICD-9 codes 304.4, 305.7, 969.7, E854.2) were matched on age, race, sex, date of index admission, and patterns of hospital admission with patients with appendicitis conditions (n=207,831; ICD-9 codes 540-542) and also individuals with cocaine-use disorders (n=35,335; ICD-9 codes 304.2, 305.6, 968.5). The meth/amphetamine cohort showed increased risk of PD compared to both that of the matched appendicitis group [hazard ratio (HR)=1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.75, p=0.017] and the matched cocaine group [HR=2.44, 95% CI: 1.32-4.41, p=0.004]. The cocaine group did not show elevated hazard of PD compared to the matched appendicitis group [HR=1.04, 95% CI: 0.56-1.93, p=0.80]. These data provide evidence that meth/amphetamine users have above-normal risk for developing PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methamphetamine: putting the brakes on speed.

    PubMed

    Gettig, Jacob P; Grady, Sarah E; Nowosadzka, Izabella

    2006-04-01

    In only recent history, illicit use of methamphetamine, once isolated to urban areas on the West Coast, has spread into rural areas of the Midwest and southern United States. Although past and current methamphetamine legislation has increased penalties for methamphetamine manufacturers and tightened restrictions on sales of known precursors, the problem still persists. In fact, a 2004 survey indicates that an alarming 6.2% of high school seniors have tried methamphetamine. A number of biological, genetic, and environmental factors influence children's and adolescents' paths to substance abuse. Nurses should recognize the symptoms of methamphetamine abuse, which include agitation; aggressive behavior; rapid mood swings; hypertension; tachycardia; and eventually lesion-marked skin, clinical depression, and paranoid psychosis. Treatment for methamphetamine addiction includes behavioral therapy. Research on pharmacologic therapy is lacking. Educating youth on methamphetamine prevention appears to be the best approach to curb the spreading use of this addictive and deadly drug.

  19. 2-[4-(4-Methoxyphenylcarbonyloxy)benzylidene]-6-dimethylaminomethyl cyclohexanone hydrochloride: a Mannich base which inhibits the growth of some drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Das, U; Bandy, B; Gorecki, D K J; Dimmock, J R

    2010-11-01

    2-[4-(4-Methoxyphenylcarbonyloxy)benzylidene]-6-dime-thylaminomethyl cyclohexanone hydrochloride 1 has a MIC value of 0.78 microg/mL towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and displays similar or identical MIC figures towards various drug-resistant strains of this microorganism. The enone 1 along with a partial structure 2-dimethylaminomethylcyclohexanone hydrochloride 3 affected respiration in isolated rat liver mitochondria differently which may contribute to the variation in toxicity to both normal cells and M. tuberculosis.

  20. Methamphetamine use: hazards and social influences.

    PubMed

    Wermuth, L

    2000-01-01

    Use of methamphetamine, a potent central nervous system stimulant, increased in the early- to mid-1990s in the United States, concentrated in the west, midwest, and south. The use and trade of methamphetamine was facilitated by a fairly simple production process and the involvement of numerous small entrepreneurs as well as drug-trafficking syndicates. National data from the 1994 Drug Abuse Warning network revealed that for the period from 1991 to 1994 methamphetamine use among short-stay hospital patients more than tripled, and methamphetamine-related deaths reported by medical examiner offices nearly tripled. In addition, the Treatment Episode Data Set revealed a 43 percent increase in treatment-program admissions in which clients identified methamphetamine as the primary drug of abuse. Nonetheless, methamphetamine use did not become widespread in the U.S. population. Low-income and unemployed young white men continue to be the group most likely to use methamphetamine, but by the mid-1990s the drug had increased in popularity in more diverse populations and regions. Economic and social pressures experienced by a broad array of Americans may partially explain expanded methamphetamine use; for example, depressed economic conditions in rural and semi-rural areas have contributed to methamphetamine's appeal as a source of income. A "war against drugs" approach has characterized the policy response, with increased criminal justice penalties. A public health approach is recommended, including prevention campaigns, harm-reduction outreach and treatment approaches, and pharmacologic and abstinence-based drug treatment approaches.

  1. Methamphetamine and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Noelia; Ares-Santos, Sara; Moratalla, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the elderly. The aetiology of the disease is not known, but age and environmental factors play an important role. Although more than a dozen gene mutations associated with familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been described, fewer than 10% of all cases can be explained by genetic abnormalities. The molecular basis of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia (caudate/putamen) due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which leads to the motor impairment characteristic of the disease. Methamphetamine is the second most widely used illicit drug in the world. In rodents, methamphetamine exposure damages dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a significant loss of dopamine in the striatum. Biochemical and neuroimaging studies in human methamphetamine users have shown decreased levels of dopamine and dopamine transporter as well as prominent microglial activation in the striatum and other areas of the brain, changes similar to those observed in PD patients. Consistent with these similarities, recent epidemiological studies have shown that methamphetamine users are almost twice as likely as non-users to develop PD, despite the fact that methamphetamine abuse and PD have distinct symptomatic profiles. PMID:23476887

  2. Crystal in Iran: methamphetamine or heroin kerack

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, methamphetamine use has dramatically increased in Iran while there is a crucial misunderstanding about the colloquial words related to methamphetamine among health providers, policy makers, clinicians, scholars and people in the community. The word Crystal refers to methamphetamine in some parts of Iran while in some other parts of the country, Crystal refers to a high purity street-level heroin which is called Kerack and its abuse is epidemic. Methamphetamine and heroin Kerack are different drugs in Iran. Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug while heroin Kerack is an opioid. Health providers especially clinicians and emergency medicine specialists should consider colloquial words that Iranian drug users apply. Special training courses should be designed and implemented for clinicians in Iran to inform them about methamphetamine and its frequently used colloquial words in the community. This issue has important clinical and health implications. PMID:23497450

  3. Is it really crystal clear that using methamphetamine (or other recreational drugs) causes people to engage in unsafe sex?

    PubMed

    Digiusto, Erol; Rawstorne, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have found associations between unsafe sexual behaviour and use of crystal methamphetamine (and many other recreational drugs). Researchers and authors of relevant articles in popular media have often interpreted these associations as meaning that using 'crystal' directly causes people to engage in unsafe sex, and that interventions should aim to reduce crystal use in order to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmissible infections such as HIV. There is consistent evidence that crystal users are a high-risk group in terms of sexual behaviour. However, most relevant studies have provided only circumstantial evidence regarding a causal relationship. Promoting the idea that a particular recreational drug is a major direct cause of unsafe sex may have the unintended adverse effect of creating an excuse for engaging in unsafe sex, thereby increasing its use, and may incur opportunity costs by preventing limited available health promotion resources from being directed more usefully. This paper examines the limitations, in terms of demonstrating causality, of various types of study that have been published on this topic in relation to crystal use in particular. Researchers who investigate relationships between recreational drug use and behaviour, including sexual behaviour, should be careful about the wording of their conclusions and recommendations, and should consider the possibly counterproductive ways in which their findings might be represented in the media.

  4. Methamphetamine Use by High School Students: Recent Trends, Gender and Ethnicity Differences, and Use of Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, Eugene R.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Luther, Nathan; Beauvais, Fred; Edwards, Ruth W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent data on 9th-12th grade methamphetamine use (both lifetime and last month prevalence) are summarized. Since 1992 methamphetamine use has increased. There were no significant differences in use noted across school year. Males are more likely to use than females, although female use has also increased. Implications for research, prevention,…

  5. Methamphetamine Use by High School Students: Recent Trends, Gender and Ethnicity Differences, and Use of Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, Eugene R.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Luther, Nathan; Beauvais, Fred; Edwards, Ruth W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent data on 9th-12th grade methamphetamine use (both lifetime and last month prevalence) are summarized. Since 1992 methamphetamine use has increased. There were no significant differences in use noted across school year. Males are more likely to use than females, although female use has also increased. Implications for research, prevention,…

  6. The effects of a novel anti-arrhythmic drug, acehytisine hydrochloride, on the human ether-a-go-go related gene K channel and its trafficking.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingfu; Yang, Yanmin; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Yan; Pu, Jielin

    2009-02-01

    Many drugs cause severe side-effects such as long QT syndromes by blocking the human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) K(+) channels and/or disrupting HERG protein trafficking. Acehytisine hydrochloride is an anti-arrhythmic drug in phase IV clinical trial. To study whether acehytisine hydrochloride affects HERG channel activity and protein trafficking, we expressed HERG in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and recorded HERG channel currents with a whole-cell patch clamp technique. We also measured the protein levels by Western blot analysis. We found that acehytisine hydrochloride inhibited HERG step current (I(HERG)) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, it had little effect on the tail current (I(tail)). In addition, acehytisine hydrochloride accelerated channel inactivation and slowed recovery from inactivation. In contrast, it did not inhibit HERG protein (135 and 155 kD) trafficking, although it reduced the 155 kD band density at 2500 microM. Moreover, the F656C mutation in the S6 domain abolished acehytisine hydrochloride inhibition on the I(HERG) and enhanced the inhibitive effects on the trafficking of the 155 kD band. Acehytisine hydrochloride interrupted HERG protein trafficking at 1000 and 2500 microM. Our data showed that acehytisine hydrochloride could inhibit I(HERG), but had no effects on I(tail) until the concentration was above 1000 microM. Therefore, acehytisine hydrochloride may not induce QT interval prolongation and could be a promising anti-arrhythmic drug without severe side-effects.

  7. Methods in drug abuse models: comparison of different models of methamphetamine paradigms.

    PubMed

    Kobeissy, Firas H; Mitzelfelt, Jeremiah D; Fishman, Irina; Morgan, Drake; Gaskins, Roger; Zhang, Zhiqun; Gold, Mark S; Wang, Kevin K

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychomotor stimulant. Investigating the effects of METH use on the brain has been applied in different animal models, including rats, mice, and nonhuman primates. Human abuse of METH occurs in different paradigms ranging from episodes of binge abuse to chronic abuse over years; different animal models have been established to replicate these various patterns of human behavior. In this chapter, we discuss the different models of METH abuse, including the acute model which assesses the immediate effects of METH on the brain and chronic exposure model which simulates the more common long-term use observed in humans; additionally, two other relevant models, escalating dose paradigm and METH self-administration, are examined. In comparing the models, this chapter briefly considers the METH-induced neurotoxic effects associated with each METH administration paradigm and the behavioral changes observed.

  8. The effects of rearing condition on methamphetamine self-administration and cue-induced drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiuyi; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Li; Ma, Baomiao; Lou, Zhongze; Sun, Yan; Chen, Junfeng; Wu, Wei; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of different rearing conditions on the effects of methamphetamine and whether the introduction of enriched rearing conditions at different stages of development could produce different behavioral outcomes. In Experiment 1, rats were reared in either enriched (EE) or isolated environments (IE) from PND 21 to 60. In Experiment 2, two groups of animals were handled in the same fashion as those in Experiment 1. Additional two groups were housed in IE during the first 20 or 30 days and then housed under EE for the remaining 20 or 10 days respectively. Locomotor activity and Morris Water Maze were tested. The effects of rearing conditions on methamphetamine (METH) self-administration were investigated. IE animals exhibited higher levels of locomotion than EE animals, but EE animals showed enhanced Morris water maze performance. Animals reared in IE for 30 and 40 days more readily acquired METH self-administration, compared to those reared in IE for 20 and in EE for 40 days respectively. However, the effect of rearing conditions was only seen at the lowest dose tested under FR schedule and breakpoints obtained from PR schedule were not significantly affected. Those reared in IE for 20 and EE for 40 days animals produced significantly fewer responses during the extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of METH self-administration, compared with animals reared in IE for 30 and 40 days, respectively. Rearing condition plays a significant role in locomotor activity, spatial memory and behavioral effects of METH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters of amphiphilic tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine hydrochloride-additive systems at the cloud point.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Sayem; Kabir-ud-Din; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2010-04-01

    Cloud point (CP) of an amphiphile can be considered as the limit of its solubility as it phase separates at temperatures above the CP. The clouding components release their solvated water and separate out from the solution. In the present paper, we report the thermodynamics of clouding in amphiphilic drug, imipramine hydrochloride (IMP-a tricyclic antidepressant drug), in the presence of additives (viz., alcohols and surfactants). Surfactants are extensively used in drug delivery as drug carriers. For all cases the standard Gibbs energy change of solubilization (DeltaGs0) is evaluated and, found to be positive. However, the standard enthalpy change (DeltaHs0), and the product of standard entropy change and temperature (TDeltaSs0) values are found negative as well as positive. These values are depending upon the type and nature of the additive, and the results are discussed on the basis of these factors. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired cognitive performance in subjects with methamphetamine dependence during exposure to neutral versus methamphetamine-related cues.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Chapman, Elizabeth; Garrett, Margaret; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse is associated with cognitive deficits that may impede treatment in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues can elicit intense craving in chronic users of the drug, but the effects of exposure to drug cues on cognitive performance in these individuals are unknown. This study assessed whether exposure to methamphetamine-related visual cues can elicit craving and/or alter dual task cognitive performance in 30 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 30 control subjects in the laboratory. Reaction time, response errors, and inhibition errors were assessed on an auditory Go-No Go task performed by adult participants (total N = 60) while watching neutral versus methamphetamine-related video cues. Craving was assessed with the Within-Session Rating Scale modified for methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues elicited craving only in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Even in the absence of methamphetamine cues, methamphetamine-dependent subjects exhibited slower reaction times and higher rates of both inhibition and response errors than control subjects did. Upon exposure to methamphetamine cues, rates of both response errors and inhibition errors increased significantly in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Control subjects exhibited no increase in inhibition errors and only slightly increased rates of response errors upon exposure to methamphetamine cues. Response error rates, but not inhibition error rates or reaction times, during methamphetamine cue exposure were significantly associated with craving scores in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methamphetamine-dependent individuals exhibit cognitive performance deficits that are more pronounced during exposure to methamphetamine-related cues. Interventions that reduce cue reactivity may have utility in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

  11. Role of d-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine as active metabolites of benzphetamine: Evidence from drug discrimination and pharmacokinetic studies in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Snyder, Rodney W; Fennell, Timothy R; Negus, S Stevens

    2017-05-01

    Benzphetamine is a Schedule III anorectic agent that is a prodrug for d-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine and may have utility as an "agonist" medication for cocaine use disorder treatment. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profile of benzphetamine using a drug discrimination procedure in rhesus monkeys. The potency and time course of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects were compared for benzphetamine (10-18mg/kg, intramuscular (IM)) and d-amphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg, IM) in monkeys (n=3-4) trained to discriminate IM cocaine (0.32mg/kg) from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Parallel pharmacokinetic studies in the same monkeys determined plasma benzphetamine, d-methamphetamine and/or d-amphetamine levels for correlation with behavioral effects. d-Amphetamine produced dose-dependent, time-dependent, and full cocaine-like effects, i.e. ≥90% cocaine-appropriate responding, in all monkeys without altering response rates. The time course of d-amphetamine's cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects correlated with plasma d-amphetamine levels. Benzphetamine was 180-fold less potent than d-amphetamine and produced full cocaine-like effects in only 2 of 4 monkeys while significantly decreasing response rates. Benzphetamine administration increased plasma d-methamphetamine (peak at 100min) and d-amphetamine (peak at 24h) levels, but the time course of behavioral effects did not correlate with increased levels of benzphetamine, d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine. These results suggest that benzphetamine yields d-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine as active metabolites in rhesus monkeys, but generation of these metabolites is not sufficient to account for benzphetamine behavioral effects. The incomplete cocaine substitution profile and protracted d-amphetamine plasma levels suggest that benzphetamine may still warrant further evaluation as a candidate pharmacotherapy for cocaine use disorder treatment. Copyright

  12. Methamphetamine-associated shock with intestinal infarction.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Temple A; Soundararajan, Suganthi; Houghton, Bruce L

    2004-12-29

    Methamphetamine abuse has increased rapidly in the United States over the last few years. Besides socioeconomic hardships acquired from using the drug, there are several adverse medical outcomes. Although there have been many reports of cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicities, there are few case reports of bowel ischemia induced by the drug. We report an unusual case of methamphetamine-associated intestinal infarction.

  13. Club Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ... more: Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Research Report on Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research Report on Methamphetamine Research ...

  14. Essential/precursor chemicals and drug consumption: impacts of US sodium permanganate and Mexico pseudoephedrine controls on the numbers of US cocaine and methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James K; Liu, Lon-Mu; Callaghan, Russell C

    2016-11-01

    In December 2006 the United States regulated sodium permanganate, a cocaine essential chemical. In March 2007 Mexico, the United States' primary source for methamphetamine, closed a chemical company accused of illicitly importing 60+ tons of pseudoephedrine, a methamphetamine precursor chemical. US cocaine availability and methamphetamine availability, respectively, decreased in association. This study tested whether the controls had impacts upon the numbers of US cocaine users and methamphetamine users. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention time-series analysis. Comparison series-heroin and marijuana users-were used. United States, 2002-14. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 723 283), a complex sample survey of the US civilian, non-institutionalized population. Estimates of the numbers of (1) past-year users and (2) past-month users were constructed for each calendar quarter from 2002 to 2014, providing each series with 52 time-periods. Downward shifts in cocaine users started at the time of the cocaine regulation. Past-year and past-month cocaine users series levels decreased by approximately 1 946 271 (-32%) (P < 0.05) and 694 770 (-29%) (P < 0.01), respectively-no apparent recovery occurred through 2014. Downward shifts in methamphetamine users started at the time of the chemical company closure. Past-year and past-month methamphetamine series levels decreased by 494 440 (-35%) [P < 0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -771 897, -216 982] and 277 380 (-45%) (P < 0.05; CI = -554 073, -686), respectively-partial recovery possibly occurred in 2013. The comparison series changed little at the intervention times. Essential/precursor chemical controls in the United States (2006) and Mexico (2007) were associated with large, extended (7+ years) reductions in cocaine users and methamphetamine users in the United States. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Immunological consequences of methamphetamine protein glycation.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Tobin J; Yamamoto, Noboru; Ruiz, Diana I; Janda, Kim D

    2004-09-22

    The drug of abuse methamphetamine has been found to participate in the aberrant glycation of proteins. The importance of this chemical process has been shown wherein mouse albumin was readily modified with methamphetamine, and injection of this protein into mice yields a significant immune response, even in the absence of adjuvants. Competition experiments revealed that although methamphetamine binds weakly to the elicited antibodies, the primary epitope is composed of both the methamphetamine moiety and glucose-derived cross-linking region. Implications of this phenonomenon in the context of drug addiction are discussed.

  16. The spatial epidemiology of cocaine, methamphetamine and MDMA use: A demonstration using a population measure of community drug load derived from municipal wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Field, Jennifer A.; Chiaia, Aurea; Sudakin, Daniel L.; Power, Laura; de Montigny, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the utility of community wide drug testing with wastewater samples as a population measure of community drug use and to to test the hypothesis that the association with urbanicity would vary for three different stimulant drugs of abuse. Design and participants Single day samples were obtained from a convenience sample of 96 municipalities representing 65% of the population of the State of Oregon. Measurements Chemical analysis of 24 hour composite influent samples for benzoylecgonine (BZE, a cocaine metabolite), methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The distribution of community index drug loads accounting for total wastewater flow (i.e. dilution) and population are reported. Findings The distribution of wastewater derived drug index loads were found to correspond with expected epidemiological drug patterns. Index loads of BZE were significantly higher in urban areas and below detection in many rural areas. Conversely, methamphetamine was present in all municipalities with no significant differences in index loads by urbanicity. MDMA was at quantifiable levels in less than half of the communities, with a significant trend towards higher index loads in more urban areas. Conclusion This demonstration provides the first evidence of the utility of wastewater derived community drug loads for spatial analyses. Such data have the potential to dramatically improve measurement of the true level and distribution of a range of drugs. Drug index load data provide information for all people in a community and are potentially applicable to a much larger proportion of the total population than existing measures. PMID:19624572

  17. Synthesis and characterization of impurities of barnidipine hydrochloride, an antihypertensive drug substance.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi-Gang; Dai, Xu-Yong; Li, Li-Wei; Wan, Qiong; Ma, Xiang; Xiang, Guang-Ya

    2014-01-21

    Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). The identification of these impurities should be useful for quality control in the manufacture of barnidipine.

  18. Netupitant and Palonosetron Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about netupitant and palonosetron hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  19. Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  20. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5676 Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (b...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5676 Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (b...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thiamine hydrochloride. 582.5875 Section 582.5875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5875 Thiamine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Thiamine hydrochloride. (b) Conditions of use...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiamine hydrochloride. 582.5875 Section 582.5875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5875 Thiamine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Thiamine hydrochloride. (b) Conditions of use...

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Heroin-Methamphetamine Co-Injection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meacham, Meredith C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rangel, Gudelia; Armenta, Richard F; Gaines, Tommi L; Garfein, Richard S

    2016-09-01

    Although persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the western United States-Mexico border region are known to inject both heroin and methamphetamine, little is known about the prevalence and risks associated with co-injection of this depressant-stimulant combination (also known as "goofball" and "Mexican speedball"). Baseline data from parallel cohort studies of PWID conducted concurrently in San Diego, CA, and Tijuana, Mexico, were used to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of heroin-methamphetamine co-injection. PWID older than 18 years of age who reported injecting illicit drugs in the past month (N = 1,311; 32.7% female) were recruited in San Diego (n = 576) and Tijuana (n = 735) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify correlates of heroin-meth-amphetamine co-injection. The prevalence of co-injection in the past 6 months was 39.9% overall and was higher in Tijuana (55.8%) than in San Diego (19.8%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for study cohort, distributive syringe sharing, purchasing syringes prefilled with drugs, finding it hard to get new syringes, reporting great or urgent need for treatment, and younger age were independently associated with co-injection. Past-6-month overdose was significantly associated with higher odds of co-injection in San Diego than in Tijuana. These findings indicate that heroin-methamphetamine co-injection is more common in Tijuana than in San Diego, yet this practice was only associated with overdose in San Diego. Heroin-methamphetamine coinjection was also independently associated with HIV-associated injection risk behaviors. Overdose-prevention interventions should address co-injection of depressants and stimulants.

  5. How various drugs affect anxiety-related behavior in male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Macúchová, E; Ševčíková, M; Hrebíčková, I; Nohejlová, K; Šlamberová, R

    2016-06-01

    Different forms of anxiety-related behavior have been reported after a single drug use of many abused substances, however, less is known about how males and females are affected differently from exposure to various drugs. Furthermore, chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure was shown to predispose the animal to an increased sensitivity to drugs administrated in adulthood. Using the Elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the first aim of the present study was to examine how male and female rats are affected by acute drug treatment with subcutaneously (s.c.) administrated (a) MA (1mg/kg); (b) drugs with a similar mechanism of action to MA: amphetamine (AMP, 1mg/kg), cocaine (COC, 5mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 5mg/kg); and (c) drugs with different mechanisms of action: morphine (MOR, 5mg/kg), and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 2mg/kg). The second aim was to determine if prenatally MA-exposed (5mg/kg) animals show an increased sensitivity to adult drug treatment. The parameters analyzed were divided into two categories: anxiety-related behavior and anxiety-unrelated/exploratory behavior. Our results showed in female rats a decreased percentage of the time spent in the closed arms (CA) after MA, and an increased percentage of the time spent in the open arms (OA) after MA, AMP, and COC treatment, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. In females, MDMA and THC treatment increased the percentage of the time spent in the CA. An increased percentage of the time spent in the CA was also seen after MOR treatment in females as well as in males, indicating an anxiogenic-like effect. As far as the interaction between prenatal MA exposure and adult drug treatment is concerned, there was no effect found. In conclusion, it seems that: (a) in some cases female rats are more vulnerable to acute drug treatment, in terms of either anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects; (b) prenatal MA exposure does not sensitize animals to the anxiety-related effects of any of the

  6. Development and evaluation of a novel modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride as model drugs.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Farrukh; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan

    2010-06-01

    Modified-release multiple-unit tablets of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with different release profiles were prepared from the immediate-release pellets comprising the above two drugs and prolonged-release pellets containing only pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The immediate-release pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride alone or in combination with loratadine were prepared using extrusion-spheronization method. The pellets of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were coated to prolong the drug release up to 12 h. Both immediate- and prolonged-release pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule and also compressed into tablets using inert tabletting granules of microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801. The in vitro drug dissolution study conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method showed that both multiple-unit capsules and multiple-unit tablets released loratadine completely within a time period of 2 h, whereas the immediate-release portion of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was liberated completely within the first 10 min of dissolution study. On the other hand, the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from the prolonged release coated pellets was prolonged up to 12 hr and followed zero-order release kinetic. The drug dissolution profiles of multiple-unit tablets and multiple-unit capsules were found to be closely similar, indicating that the integrity of pellets remained unaffected during the compression process. Moreover, the friability, hardness, and disintegration time of multiple-unit tablets were found to be within BP specifications. In conclusion, modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was successfully developed and evaluated.

  7. Reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in planarians.

    PubMed

    Kusayama, T; Watanabe, S

    2000-08-03

    Reinforcing properties of dopamine agonist, methamphetamine, for planarians were examined with the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The planarians showed preference for the environment associated with methamphetamine administration. This reinforcing effect was antagonized by pretreatment with non-selective dopamine antagonist, haloperidol. Both selective D1 antagonist SCH23390 and selective D2 antagonist sulpiride also blocked the reinforcing effect of methamphetamine. These results suggest that reinforcing effects of dopaminergic drugs can be traced back to invertebrates such as planarians.

  8. HPLC analysis of raloxifene hydrochloride and its application to drug quality control studies.

    PubMed

    Trontelj, Jurij; Vovk, Tomaz; Bogataj, Marija; Mrhar, Ales

    2005-10-01

    Raloxifene hydrochloride is a selective estrogen receptor modulator and is currently being used for prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In this article, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for detection of raloxifene hydrochloride was developed and validated using an ultraviolet (UV) and coulometric detectors. Limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.336 and 0.610 mg L(-1) for coulometric and ultraviolet detectors, respectively. Acceptable accuracy (93.1-100.3%) as well as intra- and inter-day precision (CVhydrochloride content in tablets and to the in vitro dissolution studies. The proposed method could be used for routine quality control. Moreover, due to its low LOQ, excellent accuracy, precision and selectivity, the coulometric detection could be applied to in vitro metabolism experiments such as microsome or hepatocyte preparations and for studies of transport of raloxifene hydrochloride across biological membranes.

  9. Tetrabenazine inhibition of monoamine uptake and methamphetamine behavioral effects: locomotor activity, drug discrimination and self-administration.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A C; Horton, D B; Neugebauer, N M; Wooters, T E; Nickell, J R; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2011-09-01

    Tetrabenazine (TBZ), a benzoquinolizine derivative, binds with high affinity to the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2), inhibiting uptake of cytosolic monoamines. The current study aimed to provide preclinical evidence supporting the potential use of TBZ as a treatment for methamphetamine abuse. Effects of TBZ on function of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) in striatal and hippocampal synaptosomes, respectively, and on VMAT2 function in isolated striatal synaptic vesicles were determined. Effect of TBZ (acute, 0.1-3.0 mg/kg, s.c.; repeated, 1.0 mg/kg for 7 days) on locomotor activity in methamphetamine-sensitized rats was assessed. Ability of TBZ (0.1-3.0 mg/kg; s.c.) or vehicle to decrease the discriminative effect of methamphetamine also was determined. Ability of TBZ (acute, 0.1-1.0 mg/kg, s.c.; repeated, 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg for 7 days) to specifically decrease methamphetamine self-administration was determined; for comparison, a separate group of rats was assessed for effects of TBZ on food-maintained responding. Results show that TBZ was 11-fold more potent inhibiting DAT than SERT, and 2.5-fold more potent inhibiting VMAT2 than DAT. Results from behavioral studies showed that the lowest dose of TBZ transiently increased methamphetamine self-administration, whereas higher TBZ doses decreased methamphetamine self-administration. Also, TBZ at high doses decreased methamphetamine locomotor sensitization and discriminative stimulus effects, as well as food-maintained responding. Thus, despite acting as a potent VMAT2 inhibitor, these preclinical results indicate that TBZ lacks behavioral specificity as an inhibitor of methamphetamine-induced reinforcement, diminishing its viability as a suitable treatment for methamphetamine abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tetrabenazine inhibition of monoamine uptake and methamphetamine behavioral effects: Locomotor activity, drug discrimination and self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, AC; Horton, DB; Neugebauer, NM; Wooters, TE; Nickell, JR; Dwoskin, LP; Bardo, MT

    2013-01-01

    Tetrabenazine (TBZ), a benzoquinolizine derivative, binds with high affinity to the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2), inhibiting uptake of cytosolic monoamines. The current study aimed to provide preclinical evidence supporting the potential use of TBZ as a treatment for methamphetamine abuse. Effects of TBZ on function of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) in striatal and hippocampal synaptosomes, respectively, and on VMAT2 function in isolated striatal synaptic vesicles were determined. Effect of TBZ (acute, 0.1 - 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.; repeated, 1.0 mg/kg for 7 days) on locomotor activity in methamphetamine-sensitized rats was assessed. Ability of TBZ (0.1 -3.0 mg/kg; s.c.) or vehicle to decrease the discriminative effect of methamphetamine also was determined. Ability of TBZ (acute, 0.1 - 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.; repeated, 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg for 7 days) to specifically decrease methamphetamine self-administration was determined; for comparison, a separate group of rats was assessed for effects of TBZ on food-maintained responding. Results show that TBZ was 11-fold more potent inhibiting DAT than SERT, and 2.5-fold more potent inhibiting VMAT2 than DAT. Results from behavioral studies showed that the lowest dose of TBZ transiently increased methamphetamine self-administration, whereas higher TBZ doses decreased methamphetamine self-administration. Also, TBZ at high doses decreased methamphetamine locomotor sensitization and discriminative stimulus effects, as well as food-maintained responding. Thus, despite acting as a potent VMAT2 inhibitor, these preclinical results indicate that TBZ lacks behavioral specificity as an inhibitor of methamphetamine-induced reinforcement, diminishing its viability as a suitable treatment for methamphetamine abuse. PMID:21669212

  11. Emergence of cocaine and methamphetamine injection among HIV-positive injection drug users in northern and western India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shruti H; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Noble, Eva; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Solomon, Suniti; Kumar, M Suresh; Solomon, Sunil S

    2014-02-01

    Little is known regarding the epidemiology of drug injection and risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) across India. In particular, there is limited data on the prevalence of stimulant injection. We sampled 801 HIV positive IDUs from 14 locations throughout India to represent the geography of India as well as the diversity in IDU epidemic stage (established epidemics, emerging epidemics and large cities). All participants underwent a behavioral survey and blood draw. Given prior associations with stimulant injection and HIV risk, we compared stimulant injectors (cocaine and/or methamphetamine) to those who injected opiates and/or pharmaceuticals only. The median age was 33; 86% were male. The primary drugs injected were heroin, buprenorphine and other pharmaceuticals. In all but four sites, >50% of those actively injecting reported needle sharing. Stimulant injection was most common in emerging epidemics. Compared to exclusive opiate injectors, stimulant injectors were significantly younger, more likely to be educated and employed, more likely to report non-injection use of heroin, crack/cocaine and amphetamines, heavy alcohol use, recent needle sharing (71% vs. 57%), sex with a casual partner (57% vs. 31%) and men having sex with other men (33% vs. 9%; p<0.01 for all). Emerging IDU epidemics have a drug/sexual risk profile not previously been observed in India. Given the high prevalence of stimulant injection in these populations, HIV prevention/treatment programs may need to be redesigned to maximize effectiveness. The high levels of injection sharing overall reinforce the need to ensure access to harm-reduction services for all. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescent exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate cross-sensitizes adults to methamphetamine with drug- and sex-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Ryan A; Ross, Jordan M; Doyle, Hillary H; Helton, Amanda K; Picou, Brittany N; Schulz, Jordyn; Tavares, Chris; Bryant, Sarah; Dawson, Bryan L; Lloyd, Steven A

    2015-03-15

    The increasing availability, over-prescription, and misuse and abuse of ADHD psychostimulant medications in adolescent populations necessitates studies investigating the long-term effects of these drugs persisting into adulthood. Male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to amphetamine (AMPH) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), methylphenidate (MPD) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), or cocaine (COC) (5.0 mg/kg) from postnatal day 22 to 31, which represents an early adolescent period. After an extended period of drug abstinence, adult mice were challenged with a subacute methamphetamine (METH) dose (0.5 mg/kg), to test the long-term effects of adolescent drug exposures on behavioral cross-sensitization using an open field chamber. There were no sex- or dose-specific effects on motor activity in adolescent, saline-treated controls. However, AMPH, MPD, and COC adolescent exposures induced cross-sensitization to a subacute METH dose in adulthood, which is a hallmark of addiction and a marker of long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. Of additional clinical importance, AMPH-exposed male mice demonstrated increased cross-sensitization to METH in contrast to the female-specific response observed in MPD-treated animals. There were no sex-specific effects after adolescent COC exposures. This study demonstrates differential drug, dose, and sex-specific alterations induced by early adolescent psychostimulant exposure, which leads to behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergence of cocaine and methamphetamine injection among HIV-positive injection drug users in Northern and Western India

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shruti H.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Noble, Eva; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Solomon, Suniti; Kumar, M Suresh; Solomon, Sunil S

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the epidemiology of drug injection and risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) across India. In particular, there is limited data on the prevalence of stimulant injection. Methods We sampled 801 HIV positive IDUs from 14 locations throughout India to represent the geography of India as well as the diversity in IDU epidemic stage (established epidemics, emerging epidemics and large cities). All participants underwent a behavioral survey and blood draw. Given prior associations with stimulant injection and HIV risk, we compared stimulant injectors (cocaine and/or methamphetamine) to those who injected opiates and/or pharmaceuticals only. Results The median age was 33; 86% were male. The primary drugs injected were heroin, buprenorphine and other pharmaceuticals. In all but four sites, >50% of those actively injecting reported needle sharing. Stimulant injection was most common in emerging epidemics. Compared to exclusive opiate injectors, stimulant injectors were significantly younger, more likely to be educated and employed, more likely to report non-injection use of heroin, crack/cocaine and amphetamines, heavy alcohol use, recent needle sharing (71% vs. 57%), sex with a casual partner (57% vs. 31%) and men having sex with other men (33% vs. 9%; p<0.01 for all). Conclusions Emerging IDU epidemics have a drug/sexual risk profile not previously been observed in India. Given the high prevalence of stimulant injection in these populations, HIV prevention/treatment programs may need to be redesigned to maximize effectiveness. The high levels of injection sharing overall reinforce the need to ensure access to harm-reduction services for all. PMID:24382362

  14. Stability and compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride in i.v. solutions and oral liquids and during simulated Y-site injection with selected drugs.

    PubMed

    Mayron, D; Gennaro, A R

    1996-02-01

    The stability and compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride in common i.v. fluids and oral liquids and during simulated Y-site injection with selected drugs were studied. One milliliter of solution containing granisetron 1 mg (as the hydrochloride salt) was added to 50 mL of 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection, or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and to 5 mL of 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or bacteriostatic water for injection in polypropylene syringes and stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 hours. One milliliter of the granisetron hydrochloride injection was added to 50 mL of apple juice, orange juice, cola, or an electrolyte replacement solution and stored for 60 minutes at room temperature. Twenty-nine drugs were mixed with the granisetron hydrochloride injection in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in volumes simulating Y-site injection and stored at room temperature. Finally, dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection 0.5 mL and 1 mL of the granisetron hydrochloride injection were added to 50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in a PVC bag and stored for 60 minutes. Drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and color, clarity, and pH were evaluated. Granisetron hydrochloride was stable in and compatible with all the i.v. solutions and oral liquids. Neither granisetron nor any of the drugs it was tested with during simulated Y-site injection showed any physical changes except for a slight Tyndall effect in the granisetron hydrochloride-doxorubicin hydrochloride combination; all the drugs retained at least 96% of initial concentrations. Granisetron and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were stable and compatible in the admixture. Granisetron 1 mg (as the hydrochloride salt) was stable for 24 hours in four i.v. infusion fluids in PVC bags and in 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium

  15. Methamphetamine initiation among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-09-01

    This study describes factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in a racially diverse sample of 340 methamphetamine-using, HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. A factor analysis was conducted on reasons for initiation, and four factors were identified: to party, to cope, for energy, and to improve self-esteem. Methamphetamine to party accounted for more than one-third of the variance in the factor analysis. Methamphetamine to cope captured almost 9% of the variance, methamphetamine for energy accounted for approximately 8% of the variance, and methamphetamine for self-esteem accounted for approximately 7% of the variance. Regression analyses revealed differential associations between methamphetamine-initiation factors and HIV-risk behaviors. Methamphetamine for self-esteem predicted binge methamphetamine use, while methamphetamine to cope was associated with injecting methamphetamine. Using methamphetamine for energy was associated with number of illicit drugs-used and using methamphetamine to party was associated with having a greater number of sexually transmitted infections. These findings suggest that methamphetamine initiation among gay and bisexual men is multifaceted, which could have implications for intervention development.

  16. The Methamphetamine Home: Psychological Impact on Preschoolers in Rural Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanbe, Comfort B.; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing…

  17. The Methamphetamine Home: Psychological Impact on Preschoolers in Rural Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanbe, Comfort B.; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing…

  18. Investigation of Biowaivers for Immediate Release Formulations Containing BCS III Drugs, Acyclovir, Atenolol, and Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride, Using Dissolution Testing.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Kanfer, Isadore

    2017-02-01

    The dissolution of several products containing Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class III drugs, acyclovir, atenolol, and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, listed in the WHO essential drug list (EDL), was tested and compared with their respective comparator pharmaceutical products (CPPs) marketed in South Africa and India. US Pharmacopeia (USP) buffers of pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8 were used as dissolution media and tested using USP apparatus 2 at 75 rpm and 900 ml. Nine acyclovir products were tested, and only three dissolved very rapidly in all media; i.e., they showed a release of >85% in 15 min. Eight atenolol products tested were all very rapidly dissolving in all three pH media. Ten ciprofloxacin hydrochloride products were tested, and the results showed that only five products met the WHO biowaiver criteria. This study indicates that not all marketed products containing the same BCS III active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent as per the WHO biowaiver criteria. Furthermore, selection and availability of an innovator product as CPP are important considerations that can affect the outcomes of such studies.

  19. Development and validation of a HPTLC method for Estimation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride in Bulk Drug and in Tablet Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Suneela S; Deshpande, P; Patil, M; Vadnerkar, G; Dhaneshwar, S R

    2008-01-01

    Duloxetine hydrochloride is a potent dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine used to treat major depressive disorders. The present work describes a simple, precise and accurate HPTLC method for its estimation as bulk and in tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was carried out on precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminium plates using mixture of chloroform:methanol (8:1 v/v) as mobile phase and densitometric evaluation of spots was carried out at 235 nm using Camag TLC Scanner-3 with win CAT 1.3.4 version software. The experimental parameters like band size of the spot applied, chamber saturation time, solvent front migration, slit width etc. were critically studied and optimum conditions were evolved. The drug was satisfactorily resolved with Rf value 0.11+/-0.01. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed method was ascertained by evaluating various validation parameters like linearity (40-200 ng/spot), precision (intra-day RSD 0.46-0.75%, inter-day RSD 0.46-1.59%), accuracy (98.72+/-0.20) and specificity according to ICH guidelines. The proposed method can analyse ten or more formulation units simultaneously on a single plate and provides a faster and cost-effective quality control tool for routine analysis of duloxetine hydrochloride as bulk drug and in tablet formulation.

  20. Development and validation of a HPTLC method for Estimation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride in Bulk Drug and in Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Dhaneshwar, Suneela S.; Deshpande, P.; Patil, M.; Vadnerkar, G.; Dhaneshwar, S. R.

    2008-01-01

    Duloxetine hydrochloride is a potent dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine used to treat major depressive disorders. The present work describes a simple, precise and accurate HPTLC method for its estimation as bulk and in tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was carried out on precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminium plates using mixture of chloroform:methanol (8:1 v/v) as mobile phase and densitometric evaluation of spots was carried out at 235 nm using Camag TLC Scanner-3 with win CAT 1.3.4 version software. The experimental parameters like band size of the spot applied, chamber saturation time, solvent front migration, slit width etc. were critically studied and optimum conditions were evolved. The drug was satisfactorily resolved with Rf value 0.11±0.01. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed method was ascertained by evaluating various validation parameters like linearity (40-200 ng/spot), precision (intra-day RSD 0.46-0.75%, inter-day RSD 0.46-1.59%), accuracy (98.72±0.20) and specificity according to ICH guidelines. The proposed method can analyse ten or more formulation units simultaneously on a single plate and provides a faster and cost-effective quality control tool for routine analysis of duloxetine hydrochloride as bulk drug and in tablet formulation. PMID:20046720

  1. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  2. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications. The...

  3. Methamphetamine use dates to post-WWII era. Drug little-known risk factor in early AIDS days.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    Originally manufactured by the Germans in the 1880s and later used by the Japanese as a means of keeping military personnel awake on long shifts, methamphetamine first was a significant presence in the Western United States in the late 1940s. For decades, methamphetamine use was limited to the West Coast and Hawaii, becoming popular at various times in a multitude of groups, including Hells Angels.

  4. "Meth mouth": rampant caries in methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Shaner, J W; Kimmes, N; Saini, T; Edwards, P

    2006-03-01

    Rampant dental caries is a characteristic finding in methamphetamine abusers. The popularity of methamphetamine, particularly among the gay community where it is linked to the spread of HIV, its ready availability, and rapid spread across the nation have placed methamphetamine use in an epidemic status in many communities unaccustomed to dealing with drug abuse. We present a case of a 25-year-old male "meth" abuser of unknown HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) status to promote recognition by the health care team of the association of rampant dental caries with methamphetamine abuse for appropriate intervention to ensure successful treatment and prevention of disease progression.

  5. Vulnerability to (+)-methamphetamine effects and the relationship to drug disposition in pregnant rats during chronic infusion.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Gentry, William Brooks; Hendrickson, Howard P; Williams, David Keith; Ward, Keith W; Owens, Samuel Michael

    2009-09-01

    Chronic (+)-methamphetamine (METH) use during pregnancy increases the health risk for both mother and fetus. To provide insights into these risks, the relationship between changes in METH disposition and METH-induced pharmacological effects were studied in Sprague-Dawley rat dams and litters. Timed-pregnant rats (n = 5-6) were given saline or METH (5.6-17.8 mg/kg/day) by continuous sc infusion from gestational day (GD) 7 (before organogenesis) until GD21 (0-2 days before delivery). By GD11, all rats in the 17.8-mg/kg/day group died or were sacrificed for humane reasons. There were significant (p < 0.05) dose- and gestational time-dependent decreases in maternal body weight in the 10- to 13.2-mg/kg/day groups, which slowly recovered to near normal by GD21. Continued METH dosing in the surviving groups did not affect the mean pups/litter weight at the end of the experiment on GD21. While maternal and fetal METH and (+)-amphetamine serum concentrations were similar on GD21, brain concentrations were significantly greater in the dams (p < 0.05). Importantly, brain-to-serum ratios in the dams were 9:1 and 3:1 in the pups. METH systemic clearance (Cl(S)) in dams significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from 52 +/- 14 ml/min/kg on GD10 to 28 +/- 6 ml/min/kg on GD21 in all dose groups, indicating late-gestational stage reductions in METH Cl(S). Overall, these findings suggest that there were two periods of increased susceptibility for dams and fetuses during chronic METH treatment. First was the period after the start of METH dosing in which neuroadaptation and tolerance to METH occurs in the adult. The second was at the end of pregnancy when METH clearance was significantly reduced.

  6. Enzyme immunoassay for methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Kuroiwa, Y

    1983-01-01

    A competitive enzyme immunoassay for methamphetamine with alkaline phosphatase labeled methamphetamine, Sepharose-antibody and p-nitrophenylphosphate as substrate was developed. The anti-methamphetamine antisera produced in rabbits by immunization with N-(4-aminobutyl) methamphetamine-BSA conjugate were specific for methamphetamine and showed low cross-reactivities with p-OH methamphetamine and amphetamine (metabolites of methamphetamine). The range of methamphetamine measurable by the enzyme immunoassay was 1 to 300 ng/tube. According to the assay, methamphetamine could be detected from urine and extract of hair.

  7. Oral health of the methamphetamine abuser.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H

    2006-11-01

    The pharmacology of methamphetamine is reviewed, and the effects of methamphetamine use on oral health are described. Methamphetamine is a highly addictive amphetamine analogue, initially synthesized in 1919. Illicit methamphetamine use leads to devastating effects on health, particularly the dentition. Illegal production of methamphetamine has skyrocketed in recent years, as have the number of users. The chief complaint of methamphetamine users is xerostomia. Without the protective effects of saliva, caries development in these patients is rampant. The typical pattern of decay involves the facial and cervical areas of both the maxillary and mandibular teeth, with eventual progression to frank coronal involvement. The acidic substances used to manufacture this drug have also been implicated as a cause of tooth decay and wear in users, as has bruxism as a result of drug-induced hyperactivity. When possible, these patients should be referred to a dentist to improve their oral health status and minimize the potential for adverse cardiovascular sequelae. Other preventive measures for methamphetamine users include stimulating saliva flow and increasing fluoride supplementation. Pharmacists should also counsel users to avoid carbohydrate-rich soft drinks in favor of water. Oral moisturizers may also be effective. Methamphetamine use causes xerostomia secondary to sympathetic central nervous system activation, rampant caries caused by high-sugar intake in the absence of protective saliva, and bruxism as a result of hyperactivity. Practitioners should know how to recognize the signs of and manage the oral health of patients with a history of methamphetamine use.

  8. Implementation of the Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996; regulation of pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and combination ephedrine drug products and reports of certain transactions to nonregulated persons. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-03-28

    DEA is amending its regulations to implement the requirements of the Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996 (MCA) with respect to the regulation of pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and combination ephedrine drug products as List I chemicals, and the reporting of certain transactions involving pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and combination ephedrine drug products. The MCA removed the previous exemption from regulation as List I chemicals which had applied to pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and combination ephedrine drug products. This action makes persons who distribute the products subject to the registration requirement. Also, distributions, importations, and exportations of the products became subject to the existing chemical controls relating to regulated transactions, except in certain circumstances specified in the MCA. The MCA also requires that reports be submitted for certain distributions involving pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and ephedrine (including drug products containing those chemicals) by Postal Service or private or commercial carrier to nonregulated persons. This final rule amends the regulations to make them consistent with the language of the MCA and to establish specific procedures to be followed to satisfy the new reporting requirement. DEA has, where possible, taken action to limit the public impact of these new requirements while remaining consistent with the intent of the MCA to attack the diversion of regulated drug products to the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine.

  9. Delayed extinction and stronger drug-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in rats prenatally exposed to morphine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying-Ling; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Tao, Pao-Luh; Liao, Ruey-Ming; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal morphine (PM) affects the development of brain reward system and cognitive function. The present study aimed to determine whether PM exposure increases the vulnerability to MA addiction. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline or morphine during embryonic days 3-20. The acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine (MA) conditioned place preference (CPP) and intravenous self-administration (SA) paradigms were assessed in the male adult offspring. There was no difference in the acquisition and expression of MA CPP between saline- and PM-exposed rats, whereas PM-exposed rats exhibited slower extinction and greater MA priming-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior than controls. Similarly, MA SA under progressive ratio and fixed ratio schedules was not affected by PM exposure, but PM-exposed rats required more extinction sessions to reach the extinction criteria and displayed more severe MA priming-, but not cue-induced, reinstatement. Such alterations in extinction and reinstatement were not present when PM-exposed rats were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for food pellets. Our results demonstrate that PM exposure did not affect the association memory formation during acquisition of MA CPP or SA, but impaired extinction learning and increased MA-primed reinstatement in both tasks. These findings suggest that the offspring of women using morphine or heroin during pregnancy might predict persistent MA seeking during extinction and enhanced propensity to MA relapse although they might not be more susceptible to the reinforcing effect of MA during initiation of drug use.

  10. An in vitro--in silico--in vivo approach in biopharmaceutical drug characterization: metformin hydrochloride IR tablets.

    PubMed

    Beloica, S; Cvijić, S; Homšek, I; Bogataj, M; Parojčić, J

    2015-07-01

    The integrated in vitro--in silico--in vivo approach has emerged into a biopharmaceutical toolkit that could accelerate drug development and improve drug product clinical performance in patients. In the present study, the influence of physiologically based media and dynamic dissolution testing on drug release from two metformin hydrochloride immediate release products with proven bioequivalence was tested. Metformin-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed based on a range of literature or in silico predicted data using gastrointestinal simulation technology implemented in the Simcyp software package. Various approaches were employed in order to estimate the human effective permeability which was used as input for metformin plasma profile simulation. Influence of the rate and extent of metformin dissolution on drug absorption was evaluated. Both convolution and deconvolution approaches were used in order to establish a correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data. The results obtained indicate that physiologically based dissolution media and glass bead dissolution device exhibit certain advantages over the compendial dissolution apparatus and simple buffers which tended to be over-discriminative. Gastrointestinal simulation technology implemented in the Simcyp Simulator was successfully used in developing drug-specific PBPK model for metformin. Simulations indicate that in vitro dissolution kinetics has no significant effect on metformin absorption, if more than 65% of drug is released in 1 hour. Level A in vitro-in vivo correlation was obtained using both convolution and deconvolution approaches.

  11. Application of a colorimetric technique in quality control for printed pediatric orodispersible drug delivery systems containing propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Hossein; Nyman, Johan O; Genina, Natalja; Preis, Maren; Sandler, Niklas

    2016-09-10

    The feasibility of a colorimetric technique was investigated in CIELAB color space as an analytical quality control method for content uniformity of printed orodispersible pediatric delivery systems. Inkjet printing was utilized to fabricate orodispersibe film formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride in a colored ink base using three different edible substrates. A thin sweetener coating layer of saccharin was successfully included in the final dosage forms for palatability purposes using a casting knife. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and scanning white light interferometry analyses were conducted to study the effect of printing on the surface morphology and topography of the substrates. Differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy were used to study the solid state properties and possible interactions between the drug and the excipients. The inkjet printing technique deposited precise and uniform escalating doses (0.08-3.16mg) of the active pharmaceutical ingredient onto the substrates (R(2)≥0.9934). A disintegration test with clear end-point detection confirmed that all the substrates meet the requirements of the Ph. Eur. to disintegrate within 180s. The colorimetric technique proved to be a reliable method to distinguish the small color differences between formulations containing an escalating dose of propranolol hydrochloride. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish ... paranoia, aggressiveness, and hallucinations. The Brain's Response to Methamphetamine Hi, my name's Sara Bellum. Welcome to my ...

  13. Substance-use and sexual harm reduction strategies of methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men and inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Noor, Syed W; Breckenridge, Ellen D; Adeboye, Adeniyi A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that men who have sex with men (MSM), use methamphetamine, and inject drugs are at high risk of HIV infection and they employ multiple harm reduction strategies simultaneously to reduce that risk. In this study, we identified substances most commonly injected and harm reduction strategies most often employed by methamphetamine-using MSM, used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of harm reduction strategies, and differentiated MSM within each class by individual characteristics. We analyzed data from 284 participants who completed an online cross-sectional survey. Commonly injected substances were methamphetamine (93.70%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (41.55%), flunitrazepam (40.49%), and cocaine (35.56%). The substance-use strategies most often used were avoidance of sharing needles (85.92%) and use of bleach to clean drug paraphernalia (64.08%). The sexual strategy most often used was avoidance of condomless anal intercourse (CAS) while using drugs (77.11%). Using an LCA approach, we identified three classes distinguishable by age, race/ethnicity, and outness. One class (19%) employed lay strategies to reduce harm: they avoided sharing drug preparation equipment, serosorted when sharing needles and equipment or having CAS, and practiced withdrawal when having CAS. The largest class (53%) combined sexual and substance-use strategies: they avoided sharing needles, used bleach to clean needles and equipment, avoided CAS when using drugs, and used extra lubricant when having CAS. The remaining class (28%) employed only substance-use rather than sexual strategies. More MSM of color were in the substance-use class, and more young, non-Hispanic White men were in the lay class. The low utilization of sexual strategies by younger, non-Hispanic White men in the lay class is concerning as they are just as likely as older, non-Hispanic White men in the combined class to have CAS with multiple male partners. Interventionists should

  14. Substance-Use and Sexual Harm-Reduction Strategies of Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men and Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Noor, Syed W.; Breckenridge, Ellen D.; Adeboye, Adeniyi A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that men who have sex with men (MSM), use methamphetamine, and inject drugs are at high risk of HIV infection and they employ multiple harm reduction strategies simultaneously to reduce that risk. In this study, we identified substances most commonly injected and harm reduction strategies most often employed by methamphetamine-using MSM, used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of harm reduction strategies, and differentiated MSM within each class by individual characteristics. We analyzed data from 284 participants who completed an online cross-sectional survey. Commonly injected substances were methamphetamine (93.70%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (41.55%), flunitrazepam (40.49%), and cocaine (35.56%). The substance-use strategies most often used were avoidance of sharing needles (85.92%) and use of bleach to clean drug paraphernalia (64.08%). The sexual strategy most often used was avoidance of condomless anal intercourse (CAS) while using drugs (77.11%). Using an LCA approach, we identified three classes distinguishable by age, race/ethnicity, and outness. One class (19%) employed lay strategies to reduce harm: they avoided sharing drug preparation equipment, serosorted when sharing needles and equipment or having CAS, and practiced withdrawal when having CAS. The largest class (53%) combined sexual and substance use strategies: they avoided sharing needles, used bleach to clean needles and equipment, avoided CAS when using drugs, and used extra lubricant when having CAS. The remaining class (28%) employed only substance-use rather than sexual strategies. More MSM of color were in the substance-use class, and more young, non-Hispanic White men were in the lay class. The low utilization of sexual strategies by younger, non-Hispanic White men in the lay class is concerning as they are just as likely as older, non-Hispanic White men in the combined class to have CAS with multiple male partners. Interventionists should

  15. Methamphetamine (Meth)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with dopamine, depleting its supply. So, once the effects have warn off, the brain will no longer send the small amounts of this pleasure producing chemical to the brain when you do ordinary activities, and that can lead to depression. Regular use of methamphetamine causes chemical and molecular ...

  16. Evaluation of the 20% D-methamphetamine requirement for determining illicit use of methamphetamine in urine.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Francis M; Crumpton, Susan; Mitchell, John; Flegel, Ronald R

    2012-07-01

    In urine drug testing, enantiomer analysis is used to determine whether a positive methamphetamine result could be due to use of an over-the-counter (OTC) nasal inhaler containing L-methamphetamine. D-methamphetamine at more than 20% of the total is considered indicative of a source other than an OTC product. This interpretation is based on a 1991 Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Technical Advisory. We performed studies to verify the methamphetamine enantiomer content of current OTC nasal inhalers and to evaluate current laboratory testing capabilities. This study demonstrated that OTC inhalers contain less than 1% D-methamphetamine. A proficiency testing (PT) set for HHS-certified laboratories performing methamphetamine enantiomer testing found D-methamphetamine percentages that were consistently 1 to 3% higher than theoretical due to optical impurity of the derivatizing reagent N-trifluoroacetyl-L-prolyl chloride (L-TPC). The PT results also demonstrate that laboratories can accurately determine 20% D-methamphetamine in samples with total methamphetamine concentrations down to 250 ng/mL. Based on these studies, the guideline of >20% D-methamphetamine is appropriate for interpreting results obtained using current laboratory methods.

  17. Bupropion Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Khan, S R; Berendt, R T; Ellison, C D; Ciavarella, A B; Asafu-Adjaye, E; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2016-01-01

    Bupropion hydrochloride is a norepinephrine-dopamine disinhibitor (NDDI) approved for the treatment of depression and smoking cessation. Bupropion is a trimethylated monocyclic phenylaminoketone second-generation antidepressant, which differs structurally from most antidepressants, and resides in a novel mechanistic class that has no direct action on the serotonin system. Comprehensive chemical, physical, and spectroscopic profiles are presented. This analytical profile provides an extensive spectroscopic investigation utilizing mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional NMR, solid-state NMR, IR, NIR, Raman, UV, and X-ray diffraction. The profile also includes significant wet chemistry studies for pH, solubility, solution, and plasma stability. Both HPLC and UPLC methodology are presented for bupropion and its related impurities or major metabolites. The profile concludes with an overview of biological properties that includes toxicity, drug metabolism, and pharmacokinetics. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Positively charged polymeric nanoparticle reservoirs of terbinafine hydrochloride: preclinical implications for controlled drug delivery in the aqueous humor of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Saadia Ahmed; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Abd-Elsalam, Wessam Hamdy

    2013-06-01

    Frequent instillation of terbinafine hydrochloride (T HCl) eye drops (0.25%, w/v) is necessary to maintain effective aqueous humor concentrations for treatment of fungal keratitis. The current approach aimed at developing potential positively charged controlled-release polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) of T HCl. The estimation of the drug pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor following ocular instillation of the best-achieved NPs in rabbits was another goal. Eighteen drug-loaded (0.50%, w/v) formulae were fabricated by the nanopreciptation method using Eudragit® RS100 and chitosan (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v). Soybean lecithin (1%, w/v) and Pluronic® F68 (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%, w/v) were incorporated in the alcoholic and aqueous phases, respectively. The NPs were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%), morphological examination, drug release in simulated tear fluid (pH 7.4), Fourier-transform IR (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), physical stability (2 months, 4°C and 25°C), and drug pharmacokinetics in the rabbit aqueous humor relative to an oily drug solution. Spherical, discrete NPs were successfully developed with mean particle size and zeta potential ranging from 73.29 to 320.15 nm and +20.51 to +40.32 mV, respectively. Higher EE% were achieved with Eudragit® RS100-based NPs. The duration of drug release was extended to more than 8 h. FT-IR and XRD revealed compatibility between inactive formulation ingredients and T HCl and permanence of the latter's crystallinity, respectively. The NPs were physically stable, for at least 2 months, when refrigerated. F5-NP suspension significantly (P<0.05) increased drug mean residence time and improved its ocular bioavailability; 1.657-fold.

  19. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the selective determination of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine designer drugs in human whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Chika; Hara, Kenji; Uchigasaki, Seisaku; Lee, Xiao-Pen; Seno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Sato, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    A novel method is described for the extraction of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine designer drugs, such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine, and 3,4-(methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine, from human whole blood using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction as highly selective sample clean-up technique. Whole blood samples were diluted with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 8.6) and applied to a SupelMIP-Amphetamine molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction cartridge. The cartridge was then washed to eliminate interferences, and the amphetamines of interest were eluted with formic acid/methanol (1:100, v/v). After derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the analytes were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Recoveries of the seven amphetamines spiked into whole blood were 89.1-102%. The limits of quantification for each compound in 200 μL of whole blood were between 0.25 and 1.0 ng. The maximum intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were 9.96 and 13.8%, respectively. The results show that methamphetamine, amphetamine, and methylenedioxyphenylalkyl-amine designer drugs can be efficiently extracted from crude biological samples such as whole blood by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with good reproducibility. This extraction method will be useful for the pretreatment of human samples before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Functional and Structural Brain Changes Associated with Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Reem K.; Kydd, Rob R.; Russell, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent psychostimulant drug whose abuse has become a global epidemic in recent years. Firstly, this review article briefly discusses the epidemiology and clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine dependence. Secondly, the article reviews relevant animal literature modeling methamphetamine dependence and discusses possible mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Thirdly, it provides a critical review of functional and structural neuroimaging studies in human MA abusers; including positron emission tomography (PET) and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The effect of abstinence from methamphetamine, both short- and long-term within the context of these studies is also reviewed. PMID:24961256

  1. On the Role of Imitation on Adolescence Methamphetamine Abuse Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mushanyu, J; Nyabadza, F; Muchatibaya, G; Stewart, A G R

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence methamphetamine use is an issue of considerable concern due to its correlation with later delinquency, divorce, unemployment and health problems. Understanding how adolescents initiate methamphetamine abuse is important in developing effective prevention programs. We formulate a mathematical model for the spread of methamphetamine abuse using nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It is assumed that susceptibles are recruited into methamphetamine use through imitation. An epidemic threshold value, [Formula: see text], termed the abuse reproduction number, is proposed and defined herein in the drug-using context. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation. This means that methamphetamine problems may persist in the population even if [Formula: see text] is less than one. Sensitivity analysis of [Formula: see text] was performed to determine the relative importance of different parameters in methamphetamine abuse initiation. The model is then fitted to data on methamphetamine users less than 20 years old reporting methamphetamine as their primary substance of abuse in the treatment centres of Cape Town and parameter values that give the best fit are chosen. Results show that the proportion of methamphetamine users less than 20 years old reporting methamphetamine as their primary substance of abuse will continue to decrease in Cape Town of South Africa. The results suggest that intervention programs targeted at reducing adolescence methamphetamine abuse, are positively impacting methamphetamine abuse.

  2. Oxytocin decreases methamphetamine self-administration, methamphetamine hyperactivity, and relapse to methamphetamine-seeking behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Carson, Dean S; Cornish, Jennifer L; Guastella, Adam J; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2010-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that the neuropeptide oxytocin may be utilised as a treatment for various psychopathologies, including drug addictions. Here we used an animal model to assess whether oxytocin might be effective in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to lever press to intravenously self-administer methamphetamine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once responding had stabilised, one group of rats received escalating doses of oxytocin (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally (IP) prior to daily self-administration tests, while other rats received vehicle. After these tests, lever-pressing was extinguished and the ability of methamphetamine primes (IP, 1 mg/kg) to reinstate responding was studied with and without co-administration of oxytocin (IP, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg). Results showed that oxytocin dose-dependently reduced responding for intravenous methamphetamine with an almost complete absence of responding at the highest oxytocin dose (1 mg/kg). Hyperactivity during methamphetamine self-administration was also dose-dependently reduced by oxytocin. Oxytocin (1 but not 0.3 mg/kg) also reduced the ability of methamphetamine to reinstate methamphetamine-seeking behaviour. In separate tests, oxytocin (IP, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg) robustly decreased the hyperactivity and rearing induced by methamphetamine challenge (IP, 1 mg/kg), producing activity levels similar to control animals. This study suggests that oxytocin may have a powerful inhibitory effect on the motivation to consume methamphetamine and on hyperactivity associated with acute methamphetamine intoxication. These results point to the potential utility of human trials of oxytocin as a therapeutic treatment for methamphetamine addiction.

  3. Drugs and the Brain: Learning the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain through a virtual brain exhibit in the museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Annetta, Leonard; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn Y.

    2011-01-01

    Drugs and the Brain: A Serious Game, a prototype museum exhibit, was designed to employ virtual models of the brain into a video game format. It was done to create a fun and engaging way of conveying knowledge and concepts about neuroscience, as well as the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this prototype exhibit that promises to educate participants from various age, ethnicity, and gender backgrounds, and to establish a stronger concept of drug abuse prevention among children. A quantitative methodology using the pre- and post-experimental designs was conducted on 175 museum visitors. A series of two-sample paired t-tests and subsequent ANOVAs were performed to examine the difference between pre- and post-tests and to determine if there was a difference in the results in age, gender, ethnicity, and race. Results showed that both the understanding and attitudes of the participants toward the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain improved significantly (p < 0.01).

  4. Management of methamphetamine abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Ling, Walter; Rawson, Richard; Shoptaw, Steve; Ling, Walter

    2006-10-01

    Preliminary implications for evidence-based treatments and future practice may be drawn from new research findings that inspire a fresh view of methamphetamine dependence and associated medical consequences. Current user populations include increasingly impacted subgroups (ie, youths, women, men who have sex with men, and rural residents); complex consequences of methamphetamine abuse among these subgroups require additional efforts involving contextual understanding of characteristics and needs to develop effective treatments. The neurobiological data on cellular activity of methamphetamine taken with findings from neuroimaging studies indicate potential targets for pharmacologic interventions. In early trials, several candidate medications--bupropion, modafinil, and, to a lesser extent, baclofen--have shown promise in treating aspects of methamphetamine dependence, including aiding memory function necessary to more effectively participate in and benefit from behavioral therapies. Clinicians and researchers must interact to efficiently address the problems of methamphetamine dependence, a major drug problem in the United States and the world.

  5. Methamphetamine causes acute hyperthermia-dependent liver damage.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Gunning, William T; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2013-10-01

    Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has been correlated with damage to the liver but this damage has not been extensively characterized. Moreover, the mechanism by which the drug contributes to liver damage is unknown. This study characterizes the hepatocellular toxicity of methamphetamine and examines if hyperthermia contributes to this liver damage. Livers from methamphetamine-treated rats were examined using electron microscopy and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Methamphetamine increased glycogen stores, mitochondrial aggregation, microvesicular lipid, and hydropic change. These changes were diffuse throughout the hepatic lobule, as evidenced by a lack of hematoxylin and eosin staining. To confirm if these changes were indicative of damage, serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase were measured. The functional significance of methamphetamine-induced liver damage was also examined by measuring plasma ammonia. To examine the contribution of hyperthermia to this damage, methamphetamine-treated rats were cooled during and after drug treatment by cooling their external environment. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, as well as plasma ammonia were increased concurrently with these morphologic changes and were prevented when methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was blocked. These findings support that methamphetamine produces changes in hepatocellular morphology and damage persisting for at least 24 h after drug exposure. At this same time point, methamphetamine treatment significantly increases plasma ammonia concentrations, consistent with impaired ammonia metabolism and functional liver damage. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia contributes significantly to the persistent liver damage and increases in peripheral ammonia produced by the drug.

  6. Crystal methamphetamine smoking among regular ecstasy users in Australia: increases in use and associations with harm.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Stuart A; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2008-05-01

    This study examined (a) changes in crystal methamphetamine use among regular ecstasy users (REU) in Australia and (b) associations of crystal use and smoking with demographics, drug use and harm. Cross-sectional surveys (2000-06) of REU in three Australian capital cities, and in 2006, 750 REU in all Australian capital cities. The interview included: demographics, drug use, risk behaviour, recent criminal activity and methamphetamine dependence using Severity of Dependence Scale. There was little change in overall methamphetamine use, but a marked increase in crystal methamphetamine smoking. Among recent methamphetamine users in 2006 (n = 606), crystal methamphetamine users (n = 364) reported more frequent methamphetamine use and higher levels of dependence. Compared with those who had used only other forms of methamphetamine, recent crystal methamphetamine users were more likely to 'binge' on drugs for > or = 48 hours, engage in crime and experience financial and legal problems related to drug use. Non-smoking crystal methamphetamine users (n = 78) more often reported recent injecting and heroin use. Recent smokers were more likely to have: greater polydrug use, recently overdosed on a 'party drug', and accessed medical services for their drug use. Many of these associations were accounted for by their injecting and heavier methamphetamine use, rather than smoking per se. Crystal methamphetamine smoking among REU has increased markedly and is associated with significant harm. This appears related to smokers' heavier levels of methamphetamine use. Effective harm reduction strategies should be tailored to these specific risks.

  7. Neural Correlates of Craving in Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shahmohammadi, Fanak; Golesorkhi, Mehrshad; Riahi Kashani, Mohammad Mansour; Sangi, Mehrdad; Yoonessi, Ahmad; Yoonessi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant that causes significant neurological impairments with long-lasting effects and has provoked serious international concerns about public health. Denial of drug abuse and drug craving are two important factors that make the diagnosis and treatment extremely challenging. Here, we present a novel and rapid noninvasive method with potential application for differentiation and monitoring methamphetamine abuse. Methods: Visual stimuli comprised a series of images with neutral and methamphetamine-related content. A total of 10 methamphetamine abusers and 10 age-gender matched controls participated in the experiments. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded and compared using a time window analysis method. The ERPs were divided into 19 time windows of 100 ms with 50 ms overlaps. The area of positive sections below each window was calculated to measure the differences between the two groups. Results: Significant differences between two groups were observed from 250 to 500 ms (P300) in response to methamphetamine-related visual stimuli and 600 to 800 ms in response to neutral stimuli. Conclusion: This study presented a novel and noninvasive method based on neural correlates to discriminate healthy individuals from methamphetamine drug abusers. This method can be employed in treatment and monitoring of the methamphetamine abuse. PMID:27563415

  8. 78 FR 17933 - Determination That BENADRYL (diphenhydramine hydrochloride) Injection and Two Other Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... authorized the approval of duplicate versions of drug products approved under an ANDA procedure. ANDA... data required in an ANDA are data to show that the drug that is the subject of the ANDA is... the list if the Agency withdraws or suspends approval of the drug's NDA or ANDA for reasons of...

  9. Delayed emergence of methamphetamine's enhanced cardiovascular effects in nonhuman primates during protracted methamphetamine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Vaupel, D B; Schindler, C W; Chefer, S; Belcher, A M; Ahmet, I; Scheidweiler, K B; Huestis, M A; Stein, E A

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is linked with brain abnormalities, but its peripheral effects constitute an integral aspect of long-term methamphetamine use. Eight male rhesus monkeys with long histories of intravenous methamphetamine self-administration were evaluated 1 day, and 1, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after their last methamphetamine self-administration session. On test days, isoflurane-anesthetized animals received a 0.35 mg/kg IV methamphetamine challenge. A control group consisted of 10 age and gender matched drug naïve monkeys. Cardiovascular responses to methamphetamine were followed for 2.5h. Echocardiograms were acquired at 3 and 12 months of abstinence and in the control animals. No pre-methamphetamine baseline differences existed among 7 physiological measures across all conditions and controls. As expected, methamphetamine increased heart rate and blood pressure in controls. However, immediately following the self-administration period, the blood pressure response to methamphetamine challenge was reduced when compared to control monkeys. The peak and 150-min average heart rate increases, as well as peak blood pressure increases following methamphetamine were significantly elevated between weeks 12 to 26 of abstinence. These data indicate the development of tolerance followed by sensitization to methamphetamine cardiovascular effects. Echocardiography demonstrated decreased left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac output at 3 months of abstinence. Importantly, both cardiovascular sensitization and cardiotoxicity appeared to be reversible as they returned toward control group levels after 1 year of abstinence. Enhanced cardiovascular effects may occur after prolonged abstinence in addicts relapsing to methamphetamine and may underlie clinically reported acute cardiotoxic events. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. 21 CFR 522.883 - Etorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... milliliter of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, contains 1 mg of etorphine hydrochloride in... use the drug unless diprenorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, as provided for in § 522.723, is available for use in reversing the effects of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary....

  11. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Naloxone hydrochloride injection. 522.1462 Section... § 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Naloxone hydrochloride injection is an aqueous sterile solution containing 0.4 milligram of naloxone hydrochloride per milliliter. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naloxone hydrochloride injection. 522.1462 Section... § 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Naloxone hydrochloride injection is an aqueous sterile solution containing 0.4 milligram of naloxone hydrochloride per milliliter. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Naloxone hydrochloride injection. 522.1462 Section... § 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Naloxone hydrochloride injection is an aqueous sterile solution containing 0.4 milligram of naloxone hydrochloride per milliliter. (b) Sponsor...

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of chitosan-graft-poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid) as a drug carrier for controlled release of tramadol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Kaliappa Gounder; Vijayakumar, Vediappan

    2012-07-01

    Chitosan-graft-poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid) has been synthesized for different feed ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and itaconic acid and characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetry and swelling in simulated biological fluids (SBF) and evaluated as a drug carrier with model drug, tramadol hydrochloride (TRM). Grafting decreased the thermal stability of chitosan. FT-IR spectra of tablet did not reveal any molecular level (i.e. at <10 nm scale) drug-polymer interaction. But differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated a probable drug-polymer interaction at a scale >100 nm level. The observed Korsmeyer-Peppas's power law exponents (0.19-1.21) for the in vitro release profiles of TRM in SBF and other drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (FU), paracetamol (PCM) and vanlafaxine hydrochloride (VNF) with the copolymer carriers revealed an anomalous drug release mechanism. The decreased release rates for the grafted chitosan and the enhanced release rate for the grafts with increasing itaconic acid content in the feed were more likely attributed to the enhanced drug-matrix interaction and polymer-SBF interactions, respectively. The different release profiles of FU, PCM, TRM and VNF with the copolymer matrix are attributed to the different chemical structures of drugs. The above features suggest the graft copolymer's candidature for use as a promising oral drug delivery system.

  15. Methamphetamine and Paranoia: The Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Leamon, Martin H.; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E.; Nordahl, Thomas E.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2011-01-01

    Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. METHODS: We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. RESULTS: 45% (123) subjects first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia, respectively). Test-retest and inter-rater reliability for MA-induced paranoia showed substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77, p < 0.05 and kappa = 0.80, p < 0.05, respectively). First episodes of paranoia occurred more often with intravenous use of MA, and subsequent episodes at higher doses. There was modest correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI paranoid ideation scale (rho = 0.27, p < 0.05). As expected, there was a poor correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI depression scale (rho = 0.14, p = 0.07). The MEQ provides useful information on drug use variables that contribute to paranoia commonly associated with MA use. PMID:20163388

  16. Methamphetamine and paranoia: the methamphetamine experience questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Leamon, Martin H; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E; Nordahl, Thomas E; Kranzler, Henry R; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-01-01

    Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. Of the total subjects, 45% (123) first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia, respectively). Test-retest and inter-rater reliability for MA-induced paranoia showed substantial agreement (kappa = .77, p < .05 and kappa = .80, p < .05, respectively). First episodes of paranoia occurred more often with intravenous use of MA, and subsequent episodes at higher doses. There was modest correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) paranoid ideation scale (rho = .27, p < .05). As expected, there was a poor correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI depression scale (rho = .14, p = .07). The MEQ provides useful information on drug use variables that contribute to paranoia commonly associated with MA use. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-14).

  17. Naltrexone attenuates cue- but not drug-induced methamphetamine seeking: a possible mechanism for the dissociation of primary and secondary reward.

    PubMed

    Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Sakimura, Katsuya; Hiranita, Takato; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2004-09-24

    The present study was aimed to clarify the role of the opioid system in the reinstatement of methamphetamine (METH)-seeking behavior in METH self-administering rats. Following 12 days of self-administration of METH, the replacement of METH with saline resulted in a gradual decrease in lever press responses (extinction). Under extinction conditions, METH-priming or re-exposure to cues previously paired with METH infusion markedly increased the responses (reinstatement of drug-seeking). Naltrexone administered 30 min before re-exposure to METH-associated cues attenuated reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. On the other hand, administration of this antagonist had no effect on the reinstatement induced by METH-priming. We discussed these findings in relation with the dissociation of primary and secondary reward, suggesting that an opioid mechanism is responsible for this dissociation. Further, these results indicate the possibility of using naltrexone as an anti-relapse agent.

  18. Chlormethiazole potentiates the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maciej; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Goldberg, Steven R; Munzar, Patrik

    2004-06-28

    Chlormethiazole is a positive modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal seizures. It recently has been reported to attenuate seizures engendered by acute and repeated exposure to cocaine in mice and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine in rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chlormethiazole could also attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine, a behavior predictive of the subjective effects of methamphetamine in humans. In Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg methamphetamine [intraperitoneally (i.p.)] from saline under a fixed-ratio schedule of food delivery, the ability of chlormethiazole (i.p.) to (1) substitute for methamphetamine, (2) antagonize effects of methamphetamine and to (3) shift the methamphetamine dose-effect function was investigated. Chlormethiazole (18 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) partially substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine when administered alone (maximum group average, 60% responses on the methamphetamine-appropriate lever). Chlormethiazole did not attenuate effects of methamphetamine when coadministered with the training dose of methamphetamine. Instead, chlormethiazole potentiated the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine as demonstrated by a significant (about 2.5-fold) leftward and upward shift in the methamphetamine dose-effect function in the presence of chlormethiazole (10 mg/kg). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that there is a behavioral interaction between methamphetamine and chlormethiazole. The profile of this interaction is qualitatively different from that of methamphetamine and classical GABAergic drugs (i.e., benzodiazepines and barbiturates), suggesting the involvement of non-GABAergic mechanisms in the effects produced by chlormethiazole.

  19. Acute Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Methamphetamine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Carl L; Gunderson, Erik W; Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Thurmond, Andrew; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased dramatically in the past decade, yet only one published study has investigated its acute effects under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the current study examined the effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Eleven nontreatment-seeking methamphetamine abusers (two females, nine males) completed this four-session, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. During each session, one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg) was administered and methamphetamine plasma concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and psychomotor/cognitive performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Following drug administration, methamphetamine plasma concentrations systematically increased for 4 h postdrug administration then declined. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased cardiovascular measures and ‘positive’ subjective effects, with peaks occurring approximately 5–15 min after drug administration, when plasma levels were still ascending. In addition, cognitive performance on less complicated tasks was improved by all active methamphetamine doses, whereas performance on more complicated tasks was improved only by the intermediate doses (12 and 25 mg). These results show that intranasal methamphetamine produced predictable effects on multiple behavioral and physiological measures before peak plasma levels were observed. Of interest is the dissociation between methamphetamine plasma concentrations with cardiovascular measures and positive subjective effects, which might have important implications for potential toxicity after repeated doses. PMID:17851535

  20. Performance characteristics of selected immunoassays for preliminary test of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, and related drugs in urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jui; Liu, Chiareiy; Liu, C P; Tsay, Wen-Ing; Li, Jih-Heng; Lin, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ray H

    2003-10-01

    Eight commercially available immunoassays for amphetamines (DRI Amphetamines, CEDIA DAU Amphetamines-Semiquantitative, EMIT d.a.u. Monoclonal Amphetamine/Methamphetamine, Synchron CX Systems AMPH, TDx/TDxFLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II, CEDIA Amphetamines/Ecstasy, COBAS INTEGRA Amphetamines, and Abuscreen((R)) OnLine HS Amphetamine/MDMA) are evaluated for their effectiveness in serving as the preliminary test methodology for the analysis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA/MDA) and methamphetamine/amphetamine (MA/AM). Standard solutions (in urine matrix) of MDMA, MDA, MA, and AM are used to determine these immunoassays' reactivities (or cross-reactivities) toward these compounds of interest. Case specimens containing MDMA/MDA and MA/AM are also used to study the correlations of the apparent immunoassay MDMA (or MA) concentrations and the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric concentrations of these compounds. Data resulting from this study suggest that CEDIA Amphetamines/Ecstasy can best predict the concentrations of MDMA and MA in case specimens and can also detect the presence of MDMA at low levels, whereas Abuscreen OnLine HS Amphetamine/MDMA can detect both MDMA and MA at low concentrations.

  1. Compressibility, isothermal titration calorimetry and dynamic light scattering analysis of the aggregation of the amphiphilic phenothiazine drug thioridazine hydrochloride in water/ethanol mixed solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Mohammad Arif; Siddiq, Mohammad; Barbosa, Silvia; Castro, Emilio; Egea, José A.; Antelo, Luis T.; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Víctor

    2007-07-01

    Thioridazine hydrochloride is a drug used in treatment of mental illness that shows side effects. Therefore, it is interesting to study the change of the physico-chemical properties of the drug in different environments to understand the mechanism of action of the drug. Thioridazine can be considered as a hydrotrope if we considered that the term comprise hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that form aggregates by a stacking mechanism as it is the case of all the phenothiazine tranquillizing drugs. The association properties of the amphiphilic phenothiazine drug thioridazine hydrochloride were investigated by density, ultrasound, isothermal titration calorimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS), yielding values of the critical concentration, adiabatic apparent compressibilities and hydrodynamic radius. The DLS data were analyzed according to the treatment of the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory to study the stability of the system. The aim of the study is to obtain information about the physico-chemical characterization of the drug in aqueous solution and the effect of ethanol on the aggregate stability of this amphiphilic drug. The phenothiazine tranquillizing drugs have interesting association characteristics that derive from their rigid, tricyclic hydrophobic groups.

  2. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Faucett, Erynne A.; Marsh, Katherine M.; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as “meth mouth,” there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use. PMID:25675268

  3. Correlates of shared methamphetamine injection among methamphetamine-injecting treatment seekers: the first report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehrjerdi, Zahra Alam; Abarashi, Zohreh; Noroozi, Alireza; Arshad, Leila; Zarghami, Mehran

    2014-05-01

    Shared methamphetamine injection is an emerging route of drug use among Iranian methamphetamine injectors. It is a primary vector for blood-borne infections. The aim of the current study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of shared methamphetamine injection in a sample of Iranian methamphetamine injecting treatment seekers in the south of Tehran. We surveyed male and female methamphetamine injectors at three drop-in centres and 18 drug-use community treatment programmes. Participants reported socio-demographic characteristics, drug use, high-risk behaviours, current status of viral infections and service use for drug treatment. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between participants' characteristics and shared methamphetamine injection. Overall, 209 clients were recruited; 90.9% were male; 52.6% reported current methamphetamine injection without any shared injection behaviour and 47.4% reported current shared methamphetamine injection. Shared methamphetamine injection was found to be primarily associated with living with sex partners (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.98), reporting ≥3 years of dependence on methamphetamine injection (AOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27-2.12), injection with pre-filled syringes in the past 12 months (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.47-2.42), homosexual sex without condom use in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.21-2.25), the paucity of NA group participation in the past 12 months (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.41-0.99), the paucity of attending psychotherapeutic sessions in the past 12 months (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.96) and positive hepatitis C status (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.67-2.83). Deeper exploration of the relationship between shared methamphetamine injection and sexual risk among Iranian methamphetamine injectors would benefit HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. In addition, existing psychosocial interventions for methamphetamine-injecting population may need to be adapted to better meet the

  4. 75 FR 65642 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole Hydrochloride...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Bartkowiak, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl.... Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P ... authority delegated to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for...

  5. Prophylactic activity of mefloquine hydrochloride (WR 142 490) in drug-resistant malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Rieckmann, K. H.; Trenholme, G. M.; Williams, R. L.; Carson, P. E.; Frischer, H.; Desjardins, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    In preliminary studies with mefloquine (WR 142 490) a single dose exerted prolonged suppressive activity against a drug-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Development of patent parasitaemia was prevented when nonimmune persons were exposed to infected mosquitos 2 weeks after medication, and it was delayed when exposure occurred 3 weeks after drug administration. PMID:4619059

  6. 76 FR 45267 - Determination That INVERSINE (Mecamylamine Hydrochloride) Tablet and Six Other Drug Products Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301- 796-3601. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In 1984, Congress enacted the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-417) (the 1984 amendments), which authorized.... The 1984 amendments include what is now section 505(j)(7) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  7. Analytical studies on the charge transfer complexes of loperamide hydrochloride and trimebutine drugs. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of CT complexes.

    PubMed

    Elqudaby, Hoda M; Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Din, Ghada M G

    2014-08-14

    Charge transfer complexes of loperamide hydrochloride (LOP.HCl) and trimebutine (TB) drugs as electron donor with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) as π-acceptors in acetonitrile were investigated spectrophotometrically to determine the cited drugs in pure and dosage forms. The reaction gives highly coloured complex species which are measured spectrophotometrically at 460, 415 and 842nm in case of LOP.HCl and at 455, 414 and 842nm in case of TB using DDQ, TCNE and TCNQ reagents, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully and optimized. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 47.70-381.6, 21.50-150.5 and 10.00-100.0μgmL(-1) for LOP.HCl and 37.85-264.9, 38.75-310.0 and 7.75-155.0μgmL(-1) for TB using DDQ, TCNE and TCNQ reagents, respectively. Sandell sensitivity, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, limit of detection and quantification were calculated. The obtained data refer to high accuracy and precision of the proposed method. These results are also confirmed by inter and intra-day precision with percent recovery of 99.18-101.1% and 99.32-101.4% in case of LOP.HCl and 98.00-102.0% and 97.50-101.4% in case of TB using DDQ, TCNE and TCNQ reagents for intra- and inter-day, respectively. These data were compared with those obtained using official methods for the determination of the cited drugs. The stability constants of the CT complexes were determined. The final products of the reaction were isolated and characterized using FT-IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The stoichiometry and apparent formation constant of the complexes formed were determined by applying the conventional spectrophotometric molar ratio method.

  8. Daunorubicin Hydrochloride and Cytarabine Liposome

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about daunorubicin hydrochloride and cytarabine liposome and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  9. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  12. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating tablets of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyethylene oxide using ranitidine hydrochloride as a model drug

    PubMed Central

    Gharti, KP; Thapa, P; Budhathoki, U; Bhargava, A

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out with an objective of preparation and in vitro evaluation of floating tablets of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) using ranitidine hydrochloride as a model drug. The floating tablets were based on effervescent approach using sodium bicarbonate a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by dry granulation method. The effect of polymers concentration and viscosity grades of HPMC on drug release profile was evaluated. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and stearic acid on drug release profile and floating properties were also investigated. The result of in vitro dissolution study showed that the drug release profile could be sustained by increasing the concentration of HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303. The formulation containing HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303 at the concentration of 13.88% showed 91.2% drug release at the end of 24 hours. Changing the viscosity grade of HPMC from K15MCR to K100MCR had no significant effect on drug release profile. Sodium bicarbonate and stearic acid in combination showed no significant effect on drug release profile. The formulations containing sodium bicarbonate 20 mg per tablet showed desired buoyancy (floating lag time of about 2 minutes and total floating time of >24 hours). The present study shows that polymers like HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303 in combination with sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent can be used to develop sustained release floating tablets of ranitidine hydrochloride. PMID:23493037

  13. Molecular modeling and spectroscopic studies on the interaction of the chiral drug venlafaxine hydrochloride with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Hadidi, Saba

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the interaction of racemic antidepressant drug "S,R-venlafaxine hydrochloride (VEN)" with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions. The mechanism of interaction was studied by spectroscopic techniques combination with molecular modeling. Stern-Volmer analysis of fluorescence quenching data shows the presence of the static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the hydrogen bonding and weak van der Waals interactions are the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The number of binding sites (n) was calculated. Through the site marker competitive experiment, VEN was confirmed to be located in subdomain IIIA of BSA. The binding distance (r = 4.93 nm) between the donor BSA and acceptor VEN was obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. According to UV-vis spectra and CD data binding of VEN leaded to conformational changes of BSA. Molecular docking simulations of S and R-VEN revealed that both isomers have similar interaction and the same binding sites, from this point of view S and R isomers are equal.

  14. Molecular modeling and spectroscopic studies on the interaction of the chiral drug venlafaxine hydrochloride with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Hadidi, Saba

    2014-03-25

    This study was designed to examine the interaction of racemic antidepressant drug "S,R-venlafaxine hydrochloride (VEN)" with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions. The mechanism of interaction was studied by spectroscopic techniques combination with molecular modeling. Stern-Volmer analysis of fluorescence quenching data shows the presence of the static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the hydrogen bonding and weak van der Waals interactions are the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The number of binding sites (n) was calculated. Through the site marker competitive experiment, VEN was confirmed to be located in subdomain IIIA of BSA. The binding distance (r=4.93 nm) between the donor BSA and acceptor VEN was obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. According to UV-vis spectra and CD data binding of VEN leaded to conformational changes of BSA. Molecular docking simulations of S and R-VEN revealed that both isomers have similar interaction and the same binding sites, from this point of view S and R isomers are equal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of murine monoclonal antibodies to methamphetamine and methamphetamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Danger, Yannic; Gadjou, Caroline; Devys, Anne; Galons, Hervé; Blanchard, Dominique; Folléa, Gilles

    2006-02-20

    Methamphetamine and ecstasy are addictive drugs that cause major health problems in young people. Here we report on the development of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to methamphetamine and its analogues, which may constitute powerful tools for antibody-based therapy. Six haptens, methamphetamine and ecstasy analogues, were synthesized, linked to a carrier protein and injected into mice. Several specific monoclonal antibodies were subsequently obtained following fusion of splenocytes from the immunized animals, with Sp2/O cells. Antibody specificity was fully investigated by competition ELISA, using a series of analogues, to identify specific amphetamine and/or ecstasy-specific antibodies. Antibody affinity was estimated to be in the range of 10(8) M(-1) with an enantiomeric hapten. Finally, two characteristic hybridoma clones (DAS-M243-6H5 and DAS-M278-4B12), secreting specific and potent mAbs were isolated. The development of drug-specific antibodies as in this study may provide promising therapeutic insight into how to neutralize methamphetamine in vivo during acute intoxication.

  16. Methamphetamine influences on brain and behavior: unsafe at any speed?

    PubMed

    Marshall, John F; O'Dell, Steven J

    2012-09-01

    Methamphetamine damages monoamine-containing nerve terminals in the brains of both animals and human drug abusers, and the cellular mechanisms underlying this injury have been extensively studied. More recently, the growing evidence for methamphetamine influences on memory and executive function of human users has prompted studies of cognitive impairments in methamphetamine-exposed animals. After summarizing current knowledge about the cellular mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced brain injury, this review emphasizes research into the brain changes that underlie the cognitive deficits that accompany repeated methamphetamine exposure. Novel approaches to mitigating or reversing methamphetamine-induced brain and behavioral changes are described, and it is argued that the slow spontaneous reversibility of the injury produced by this drug may offer opportunities for novel treatment development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Establishment and evaluation of animal model with methamphetamine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Hao; Deng, Chong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Zhen

    2009-08-01

    Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) is the most widespread narcotics in the 21st century. The methamphetamine's intoxication mechanism, psychological dependence, drug resistance and therapeutic drug development are the hot spots in current research. Establishment of animal model with methamphetamine poisoning is the basic for the relative studies, the normalization and standardization of the animal model settles the foundation for methamphetamine's further research. This article reviews the animal model of methamphetamine poisoning in China and abroad, the brief history of the acute, subacute and chronic animal model of methamphetamine poisoning, as well as the principles and methods of the animal model establishment and its evaluation criteria. The necessity, significance and its scientific expansion of performing experimental research on the methamphetamine poisoning animal model are also discussed.

  18. Black agouti (ACI) rats show greater drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior than Fischer 344 and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinlei; Kruzich, Paul J

    2007-05-01

    Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats differ in methamphetamine self-administration (SA) and methamphetamine-induced reinstatement of previously extinguished behavior. We sought to determine whether genetic background also influences methamphetamine reinforcement efficacy, conditioned reinstatement, and methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of responding in F344, LEW, and Black Agouti (ACI) rats. We implanted rats with jugular catheters and trained them to self-administer methamphetamine (0.06 mg/kg/infusion) under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement during daily 2-h SA sessions. A compound stimulus (light+tone; LT) was paired with each infusion. Dose-dependent intake was determined for each rat. Rats then entered the extinction phase of the experiment where responding resulted in no programmed consequences. Following extinction sessions, rats underwent conditioned reinstatement testing. For conditioned reinstatement, rats received response-contingent presentations of the LT and no methamphetamine. Last, methamphetamine-primed reinstatement test sessions where conducted where subjects received experimenter delivered infusions of methamphetamine (0.06, 0.12, or 0.24 mg/kg). The strains did not differ in PR responding across the doses tested. The ACI rats demonstrated the highest behavioral output during extinction training, conditioned- and methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of previously extinguished behavior compared to the other strains. These data suggest that genetic background differentially influences extinction, conditioned reinstatement and methamphetamine-primed reinstatement in rats.

  19. Action of tilidine hydrochloride and morphine hydrochloride on ventilatory control in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Maranetra, N; Pain, M C

    1976-03-20

    The action of tilidine hydrochloride and morphine hydrochloride on the ventilatory response to inhaled carbon dioxide has been assessed in 10 normal volunteers. In doses of 50 mg and 100 mg given intravenously, tilidine hydrochloride induced less respiratory depression than 10 mg of morphine given intravenously. Side effects were not different or troublesome with either drug. Depending on its relative pain-relieving property, tilidine hydrochloride may have advantages over morphine as an analgesic.

  20. Simultaneous determination of multi drug components Theophylline, Etofylline, Guaiphenesine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride by validated RP-HPLC method in liquid dosage form.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jainendra Kumar; Prakash, M S; Mishra, Rajnish K; Khandhar, Amit P

    2008-04-01

    The RP-HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Multi drug components i.e., Theophylline, Etofylline, Guaiphenesine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in a liquid dosage form. Chromatographic separation of the four drugs was performed on a Hypersil Phenyl BDS (25cmX4.6mm, 5mm). The mobile phase constituted of triethylamine pH 3.0 buffer: methanol (85:15) v/v was delivered at the flow rate 1.5 mL/min. Detection was performed at 235 nm. The peak purity of Theophylline, Etofylline, Guaiphenesine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride were 0.99970, 0.99979, 0.99986 and 0.99949 respectively. Calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficient between 0.99995 to 0.99997 over a concentration range of 5 to 37 microg/mL for Theophylline, 19 to 140 microg/mL for Etofylline, 20 to 149 microg/mL for Guaiphenesine and 6 to 45 microg/mL for Ambroxol hydrochloride. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was found < 2.0%. The percentage recovery was found between the range of 98.6% and 100.5% at three different levels. Robustness and ruggedness were performed and result found within the RSD of 2%. All the parameters of validation were found in the acceptance range of ICH guideline.

  1. Epidemiology of methamphetamine abuse in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Topolski, James M

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has spread over the past decade from the West to other regions of the nation. Since 2000, Missouri has ranked first in clandestine laboratory incidents. The continuing threat of Mexican-produced methamphetamine tempers recent reduction of clandestine laboratory incidents in Missouri. There are a number of consequences related to the use of the drug and Missouri's healthcare professionals could potentially play key roles in prevention and treatment of the problem.

  2. Predictors of incident and recurrent participation in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit amongst young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Latimore, Amanda D; Rudolph, Abby; German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D

    2011-07-01

    Despite Thailand's war on drugs, methamphetamine ("yaba" in Thai) use and the drug economy both thrive. This analysis identifies predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit amongst young Thai yaba users. Between April 2005 and June 2006, 983 yaba users, ages 18-25, were enrolled in a randomized behavioural intervention in Chiang Mai Province (415 index and 568 of their drug network members). Questionnaires administered at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits assessed socio-demographic factors, current and prior drug use, social network characteristics, sexual risk behaviours and drug use norms. Exposures were lagged by three months (prior visit). Outcomes included incident and recurrent drug economy involvement. Generalized linear mixed models were fit using GLIMMIX (SASv9.1). Incident drug economy involvement was predicted by yaba use frequency (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.10), recent incarceration (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.07, 5.25) and the proportion of yaba-using networks who quit recently (AOR: .34; 95% CI: .15, .78). Recurrent drug economy involvement was predicted by age (AOR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.96), frequency of yaba use (AOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09), drug economy involvement at the previous visit (AOR: 2.61; CI: 1.59, 4.28), incarceration in the prior three months (AOR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.07, 4.86), and the proportion of yaba-users in his/her network who quit recently (AOR: .38; 95% CI: .20, .71). Individual drug use, drug use in social networks and recent incarceration were predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the drug economy. These results suggest that interrupting drug use and/or minimizing the influence of drug-using networks may help prevent further involvement in the drug economy. The emergence of recent incarceration as a predictor for both models highlights the need for more appropriate drug rehabilitation programmes and

  3. Predictors of incident and recurrent participation in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai Province Thailand, 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Latimore, Amanda D.; Rudolph, Abby; German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan G.; Srirojn, Bangorn; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand’s war on drugs, methamphetamine (“yaba” in Thai) use and the drug economy both thrive. This analysis identifies predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit among young Thai yaba users. Methods Between April 2005 and June 2006, 983 yaba users, ages 18-25, were enrolled in a randomized behavioral intervention in Chiang Mai Province (415 index and 568 of their drug network members). Questionnaires administered at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits assessed socio-demographic factors, current and prior drug use, social network characteristics, sexual risk behaviors and drug use norms. Exposures were lagged by three months (prior visit). Outcomes included incident and recurrent drug economy involvement. Generalized linear mixed models were fit using GLIMMIX (SAS v9.1). Results Incident drug economy involvement was predicted by yaba use frequency (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]:1.05; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.10), recent incarceration (AOR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.07, 5.25) and the proportion of yaba-using networks who quit recently (AOR: .34; 95%CI: .15, .78). Recurrent drug economy involvement was predicted by age (AOR: 0.81; 95% CI: .68, .96), frequency of yaba use (AOR: 1.06; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09), drug economy involvement at the previous visit (AOR: 2.61; CI: 1.59, 4.28), incarceration in the prior three months (AOR: 2.29; 95%CI: 1.07, 4.86), and the proportion of yaba-users in his/her network who quit recently (AOR: .38; 95%CI: .20, .71). Conclusion Individual drug use, drug use in social networks and recent incarceration were predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the drug economy. These results suggest that interrupting drug use and/or minimizing the influence of drug-using networks may help prevent further involvement in the drug economy. The emergence of recent incarceration as a predictor for both models highlights the need for more appropriate drug

  4. Effects of methamphetamine abuse beyond individual users.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Ryan, Steve; Hansen, Katherine; Hullsiek, Brad; Muli, Victoria; Malone, A Cate

    2009-09-01

    Since 1997, the use of methamphetamine as a drug of abuse has been widespread in the United States. While several forms of amphetamine are useful in some areas of medicine, methamphetamine as an abused substance is associated with severe and multifaceted consequences. Problems associated with the abuse of amphetamine and its derivatives such as methamphetamine have been well documented. As the manufacture and use of methamphetamine across the United States has increased, the impact of methamphetamine abuse has been felt beyond individual users; families as well as communities can be seriously affected. An increase in child neglect and violence as well as a lack of resources for health care, social services, and law enforcement because of methamphetamine abuse have been reported by many communities. This study examines the historical spread of methamphetamine misuse in the United States and the resulting individual, social, and environmental consequences. A public health perspective on family, community, and social aspects is offered, and ideas for future research and policy changes are explored.

  5. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, and manganese ascorbate. Some evidence suggests that this combination can ... amount of glucosamine or contain excessive amounts of manganese. Ask your healthcare provider about reliable brands. Special ...

  6. The risk and associated factors of methamphetamine psychosis in methamphetamine-dependent patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Said, Mas Ayu; Habil, Mohd Hussain; Rashid, Rusdi; Siddiq, Amer; Guan, Ng Chong; Midin, Marhani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Sidi, Hatta; Das, Srijit

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk of lifetime and current methamphetamine-induced psychosis in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The association between psychiatric co-morbidity and methamphetamine-induced psychosis was also studied. This was a cross-sectional study conducted concurrently at a teaching hospital and a drug rehabilitation center in Malaysia. Patients with the diagnosis of methamphetamine based on DSM-IV were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) for methamphetamine-induced psychosis and other Axis I psychiatric disorders. The information on sociodemographic background and drug use history was obtained from interview or medical records. Of 292 subjects, 47.9% of the subjects had a past history of psychotic symptoms and 13.0% of the patients were having current psychotic symptoms. Co-morbid major depressive disorder (OR=7.18, 95 CI=2.612-19.708), bipolar disorder (OR=13.807, 95 CI=5.194-36.706), antisocial personality disorder (OR=12.619, 95 CI=6.702-23.759) and heavy methamphetamine uses were significantly associated with lifetime methamphetamine-induced psychosis after adjusted for other factors. Major depressive disorder (OR=2.870, CI=1.154-7.142) and antisocial personality disorder (OR=3.299, 95 CI=1.375-7.914) were the only factors associated with current psychosis. There was a high risk of psychosis in patients with methamphetamine dependence. It was associated with co-morbid affective disorder, antisocial personality, and heavy methamphetamine use. It is recommended that all cases of methamphetamine dependence should be screened for psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... common recreational drugs, such as cocaine or crystal methamphetamine ("meth," "speed"), can leave your body dehydrated and ... and safer sex Many drugs, including alcohol and methamphetamine, may affect your ability to make decisions. Even ...

  8. Simple HPLC method for detection of trace ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in high-purity methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Makino, Yukiko

    2012-03-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC technique was developed for the qualitative determination of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (ephedrines), used as precursors of clandestine d-methamphetamine hydrochloride of high purity. Good separation of ephedrines from bulk d-methamphetamine was achieved, without any extraction or derivatization procedure on a CAPCELLPACK C18 MGII (250 × 4.6 mm) column. The mobile phase consisted of 50 mM KH2 PO4-acetonitrile (94:6 v/v %) using an isocratic pump system within 20 min for detecting two analytes. One run took about 50 min as it was necessary to wash out overloaded methamphetamine for column conditioning. The analytes were detected by UV absorbance measurement at 210 nm. A sample (20 mg) was simply dissolved in 1 mL of water, and a 50 μL aliquot of the solution was injected into the HPLC. The detection limits for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in bulk d-methamphetamine were as low as 3 ppm each. This analytical separation technique made it possible to detect ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine in seven samples of high-purity d-methamphetamine hydrochloride seized in Japan. The presence of trace ephedrines in illicit methamphetamine may strongly indicate a synthetic route via ephedrine in methamphetamine profiling. This method is simple and sensitive, requiring only commonly available equipment, and should be useful for high-purity methamphetamine profiling.

  9. Initiation into methamphetamine use for young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Kelly, Brian C; Weiser, Jonathan D

    2007-10-08

    Research over the past 10 years has suggested that methamphetamine use has become a significant problem and is associated with risky sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. In order to better understand initiation into methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men, qualitative analyses were performed on a sample of young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-29) in New York City. Participants were recruited as part of a larger study which used time-space sampling to enroll club-going young adults who indicated recent club drug (ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, methamphetamine, cocaine, and/or LSD) use. The data for this paper are derived from the qualitative interviews of 54 gay and bisexual male methamphetamine users. At initiation (1) methamphetamine was used in a social, non-sexual setting for a majority of the participants; (2) participants expressed limited knowledge of methamphetamine; and (3) many participants used cocaine as a basis for comparison when describing various effects of the drug. The understanding that at initiation methamphetamine was not solely used as a sexual enhancement for members of this community may enable health workers to more accurately target potential users when putting forth intervention efforts. Future research should aim to gain a better understanding into the role that methamphetamine plays in non-sexual contexts, particularly among gay and bisexual men who may not be part of the club "scene." The relationship between attitudes towards methamphetamine and other drugs, particularly cocaine, among gay and bisexual men should be explored.

  10. [Molecular mechanism for methamphetamine-induced memory impairment].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2010-04-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug of abuse, addiction to which has increased to epidemic proportions worldwide. It has been suggested that chronic use of methamphetamine causes long-term cognitive deficits, in addition to psychiatric signs such as hallucination and delusions, which are indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies in methamphetamine abusers have demonstrated that the loss of dopamine transporters in the striatum is related to motor and cognitive impairment. In this review, we will focus on the effect of repeated treatment with methamphetamine on cognitive function in rodents. Repeated methamphetamine treatment in mice impairs long-term recognition memory after withdrawal, which is associated with the dysfunction in dopamine D1 receptor-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway in the prefrontal cortex. Methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory is reversed by baclofen, clozapine, minocycline and ZSET1446. Repeated methamphetamine treatment in rats also induces impairment of spatial working memory, which is accompanied by the dysfunction of ERK1/2 pathway in the hippocampus. Repeated administration of clozapine, but not haloperidol, improves methamphetamine-induced spatial working memory impairment. These findings suggest that ERK1/2 plays an important role in memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine treatment. These animal models of cognitive deficits may be useful to predict the clinical effects of antipsychotics in methamphetamine psychosis and other mental disorders such as schizophrenia.

  11. The pH Levels of Different Methamphetamine Drug Samples on the Street Market in Cape Town

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, Sias R.; Chikte, Usuf; Westraat, Jaco

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pH levels of 29 different samples of methamphetamine on the street market in Cape Town. The sample was dissolved in water and the pH of each sample determined. The pH levels varied from 3.02 to 7.03 with an average of 5.0. Seventy-two percent (21) of the samples had a pH level below the saliva “critical pH point of 5.6” and therefore should cause significant damage to enamel, especially in hyposalivation subjects without a saliva flow. However, about 26% of the samples had a pH level close to the neutral point and should cause minor damage to enamel. To lessen enamel damage, subjects should exercise good oral hygiene practice, rinse with a fluoride-containing mouth rinse, drink artificially sweetened drinks, and eat cheese. It is concluded that most of the methamphetamine samples have a low enough pH to cause direct damage to enamel especially in hyposalivation subjects. PMID:21991491

  12. The pH Levels of Different Methamphetamine Drug Samples on the Street Market in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Grobler, Sias R; Chikte, Usuf; Westraat, Jaco

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pH levels of 29 different samples of methamphetamine on the street market in Cape Town. The sample was dissolved in water and the pH of each sample determined. The pH levels varied from 3.02 to 7.03 with an average of 5.0. Seventy-two percent (21) of the samples had a pH level below the saliva "critical pH point of 5.6" and therefore should cause significant damage to enamel, especially in hyposalivation subjects without a saliva flow. However, about 26% of the samples had a pH level close to the neutral point and should cause minor damage to enamel. To lessen enamel damage, subjects should exercise good oral hygiene practice, rinse with a fluoride-containing mouth rinse, drink artificially sweetened drinks, and eat cheese. It is concluded that most of the methamphetamine samples have a low enough pH to cause direct damage to enamel especially in hyposalivation subjects.

  13. The Rise in Methamphetamine Use among American Indians in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Suzanne; Crevecoeur, Desiree A.; Rawson, Richard A.; Clark, Rose

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary review of substance abuse treatment admission data from 2001-2005 was conducted to explore the use of methamphetamine among American Indians in treatment programs funded by Los Angeles County. Comparisons were made between primary methamphetamine users and users whose primary drug was a substance other than methamphetamine. In that…

  14. Analytical studies on the charge transfer complexes of loperamide hydrochloride and trimebutine drugs. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of CT complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elqudaby, Hoda M.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Din, Ghada M. G.

    2014-08-01

    Charge transfer complexes of loperamide hydrochloride (LOP.HCl) and trimebutine (TB) drugs as electron donor with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) as π-acceptors in acetonitrile were investigated spectrophotometrically to determine the cited drugs in pure and dosage forms. The reaction gives highly coloured complex species which are measured spectrophotometrically at 460, 415 and 842 nm in case of LOP.HCl and at 455, 414 and 842 nm in case of TB using DDQ, TCNE and TCNQ reagents, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully and optimized. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 47.70-381.6, 21.50-150.5 and 10.00-100.0 μg mL-1 for LOP.HCl and 37.85-264.9, 38.75-310.0 and 7.75-155.0 μg mL-1 for TB using DDQ, TCNE and TCNQ reagents, respectively. Sandell sensitivity, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, limit of detection and quantification were calculated. The obtained data refer to high accuracy and precision of the proposed method. These results are also confirmed by inter and intra-day precision with percent recovery of 99.18-101.1% and 99.32-101.4% in case of LOP.HCl and 98.00-102.0% and 97.50-101.4% in case of TB using DDQ, TCNE and TCNQ reagents for intra- and inter-day, respectively. These data were compared with those obtained using official methods for the determination of the cited drugs. The stability constants of the CT complexes were determined. The final products of the reaction were isolated and characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The stoichiometry and apparent formation constant of the complexes formed were determined by applying the conventional spectrophotometric molar ratio method.

  15. Adsorption study of a commonly used antidepressant drug, fluoxetine hydrochloride, onto a crosslinked β-cyclodextrin-carboxymethylcellulose polymer.

    PubMed

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Mimeault, Murielle; Niquette, Patrick; Hausler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies to establish the efficiency of adsorption of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLU), onto a crosslinked β-cyclodextrin-carboxymethylcellulose (β-CD-CMC) polymer. The adsorption was performed in mixtures containing aqueous FLU solution at 20 mg/L and 0.01-0.30 g of the β-CD-CMC polymer, at 25 °C, and atmospheric pressure under stirring. The results have revealed that the adsorption is a rapid process and the polymer possesses a high affinity for FLU with an adsorption capacity of 5.076 mg of FLU/g of polymer. This adsorption may involve the formation of a stable inclusion compound β-CD-CMC/FLU through the penetration of the FLU aromatic ring (A and/or B) into the β-CD cavity, and a physical adsorption with the polymer network. The inclusion compound can be stabilized by the formation of H-bonds between the -CF(3) group of FLU and the 6'-OH group of β-CD, and van der Waals interactions between the FLU aromatic ring and β-CD cavity. The data from a kinetic study have also indicated that the adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, in which the initial adsorption rate and constant were estimated at 1.938 mg/g min and 0.075 g/mg min, respectively. Moreover, the results of adsorption equilibrium fitted the Freundlich isotherm, indicating a multilayer coverage and heterogeneous surface. Together, these results suggest that the adsorption of FLU onto the crosslinked β-CD-CMC polymer could constitute an advantageous technology for removing this commonly used antidepressant drug from wastewater due to the high adsorption capacity of the polymer and non-toxic character of β-CD to humans and environment.

  16. Effects of methamphetamine on duration discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Münire Ozlem

    2003-08-01

    Experiments 1 and 2 address the controversy regarding the reliability of methamphetamine effects on interval timing. A temporal discrimination procedure was used, in which the rats were reinforced for pressing the left or the right levers after short and long signals, respectively. Methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg sc) severely disrupted operant performance at 20-100 min after injection, which disabled the measurement of drug effects on temporal perception (Experiment 1). The same dose of methamphetamine shifted the psychometric function to the left at 100-180 min after injection, indicating an increase in subjective durations (Experiment 2). Although these results confirm the role of dopamine in interval timing, that a change in the speed of a neural clock mediates the methamphetamine-induced change in temporal perception is still a working hypothesis.

  17. [Clinical characteristics of dappou herb use--disorder patients at the drug dependence clinic: a comparison with methamphetamine use-disorder patients].

    PubMed

    Tanibuchi, Yuko; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Ohji; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Use of the so-called "dappou herb," a street drug typically produced by mixing herbs with synthetic cannabinoid (estimated to be the pharmacologically effective ingredient), has recently spread to young people in Japan who consider it a new recreational drug. It is not legally regulated because no illicit ingredients have been detected in the drug by conventional screening tests. It is easily obtained via the Internet or from street vendors. As the population abusing this drug has grown, medical problems such as psychosis, disturbances of consciousness caused by acute intoxication, and social problems such as traffic accidents while under the influence of the drug have been increasingly reported. However, few psychiatric symptoms associated with it have been identified, and little is known about the psychosocial features of abusers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical and psychosocial features of outpatients with dappou herb use disorder. Subjects were 15 male outpatients with dappou herb use disorder who had their first medical examination at the Drug Dependence Clinic in the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry between November 2009 and April 2012. The control group comprised 28 age-matched oupatients who had methamphetamine use disorder, the most serious drug-related problem in Japan since the 1950s. They underwent their first medical examination at the same clinic during the same time frame as the study subjects. Clinical and psychosocial information on subjects and controls including life histories (educational, occupational, and criminal) and clinical information (history of psychoactive substance use, access to the mainly abused drug, and DSM-IV diagnoses of substance use disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders) were collected from medical records. These variables were compared between the two groups. Analyses revealed differences in the life history and clinical characteristics between the subjects and

  18. Crystal structures of a therapeutic single chain antibody in complex with two drugs of abuse-Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Celikel, Reha; Peterson, Eric C; Owens, S Michael; Varughese, Kottayil I

    2009-11-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a major drug threat in the United States and worldwide. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for treating METH abuse is showing exciting promise and the understanding of how mAb structure relates to function will be essential for future development of these important therapies. We have determined crystal structures of a high affinity anti-(+)-METH therapeutic single chain antibody fragment (scFv6H4, K(D)= 10 nM) derived from one of our candidate mAb in complex with METH and the (+) stereoisomer of another abused drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), known by the street name "ecstasy." The crystal structures revealed that scFv6H4 binds to METH and MDMA in a deep pocket that almost completely encases the drugs mostly through aromatic interactions. In addition, the cationic nitrogen of METH and MDMA forms a salt bridge with the carboxylate group of a glutamic acid residue and a hydrogen bond with a histidine side chain. Interestingly, there are two water molecules in the binding pocket and one of them is positioned for a C--H...O interaction with the aromatic ring of METH. These first crystal structures of a high affinity therapeutic antibody fragment against METH and MDMA (resolution = 1.9 A, and 2.4 A, respectively) provide a structural basis for designing the next generation of higher affinity antibodies and also for carrying out rational humanization.

  19. Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

    2008-03-01

    A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

  20. Impulsivity and methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Zians, Jim; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between methamphetamine (meth) use and impulsivity in a sample of 385 HIV-negative heterosexually identified meth users. Participants who scored highest on a self-report measure of impulsivity were compared with those who scored lower in terms of background characteristics, meth use patterns, use of alcohol and other illicit drugs, sexual risk behavior, and psychiatric health variables. Methamphetamine users in the high impulsivity group were younger, less educated, used larger quantities of meth, were more likely to be binge users, had a larger number of sexual partners, engaged in more unprotected vaginal and oral sex, and scored higher on the Beck Depression Inventory as compared with those in the low impulsivity group. In a logistic regression analysis, Beck depression was the factor that best distinguished between meth users who scored high and those who scored low on impulsivity. Neurophysiological pathways that may underlie the relationship between impulsivity and meth use are discussed.

  1. Why Is Parkinsonism Not a Feature of Human Methamphetamine Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moszczynska, Anna; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Ang, Lee; Kalasinsky, Kathryn S.; Schmunk, Gregory A.; Peretti, Frank J.; Aiken, Sally S.; Wickham, Dennis J.; Kish, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 50 years, methamphetamine has been a widely used stimulant drug taken to maintain wakefulness and performance and, in high doses, to cause intense euphoria. Animal studies show that methamphetamine can cause short-term and even persistent depletion of brain levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. However, the clinical features of…

  2. Methamphetamine Abuse and Manufacture: The Child Welfare Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…

  3. A Qualitative Exploration of Trajectories among Suburban Users of Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Harbry, Liam; Gibson, David

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to gain a better understanding of methamphetamine use among suburban users. We know very little about the mechanisms of initiation and trajectory patterns of methamphetamine use among this under-researched and hidden population. This study employed qualitative methods to examine the drug career of suburban…

  4. Why Is Parkinsonism Not a Feature of Human Methamphetamine Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moszczynska, Anna; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Ang, Lee; Kalasinsky, Kathryn S.; Schmunk, Gregory A.; Peretti, Frank J.; Aiken, Sally S.; Wickham, Dennis J.; Kish, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 50 years, methamphetamine has been a widely used stimulant drug taken to maintain wakefulness and performance and, in high doses, to cause intense euphoria. Animal studies show that methamphetamine can cause short-term and even persistent depletion of brain levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. However, the clinical features of…

  5. Methamphetamine Abuse and Manufacture: The Child Welfare Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…

  6. A Qualitative Exploration of Trajectories among Suburban Users of Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Harbry, Liam; Gibson, David

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to gain a better understanding of methamphetamine use among suburban users. We know very little about the mechanisms of initiation and trajectory patterns of methamphetamine use among this under-researched and hidden population. This study employed qualitative methods to examine the drug career of suburban…

  7. Methamphetamine abuse and "meth mouth".

    PubMed

    Rhodus, Nelson L; Little, James W

    2005-01-01

    Dental management for the patient who abuses drugs is always a challenge. The number of patients abusing methamphetamines appears to be increasing. The dentist needs to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients and to attempt to get the patient to seek professional help. Additionally, special attention will be necessary for the high prevalence and severity of oral manifestations including rampant caries, enamel erosion, xerostomia, bruxism, and muscle trismus.

  8. Methamphetamine Use and Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “glass,” “crystal” and “tina.” It is ...

  9. Methamphetamine abuse and "meth mouth".

    PubMed

    Rhodus, Nelson L; Little, James W

    2008-01-01

    Dental management for the patient who abuses drugs is always a challenge. The numbers of patients abusing methamphetamines appears to be increasing. The dentist needs to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients and to attempt to get the patient to seek professional help. Additionally, special attention will be necessary for the high prevalence and severity or oral manifestations including: rampant caries, enamel erosion, xerostomia, bruxism and muscle trismus.

  10. Methamphetamine Use and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... 03-13T18:35:19+00:00 PH and Methamphetamine Use Print PH and Methamphetamine Use Brochure (PDF) ... me if I had ever used stimulants like methamphetamines (speed). Why am I being asked this? Research ...

  11. Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-02-01

    The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction.

  12. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Ferre, Sergi; Segal, Pavan N; Antoniou, Katerina; Solinas, Marcello; Pappas, Lara A; Highkin, Jena L; Hockemeyer, Jorg; Munzar, Patrik; Goldberg, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently reported that nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists (caffeine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) can partially substitute for the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In the present study, by using more selective compounds, we investigated the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine. The effects of the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 1.3-23.7 mg/kg) and the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; 0.03-0.18 mg/kg) and antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(3-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthin phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3; 1-56 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The A1 and A2A receptor antagonists (CPT and MSX-3) both produced high levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for either methamphetamine or cocaine and significantly shifted dose-response curves of both psychostimulants to the left. Unexpectedly, the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 also produced drug-appropriate responding (although at lower levels) when substituted for the cocaine-training stimulus, and both CGS 21680 and the A1 receptor agonist CPA significantly shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left. In contrast, both agonists did not produce significant levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for the methamphetamine-training stimulus and failed to shift the methamphetamine dose-response curve. Therefore, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors appear to play important but differential roles in the modulation of the

  13. Corneal critical barrier against the penetration of dexamethasone and lomefloxacin hydrochloride: evaluation by the activation energy for drug partition and diffusion in cornea.

    PubMed

    Yasueda, Shin-ichi; Higashiyama, Masayo; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Isowaki, Akiharu; Ohtori, Akira

    2007-08-01

    The cornea is a solid barrier against drug permeation. We searched the critical barrier of corneal drug permeation using a hydrophobic drug, dexamethasone (DM), and a hydrophilic drug, lomefloxacin hydrochloride (LFLX). The activation energies for permeability of DM and LFLX across the intact cornea were 88.0 and 42.1 kJ/mol, respectively. Their activation energies for permeability across the cornea without epithelium decreased to 33.1 and 16.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The results show that epithelium is the critical barrier on the cornea against the permeation of a hydrophobic drug of DM as well as a hydrophilic drug of LFLX. The activation energy of partition for DM (66.8 kJ/mol) was approximately 3-fold larger than that of diffusion (21.2 kJ/mol). The results indicate that the partition for the hydrophobic drug of DM to the corneal epithelium is the primary barrier. Thermodynamic evaluation of activation energy for the drug permeation parameters is a good approach to investigate the mechanism of drug permeability.

  14. Powerful Behavioral Interactions Between Methamphetamine and Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Keith A.; Smith, Monique L.; Guaderrama, Melissa M.

    2011-01-01

    Use of drugs of abuse in combination is common among recreational users and addicts. The combination of a psychomotor stimulant with an opiate, known as a ‘speedball’, reportedly produces greater effects than either drug alone and has been responsible for numerous deaths. Historically, the most popular speedball combination is that of cocaine and heroin. However, with the growing popularity of methamphetamine in recent years, there has been increased use of this drug in combination with other drugs of abuse, including opiates. Despite this, relatively little research has examined interactions between methamphetamine and opiates. In the current research, behavioral interactions between methamphetamine and the prototypical opiate, morphine, were examined across a variety of dose combinations in Sprague-Dawley rats. The combination of methamphetamine and morphine produced stimulation of behavior that was dramatically higher than either drug alone; however, the magnitude of the interaction was dependent on the dose of the drugs and the specific behaviors examined. The results demonstrate complex behavioral interactions between these drugs, but are consistent with the idea that this combination is used because it produces a greater effect than either drug alone. PMID:21549146

  15. The rise of methamphetamine in Southeast and East Asia.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Kozel, Nicholas; Douglas, Jeremy; Ali, Robert; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Lund, Johannes; Li, Jih-Heng

    2008-05-01

    Southeast and East Asia has become a global hub for methamphetamine production and trafficking over the past decade. This paper describes the rise of methamphetamine supply and to what extent use of the drug is occurring in the region. The current review uses data collected through the Drug Abuse Information Network for Asia and the Pacific (DAINAP) and other available sources to analyse retrospectively methamphetamine trends within Southeast and East Asia. Southeast and East Asia has experienced a methamphetamine epidemic in the past decade which began around 1997 and peaked in 2000-2001. While the situation has since stabilised in many countries, methamphetamine trafficking and use are still increasing in parts of the Mekong region and there is evidence of large-scale manufacture in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. Methamphetamine is typically smoked or ingested, but injection of the drug is apparent. While the peak of the methamphetamine epidemic has passed in parts of Southeast and East Asia, attention is needed to minimise the potential consequences of spreading methamphetamine production, trafficking and use in the Mekong region and in the peninsular and archipelago of Southeast Asia.

  16. PET Studies of d-Methamphetamine Pharmacokinetics in Primates: Comparison with l-Methamphetamine and (—)-Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Kroll, Carsten; Ferrieri, Richard; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Dewey, Stephen L.; Schiffer, Wynne; Schlyer, David; Carter, Pauline; King, Payton; Shea, Colleen; Xu, Youwen; Muench, Lisa; Benveniste, Helene; Vaska, Paul; Volkow, Nora D.

    2009-01-01

    The methamphetamine molecule has a chiral center and exists as 2 enantiomers, d-methamphetamine (the more active enantiomer) and l-methamphetamine (the less active enantiomer). d-Methamphetamine is associated with more intense stimulant effects and higher abuse liability. The objective of this study was to measure the pharmacokinetics of d-methamphetamine for comparison with both l-methamphetamine and (—)-cocaine in the baboon brain and peripheral organs and to assess the saturability and pharmacologic specificity of binding. Methods d- and l-methamphetamine and (—)-cocaine were labeled with 11C via alkylation of the norprecursors with 11C-methyl iodide using literature methods. Six different baboons were studied in 11 PET sessions at which 2 radiotracer injections were administered 2–3 h apart to determine the distribution and kinetics of 11C-d-methamphetamine in brain and peripheral organs. Saturability and pharmacologic specificity were assessed using pretreatment with d-methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and tetrabenazine. 11C-d-Methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were compared with 11C-l-methamphetamine and 11C-(—)-cocaine in both brain and peripheral organs in the same animal. Results 11C-d- and l-methamphetamine both showed high uptake and widespread distribution in the brain. Pharmacokinetics did not differ between enantiomers, and the cerebellum peaked earlier and cleared more quickly than the striatum for both. 11C-d-Methamphetamine distribution volume ratio was not substantially affected by pretreatment with methamphetamine, methylphenidate, or tetrabenazine. Both enantiomers showed rapid, high uptake and clearance in the heart and lungs and slower uptake and clearance in the liver and kidneys. A comparison of 11C-d-methamphetamine and 11C-(—)-cocaine showed that 11C-d-methamphetamine peaked later in the brain than did 11C-(—)-cocaine and cleared more slowly. The 2 drugs showed similar behavior in all peripheral organs examined except the kidneys

  17. mGluR5 antagonism attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement and prevents reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Gass, Justin T; Osborne, Megan P H; Watson, Noreen L; Brown, Jordan L; Olive, M Foster

    2009-03-01

    Addiction to methamphetamine is a significant public health problem, and there are currently no pharmacological agents that are approved for the treatment of addiction to this powerful psychostimulant. Chronic methamphetamine use leads to cognitive dysfunction as well as numerous psychiatric, neurological, and cardiovascular complications. There is a growing body of literature implicating an important role for glutamate neurotransmission in psychostimulant addiction. In the present study, we examined the effects of the selective type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) antagonist 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) on intravenous self-administration of methamphetamine and reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for intravenous methamphetamine (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg per infusion) or food pellets and were subsequently administered vehicle or MTEP (0.3-3 mg/kg) before drug or food self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement or a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. We also examined the effects of vehicle or MTEP (0.3-3 mg/kg) on cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior as well as cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Our results show that MTEP dose dependently reduced the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine under FR1 and PR schedules of reinforcement without altering overall responding for food. MTEP also dose dependently prevented cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior, but did not alter cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Together, these results indicate that mGluR5 receptors mediate methamphetamine reinforcement and methamphetamine-seeking behavior, and that pharmacological inhibitors of mGluR5 receptor function may represent a novel class of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction.

  18. mGluR5 antagonism attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement and prevents reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Justin T.; Osborne, Megan P.H.; Watson, Noreen L.; Brown, Jordan L.; Olive, M. Foster

    2009-01-01

    Addiction to methamphetamine is a significant public health problem, and there are currently no pharmacological agents that are approved for the treatment of addiction to this powerful psychostimulant. Chronic methamphetamine use leads to cognitive dysfunction as well as numerous psychiatric, neurological, and cardiovascular complications. There is a growing body of literature implicating an important role for glutamate neurotransmission in psychostimulant addiction. In the present study, we examined the effects of the selective type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) antagonist 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) on intravenous self-administration of methamphetamine and reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for intravenous methamphetamine (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/infusion) or food pellets and were subsequently administered vehicle or MTEP (0.3-3 mg/kg) prior to drug or food self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement or a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. We also examined the effects of vehicle or MTEP (0.3-3 mg/kg) on cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior as well as cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Our results show that MTEP dose-dependently reduced the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine under an FR1 and PR schedule of reinforcement without altering overall responding for food. MTEP also dose-dependently prevented cue and drug-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior, but did not alter cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Together, these results indicate the mGluR5 receptors play an important role in methamphetamine reinforcement and methamphetamine-seeking behavior, and that pharmacological inhibitors of mGluR5 receptor function may represent a novel class of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. PMID

  19. Methamphetamine detection in maternal and neonatal hair: implications for fetal safety

    PubMed Central

    Garcia‐Bournissen, F; Rokach, B; Karaskov, T; Koren, G

    2007-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine misuse is a serious health problem of epidemic proportions. Use of this drug, particularly during pregnancy, is difficult to ascertain. Sparse information is available on gestational exposure. Objectives To quantify methamphetamine accumulation in hair, identify the use of methamphetamine with other drugs of abuse and characterise correlations between concentrations of methamphetamine in maternal and neonatal hair. Subjects and methods Motherisk laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children routinely carries out analysis of methamphetamine in hair. Mothers and infants with positive results for methamphetamine in hair were identified. Drugs present in hair were analysed by ELISA and positive results were confirmed by gas chromatgraphy/mass spectrometry. Results 396 people positive for methamphetamine in their hair were identified from our database. Almost 85% of them were positive for at least one other drug of abuse, mostly cocaine. Eleven mother–baby pairs with hair positive for methamphetamine were identified. Methamphetamine levels in hair ranged between 0.13 and 51.97 ng/mg in the mothers and between 0 and 22.73 ng/mg in the neonates. Methamphetamine levels in mothers and neonates correlated significantly. One (9%) neonate was negative for methamphetamine even though the mother was positive. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report on fetal exposure to methamphetamine during pregnancy, showing transplacental transfer of the drug, with accumulation in fetal hair. Hair measurement for methamphetamine in neonates is a useful screening method to detect intra‐uterine exposure to the drug. The data also indicate that positive exposure to methamphetamine strongly suggests that the person is a polydrug user, which may have important implications for fetal safety. PMID:17077112

  20. Methamphetamine Causes Microglial Activation in the Brains of Human Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugihara, Genichi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suda, Shiro; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mori, Norio; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular addictive drug whose use is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric adverse events and toxic to the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain. Methamphetamine-induced neuropathology is associated with increased expression of microglial cells that are thought to participate in either pro-toxic or protective mechanisms in the brain. Although reactive microgliosis has been observed in animal models of methamphetamine neurotoxicity, no study has reported on the status of microglial activation in human methamphetamine abusers. The present study reports on 12 abstinent methamphetamine abusers and 12 age-, gender-, education-matched control subjects who underwent positron emission tomography using a radiotracer for activated microglia, [11C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) ([11C](R)-PK11195). Compartment analysis was used to estimate quantitative levels of binding potentials of [11C](R)-PK11195 in brain regions with dopaminergic and/or serotonergic innervation. The mean levels of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding were higher in methamphetamine abusers than those in control subjects in all brain regions (> 250% higher, p < 0.01 for all). In addition, the binding levels in the midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and orbitofrontal and insular cortices (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the duration of methamphetamine abstinence. These results suggest that chronic self-administration of methamphetamine can cause reactive microgliosis in the brains of human methamphetamine abusers, a level of activation that appears to subside over longer periods of abstinence. PMID:18509037

  1. The methamphetamine home: psychological impact on preschoolers in rural Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Asanbe, Comfort B; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing psychological problems. The participants were 58 white children between the ages of 4 and 5 years; 31 with a history of living in methamphetamine-producing homes and 27 children who live in non-methamphetamine producing homes in rural Tennessee. The groups were similar in age, gender, and socioeconomic background. The groups were compared for behavioral and emotional adjustment using the behavior assessment system for children-parent rating scale-preschool (BASC-PRS-P) form. Biological or custodian parents completed a rating on their preschoolers that provided information about the children's pattern of behavior and feelings. Preschoolers from the methamphetamine-producing homes showed more externalizing problems than their peers, but were comparable on internalizing problems. On specific behaviors, the data indicate that preschoolers in the methamphetamine group showed higher aggression symptoms than their peers from non-methamphetamine-producing homes. These findings, if replicated, point to the need for mental health screening when a child is removed from a methamphetamine-producing home.

  2. Nicotine elicits methamphetamine-seeking in rats previously administered nicotine.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, N M; Harrod, S B; Bardo, M T

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, it was assessed whether nicotine-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior and nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization require that nicotine be temporally paired with the methamphetamine self-administration session or the locomotor activity chamber. Nicotine acutely decreased methamphetamine self-administration, but did not persistently alter responding during the maintenance of methamphetamine self-administration. However, following extinction of methamphetamine self-administration, nicotine administration reinstated methamphetamine-seeking behavior only in rats that had previously been administered nicotine. Nicotine-induced reinstatement and expression of locomotor sensitization were not dependent on a temporal pairing of nicotine with either the methamphetamine self-administration session or the locomotor activity chamber, respectively. These results indicate that nicotine may be acting, at least in part, through a non-associative mechanism to reinstate methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, it was assessed whether nicotine-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior and nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization require that nicotine be temporally paired with the methamphetamine self-administration session or the locomotor activity chamber. Nicotine acutely decreased methamphetamine self-administration, but did not persistently alter responding during the maintenance of methamphetamine self-administration. However, following extinction of methamphetamine self-administration, nicotine administration reinstated methamphetamine-seeking behavior only in rats that had previously been administered nicotine. Nicotine-induced reinstatement and expression of locomotor sensitization were not dependent on a temporal pairing of nicotine with either the methamphetamine self-administration session or the locomotor activity chamber, respectively. These results indicate that nicotine may be acting, at least in part, through a non-associative mechanism to reinstate methamphetamine-seeking behavior. PMID:19733448

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphism near CREB1, rs7591784, is associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency and outcome of outpatient treatment for methamphetamine use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Heinzerling, Keith G.; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.001) in males but not females. We then examined rs7591784 and methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26736037

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphism near CREB1, rs7591784, is associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency and outcome of outpatient treatment for methamphetamine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.001) in males but not females. We then examined rs7591784 and methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Baclofen decreases methamphetamine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Ranaldi, Robert; Poeggel, Kerry

    2002-07-02

    In the present study we tested the hypothesis that baclofen, a GABA-B receptor agonist, attenuates methamphetamine self-administration. Fifteen rats were trained to self-administer i.v. injections of methamphetamine (0, 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg/injection) on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, and then were tested under the influence of two doses of baclofen (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Baclofen significantly reduced break points at all doses of methamphetamine, producing a dose-orderly shift of the methamphetamine dose-response function to the right. These data suggest that pretreatment with baclofen reduces methamphetamine reward. These data are consistent with other studies showing impairment of drug reward after pretreatment with baclofen and add further support to the idea that GABA-B agonists may be useful in the treatment of drug addiction.

  7. Detection of amphetamine and methamphetamine-type materials in pharmaceutical and biological fluids by fluorometric labeling.

    PubMed

    Hopen, T J; Briner, R C; Sadler, H G; Smith, R L

    1976-10-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for detecting amphetamine and methamphetamine in drug preparations and biological fluids has been developed. Amphetamine and methamphetamine in pharmaceutical and clandestine drug preparations can be easily screened from other contaminating drugs and readily identified by their fluorescence, with subsequent separation accomplished by TLC. The same general procedure can also be used to detect amphetamine and methamphetamine in human urine at concentrations of 0.1 mug/ml.

  8. Safety and efficacy of varenicline to reduce positive subjective effects produced by methamphetamine in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    Verrico, Christopher D; Mahoney, James J; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Bennett, Ryan S; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Methamphetamine use is increasing in the US. Although there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for methamphetamine dependence, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that methamphetamine users may benefit from treatments that enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. Consequently, we determined the safety and the efficacy of varenicline treatment, a partial agonist at α4β2 and a full agonist at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, to reduce positive subjective effects produced by smoked methamphetamine. Additionally, the effects of treatment with varenicline on the cardiovascular and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine were determined. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects trial of varenicline vs. placebo in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers who were not seeking treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one dose of varenicline (0, 1, or 2 mg) po BID, titrated up to the target dose over days 1-7, during each of three separate inpatient phases. Safety measures included the frequency, duration, severity, and relatedness of adverse events reported. Positive subjective effects included 'Any drug effect', 'High', 'Good effects', 'Stimulated', and 'Drug liking', which were rated by participants before and for 1 h after smoking methamphetamine (0, 10, and 30 mg). There were no serious adverse events and no differences in adverse events reported during the three phases. Varenicline (2 mg) significantly reduced ratings of 'Any drug effect' and 'Stimulated', as well as attenuated ratings of 'High', 'Drug liking', and 'Good effects', produced by methamphetamine (30 mg). The ability of varenicline to attenuate the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory suggests that varenicline should continue to be explored as a treatment for methamphetamine dependence.

  9. Safety and efficacy of varenicline to reduce positive subjective effects produced by methamphetamine in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Verrico, Christopher D.; Mahoney, James J.; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G. Y.; Bennett, Ryan S.; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is increasing in the US. Although there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for methamphetamine dependence, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that methamphetamine users may benefit from treatments that enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. Consequently, we determined the safety and the efficacy of varenicline treatment, a partial agonist at α4β2 and a full agonist at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, to reduce positive subjective effects produced by smoked methamphetamine. Additionally, the effects of treatment with varenicline on the cardiovascular and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine were determined. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects trial of varenicline vs. placebo in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers who were not seeking treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one dose of varenicline (0, 1, or 2 mg) po BID, titrated up to the target dose over days 1–7, during each of three separate inpatient phases. Safety measures included the frequency, duration, severity, and relatedness of adverse events reported. Positive subjective effects included ‘Any drug effect’, ‘High’, ‘Good effects’, ‘Stimulated’, and ‘Drug liking’, which were rated by participants before and for 1 h after smoking methamphetamine (0, 10, and 30 mg). There were no serious adverse events and no differences in adverse events reported during the three phases. Varenicline (2 mg) significantly reduced ratings of ‘Any drug effect’ and ‘Stimulated’, as well as attenuated ratings of ‘High’, ‘Drug liking’, and ‘Good effects’, produced by methamphetamine (30 mg). The ability of varenicline to attenuate the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory suggests that varenicline should continue to be explored as a treatment for methamphetamine dependence. PMID:24393456

  10. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption.

  11. Indicators of Methamphetamine Use and Abuse in San Diego County, California: 2001–2005†

    PubMed Central

    Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    San Diego County, California, is a major distribution center for methamphetamine entering the U.S. from Mexico. All available indicators suggest that the use and abuse of methamphetamine increased between 2001 and 2005. Drug treatment admissions for primary methamphetamine use accounted for 49% of all drug treatment admissions in 2005, up from 37% in 2001, with trends showing smaller proportions of female and Hispanic users and a larger proportion of methamphetamine smokers (vs. inhalation or injection). Increases in prevalence of methamphetamine use were documented among arrestees as well; by 2005, 51% of female and 21% of juvenile arrestees tested positive for methamphetamine The proportion of emergency department visits involving illicit drugs in which methamphetamine was reported increased from 32% in 2004 to 40% in 2005, although this change was not statistically significant, and methamphetamine-related deaths increased 48% between 2001 and 2005. Data from non-federal drug seizures in San Diego County documented an increase from 21 % of all drug items analyzed in 2001 to 32% in 2005 In summary, methamphetamine remains the drug of utmost concern in San Diego. The availability of multiple data sources is imperative for constructing valid characterizations of trends in methamphetamine use and abuse and its affect on health. PMID:18284098

  12. Crystal methamphetamine initiation among street-involved youth

    PubMed Central

    Uhlmann, Sasha; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Background Although many settings have recently documented a substantial increase in the use of methamphetamine-type stimulants, recent reviews have underscored the dearth of prospective studies that have examined risk factors associated with the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use. Objectives Our objectives were to examine rates and risk factors for the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use in a cohort of street-involved youth. Methods Street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada, were enrolled in a prospective cohort known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). A total of 205 crystal methamphetamine-naïve participants were assessed semi-annually and Cox regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use. Results Among 205 youth prospectively followed from 2005 to 2012, the incidence density of crystal methamphetamine initiation was 12.2 per 100 person years. In Cox regression analyses, initiation of crystal methamphetamine use was independently associated with previous crack cocaine use (adjusted relative hazard [ARH] = 2.24 [95% CI: 1.20–4.20]) and recent drug dealing (ARH = 1.98 [95% CI: 1.05–3.71]). Those initiating methamphetamine were also more likely to report a recent nonfatal overdose (ARH = 3.63 [95% CI: 1.65–7.98]) and to be male (ARH = 2.12 [95% CI: 1.06–4.25]). Conclusions We identified high rates of crystal methamphetamine initiation among this population. Males those involved in the drug trade, and those who used crack cocaine were more likely to initiate crystal methamphetamine use. Evidence-based strategies to prevent and treat crystal methamphetamine use are urgently needed. PMID:24191637

  13. Crystal methamphetamine initiation among street-involved youth.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Sasha; Debeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Although many settings have recently documented a substantial increase in the use of methamphetamine-type stimulants, recent reviews have underscored the dearth of prospective studies that have examined risk factors associated with the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use. Our objectives were to examine rates and risk factors for the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use in a cohort of street-involved youth. Street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada, were enrolled in a prospective cohort known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). A total of 205 crystal methamphetamine-naïve participants were assessed semi-annually and Cox regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use. Among 205 youth prospectively followed from 2005 to 2012, the incidence density of crystal methamphetamine initiation was 12.2 per 100 person years. In Cox regression analyses, initiation of crystal methamphetamine use was independently associated with previous crack cocaine use (adjusted relative hazard [ARH] = 2.24 [95% CI: 1.20-4.20]) and recent drug dealing (ARH = 1.98 [95% CI: 1.05-3.71]). Those initiating methamphetamine were also more likely to report a recent nonfatal overdose (ARH = 3.63 [95% CI: 1.65-7.98]) and to be male (ARH = 2.12 [95% CI: 1.06-4.25]). We identified high rates of crystal methamphetamine initiation among this population. Males those involved in the drug trade, and those who used crack cocaine were more likely to initiate crystal methamphetamine use. Evidence-based strategies to prevent and treat crystal methamphetamine use are urgently needed.

  14. Expression of HIV gp120 protein increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Hubbard, David T; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2014-07-01

    Methamphetamine abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induce neuropathological changes in corticolimbic brain areas involved in reward and cognitive function. Little is known about the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV infection on cognitive and reward processes. The HIV/gp120 protein induces neurodegeneration in mice, similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the effects of gp120 expression on associative learning, preference for methamphetamine and non-drug reinforcers, and sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding properties of methamphetamine in transgenic (tg) mice expressing HIV/gp120 protein (gp120-tg). gp120-tg mice learned the operant response for food at the same rate as non-tg mice. In the two-bottle choice procedure with restricted access to drugs, gp120-tg mice exhibited greater preference for methamphetamine and saccharin than non-tg mice, whereas preference for quinine was similar between genotypes. Under conditions of unrestricted access to methamphetamine, the mice exhibited a decreased preference for increasing methamphetamine concentrations. However, male gp120-tg mice showed a decreased preference for methamphetamine at lower concentrations than non-tg male mice. gp120-tg mice developed methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference at lower methamphetamine doses compared with non-tg mice. No differences in methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were found between genotypes. These results indicate that gp120-tg mice exhibit no deficits in associative learning or reward/motivational function for a natural reinforcer. Interestingly, gp120 expression resulted in increased preference for methamphetamine and a highly palatable non-drug reinforcer (saccharin) and increased sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced conditioned reward. These data suggest that HIV-positive individuals may have increased sensitivity to methamphetamine, leading to high methamphetamine abuse potential in this population. © 2012 The

  15. Expression of HIV gp120 protein increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of methamphetamine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kesby, James P.; Hubbard, David T.; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induce neuropathological changes in corticolimbic brain areas involved in reward and cognitive function. Little is known about the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV infection on cognitive and reward processes. The HIV/gp120 protein induces neurodegeneration in mice, similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the effects of gp120 expression on associative learning, preference for methamphetamine and non-drug reinforcers, and sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding properties of methamphetamine in transgenic (tg) mice expressing HIV/gp120 protein (gp120-tg). gp120-tg mice learned the operant response for food at the same rate as non-tg mice. In the two-bottle choice procedure with restricted access to drugs, gp120-tg mice exhibited greater preference for methamphetamine and saccharin than non-tg mice, whereas preference for quinine was similar between genotypes. Under conditions of unrestricted access to methamphetamine, the mice exhibited a decreased preference for increasing methamphetamine concentrations. However, male gp120-tg mice showed a decreased preference for methamphetamine at lower concentrations than non-tg male mice. gp120-tg mice developed methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference at lower methamphetamine doses compared with non-tg mice. No differences in methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were found between genotypes. These results indicate that gp120-tg mice exhibit no deficits in associative learning or reward/motivational function for a natural reinforcer. Interestingly, gp120 expression resulted in increased preference for methamphetamine and a highly palatable non-drug reinforcer (saccharin) and increased sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced conditioned reward. These data suggest that HIV-positive individuals may have increased sensitivity to methamphetamine, leading to high methamphetamine abuse potential in this population. PMID

  16. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recommended dose from 15 to 20 milligrams ketamine base per pound of body weight, depending on the effect... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recommended dose from 15 to 20 milligrams ketamine base per pound of body weight, depending on the effect... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD...

  18. Alternative reinforcer response cost impacts methamphetamine choice in humans.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J Adam; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use disorders are a persistent public health concern. Behavioral treatments have demonstrated that providing access to non-drug alternative reinforcers reduces methamphetamine use. The purpose of this human laboratory experiment was to determine how changes in response cost for non-drug alternative reinforcers influenced methamphetamine choice. Seven subjects with past year histories of recreational stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind protocol in which they first sampled doses of oral methamphetamine (0, 8 or 16 mg) and completed a battery of subject-rated and physiological measures. During subsequent sessions, subjects then made eight discrete choices between 1/8th of the sampled dose and an alternative reinforcer ($0.25). The response cost to earn a methamphetamine dose was always 500 responses (FR500). The response cost for the alternative reinforcer varied across sessions (FR500, FR1000, FR2000, FR3000). Methamphetamine functioned as a positive reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like effects (e.g., elevated blood pressure, increased ratings of Stimulated). Choice for doses over money was sensitive to changes in response cost for alternative reinforcers in that more doses were taken at higher FR values than at lower FR values. Placebo choices changed as a function of alternative reinforcer response cost to a greater degree than active methamphetamine choices. These findings suggest that manipulating the effort necessary to earn alternative reinforcers could impact methamphetamine use.

  19. Alternative Reinforcer Response Cost Impacts Methamphetamine Choice in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, J. Adam; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine use disorders are a persistent public health concern. Behavioral treatments have demonstrated that providing access to non-drug alternative reinforcers reduces methamphetamine use. The purpose of this human laboratory experiment was to determine how changes in response cost for non-drug alternative reinforcers influenced methamphetamine choice. Seven subjects with past year histories of recreational stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind protocol in which they first sampled doses of oral methamphetamine (0, 8 or 16 mg) and completed a battery of subject-rated and physiological measures. During subsequent sessions, subjects then made eight discrete choices between 1/8th of the sampled dose and an alternative reinforcer ($0.25). The response cost to earn a methamphetamine dose was always 500 responses (FR500). The response cost for the alternative reinforcer varied across sessions (FR500, FR1000, FR2000, FR3000). Methamphetamine functioned as a positive reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like effects (e.g., elevated blood pressure, increased ratings of “Stimulated”). Choice for doses over money was sensitive to changes in response cost for alternative reinforcers in that more doses were taken at higher FR values than at lower FR values. Placebo choices changed as a function of alternative reinforcer response cost to a greater degree than active methamphetamine choices. These findings suggest that manipulating the effort necessary to earn alternative reinforcers could impact methamphetamine use. PMID:23046851

  20. Residual effects of intranasal methamphetamine on sleep, mood, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Marrone, Gina; Silver, Rae; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Although intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased, there are no published data investigating the residual effects of the drug under controlled conditions. Thus, the current study examined the residual effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine abusers (n = 11) completed this two-week, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. The study consisted of 4 two-day blocks of sessions; each block was separated by at least 24 hrs. At approximately 1000 hrs, on the first day of each block, participants received one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, 50 mg/70 kg). Lights were turned out at 2300 hrs that evening and sleep measures were assessed. On the morning of the second day of each block, methamphetamine plasma levels, cardiovascular measures, mood, subjective reports of the previous evening's sleep, and psychomotor performance were assessed to determine residual drug effects. The larger methamphetamine doses (25 and 50 mg) markedly disrupted subjective measures of that night's sleep and some indices of next-day mood, but only the largest dose (50 mg) dose decreased objective measures of that night's sleep and increased next-day physiological measures. Methamphetamine did not produce any negative residual effects on early next-day performance. Future studies should assess methamphetamine-related residual effects following repeated doses administered over consecutive days. PMID:18078723

  1. Micro-porous surfaces in controlled drug delivery systems: design and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride controlled porosity osmotic pump using non-ionic surfactants as pore-former.

    PubMed

    Adibkia, Khosro; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Shokri, Mohammad Hosein; Arami, Zahra; Arash, Zeinab; Shokri, Javad

    2014-06-01

    The major problem associated with conventional drug delivery systems is unpredictable plasma concentrations. The aim of this study was to design a controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) of diltiazem hydrochloride to deliver the drug in a controlled manner. CPOP tablets were prepared by incorporation of drug in the core and subsequent coating with cellulose acetate as semi-permeable membrane. Non-ionic surfactants were applied as pore-formers as well. The effect of pore-formers concentration on the in vitro release of diltiazem was also studied. The formulations were compared based on four comparative parameters, namely, total drug released after 24 h (D24 h), lag-time (tL), squared correlation coefficient of zero order equation (RSQzero) and mean percent deviation from zero order kinetic (MPDzero). Results of scanning electron microscopy studies exhibited formation of pores in the membrane from where the drug release occurred. It was revealed that drug release rate was directly proportional to the concentration of the pore-formers. The value of D24 h in the formulations containing Tween 80 (10%) and Brij 35 (5%) were found to be more than 94.9%, and drug release followed zero order kinetic (RSQzero > 0.99 and MPDzero < 8%) with acceptable tL (lower than 1 h).

  2. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    MedlinePlus

    ... more at: www. teens. drugabuse. gov/ drug- facts/ methamphetamine-meth 15 DKIDNOYWOU? You are getting bombarded with ... They can cause intense cravings similar to what . methamphetamine users experience. . B. . They usually contain some type ...

  3. Development and validation of a new high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the loperamid hydrochloride determination in drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, G. S.; Savić, I.; Marinković, V.

    2009-09-01

    A selective, precise and new high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of loperamid hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. The mobile phase consisting buffer (sodium-octansulphonate, triethylamine and ammonium hydroxide) in water: acetonitriie (45: 55, v/v) (pH 3.2). The absorbance was monitored with a DAD detector at 226 nm. The flow rate was 1.5 cm3 min-1. The linearity ( r = 0.9947) and the recovery (98.58-100.42%) were found to be satisfactory. The detection and quantitation limits were found to be 0.95 and 3.12 μg cm-3. The results demonstrated that the procedure was accurate, precise and reproducible. It can be suitably applied for the estimation of lopera-mid hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.

  4. Methamphetamine abuse and dentistry: a review of the literature and presentation of a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Goodchild, Jason H; Donaldson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine is not a new drug. It has a long and storied history of legitimate clinical use and recreational abuse. Unfortunately, abuse of methamphetamine is increasing with alarming frequency in the United States and leads to appalling destruction of dentition. The pathognomonic effects of methamphetamine abuse on teeth have led to the term "meth mouth." This term, while descriptive of the clinical appearance of patients, is a misnomer. A review of available information on methamphetamine abuse is presented and discussed. A clinical case is documented to help clinicians recognize and manage patients who may be abusing methamphetamines.

  5. Childhood histories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in Japanese methamphetamine and inhalant abusers: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Kamijo, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Iseki, Eizo; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2005-02-01

    The present study examined childhood histories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 54 methamphetamine and 12 inhalant abusers using the Wender Utah Rating Scale. The inhalant abusers experienced initial drinking at a younger age than methamphetamine abusers (P=0.038). The Wender Utah Rating Scale score was significantly higher in the inhalant abusers than in the methamphetamine abusers (P=0.013) although 83.3% of inhalant and 55.6% of methamphetamine abusers had higher scores than the cut-off for ADHD. These findings suggest that drug abuse is associated with childhood ADHD, and that inhalant abusers have a higher incidence of childhood ADHD than methamphetamine abusers.

  6. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  7. Mixed base of hydrophilic ointment and purified lanolin to improve the drug release rate and absorption of water of minocycline hydrochloride ointment for treatment of bedsores.

    PubMed

    Shigeyama, M; Ohgaya, T; Kawashima, Y; Takeuchi, H; Hino, T

    1999-06-01

    A desired ointment bases for better treatment of bedsores was developed to improve the release rate of minocycline hydrochloride (MH) and the water absorption capacity using various types of hydrophobic to hydrophilic ointment base. The influence of purified lanolin (PL) on the release behavior of MH from hydrophilic ointment (HO) base was primarily focused on. It was found that the release rate of drug increased with increase in the hydrophilicity of the base. A linear correlation between the apparent release rate constant of drug from the HO and PL mixed ointment base at various combination ratios and the elution of ointment base was noted. The HO ointment base containing 30% PL had the highest apparent release rate constant of MH. The mixed ointment base with the lowest viscosity showed the highest absorption of water and elution of ointment base. In conclusion, it was found that HO (70%) and PL (30%) mixed ointment base was a promising candidate for better treatment of bedsores.

  8. Acute liver failure following intravenous methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui; Nishida, Manami; Namera, Akira; Ohwada, Takashi

    2002-08-01

    A 41-y-o Pakistani man presented with psychosis, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and liver dysfunction approximately 6 h after i.v. injection of methamphetamine. Serum concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine on admission were 0.30 microg/mL and 0.04 microg/mL, respectively. Total serum bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase concentrations peaked on the 3rd hospital day at 8.6 mg/dL and 4155 IU/L, respectively, and gradually returned to normal with supportive care. The patient had no evidence of infectious hepatitis or intake of other drugs. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen obtained on the 11th d showed confluent necrosis and ballooning degeneration in centrilobular zones. No inflammatory changes were seen in portal tracts. Liver damage can be a complication of illicit methamphetamine use, even in patients without viral infection or intake of other drugs.

  9. Chronic stress augments the long-term and acute effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Matuszewich, L; Yamamoto, B K

    2004-01-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to stress alters the acute effects of abused drugs on the CNS. However, it is not known whether stress augments the longer-term neurotoxic effects of psychostimulant drugs, such as methamphetamine. Methamphetamine at high doses decreases forebrain dopamine concentrations. The current study tested the hypothesis that 10 days of unpredictable stress augmented striatal dopamine depletions 7 days following four injections of either 7.5 or 10 mg/kg methamphetamine (1 injection every 2 h). Furthermore, to assess the effects of chronic stress on immediate responses to methamphetamine, extracellular striatal dopamine and methamphetamine concentrations, and rectal temperature were monitored during the methamphetamine injection regimen. Seven days following either a 7.5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg methamphetamine injection regimen, male rats exposed to unpredictable stress showed greater depletions in striatal dopamine tissue content compared with non-stressed controls injected with methamphetamine. Stressed rats had increased hyperthermic responses and dopamine efflux in the striatum during the methamphetamine injections when compared with non-stressed control rats. Moreover, stressed rats had an increased mortality rate (33%) compared with non-stressed controls (16.7%) following four injections of 10 mg/kg methamphetamine. The enhanced acute and longer-term effects of methamphetamine in stressed rats was not due to a greater concentrations of methamphetamine in the striatum, as extracellular levels of methamphetamine during the injection regimen did not differ between the two groups. In summary, exposure to 10 days of chronic unpredictable stress augments longer-term depletions of dopamine in the striatum, as well as acute methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and extracellular dopamine levels. These findings suggest that chronic stress increases the responsiveness of the brain to the acute pharmacological effects of methamphetamine and

  10. Methamphetamine use and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gizzi, Michael C; Gerkin, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    This research seeks to broaden our understanding of methamphetamine's (meth's) place within the study of drugs and crime. Through extensive court records research and interviews with 200 offenders in local jails in western Colorado, this research contributes to the creation of a meth user profile and begins to identify the place of meth in the drug-crime nexus. The study compares the criminal behavior of meth users with other drug users, finding that meth users are more likely than other drug users to be drunk or high at the time of arrest and claim their crimes were related to drug use in other ways. A content analysis of criminal records demonstrates that meth users have more extensive criminal records and are more likely than other drug users to commit property crimes.

  11. National case-control study of homicide offending and methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Stretesky, Paul B

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the main outcome measure is homicide. Results suggest that the odds of committing a homicide are nearly 9 times greater for an individual who uses methamphetamine. More importantly, the association between methamphetamine use and homicide persists even after adjusting for alternative drug use (i.e., alcohol, heroin, crack, cocaine, PCP, LSD), sex, race, income, age, marital status, previous arrests, military experience, and education level. Methamphetamine was the only drug use variable that was strongly correlated with homicide. These results support recent clinical studies that suggest methamphetamine use is different than other drug use in its effects on violence.

  12. Discriminative stimulus and subject-rated effects of methamphetamine, d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and triazolam in methamphetamine-trained humans.

    PubMed

    Sevak, Rajkumar J; Stoops, William W; Hays, Lon R; Rush, Craig R

    2009-03-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is a significant public health concern. Although widely studied in laboratory animals, little is known about the abuse-related behavioral effects of methamphetamine relative to other abused stimulants in controlled laboratory settings in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the discriminative stimulus, subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine in humans. In the present study, subjects first learned to discriminate 10 mg of oral methamphetamine from placebo. After acquiring the discrimination (> or = 80% drug-appropriate responding on four consecutive sessions), a range of oral doses of methamphetamine (2.5-15 mg), d-amphetamine (2.5-15 mg), methylphenidate (5-30 mg), and triazolam (0.0625-0.375 mg) was tested. Methamphetamine functioned as a discriminative stimulus and produced prototypical stimulant-like subject-rated effects. d-Amphetamine and methylphenidate produced dose-related increases in methamphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas triazolam did not. d-Amphetamine and methylphenidate produced stimulant-like behavioral effects, whereas triazolam produced sedative-like effects. Methamphetamine, but no other drug, increased heart rate, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure significantly above placebo levels. Performance in the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test was not affected by any of the drugs tested. Overall, these results demonstrate that the acute behavioral effects of methamphetamine, d-amphetamine, and methylphenidate overlap extensively in humans, which is concordant with findings from preclinical studies. Future studies should assess whether the similarity in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine and related stimulants can be extended to other behavioral assays, such as measures of reinforcement, in humans.

  13. Peripheral ammonia as a mediator of methamphetamine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2012-09-19

    Ammonia is metabolized by the liver and has established neurological effects. The current study examined the possibility that ammonia contributes to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (METH). The results show that a binge dosing regimen of METH to the rat increased plasma and brain ammonia concentrations that were paralleled by evidence of hepatotoxicity. The role of peripheral ammonia in the neurotoxic effects of METH was further substantiated by the demonstration that the enhancement of peripheral ammonia excretion blocked the increases in brain and plasma ammonia and attenuated the long-term depletions of dopamine and serotonin typically produced by METH. Conversely, the localized perfusion of ammonia in combination with METH, but not METH alone or ammonia alone, into the striatum recapitulated the neuronal damage produced by the systemic administration of METH. Furthermore, this damage produced by the local administration of ammonia and METH was blocked by the GYKI 52466 [4-(8-methyl-9H-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-h][2,3]benzodiazepin-5-yl)-benzamine hydrochloride], an AMPA receptor antagonist. These findings highlight the importance of ammonia derived from the periphery as a small-molecule mediator of METH neurotoxicity and more broadly emphasize the importance of peripheral organ damage as a possible mechanism that mediates the neuropathology produced by drugs of abuse and other neuroactive molecules.

  14. Antemortem and postmortem methamphetamine blood concentrations: three case reports.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Nelson, Craig L; Schaber, Bethann; Hamm, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    We compare antemortem whole-blood to postmortem peripheral blood concentrations of methamphetamine and its metabolite amphetamine in three medical examiner cases. Antemortem specimens, initially screened positive for methamphetamine by ELISA, were subsequently confirmed, together with the postmortem specimens, by GC-MS analysis following solid-phase extraction. Methamphetamine peripheral blood to antemortem blood ratios averaged 1.51 (± 0.049; n = 3) and amphetamine peripheral blood to antemortem blood ratios averaged 1.50 (n = 2). These data show that postmortem redistribution occurs for both methamphetamine and amphetamine, revealing that postmortem blood concentrations are ∼1.5 times greater than antemortem concentrations. Furthermore, as both methamphetamine and amphetamine have previously been shown to have liver/peripheral blood (L/P) ratios of 5-8, it can be proposed that drugs displaying L/P ratios ranging from 5 to 10 may exhibit postmortem concentrations up to twice those concentrations circulating in blood before death.

  15. Pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Morley, Kirsten C; Cornish, Jennifer L; Faingold, Alon; Wood, Katie; Haber, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    Methamphetamine use is a serious public health concern in many countries and is second to cannabis as the most widely abused illicit drug in the world. Effective management for methamphetamine dependence remains elusive and the large majority of methamphetamine users relapse following treatment. Areas covered: Progression in the understanding of the pharmacological basis of methamphetamine use has provided us with innovative opportunities to develop agents to treat dependence. The current review summarizes relevant literature on the neurobiological and clinical correlates associated with methamphetamine use. We then outline agents that have been explored for potential treatments in preclinical studies, human laboratory phase I and phase II trials over the last ten years. Expert opinion: No agent has demonstrated a broad and strong effect in achieving MA abstinence in Phase II trials. Agents with novel therapeutic targets appear promising. Advancement in MA treatment, including translation into practice, faces several clinical challenges.

  16. Concurrent access to sucrose pellets decreases methamphetamine-seeking behavior in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Ping, Ansong; Kruzich, Paul J

    2008-09-01

    Investigation of the role of choice between use of drugs of abuse and pursuit of alternative non-drug reinforcers is receiving greater attention. An understanding of the determinants influencing choice between drugs and alternative reinforcers will eventually lead to an understanding to the neural substrates of the drug altered brain. We investigated the impact of concurrent access to sucrose pellets on methamphetamine self-administration and self-regulated reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking following extinction training in Lewis rats. Our results from the self-administration experiment show that rats with concurrent access to sucrose self-administered significantly less methamphetamine compared to the methamphetamine only group. For our extinction/reinstatement experiment, concurrent access to sucrose during self-regulated methamphetamine reinstatement reduced methamphetamine intake and non-reinforced methamphetamine-seeking behavior in rats compared to rats that received access to just methamphetamine. These findings indicate that concurrent access to alternative reinforcers during various stages of methamphetamine-seeking behavior robustly decreased methamphetamine intake and serves as a valid rodent choice paradigm.

  17. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.410 Metoserpate hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.02 part per...

  18. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.580 Robenidine hydrochloride. Tolerances are established...

  19. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.410 Metoserpate hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.02 part per...

  20. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.580 Robenidine hydrochloride. Tolerances are established...

  1. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.410 Metoserpate hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.02 part per...

  2. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.350 Levamisole hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.1 part per...

  3. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.350 Levamisole hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.1 part per...

  4. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.410 Metoserpate hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.02 part per...

  5. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.350 Levamisole hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.1 part per...

  6. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.350 Levamisole hydrochloride. A tolerance of 0.1 part per...

  7. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.580 Robenidine hydrochloride. Tolerances are established...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride. 520.2002 Section 520.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride. 520.2002 Section 520.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride. 520.2002 Section 520.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride. 520.2002 Section 520.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1077 - Gonadorelin hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gonadorelin hydrochloride. 522.1077 Section 522.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  13. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32-1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001-0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01-0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical methamphetamine vs food

  14. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0–0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32–1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001–0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01–0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical

  15. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Alexander J; Aparicio, Mark B; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Yuan, Clara J; Grant, Yanabel; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake.

  16. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Alexander J.; Aparicio, Mark B.; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Yuan, Clara J.; Grant, Yanabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake

  17. The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and Methamphetamine: Roles for Excitoxicity and Environmental, Metabolic and Oxidative Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Parkinson’s disease . Similarly, the psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine also produces relatively selective damage to nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and is a widespread problem and drug of abuse throughout the U.S. However, the neurochemical underpinnings that mediate methamphetamine toxicity and Parkinson’s disease are unknown. Several variables common to methamphetamine toxicity and Parkinson’s disease , each of which may be important but alone are insufficient, may account for the neurodegeneration of the

  18. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  19. Methamphetamine-induced neural and cognitive changes in rodents.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John F; Belcher, Annabelle M; Feinstein, Erin M; O'Dell, Steven J

    2007-04-01

    Although psychostimulant drug abuse carries with it several potential health risks, the chronic abuse of amphetamines carries the danger of permanent brain injury. The purpose of these experiments is to develop animal models to understand the long-lasting influences of methamphetamine exposure on cerebral cortex and cognitive function. The approach taken is to administer a regimen of methamphetamine known to be neurotoxic to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals in the rat, and to investigate the influences of that dosing regimen on (i) cortical neuron integrity and function using anatomical stains and (ii) novel object recognition memory. In rodents, repeated administration of methamphetamine during a single day produces long-lasting damage to striatal dopamine and forebrain serotonin terminals as well as degeneration of somatosensory cortical neurons. The degeneration of somatosensory cortical neurons may represent only the most visible form of long-term deleterious effects on cerebral cortex, as exposure of rats to methamphetamine can reduce the immediate early gene responses of neurons in widespread cortical areas, even long after exposure to the drug. Together with the death and long-lasting functional impairments of cortical neurons, rats exposed to methamphetamine have impaired cognitive function. When tested for object recognition memory, methamphetamine-treated rats show deficiencies lasting for at least 3 weeks after drug exposure. Using a rodent model, these findings provide an avenue to study the cortical influences of methamphetamine and their cognitive sequelae.

  20. Perinatal effect of methamphetamine on nociception in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamotová, A; Hrubá, L; Schutová, B; Rokyta, R; Šlamberová, R

    2011-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant drug which causes the release of monoamine neurotransmitters. Although drugs of abuse are known to have analgesic effects, there is a lack of evidence regarding the effect of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine on nociception in adulthood. Adult Wistar rats whose mothers had received daily exposure to methamphetamine (5 mg/kg; s.c.) or saline, during gestation or gestation and lactation periods, were examined for: (1) gender differences in nociception; (2) an association between nociception and gross-motor behavior in the plantar test; (3) effects of cross-fostering on nociception; and (4) analgesic effects of an acute injection of methamphetamine (1 mg/kg s.c.). Nociception was tested using the plantar test on postnatal days 85-90. Prenatal methamphetamine increased sensitivity to pain on forelimbs (p<0.0001) and hind limbs (p<0.05) in females only. Prenatal methamphetamine treated male rats fostered by adoptive injection stressed mothers had higher sensitivity to pain than prenatally injection stressed rats fostered by methamphetamine treated mothers (p<0.05). Acute methamphetamine induced analgesia faster in prenatally methamphetamine exposed rats than in controls. In all groups, analgesia increased in the cranio-caudal direction (p<0.0001). From our behavioral data it can be concluded that exposure to methamphetamine during the prenatal period completely dissociates the relationship between nociception and intensity of overall behavior observed in intact animals in adulthood. Thus, our results indicate that perinatal exposure to psychostimulants may have long-term impact on several functions related to dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methamphetamine-Associated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sekon; Hong, Robert A.; Shohet, Ralph V.; Seto, Todd B.; Parikh, Nisha I.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine and related compounds are now the second most commonly used illicit substance worldwide, after cannabis. Reports of methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MAC) are increasing, but MAC has not been well reviewed. This analysis of MAC will provide an overview of the pharmacology of methamphetamine, historical perspective and epidemiology, a review of case and clinical studies, and a summary of the proposed mechanisms for MAC. Clinically, many questions remain, including the appropriate therapeutic interventions for MAC, the incidence and prevalence of cardiac pathology in methamphetamine users, risk factors for developing MAC, and prognosis of these patients. In conclusion, recognition of the significance of MAC among physicians and other medical caregivers is important given the growing use of methamphetamine and related stimulants worldwide. PMID:24037954

  2. Neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Thrash, Bessy; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2010-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, depletion of dopamine in the striatum leads to various symptoms such as tremor, rigidity and akinesia. Methamphetamine use has significantly increased in USA and around the world and there are several reports showing that its long-term use increases the risk for dopamine depletion. However, the toxic mechanisms of methamphetamine are not well understood. This study was undertaken to gain greater mechanistic understanding of the toxicity induced by methamphetamine. We evaluated the effect of methamphetamine on the generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial monoamine oxidase, complex I & IV activities. Behavioral analysis evaluated the effect on catalepsy, akinesia and swim score. Neurotransmitter levels were evaluated using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) electrochemical detection (ECD). Results showed that methamphetamine caused significant generation of reactive oxygen species and decreased complex I activity in the mitochondria leading to dopamine depletion in the striatum.

  3. One more chiral drug prone to spontaneous resolution: Binary phase diagram, absolute configuration, and crystal packing of bevantolol hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhin, Alexander A.

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous resolution of cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocker bevantolol hydrochloride1·HCl was established by IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and by single crystal X-ray analysis both for enantiopure and racemic samples. The absolute configuration of 1·HCl was evaluated through Flack parameter method. The molecular structure and crystal packing details were evaluated; the symmetry independent fragment of the P1 unit cell consists of two molecules which have almost identical spatial arrangement, but differ sufficiently in the nature of nitrogen atoms: quaternary form in one case and free amine form in the other.

  4. Effects of circadian disruption on methamphetamine consumption in methamphetamine-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Susan E; Feng, Hanting; Garber, Garrett; Menaker, Michael; Lynch, Wendy J

    2015-06-01

    A substantial number of clinical studies indicate associations between sleep abnormalities and drug abuse; however, the role played by the circadian system in the development of addiction is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experimentally induced chronic jet lag on methamphetamine consumption in a rat model of methamphetamine drinking. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) were housed in running wheel cages in a 12:12 h light:dark cycle. One group of rats (n = 16) was given 2 weeks of forced methamphetamine consumption (0.01 % in drinking water; meth pre-exposed) while a second group (n = 16, not pre-exposed) received water only. This was followed by a 2-week abstinence period during which half of the animals from each group were exposed to four consecutive 6-h advancing phase shifts of the light:dark cycle, while the other half remained on the original light:dark cycle. Methamphetamine consumption was assessed in all rats following the deprivation period using a two-bottle choice paradigm. Methamphetamine consumption was initially lower in methamphetamine pre-exposed versus not pre-exposed rats. However, during the second week following abstinence, consumption was significantly higher in phase-shifted rats of the methamphetamine pre-exposed group compared to all other groups. These data reveal an effect of circadian rhythm disturbance on methamphetamine consumption and suggest that dysregulation of the circadian system be considered in the etiology of relapse and addiction.

  5. Effects of Circadian Disruption on Methamphetamine Consumption in Methamphetamine-Exposed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Susan E.; Feng, Hanting; Garber, Garrett; Menaker, Michael; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale A substantial number of clinical studies indicate associations between sleep abnormalities and drug abuse; however, the role played by the circadian system in the development of addiction is largely unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experimentally induced chronic jet lag on methamphetamine consumption in a rat model of methamphetamine drinking. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32) were housed in running wheel cages in a 12:12 light:dark cycle. One group of rats (n=16) was given two weeks of forced methamphetamine consumption (0.01% in drinking water; meth pre-exposed) while a second group (n=16, not pre-exposed) received water only. This was followed by a two week abstinence period during which half of the animals from each group were exposed to 4 consecutive 6-hr advancing phase shifts of the light:dark cycle, while the other half remained on the original light:dark cycle. Methamphetamine consumption was assessed in all rats following the deprivation period using a two-bottle choice paradigm. Results Methamphetamine consumption was initially lower in methamphetamine pre-exposed vs. not pre-exposed rats. However, during the second week following abstinence, consumption was significantly higher in phase shifted rats of the methamphetamine pre-exposed group compared to all other groups. Conclusions These data reveal an effect of circadian rhythm disturbance on methamphetamine consumption, and suggest that dysregulation of the circadian system be considered in the etiology of relapse and addiction. PMID:25543849

  6. Methamphetamine Exposure: A Rural Early Intervention Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Derauf, Christian; Grant, Penny; LaGasse, Linda; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan Z.; Stewart, Sara; Wouldes, Trecia

    2006-01-01

    In the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study of methamphetamine (MA) effects on children, the authors screened approximately 27,000 newborn infants for MA exposure, and from that pool derived a sample of in utero MA-exposed children as well as a comparison group matched for other drug use and other factors. IDEAL measures…

  7. Differentiating Characteristics of Juvenile Methamphetamine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Daniel; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in characteristics and risk behaviors endorsed by detained adolescent methamphetamine users and compared them with other drug users. Subjects completed the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory and a questionnaire in which sociodemographics and behavioral information were explored and compared. Multivariate…

  8. Differentiating Characteristics of Juvenile Methamphetamine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Daniel; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in characteristics and risk behaviors endorsed by detained adolescent methamphetamine users and compared them with other drug users. Subjects completed the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory and a questionnaire in which sociodemographics and behavioral information were explored and compared. Multivariate…

  9. Methamphetamine Exposure: A Rural Early Intervention Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Derauf, Christian; Grant, Penny; LaGasse, Linda; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan Z.; Stewart, Sara; Wouldes, Trecia

    2006-01-01

    In the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study of methamphetamine (MA) effects on children, the authors screened approximately 27,000 newborn infants for MA exposure, and from that pool derived a sample of in utero MA-exposed children as well as a comparison group matched for other drug use and other factors. IDEAL measures…

  10. Attenuated microglial activation mediates tolerance to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2005-02-01

    Methamphetamine causes persistent damage to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. Repeated, intermittent treatment of mice with low doses of methamphetamine leads to the development of tolerance to its neurotoxic effects. The mechanisms underlying tolerance are not understood but clearly involve more than alterations in drug bioavailability or reductions in the hyperthermia caused by methamphetamine. Microglia have been implicated recently as mediators of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. The purpose of the present studies was to determine if a tolerance regimen of methamphetamine would attenuate the microglial response to a neurotoxic challenge. Mice treated with a low-dose methamphetamine tolerance regimen showed minor reductions in striatal dopamine content and low levels of microglial activation. When the tolerance regimen preceded a neurotoxic challenge of methamphetamine, the depletion of dopamine normally seen was significantly attenuated. The microglial activation that occurs after a toxic methamphetamine challenge was blunted likewise. Despite the induction of tolerance against drug-induced toxicity and microglial activation, a neurotoxic challenge with methamphetamine still caused hyperthermia. These results suggest that tolerance to methamphetamine neurotoxicity is associated with attenuated microglial activation and they further dissociate its neurotoxicity from drug-induced hyperthermia.

  11. Methamphetamine-associated burn injuries: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Danks, Roy R; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Faucher, Lee D; Sihler, Kristen C; Kealey, G Patrick; Chang, Phyllis; Amelon, Marge; Lewis, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine production and use has increased dramatically during the past 10 years. Methamphetamine production requires combining hazardous and volatile chemicals that expose the manufacturer to burn injuries from explosions and chemical spills. We sought to review the epidemiology of burn injuries in a rural burn center secondary to the use of amphetamine or methamphetamine and/or the manufacture of methamphetamine. Review of the records of 507 patients who were admitted to our burn unit from December 1, 1998, to December 31, 2001, revealed 34 patients who were involved in the use of amphetamines or methamphetamines and/or the manufacture of methamphetamine. Thirty-one patients tested positive for either amphetamine (n = 2) or methamphetamine (n = 29) on routine admission urine drug screens. Twenty of these patients were involved in the manufacture of methamphetamines. Three additional patients were identified as methamphetamine manufacturers but tested negative for the use of methamphetamines. The mean age of the study population was 31.88 +/- 7.65 years, with a male:female ratio of 10.3:1. The average burn size was 18.86 +/- 20.72, with the majority secondary to flame (n = 26). Patient burn admission histories were vague, and the patient's involvement in the manufacture of methamphetamine was often only later confirmed by media, the fire marshal, family members, or the patient. Fifteen patients showed the usual withdrawal pattern of agitation and hypersomnolence, with seven patients requiring detoxification with benzodiazepines. Two were admitted acutely to the psychiatric ward for uncontrollable agitation. Eighteen patients were offered chemical dependency treatment, and two completed therapy. There was one mortality. The mean cost per person was US 77,580 dollars (range, US 112 dollars - US 426,386 dollars). The increasing use of and manufacture of methamphetamine presents new challenges for the burn team because these patients can become violent and

  12. Design and evaluation of a novel potential carrier for a hydrophilic antitumor drug: Auricularia auricular polysaccharide-chitosan nanoparticles as a delivery system for doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Li, Li; Wang, Yingying; Yu, Yibin; Wang, Shenxia; Gao, Yunyun; Liang, Yanyao; Zhang, Guogang; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang

    2016-09-10

    To improve the low loading content of hydrophilic drugs in nanodrug delivery systems, a natural watersoluble polysaccharide, Auricularia auricular polysaccharide (AAP), was extracted and purified as a vehicle for the hydrophilic drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox·HCl). This involved the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes nanoparticles (PEC NPs) using the electrostatic interaction between cationic chitosan (CS) and anionic AAP. The formation of AAP-CS-NPs was confirmed by FT-IR and TEM. It was found that Dox-loaded AAP-CS-NPs possessed a spherical morphology with average diameters of 237.6nm and 74.1% Dox·HCl encapsulation efficiency. The stability of Dox AAP-CS-NPs was examined by suspending the nanoparticles in PBS (pH 7.4) at room temperature. The particle size of the nanoparticle samples remained stable and exhibited no obvious variations in drug content after half a month. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that blank AAP-CS-NPs did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects, while Dox AAP-CS-NPs increased the Dox·HCl cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells as the result of significantly increased cellular uptake, compared with free Dox·HCl. Hence, the overall results obtained suggest that AAP-CS-NPs are very effective in entrapping Dox·HCl and to penetrate into tumor cells, rendering them promising carriers for hydrophilic antitumor drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms....

  14. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2098 Selegiline... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section... selegiline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000069 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dosage level of 1 to 2 milligrams of ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride per pound of body weight to effect.1... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection. 522.863 Section 522.863 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dosage level of 1 to 2 milligrams of ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride per pound of body weight to effect.1... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection. 522.863 Section 522.863 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dosage level of 1 to 2 milligrams of ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride per pound of body weight to effect.1... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection. 522.863 Section 522.863 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. 522.2002 Section 522.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. (a) Chemical name. 1-Propanone, 1- phenothiazine-2...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. 522.2002 Section 522.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. (a) Chemical name. 1-Propanone, 1- phenothiazine-2...

  20. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. 522.2002 Section 522.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. (a) Chemical name. 1-Propanone, 1- phenothiazine-2...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  2. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  3. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  4. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  5. Neurobehavioral Effects from Developmental Methamphetamine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Sarah A; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    Intrauterine methamphetamine exposure adversely affects the neurofunctional profile of exposed children, leading to a variety of higher order cognitive deficits, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments (Kiblawi et al. in J Dev Behav Pediatr 34:31-37, 2013; Piper et al. in Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:432-439 2011; Roussotte et al. in Neuroimage 54:3067-3075, 2011; Twomey et al. in Am J Orthopsychiatry 83:64-72, 2013). In animal models of developmental methamphetamine, both neuroanatomical and behavioral outcomes critically depend on the timing of methamphetamine administration. Methamphetamine exposure during the third trimester human equivalent period of brain development results in well-defined and persistent wayfinding and spatial navigation deficits in rodents (Vorhees et al. in Neurotoxicol Teratol 27:117-134, 2005, Vorhees et al. in Int J Dev Neurosci 26:599-610, 2008; Vorhees et al. in Int J Dev Neurosci 27:289-298, 2009; Williams et al. in Psychopharmacology (Berl) 168:329-338, 2003b), whereas drug delivery during the first and second trimester equivalents produces no such effect (Acuff-Smith et al. in Neurotoxicol Teratol 18:199-215, 1996; Schutova et al. in Physiol Res 58:741-750, 2009a; Slamberova et al. in Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 380:109-114, 2009, Slamberova et al. in Physiol Res 63:S547-S558, 2014b). In this review, we examine the impact of developmental methamphetamine on emerging neural circuitry, neurotransmission, receptor changes, and behavioral outcomes in animal models. The review is organized by type of effects and timing of drug exposure (prenatal only, pre- and neonatal, and neonatal only). The findings elucidate functional patterns of interconnected brain structures (e.g., frontal cortex and striatum) and neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine and serotonin) involved in methamphetamine-induced developmental neurotoxicity.

  6. Modafinil for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ann L.; Li, Shou-Hua; Biswas, Kousick; McSherry, Frances; Holmes, Tyson; Iturriaga, Erin; Kahn, Roberta; Chiang, Nora; Beresford, Thomas; Campbell, Jan; Haning, William; Mawhinney, Joseph; McCann, Michael; Rawson, Richard; Stock, Christopher; Weis, Dennis; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Modafinil was tested for efficacy in decreasing use in methamphetamine-dependent participants, compared to placebo. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with 12 weeks of treatment and a 4-week follow-up. Eight outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics participated in the study. There were 210 treatment-seekers randomized, who all had a DSM-IV diagnosis of methamphetamine dependence; 68 participants to placebo, 72 to modafinil 200mg, and 70 to modafinil 400mg, taken once daily on awakening. Participants came to the clinic three times per week for assessments, urine drug screens, and group psychotherapy. The primary outcome measure was a methamphetamine non-use week, which required all the week's qualitative urine drug screens to be negative for methamphetamine. Results Regression analysis showed no significant difference between either modafinil group (200 or 400mg) and placebo in change in weekly percentage having a methamphetamine non-use week over the 12-week treatment period (p=0.53). Similarly, a number of secondary outcomes did not show significant effects of modafinil. However, an ad-hoc analysis of medication compliance, by urinalysis for modafinil and its metabolite, did find a significant difference in maximum duration of abstinence (23 days vs. 10 days, p=0.003), between those having the top quartile of compliance (>85% urines modafinil +, N=36), and the lower three quartiles of modafinil 200 and 400mg groups (N=106). Conclusions Although these data suggest that modafinil, plus group behavioral therapy, was not effective for decreasing methamphetamine use, the study is probably inconclusive because of inadequate compliance with taking medication. PMID:21840138

  7. Initiation into Methamphetamine Use For Young Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Kelly, Brian C.; Weiser, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Research over the past ten years has suggested that methamphetamine use has become a significant problem and is associated with risky sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. In order to better understand initiation into methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men, qualitative analyses were performed on a sample of young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-29) in New York City. Participants were recruited as part of a larger study which used time-space sampling to enroll club-going young adults who indicated recent club-drug (ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, methamphetamine, cocaine, and/or LSD) use. The data for this paper are derived from the qualitative interviews of 54 gay and bisexual male methamphetamine users. At initiation (1) Methamphetamine was used in a social, non-sexual setting for a majority of the participants; (2) participants expressed limited knowledge of methamphetamine; and (3) many participants used cocaine as a basis for comparison when describing various effects of the drug. The understanding that at initiation methamphetamine was not solely used as a sexual enhancement for members of this community may enable health workers to more accurately target potential users when putting forth intervention efforts. Future research should aim to gain a better understanding into the role that methamphetamine plays in non-sexual contexts, particularly among gay and bisexual men who may not be part of the club “scene.” The relationship between attitudes towards methamphetamine and other drugs, particularly cocaine, among gay and bisexual men should be explored. PMID:17398040

  8. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2016-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also

  9. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for three weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings

  10. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Certification Process ..................................................................... 7 Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals...LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine . Examples of other related substances include precursor chemicals used to make narcotic drugs and psychotropic...substances—such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine—which are used to make methamphetamine , and potassium permanganate, which is used to make cocaine

  11. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-23

    Certification Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Crop...Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,1 LSD,2 amphetamine, and methamphetamine . Examples of other related substances include precursor chemicals used to...make narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances — such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine — which are used to make methamphetamine , and potassium

  12. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-24

    9 Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals........................................................................ 11 Other Drug-Related...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine . Examples of other...are used to make methamphetamine , and potassium permanganate, which is used to make cocaine. With few exceptions, production and sale of controlled

  13. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  14. Stability of amrinone and digoxin, procainamide hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, or verapamil hydrochloride in intravenous admixtures.

    PubMed

    Riley, C M; Junkin, P

    1991-06-01

    The stability of amrinone and digoxin, procainamide hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, or verapamil hydrochloride in intravenous admixtures was studied. Admixtures of amrinone and digoxin were studied at one concentration. Amrinone admixtures with propranolol hydrochloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and verapamil hydrochloride were studied at two concentrations. In general, 0.45% sodium chloride injection was used as the diluent; 5% dextrose injection was also used for the procainamide hydrochloride experiments. Duplicate solutions of each test admixture and single-drug control admixture were prepared and stored for four hours at 22-23 degrees C under fluorescent light. Samples were analyzed by visual inspection, tested for pH, and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Admixtures containing amrinone 1.25 or 2.5 mg/mL (as the lactate salt) and sodium bicarbonate 37.5 mg/mL precipitated immediately or within 10 minutes. No changes in pH or visual appearance were noted for amrinone admixtures with procainamide hydrochloride, digoxin, propranolol hydrochloride, potassium chloride, and verapamil hydrochloride. Appreciable degradation of both amrinone and procainamide was observed after four hours when the two were mixed in 5% dextrose. No degradation of amrinone or procainamide was seen when the 5% dextrose was replaced by 0.45% sodium chloride. Amrinone and sodium bicarbonate were incompatible in intravenous admixtures. Amrinone was compatible with digoxin, propranolol hydrochloride, potassium chloride, and verapamil hydrochloride. Amrinone and procainamide were compatible in 0.45% sodium chloride injection but not in 5% dextrose injection.

  15. Effects of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium-channel antagonist, on d-methamphetamine's subjective and reinforcing effects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Roache, John D; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Wallace, Christopher; Wells, Lynda; Dawes, Michael; Wang, Yanmei

    2005-06-01

    In healthy human volunteers, we have previously shown that isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium-channel antagonist, reduces some methamphetamine-induced positive subjective effects associated with its abuse liability, presumably by antagonizing cortico-mesolimbic dopamine pathways. In the present study, we combined acute immediate-release (IR) isradipine with repeated sustained-release (SR) isradipine pretreatment to determine whether isradipine could antagonize methamphetamine's positive subjective and reinforcing effects in methamphetamine-dependent research subjects. We included 18 non-treatment-seeking, methamphetamine-dependent subjects aged between 18 and 51 years in this double-blind, within-subject, cross-over study, which was done in a human laboratory. Intravenous methamphetamine (0, 15 and 30 mg) was administered on three different days after 5 days of double-blind cross-over treatment with either isradipine or matching placebo. Subjects received oral isradipine 30 mg SR at bedtime, plus 15 mg IR administered 2 h before methamphetamine infusion. Self-report questionnaires measured drug liking, euphoria, craving, stimulation, and methamphetamine preference. Methamphetamine reinforcement was measured by a behavioural procedure involving choices between methamphetamine and money. For those who received isradipine second and placebo first as the pretreatment paradigm but not vice versa, methamphetamine-induced drug liking, elation, and preference were reduced significantly by isradipine. Depending upon conditioning status, isradipine can reduce some methamphetamine-induced positive subjective and reinforcing effects associated with its abuse liability in methamphetamine addicts.

  16. A comparison of economic demand and conditioned-cued reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking or food-seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Galuska, Chad M; Banna, Kelly M; Willse, Lena Vaughn; Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi, Noushin; See, Ronald E

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether continued access to methamphetamine or food reinforcement changed economic demand for both. The relationship between demand elasticity and cue-induced reinstatement was also determined. Male Long-Evans rats were lever pressed under increasing fixed-ratio requirements for either food pellets or methamphetamine (20 μg/50 μl infusion). For two groups, demand curves were obtained before and after continued access (12 days, 2-h sessions) to the reinforcer under a fixed-ratio 3 schedule. A third group was given continued access to methamphetamine between determinations of food demand and a fourth group abstained from methamphetamine between determinations. All groups underwent extinction sessions, followed by a cue-induced reinstatement test. Although food demand was less elastic than methamphetamine demand, continued access to methamphetamine shifted the methamphetamine demand curve upward and the food demand curve downward. In some rats, methamphetamine demand also became less elastic. Continued access to food had no effect on food demand. Reinstatement was higher after continued access to methamphetamine relative to food. For methamphetamine, elasticity and reinstatement measures were correlated. Continued access to methamphetamine, but not food, alters demand in ways suggestive of methamphetamine accruing reinforcing strength. Demand elasticity thus provides a useful measure of abuse liability that may predict future relapse to renewed drug-seeking and drug use.

  17. PG01037, a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, inhibits the effects of methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Higley, Amanda E; Spiller, Krista; Grundt, Peter; Newman, Amy Hauck; Kiefer, Stephen W; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L

    2011-02-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists SB-277011A or NGB 2904 significantly attenuate cocaine self-administration under a progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and cocaine-, methamphetamine- or nicotine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. However, the poor bioavailability of SB-277011A has limited its potential use in humans. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the novel D(3) receptor antagonist PG01037 on methamphetamine self-administration, methamphetamine-associated cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking and methamphetamine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. Rats were allowed to intravenously self-administer methamphetamine under fixed-ratio 2 and progressive-ratio reinforcement conditions, and then the effects of PG01037 on methamphetamine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement were assessed. Additional groups of rats were trained for intracranial electrical brain stimulation reward and the effects of PG01037 and methamphetamine on brain stimulation reward were assessed. Acute intraperitoneal administration of PG01037 (3, 10, 30 mg/kg) failed to alter methamphetamine or sucrose self-administration under fixed-ratio 2 reinforcement, but significantly lowered the break-point levels for methamphetamine or sucrose self-administration under progressive-ratio reinforcement. In addition, PG01037 significantly inhibited methamphetamine-associated cue-triggered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior and methamphetamine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. These data suggest that the novel D(3) antagonist PG01037 significantly attenuates the rewarding effects as assessed by progressive-ratio self-administration and brain stimulation reward, and inhibits methamphetamine-associated cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior These findings support the potential use of PG01037 or other selective D(3) antagonists in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction.

  18. PG01037, a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, inhibits the effects of methamphetamine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Higley, Amanda E; Spiller, Krista; Grundt, Peter; Newman, Amy Hauck; Kiefer, Stephen W; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists SB-277011A or NGB 2904 significantly attenuate cocaine self-administration under a progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and cocaine-, methamphetamine- or nicotine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. However, the poor bioavailability of SB-277011A has limited its potential use in humans. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the novel D3 receptor antagonist PG01037 on methamphetamine self-administration, methamphetamine-associated cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking and methamphetamine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. Rats were allowed to intravenously self-administer methamphetamine under fixed-ratio 2 and progressive-ratio reinforcement conditions, and then the effects of PG01037 on methamphetamine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement were assessed. Additional groups of rats were trained for intracranial electrical brain stimulation reward and the effects of PG01037 and methamphetamine on brain stimulation reward were assessed. Acute intraperitoneal administration of PG01037 (3, 10, 30 mg/kg) failed to alter methamphetamine or sucrose self-administration under fixed-ratio 2 reinforcement, but significantly lowered the break-point levels for methamphetamine or sucrose self-administration under progressive-ratio reinforcement. In addition, PG01037 significantly inhibited methamphetamine-associated cue-triggered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior and methamphetamine-enhanced brain stimulation reward. These data suggest that the novel D3 antagonist PG01037 significantly attenuates the rewarding effects as assessed by progressive-ratio self-administration and brain stimulation reward, and inhibits methamphetamine-associated cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior These findings support the potential use of PG01037 or other selective D3 antagonists in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. PMID:20142301

  19. Recurrent corneal ulcerations associated with smokeable methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Chuck, R S; Williams, J M; Goldberg, M A; Lubniewski, A J

    1996-05-01

    We studied a case of chronic, recurrent, bilateral, corneal ulcerations associated with smokeable methamphetamine abuse, commonly known as "ice," in an otherwise healthy 31-year-old woman. Every few months the patient had recurrent corneal ulcerations. Each time, she was hospitalized and treated successfully with topical antibiotics. Even though she had undergone numerous formal attempts at drug rehabilitation, she continued to have relapses, and ulceration recurred only during periods of smokeable methamphetamine abuse. Illicit use of smokeable methamphetamine may result in corneal ulceration.

  20. Kentucky rural stimulant use: a comparison of methamphetamine and other stimulant users.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Tindall, Michele Staton; Havens, Jennifer R; Oser, Carrie B; Webster, J Matthew; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Wright, Patricia B; Booth, Brenda M; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2007-11-01

    Population based surveys suggest that methamphetamine use is increasing. However, little is known about stimulant use in rural areas. Given the lack of data regarding rural stimulant use, particularly methamphetamine use, and the continuing problems associated with stimulant drug use, the purpose of this study was to examine rural stimulant use in Kentucky. Of 225 rural stimulant-using participants surveyed, 76% (n = 170) reported lifetime use of methamphetamine. Rural methamphetamine users differed from other rural stimulant users on demographic characteristics, health, and drug use histories. These results suggest that differences exist between rural stimulant users and that clinicians may need to consider these differences when planning treatment and rehabilitation strategies.

  1. Acoustical studies of molecular interaction in the solution of propranolol hydrochloride drug at different temperatures and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Ritesh R.; Bawankar, S. V.; Kukade, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study ultrasonic velocity (υ), density (ρ) and viscosity (η) have been measured at 1MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of propranolol hydrochloride with water in the concentration range (0.1 to 0.0125%) at 303, 308, 313 K using multifrequency ultrasonic interferometer. The measured value of density, ultrasonic velocity, and viscosity have been used to calculate the acoustical parameters namely adiabatic compressibility (βa), relaxation time (τ), acoustic impedance (z), free length ( L f ), free volume ( V f ) and internal pressure (P i ), Wada's constant ( W), Rao's Constant ( R), and cohesive energy ( CE). These parameters explained formation of hydrogen bond and molecular interaction existing in the solution.

  2. [Preparation and characterization of irinotecan hydrochloride loaded PEO-PPO-PEO micelles and its mechanism of decreasing drug intestinal toxicity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Xin; Guo, Shi-Yan; Li, Fei-Fei; Gan, Yong

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we developed PEO-PPO-PEO micelles loaded with irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) using breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitory material PEO20-PPO70-PEO20, and studied its mechanism of decreasing CPT-11 induced delayed diarrhea and intestinal toxicity. BCRP-overexpressing MDCKII (MDCKII/BCRP) cells were used to evaluate the effect of PEO20-PPO70-PEO20 and PEO-PPO-PEO micelles on transmembrane transport of CPT-11 in vitro. The biliary excretion, delayed diarrhea and intestinal damage of CPT-11 loaded PEO-PPO-PEO micelles of rats were investigated. The results showed that the obtained micelles could decrease the biliary excretion of CPT-11, ameliorate delayed diarrhea and intestinal toxicity of rats through inhibiting BCRP-mediated CPT-11 efflux. PEO-PPO-PEO micelles were promising carriers to reduce intestinal toxicity of CPTs.

  3. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. The advent of a new pseudoephedrine product to combat methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Ronald; Stark, Jeffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The personal and societal effects of methamphetamine abuse are well documented. The ease of accessibility to methamphetamine and the quality of the “high” it produces makes the drug highly desired by its abusers. Over time, many methamphetamine users will also become methamphetamine cooks, where pseudoephedrine in over-the-counter cold products is converted to methamphetamine through a simple, albeit extremely dangerous, process. New laws limiting access to these products have had limited success. No existing commercial pseudoephedrine products offer significant impediments to slow or limit the extraction and conversion of pseudoephedrine in clandestine methamphetamine laboratories. Objective and Methods: A new pseudoephedrine 30 mg tablet product using Impede technology (Nexafed®) to deter methamphetamine production has recently been introduced into the marketplace. Using methods designed to mimic clandestine laboratory processes, the ability of this product to disrupt extraction and conversion of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine yet provide therapeutic effectiveness was evaluated. Results: Impede™ technology tablets limited the extraction and/or conversion of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine when compared to a commercially marketed pseudoephedrine product (Sudafed®). Nexafed® tablets were also shown to be bioequivalent to the same control product, thus ensuring therapeutic equivalence. Conclusions: With the advent of new pseudoephedrine products in the marketplace with features to limit the extraction and conversion of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine, new tools are now available to minimize the clandestine manufacture of the drug and potentially limit its social impact. PMID:23968171

  5. Methamphetamines and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tricia E.; Schuetter, Renee; Tellei, Jacqueline; Sauvage, Lynnae

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in pregnancy, yet studies on MA-exposed pregnancy outcomes have been limited because of retrospective measures of drug use, lack of control for confounding factors: other drug use, including tobacco; poverty; poor diet; and lack of prenatal care. This study presents prospective collected data on MA use and birth outcomes, controlling for most confounders. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of women obtaining prenatal care from a clinic treating women with substance use disorders, on whom there are prospectively obtained data on MA and other drug use, including tobacco. MA-exposed pregnancies were compared with non-MA exposed pregnancies as well as non-drug exposed pregnancies, using univariate and multivariate analysis to control for confounders. Results One hundred forty-four infants were exposed to MA during pregnancy, 50 had first trimester exposure only, 45 had continuous use until the second trimester, 29 had continuous use until the third trimester, but were negative at delivery and 20 had positive toxicology at delivery. There were 107 non MA-exposed infants and 59 infants with no drug exposure. Mean birth weights were the same for MA-exposed and non-exposed infants (3159 g vs. 3168 g p=0.9), though smaller than those without any drug exposure (3159 vs. 3321 p=0.04), Infants with positive toxicology at birth (meconium or urine) were smaller than infants with first trimester exposure only (2932 g vs. 3300 g p=0.01). Gestation was significantly shorter among the MA-exposed infants compared to non-exposed infants (38.5 vs. 39.1 weeks p=0.045) and those with no drug exposure (38.5 vs. 39.5 p=0.0011), The infants with positive toxicology at birth had a clinically relevant shortening of gestation (37.3 weeks vs. 39.1 p=0.0002). Conclusions MA use during pregnancy is associated with shorter gestational ages and lower birth weight, especially if used continuously

  6. Injury associated with methamphetamine use: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Janie; Bennett, Sara; Coggan, Carolyn; Wheeler, Amanda; McMillan, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and injury were around driving and violence. Other associations with injury related to methamphetamine manufacture. There was also circumstantial evidence for third party injury (that is injury to those not specifically involved in drug use or drug manufacture); however, the available data are inadequate to confirm these associations/risks. PMID:16571134

  7. Research Reports: Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, aggression, psychotic behavior, damage to the cardiovascular system, malnutrition, and severe dental problems. Methamphetamine abuse has also been shown to contribute to increased transmission of infectious diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS. Beyond its ...

  8. Methamphetamine-associated psychosis.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kathleen M; LeVan, Tricia D; Wells, Sandra M; Li, Ming; Stoltenberg, Scott F; Gendelman, Howard E; Carlo, Gustavo; Bevins, Rick A

    2012-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a frequent drug of abuse in U.S. populations and commonly associated with psychosis. This may be a factor in frequent criminal justice referrals and lengthy treatment required by METH users. Persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations are the most consistent symptoms of METH-associated psychosis (MAP). MAP has largely been studied in Asian populations and risk factors have varied across studies. Duration, frequency and amount of use as well as sexual abuse, family history, other substance use, and co-occurring personality and mood disorders are risk factors for MAP. MAP may be unique with its long duration of psychosis and recurrence without relapse to METH. Seven candidate genes have been identified that may be associated with MAP. Six of these genes are also associated with susceptibility, symptoms, or treatment of schizophrenia and most are linked to glutamatergic neurotransmission. Animal studies of pre-pulse inhibition, attenuation of social interaction, and stereotypy and alterations in locomotion are used to study MAP in rodents. Employing various models, rodent studies have identified neuroanatomical and neurochemical changes associated with METH use. Throughout this review, we identify key gaps in our understanding of MAP and suggest potential directions for future research.

  9. [Neuropharmacological studies on tolperisone hydrochloride (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Y; Ishii, Y; Suzuki, T; Murayama, S

    1979-10-01

    Neuropharmacological properties of tolperisone hydrochloride (2,4'-dimethyl-3-piperidinopropiophenone hydrochloride) were investigated in mice, rats and cats. Tolperisone inhibited the spontaneous movement and methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice and the ED50 was approx. 50 mg/kg, s.c. At this dose, tolperisone did not prolong the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. Tolperisone inhibited convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol, nicotine and maximum electric shock, but did not affect convulsions induced by strychnine and picrotoxin. Tolperisone induced muscle relaxation in mice and rats in several pharmacological tests, but did not affect neuro-muscular transmission. Tolperisone did not affect conditioned avoidance response in rats and methamphetamine-induced rotational behaviour in nigro-lesioned rats. Tolperisone reduced decerebrated rigidity in cats with i.v. administration of 5 approximately 10 mg/kg and intraduodenal administration of 50 approximately 100 mg/kg. Tolperisone elicited a slight drowsy pattern in the spontaneous EEG of cats at 5 approximately 10 mg/kg, i.v., and inhibited the EEG arousal response and pressor response to stimulation of mesencephalic reticular formation or posterior hypothalamic area. These results suggest that inhibition of the activity in the gamma pathway descending from the mesencephalic reticular formation may be involved in the mechanism of muscle relaxant action of tolperisone.

  10. Myocardial lesions after long-term administration of methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shao-hua; Ren, Liang; Yang, Tian-tong; Liu, Liang; Wang, Han; Liu, Qian

    2008-12-01

    To demonstrate the myocardial lesion associated with long-term administration of methamphetamine in rats. The experimental models of intoxication of methamphetamine were established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methamphetamine hydrochloride (3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) was subcutaneously injected to rats in methamphetamine-treated group (n = 16), and normal saline at the same dose was injected to rats in control group (n = 16). After 1 week and 8 weeks of injection, 8 rats in each group were sacrificed and their hearts were examined with light microscopy and electron microscopy, respectively. After 1 week of methamphetamine exposure, foci of contraction band and cellular degeneration were present in subendocardial myocardium. Cellular degeneration, myocytolysis, and contraction band necrosis became prominent and extensive in methamphetamine-treated rats after 8 weeks. Hypertrophy, intracellular vacuolization, and fibrosis were also observed. The ultrastructural feature showed marked swelling and degeneration of mitochondria, enlargement of sarcoplasmic reticulum, and dissolution of myofilaments. No obvious cardiac myocyte lesions were observed in rats of control group. Methamphetamine abuse daily for a long time may result in an increased risk of cardiovascular lesions similar to cardiomyopathy.

  11. The effect of d-methamphetamine on simulated driving performance.

    PubMed

    Silber, Beata Y; Croft, Rodney J; Downey, Luke A; Papafotiou, Katherine; Camfield, David A; Stough, Con

    2012-03-01

    Methamphetamine is considered to be one of the most popularly abused drugs by drivers; however, its exact effect on driving and driving behaviour has yet to be thoroughly investigated. This being despite methamphetamine's increased prevalence in injured and deceased drivers. Twenty healthy recreational illicit stimulant users (10 male and 10 female), aged between 21 and 32 years (mean = 25.4 years, SD = 3.3 years) attended two testing sessions involving oral consumption of 0.42 mg/kg d-methamphetamine or a matching placebo. The drug administration was counter-balanced, double-blind, and medically supervised. At each session driving, performance was assessed 2.5 h post drug administration. d-methamphetamine (0.42 mg/kg) did not significantly impair overall simulated driving performance 2.5 h post drug administration. At the individual driving variable level, participants in the d-methamphetamine condition were observed to be driving slower when an emergency situation occurred (T = 44, p < 0.05), but interestingly, participants in both conditions recorded average speeds in excess of the speed limit (100 km/h) when the emergency situations occurred. The d-methamphetamine condition did also produce four times more infringements where participants did not stop at red traffic light in comparison to the placebo, but this effect was only evident at a trend level (T = 7, p = 0.11). The findings presented herein suggest that d-methamphetamine administered at the levels supplied did not impair driving performance in a manner consistent with epidemiological evidence. Further research is certainly required to elucidate the effects of various doses of methamphetamine, alone and in combination with other legal and illicit substances. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Assessing environmental prevention strategies for reducing the prevalence and associated harms of methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Yacoubian, George S

    2007-01-01

    Developed primarily in clandestine laboratories, methamphetamine is a highly addictive synthetic drug whose physical effects include hyperactivity, euphoria, tremors, and a sense of increased energy. While the accuracy of recent accounts suggesting a methamphetamine epidemic in the United States is unclear, these reports have nevertheless translated into significant funding allowances by the federal government. This increased funding suggests that the opportunity is ripe for the development of a scientific, environmentally-based model for methamphetamine prevention.

  13. Systemic affects of methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is the most widely used illegal stimulant in the United States and is especially prevalent in Midwestern states. The sense of euphoria caused by the drug, the ease of manufacturing and the relatively low cost make it a drug of choice for many. The broad range of systemic effects potentially caused by the use of this drug is wide reaching and can vary in degree and presentation from patient to patient. Abnormalities include cardiac and pulmonary disorders as well as observable integumentary problems, psychoses, CNS disturbances, problems associated with immunity and constitutional signs and symptoms. Health care providers need to be vigilant in their efforts to identify patients who may be users of meth and to identify any subtle abnormal findings that may be indicative of significant underlying systemic pathology. Questionnaires like the RAFFT (Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble) and the MINI (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview) can be helpful in identifying substance abuse disorders in patients.

  14. The central amygdala nucleus is critical for incubation of methamphetamine craving.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-03-13

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4-5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on 'incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving.

  15. The Central Amygdala Nucleus is Critical for Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4–5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on ‘incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving. PMID:25475163

  16. Brain levels of neuropeptides in human chronic methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Paul S; Alburges, Mario E; Bush, Lloyd; Hanson, Glen R; Kish, Stephen J

    2007-09-01

    Animal data show that neuropeptide systems in the dopamine-rich brain areas of the striatum (caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens) are influenced by exposure to psychostimulants, suggesting that neuropeptides are involved in mediating aspects of behavioral responses to drugs of abuse. To establish in an exploratory study whether levels of neuropeptides are altered in brain of human methamphetamine users, we measured tissue concentrations of dynorphin, metenkephalin, neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, and substance P in autopsied brains of 16 chronic methamphetamine users and 17 matched control subjects. As expected, levels of most neuropeptides were enriched in dopamine-linked brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens and striatum of normal human brain. In contrast to animal findings of increased neuropeptide levels following short-term methamphetamine exposure, striatal neuropeptide concentrations were either normal or moderately decreased in the methamphetamine users. In other examined dopamine-poor cortical and subcortical brain areas, neuropeptide levels were generally either normal or variably reduced. Although the neuropeptide differences might be explained by methamphetamine-induced damage to neuropeptide-containing neurons, our human data are consistent with the possibility that, at least in the human striatum, long-term methamphetamine exposure leads to an adaptive process that is distinct from that which increases neuropeptide levels after acute methamphetamine exposure.

  17. Methamphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Methamphetamine | Dextroamphetamine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to methamphetamine or dextroamphetamine may increase the risk for birth ...

  18. Methamphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Methamphetamine | Dextroamphetamine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to methamphetamine or dextroamphetamine may increase the risk for birth ...

  19. A comparison of economic demand and conditioned-cued reinstatement of methamphetamine- or food-seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Galuska, Chad M.; Banna, Kelly M.; Willse, Lena Vaughn; Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi, Noushin; See, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether continued access to methamphetamine or food reinforcement changed economic demand for both. The relationship between demand elasticity and cue-induced reinstatement was also determined. Male Long-Evans rats lever-pressed under increasing fixed-ratio requirements for either food pellets or methamphetamine (20 μg/50 μl infusion). For two groups, demand curves were obtained before and after continued access (12 days, 2-hr sessions) to the reinforcer under a fixed-ratio 3 schedule. A third group was given continued access to methamphetamine between determinations of food demand and a fourth group abstained from methamphetamine between determinations. All groups underwent extinction sessions, followed by a cue-induced reinstatement test. Although food demand was less elastic than methamphetamine demand, continued access to methamphetamine shifted the methamphetamine demand curve upward and the food demand curve downward. In some rats, methamphetamine demand also became less elastic. Continued access to food had no effect on food demand. Reinstatement was higher after continued access to methamphetamine relative to food. For methamphetamine, elasticity and reinstatement measures were correlated. We conclude that continued access to methamphetamine – but not food – alters demand in ways suggestive of methamphetamine accruing reinforcing strength. Demand elasticity and reinstatement measures appear to be related indices of drug-seeking. PMID:21597363

  20. Cocaine- and methamphetamine-related deaths in San Diego County (1987): homicides and accidental overdoses.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D N; Shaw, R F

    1989-03-01

    Cocaine- and methamphetamine-related homicides and fatal accidental overdoses in San Diego County were studied retrospectively for the 1987 calendar year. Cocaine was involved in 66 cases (39 homicides, 27 accidental overdoses), methamphetamine in 32 cases (23 homicides, 9 accidental overdoses), and a combination of cocaine and methamphetamine in 10 cases (4 homicides, 6 accidental overdoses). The composite for cocaine-related deaths was a 30-year-old black man in whom was also found at least 1 other drug, usually ethanol or morphine. The composite for methamphetamine-related deaths was a 32-year-old Caucasian man who used methamphetamine with at least 1 other drug (usually ethanol). For cases involving both cocaine and methamphetamine, the composite was a 36-year-old Caucasian man in whom was also found at least 1 other drug, usually ethanol, codeine, or morphine. Mean tissue concentrations of cocaine and benzoylecgonine were significantly higher in accidental overdoses than in homicides except for cocaine concentrations in liver, which did not differ significantly between the two groups. For methamphetamine-related deaths there was no significant difference between mean tissue concentrations in accidental overdoses and in homicides. Cocaine or methamphetamine or both were involved in approximately one third of homicides in San Diego County in 1987, and when fatal accidental overdoses were included, cocaine was involved in twice as many cases as methamphetamine.

  1. Study of fluorescence interaction and conformational changes of bovine serum albumin with histamine H₁ -receptor--drug epinastine hydrochloride by spectroscopic and time-resolved fluorescence methods.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Girish G; Naik, Praveen N; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2015-11-01

    The fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV) absorption, time resolved techniques, circular dichroism (CD), and infrared spectral methods were explored as tools to investigate the interaction between histamine H1 drug, epinastine hydrochloride (EPN), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulated physiological conditions. The experimental results showed that the quenching of the BSA by EPN was static quenching mechanism and also confirmed by lifetime measurements. The value of n close to unity indicated that one molecule of EPN was bound to protein molecule. The binding constants (K) at three different temperatures were calculated (7.1 × 10(4), 5.5 × 10(4), and 3.9 × 10(4) M(-1)). Based on the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH(0), ΔG(0), and ΔS(0)), the nature of binding forces operating between drug and protein was proposed. The site of binding of EPN in the protein was proposed to be Sudlow's site I based on displacement experiments using site markers viz, warfarin, ibuprofen, and digitoxin. Based on the Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding average distance, r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (EPN) was evaluated and found to be 4.48 nm. The UV-visible, synchronous fluorescence, CD, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results revealed the changes in secondary structure of the protein upon its interaction with EPN.

  2. Mass fragmentographic assay of nanogram amounts of the antidepressant drug mianserin hydrochloride (Org GB 94) in human plasma.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, J J; Koppens, P C; van Hal, H J

    1977-05-01

    For the assay of the antidepressant compound mianserin hydrochloride (Org GB 94) in human plasma, a mass fragmentographic method, using the deuterated analogue as internal standard and a high-performance liquid chromatographie sample clean-up procedure has been developed. The assay specifications obtained are a lower limit for reliable measurements of 1 ng/ml, and accuracy of ca. 0.01 ng/ml, a precision of 6--7% and a capacity of about 60 samples per day. The applicability of the assay method is illustrated by measurements of single-dose and steady-state plasma levels in clinical experiments, demonstrating the possibility of monitoring plasma levels during at least 24 h after a single dose of 15 mg of Org GB 94. The mean steady-state plasma levels after a daily dose of 3 X 20 mg of Org GB 94 appeared to be remarkably constant with time: 38, 36 and 34 ng/ml after 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment of 18 depressed patients.

  3. [Pharmacological characteristics of drugs targeted on calcium-sensing receptor.-properties of cinacalcet hydrochloride as allosteric modulator].

    PubMed

    Nagano, Nobuo; Tsutsui, Takaaki

    2016-06-01

    Calcimimetics act as positive allosteric modulators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), thereby decreasing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from the parathyroid glands. On the other hand, negative allosteric modulators of the CaSR with stimulatory effect on PTH secretion are termed calcilytics. The calcimimetic cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet) is the world's first allosteric modulator of G protein-coupled receptor to enter the clinical market. Cinacalcet just tunes the physiological effects of Ca(2+), an endogenous ligand, therefore, shows high selectivity and low side effects. Calcimimetics also increase cell surface CaSR expression by acting as pharmacological chaperones (pharmacoperones). It is considered that the cinacalcet-induced upper gastrointestinal problems are resulted from enhanced physiological responses to Ca(2+) and amino acids via increased sensitivity of digestive tract CaSR by cinacalcet. While clinical developments of calcilytics for osteoporosis were unfortunately halted or terminated due to paucity of efficacy, it is expected that calcilytics may be useful for the treatment of patients with activating CaSR mutations, asthma, and idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension.

  4. Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, an antihistamine drug, on skin inflammation induced by repeated topical application of oxazolone in mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Matsubara, M; Takada, C; Hasegawa, K; Suzuki, K; Ohmori, K; Karasawa, A

    2004-12-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine) is one of the second-generation antihistamines, which is prescribed for allergic disorders such as rhinitis, urticaria and eczema dermatitis. To investigate the possible anti-inflammatory effect of olopatadine on the chronic contact hypersensitivity response to repeated topical application of oxazolone in mice. The preventive and therapeutic effects of oral olopatadine were quantified by measurements of ear swelling, cytokine protein and mRNA expression in the ear lesion, and were compared with those of topical betamethasone 17-valerate (betamethasone). The ear receiving repeated applications of oxazolone exhibited erythema, oedema and abrasion. Both preventive and therapeutic administration of olopatadine (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) significantly inhibited the ear swelling and the increased production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-1beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and nerve growth factor. In the histopathological analysis, olopatadine ameliorated epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Consistent with these results, olopatadine significantly reduced the increased expression of interferon-gamma and IL-4 mRNA. Although betamethasone (0.012 mg ear(-1) day(-1)) showed similar activities to olopatadine against these responses, it caused atrophy of the ear skin. These results indicate that olopatadine is an antihistamine agent having inhibitory activities against chronic inflammatory dermatitis, possibly resulting from its diminishing effect on elevated cytokines.

  5. Effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure and challenge dose of the same drug in adulthood on epileptiform activity induced by electrical stimulation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Matějovská, I; Bernášková, K; Šlamberová, R

    2014-01-17

    Our previous study demonstrated that chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and a single dose of MA in adulthood decrease focally induced epileptiform activity in adult male rats. As seizures are known to be dependent on sex and female estrous cycle, the goal of the present study was to examine the combined effect of prenatal MA exposure (5mg/kg) and the MA challenge dose (1mg/kg) in adulthood on electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and consequences of brain stimulation in freely moving adult female rats with respect to the estrous cycle. Overall, 12 groups of adult female rats were tested: prenatally MA-exposed, prenatally saline-exposed and rats without prenatal injections, each of these groups was either postnatally challenged with MA or with saline injection (MA-MA, MA-S; S-MA, S-S; C-MA, C-S) and further divided according to the stage of the estrous cycle to metestrus/diestrus (M/D) or proestrus/estrus (P/E). Seizures were induced by repetitive electrical stimulation (15s/8Hz) of sensorimotor cortex. Stimulation threshold, duration of afterdischarges (ADs), and presence and duration of spontaneous ADs (SADs) were evaluated. Additionally, behavior associated with stimulation and ADs, and occurrence of wet-dog-shakes (WDS) were analyzed. The present study demonstrates that the prenatal MA exposure decreased the seizure threshold in females in M/D, but not in females in P/E. In addition, prenatally MA-exposed M/D females injected with saline in adulthood had increased the duration of ADs as well as SADs. The challenge dose of MA also decreased the seizure threshold. Moreover, prenatal as well as adult MA administration decreased the number and occurrence of WDS, respectively. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the effect of prenatal MA exposure and challenge dose of the same drug on focally induced epileptiform activity in adult female rats depends on the estrous cycle. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drug quality analysis through high performance liquid chromatography of isometamidium chloride hydrochloride and diminazene diaceturate purchased from official and unofficial sources in Northern Togo.

    PubMed

    Tchamdja, E; Kulo, A E; Akoda, K; Teko-Agbo, A; Assoumy, A M; Niang, E M M; Batawui, K; Adomefa, K; Bankolé, A A; Kombiagou, K; Hoppenheit, A; Clausen, P-H; Mattioli, R C; Peter, R; Napier, G B; De Deken, R; Marcotty, T; Van Den Abbeele, J; Delespaux, V

    2016-04-01

    Trypanocidal drugs remain the most accessible and thus commonly used means of controlling tsetse transmitted animal African trypanosomosis. In Togo, trypanocides are sold on official as well as unofficial markets, but the quality of these trypanocides is undocumented so a drug quality assessment study was conducted from May 2013 to June 2014. Trypanocides supplied by European, Indian and Chinese pharmaceutical companies and sold on official and unofficial markets in Togo were purchased. In total fifty-two trypanocides were obtained, 24 of these samples from official markets and 28 from unofficial markets made up of a total of 36 diminazene diaceturate and 16 isometamidium chloride hydrochloride samples. The samples were analysed in the reference laboratory of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), Laboratory for the Control of Veterinary Medicines (LACOMEV) in Dakar which uses galenic testing and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing as standard reference analysis methods. The results revealed a high proportion of trypanocides of sub-standard quality on the Togolese market: 40% were non-compliant to these quality reference standards. All of the HPLC non-compliant samples contained lower amounts of active ingredient compared to the concentration specified on the packaging. Non-compliance was higher in samples from the unofficial (53.57%) than from the official markets (25%; p=0.04).The main drug manufacturers, mostly of French origin in the study area, supply quality drugs through the official legal distribution circuit. Products of other origins mostly found on illegal markets present a significantly lower quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Aripiprazole Pretreatment on the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine In Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Bennett, J. Adam; Lile, Joshua A.; Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Rush, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use disorders remain a significant public health concern. Methamphetamine produces its behavioral effects by facilitating release of monoamines like dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Results from animal studies show that acute pretreatment with DA and 5-HT antagonists attenuates the effects of methamphetamine, but this area remains largely unexplored in humans. This study sought to assess whether aripiprazole, a partial agonist at D2/5-HT1A receptors and an antagonist at 5-HT2A receptors, would attenuate the reinforcing and subject-rated effects of oral methamphetamine. Seven subjects with histories of recreational stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind protocol in which they first sampled doses of oral methamphetamine (0, 4, 8 or 16 mg) following acute pretreatment with aripiprazole (0 and 15 mg). During each Sampling Session, subjects also completed a battery of subject-rated, cardiovascular, and other performance measures. In subsequent Self-Administration Sessions, subjects were provided the opportunity to earn the previously sampled methamphetamine dose on a progressive-ratio procedure. Methamphetamine functioned as a reinforcer, produced prototypical stimulant-like subject-rated and cardiovascular effects (e.g., increased ratings of Stimulated; elevated blood pressure). Aripiprazole reduced methamphetamine self-administration and attenuated some of the positive subject-rated effects of methamphetamine (e.g., ratings of Like Drug). These results indicate that acute aripiprazole pretreatment attenuates the abuse-related effects of methamphetamine. PMID:23994622

  8. Evidence for long-term neurotoxicity associated with methamphetamine abuse: A 1H MRS study.

    PubMed

    Ernst, T; Chang, L; Leonido-Yee, M; Speck, O

    2000-03-28

    To determine whether proton MRS (1H MRS) can detect long-term metabolite abnormalities in abstinent methamphetamine users. Methamphetamine is toxic to dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in rodents; however, little data are available on the toxic effects of methamphetamine on the human brain. 1H MRS was performed in 26 abstinent methamphetamine abusers with a history of methamphetamine dependence (median total cumulative lifetime exposure, 3,640 g; median recency of last methamphetamine use, 4.25 months) and 24 healthy subjects without a history of drug abuse. Cerebral metabolite concentrations on 1H MRS were measured in the frontal cortex, frontal white matter, and basal ganglia. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate ([NA]), a neuronal marker, was reduced significantly (-5 to -6%) in the basal ganglia and frontal white matter of methamphetamine users compared with control subjects. The frontal white matter [NA] correlated inversely with the logarithm of the lifetime methamphetamine use. The methamphetamine users also showed significantly reduced total creatine in the basal ganglia (-8%), and increased choline-containing compounds ([CHO], +13%) and myo-inositol ([MI], +11%) in the frontal grey matter. The reduced [NA] on 1H MRS provides evidence for long-term neuronal damage in abstinent methamphetamine users.

  9. Individual differences in rats' reactivity to novelty and the unconditioned and conditioned locomotor effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Rick A; Peterson, Jessica L

    2004-09-01

    Rat's reactivity to inescapable novelty can predict the subsequent psychomotor effects of many stimulants. This relation has not been examined for methamphetamine. Experiment 1 assessed the locomotor effects of methamphetamine (0.0625-1.0 mg/kg). On average, acute administration of methamphetamine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg) had a stimulant effect on activity; locomotor sensitization was seen after repeated administration of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. In a subsequent drug-free test, rats that had the locomotor chamber paired with 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg methamphetamine on eight separate occasions were more active than controls--conditioned hyperactivity. Experiment 2 used the 0.5-mg/kg dose to examine whether forced novelty exposure (novelty-induced activity) or free-choice novelty (approach to novel environment or object interaction) was predictive of methamphetamine's psychomotor effects. Only reactivity to inescapable novelty was systematically correlated with methamphetamine-induced activity. Rats more reactive to novelty [high responders (HR)] were more active to the acute and chronic methamphetamine challenge. Furthermore, these HR showed more conditioned hyperactivity than low responders (LR). Although acute methamphetamine did not have a stimulant effect in LR, only the LR displayed locomotor sensitization after chronic methamphetamine. This research extends the predictive variable of reactivity to inescapable novelty to methamphetamine's conditioned and unconditioned locomotor effects.

  10. Influence of aripiprazole pretreatment on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Bennett, J Adam; Lile, Joshua A; Sevak, Rajkumar J; Rush, Craig R

    2013-12-02

    Methamphetamine use disorders remain a significant public health concern. Methamphetamine produces its behavioral effects by facilitating release of monoamines like dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Results from animal studies show that acute pretreatment with DA and 5-HT antagonists attenuates the effects of methamphetamine, but this area remains largely unexplored in humans. This study sought to assess whether aripiprazole, a partial agonist at D2/5-HT1A receptors and an antagonist at 5-HT2A receptors, would attenuate the reinforcing and subject-rated effects of oral methamphetamine. Seven subjects with histories of recreational stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind protocol in which they first sampled doses of oral methamphetamine (0, 4, 8 or 16 mg) following acute pretreatment with aripiprazole (0 and 15 mg). During each Sampling Session, subjects also completed a battery of subject-rated, cardiovascular, and other performance measures. In subsequent Self-Administration Sessions, subjects were provided the opportunity to earn the previously sampled methamphetamine dose on a progressive-ratio procedure. Methamphetamine functioned as a reinforcer, and produced prototypical stimulant-like subject-rated and cardiovascular effects (e.g., increased ratings of Stimulated; elevated blood pressure). Aripiprazole reduced methamphetamine self-administration and attenuated some of the positive subject-rated effects of methamphetamine (e.g., ratings of Like Drug). These results indicate that acute aripiprazole pretreatment attenuates the abuse-related effects of methamphetamine.

  11. An evolving problem: methamphetamine production and trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rashi K; Crump, Jordan L; Chrisco, Emelia S

    2012-11-01

    Methamphetamine is a serious illicit drug problem in the United States and globally. For decades, methamphetamine has been supplied to the illicit market through local clandestine manufacturing and trafficking. In the early stages, illicit methamphetamine was produced and trafficked by motorcycle gangs and Mexican criminal groups. Over time, local clandestine manufacturing increasingly contributed to the illicit supply and broader methamphetamine problem. This review examines the evolution of the illicit methamphetamine supply in the U.S. A review of the literature on methamphetamine production and trafficking was conducted. Information was obtained from numerous sources including governmental reports, books and academic articles. Attempts to control the supply of methamphetamine have only led to short term disruptions in availability. Clandestine manufacturing and trafficking have undergone significant changes over the past several decades. Shifts in local production have regularly been counterbalanced by changes in production and trafficking from criminal organizations in Mexico. Transnational criminal organizations now control much of the methamphetamine supply in the U.S. and methamphetamine remains widely available. The supply of methamphetamine in the United States is dynamic. Producers and traffickers have adapted to control efforts and the problem continues. Control efforts focused on eliminating supply are limited at best. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Robenidine hydrochloride. 556.580 Section 556.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... million in skin and fat. (b) 0.1 part per million (negligible residue) in edible tissues other than skin...

  13. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Robenidine hydrochloride. 556.580 Section 556.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... million in skin and fat. (b) 0.1 part per million (negligible residue) in edible tissues other than skin...

  14. Prefrontal glutamate correlates of methamphetamine sensitization and preference

    PubMed Central

    Lominac, Kevin D.; Quadir, Sema G.; Barrett, Hannah M.; McKenna, Courtney L.; Schwartz, Lisa M.; Ruiz, Paige N.; Wroten, Melissa G.; Campbell, Rianne R.; Miller, Bailey W.; Holloway, John J.; Travis, Katherine O.; Rajasekar, Ganesh; Maliniak, Dan; Thompson, Andrew B.; Urman, Lawrence E.; Kippin, Tod E.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Szumlinski, Karen K.

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a widely abused, highly addictive, psychostimulant that elicits pronounced deficits in neurocognitive function related to hypo-functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Our understanding of how repeated methamphetamine impacts excitatory glutamatergic transmission within the PFC is limited, as is information about the relation between PFC glutamate and addiction vulnerability/resiliency. In vivo microdialysis and immunoblotting studies characterized the effects of methamphetamine (10 injections of 2 mg/kg, IP) upon extracellular glutamate in C57BL/6J mice and upon glutamate receptor and transporter expression, within the medial PFC. Glutamatergic correlates of both genetic and idiopathic variance in MA preference/intake were determined through studies of high versus low MA-drinking selectively bred mouse lines (MAHDR versus MALDR, respectively) and inbred C57BL/6J mice exhibiting spontaneously divergent place-conditioning phenotypes. Repeated methamphetamine sensitized drug-induced glutamate release and lowered indices of NMDA receptor expression in C57BL/6J mice, but did not alter basal extracellular glutamate content or total protein expression of Homer proteins, or metabotropic or AMPA glutamate receptors. Elevated basal glutamate, blunted methamphetamine-induced glutamate release and ERK activation, as well as reduced protein expression of mGlu2/3 and Homer2a/b were all correlated biochemical traits of selection for high versus low methamphetamine drinking, and Homer2a/b levels were inversely correlated with the motivational valence of methamphetamine in C57BL/6J mice. These data provide novel evidence that repeated, low-dose, methamphetamine is sufficient to perturb pre- and post-synaptic aspects of glutamate transmission within the medial PFC and that glutamate anomalies within this region may contribute to both genetic and idiopathic variance in methamphetamine addiction vulnerability/resiliency. PMID:26742098

  15. Genes and pathways co-associated with the exposure to multiple drugs of abuse, including alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine, and/or nicotine: a review of proteomics analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju; Yuan, Wenji; Li, Ming D

    2011-12-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic neuronal disease. In recent years, proteomics technology has been widely used to assess the protein expression in the brain tissues of both animals and humans exposed to addictive drugs. Through this approach, a large number of proteins potentially involved in the etiology of drug addictions have been identified, which provide a valuable resource to study protein function, biochemical pathways, and networks related to the molecular mechanisms underlying drug dependence. In this article, we summarize the recent application of proteomics to profiling protein expression patterns in animal or human brain tissues after the administration of alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine/heroin/butorphanol, or nicotine. From available reports, we compiled a list of 497 proteins associated with exposure to one or more addictive drugs, with 160 being related to exposure to at least two abused drugs. A number of biochemical pathways and biological processes appear to be enriched among these proteins, including synaptic transmission and signaling pathways related to neuronal functions. The data included in this work provide a summary and extension of the proteomics studies on drug addiction. Furthermore, the proteins and biological processes highlighted here may provide valuable insight into the cellular activities and biological processes in neurons in the development of drug addiction.

  16. Evaluation of modafinil effects on cardiovascular, subjective, and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    De La Garza, Richard; Zorick, Todd; London, Edythe D; Newton, Thomas F

    2010-01-15

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant and long-term exposure leads to reductions in dopamine. One therapeutic strategy is to develop and test compounds that normalize dopamine. The primary aim of this study was to determine the safety of modafinil treatment during methamphetamine exposure in a controlled clinical setting. Methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (N=13), who were not seeking treatment, were randomized to receive either modafinil (200mg, PO) or matching placebo over three days (Days 1-3 or Days 8-10). On Day 1, subjects were randomized to modafinil or placebo in the morning, and then 3 and 6h later received infusions of methamphetamine (0 and 30 mg, i.v.), after which cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed. On Day 3, participants completed i.v. self-administration sessions during which they made 10 choices for low doses of methamphetamine (3mg, i.v.) or saline. Days 4-7 were used as a washout period. On Day 8 participants were assigned to the alternate study medication (placebo or modafinil), and the same testing procedures were repeated through Day 10. The data reveal that modafinil treatment was well-tolerated and not associated with increased incidence of adverse events. In general, modafinil reduced by approximately 25% ratings of methamphetamine-induced "Any Drug Effect", "High", and "Want Methamphetamine", and reduced total number of choices for methamphetamine and monetary value of methamphetamine, though none of these measures reached statistical significance. Given these encouraging, though non-significant trends, the primary conclusion is that it appears safe to proceed with modafinil in further clinical evaluations of therapeutic efficacy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Modafinil Effects on Attention and Inhibitory Control in Methamphetamine-Dependent Humans*

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Andy C.; Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Monterosso, John R.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A.; London, Edythe D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individuals who are methamphetamine dependent exhibit higher rates of cognitive dysfunction than healthy people who do not use methamphetamine, and this dysfunction may have a negative effect on the success of behavioral treatments for the disorder. Therefore, a medication that improves cognition, such as modafinil (Provigil), may serve as a useful adjunct to behavioral treatments for methamphetamine dependence. Although cognitive-enhancing effects of modafinil have been reported in several populations, little is known about the effects of modafinil in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. We thus sought to evaluate the effects of modafinil on the cognitive performance of methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals. Method: Seventeen healthy subjects and 24 methamphetamine-dependent subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Effects of modafinil (200 mg, single oral dose) were assessed on participants’ performance on tests of inhibitory control, working memory, and processing speed/attention. Results: Across subjects, modafinil improved performance on a test of sustained attention, with no significant improvement on any other cognitive tests. However, within the methamphetamine-dependent group only, participants with a high baseline frequency of methamphetamine use demonstrated a greater effect of modafinil on tests of inhibitory control and processing speed than those participants with low baseline use of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Although modafinil produced limited effects across all participants, methamphetamine-dependent participants with a high baseline use of methamphetamine demonstrated significant cognitive improvement on modafinil relative to those with low baseline methamphetamine use. These results add to the findings from a clinical trial that suggested that modafinil may be particularly useful in methamphetamine-dependent subjects who use the drug frequently. PMID:22051208

  18. Acute modafinil effects on attention and inhibitory control in methamphetamine-dependent humans.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andy C; Sevak, Rajkumar J; Monterosso, John R; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A; London, Edythe D

    2011-11-01

    Individuals who are methamphetamine dependent exhibit higher rates of cognitive dysfunction than healthy people who do not use methamphetamine, and this dysfunction may have a negative effect on the success of behavioral treatments for the disorder. Therefore, a medication that improves cognition, such as modafinil (Provigil), may serve as a useful adjunct to behavioral treatments for methamphetamine dependence. Although cognitive-enhancing effects of modafinil have been reported in several populations, little is known about the effects of modafinil in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. We thus sought to evaluate the effects of modafinil on the cognitive performance of methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals. Seventeen healthy subjects and 24 methamphetamine- dependent subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Effects of modafinil (200 mg, single oral dose) were assessed on participants' performance on tests of inhibitory control, working memory, and processing speed/attention. Across subjects, modafinil improved performance on a test of sustained attention, with no significant improvement on any other cognitive tests. However, within the methamphetamine-dependent group only, participants with a high baseline frequency of methamphetamine use demonstrated a greater effect of modafinil on tests of inhibitory control and processing speed than those participants with low baseline use of methamphetamine. Although modafinil produced limited effects across all participants, methamphetamine-dependent participants with a high baseline use of methamphetamine demonstrated significant cognitive improvement on modafinil relative to those with low baseline methamphetamine use. These results add to the findings from a clinical trial that suggested that modafinil may be particularly useful in methamphetamine-dependent subjects who use the drug frequently.

  19. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  20. Bupropion Attenuates Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Carmela M.; Murray, Jennifer E.; Grant, Kathleen M.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    Bupropion is a promising candidate medication for methamphetamine use disorder. As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Specificity was determined by investigating the effects of bupropion on responding maintained by sucrose. In the self-administration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule. A separate group of rats was trained to press a lever for sucrose. Once responding stabilized, rats were pretreated with bupropion (0, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg IP) 5 min before chamber placement in a unique testing order. Following acute testing, rats were then repeatedly pretreated with 30 and 60 mg/kg bupropion. Acute treatments of bupropion dose dependently reduced drug intake for 0.025 to 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine; sucrose deliveries were only reduced with the high bupropion dose. Repeated exposure to 60 mg/kg bupropion before the session resulted in a consistent decrease in methamphetamine intake (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and sucrose deliveries. Considered together, this pattern of findings demonstrates that bupropion decreases responding for methamphetamine, but the effects are only somewhat specific. PMID:19010609

  1. Bupropion attenuates methamphetamine self-administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Carmela M; Murray, Jennifer E; Grant, Kathleen M; Bevins, Rick A

    2009-02-01

    Bupropion is a promising candidate medication for methamphetamine use disorder. As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Specificity was determined by investigating the effects of bupropion on responding maintained by sucrose. In the self-administration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule. A separate group of rats was trained to press a lever for sucrose. Once responding stabilized, rats were pretreated with bupropion (0, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg i.p.) 5 min before chamber placement in a unique testing order. Following acute testing, rats were then repeatedly pretreated with 30 and 60 mg/kg bupropion. Acute treatments of bupropion dose dependently reduced drug intake for 0.025-0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine; sucrose deliveries were only reduced with the high bupropion dose. Repeated exposure to 60 mg/kg bupropion before the session resulted in a consistent decrease in methamphetamine intake (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and sucrose deliveries. Considered together, this pattern of findings demonstrates that bupropion decreases responding for methamphetamine, but the effects are only somewhat specific.

  2. Naltrexone and Bupropion, Alone or Combined, Do Not Alter the Reinforcing Effects of Intranasal Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Pike, Erika; Hays, Lon R.; Glaser, Paul E.; Rush, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Naltrexone and bupropion, when administered alone in clinical trials, modestly reduce amphetamine use. Whether combining these drugs would result in greater reductions in methamphetamine taking relative to either drug alone is undetermined. This study examined the influence of naltrexone, bupropion and a naltrexone-bupropion combination on methamphetamine self-administration in humans. Seven subjects reporting recent illicit stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study in which the reinforcing, subject-rated and physiological effects of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 10 and 30 mg) were assessed during maintenance on placebo, naltrexone (50 mg), bupropion (300 mg/day), and naltrexone combined with bupropion. Methamphetamine maintained responding and produced prototypic subjective and physiological effects (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects, elevated systolic blood pressure). Maintenance doses were well tolerated and generally devoid of effects. No maintenance condition reduced methamphetamine self-administration or systematically altered the subject-rated effects of methamphetamine. These outcomes demonstrate the robust behavioral effects of methamphetamine that could make it resistant to pharmacological manipulation. Although these outcomes indicate that this combination may be ineffective for managing methamphetamine use disorder, future work should evaluate longer maintenance dosing, individuals with different levels of amphetamine use, adding this combination to a behavioral platform and other pharmacotherapy combinations for reducing methamphetamine use. PMID:25459104

  3. Naltrexone and bupropion, alone or combined, do not alter the reinforcing effects of intranasal methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Pike, Erika; Hays, Lon R; Glaser, Paul E; Rush, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Naltrexone and bupropion, when administered alone in clinical trials, modestly reduce amphetamine use. Whether combining these drugs would result in greater reductions in methamphetamine taking relative to either drug alone is undetermined. This study examined the influence of naltrexone, bupropion and a naltrexone-bupropion combination on methamphetamine self-administration in humans. Seven subjects reporting recent illicit stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study in which the reinforcing, subject-rated and physiological effects of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 10 and 30 mg) were assessed during maintenance on placebo, naltrexone (50 mg), bupropion (300 mg/day), and naltrexone combined with bupropion. Methamphetamine maintained responding and produced prototypic subjective and physiological effects (e.g., increased ratings of good effects, elevated systolic blood pressure). Maintenance doses were well tolerated and generally devoid of effects. No maintenance condition reduced methamphetamine self-administration or systematically altered the subject-rated effects of methamphetamine. These outcomes demonstrate the robust behavioral effects of methamphetamine that could make it resistant to pharmacological manipulation. Although these outcomes indicate that this combination may be ineffective for managing methamphetamine use disorder, future work should evaluate longer maintenance dosing, individuals with different levels of amphetamine use, adding this combination to a behavioral platform and other pharmacotherapy combinations for reducing methamphetamine use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methamphetamine self-administration in humans during D-amphetamine maintenance.

    PubMed

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Hays, Lon R; Glaser, Paul E A; Rush, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    Agonist replacement may be a viable treatment approach for managing stimulant use disorders. This study sought to determine the effects of D-amphetamine maintenance on methamphetamine self-administration in stimulant using human participants. We predicted that D-amphetamine maintenance would reduce methamphetamine self-administration. Eight participants completed the protocol, which tested 2 D-amphetamine maintenance conditions in counterbalanced order (0 and 40 mg/d). Participants completed 4 experimental sessions under each maintenance condition in which they first sampled 1 of 4 doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 10, 20, or 30 mg). Participants then had the opportunity to respond on a computerized progressive-ratio task to earn portions of the sampled methamphetamine dose. Subject-rated drug effect and physiological measures were completed at regular intervals prior to and after sampling methamphetamine. Methamphetamine was self-administered as an orderly function of dose regardless of the maintenance condition. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subject-rated effects on 12 items of the drug-effects questionnaires, 8 of which were attenuated by D-amphetamine maintenance (eg, increased ratings were attenuated on items such as Any Effect, Like Drug, and Willing to Take Again on the Drug Effect Questionnaire). Methamphetamine produced significant increases in systolic blood pressure, which were attenuated by D-amphetamine maintenance compared to placebo maintenance. Methamphetamine was well tolerated during D-amphetamine maintenance and no adverse events occurred. Although D-amphetamine attenuated some subject-rated effects of methamphetamine, the self-administration results are concordant with those of clinical trials showing that D-amphetamine did not reduce methamphetamine use. Unique pharmacological approaches may be needed for treating amphetamine use disorders.

  5. METHAMPHETAMINE SELF-ADMINISTRATION IN HUMANS DURING D-AMPHETAMINE MAINTENANCE

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W.; Hays, Lon R.; Glaser, Paul E. A.; Rush, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Agonist replacement may be a viable treatment approach for managing stimulant use disorders. This study sought to determine the effects of d-amphetamine maintenance on methamphetamine self-administration in stimulant using human participants. We predicted d-amphetamine maintenance would reduce methamphetamine self-administration. Eight participants completed the protocol, which tested two d-amphetamine maintenance conditions in counter-balanced order (0 and 40 mg/day). Participants completed 4 experimental sessions under each maintenance condition in which they first sampled one of four doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 1