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Sample records for methanogenic bioreactor packed

  1. Molecular analysis of methanogens involved in methanogenic degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in full-scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Hu, Tai-Ho; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Wu, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shao-Hsiung

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated methanogenic communities involved in degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in three full-scale bioreactors treating TMAH-containing wastewater. Based on the results of terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR analyses targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes retrieved from three bioreactors, Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens involved in the methanogenic degradation of TMAH in the bioreactors. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mcrA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during methanogenic TMAH degradation, and the results indicated that a higher level of TMAH favored mcrA mRNA expression by Methansarcina, while Methanomethylovorans could only express considerable amount of mcrA mRNA at a lower level of TMAH. These results suggest that Methansarcina is responsible for methanogenic TMAH degradation at higher TMAH concentrations, while Methanomethylovorans may be important at a lower TMAH condition.

  2. Acetate-triggered granular sludge floatation in methanogenic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanquan; Liang, Zhiwei

    2016-12-15

    Methanogenic granular sludge from anaerobic bioreactors plays a primary role in treatment of various high-strength industrial wastewaters. The common problem of sludge floatation can lead to washout of granules from the reactor and severely affect reactor performance. However, an understanding of the specific key trigger-factors and appropriate control strategies for granular sludge floatation remains elusive. In this study, the concentration of acetate, rather than that of other volatile fatty acids (VFAs, i.e. propionate and butyrate) and granular sludge properties, was identified to be positively, linearly correlated with the amount of floating granules. The number of floating granules on propionate (18 ± 6) or butyrate-containing (34 ± 13) wastewater was comparable with that of non-VFA control wastewater (30.5 ± 7.5), and much lower than that of acetate-containing wastewater (80.5 ± 10.5). A scenario of excessive acetate-triggered granular sludge floatation is proposed based on these results as well as on the microbial community profile and spatial distribution, porous structure of granules, and impacts of operational parameters. Two new strategies, acetate-depletion and co-substrate addition, effectively reduced the number of floating granules by 28.5% and 51.6%, respectively. These results deepen our understanding of granular sludge floatation in methanogenic bioreactors and provide effective strategies to control sludge floatation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced methanogenic degradation of cellulose-containing sewage via fungi-methanogens syntrophic association in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Nie, Yulun; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Niu, Qigui; Li, Qian; Li, Yu-You

    2017-09-08

    An anaerobic membrane bioreactor was configured for methanogenic degradation of cellulose-containing sewage. The degradation performance and microbial changes were evaluated under five hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results indicated the methane production was largely enhanced with 92.6% efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) converting to methane and 80% proportion of methane in produced biogas, meanwhile the biomass yield presented the fewest at the shortest HRT 8h. Enhanced methane production with decreased biomass yield was attributed to an association between fungi and methanogens. Microbial analysis showed fungi Basidiomycota and methanogen Methanoregula apparently established the association, especially Basidiomycota reaching 93% relative abundance at HRT 8h. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests suggested the association was derived from H2 production by fungi and H2 consumption by methanogens, during the process of cellulose degradation. The methanogenic degradation of cellulose-containing sewage was markedly promoted via the fungi-methanogens syntrophic association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LEACHATE RECIRCULATION, METHANOGENS AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The idea of operating landfills as bioreactors has received a lot of attention owing to many of the economic and waste treatment benefits. Portions of the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY, owned and operated by WMI, Inc., are currently being used to test two different decom...

  5. Decreasing ammonia inhibition in thermophilic methanogenic bioreactors using carbon fiber textiles.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-05-01

    Ammonia accumulation is one of the main causes of the loss of methane production observed during fermentation. We investigated the effect of addition of carbon fiber textiles (CFT) to thermophilic methanogenic bioreactors with respect to ammonia tolerance during the process of degradation of artificial garbage slurry, by comparing the performance of the reactors containing CFT with the performance of reactors without CFT. Under total ammonia-N concentrations of 3,000 mg L(-1), the reactors containing CFT were found to mediate stable removal of organic compounds and methane production. Under these conditions, high levels of methanogenic archaea were retained at the CFT, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis for methanogenic archaea. In addition, Methanobacterium sp. was found to be dominant in the suspended fraction, and Methanosarcina sp. was dominant in the retained fraction of the reactors with CFT. However, the reactors without CFT had lower rates of removal of organic compounds and production of methane under total ammonia-N concentrations of 1,500 mg L(-1). Under this ammonia concentration, a significant accumulation of acetate was observed in the reactors without CFT (130.0 mM), relative to the reactors with CFT (4.2 mM). Only Methanobacterium sp. was identified in the reactors without CFT. These results suggest that CFT enables stable proliferation of aceticlastic methanogens by preventing ammonia inhibition. This improves the process of stable garbage degradation and production of methane in thermophilic bioreactors that include high levels of ammonia.

  6. Microbial dark matter ecogenomics reveals complex synergistic networks in a methanogenic bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Nobu, Masaru K; Narihiro, Takashi; Rinke, Christian; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    Ecogenomic investigation of a methanogenic bioreactor degrading terephthalate (TA) allowed elucidation of complex synergistic networks of uncultivated microorganisms, including those from candidate phyla with no cultivated representatives. Our previous metagenomic investigation proposed that Pelotomaculum and methanogens may interact with uncultivated organisms to degrade TA; however, many members of the community remained unaddressed because of past technological limitations. In further pursuit, this study employed state-of-the-art omics tools to generate draft genomes and transcriptomes for uncultivated organisms spanning 15 phyla and reports the first genomic insight into candidate phyla Atribacteria, Hydrogenedentes and Marinimicrobia in methanogenic environments. Metabolic reconstruction revealed that these organisms perform fermentative, syntrophic and acetogenic catabolism facilitated by energy conservation revolving around H2 metabolism. Several of these organisms could degrade TA catabolism by-products (acetate, butyrate and H2) and syntrophically support Pelotomaculum. Other taxa could scavenge anabolic products (protein and lipids) presumably derived from detrital biomass produced by the TA-degrading community. The protein scavengers expressed complementary metabolic pathways indicating syntrophic and fermentative step-wise protein degradation through amino acids, branched-chain fatty acids and propionate. Thus, the uncultivated organisms may interact to form an intricate syntrophy-supported food web with Pelotomaculum and methanogens to metabolize catabolic by-products and detritus, whereby facilitating holistic TA mineralization to CO2 and CH4. PMID:25615435

  7. Microbial dark matter ecogenomics reveals complex synergistic networks in a methanogenic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nobu, Masaru K; Narihiro, Takashi; Rinke, Christian; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-08-01

    Ecogenomic investigation of a methanogenic bioreactor degrading terephthalate (TA) allowed elucidation of complex synergistic networks of uncultivated microorganisms, including those from candidate phyla with no cultivated representatives. Our previous metagenomic investigation proposed that Pelotomaculum and methanogens may interact with uncultivated organisms to degrade TA; however, many members of the community remained unaddressed because of past technological limitations. In further pursuit, this study employed state-of-the-art omics tools to generate draft genomes and transcriptomes for uncultivated organisms spanning 15 phyla and reports the first genomic insight into candidate phyla Atribacteria, Hydrogenedentes and Marinimicrobia in methanogenic environments. Metabolic reconstruction revealed that these organisms perform fermentative, syntrophic and acetogenic catabolism facilitated by energy conservation revolving around H2 metabolism. Several of these organisms could degrade TA catabolism by-products (acetate, butyrate and H2) and syntrophically support Pelotomaculum. Other taxa could scavenge anabolic products (protein and lipids) presumably derived from detrital biomass produced by the TA-degrading community. The protein scavengers expressed complementary metabolic pathways indicating syntrophic and fermentative step-wise protein degradation through amino acids, branched-chain fatty acids and propionate. Thus, the uncultivated organisms may interact to form an intricate syntrophy-supported food web with Pelotomaculum and methanogens to metabolize catabolic by-products and detritus, whereby facilitating holistic TA mineralization to CO2 and CH4.

  8. Cultivation of methanogenic community from subseafloor sediments using a continuous-flow bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Imachi, Hiroyuki; Aoi, Ken; Tasumi, Eiji; Saito, Yumi; Yamanaka, Yuko; Saito, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Tomaru, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Rika; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Microbial methanogenesis in subseafloor sediments is a key process in the carbon cycle on the Earth. However, the cultivation-dependent evidences have been poorly demonstrated. Here we report the cultivation of a methanogenic microbial consortium from subseafloor sediments using a continuous-flow-type bioreactor with polyurethane sponges as microbial habitats, called down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor. We anaerobically incubated methane-rich core sediments collected from off Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, for 826 days in the reactor at 10 °C. Synthetic seawater supplemented with glucose, yeast extract, acetate and propionate as potential energy sources was provided into the reactor. After 289 days of operation, microbiological methane production became evident. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed the presence of metabolically active microbial cells with various morphologies in the reactor. DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses targeting 16S rRNA indicated the successful growth of phylogenetically diverse microbial components during cultivation in the reactor. Most of the phylotypes in the reactor, once it made methane, were more closely related to culture sequences than to the subsurface environmental sequence. Potentially methanogenic phylotypes related to the genera Methanobacterium, Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina were predominantly detected concomitantly with methane production, while uncultured archaeal phylotypes were also detected. Using the methanogenic community enrichment as subsequent inocula, traditional batch-type cultivations led to the successful isolation of several anaerobic microbes including those methanogens. Our results substantiate that the DHS bioreactor is a useful system for the enrichment of numerous fastidious microbes from subseafloor sediments and will enable the physiological and ecological characterization of pure cultures of previously uncultivated subseafloor microbial life. PMID:21654849

  9. Cultivation of methanogenic community from subseafloor sediments using a continuous-flow bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Imachi, Hiroyuki; Aoi, Ken; Tasumi, Eiji; Saito, Yumi; Yamanaka, Yuko; Saito, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Tomaru, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Rika; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken

    2011-12-01

    Microbial methanogenesis in subseafloor sediments is a key process in the carbon cycle on the Earth. However, the cultivation-dependent evidences have been poorly demonstrated. Here we report the cultivation of a methanogenic microbial consortium from subseafloor sediments using a continuous-flow-type bioreactor with polyurethane sponges as microbial habitats, called down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor. We anaerobically incubated methane-rich core sediments collected from off Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, for 826 days in the reactor at 10 °C. Synthetic seawater supplemented with glucose, yeast extract, acetate and propionate as potential energy sources was provided into the reactor. After 289 days of operation, microbiological methane production became evident. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed the presence of metabolically active microbial cells with various morphologies in the reactor. DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses targeting 16S rRNA indicated the successful growth of phylogenetically diverse microbial components during cultivation in the reactor. Most of the phylotypes in the reactor, once it made methane, were more closely related to culture sequences than to the subsurface environmental sequence. Potentially methanogenic phylotypes related to the genera Methanobacterium, Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina were predominantly detected concomitantly with methane production, while uncultured archaeal phylotypes were also detected. Using the methanogenic community enrichment as subsequent inocula, traditional batch-type cultivations led to the successful isolation of several anaerobic microbes including those methanogens. Our results substantiate that the DHS bioreactor is a useful system for the enrichment of numerous fastidious microbes from subseafloor sediments and will enable the physiological and ecological characterization of pure cultures of previously uncultivated subseafloor microbial life.

  10. A comparison of nanosilver and silver ion effects on bioreactor landfill operations and methanogenic population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Wall, Judy D; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-06-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, nanosilver) and silver ions released from industry and various consumer products are eventually disposed in sanitary landfills. To compare the effects of these two forms of silver on landfill bioreactor operations with leachate recirculation, municipal solid waste (MSW) in six identical 9-L bioreactors was exposed to AgNPs (stabilized with 0.06% polyvinyl alcohol) or Ag(+) at a silver concentration of 10 mg/kg solids. The landfill anaerobic digestion was operated and monitored for more than 200 days. There was no significant difference in cumulative methane volume or methane production rate between the groups of control and 10 mg/kg Ag(+). However, MSW treated with 10 mg/kg AgNPs resulted in a reduced methane production (by up to 80%) and accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the leachates. This was accompanied by higher leachate Ag concentrations (an average of 3.7 ± 0.3 mg/L) after day 132 as compared to those in the groups of control and 10 mg/kg Ag(+) at 0.7 ± 0.4 and 1.1 ± 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes of methanogens indicated reduced methanogenic growth in the bioreactors exposed to nanosilver. The peak values of total methanogens in leachates were (1.18 ± 0.09) × 10(10), (4.57 ± 2.67) × 10(10) and (7.72 ± 0.78) × 10(8) (cells/mL) for the groups of control, Ag(+) and AgNPs, respectively. The results suggest that silver ions have minimal impact on landfill methane production at the concentration of 10 mg/kg. However, nanosilver inhibits methanogenesis and is more toxic than its counterpart, likely due to slow and long-term Ag(+) release from nanosilver dissolution yielding more bioavailability in landfill leachates.

  11. Cultivation of methanogenic community from 2-km deep subseafloor coalbeds using a continuous-flow bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imachi, H.; Tasumi, E.; Morono, Y.; Ito, M.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    Deep subseafloor environments associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs have been least explored by previous scientific drilling and hence the nature of deep subseafloor life and its ecological roles in the carbon cycle remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed cultivation of subseafloor methanogenic communities using a continuous-flow bioreactor with polyurethane sponges, called down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor. The sample used for the reactor cultivation was obtained from 2 km-deep coalbeds off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan, the northwestern Pacific, during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 337 using a riser drilling technology of the drilling vessel Chikyu. The coalbed samples were incubated anaerobically in the DHS reactor at the in-situ temperature of 40°C. Synthetic seawater supplemented with a tiny amount of yeast extract, acetate, propionate and butyrate was provided into the DHS reactor. After 34 days of the bioreactor operation, a small production of methane was observed. The methane concentration was gradually increased and the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane was consistency 13C-depleted during the bioreactor operation, indicating the occurrence of microbial methanogenesis. Microscopic observation showed that the enrichment culture contained a variety of microorganisms, including methanogen-like rod-shaped cells with F420 auto-fluorescence. Interestingly, many spore-like particles were observed in the bioreactor enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed the growth of phylogenetically diverse bacteria and archaea in the DHS reactor. Predominant archaeal components were closely related to hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the genus Methanobacterium. Some predominant bacteria were related to the spore-formers within the class Clostridia, which are overall in good agreement with microscopic observations. By analyzing ion images using a nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano

  12. Continuous, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor production and stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The synthesis of feruloyl soy glycerides was demonstrated on a pilot-scale (1 metric ton/year) in a continuous, four-column series, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor (herinafter referred to as the bioreactor). Ethyl ferulate and soybean oil were combined and converted at 3.5 kg/d over Candida antarti...

  13. Assessment of packed bed bioreactor systems in the production of viral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is believed to be the most effective method for the prevention of infectious diseases. Thus it is imperative to develop cost effective and scalable process for the production of vaccines so as to make them affordable for mass use. In this study, performance of a novel disposable iCELLis fixed bed bioreactor system was investigated for the production of some viral vaccines like Rabies, Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya vaccines in comparison to conventional systems like the commercially available packed bed system and roller bottle system. Vero and MRC-5 cell substrates were evaluated for growth parameters in all the three systems maintaining similar seeding density, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and media components. It was observed that Vero cells showed similar growth in all the three bioreactors whereas MRC-5 cells showed better growth in iCELLis Nano system and roller bottle system. Subsequently, the virus infection and antigen production studies also revealed that for Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya iCELLis Nano bioreactor system was better to the commercial packed bed bioreactor and roller bottle systems. Although for rabies antigen production commercially available packed bed bioreactor system was found to be better. This study shows that different bioreactor platforms may be employed for viral vaccine production and iCELLis Nano is one of such new convenient and a stable platform for production of human viral vaccines. PMID:24949260

  14. Assessment of packed bed bioreactor systems in the production of viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ramya; Lingala, Rajendra; Vuppu, Siva Kumar; Bandi, Bala Obulapathi; Manickam, Elaiyaraja; Macherla, Sankar Rao; Dubois, Stéphanie; Havelange, Nicolas; Maithal, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is believed to be the most effective method for the prevention of infectious diseases. Thus it is imperative to develop cost effective and scalable process for the production of vaccines so as to make them affordable for mass use. In this study, performance of a novel disposable iCELLis fixed bed bioreactor system was investigated for the production of some viral vaccines like Rabies, Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya vaccines in comparison to conventional systems like the commercially available packed bed system and roller bottle system. Vero and MRC-5 cell substrates were evaluated for growth parameters in all the three systems maintaining similar seeding density, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and media components. It was observed that Vero cells showed similar growth in all the three bioreactors whereas MRC-5 cells showed better growth in iCELLis Nano system and roller bottle system. Subsequently, the virus infection and antigen production studies also revealed that for Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya iCELLis Nano bioreactor system was better to the commercial packed bed bioreactor and roller bottle systems. Although for rabies antigen production commercially available packed bed bioreactor system was found to be better. This study shows that different bioreactor platforms may be employed for viral vaccine production and iCELLis Nano is one of such new convenient and a stable platform for production of human viral vaccines.

  15. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Osiecki, Michael J; Michl, Thomas D; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Griesser, Hans J; Doran, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  16. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osiecki, Michael J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B.; Griesser, Hans J.; Doran, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs. PMID:26660475

  17. Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Vinasse Through a Methanogenic UASB Reactor Followed by a Packed Bed Reactor.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Díaz, A; Pereda-Reyes, I; Oliva-Merencio, D; Lebrero, R; Zaiat, M

    2017-05-17

    The anaerobic treatment of raw vinasse in a combined system consisting in two methanogenic reactors, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) + anaerobic packed bed reactors (APBR), was evaluated. The organic loading rate (OLR) was varied, and the best condition for the combined system was 12.5 kg COD m(-3)day(-1) with averages of 0.289 m(3) CH4 kg COD r(-1)for the UASB reactor and 4.4 kg COD m(-3)day(-1) with 0.207 m(3) CH4 kg COD r(-1) for APBR. The OLR played a major role in the emission of H2S conducting to relatively stable quality of biogas emitted from the APBR, with H2S concentrations <10 mg L(-1). The importance of the sulphate to COD ratio was demonstrated as a result of the low biogas quality recorded at the lowest ratio. It was possible to develop a proper anaerobic digestion of raw vinasse through the combined system with COD removal efficiency of 86.7% and higher CH4 and a lower H2S content in biogas.

  18. Methanogenic community composition in an organic waste mixture in an anaerobic bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryta, Agata; Oszust, Karolina; Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Ziemiński, Krzysztof; Bilińska-Wielgus, Nina; Frąc, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the substantial relationship between the compositions of methanogen community that assembles in the anaerobic digester mass and link it to methane production activity. The results of the metagenomic studies were used to evaluate how the methanogen structure changes during an anaerobic digestion process under various waste retention times (21, 23, 25, 29, 33, 39, 47 and 61 days). Phylogenetically coherent populations of methanogens were assessed by 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of a specific molecular marker, the mcrA gene. The results indicated multiple phylogenetically diverse methanogen populations associated with the various steps of anaerobic digestion. The stages of the anaerobic digestion process and waste retention times determine the microbial composition. The most dominant and acclimated microbial communities in all samples belonged to the genera Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium. The methane yield was consistent with the results of the microbial community structure, which indicated that acetotrophic Methanosaeta was the most active and most important during the methanogenic stage.

  19. Factors influencing the degradation of garbage in methanogenic bioreactors and impacts on biogas formation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Kengo

    2012-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of garbage is attracting much attention because of its application in waste volume reduction and the recovery of biogas for use as an energy source. In this review, various factors influencing the degradation of garbage and the production of biogas are discussed. The surface hydrophobicity and porosity of supporting materials are important factors in retaining microorganisms such as aceticlastic methanogens and in attaining a higher degradation of garbage and a higher production of biogas. Ammonia concentration, changes in environmental parameters such as temperature and pH, and adaptation of microbial community to ammonia have been related to ammonia inhibition. The effects of drawing electrons from the methanogenic community and donating electrons into the methanogenic community on methane production have been shown in microbial fuel cells and bioelectrochemical reactors. The influences of trace elements, phase separation, and co-digestion are also summarized in this review.

  20. Methanogenic degradation of toilet-paper cellulose upon sewage treatment in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Nie, Yulun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jiang; Utashiro, Tetsuya; Lu, Jianbo; Yue, Shangchao; Jiang, Hongyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Yu-You

    2017-03-01

    Toilet-paper cellulose with rich but refractory carbon sources, are the main insoluble COD fractions in sewage. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was configured for sewage treatment at room temperature and its performance on methanogenic degradation of toilet paper was highlighted. The results showed, high organic removal (95%), high methane conversion (90%) and low sludge yield (0.08gVSS/gCOD) were achieved in the AnMBR. Toilet-paper cellulose was fully biodegraded without accumulation in the mixed liquor and membrane cake layer. Bioconversion efficiency of toilet paper approached 100% under a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.02gCOD/L/d and it could provide around 26% of total methane generation at most of OLRs. Long sludge retention time and co-digestion of insoluble/soluble COD fractions achieving mutualism of functional microorganisms, contributed to biodegradation of toilet-paper cellulose. Therefore the AnMBR successfully implemented simultaneously methanogenic bioconversion of toilet-paper cellulose and soluble COD in sewage at room temperature.

  1. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas sp. in a continuous packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Pseudomonas (Iso 1) sp. was investigated in batch as well as continuous bioreactors packed with polyurethane foam pieces. The optimum process parameters for the maximum removal of CP, determined through batch experiments, were found to be: inoculum level, 300×10(6)CfumL(-1); CP concentration, 500mgL(-1); pH 7.5; temperature, 37°C and DO, 5.5mgL(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at various flow rates (10-40mLh(-1)) under the optimum conditions. The steady state CP removal efficiency of more than 91% was observed up to the inlet load of 300mgL(-1)d(-1). The bioreactor was sensitive to flow fluctuations but was able to recover its performance quickly and exhibited the normal plug-flow behavior. Accumulation of TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) affected the reactor performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of packing material on organic matter removal efficiency in an anaerobic-aerobic baffled bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tabla-Hernandez, Jacobo; Lopez-Galvan, E

    2017-04-13

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of packing material on the organic matter removal efficiency (OMRE) in an anaerobic-aerobic baffled bioreactor (AAB). For this purpose, two different experiments were conducted with two types of packing material: activated carbon particles (AC) and polyurethane foam (PF). The system consisted of two treatments; the first one was anaerobic, where it took place hydrolysis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In anaerobic chambers, there were no packing material and the operating conditions were the same in both experiments. The second treatment was aerobic and both materials were placed at different times as a bedding. The parameters measured were: chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODd), total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate concentration (NO3(-)), ammonium concentration (NH4(+)), electric conductivity (σ), alkalinity (Alky) and hydrogen potential (pH). Paired t-student test showed that there was no significant difference between the OMRE in anaerobic treatment, whereas there was in aerobic treatment, due to the effect of packing material. NH4(+) and NO3(-) showed a negative Pearson correlation in both experiments, witnessing the presence of the nitrification process in aerobic chamber. AAB packed with PF (AAB-PF) had better performance at obtaining an OMRE of around 63%, whereas AAB packed with AC (AAB-AC) presented an OMRE of around 51%.

  3. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in a semi-continuous packed-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, W.E.; Korus, R.A.; Crawford, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Pseudomonas sp. KC degrades carbon tetrachloride (CT) when grown under iron limited conditions. A packed-bed bioreactor was constructed out of glass and Teflon components and contained glass beads as a packing material. Total void volume of the reactor, including the pump reservoir, was approximately 300 mL. Media was recirculated through the reactor with a Teflon diaphragm pump and contained nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. After inoculation with KC and biofilm growth, the pump reservoir was replaced with fresh media and 3.0 mg/L CT was introduced to the reactor. When the initial CT had been degraded, 10% of the reactor volume was replaced with new media and CT was reintroduced. This process was repeated a second time. The initial degradation rate of the reactor increased from 75 {mu}g CT L{sup -1} hr{sup -1} for the first feeding to 109 {mu}g L{sup -1} hr{sup -1} for the third. A second reactor was packed with a Celite (diatomaceous earth) biocarrier and inoculated in a similar manner to the glass bead reactor. Degradation of CT in this reactor appeared to be suppressed, possibly due to the availability of iron to the bacteria from the biocarrier. While these experiments indicate it should be possible to design a bioreactor utilizing Pseudomonas sp. KC to degrade CT in contaminated water, the suppression of degradative activity by iron will require special precautions to be taken in reactor design.

  4. Enrichment and characterization of microbial consortia degrading soluble microbial products discharged from anaerobic methanogenic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na-Kyung; Oh, Seungdae; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-03-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) produced in bioprocesses have been known as a main cause to decrease treatment efficiency, lower effluent quality, and promote membrane fouling in water reclamation plants. In this study, biological degradation of SMP using selectively enriched microbial consortia in a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was introduced to remove SMP discharged from anaerobic methanogenic reactors. On average, 68.9-87.5% SMP removal was achieved by the enriched microbial consortia in the DHS reactor for >800 days. The influent SMP fed to the DHS reactor exhibited a bimodal molecular weight (MW) distribution with 14-20 kDa and <4 kDa. Between these two types of SMP, the small MW SMP were biodegraded in the upper part of the reactor, together with most of the large MW SMP. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technology, the microbial community composition and structure were characterized and correlated with operational factors, such as hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate, and removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand at different depths of the reactor, by performing network and redundancy analyses. The results revealed that Saprospiraceae was strongly correlated to the increasing SMP loading condition, indicating positive co-occurrences with neighboring bacterial populations. Different microbial diversity along with the depth of the reactor implies that stratified microbial communities could participate in the process of SMP degradation. Taken together, these observations indicate that the spatial and temporal variability of the enriched microbial community in the DHS reactor could effectively treat SMP with respect to changes in the operational factors.

  5. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification for tertiary nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater using membrane diffusion packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Xing, Wei; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Lei; Wang, Yajiao; Lin, Jia

    2013-09-01

    A lab-scale membrane diffusion packed-bed bioreactor was used to investigate hydrogenotrophic denitrification for tertiary nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater. After start-up, the bioreactor had been operated for 165 days by stepwise increasing influent loading rates at 30 and 15°C. The results indicated that this bioreactor could achieve relatively high nitrogen removal efficiencies. The denitrification rates reached 0.250 and 0.230 kg N/(m(3)d) at 30 and 15°C respectively. The total nitrogen concentration in effluent was entirely below 2.0 mg/L at the steady operation state. The average increase of total organic carbon in effluent was approximately 0.41 mg/L, suggesting the risk of organic residue can be completely controlled. Dissolved oxygen (DO) did not show obviously negative effects on hydrogenotrophic denitrification. There was only slight decrease of DO concentration in effluent, which demonstrated almost all of the hydrogen was used for nitrate reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-Temperature (10°C) Anaerobic Digestion of Dilute Dairy Wastewater in an EGSB Bioreactor: Microbial Community Structure, Population Dynamics, and Kinetics of Methanogenic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cysneiros, Denise; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater at 10°C was investigated in a high height : diameter ratio EGSB reactor. Stable performance was observed at an applied organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.5–2 kg COD m−3 d−1 with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies above 85%. When applied OLR increased to values above 2 kg COD m−3 d−1, biotreatment efficiency deteriorated, with methanogenesis being the rate-limiting step. The bioreactor recovered quickly (3 days) after reduction of the OLR. qPCR results showed a reduction in the abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales throughout the steady state period followed by a sharp increase in their numbers (111-fold) after the load shock. Specific methanogenic activity and maximum substrate utilising rate (A max) of the biomass at the end of trial indicated increased activity and preference towards hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, which correlated well with the increased abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. remained at stable levels throughout the trial. However, increased apparent half-saturation constant (K m) at the end of the trial indicated a decrease in the specific substrate affinity for acetate of the sludge, suggesting that Methanosaeta spp., which have high substrate affinity, started to be outcompeted in the reactor. PMID:24089597

  7. Low-temperature (10°C) anaerobic digestion of dilute dairy wastewater in an EGSB bioreactor: microbial community structure, population dynamics, and kinetics of methanogenic populations.

    PubMed

    Bialek, Katarzyna; Cysneiros, Denise; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater at 10°C was investigated in a high height : diameter ratio EGSB reactor. Stable performance was observed at an applied organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.5-2 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies above 85%. When applied OLR increased to values above 2 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), biotreatment efficiency deteriorated, with methanogenesis being the rate-limiting step. The bioreactor recovered quickly (3 days) after reduction of the OLR. qPCR results showed a reduction in the abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales throughout the steady state period followed by a sharp increase in their numbers (111-fold) after the load shock. Specific methanogenic activity and maximum substrate utilising rate (A(max)) of the biomass at the end of trial indicated increased activity and preference towards hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, which correlated well with the increased abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. remained at stable levels throughout the trial. However, increased apparent half-saturation constant (K(m)) at the end of the trial indicated a decrease in the specific substrate affinity for acetate of the sludge, suggesting that Methanosaeta spp., which have high substrate affinity, started to be outcompeted in the reactor.

  8. Nitrification in brackish water recirculating aquaculture system integrated with activated packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rejish Kumar, V J; Joseph, Valsamma; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) depend on nitrifying biofilters for the maintenance of water quality, increased biosecurity and environmental sustainability. To satisfy these requirements a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) activated with indigenous nitrifying bacterial consortia has been developed and commercialized for operation under different salinities for instant nitrification in shrimp and prawn hatchery systems. In the present study the nitrification efficiency of the bioreactor was tested in a laboratory level recirculating aquaculture system for the rearing of Penaeus monodon for a period of two months under higher feeding rates and no water exchange. Rapid setting up of nitrification was observed during the operation, as the volumetric total ammonia nitrogen removal rates (VTR) increased with total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) production in the system. The average Volumetric TAN Removal Rates (VTR) at the feeding rate of 160 g/day from 54-60th days of culture was 0.1533+/-0.0045 kg TAN/m(3)/day. The regression between VTR and TAN explained 86% variability in VTR (P<0.001). The laboratory level RAS demonstrated here showed high performance both in terms of shrimp biomass yield and nitrification and environmental quality maintenance. Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization analysis of the reactor biofilm ensured the presence of autotrophic nitrifier groups such as Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage, Nitrobacter spp and phylum Nitrospira, the constituent members present in the original consortia used for activating the reactors. This showed the stability of the consortia on long term operation.

  9. Preparation of immobilized whole cell biocatalyst and biodiesel production using a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, Jin Seon; Yeom, Sung Ho

    2014-11-01

    Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 4697 was selected from among promising candidates as a biocatalyst for biodiesel production. This microorganism was immobilized on to polyurethane foam coated with activated carbon for reuse, and, for biodiesel production. Vacuum drying of the immobilized cells was found to be more efficient than natural or freeze-drying processes. Although the immobilized cells were severely inhibited by a molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil in excess of 2.0, stepwise methanol addition (3 aliquots at 24-h feeding intervals) significantly prevented methanol inhibition. A packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) containing the immobilized whole cell biocatalyst was then operated under circulating batch mode. Stepwise methanol feeding was used to mitigate methanol inhibition of the immobilized cells in the PBB. An increase in the feeding rate (circulating rate) of the reaction mixture barely affected biodiesel production, while an increase in the packing volume of the immobilized cells enhanced biodiesel production noticeably. Finally, repeated circulating batch operation of the PBB was carried out for five consecutive rounds without a noticeable decrease in the performance of the PBB for the three rounds.

  10. Wastewater treatment using a novel bioreactor with submerged packing bed of polyethylene tape.

    PubMed

    Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Moeller Chávez, G

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a novel aerobic bioreactor with a specially designed submerged packing bed of high specific surface area density, made of polyethylene tape, was studied for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The reactor has a volume of 0.71 m(3) and the specific area of the packing bed was 1,098 m(2)/m(3). The operation was performed with and without effluent recycling, applying different organic loads in the range of 4.0-17.6 g COD m(-2) d(-1). No back-washings were carried out. Overall BOD(5) removals of 90-95% were obtained with organic loads of 4.0-17.6 g COD m(-2) d(-1) and HRT of 0.2-1.1 h. Overall TN removal of 69-72% was obtained at loads of 0.8-4.6 g TN m(-2) d(-1) when effluent recycling was used. The reactor allowed obtaining high quality water for urban reuse and demonstrated an effective process performance and resistance to load variations. The developed biofilm was completely penetrated by the organic matter, ammonia and oxygen, providing high removal rates. Large biomass quantities, up to 13 g dry VS/m(2), were reached in the reactor and the determined sludge yield coefficient was relatively low, of 0.25 g VSS/g COD. These results allow obtaining compact treatment systems with low sludge production and make the technology a suitable option for small wastewater treatment plants.

  11. Perchlorate remediation using packed-bed bioreactors and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Booki

    Two pilot-scale fixed bed bioreactors were operated in continuous mode in order to treat groundwater contaminated by perchlorate. The bioreactors were constructed and operated side-by-side at the Texas Street Well Facility in Redlands, California. Each reactor was packed with either sand or plastic media. A perchlorate-reducing bacterium, Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, was used to inoculate the bioreactors. Perchlorate was successfully removed down to a non-detectable level (<4mug/L) in both bioreactors with acetate as a carbon source and nutrients at loading rates less than 0.063 L/s (1 gpm; 0.34 L/m2s). The sand medium bioreactor could achieve complete-perchlorate removal up to flow rate of 0.126 L/s. A regular backwashing cycle (once a week) was an important factor for completely removing perchlorate in groundwater. Power generation directly from pure or mixed organic matter was examined using microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which were run either in batch or continuous mode. In batch experiments, both a pure culture (Geobactor metallireducens) and a mixed culture (wastewater inoculum) were used as the biocatalyst, and acetate was added as substrate in the anode chamber of the MFC. Power output in a membrane MFC with either inoculum was essentially the same, with 40 +/- 1 mW/m2 for G. metallireducens and 38 +/- 1 mW/m2 for mixed culture. A different type of the MFC containing a salt bridge instead of a membrane system was examined to generate power using the same substrate and pure culture as used in the membrane MFC. Power output in the salt bridge MFC was 2.2 mW/m 2. It was found that the lower power output was directly attributed to the higher internal resistance of the salt bridge system (19920 +/- 50 O) in comparison with that of the membrane system (1286 +/- 1 O). Continuous electricity generation was examined in a flat plate microbial fuel cell (FPMFC) using domestic wastewater and specific organic substrates. The FPMFC, containing a combined electrode/proton exchange

  12. Gaseous hexane biodegradation by Fusarium solani in two liquid phase packed-bed and stirred-tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Sonia; Muñoz, Raúl; Hernández, Sergio; Guieysse, Benoit; Revah, Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Biofiltration of hydrophobic volatile pollutants is intrinsically limited by poor transfer of the pollutants from the gaseous to the liquid biotic phase, where biodegradation occurs. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of silicone oil for enhancing the transport and subsequent biodegradation of hexane by the fungus Fusarium solani in various bioreactor configurations. Silicone oil was first selected among various solvents for its biocompatibility, nonbiodegradability, and good partitioning properties toward hexane. In batch tests, the use of silicone oil improved hexane specific biodegradation by approximately 60%. Subsequent biodegradation experiments were conducted in stirred-tank (1.5 L) and packed-bed (2.5 L) bioreactors fed with a constant gaseous hexane load of 180 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) and operated for 12 and 40 days, respectively. In the stirred reactors, the maximum hexane elimination capacity (EC) increased from 50 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) (removal efficiency, RE of 28%) in the control not supplied with silicone oil to 120 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) in the biphasic system (67% RE). In the packed-bed bioreactors, the maximum EC ranged from 110 (50% RE) to 180 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) (> 90% RE) in the control and two-liquid-phase systems, respectively. These results represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of fungi use in a two-liquid-phase bioreactor and the highest hexane removal capacities so far reported in biofilters.

  13. Bioreactor performance and quantitative analysis of methanogenic and bacterial community dynamics in microbial electrolysis cells during large temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-06-19

    The use of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for H(2) production generally finds H(2) sink by undesirable methanogenesis at mesophilic temperatures. Previously reported approaches failed to effectively inhibit methanogenesis without the addition of nongreen chemical inhibitors. Here, we demonstrated that the CH(4) production and the number of methanogens in single-chamber MECs could be restricted steadily to a negligible level by continuously operating reactors at the relatively low temperature of 15 °C. This resulted in a H(2) yield and production rate comparable to those obtained at 30 °C with less CH(4) production (CH(4)% < 1%). However, this operation at 15 °C should be taken from the initial stage of anodic biofilm formation, when the methanogenic community has not yet been established sufficiently. Maintaining MECs operating at 20 °C was not effective for controlling methanogenesis. The varying degrees of methanogenesis observed in MECs at 30 °C could be completely inhibited at 4 and 9 °C, and the total number of methanogens (mainly hydrogenotrophic methanogens) could be reduced by 68-91% during 32-55 days of operation at the low temperatures. However, methanogens cannot be eliminated completely at these temperatures. After the temperature is returned to 30 °C, the CH(4) production and the number of total methanogens can rapidly rise to the prior levels. Analysis of bacterial communities using 454 pyrosequencing showed that changes in temperature had no a substantial impact on composition of dominant electricity-producing bacteria ( Geobacter ). The results of our study provide more information toward understanding the temperature-dependent control of methanogenesis in MECs.

  14. Efficient methanogenic degradation of alcohol ethoxylates and microbial community acclimation in treatment of municipal wastewater using a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yulun; Niu, Qigui; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sugo, Toshiki; Tian, Xike; Li, Yu-You

    2017-02-01

    The effect of alcohol ethoxylates on the treatment of municipal wastewater by a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor was investigated by a 400days operation including the treatment efficiency, methanogenic activity of sludge and microbial community structure. The results indicated that alcohol ethoxylates (5.0-200mg/L) was efficiently degraded and converted into methane due to the similar COD removal 95.5-98.8% and rising biogas production rate (2.30-4.25L/d) compared with control (96.8% and 2.55L/d). The microbes in sludge could copy with the presence of alcohol ethoxylates in wastewater by releasing more SMP and EPS, which caused a higher membrane fouling rate. Moreover, via long term acclimation, the specific methanogenic activity of sludge was greatly enhanced due to the changes of microbial community structure. Hence, the sludge self-acclimation to alcohol ethoxylates was responsible to the efficient methane recovery in treatment of municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  16. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  17. Green and efficient production of octyl hydroxyphenylpropionate using an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih Chen; Chen, Hsiao Ching; Ju, Hen Yi; Chen, Jiann Hwa; Kuo, Chia Hung; Chung, Yi Lin; Liu, Yung Chuan; Shieh, Chwen Jen

    2012-04-01

    A solvent-free system to produce octyl hydroxyphenylpropionate (OHPP) from p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA) and octanol using immobilized lipase (Novozym® 435) as a catalyst in an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. Response-surface methodology (RSM) and a three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken design were employed to evaluate the effects of reaction temperature (x₁), flow rate (x₂) and ultrasonic power (x₃) on the percentage of molar production of OHPP. The results indicate that the reaction temperature and flow rate were the most important variables in optimizing the production of OHPP. Based on a ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions for OHPP synthesis were predicted to consist of a reaction temperature of 65°C, a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min and an ultrasonic power of 1.74 W/cm² with a yield of 99.25%. A reaction was performed under these optimal conditions, and a yield of 99.33 ± 0.1% was obtained.

  18. Performance evaluation of Malathion biodegradation in batch and continuous packed bed bioreactor (PBBR).

    PubMed

    Geed, S R; Kureel, M K; Giri, B S; Singh, R S; Rai, B N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodegradation of Malathion in batch and continuous packed bed (Polyurethane foam; PUF) bioreactor (PBBR). After 10days, 89% Malathion removal was observed in batch PBBR. Continuous PBBR was operated at various flow rates (5-30mL/h) under optimum condition over a period of 75days. Inlet loading rates and elimination capacities were observed in the range of 36-216 and 7.20-145.4mg/L/day with an average removal efficiency of more than 90% under steady state conditions. GC/MS analysis confirms phosphorodithionicacid,O,O,S-trimethylester and diethylmercaptosuccinate as metabolites. Biodegradation of Malathion under inhibitory and non-inhibitory conditions was studied using Monod and Andrew-Haldane models and the kinetic constants were calculated and found to be μmax: 0.271 per day; Ks: 126.3mg/L using Monod and μmax: 0.315 per day; Ks: 151.32mg/L; Ki: 594.75mg/L using Andrew-Haldane models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Denitrification using PBS as carbon source and biofilm support in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weizhong; Yang, Luhua; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable polymer was used as carbon source and biofilm support for nitrate removal from aqueous solution as an attractive alternative for biological denitrification. The objective of this paper was to investigate the denitrification performance and microbial community of a packed-bed bioreactor using poly (butanediol succinate) (PBS), a biodegradable polymer, as carbon source and biofilm support. NO(3)-N concentration was determined by UV spectrophotometer. NO(2)-N concentration was assayed by hydrochloric acid naphthyl ethylenediamine spectrophotometry method. Total organic carbon (TOC) was measured using a TOC analyzer. The morphology of the samples was observed using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The microbial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing method. The experimental results showed that an average removal efficiency of nitrate was 95 %. ESEM observation and FTIR analysis indicated the changes of PBS granules before and after microbial utilization. Pyrosequencing results showed that Betaproteobacteria predominated, and most of PBS-degrading denitrifying bacteria were assigned to the family Comamonadaceae. Denitrifying bacteria accounted for 13.02 % in total population. The PBS granules were suitable support and carbon source for denitrifying bacteria.

  20. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent via Bacterial Sulfate Reduction in an Anoxic Bioreactor Packed with Wood and Iron

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, Ryoko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the removal of nitrogen and phosphate from the effluent of a sewage treatment plant over a long-term operation in bioreactors packed with different combinations of wood and iron, with a trickling filter packed with foam ceramics for nitrification. The average nitrification rate in the trickling filter was 0.17 kg N/m3∙day and remained at 0.11 kg N/m3∙day even when the water temperature was below 15 °C. The denitrification and phosphate removal rates in the bioreactor packed with aspen wood and iron were higher than those in the bioreactor packed with cedar chips and iron. The bioreactor packed with aspen wood and iron continued to remove nitrate and phosphate for >1200 days of operation. The nitrate removal activity of a biofilm attached to the aspen wood from the bioreactor after 784 days of operation was 0.42 g NO3-N/kg dry weight wood∙ day. There was no increase in the amount of dissolved organic matter in the outflow from the bioreactors. PMID:25247426

  1. Biological nitrogen removal from plating wastewater by submerged membrane bioreactor packed with granular sulfur.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jinyoung; Hwang, Yongwoo; Kim, Junbeum; Kwak, Inho

    Recent toughened water quality standards have necessitated improvements for existing sewer treatment facilities through advanced treatment processes. Therefore, an advanced treatment process that can be installed through simple modification of existing sewer treatment facilities needs to be developed. In this study, a new submerged membrane bioreactor process packed with granular sulfur (MBR-GS) was developed and operated to determine the biological nitrogen removal behaviors of plating wastewater containing a high concentration of NO3(-). Continuous denitrification was carried out at various nitrogen loading rates at 20 °C using synthetic wastewater, which was comprised of NO3(-) and HCO3(-), and actual plating wastewater, which was collected from the effluent water of a plating company called 'H Metals'. High-rate denitrification in synthetic plating wastewater was accomplished at 0.8 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)·day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.9 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)·day. The denitrification rate further increased in actual plating wastewater to 0.91 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)·day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.11 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)·day. Continuous filtration was maintained for up to 30 days without chemical cleaning with a transmembrane pressure in the range of 20 cmHg. Based on stoichiometry, SO4(2-) production and alkalinity consumption could be calculated theoretically. Experimental alkalinity consumption was lower than the theoretical value. This newly proposed MBR-GS process, capable of high-rate nitrogen removal by compulsive flux, is expected to be applicable as an alternative renovation technique for nitrogen treatment of plating wastewater as well as municipal wastewater with a low C/N ratio.

  2. Continuous D-tagatose production by immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Se-Ah; Kim, Chang Sup; Kim, Hye-Jung; Baek, Dae Heoun; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2003-01-01

    D-Tagatose was continuously produced using thermostable L-arabinose isomerase immobilized in alginate with D-galactose solution in a packed-bed bioreactor. Bead size, L/D (length/diameter) of reactor, dilution rate, total loaded enzyme amount, and substrate concentration were found to be optimal at 0.8 mm, 520/7 mm, 0.375 h(-1), 5.65 units, and 300 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, the bioreactor produced about 145 g/L tagatose with an average productivity of 54 g tagatose/L x h and an average conversion yield of 48% (w/w). Operational stability of the immobilized enzyme was demonstrated, with a tagatose production half-life of 24 days.

  3. Validation of a model describing two-dimensional heat transfer during solid-state fermentation in packed bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sangsurasak, P; Mitchell, D A

    1998-12-20

    A two-dimensional heat transfer model was validated against two experimental studies from the literature which describe the growth of Aspergillus niger during solid-state fermentation in packed bed bioreactors. With the same set of model parameters, the two-dimensional model was able to describe both radial temperature gradients, which dominated in one of the studies, and axial temperature gradients, which dominated in the other study. The sensitivity of the model predictions to the characteristics of the substrate and the microbe were explored. The temperatures reached in the column are most sensitive to parameters which affect the peak heat load, including the substrate packing density, the maximum specific growth rate, and the maximum biomass concentration. Even though the bed is assumed to be aerated with saturated air, the increase in temperature with bed height increases the water-carrying capacity of the air and therefore enables evaporation to contribute significantly to cooling. The model suggests that evaporation can remove as much as 78% of the heat from the bed during times of peak heat generation. Our model provides a tool which can guide the design and operation of packed bed bioreactors. However, further improvements are necessary to do this effectively, the most important of which is the incorporation of a water balance.

  4. Comparison of methanogenic community structure and anaerobic process performance treating swine wastewater between pilot and optimized lab scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong; Cho, Kyungjin; Lee, Seungyong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2013-10-01

    To investigate methanogenic community structure and process performance of anaerobic digestion treating swine wastewater at different scale, a pilot plant with 20 m(3) of effective working volume and lab scale methanogenic digester with 6L working volume were operated for 71 days and 6 turnover periods, respectively. During the steady state of anaerobic digestion, COD and VS removal efficiency in pilot plant were 65.3±3.2, 51.6±4.3%, respectively, which was similar to those in lab scale. However, calculated VFAs removal efficiency and methane yield were lower in pilot plant than in lab scale digester. Also, organics removal efficiencies, which consist of total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, were different between pilot and lab scale. These results were thought to be due to the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins in the raw swine wastewater. As a result of qualitative microbial analysis, Methanoculleus receptaculii, and Methanoculleus bourgensis, were commonly concerned with methane production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biotic factor does not limit operational pH in packed-bed bioreactor for ferrous iron biooxidation.

    PubMed

    Mazuelos, Alfonso; Moreno, José María; Carranza, Francisco; Palomino, Carmen; Torres, Antonio; Villalobo, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous ion biooxidation is a process with many promising industrial applications: mainly regeneration of ferric ion as an oxidizing reagent in bioleaching processes and depuration of acid mine drainage. The flooded packed-bed bioreactor (FPB) is the design that leads to the highest biooxidation rate. In this bioreactor, biomass is immobilized in a biofilm that consists of an inorganic matrix, formed by precipitated ferric compounds, in the pores of which cells are attached. This biofilm covers the surface of particles (siliceous stone) that form the bed. The chemical stability of this inorganic matrix defines the widest possible pH range in FPBs. At pH below 1, ferric matrix is dissolved and cells are washed out. At pH higher than 2, ferric ion precipitates massively, greatly hindering mass transfer to cells. Thus, among other parameters, pH is recognised as a key factor for operational control in FPBs. This paper aims to explain the effect of pH on FPB operation, with an emphasis on microbial population behaviour. FPBs seeded with mixed inocula were assayed in the pH range from 2.3 to 0.8 and the microbial population was characterised. The microbial consortium in the bioreactor is modified by pH; at pH above 1.3 Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is the dominant microorganism, whereas at pH below 1.3 Leptospirillum ferrooxidans dominates. Inoculum can be adapted to acidity during continuous operation by progressively decreasing the pH of the inlet solution. Thus, in the pH range from 2.3 to 1, the biotic factor does not compromise the bioreactor performance.

  6. Energy conservation and production in a packed-bed anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pit, W.W. Jr.; Genung, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing an energy-conserving/ producing wastewater treatment system based on a fixed-film anaerobic bioreactor. The treatment process is based on passing wastewaters upward through the bioreactor for continuous treatment by gravitational settling, biophysical filtration and biological decomposition. A two-year pilot-plant project using a bioreactor designed to treat 5000 gpd has been conducted using raw wastewater on a municipal site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Data obtained for the performance of the bioreactor during this project have been analyzed by ORNL and Associated Water and Air Resources Engineers (AWARE), Inc. of Nashville, Tennessee. From these analyses it was estimated that hydraulic loading rates of 0.25 gpm/ft/sup 2/ and hydraulic residence times of 10 hours could be used in designing such bioreactors for the secondary treatment of municipal wastewaters. Conceptual designs for total treatment systems processing up to one million gallons of wastewater per day were developed based on the performance of the pilot plant bioreactor. These systems were compared to activated sludge treatment systems also operating under secondary treatment requirements and were found to consume as little as 30% of the energy required by the activated sludge systems. Economic advantages of the process result from the elimination of operating energy requirements associated with the aeration of aerobic-based processes and with the significant decrease of sludge-handling costs required with conventional activated sludge treatment systems.Furthermore, methane produced by anaerobic fermentation processes occurring during the biological decomposition of carbonaceous wastes also represented a significant and recoverable energy production. For dilute municipal wastewaters this would completely offset the remaining energy required for treatment, while for concentrated industrial wastewater would result in a net production of energy.

  7. Lutispora thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, spore-forming bacterium isolated from a thermophilic methanogenic bioreactor digesting municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Hatsumi; Ohiwa, Hitomi; Ikeno, Hironori; Ayame, Shohei; Kataoka, Naoaki; Miya, Akiko; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2008-04-01

    A novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium (strain EBR46T) was isolated from an enrichment culture derived from an anaerobic thermophilic (55 degrees C) methanogenic bioreactor treating artificial solid wastes. Phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed strain EBR46T within a distinct lineage between Clostridium clusters II and III. The closest recognized relative of strain EBR46T was Gracilibacter thermotolerans DSM 17427T (85.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The DNA G+C content of strain EBR46T was 36.2 mol%. The novel strain grew optimally at 55-58 degrees C and at pH 7.5-8.0 and was able to grow on peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, casein hydrolysate, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, cysteine, lysine and serine in the presence of 0.2 % yeast extract. Carbohydrates were not utilized. The main products from tryptone utilization were acetate, iso-butyrate, propionate and iso-valerate. Strain EBR46T produced hydrogen sulfide from cysteine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0 DMA (dimethyl acetal) and iso-C15 : 0 DMA. Based on its unique phylogenetic and physiological features, strain EBR46T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Lutispora thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is EBR46T (=NBRC 102133T=DSM 19022T).

  8. Kinetics studies of p-cresol biodegradation by using Pseudomonas putida in batch reactor and in continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A K; Bala, Shashi; Majumder, C B; Sarkar, S

    2010-01-01

    Present study deals with the biodegradation of p-cresol by using Pseudomonas putida in a batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads. The maximum specific growth rate of 0.8121 h(-1) was obtained at 200 mg L(-1) concentration of p-cresol in batch reactor. The maximum p-cresol degradation rate was obtained 6.598 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=200 mg L(-1) and 62.8 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=500 mg L(-1) for batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor, respectively. The p-cresol degradation rate of continuous bioreactor was 9 to 10-fold higher than those of the batch reactor. It shows that the continuous bioreactor could tolerate a higher concentration of p-cresol. A Haldane model was also used for p-cresol inhibition in batch reactor and a modified equation similar to Haldane model for continuous bioreactor. The Haldane parameters were obtained as µ(max) 0.3398 h(-1), K(s) 110.9574 mg L(-1), and K(I) 497.6169 mg L(-1) in batch reactor. The parameters used in continuous bioreactor were obtained as D(max) 91.801 mg L(-1) h(-1), K(s) 131.292 mg L(-1), and K(I) 1217.7 mg L(-1). The value K(I) of continuous bioreactor is approximately 2.5 times higher than the batch reactor. Higher K(I) value of continuous bioreactor indicates P. putida can grow at high range of p-cresol concentration. The ability of tolerance of higher p-cresol concentrations may be one reason for biofilm attachment on the packed bed in the continuous operation.

  9. Anaerobium acetethylicum gen. nov., sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic, gluconate-fermenting bacterium isolated from a methanogenic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Patil, Yogita; Junghare, Madan; Pester, Michael; Müller, Nicolai; Schink, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    A novel strictly anaerobic, mesophilic bacterium was enriched and isolated with gluconate as sole substrate from a methanogenic sludge collected from a biogas reactor. Cells of strain GluBS11T stained Gram-positive and were non-motile, straight rods, measuring 3.0-4.5 × 0.8-1.2 μm. The temperature range for growth was 15-37 °C, with optimal growth at 30 °C, the pH range was 6.5-8.5, with optimal growth at pH 7, and the generation time under optimal conditions was 60 min. API Rapid 32A reactions were positive for α-galactosidase, α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase and negative for catalase and oxidase. A broad variety of substrates was utilized, including gluconate, glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, lactose, galactose, melezitose, melibiose, mannitol, erythritol, glycerol and aesculin. Products of gluconate fermentation were ethanol, acetate, formate, H2 and CO2. Neither sulfate nor nitrate served as an electron acceptor. Predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and C18 : 1ω7c. The DNA G+C content of strain GluBS11T was 44.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data revealed that strain GluBS11T is a member of subcluster XIVa within the order Clostridiales. The closest cultured relatives are Clostridium herbivorans (93.1 % similarity to the type strain), Clostridium populeti (93.3 %), Eubacterium uniforme (92.4 %) and Clostridium polysaccharolyticum (91.5 %). Based on this 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence (>6.5 %) as well as on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic differences from these taxa, strain GluBS11T is considered to represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Anaerobium acetethylicum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Anaerobium acetethylicum is GluBS11T ( = LMG 28619T = KCTC 15450T = DSM 29698T).

  10. Denitrification performance and microbial diversity in a packed-bed bioreactor using PCL as carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weizhong; Yang, Luhua; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-03-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as both carbon source and biofilm support for denitrifying bacteria in a packed-bed bioreactor. The denitrification performance and microbial diversity were investigated. The microbial community of biofilm developed on the surface of PCL in the reactor was analyzed by pyrosequencing method. The experimental results showed the average nitrate removal efficiency reached 93 % at stable operation. ESEM observation and FTIR analysis were conducted to characterize the PCL structure before and after microbial utilization. For the microbial community, Betaproteobacteria predominated, and most of the PCL-degrading denitrifying bacteria assigned to the family of Comamonadacea. Denitrifying bacteria accounted for more than 20 % in the total population, indicating that PCL is a good carrier and carbon source for biological denitrification.

  11. Lipid for biodiesel production from attached growth Chlorella vulgaris biomass cultivating in fluidized bed bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam material.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Sahib, Ainur-Assyakirin; Lim, Jun-Wei; Lam, Man-Kee; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ho, Chii-Dong; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Wong, Chung-Yiin; Rosli, Siti-Suhailah

    2017-09-01

    The potential to grow attached microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in fluidized bed bioreactor was materialized in this study, targeting to ease the harvesting process prior to biodiesel production. The proposed thermodynamic mechanism and physical property assessment of various support materials verified polyurethane to be suitable material favouring the spontaneous adhesion by microalgae cells. The 1-L bioreactor packed with only 2.4% (v/v) of 1.00-mL polyurethane foam cubes could achieve the highest attached growth microalgae biomass and lipid weights of 812±122 and 376±37mg, respectively, in comparison with other cube sizes. The maturity of attached growth microalgae biomass for harvesting could also be determined from the growth trend of suspended microalgae biomass. Analysis of FAME composition revealed that the harvested microalgae biomass was dominated by C16-C18 (>60%) and mixture of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (>65%), satiating the biodiesel standard with adequate cold flow property and oxidative stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Support material dictates the attached biomass characteristics during the immobilization process in anaerobic continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kerčmar, Jasmina; Pintar, Albin

    2017-06-10

    Hydrogen is considered to be an ideal energy alternative to replace environmentally burdensome fossil fuels. For its long-term production the immobilized biofilm system is the most promising and to choose the right support material the most challenging. In this respect, the anaerobic up-flow bioreactors packed with four most used support materials (polyethylene, polyurethane, activated carbon and expanded clay) were tested to investigate the crucial bacteria sensitive period-the immobilization process. Seven-day-operation was necessary and sufficient to reach metabolic and microbial stability regardless of support material used. The support material had an influence on the microbial metabolic activity as well as on quantity and quality characteristics of the immobilized microbial community, being polyethylene and expanded clay more appropriate as supports among the materials evaluated; this could be attributed to pH alteration. The obtained results suggest that the support material dictates the outcome of the immobilization process in the anaerobic continuous-flow bioreactor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from swine wastewater treatment in an aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, Ryoko; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Hirofumi; Ogino, Akifumi; Osada, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from swine wastewater treatment was demonstrated in an aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibers (CF reactor). The CF reactor had a demonstrated advantage in mitigating N2 O emission and avoiding NOx (NO3  + NO2 ) accumulation. The N2 O emission factor was 0.0003 g N2 O-N/gTN-load in the CF bioreactor compared to 0.03 gN2 O-N/gTN-load in an activated sludge reactor (AS reactor). N2 O and CH4 emissions from the CF reactor were 42 g-CO2 eq/m(3) /day, while those from the AS reactor were 725 g-CO2 eq/m(3) /day. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the CF reactor removed an average of 156 mg/L of the NH4 -N, and accumulated an average of 14 mg/L of the NO3 -N. In contrast, the DIN in the AS reactor removed an average 144 mg/L of the NH4 -N and accumulated an average 183 mg/L of the NO3 -N. NO2 -N was almost undetectable in both reactors.

  14. Containment of biogenic sulfide production in continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors with nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Nemati, Mehdi; Jenneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    Produced water from the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada was used to inoculate continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors. When 7.8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate were present in the in-flowing medium, H(2)S production (souring) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was prevented by addition of 17.5 mM nitrate or 20 mM nitrite. Changing the sulfate or lactate concentration of the in-flowing medium indicated that the concentrations of nitrate or nitrite required for containment of souring decreased proportionally with a lowered concentration of the electron donor lactate, while the sulfate concentration of the medium had no effect. Microbial communities were dominated by SRB. Nitrate addition did not give rise to changes in community composition, indicating that lactate oxidation and H(2)S removal were caused by the combined action of SRB and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Apparently the nitrite concentrations formed by these NR-SOB did not inhibit the SRB sufficiently to cause community shifts. In contrast, significant community shifts were observed upon direct addition of high concentrations (20 mM) of nitrite. Strains NO3A and NO2B, two newly isolated, nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) emerged as major community members. These were found to belong to the epsilon-division of the Proteobacteria, to be most closely related to Campylobacter lari, and to oxidize lactate with nitrate or nitrite as the electron acceptor. Thus the mechanism of microbial H(2)S removal in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors depended on whether nitrate (SRB/NR-SOB) or nitrite (SRB/NR-SOB as well as NRB) was used. However, the amount of nitrate or nitrite needed to completely remove H(2)S was dictated by the electron donor (lactate) concentration, irrespective of mechanism.

  15. Modeling arsenite oxidation by chemoautotrophic Thiomonas arsenivorans strain b6 in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Aniruddha; Wang, Yi-Tin

    2012-08-15

    Arsenic is a major toxic pollutant of concern for the human health. Biological treatment of arsenic contaminated water is an alternative strategy to the prevalent conventional treatments. The biological treatment involves a pre-oxidation step transforming the most toxic form of arsenic, As (III), to the least toxic form, As (V), respectively. This intermediate process improves the overall efficiency of total arsenic removal from the contaminated water. As (III) oxidation by the chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiomonas arsenivorans strain b6 was investigated in a fixed-film reactor under variable influent As (III) concentrations (500-4000 mg/L) and hydraulic residence times (HRTs) (0.2-1 day) for a duration of 137 days. During the entire operation, seven steady-state conditions were obtained with As (III) oxidation efficiency ranging from 48.2% to 99.3%. The strong resilience of the culture was exhibited by the recovery of the bioreactor from an As (III) overloading of 5300±400 mg As (III)/L day operated at a HRT of 0.2 day. An arsenic mass balance revealed that As (III) was mainly oxidized to As (V) with unaccounted arsenic (≤4%) well within the analytical error of measurement. A modified Monod flux expression was used to determine the biokinetic parameters by fitting the model against the observed steady-state flux data obtained from operating the bioreactor under a range of HRTs (0.2-1 day) and a constant influent As (III) concentration of 500 mg/L. Model parameters, k=0.71±0.1 mg As (III)/mg cells h, and K(s)=13.2±2.8 mg As (III)/L were obtained using a non-linear estimation routine and employing the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. Sensitivity analysis revealed k to be more sensitive to model simulations of As (III) oxidation under steady-state conditions than parameter K(s). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioremediation of crystal violet using air bubble bioreactor packed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Manal A; El-Aasar, Samy A; Barakat, Khlood I

    2004-12-01

    Seven water and sediment samples were collected and tested for decolorizing crystal violet. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most effective isolate for dye decolorization. The LC(50) of the crystal violet (115 mg/l) was measured using Artemia salina as a biomarker. The effect of different heavy metals on crystal violet decolorization was investigated. Cd(2+) and Fe(3+) ions showed marginal enhancement of the decolorization process, the rate was 1.35 mg/l/h compared to 1.25 mg/l/h for the control. Phenol and m-cresol showed no effect on crystal violet decolorization, meanwhile p-cresol and p-nitrophenol reduced the decolorization rate to 1.07 and 0.01 mg/l/h, respectively. P. aeruginosa cells were immobilized by entrapment in agar-alginate beads. The beads were cultivated and reused in Erlenmeyer flask and in an air bubble column bioreactor and they enhanced the crystal violet decolorization rate to 3.33 and 7.5 mg/l/h, respectively.

  17. Denitrification performance and microbial diversity in a packed-bed bioreactor using biodegradable polymer as carbon source and biofilm support.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yuexi; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-04-15

    A novel kind of biodegradable polymer, i.e., starch/polycaprolactone (SPCL) was prepared and used as carbon source and biofilm support for biological denitrification in a packed-bed bioreactor. The denitrification performances and microbial diversity of biofilm under different operating conditions were investigated. The results showed that the average denitrification rate was 0.64 ± 0.06 kg N/(m(3)d), and NH3-N formation (below 1mg/L) was observed during denitrification. The nitrate removal efficiency at 15°C was only 55.06% of that at 25°C. An initial excess release of DOC could be caused by rapid biodegradation of starch in the surfaces of SPCL granules, then it decreased to 10.08 mg/L. The vast majority of species on SPCL biofilm sample (99.71%) belonged to six major phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes and Actinobacteria. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum (85.50%) and mainly consisted of β-proteobacteria (82.39%). Diaphorobacter and Acidovorax constituted 52.75% of the identified genera which were denitrifying bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of medium chain fatty acid rich mustard oil using packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Roy, Susmita; Mukherjee, Sohini; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was done on the production of different medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich mustard oil using a stirred tank batchreactor (STBR) and packed bed bio reactor (PBBR) using three commercially available immobilised lipases viz. Thermomyces lanuginosus, Candida antarctica and Rhizomucor meihe. Three different MCFAs capric, caprylic and lauric acids were incorporated in the mustard oil. Reaction parameters, such as substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature and enzyme concentration were standardized in the STBR and maintained in the PBBR. To provide equal time of residence between the substrate and enzyme in both the reactors for the same amount of substrates, the substrate flow rate in the PBBR was maintainedat 0.27 ml/min. Gas liquid chromatography was used to monitor the incorporation of MCFA in mustard oil. The study showed that the PBBR was more efficient than the STBR in the synthesis of structured lipids with less migration of acyl groups. The physico-chemical parameters of the product along with fatty acid composition in all positions and sn-2 positions were also determined.

  19. Treatment of ferrous-NTA-based NO x scrubber solution by an up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, B; Sahu, Nidhi; Tabassum, Heena; Pai, Padmaraj; Morone, Amruta; Pandey, R A

    2015-06-01

    A bench scale system consisting of an up-flow packed bed bioreactor (UAPBR) made of polyurethane foam was used for the treatment and regeneration of aqueous solution of ferrous-NTA scrubbed with nitric oxide (NO). The biomass in the UAPBR was sequentially acclimatized under denitrifying and iron reducing conditions using ethanol as electron donor, after which nitric oxide (NO) gas was loaded continuously to the system by absorption. The system was investigated for different parameters viz. pH, removal efficiency of nitric oxide, biological reduction efficiency of Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD utilization. The Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction efficiency reached 87.8 % at a loading rate of 0.24 mmol L(-1) h(-1), while the scrubber efficiency reached more than 75 % with 250 ppm NO. Stover-Kincannon and a Plug-flow kinetic model based on Michaelis-Menten equation were used to describe the UAPBR performance with respect to Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD removal. The Stover-Kincannon model was found capable of describing the Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction (R m = 8.92 mM h(-1) and K NO = 11.46 mM h(-1)) while plug-flow model provided better fit to the COD utilization (U m = 66.62 mg L(-1) h(-1), K COD = 7.28 mg L(-1)). Analyses for pH, Fe(III)NTA, ammonium, nitrite concentration, and FTIR analysis of the medium samples indicated degradation of NTA, which leads to ammonium and nitrite accumulation in the medium, and affect the regeneration process.

  20. Performance of tapered-column packed-bed bioreactor used for ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamamci, H.

    1986-01-01

    The tapered-column packed-bed bioreactor was tested as a solution to the problems of pressure drop and nonuniform flow in immobilized-yeast fermentations. The column operation was simulated using a mathematical model considering the effects of the heterogeneous kinetics, interfacial mass transfer, convective and dispersive flows of the liquid phase. The kinetics of ethanol production by the immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined using shake-flask batch cultures. It was found that there is a shift in the metabolism of the yeast used at glucose concentrations of about 2 to 5 g/l, and due to this effect two sets of V/sub m/ and K/sub m/ values are determined. Maximum rate of fermentation was found to be 0.80 and 0.39 g ethanol/g cell/hr, and the affinity constant was found to be 97 and 11 mM in the medium and low glucose concentration regions respectively. The rate of fermentation went through a maximum at about 70 g glucose/l and the substrate inhibition constant was found to be 0.76 M. The product inhibition constant was also tested and was found to be 113 g ethanol/l. The column performance was simulated effectively at low residence times and low ethanol concentrations, however at the larger residence times and product concentrations better agreement was obtained by changing the ethanol inhibition constant to 85 g/l. In another set of experiments the effect of inert gas flow and oxygen gas feed into the tapered-column was tested. Inert gas feed helps increase the conversion only at very small flow rates. The effect of oxygen was positive at all the flow rates tested.

  1. Process parameters study of α-amylase production in a packed-bed bioreactor under solid-state fermentation with possibility of temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Derakhti, Sorour; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Hashemi, Maryam; Khajeh, Khosro

    2012-01-01

    Production of α-amylase in a laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor by Bacillus sp. KR-8104 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) with possibility of temperature control and monitoring was studied using wheat bran (WB) as a solid substrate. The simultaneous effects of aeration rate, initial substrate moisture, and incubation temperature on α-amylase production were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for attaining the maximum production of α-amylase were 37°C, 72% (w/w) initial substrate moisture, and 0.15 L/min aeration. The average enzyme activity obtained under the optimized conditions was 473.8 U/g dry fermented substrate. In addition, it was observed that the production of enzyme decreased from the bottom of the bioreactor to the top.

  2. The influence of process parameters in production of lipopeptide iturin A using aerated packed bed bioreactors in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Piedrahíta-Aguirre, C A; Bastos, R G; Carvalho, A L; Monte Alegre, R

    2014-08-01

    The strain Bacillus iso 1 co-produces the lipopeptide iturin A and biopolymer poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) in solid-state fermentation of substrate consisting of soybean meal, wheat bran with rice husks as an inert support. The effects of pressure drop, oxygen consumption, medium permeability and temperature profile were studied in an aerated packed bed bioreactor to produce iturin A, diameter of which was 50 mm and bed height 300 mm. The highest concentrations of iturin A and γ-PGA were 5.58 and 3.58 g/kg-dry substrate, respectively, at 0.4 L/min after 96 h of fermentation. The low oxygen uptake rates, being 23.34 and 22.56 mg O2/kg-dry solid substrate for each air flow rate tested generated 5.75 W/kg-dry substrate that increased the fermentation temperature at 3.7 °C. The highest pressure drop was 561 Pa/m at 0.8 L/min in 24 h. This is the highest concentration of iturin A produced to date in an aerated packed bed bioreactor in solid-state fermentation. The results can be useful to design strategies to scale-up process of iturin A in aerated packed bed bioreactors. Low concentration of γ-PGA affected seriously pressure drop, decreasing the viability of the process due to generation of huge pressure gradients with volumetric air flow rates. Also, the low oxygenation favored the iturin A production due to the reduction of free void by γ-PGA production, and finally, the low oxygen consumption generated low metabolic heat. The results show that it must control the pressure gradients to scale-up the process of iturin A production.

  3. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  4. Optimization of lipase production by solid-state fermentation of olive pomace: from flask to laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Domínguez, José M; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Lipases are versatile catalysts with many applications and can be produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes. The aim of this work was to maximize the production of Aspergillus ibericus lipase under SSF of olive pomace (OP) and wheat bran (WB), evaluating the effect on lipase production of C/N ratio, lipids, phenols, content of sugars of substrates and nitrogen source addition. Moreover, the implementation of the SSF process in a packed-bed bioreactor and the improvement of lipase extraction conditions were assessed. Low C/N ratios and high content of lipids led to maximum lipase production. Optimum SSF conditions were achieved with a C/N mass ratio of 25.2 and 10.2% (w/w) lipids in substrate, by the mixture of OP:WB (1:1) and supplemented with 1.33% (w/w) (NH4)2SO4. Studies in a packed-bed bioreactor showed that the lower aeration rates tested prevented substrate dehydration, improving lipase production. In this work, the important role of Triton X-100 on lipase extraction from the fermented solid substrate has been shown. A final lipase activity of 223 ± 5 U g(-1) (dry basis) was obtained after 7 days of fermentation.

  5. Experimental studies and two-dimensional modelling of a packed bed bioreactor used for production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from milk whey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Pramita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, extensive experimental investigations and detailed theoretical analysis of a two-dimensional packed bed bioreactor, employed for the production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from milk whey were performed. Model equations, in one- and two-dimensions, capable of predicting the substrate concentration distribution in the bioreactor were developed by coupling mass balance equation with appropriate velocity distribution equation and solved numerically. Validation of the proposed model equations was done by a set of experimental data obtained from the bioreactor. The effects of reactor to catalyst particle diameter ratio (d t/d p), feed flowrate (10(-6)-10(-9) m(3) s(-1)), and initial lactose concentration (50-200 kg m(-3)) on substrate concentration distribution were investigated in detail. While, the distribution of substrate concentration in axial direction was independent of d t/d p, it was observed that for d t/d p <40, significant radial concentration distribution existed. It was further observed that the substrate conversion and product yield obtained experimentally showed an excellent agreement (97 ± 2 %) with the results predicted by the two-dimensional model equation, whereas, the results predicted by the one-dimensional model equation did not lie within the desired confidence level (<90 %). The results were confirmed by both curve fitting and statistical analysis. The prediction of substrate concentration distribution in axial and radial directions using the developed two-dimensional model equation is necessary for computing the bioreactor volume to achieve the desired GOS yield.

  6. High-Performance Biogas Upgrading Using a Biotrickling Filter and Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens.

    PubMed

    Dupnock, Trisha L; Deshusses, Marc A

    2017-08-14

    This research reports the development of a biotrickling filter (BTF) to upgrade biogas, which is achieved by adding H2 to reduce CO2. H2 and CO2 (80:20% vol.) were fed to a bench-scale BTF packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) and inoculated with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Maximum CH4 production rates recorded were as high as 38 m(3)CH4 m(-3)reactor day(-1), which is 5-30 times faster than earlier reports with other kinds of bioreactors. The high rates were attributed to the efficient mass transfer and high density of methanogens in the BTF. The removal efficiencies for H2 and CO2 were 83 and 96%, respectively. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride/DAPI staining revealed that 67% of cells were alive near the gas entrance port, while only 8.3% were alive at the exit. Furthermore, DNA sequencing showed that only 27% of the biomass was composed of Euryarchaeota, the phylum which includes methanogens. These two observations suggest that optimizing the methanogen density and activity could possibly reach even higher biogas upgrading rates.

  7. Toxicity and recalcitrant compound removal from bleaching pulp plant effluents by an integrated system: anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor and ozone.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, T R; Botta, C M; Pires, E C

    2010-01-01

    Effluents originated in cellulose pulp manufacturing processes are usually toxic and recalcitrant, specially the bleaching effluents, which exhibit high contents of aromatic compounds (e.g. residual lignin derivates). Although biological processes are normally used, their efficiency for the removal of toxic lignin derivates is low. The toxicity and recalcitrance of a bleached Kraft pulp mill were assessed through bioassays and ultraviolet absorption measurements, i.e. acid soluble lignin (ASL), UV(280), and specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA), before and after treatment by an integrated system comprised of an anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor and oxidation step with ozone. Furthermore, adsorbable organic halides (AOX) were measured. The results demonstrated not only that the toxic recalcitrant compounds can be removed successfully using integrated system, but also the ultraviolet absorption measurements can be an interesting control-parameter in a wastewater treatment.

  8. Decolorization and biosorption for Congo red by system rice hull- Schizophyllum sp. F17 under solid-state condition in a continuous flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xudong; Jia, Rong

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic dyes are important chemical pollutants from various industries. This work developed an efficient and relatively simple continuous decolorization system rice hull-Schizophyllum sp. F17 under solid-state condition in a packed-bed bioreactor, for decolorizing Congo red. In the decolorization system, two decolorization mechanisms exist, one is decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17, the other is biosorption by rice hull. The decolorization efficiency was greatly affected by dye concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT), which were quantificationally analyzed and optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). A 2(2) full factorial central composite design (CCD) was performed, and three second order polynomial models were generated to describe the effects of dye concentration and HRT on total decolorization (R2=0.902), decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17 (R2=0.866) and biosorption by rice hull (R2=0.890). Response surface contour plots were constructed to show the individual and cumulative effects of dye concentration and HRT, and the optimum values. A maximum total decolorization 89.71% and maximum decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17 60.44% was achieved at dye concentration 142.63mg/L, HRT 41h, and dye concentration 110.7mg/L, HRT 29.4h, respectively. Meanwhile, the role of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in the decolorizaion process was investigated. This study proved the feasibility of continuous mode for decolorizing synthetic dyes by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation bioreactors.

  9. Simultaneous removal of chromate and nitrate in a packed-bed bioreactor using biodegradable meal box as carbon source and biofilm carriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Guangfei; Tian, Tian; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-05-01

    An up-flow packed-bed bioreactor was constructed to investigate the simultaneous removal of chromate and nitrate using biodegradable meal box as carbon source and biofilm carriers. The bioreactor was operated for 164days with varying influent Cr(VI) concentrations (2.0-50.0mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRT, 10-24h). It was shown that complete denitrification and Cr(VI) reduction could be achieved when influent Cr(VI) concentrations were lower than 20mg/L with a HRT of 17h. Shortening the HRT could significantly reduce the effluent CODcr. It was also observed that Cr(III) was mainly immobilized on the biofilm. Further investigation on Cr distribution in the biofilm compartments indicated that Cr(VI) reduction occurred in all compartments and the intercellular Cr was dominant. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in the biofilm and Cr(VI) stress had a negative effect on the abundance of most bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A feasible enzymatic process for D-tagatose production by an immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Ryu, Se-Ah; Kim, Pil; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2003-01-01

    To develop a feasible enzymatic process for d-tagatose production, a thermostable l-arabinose isomerase, Gali152, was immobilized in alginate, and the galactose isomerization reaction conditions were optimized. The pH and temperature for the maximal galactose isomerization reaction were pH 8.0 and 65 degrees C in the immobilized enzyme system and pH 7.5 and 60 degrees C in the free enzyme system. The presence of manganese ion enhanced galactose isomerization to tagatose in both the free and immobilized enzyme systems. The immobilized enzyme was more stable than the free enzyme at the same pH and temperature. Under stable conditions of pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, the immobilized enzyme produced 58 g/L of tagatose from 100 g/L galactose in 90 h by batch reaction, whereas the free enzyme produced 37 g/L tagatose due to its lower stability. A packed-bed bioreactor with immobilized Gali152 in alginate beads produced 50 g/L tagatose from 100 g/L galactose in 168 h, with a productivity of 13.3 (g of tagatose)/(L-reactor.h) in continuous mode. The bioreactor produced 230 g/L tagatose from 500 g/L galactose in continuous recycling mode, with a productivity of 9.6 g/(L.h) and a conversion yield of 46%.

  11. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  12. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial community succession in a bioreactor modeling a souring low-temperature oil reservoir subjected to nitrate injection.

    PubMed

    Callbeck, Cameron M; Dong, Xiaoli; Chatterjee, Indranil; Agrawal, Akhil; Caffrey, Sean M; Sensen, Christoph W; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-08-01

    Injection of up-flow packed-bed bioreactors with excess volatile fatty acids and limiting concentrations of nitrate and sulfate gave complete reduction of nitrate from 0 to 5.5 cm and complete or near-complete reduction of sulfate from 3.2 to 11.5 cm along the bioreactor flow path. Most of the biomass (85%) and most of the genes for nitrate reduction (narG, 96%; napA, 99%) and for sulfate reduction (dsrB, 91%) were present near the inlet (0-5.5 cm) of the 37-cm-long bioreactor. Microbial community analysis by a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons indicated that nitrate-reducing Arcobacter and Pseudomonas species were located from 0 to 3.2 cm and throughout, respectively. Desulfobulbus species were the main sulfate reducers present and acetotrophic methanogens of the genus Methanosaeta predominated at 20-37 cm. Overall, the results indicated a succession of microbial communities along the bioreactor flow path. In the absence of nitrate, the sulfate reduction zone moved nearer to the bioreactor inlet. The sulfide concentration in the bioreactor effluent was temporarily lowered after nitrate injection was re-started. Hence, the bioreactor sulfide output could be disrupted by pulsed, not by constant nitrate injection, as demonstrated also previously in a low-temperature oil field.

  14. Production of precursors for anti-Alzheimer drugs: Asymmetric bioreduction in a packed-bed bioreactor using immobilized D. carota cells.

    PubMed

    Celik Kazici, Hilal; Bayraktar, Emine; Mehmetoglu, Ülkü

    2017-01-02

    (S)-1-Phenylethanol derivatives, which are the precursors of many pharmacological products, have also been used as anti-Alzheimer drugs. Bioreduction experiments were performed in a batch and packed-bed bioreactor. Then, the kinetics constants were determined by examining the reaction kinetics in the batch system with free and immobilized carrot cells. Also, the effective diffusion coefficient (De) of acetophenone in calcium alginate-immobilized carrot cells was investigated. Kinetics constants for free cells, which are intrinsic values, are reaction rate Vmax = 0.052 mmol L(-1) min(-1), and constants of the Michaelis-Menten KM = 2.31 mmol L(-1). Kinetics constants for immobilized cells, which are considered apparent values, are Vmax, app = 0.0407 mmol L(-1) min(-1), KM, app = 3.0472 mmol L(-1) for 2 mm bead diameter, and Vmax, app = 0.0453 mmol L(-1) min(-1), KM, app = 4.9383 mmol L(-1) for 3 mm bead diameter. Average value of effective diffusion coefficient of acetophenone in immobilized beads was determined as 1.97 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Using immobilized carrot cells in an up-flow packed-bed reactor, continuous production of (S)-1-phenylethanol through asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenone was performed. The effects of the residence time and concentrations of substrate were investigated at pH 7.6 and 33°C. Enantiomerically pure (S)-1-phenylethanol (ee > 99%) was produced with 75% conversion at 4-hr residence time.

  15. Fluid and mass transport modelling to drive the design of cell-packed hollow fibre bioreactors for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Rebecca J; Waters, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    A model for fluid and mass transport in a single module of a tissue engineering hollow fibre bioreactor (HFB) is developed. Cells are seeded in alginate throughout the extra-capillary space (ECS), and fluid is pumped through a central lumen to feed the cells and remove waste products. Fluid transport is described using Navier-Stokes or Darcy equations as appropriate; this is overlaid with models of mass transport in the form of advection-diffusion-reaction equations that describe the distribution and uptake/production of nutrients/waste products. The small aspect ratio of a module is exploited and the option of opening an ECS port is explored. By proceeding analytically, operating equations are determined that enable a tissue engineer to prescribe the geometry and operation of the HFB by ensuring the nutrient and waste product concentrations are consistent with a functional cell population. Finally, results for chondrocyte and cardiomyocyte cell populations are presented, typifying two extremes of oxygen uptake rates.

  16. Analysis of bacterial diversity and efficiency of continuous removal of Victoria Blue R from wastewater by using packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Guey-Horng; Tseng, I-Hung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of a packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) for continuously removing Victoria Blue R (VBR) from an aqueous solution were determined. The effects of various factors including liquid retention time (RT), VBR concentration, shock loading, and coexisting compounds on the VBR removal and bacterial community in a continuous system were investigated. The intermediates of degraded VBR and the acute toxicity of the effluent from PBB were analyzed. When the VBR concentration was lower than 400 mg/l for a two-day retention time (RT), 100% removal was achieved. During continuous operation, the efficiency initially varied with the VBR concentration and RT, but gradually increased in one to two days. Furthermore, the acute toxicity of the effluent reduced by a factor of 21.25-49.61, indicating that the PBB can be successfully operated under turbulent environmental conditions. VBR degradation involved stepwise demethylation and yielded partially dealkylated VBR species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant phylum in the PBB was Proteobacteria and that Aeromonas hydrophila dominated during the entire operating period. The characteristics of the identified species showed that the PBB is suitable for processes such as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Involvement of ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in treating the textile effluent containing Astrazon Red FBL in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, M; Karimi, A; Vahabzadeh, F

    2009-09-30

    The effect of Tween80, Mn(II) and veratryl alcohol (VA) on the production of ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a packed-bed bioreactor using small pieces of Kissiris as carrier, was investigated. The results of the enzyme activities were noticeable in terms of decolorization and COD removal of the textile effluent containing an azo dye (Astrazon Red FBL). No dilution was made on the tested textile effluent and it was not sterilized, also. Maximum decolorization of the dye (87%) and COD removal (42%), both occurred when only Tween80 (0.05%, w/v) was added to the effluent. The maximum activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were (U/l): 17 and 52, respectively. The role of MnP was pronounced in the dye decolorization process, while the influence of LiP was noticeable on COD removal. The reusability of the original biomass was examined by replacing undiluted textile effluent (i.e., five times). The cellular performance of the original biomass in repeated-batch operations was promising.

  18. The effect of biomass immobilization support material and bed porosity on hydrogen production in an upflow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, B S; Saavedra, N K; Maintinguer, S I; Sette, L D; Oliveira, V M; Varesche, M B A; Zaiat, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the support material used for biomass attachment and bed porosity on the potential generation of hydrogen gas in an anaerobic bioreactor treating low-strength wastewater. For this purpose, an upflow anaerobic packed-bed (UAPB) reactor fed with sucrose-based synthetic wastewater was used. Three reactors with various support materials (expanded clay, vegetal coal, and low-density polyethylene) were operated for hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.5 and 2 h. Based on the results obtained, three further reactors were operated with low-density polyethylene as a material support using various bed porosities (91, 75, and 50 %) for an HRT of 0.5 h. The UAPB reactor was found to be a feasible technology for hydrogen production, reaching a maximum substrate-based hydrogen yield of 7 mol H₂ mol(-1) sucrose for an HRT of 0.5 h. The type of support material used did not affect hydrogen production or the microbial population inside the reactor. Increasing the bed porosity to 91 % provided a continuous and cyclic production of hydrogen, whereas the lower bed porosities resulted in a reduced time of hydrogen production due to biomass accumulation, which resulted in a decreasing working volume.

  19. Biodegradation of low-ethoxylated nonylphenols in a bioreactor packed with a new ceramic support (Vukopor ® S10).

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Luigi; Bertin, Lorenzo; Todaro, Daniela; Bettini, Cristina; Fava, Fabio; Di Gioia, Diana

    2014-03-01

    This work was aimed at studying the possibility of biodegrading 4-nonylphenol and low ethoxylated nonylphenol mixtures, which are particularly recalcitrant to microbial degradation, by employing a biofilm reactor packed with a ceramic support (Vukopor® S10). A selected microbial consortium (Consortium A) was used to colonize the support. 4-Nonylphenol and ethoxylated nonylphenol degradation and mineralization capabilities were studied both in batch and continuous mode. The results showed that Vukopor® S10 was able to be colonized by an active biofilm for the degradation of the target pollutants with the reactor operating both in batch and continuous mode. On the other hand, pollutant adsorption on the support was negligible. FISH showed equal proportion of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the Igepal CO-520 degrading reactor. A shift towards high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria was observed by supplying Igepal CO-210. PCR-density gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses also evidenced that the biofilm evolved with time by changing the mixture applied and that Proteobacteria were the most represented phylum in the biofilm. Taken together, the data obtained provide a strong indication that the biofilm reactor packed with Vukopor® S10 and inoculated with Consortium A could potentially be used to develop a technology for the decontamination of 4-nonylphenol and low ethoxylated nonylphenol polluted effluents.

  20. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stams, A J M; Oude Elferink, S J W H; Westermann, P

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems.

  1. Transformation of trinitrotoluene to triaminotoluene by mixed cultures incubated under methanogenic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, P.; Chow, T.; Adrian, N.R.

    2000-04-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive widely used by the military. Although it is no longer manufactured in the US, large amounts of wastewater are generated annually from load, assembly, packing, and demilitarization operations. Granular-activated carbon adsorption is the standard technology for treating wastewater containing TNT and maintaining discharges within the limits established under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Studies evaluating biological treatment of pink water with an anaerobic fluidized-bed, granular-activated carbon bioreactor have been promising, but the fate of TNT is unknown. The authors investigated the anaerobic transformation of TNT by biofilm microorganisms obtained from a wastewater treatment plant receiving explosive manufacturing wastewater. The TNT was transformed to a mixture of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene; 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene; 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene; and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene before culminating in the formation of triaminotoluene (TAT). Triaminotoluene was susceptible to further degradation under anaerobic conditions, but its fate was not determined. Methane formation was inhibited but resumed after the depletion of the diaminonitrotoluene isomers. These studies demonstrate near stoichiometric formation of TAT from TNT and the transformation of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene to 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene by a mixed culture incubated under methanogenic conditions. This evidence indicates TAT is also a likely end-product of TNT biodegradation in the anaerobic fluidized fed bioreactor.

  2. Efficient degradation of rice straw in the reactors packed by carbon fiber textiles.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sasaki, Daisuke; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-07-01

    We have reported for the first time that agricultural and cellulosic waste, i.e., rice straw was directly applied to methanogenic bioreactors containing carbon fiber textiles (CFT) as supporting material. Addition of CFT to the methanogenic bioreactors enhanced the conversion of dichromate chemical oxygen demand of the substrate to methane (41%) to a greater extent than bioreactors without CFT (9%). In addition, removal of rice straw as a suspended solid was increased from 31% (in bioreactors without CFT) to 57% (in those with CFT). Methanogenic 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the abundance of acetoclastic methanogen, genus Methanosarcina, was about 11 times higher in bioreactors with CFT (suspended fraction plus retained fraction to CFT) than in bioreactors without CFT (suspended fraction), resulting in lower concentration of acetate in bioreactors with CFT (0.4 mM) than in those without CFT (29.7 mM). On the other hand, the abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogen, genus Methanobacterium, in bioreactors with CFT was similar to those without CFT. Bacterial communities in bioreactors with CFT were different from those in bioreactors without CFT. Our results indicated that specific microbial community and cooperative relationships between microorganisms in reactors containing CFT facilitated efficient decomposition of rice straw and its conversion to methane.

  3. Osmoregulation in methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Our major goal of our work has been to develop and use NMR techniques to study how methanogenic archaebacteria deal with osmotic stress with the hope of providing insights into increasing the salt tolerance of other cells. The project has three main sections: (i) in vivo studies of methanogens; (ii) use of [sup l3]C- and [sup l5]N- labeled potential precursors and in vitro analyses of specific label uptake for elucidation of osmolyte dynamics and biosynthetic pathways of osmolytes in these organisms, and isolation of key biosynthetic enzymes; and (iii) collaborative studies on identification of organic solutes in other methanogens.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT: performance characteristics and biofilm composition changes in continuous packed-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Paca, J; Halecky, M; Barta, J; Bajpai, R

    2009-04-30

    This manuscript deals with continuous experiments for biodegradation of individual dinitrotoluenes by a defined mixed culture in packed-bed reactors (PBRs) containing either poraver or fire-clay as packing material. Removal efficiencies and volumetric biodegradation rates were measured as a function of the loading rate of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) under steady-state conditions. The poraver reactor showed higher removal efficiencies for both the DNTs. The removal efficiency for 2,4-DNT remained greater than 90% in the poraver reactor whereas it dropped steadily from 85 to 65% in the fire-clay reactor as the organic loading rates were increased from 19 to 60 mg L(-1)day(-1). Similar trends were seen for the volumetric degradation rate as well. In both the reactors, 2,4-DNT degraded more effectively than 2,6-DNT. The microbial consortium was characterized both in the inoculum as well as in the operating PBR. Cell numbers per gram dry packing material were similar in the two reactors. However, there was a distinct difference in the nature of microorganisms that were found in the two packings. The fire-clay contained a larger number of cells that were not primary degraders of DNTs.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. Nickel isotopes and methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubeck, A.; Ivarsson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Methanogens require Ni for their growth and as a consequence the microbial fractionation of Ni isotopes can be used as a biomarker for activity of methanogenic communities1. Anaerobic laboratory experiments was performed using methanogens to investigate methanogenic growth in a modified nutrient media2 with olivine Fo91 (5g/l) added as an additional mineral nutrient source and as the only H2 provider. One of the investigated methanogens showed an increased growth in the experiments with added olivine. There were also a close relationship between the mobilized Ni and the growth of the methanogen. Ni is an element that previously has been neglected in the study of fossilized microorganisms and their interaction with mineral substrates and, thus, there are no records or published data of Ni in association with microfossils. However, we have detected enrichments of Ni in fossilized microorganisms and ichno-fossils, respectively, from three separate locations. Ni is not present in the host rock in any of the samples. Thus, Ni is present in association with fossilized microorganisms from environments and more extensive analysis is required to understand the magnitude, uptake, preservation and fractionation of Ni in microfossils. In order to analyze Ni isotope fractionation from microbe-mineral interaction, we plan to use a high-resolution Laser-Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LMS)3. In situ profile ablation will provide detailed and localized data on fractionation patterns between microfossils and their host rock. Also, this technique will allow us to identify the change in Ni isotopic fractionation in rock samples caused by abiotic and biogenic processes in a faster and easier way and with less risk for contamination compared to the wet chemistry analyses of Ni isotopes. 1. Cameron, V., Vance, D., Archer, C. & House, C. H. A biomarker based on the stable isotopes of nickel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 10944-10948 (2009). 2. Schn

  8. Effect of sudden addition of PCE and bioreactor coupling to ZVI filters on performance of fluidized bed bioreactors operated in simultaneous electron acceptor modes.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Medina, C U; Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M; Breton-Deval, L; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N

    2016-08-08

    The present work evaluated the effects of (i) feeding a water contaminated with 80 mg/L PCE to bioreactors seeded with inoculum not acclimated to PCE, (ii) coupling ZVI side filters to bioreactors, and (iii) working in different biological regimes, i.e., simultaneous methanogenic aeration and simultaneous methanogenic-denitrifying regimes, on fluidized bed bioreactor performance. Simultaneous electron acceptors refer to the simultaneous presence of two compounds operating as final electron acceptors in the biological respiratory chain (e.g., use of either O2 or NO3(-) in combination with a methanogenic environment) in a bioreactor or environmental niche. Four lab-scale, mesophilic, fluidized bed bioreactors (bioreactors) were implemented. Two bioreactors were operated as simultaneous methanogenic-denitrifying (MD) units, whereas the other two were operated in partially aerated methanogenic (PAM) mode. In the first period, all bioreactors received a wastewater with 1 g chemical oxygen demand of methanol per liter (COD-methanol/L). In a second period, all the bioreactors received the wastewater plus 80 mg perchloroethylene (PCE)/L; at the start of period 2, one MD and one PAM were coupled to side sand-zero valent iron filters (ZVI). All bioreactors were inoculated with a microbial consortium not acclimated to PCE. In this work, the performance of the full period 1 and the first 60 days of period 2 is reported and discussed. The COD removal efficiency and the nitrate removal efficiency of the bioreactors essentially did not change between period 1 and period 2, i.e., upon PCE addition. On the contrary, specific methanogenic activity in PAM bioreactors (both with and without coupled ZVI filter) significantly decreased. This was consistent with a sharp fall of methane productivity in those bioreactors in period 2. During period 2, PCE removals in the range 86 to 97 % were generally observed; the highest removal corresponded to PAM bioreactors along with the highest

  9. Fungal solid state fermentation on agro-industrial wastes for acid wastewater decolorization in a continuous flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Iandolo, Donata; Amore, Antonella; Birolo, Leila; Leo, Gabriella; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Faraco, Vincenza

    2011-08-01

    This study was aimed at developing a process of solid state fermentation (SSF) with the fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor on apple processing residues for wastewater decolorization. Both fungi were able to colonize apple residues without any addition of nutrients, material support or water. P. ostreatus produced the highest levels of laccases (up to 9U g(-1) of dry matter) and xylanases (up to 80U g(-1) of dry matter). A repeated batch decolorization experiment was set up with apple residues colonized by P. ostreatus, achieving 50% decolorization and 100% detoxification after 24h, and, adding fresh wastewater every 24h, a constant decolorization of 50% was measured for at least 1 month. A continuous decolorization experiment was set up by a packed-bed reactor based on colonized apple residues achieving a performance of 100mg dye L(-1)day(-1) at a retention time of 50h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  9. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. Multiple Syntrophic Interactions in a Terephthalate-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Chen, Chia-Lung; Tringe, Susannah G.; McHardy, Alice C.; Copeland, Alex 5; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-08-05

    Terephthalate (TA) is one of the top 50 chemicals produced worldwide. Its production results in a TA-containing wastewater that is treated by anaerobic processes through a poorly understood methanogenic syntrophy. Using metagenomics, we characterized the methanogenic consortium tinside a hyper-mesophilic (i.e., between mesophilic and thermophilic), TA-degrading bioreactor. We identified genes belonging to dominant Pelotomaculum species presumably involved in TA degradation through decarboxylation, dearomatization, and modified ?-oxidation to H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and acetate. These intermediates are converted to CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} by three novel hyper-mesophilic methanogens. Additional secondary syntrophic interactions were predicted in Thermotogae, Syntrophus and candidate phyla OP5 and WWE1 populations. The OP5 encodes genes capable of anaerobic autotrophic butyrate production and Thermotogae, Syntrophus and WWE1 have the genetic potential to oxidize butyrate to COsub 2}/H{sub 2} and acetate. These observations suggest that the TA-degrading consortium consists of additional syntrophic interactions beyond the standard H{sub 2}-producing syntroph ? methanogen partnership that may serve to improve community stability.

  13. Adaptation of a methanogenic consortium to arsenite inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Moore, Sarah E.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous metalloid known for its adverse effects to human health. Microorganisms are also impacted by As toxicity, including methanogenic archaea, which can affect the performance of process in which biological activity is required (i.e. stabilization of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants). The novel ability of a mixed methanogenic granular sludge consortium to adapt to the inhibitory effect of arsenic (As) was investigated by exposing the culture to approximately 0.92 mM of AsIII for 160 d in an arsenate (AsV) reducing bioreactor using ethanol as the electron donor. The results of shaken batch bioassays indicated that the original, unexposed sludge was severely inhibited by arsenite (AsIII) as evidenced by the low 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) determined, i.e., 19 and 90 μM for acetoclastic- and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, respectively. The tolerance of the acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the sludge to AsIII increased 47-fold (IC50 = 910 μM) and 12-fold (IC50= 1100 μM), respectively, upon long-term exposure to As. In conclusion, the methanogenic community in the granular sludge demonstrated a considerable ability to adapt to the severe inhibitory effects of As after a prolonged exposure period. PMID:26823637

  14. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. Methanogenic bacteria: presence in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Brusa, T; Ferrari, F; Canzi, E

    1998-01-01

    Methanogenic bacteria are anaerobic, oxygen-intolerant microorganisms, and it is only by studying the different habitats of such bacteria that fundamental information about their ecology becomes available. This research has evaluated methanogenic bacteria in apparently aerobic ecosystems, in foodstuffs not subjected to chemical-physical reclamation processes, where the presence of methanogenic bacteria has never been investigated. Methanogenic bacteria, ascribable to the Methanogenium, Methanobacterium and Methanosarcina genera, were found in vegetables, meat, fish and cheese but were generally absent in confectionery products and fruit. The microorganisms appear to be chance contaminants, usually being present in only very low numbers. It should be noted that none of the tested foods showed the presence of Methanobrevibacter smithii, M. oralis or Methanosphaera stadtmaneae, methanogenic bacteria sometimes present in the human digestive tract.

  17. Bioreactor Scalability: Laboratory-Scale Bioreactor Design Influences Performance, Ecology, and Community Physiology in Expanded Granular Sludge Bed Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Stephanie; Shin, Seung G.; Dillon, Robert J.; Ijaz, Umer Z.; Quince, Christopher; Sloan, William T.; Collins, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility of new, or improved, biotechnologies, such as wastewater treatment digesters, inevitably start with laboratory-scale trials. However, it is rarely determined whether laboratory-scale results reflect full-scale performance or microbial ecology. The Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) bioreactor, which is a high-rate anaerobic digester configuration, was used as a model to address that knowledge gap in this study. Two laboratory-scale idealizations of the EGSB—a one-dimensional and a three- dimensional scale-down of a full-scale design—were built and operated in triplicate under near-identical conditions to a full-scale EGSB. The laboratory-scale bioreactors were seeded using biomass obtained from the full-scale bioreactor, and, spent water from the distillation of whisky from maize was applied as substrate at both scales. Over 70 days, bioreactor performance, microbial ecology, and microbial community physiology were monitored at various depths in the sludge-beds using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V4 region), specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays, and a range of physical and chemical monitoring methods. SMA assays indicated dominance of the hydrogenotrophic pathway at full-scale whilst a more balanced activity profile developed during the laboratory-scale trials. At each scale, Methanobacterium was the dominant methanogenic genus present. Bioreactor performance overall was better at laboratory-scale than full-scale. We observed that bioreactor design at laboratory-scale significantly influenced spatial distribution of microbial community physiology and taxonomy in the bioreactor sludge-bed, with 1-D bioreactor types promoting stratification of each. In the 1-D laboratory bioreactors, increased abundance of Firmicutes was associated with both granule position in the sludge bed and increased activity against acetate and ethanol as substrates. We further observed that stratification in the sludge-bed in 1-D laboratory

  18. Bioreactor Scalability: Laboratory-Scale Bioreactor Design Influences Performance, Ecology, and Community Physiology in Expanded Granular Sludge Bed Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Stephanie; Shin, Seung G; Dillon, Robert J; Ijaz, Umer Z; Quince, Christopher; Sloan, William T; Collins, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility of new, or improved, biotechnologies, such as wastewater treatment digesters, inevitably start with laboratory-scale trials. However, it is rarely determined whether laboratory-scale results reflect full-scale performance or microbial ecology. The Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) bioreactor, which is a high-rate anaerobic digester configuration, was used as a model to address that knowledge gap in this study. Two laboratory-scale idealizations of the EGSB-a one-dimensional and a three- dimensional scale-down of a full-scale design-were built and operated in triplicate under near-identical conditions to a full-scale EGSB. The laboratory-scale bioreactors were seeded using biomass obtained from the full-scale bioreactor, and, spent water from the distillation of whisky from maize was applied as substrate at both scales. Over 70 days, bioreactor performance, microbial ecology, and microbial community physiology were monitored at various depths in the sludge-beds using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V4 region), specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays, and a range of physical and chemical monitoring methods. SMA assays indicated dominance of the hydrogenotrophic pathway at full-scale whilst a more balanced activity profile developed during the laboratory-scale trials. At each scale, Methanobacterium was the dominant methanogenic genus present. Bioreactor performance overall was better at laboratory-scale than full-scale. We observed that bioreactor design at laboratory-scale significantly influenced spatial distribution of microbial community physiology and taxonomy in the bioreactor sludge-bed, with 1-D bioreactor types promoting stratification of each. In the 1-D laboratory bioreactors, increased abundance of Firmicutes was associated with both granule position in the sludge bed and increased activity against acetate and ethanol as substrates. We further observed that stratification in the sludge-bed in 1-D laboratory

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  11. Assessment of active methanogenic archaea in a methanol-fed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Morey, Lluís; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-12-01

    Methanogenic archaea enrichment of a granular sludge was undertaken in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor fed with methanol in order to enrich methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic populations. A microbial community assessment, in terms of microbial composition and activity-throughout the different stages of the feeding process with methanol and acetate-was performed using specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from DNA and complementary DNA (cDNA). Distinct methanogenic enrichment was revealed by qPCR of mcrA gene in the methanol-fed community, being two orders of magnitude higher with respect to the initial inoculum, achieving a final mcrA/16S rRNA ratio of 0.25. High-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the resulting methanogenic population was mainly composed by methylotrophic archaea (Methanomethylovorans and Methanolobus genus), being also highly active according to the RNA-based assessment. SMA confirmed that the methylotrophic pathway, with a direct conversion of methanol to CH4, was the main step of methanol degradation in the UASB. The biomass from the UASB, enriched in methanogenic archaea, may bear great potential as additional inoculum for bioreactors to carry out biogas production and other related processes.

  12. Light sensitivity of methanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.D.; McMahon, C.W.; Wolfe, R.S. )

    1991-09-01

    Representatives of four families of methanogenic archaebacteria (archaea), Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum {Delta}H, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanococcus voltae, and Methanomicrobium mobile, were found to be light sensitive. The facultative anaerobic eubacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, however, were tolerant of light when grown anaerobically under identical light conditions. Interference filters were used to show that the growth of the methanogens is inhibited by light in the blue end of the visible spectrum (370 to 430 nm).

  13. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  14. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  15. The Geobiochemistry of Methanogen Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, A.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    A principle of geobiochemistry is that adaptation over evolutionary time includes a thermodynamic drive to minimize costs of making biomolecules like proteins and lipids. If so, then biomolecule abundances will reflect, at least in part, their relative stabilities at the conditions imposed by external environments. We tested this hypothesis by comparing relative stabilities of 138 orthologous proteins between a representative lake-sediment methanogen (Methanoculleus marisnigri) and a representative rumen methanogen (Methanospirillum hungatei) at the compositional constraints of their respective environments. Chemical affinities of the proteins were calculated based on pH, temperature, and concentrations of dissolved hydrogen, bicarbonate, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide, together with standard Gibbs energies of formation of proteins from the elements predicted with a group additivity algorithm for unfolded proteins [1]. Methanogens were chosen as they are chemoautotrophs and their metabolism proceeds at relatively small affinities. Also, they are found in a variety of compositionally varying habitats like rumen, sediments, hydrothermal systems and sewage. The methanogens selected belong to the same order of taxonomy and are closely related. Preliminary results show that a majority of the proteins belonging to the rumen methanogen (66%) are more stable in the rumen environment, while a majority of the proteins belonging to the lake-sediment methanogen (58%) are more stable at sediment conditions. In a separate observation, it was noted that while the complete protein ';proteasome subunit alpha' of another rumen methanogen (Methanobrevibacter smithii) was less stable in its more reducing habitat as compared to a sewage methanogen (Methanothermobacter thermoautotophicus), its first 26 amino acid residues (N terminal) were in fact more stable in its own environment. These 26 residues are reported to be unique as compared to other proteasome proteins and are suggested to

  16. Transgenic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jänne, J; Alhonen, L; Hyttinen, J M; Peura, T; Tolvanen, M; Korhonen, V P

    1998-01-01

    Since the generation of the first transgenic mice in 1980, transgene technology has also been successfully applied to large farm animals. Although this technology can be employed to improve certain production traits of livestock, this approach has not been very successful so far owing to unwanted effects encountered in the production animals. However, by using tissue-specific targeting of the transgene expression, it is possible to produce heterologous proteins in the extracellular space of large transgenic farm animals. Even though some recombinant proteins, such as human hemoglobin, have been produced in the blood of transgenic pigs, in the majority of the cases mammary gland targeted expression of the transgene has been employed. Using production genes driven by regulatory sequences of milk protein genes a number of valuable therapeutic proteins have been produced in the milk of transgenic bioreactors, ranging from rabbits to dairy cattle. Unlike bacterial fermentors, the mammary gland of transgenic bioreactors appear to carry out proper postsynthetic modifications of human proteins required for full biological activity. In comparison with mammalian cell bioreactors, transgenic livestock with mammary gland targeted expression seems to be able to produce valuable human therapeutic proteins at very low cost. Although not one transgenically produced therapeutic protein is yet on the market, the first such proteins have recently entered or even completed clinical trials required for their approval.

  17. Role for acetotrophic methanogens in methanogenic biodegradation of vinyl chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, stream-bed sediment microorganisms rapidly degraded [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride to 14CH4 and 14CO2. Amendment with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid eliminated 14CH4 production and decreased 14CO2 recovery by an equal molar amount. Results obtained with [14C]ethene, [14C]acetate, or 14CO2 as substrates indicated that acetotrophic methanogens were responsible for the production of 14CH4 during biodegradation of [1,2-14C]VC.Under methanogenic conditions, stream-bed sediment microorganisms rapidly degraded [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride to 14CH4 and 14CO2. Amendment with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid eliminated 14CH4 production and decreased 14CO2 recovery by an equal molar amount. Results obtained with [14C]-ethene, [14C]acetate, or 14CO2 as substrates indicated that acetotrophic methanogens were responsible for the production of 14CH4, during biodegradation of [1,2-14C]VC.

  18. Diffusional Properties of Methanogenic Granular Sludge: 1H NMR Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Piet N. L.; Gastesi, Rakel; Vergeldt, Frank; van Aelst, Adriaan C.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Van As, Henk

    2003-01-01

    The diffusive properties of anaerobic methanogenic and sulfidogenic aggregates present in wastewater treatment bioreactors were studied using diffusion analysis by relaxation time-separated pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and NMR imaging. NMR spectroscopy measurements were performed at 22°C with 10 ml of granular sludge at a magnetic field strength of 0.5 T (20 MHz resonance frequency for protons). Self-diffusion coefficients of H2O in the investigated series of mesophilic aggregates were found to be 51 to 78% lower than the self-diffusion coefficient of free water. Interestingly, self-diffusion coefficients of H2O were independent of the aggregate size for the size fractions investigated. Diffusional transport occurred faster in aggregates growing under nutrient-rich conditions (e.g., the bottom of a reactor) or at high (55°C) temperatures than in aggregates cultivated in nutrient-poor conditions or at low (10°C) temperatures. Exposure of aggregates to 2.5% glutaraldehyde or heat (70 or 90°C for 30 min) modified the diffusional transport up to 20%. In contrast, deactivation of aggregates by HgCl2 did not affect the H2O self-diffusion coefficient in aggregates. Analysis of NMR images of a single aggregate shows that methanogenic aggregates possess a spin-spin relaxation time and self-diffusion coefficient distribution, which are due to both physical (porosity) and chemical (metal sulfide precipitates) factors. PMID:14602624

  19. Recovery of palladium(II) by methanogenic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Pat-Espadas, Aurora M; Field, James A; Otero-Gonzalez, Lila; Razo-Flores, Elías; Cervantes, Francisco J; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-02-01

    This is the first report that demonstrates the ability of anaerobic methanogenic granular sludge to reduce Pd(II) to Pd(0). Different electron donors were evaluated for their effectiveness in promoting Pd reduction. Formate and H2 fostered both chemically and biologically mediated Pd reduction. Ethanol only promoted the reduction of Pd(II) under biotic conditions and the reduction was likely mediated by H2 released from ethanol fermentation. No reduction was observed in biotic or abiotic assays with all other substrates tested (acetate, lactate and pyruvate) although a large fraction of the total Pd was removed from the liquid medium likely due to biosorption. Pd(II) displayed severe inhibition towards acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as indicated by 50% inhibiting concentrations as low as 0.96 and 2.7 mg/L, respectively. The results obtained indicate the potential of utilizing anaerobic granular sludge bioreactor technology as a practical and promising option for Pd(II) reduction and recovery offering advantages over pure cultures.

  20. Methanogenic activity tests by Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Escobar-Orozco, Nayeli; Thalasso, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    Methanogenic activity (MA) tests are commonly carried out to estimate the capability of anaerobic biomass to treat effluents, to evaluate anaerobic activity in bioreactors or natural ecosystems, or to quantify inhibitory effects on methanogenic activity. These activity tests are usually based on the measurement of the volume of biogas produced by volumetric, pressure increase or gas chromatography (GC) methods. In this study, we present an alternative method for non-invasive measurement of methane produced during activity tests in closed vials, based on Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (MA-TDLAS). This new method was tested during model acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity tests and was compared to a more traditional method based on gas chromatography. From the results obtained, the CH(4) detection limit of the method was estimated to 60 ppm and the minimum measurable methane production rate was estimated to 1.09(.)10(-3) mg l(-1) h(-1), which is below CH(4) production rate usually reported in both anaerobic reactors and natural ecosystems. Additionally to sensitivity, the method has several potential interests compared to more traditional methods among which short measurements time allowing the measurement of a large number of MA test vials, non-invasive measurements avoiding leakage or external interferences and similar cost to GC based methods. It is concluded that MA-TDLAS is a promising method that could be of interest not only in the field of anaerobic digestion but also, in the field of environmental ecology where CH(4) production rates are usually very low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Methanogens in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Schleper, Christa; Firneis, Maria G.; Rittmann, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of space science revealed that potential habitats in the Solar System may not be limited to the classical habitable zone supporting life as we know it. These microorganisms were shown to thrive under extremophilic growth conditions. Here, we outline the main eco-physiological characteristics of methanogens like their response on temperature, pressure, or pH changes or their resistance against radiation or desiccation. They can withstand extreme environmental conditions which makes them intriguing organisms for astrobiological studies. On Earth, they are found for example in wetlands, in arctic and antarctic subglacial environments, in ruminants, and even in the environment surrounding the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. These obligate anaerobic chemolithoautotrophs or chemolithoheterotrophs are able to use e.g. hydrogen and C1 compounds like CO2, formate, or methanol as energy source and carbon source, respectively. We point out their capability to be able to habitat potential extraterrestrial biospheres all over the planetary system. We will give an overview about these possible environments on Mars, icy moons like Europa or Enceladus, and minor planets. We present an overview about studies of methanogens with an astrobiological relevance and we show our conclusions about the role of methanogens for the search for extraterrestrial life in the Solar System. We will present first results of our study about the possibility to cultivate methanogens under Enceladus-like conditions. For that, based on the observations obtained by the Cassini spacecraft concerning the plume compounds, we produce a medium with a composition similar to the ocean composition of this icy moon which is far more Enceladus-like than in any (published) experiment before. Eventually, we give an outlook on the feasibility and the necessity of future astrobiological studies with these microbes. We point out the importance of future in-situ or even sample and return missions to

  2. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  3. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  5. A Portable Anaerobic Microbioreactor Reveals Optimum Growth Conditions for the Methanogen Methanosaeta concilii▿

    PubMed Central

    Steinhaus, Benjamin; Garcia, Marcelo L.; Shen, Amy Q.; Angenent, Largus T.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional studies of the optimum growth conditions for methanogens (methane-producing, obligate anaerobic archaea) are typically conducted with serum bottles or bioreactors. The use of microfluidics to culture methanogens allows direct microscopic observations of the time-integrated response of growth. Here, we developed a microbioreactor (μBR) with ∼1-μl microchannels to study some optimum growth conditions for the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii. The μBR is contained in an anaerobic chamber specifically designed to place it directly onto an inverted light microscope stage while maintaining a N2-CO2 environment. The methanogen was cultured for months inside microchannels of different widths. Channel width was manipulated to create various fluid velocities, allowing the direct study of the behavior and responses of M. concilii to various shear stresses and revealing an optimum shear level of ∼20 to 35 μPa. Gradients in a single microchannel were then used to find an optimum pH level of 7.6 and an optimum total NH4-N concentration of less than 1,100 mg/liter (<47 mg/liter as free NH3-N) for M. concilii under conditions of the previously determined ideal shear stress and pH and at a temperature of 35°C. PMID:17220251

  6. Optimization of denitrifying bioreactor performance with agricultural residue-based filter media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Denitrification bioreactors are a promising technology for mitigation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) losses in subsurface drainage water. Bioreactors are constructed with carbon substrates, typically wood chips, to provide a substrate for denitrifying microorganisms. Columns were packed with wood chips...

  7. A novel multi-phase bioreactor for fermentations to produce organic acids from dairy wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Silva, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    A novel, fibrous bed bioreactor is developed for multi-phase fermentation processes. The microbial cells are immobilized in a spiral-wound, fibrous matrix packed in the bioreactor. This innovative, structured packing design allows good contact between two different moving phases (e.g., gas-liquid or liquid-solid) and has many advantages over conventional immobilized cell bioreactors. Because the reactor bed is not completely filled with the solid matrix, the bioreactor can be operated for a long period without developing problems such as clogging and high pressure drop usually associated with conventional packed bed and membrane bioreactors. This novel bioreactor was studied for its use in several organic acid fermentations. Production of propionate, acetate, and lactate from whey permeate was studied. In all cases studied, use of the fibrous bioreactor resulted in superior reactor performance-indicated by a more than tenfold increase in productivity, reduction or elimination of the requirement for nutrient supplementation to whey permeate, and resistance to contamination-as compared to conventional batch fermentation processes. Also, the reactor maintained high productivity throughout long-term continuous operation. No contamination, degeneration, or clogging problems were experienced during a 10-month period of continuous operation. This new bioreactor is thus suitable for industrial uses to improve fermentation processes which currently use conventional bioreactors.

  8. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-01

    Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic-anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75d and 60d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4L/kgvs and 113.2L/kgvs. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methanogens, Methane and Gastrointestinal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of the undigested polysaccharide fraction of carbohydrates produces hydrogen in the intestine which is the substrate for methane production by intestinal methanogens. Hydrogen and methane are excreted in the flatus and in breath giving the opportunity to indirectly measure their production using breath testing. Although methane is detected in 30%-50% of the healthy adult population worldwide, its production has been epidemiologically and clinically associated with constipation related diseases, like constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation. While a causative relation is not proven yet, there is strong evidence from animal studies that methane delays intestinal transit, possibly acting as a neuromuscular transmitter. This evidence is further supported by the universal finding that methane production (measured by breath test) is associated with delayed transit time in clinical studies. There is also preliminary evidence that antibiotic reduction of methanogens (as evidenced by reduced methane production) predicts the clinical response in terms of symptomatic improvement in patients with constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, we have not identified yet the mechanism of action of methane on intestinal motility, and since methane production does not account for all constipation associated cases, there is need for high quality clinical trials to examine methane as a biomarker for the diagnosis or as a biomarker that predicts antibiotic treatment response in patients with constipation related disorders. PMID:24466443

  10. Rupture of the cell envelope by decompression of the deep-sea methanogen Methanococcus jannaschii.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Beum; Clark, Douglas S

    2002-03-01

    The effect of decompression on the structure of Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic deep-sea methanogen, was studied in a novel high-pressure, high-temperature bioreactor. The cell envelope of M. jannaschii appeared to rupture upon rapid decompression (ca. 1 s) from 260 atm of hyperbaric pressure. When decompression from 260 atm was performed over 5 min, the proportion of ruptured cells decreased significantly. In contrast to the effect produced by decompression from hyperbaric pressure, decompression from a hydrostatic pressure of 260 atm did not induce cell lysis.

  11. Mercury Methylation by the Methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei

    PubMed Central

    Reinfelder, John R.; Hines, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is synthesized by anaerobic microorganisms in the environment. To date, mercury (Hg) methylation has been attributed to sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria (SRB and IRB, respectively). Here we report that a methanogen, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1, methylated Hg in a sulfide-free medium at comparable rates, but with higher yields, than those observed for some SRB and IRB. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the concatenated orthologs of the Hg methylation proteins HgcA and HgcB from M. hungatei are closely related to those from known SRB and IRB methylators and that they cluster together with proteins from eight other methanogens, suggesting that these methanogens may also methylate Hg. Because all nine methanogens with HgcA and HgcB orthologs belong to the class Methanomicrobia, constituting the late-evolving methanogenic lineage, methanogenic Hg methylation could not be considered an ancient metabolic trait. Our results identify methanogens as a new guild of Hg-methylating microbes with a potentially important role in mineral-poor (sulfate- and iron-limited) anoxic freshwater environments. PMID:23934484

  12. Bioreactors and Bioseparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.

  13. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  14. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  15. Stress response of methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost compared with methanogens from nonpermafrost habitats.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Daria; Wagner, Dirk

    2007-07-01

    We examined the survival potential of methanogenic archaea exposed to different environmental stress conditions such as low temperature (down to -78.5 degrees C), high salinity (up to 6 M NaCl), starvation (up to 3 months), long-term freezing (up to 2 years), desiccation (up to 25 days) and oxygen exposure (up to 72 h). The experiments were conducted with methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost and were complemented by experiments on well-studied methanogens from nonpermafrost habitats. Our results indicate a high survival potential of a methanogenic archaeon from Siberian permafrost when exposed to the extreme conditions tested. In contrast, these stress conditions were lethal for methanogenic archaea isolated from nonpermafrost habitats. A better adaptation to stress was observed at a low temperature (4 degrees C) compared with a higher one (28 degrees C). Given the unique metabolism of methanogenic archaea in general and the long-term survival and high tolerance to extreme conditions of the methanogens investigated in this study, methanogenic archaea from permafrost should be considered as primary candidates for possible subsurface Martian life.

  16. Hepatocyte function within a stacked double sandwich culture plate cylindrical bioreactor for bioartificial liver system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lei; Arooz, Talha; Zhang, Shufang; Tuo, Xiaoye; Xiao, Guangfa; Susanto, Thomas Adi Kurnia; Sundararajan, Janani; Cheng, Tianming; Kang, Yuzhan; Poh, Hee Joo; Leo, Hwa Liang; Yu, Hanry

    2012-11-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) system is promising as an alternative treatment for liver failure. We have developed a bioreactor with stacked sandwich culture plates for the application of BAL. This bioreactor design addresses some of the persistent problems in flat-bed bioreactors through increasing cell packing capacity, eliminating dead flow, regulating shear stress, and facilitating the scalability of the bioreactor unit. The bioreactor contained a stack of twelve double-sandwich-culture plates, allowing 100 million hepatocytes to be housed in a single cylindrical bioreactor unit (7 cm of height and 5.5 cm of inner diameter). The serial flow perfusion through the bioreactor increased cell-fluid contact area for effective mass exchange. With the optimal perfusion flow rate, shear stress was minimized to achieve high and uniform cell viabilities across different plates in the bioreactor. Our results demonstrated that hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor could re-establish cell polarity and maintain liver-specific functions (e.g. albumin and urea synthesis, phase I&II metabolism functions) for seven days. The single bioreactor unit can be readily scaled up to house adequate number of functional hepatocytes for BAL development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Valve Packing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    "S Glass" yarn was originally developed by NASA for high temperature space and aeronautical applications. When John Crane, Inc. required material that would withstand temperatures higher than 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, they contacted Owens-Corning, which had developed a number of applications for the material. John Crane combines the yarn with other components to make Style 287-I packing. The product can be used in chemical processing operations, nuclear power stations, petroleum products, etc. Advantages include increased service life and reduced maintenance costs.

  18. Heavy metals mobility in full-scale bioreactor landfill: initial stage.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Selected heavy metals (HMs) including Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn initially released from a full-scale bioreactor landfill were monitored over the first 20 months of operation. At the initial landfill stage, the leachate exhibited high HMs release, high organic matter content (27000-43000gl(-1) of TOC) and low pH (5-6). By the fifth month of landfilling, the methanogenic stage had been established, and HMs release was reduced below the Chinese National Standards. Total released HMs accounted for less than 1% of landfill deposited during the investigated period. Most landfill HMs were inorganic. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra data and model calculations using Visual MINTEQ indicated that humic substances strongly affected the mobility of organic fractions of HMs in the methanogenic landfill. The initial rates of HMs release could be enhanced by recycling the leachate back to bioreactor landfill, but the total quantity released may be reduced by early establishment of methanogenic stage in bioreactor landfill.

  19. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  20. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  1. Bioreactors: design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, C.L.

    1983-02-11

    The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Methane Production by Methanogens in Perchlorate-supplemented Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, K. L.; Gavin, P.; Goodhart, T.; Kral, T. A.

    2009-03-01

    Perchlorates, found on the martian surface, create a harsh environment. Methanogens are familiar with harsh environments and their growth was tested in perchlorate salt media. All four species of methanogens produced methane at all concentrations of each salt tested.

  3. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion is associated with differential methanogenic protein expression.

    PubMed

    Gunnigle, Eoin; Siggins, Alma; Botting, Catherine H; Fuszard, Matthew; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Abram, Florence

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive wastewater treatment technology, leading to the generation of recoverable biofuel (methane). Most industrial AD applications, carry excessive heating costs, however, as AD reactors are commonly operated at mesophilic temperatures while handling waste streams discharged at ambient or cold temperatures. Consequently, low-temperature AD represents a cost-effective strategy for wastewater treatment. The comparative investigation of key microbial groups underpinning laboratory-scale AD bioreactors operated at 37, 15 and 7°C was carried out. Community structure was monitored using 16S rRNA clone libraries, while abundance of the most prominent methanogens was investigated using qPCR. In addition, metaproteomics was employed to access the microbial functions carried out in situ. While δ-Proteobacteria were prevalent at 37°C, their abundance decreased dramatically at lower temperatures with inverse trends observed for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Methanobacteriales and Methanosaeta were predominant at all temperatures investigated while Methanomicrobiales abundance increased at 15°C compared to 37 and 7°C. Changes in operating temperature resulted in the differential expression of proteins involved in methanogenesis, which was found to occur in all bioreactors, as corroborated by bioreactors' performance. This study demonstrated the value of employing a polyphasic approach to address microbial community dynamics and highlighted the functional redundancy of AD microbiomes. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evidence of Archaeal Methanogens in Brain Abscess.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel; Nkamga, Vanessa Demonfort; Lakhe, Ndèye Aïssatou; Régis, Jean-Marie; Dufour, Henry; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Bechah, Yassina; Scheld, W Michael; Raoult, Didier

    2017-04-01

    Methanogens are antibiotic-resistant anaerobic archaea which escape routine detection in clinical microbiology. We hypothesized that methanogens may participate as part of the anaerobic community causing brain abscess. Methanogens were investigated in one index sample by specific PCR-sequencing and culture. The pathogenesis of a methanogen isolate was assessed in a mouse model of brain abscess. Archaea-specific qPCR and metagenomics were used to detect specific archaeal sequences in brain abscess samples and controls. In one index sample, routine culture found Porphyromonas endodontalis and Streptococcus intermedius, and specific culture found Methanobrevibacter oralis susceptible to metronidazole and fusidic acid. Archaea-targeted PCR-sequencing and metagenomics confirmed M. oralis along with 14 bacteria, including S. intermedius. Archaea-specific qPCR yielded archaea in 8/18 brain abscess specimens and 1/27 controls (P <0.003), and metagenomics yielded archaea, mostly methanogens, in 28/32 brain abscess samples, and no archaea in 71 negative controls (P<10-6). Infection of mice brains yielded no mortality in 14 controls and death in 17/22 M. oralis-inoculated mice (P < 10-6), 32/95 S. intermedius-inoculated mice (P < 10-6) and 75/104 mice inoculated with M. oralis mixed with S. intermedius (P < 10-6) seven days post-inoculation. Methanogens form part of the anaerobic community responsible for brain abscess, and M. oralis may participate in the pathogenicity of this deadly infection. In mice, a synergistic effect of M. oralis and S. intermedius was observed. Antibiotic treatment of brain abscess should contain anti-archaeal compounds such as imidazole derivatives in most cases.

  5. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  6. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  7. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  8. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  9. Biogas production enhancement using semi-aerobic pre-aeration in a hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Raffaello; Morello, Luca; Raga, Roberto; Cerminara, Giulia

    2016-09-01

    Landfilling continues to be one of the main methods used in managing Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Although in many countries national legislation aims to reduce this practice as much as possible, landfill is a necessary and unavoidable step in closing the material cycle. The need for innovative waste management techniques to improve landfill management and minimize the adverse environmental impact produced has resulted in an increasing interest in innovative systems capable of accelerating waste stabilization. Landfill bioreactors allow decomposition kinetics to be increased and post-operational phase to be shortened; in particular, hybrid bioreactors combine the benefits afforded by both aerobic and anaerobic processes. Six bioreactor simulators were used in the present study: four managed as hybrid, with an initial semi-aerobic phase and a second anaerobic phase, and two as anaerobic control bioreactors. The main goal of the first aerated phase is to reduce Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) in order to increase pH and enhance methane production during the anaerobic phase; for this reason, air injection was stopped only when these parameters reached the optimum range for methanogenic bacteria. Biogas and leachate were constantly monitored throughout the entire methanogenic phase with the aim of calibrating a Gompertz Model and evaluating the effects of pre-aeration on subsequent methane production. The results showed that moderate and intermittent pre-aeration produces a positive effect both on methane potential and in the kinetics of reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of fulvic acids on bio-methanogenic treatment of municipal solid waste incineration leachate.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yan; Lei, Yuqing; Liu, Zhao; Xue, Yiting; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Li-Ying; Holmes, Dawn E

    2016-12-01

    A considerable amount of leachate with high fulvic acid (FA) content is generated during the municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process. This incineration leachate is usually processed by downstream bio-methanogenic treatment. However, few studies have examined the impact that these compounds have on methanogenesis and how they are degraded and transformed during the treatment process. In this study, a laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was operated with MSW incineration leachate containing various concentrations of FA (1500 mg/L to 8000 mg/L) provided as the influent. We found that FA degradation rates decreased from 86% to 72% when FA concentrations in the reactor were increased, and that molecular size, level of humification and aromatization of the residual FA macromolecules all increased after bio-methanogenic treatment. Increasing FA influent concentrations also inhibited growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens from the genus Methanobacterium and syntrophic bacteria from the genus Syntrophomonas, which resulted in a decrease in methane production and a concomitant increase in CO2 content in the biogas. Sequences most similar to species from the genus Anaerolinea went up as FA concentrations increased. Bacteria from this genus are capable of extracellular electron transfer and may be using FA as an electron acceptor for growth or as a shuttle for syntrophic exchange with other microorganisms in the reactor. In order to determine whether FA could serve as an electron shuttle to promote syntrophy in an anaerobic digester, co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens were grown in the presence of FA from raw leachate or from residual bioreactor effluent. While raw FA stimulated electron transfer between these two bacteria, residual FA did not have any electron shuttling abilities, indicating that FA underwent a significant transformation during the bio-methanogenic treatment process. These results are

  11. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  12. Pattern of organotin inhibition of methanogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R; Daniels, L

    1991-04-01

    Seven organotin compounds and tin chloride were tested for their effects on the methanogenic bacteria Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, Methanococcus deltae delta LH, and Methanosarcina barkeri 227. The methanogens were strongly inhibited by triethyltin, tripropyltin, and monophenyltin compounds, generally at concentrations below 0.05 mM. Less inhibition by tributyltin and diphenyltin was observed at levels below 0.1 mM, but complete inhibition was observed at a 1 mM concentration. Tin chloride inhibited all methanogens, with nearly complete inhibition at a 1 mM concentration. There was no inhibition by tetra-n-butyltin and triphenyltin compounds even at 2 mM, the highest concentration tested. The 50 and 100% inhibitory concentrations of all compounds were estimated; these values varied with both the compound tested and the bacterium tested. The 50% inhibitory concentration estimate generally decreased (i.e., giving a higher toxicity) as the total surface area of the alkyltin molecules decreased. These results differ considerably from those reported previously for aerobic microorganisms (G. Eng, E. J. Tierney, J. M. Bellama, and F. E. Brinckman, Appl. Organometallic Chem. 2:171-175, 1988), where a clear correlation between increasing total molecular surface area and increasing toxicity was documented with a variety of organisms. Using the same procedures as for the methanogens, we examined the effects of organotin compounds on Escherichia coli growing aerobically or anaerobically. The E. coli inhibition pattern clearly resembled that seen in the data of Eng et al., under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  13. Methanogenic archaea in subgingival sites: a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Hieu, Tung; Khelaifia, Saber; Aboudharam, Gerard; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-06-01

    Archaea are non-bacterial prokaryotes associated with oral microbiota in humans, but their roles in oral pathologies remain controversial. Several studies reported the molecular detection of methanogenic archaea from periodontitis, but the significance of this association has not been confirmed yet. An electronic search was therefore conducted in MEDLINE-Pubmed to identify all papers published in English connecting archaea and periodontal infections. Data analysis of the selected studies showed that five genera of methanogenic archaea have been detected in the subgingival microbiota, Methanobrevibacter oralis being the most frequently detected species in 41% of periodontitis patients and 55% of periodontal pockets compared to 6% of healthy subjects and 5% of periodontally-healthy sites (p < 10(-5) , Chi-squared test). Based on the five determination-criteria proposed by Socransky (association with disease, elimination of the organism, host response, animal pathogenicity and mechanisms of pathogenicity), M. oralis is a periodontal pathogen. The methanogenic archaea load correlating with periodontitis severity further supports the pathogenic role of methanogenic archaea in periodontitis. Therefore, detection and quantification of M. oralis in periodontal pockets could help the laboratory diagnosis and follow-up of periodontitis. Determining the origin, diversity and pathogenesis of archaea in periodontal infections warrants further investigations.

  14. Methanogens: A Model for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, T. A.; Altheide, T. S.; Lueders, A. E.; Goodhart, T. H.; Virden, B. T.; Birch, W.; Howe, K. L.; Gavin, P.

    2010-04-01

    Methanogens have been shown to produce methane at reduced pressures (400 and 50 mbar), in the presence of perchlorate salts, using carbonate as a sole carbon source, and to survive desiccation at both 1 bar and 6 mbar for extended periods of time.

  15. Trace Gas Emission from in-Situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication. A primary process for removing excess NO3- from water is denitrification, where denitrifying bacteria use NO3- for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas. A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs). DNBRs provide conditions ideal for denitrifiers: an anaerobic environment, sufficient organic matter, and excess NO3-. These conditions are also ideal for methanogens, which produce methane (CH4), another harmful trace gas. While initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, trace gas emissions are an unintended consequence. This study's goal was to determine how bioreactor design promotes denitrification while limiting trace gas production. Reactor inflow and outflow water samples were tested for nutrients, including NO3-, and dissolved inflow and outflow gas samples were tested for N2O and CH4. NO3- reduction and trace gas production were evaluated at various residence times, pHs, and inflow NO3- concentrations in field and lab-scale reactors. Low NO3- reduction indicated conditions that stressed denitrifying bacteria while high reductions indicated designs that optimized pollutant treatment for water quality. Several factors influenced high N2O, suggesting non-ideal conditions for the final step of complete denitrification. High CH4 emissions pointed to reactor media choice for discouraging methanogens, which may remove competition with denitrifiers. It is critical to understand all of potential impacts that DNBRs may have, which means identifying processes and design specifications that may affect them.

  16. Distinctive non-methanogen archaeal populations in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; He, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens define the archaeal communities involved in anaerobic digestion. Recently, non-methanogen archaeal populations have been unexpectedly identified in anaerobic digestion processes. To gain insight into the ecophysiology of these uncharacterized archaeal populations, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis was performed on a collection of non-methanogen archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from anaerobic digesters of broad geographic distribution, revealing a distinct clade formed by these sequences in subgroup 6 of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group in the newly proposed archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota. This exclusive phylogenetic assemblage enabled the development of a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay specifically targeting these non-methanogen archaeal populations in anaerobic digestion. Application of the qPCR assay in continuous anaerobic digesters indicated that these archaeal populations were minor constituents of the archaeal communities, and the abundance of these populations remained relatively constant irrespective of process perturbations. Analysis of the archaeal populations in methanogenic communities further revealed the co-occurrence of these non-methanogen archaea with acetoclastic methanogens. Nevertheless, the low abundance of non-methanogen archaea as compared with acetoclastic methanogens suggests that the non-methanogen archaeal populations were not major players in animal waste-fed methanogenic processes investigated in this study and the functions of these archaeal populations remain to be identified.

  17. Gene order phylogeny and the evolution of methanogens.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiwei; Sun, Zhiyi; Arndt, William; Shi, Jian; Friedman, Robert; Tang, Jijun

    2009-06-29

    Methanogens are a phylogenetically diverse group belonging to Euryarchaeota. Previously, phylogenetic approaches using large datasets revealed that methanogens can be grouped into two classes, "Class I" and "Class II". However, some deep relationships were not resolved. For instance, the monophyly of "Class I" methanogens, which consist of Methanopyrales, Methanobacteriales and Methanococcales, is disputable due to weak statistical support. In this study, we use MSOAR to identify common orthologous genes from eight methanogen species and a Thermococcale species (outgroup), and apply GRAPPA and FastME to compute distance-based gene order phylogeny. The gene order phylogeny supports two classes of methanogens, but it differs from the original classification of methanogens by placing Methanopyrales and Methanobacteriales together with Methanosarcinales in Class II rather than with Methanococcales. This study suggests a new classification scheme for methanogens. In addition, it indicates that gene order phylogeny can complement traditional sequence-based methods in addressing taxonomic questions for deep relationships.

  18. Bioreactors and bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.At present, a series of bioreactors made by Chinese enterprises have been widely used for laboratory microbial cultivation, process optimization studies, and large-scale production. In the course of bioprocess optimization studies, the complicated bioprocesses in a bioreactor could be resolved into different reaction processes on three scales, namely genetic, cellular, and bioreactor scales. The structural varieties and nonlinear features of various scales of bioprocess systems was discussed through considering the mutual effects of different scale events, namely material flux, energy flux, and information flux, and the optimization approach for bioprocesses was proposed by taking the analysis of metabolic flux and multiscale consideration as a core strategy.In order to realize such an optimization approach, a bioreactor system based on association analysis of multiscale parameters was elaborated, and process optimization of many biological products were materialized, which resulted in great improvement in production efficiency. In designing and manufacturing large-scale bioreactors, the principle of scaling up a process incorporated with flow field study and physiological features in a bioreactor was suggested according to the criterion for the scale-up of cellular physiological and metabolic traits. The flow field features of a bioreactor were investigated through computational fluid

  19. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  20. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  3. Development of foamed emulsion bioreactor for air pollution control.

    PubMed

    Kan, Eunsung; Deshusses, Marc A

    2003-10-20

    A new type of bioreactor for air pollution control has been developed. The new process relies on an organic-phase emulsion and actively growing pollutant-degrading microorganisms, made into a foam with the air being treated. This new reactor is referred to as a foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR). As there is no packing in the reactor, the FEBR is not subject to clogging. Mathematical modeling of the process and proof of concept using a laboratory prototype revealed that the foamed emulsion bioreactor greatly surpasses the performance of existing gas-phase bioreactors. Experimental results showed a toluene elimination capacity as high as 285 g(toluene) m(-3) (reactor) h(-1) with a removal efficiency of 95% at a gas residence time of 15 s and a toluene inlet concentration of 1-1.3 g x m(-3). Oxygen limited the reactor performance at toluene concentration above about 0.7-1.0 g x m(-3); consequently, performance was significantly improved when pure oxygen was added to the contaminated air. The elimination capacity increased from 204 to 408 g x m(-3) h(-1) with >77% toluene removal at toluene inlet concentrations of 2-2.2 g x m(-3). Overall, the results show that the performance of the FEBR far exceeds that of currently used bioreactors for air pollution control.

  4. Response of Methanogens in Arctic Sediments to Temperature and Methanogenic Substrate Availability.

    PubMed

    Blake, Lynsay I; Tveit, Alexander; Øvreås, Lise; Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2015-01-01

    Although cold environments are major contributors to global biogeochemical cycles, comparatively little is known about their microbial community function, structure, and limits of activity. In this study a microcosm based approach was used to investigate the effects of temperature, and methanogenic substrate amendment, (acetate, methanol and H2/CO2) on methanogen activity and methanogen community structure in high Arctic wetlands (Solvatnet and Stuphallet, Svalbard). Methane production was not detected in Stuphallet sediment microcosms (over a 150 day period) and occurred within Solvatnet sediments microcosms (within 24 hours) at temperatures from 5 to 40°C, the maximum temperature being at far higher than in situ maximum temperatures (which range from air temperatures of -1.4 to 14.1°C during summer months). Distinct responses were observed in the Solvatnet methanogen community under different short term incubation conditions. Specifically, different communities were selected at higher and lower temperatures. At lower temperatures (5°C) addition of exogenous substrates (acetate, methanol or H2/CO2) had no stimulatory effect on the rate of methanogenesis or on methanogen community structure. The community in these incubations was dominated by members of the Methanoregulaceae/WCHA2-08 family-level group, which were most similar to the psychrotolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanosphaerula palustris strain E1-9c. In contrast, at higher temperatures, substrate amendment enhanced methane production in H2/CO2 amended microcosms, and played a clear role in structuring methanogen communities. Specifically, at 30°C members of the Methanoregulaceae/WCHA2-08 predominated following incubation with H2/CO2, and Methanosarcinaceaeand Methanosaetaceae were enriched in response to acetate addition. These results may indicate that in transiently cold environments, methanogen communities can rapidly respond to moderate short term increases in temperature, but not

  5. Response of Methanogens in Arctic Sediments to Temperature and Methanogenic Substrate Availability

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Lynsay I.; Tveit, Alexander; Øvreås, Lise; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    Although cold environments are major contributors to global biogeochemical cycles, comparatively little is known about their microbial community function, structure, and limits of activity. In this study a microcosm based approach was used to investigate the effects of temperature, and methanogenic substrate amendment, (acetate, methanol and H2/CO2) on methanogen activity and methanogen community structure in high Arctic wetlands (Solvatnet and Stuphallet, Svalbard). Methane production was not detected in Stuphallet sediment microcosms (over a 150 day period) and occurred within Solvatnet sediments microcosms (within 24 hours) at temperatures from 5 to 40°C, the maximum temperature being at far higher than in situ maximum temperatures (which range from air temperatures of -1.4 to 14.1°C during summer months). Distinct responses were observed in the Solvatnet methanogen community under different short term incubation conditions. Specifically, different communities were selected at higher and lower temperatures. At lower temperatures (5°C) addition of exogenous substrates (acetate, methanol or H2/CO2) had no stimulatory effect on the rate of methanogenesis or on methanogen community structure. The community in these incubations was dominated by members of the Methanoregulaceae/WCHA2-08 family-level group, which were most similar to the psychrotolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanosphaerula palustris strain E1-9c. In contrast, at higher temperatures, substrate amendment enhanced methane production in H2/CO2 amended microcosms, and played a clear role in structuring methanogen communities. Specifically, at 30°C members of the Methanoregulaceae/WCHA2-08 predominated following incubation with H2/CO2, and Methanosarcinaceaeand Methanosaetaceae were enriched in response to acetate addition. These results may indicate that in transiently cold environments, methanogen communities can rapidly respond to moderate short term increases in temperature, but not

  6. Anaerobic biodegradability and methanogenic toxicity of key constituents in copper chemical mechanical planarization effluents of the semiconductor industry.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Jeremy; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Zhou, Michael; Ogden, Kimberly L; Field, Jim A

    2005-06-01

    Copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) effluents can account for 30-40% of the water discharge in semiconductor manufacturing. CMP effluents contain high concentrations of soluble copper and a complex mixture of organic constituents. The aim of this study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the treatability of CMP effluents in anaerobic sulfidogenic bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge by testing individual compounds expected in the CMP effluents. Of all the compounds tested (copper (II), benzotriazoles, polyethylene glycol (M(n) 300), polyethylene glycol (M(n) 860) monooleate, perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate, citric acid, oxalic acid and isopropanol) only copper was found to be inhibitory to methanogenic activity at the concentrations tested. Most of the organic compounds tested were biodegradable with the exception of perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate and benzotriazoles under sulfate reducing conditions and with the exception of the same compounds as well as Triton X-100 under methanogenic conditions. The susceptibility of key components in CMP effluents to anaerobic biodegradation combined with their low microbial inhibition suggest that CMP effluents should be amenable to biological treatment in sulfate reducing bioreactors.

  7. Simulation of the inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a two-compartment upflow bioreactor subjected to molybdate injection.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, E B; de Andrade Lima, L R P

    2016-08-01

    Souring of oil fields during secondary oil recovery by water injection occurs mainly due to the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) adhered to the rock surface in the vicinity of injection wells. Upflow packed-bed bioreactors have been used in petroleum microbiology because of its similarity to the oil field near the injection wells or production. However, these reactors do not realistically describe the regions near the injection wells, which are characterized by the presence of a saturated zone and a void region close to the well. In this study, the hydrodynamics of the two-compartment packing-free/packed-bed pilot bioreactor that mimics an oil reservoir was studied. The packed-free compartment was modeled using a continuous stirred tank model with mass exchange between active and stagnant zones, whereas the packed-bed compartment was modeled using a piston-dispersion-exchange model. The proposed model adequately represents the hydrodynamic of the packed-free/packed-bed bioreactor while the simulations provide important information about the characteristics of the residence time distribution (RTD) curves for different sets of model parameters. Simulations were performed to represent the control of the sulfate-reducing bacteria activity in the bioreactor with the use of molybdate in different scenarios. The simulations show that increased amounts of molybdate cause an effective inhibition of the souring sulfate-reducing bacteria activity.

  8. Impacts of different draw solutions on a novel anaerobic forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFOMBR).

    PubMed

    Tang, Melvin Kai Yin; Ng, How Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two anaerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (AnFOMBRs), Rchloride and Rsulfate, were operated for 100 days using NaCl and Na2SO4 as the draw solution, respectively. The operating conditions were identical for both systems, with a solids retention time of 30 d, hydraulic retention time of 8 h and using cellulose triacetate FO membrane. High rejection performance of FO membranes resulted in salinity accumulation in the bioreactors. Rchloride and Rsulfate reached a stable conductivity of about 35 and 11 mS/cm, respectively, at the end of the experimental run. Hypersalinity of Rchloride undesirably impacted biological growth; mixed liquor volatile suspended solids in Rchloride was much lower at 376 mg/L, whereas that of Rsulfate was 1,170 mg/L. Organic removals were excellent due to reduced organic loadings at low fluxes and thus, Rsulfate and Rchloride achieved secondary total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies of at least 75%. Both AnFOMBRs started with an initial flux of 5 LMH. Flux for Rchloride stabilized at 0.25 LMH, while Rsulfate at 0.96 LMH. The high salinities of both reactors negatively impacted methanogenic growth. Application of the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique confirmed the ousting of methanogens by sulfate reducing bacteria from the anaerobic consortium. Sparsely located methanogens were detected in Rchloride but none were detected in Rsulfate.

  9. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  10. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J; Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D Martin; Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  11. Microbiology and biochemistry of the methanogenic archaeobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbanat, Darren R.; Aceti, David J.; Baron, Stephen F.; Terlesky, Katherine C.; Ferry, James C.

    The methane producing bacteria area diverse group of organisms that function in nature with other groups of strictly anaerobic bacteria to convert complex organic matter to methane and carbon dioxide. The methanogens belong to the archaeobacteria, a third primary kingdom distinct from all other procaryotes (eubacteria) and eucaryotes. The distinction is based on the unique structures of cell wall and membrane components present in archaeobacteria, as well as differences in the highly conserved 16s rRNA sequences among the three kingdoms. In addition, the methanogens contain several novel cofactors that function as one-carbon carriers during the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane with electrons derived from the oxidation of H2 or formate. Methanogens also convert acetate to methane by a pathway distinct from that for carbon dioxide reduction. The pathway involves activation of acetate to acetyl-SCoA followed by decarbonylation and reduction of the methyl group to methane coupled to the oxidation of the carbonyl group to carbon dioxide.

  12. Bioactive fractions from the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus L. have an anti-methanogenic effect against key rumen methanogens.

    PubMed

    Banik, Bidhyut K; Durmic, Zoey; Erskine, William; Revell, Clinton K; Vadhanabhuti, Joy; McSweeney, Christopher S; Padmanabha, Jagadish; Flematti, Gavin R; Algreiby, Azizah A; Vercoe, Philip E

    2016-06-01

    Methanogenic archaea (methanogens) are common inhabitants of the mammalian intestinal tract. In ruminants, they are responsible for producing abundant amounts of methane during digestion of food, but selected bioactive plants and compounds may inhibit this activity. Recently, we have identified that, Biserrula pelecinus L. (biserrula) is one such plant and the current study investigated the specific anti-methanogenic activity of the plant. Bioassay-guided extraction and fractionation, coupled with in vitro fermentation batch culture were used to select the most bioactive fractions of biserrula. The four fractions were then tested against five species of methanogens grown in pure culture. Fraction bioactivity was assessed by measuring methane production and amplification of the methanogen mcrA gene. Treatments that showed bioactivity were subcultured in fresh broth without the bioactive fraction to distinguish between static and cidal effects. All four fractions were active against pure cultures, but the F2 fraction was the most consistent inhibitor of both methane production and cell growth, affecting four species of methanogens and also producing equivocal-cidal effects on the methanogens. Other fractions had selective activity affecting only some methanogens, or reducing either methane production or methanogenic cell growth. In conclusion, the anti-methanogenic activity of biserrula can be linked to compounds contained in selected bioactive fractions, with the F2 fraction strongly affecting key rumen methanogens. Further study is required to identify the specific plant compounds in biserrula that are responsible for the anti-methanogenic activity. These findings will help devise novel strategies to control methanogen populations and activity in the rumen, and consequently contribute in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Sarah E.; Wright, André-Denis G.; McBride, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo. PMID:21253540

  16. Methanopyrus kandleri: an archaeal methanogen unrelated to all other known methanogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burggraf, S.; Stetter, K. O.; Rouviere, P.; Woese, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence shows that the newly discovered hyperthermophilic methanogen, Methanopryus kandleri, is phylogenetically unrelated to any other known methanogen. The organism represents a separate lineage originating near the root of the archaeal tree. Although the 16S rRNA sequence of Mp. kandleri resembles euryarchaeal 16S rRNAs more than it does crenarchaeal, it shows more crenarchaeal signature features than any known euryarchaeal rRNA. Attempts to place it in relation to the root of the archaeal tree show that the Mp. kandleri lineage likely arises from the euryarchaeal branch of the tree. While the existence of so deeply branching a methanogenic lineage brings into question the thesis that methanogenesis evolved from an earlier metabolism similar to that seen in Thermococcus, it at the same time reinforces the notion that the aboriginal [correction of aborginal] archaeon was a thermophile.

  17. Methanopyrus kandleri: an archaeal methanogen unrelated to all other known methanogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burggraf, S.; Stetter, K. O.; Rouviere, P.; Woese, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence shows that the newly discovered hyperthermophilic methanogen, Methanopryus kandleri, is phylogenetically unrelated to any other known methanogen. The organism represents a separate lineage originating near the root of the archaeal tree. Although the 16S rRNA sequence of Mp. kandleri resembles euryarchaeal 16S rRNAs more than it does crenarchaeal, it shows more crenarchaeal signature features than any known euryarchaeal rRNA. Attempts to place it in relation to the root of the archaeal tree show that the Mp. kandleri lineage likely arises from the euryarchaeal branch of the tree. While the existence of so deeply branching a methanogenic lineage brings into question the thesis that methanogenesis evolved from an earlier metabolism similar to that seen in Thermococcus, it at the same time reinforces the notion that the aboriginal [correction of aborginal] archaeon was a thermophile.

  18. Levels of water-soluble vitamins in methanogenic and non-methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The levels of seven water-soluble vitamins in Methanobacterium thermoautotropicum, Methanococcus voltae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were compared by using a vitamin-requiring Leuconostoc strain. Both methanogens contained levels of folic acid and pantothenic acid which were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contained levels of thiamine, biotin, nicotinic acid, and pyridoxine which were approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. The thiamine level in Methanococcus voltae was approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Only the levels of riboflavin (and nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in Methanococcus voltae) were approximately equal in the methanogens and nonmethanogens. Folic acid may have been present in extracts of methanogens merely as a precursor, by-product, or hydrolysis product of methanopterin.

  19. Methanopyrus kandleri: an archaeal methanogen unrelated to all other known methanogens.

    PubMed

    Burggraf, S; Stetter, K O; Rouviere, P; Woese, C R

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence shows that the newly discovered hyperthermophilic methanogen, Methanopryus kandleri, is phylogenetically unrelated to any other known methanogen. The organism represents a separate lineage originating near the root of the archaeal tree. Although the 16S rRNA sequence of Mp. kandleri resembles euryarchaeal 16S rRNAs more than it does crenarchaeal, it shows more crenarchaeal signature features than any known euryarchaeal rRNA. Attempts to place it in relation to the root of the archaeal tree show that the Mp. kandleri lineage likely arises from the euryarchaeal branch of the tree. While the existence of so deeply branching a methanogenic lineage brings into question the thesis that methanogenesis evolved from an earlier metabolism similar to that seen in Thermococcus, it at the same time reinforces the notion that the aboriginal [correction of aborginal] archaeon was a thermophile.

  20. Efficacy of wood charcoal and its modified form as packing media for biofiltration of isoprene.

    PubMed

    Srivastva, Navnita; Singh, Ram S; Dubey, Suresh K

    2017-07-01

    The efficacy of wood charcoal (WC) and nutrient-enriched wood charcoal (NWC) as biofilter packing media were assessed for isoprene biodegradation in a bioreactor comprising bioscrubber and a biofilter connected in series and inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. The bioreactors using WC and NWC exhibited >90% removal efficiency and around 369 g m(-3) h(-1) elimination capacity at around 404 g m(-3) h(-1) inlet loading rate. In both the bioreactors, the biofilter component showed better degradation capacity compared to the bioscrubber unit. The kinetic parameters, maximum elimination capacity, ECmax; substrate constant, Ks and ECmax/Ks for Michaelis-Menten model were evaluated. The lower Ks for the WC packed bioreactor indicated that ECmax achieved, was faster compared to others, while higher ECmax and ECmax/Ks for the NWC packed bioreactor suggests its superiority in isoprene abatement in the continuous mode. A comparison of the available published information on biofiltration of isoprene reflected polyurethane foam as the superior packing media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel molecular markers for the detection of methanogens and phylogenetic analyses of methanogenic communities

    PubMed Central

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Pyzik, Adam; Romaniuk, Krzysztof; Sobczak, Adam; Szczesny, Pawel; Lipinski, Leszek; Bartosik, Dariusz; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenic Archaea produce approximately one billion tons of methane annually, but their biology remains largely unknown. This is partially due to the large phylogenetic and phenotypic diversity of this group of organisms, which inhabit various anoxic environments including peatlands, freshwater sediments, landfills, anaerobic digesters and the intestinal tracts of ruminants. Research is also hampered by the inability to cultivate methanogenic Archaea. Therefore, biodiversity studies have relied on the use of 16S rRNA and mcrA [encoding the α subunit of the methyl coenzyme M (methyl-CoM) reductase] genes as molecular markers for the detection and phylogenetic analysis of methanogens. Here, we describe four novel molecular markers that should prove useful in the detailed analysis of methanogenic consortia, with a special focus on methylotrophic methanogens. We have developed and validated sets of degenerate PCR primers for the amplification of genes encoding key enzymes involved in methanogenesis: mcrB and mcrG (encoding β and γ subunits of the methyl-CoM reductase, involved in the conversion of methyl-CoM to methane), mtaB (encoding methanol-5-hydroxybenzimidazolylcobamide Co-methyltransferase, catalyzing the conversion of methanol to methyl-CoM) and mtbA (encoding methylated [methylamine-specific corrinoid protein]:coenzyme M methyltransferase, involved in the conversion of mono-, di- and trimethylamine into methyl-CoM). The sensitivity of these primers was verified by high-throughput sequencing of PCR products amplified from DNA isolated from microorganisms present in anaerobic digesters. The selectivity of the markers was analyzed using phylogenetic methods. Our results indicate that the selected markers and the PCR primer sets can be used as specific tools for in-depth diversity analyses of methanogenic consortia. PMID:26217325

  2. Study of methanogen communities associated with different rumen protozoal populations

    PubMed Central

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    Protozoa-associated methanogens (PAM) are considered one of the most active communities in the rumen methanogenesis. This experiment investigated whether methanogens are sequestrated within rumen protozoa, and structural differences between rumen free-living methanogens and PAM. Rumen protozoa were harvested from totally faunated sheep, and six protozoal fractions (plus free-living microorganisms) were generated by sequential filtration. Holotrich-monofaunated sheep were also used to investigate the holotrich-associated methanogens. Protozoal size determined the number of PAM as big protozoa had 1.7–3.3 times more methanogen DNA than smaller protozoa, but also more endosymbiotic bacteria (2.2- to 3.5-fold times). Thus, similar abundance of methanogens with respect to total bacteria were observed across all protozoal fractions and free-living microorganisms, suggesting that methanogens are not accumulated within rumen protozoa in a greater proportion to that observed in the rumen as a whole. All rumen methanogen communities had similar diversity (22.2 ± 3.4 TRFs). Free-living methanogens composed a conserved community (67% similarity within treatment) in the rumen with similar diversity but different structures than PAM (P < 0.05). On the contrary, PAM constituted a more variable community (48% similarity), which differed between holotrich and total protozoa (P < 0.001). Thus, PAM constitutes a community, which requires further investigation as part of methane mitigation strategies. PMID:25195951

  3. Kinetic modelling and microbial community assessment of anaerobic biphasic fixed film bioreactor treating distillery spent wash.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Bhavik K; Pathak, Hilor; Mohana, Sarayu; Shouche, Yogesh; Singh, Vasdev; Madamwar, Datta

    2011-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion, microbial community structure and kinetics were studied in a biphasic continuously fed, upflow anaerobic fixed film reactor treating high strength distillery wastewater. Treatment efficiency of the bioreactor was investigated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLR 5-20 kg COD m⁻³ d⁻¹). Applying the modified Stover-Kincannon model to the reactor, the maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) and saturation value constant (K(B)) were found to be 2 kg m⁻³ d⁻¹ and 1.69 kg m⁻³ d⁻¹ respectively. Bacterial community structures of acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were assessed using culture-independent analyses. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes exhibited a total of 123 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) comprising 49 from acidogenic reactor and 74 (28 of eubacteria and 46 of archaea) from methanogenic reactor. The findings reveal the role of Lactobacillus sp. (Firmicutes) as dominant acid producing organisms in acidogenic reactor and Methanoculleus sp. (Euryarchaeotes) as foremost methanogens in methanogenic reactor.

  4. 16S ribosomal DNA-directed PCR primers for ruminal methanogens and identification of methanogens colonising young lambs.

    PubMed

    Skillman, Lucy C; Evans, Paul N; Naylor, Graham E; Morvan, Brieuc; Jarvis, Graeme N; Joblin, Keith N

    2004-10-01

    The population densities and identities of methanogens colonising new-born lambs in a grazing flock were determined from rumen samples collected at regular intervals after birth. Methanogen colonisation was found at the first sampling (1-3 days after birth) and population densities reached around 10(4) methanogens per gram at 1 week of age. Population densities increased in an exponential manner to a maximum of 10(8)-10(9) per gram at 3 weeks of age. To identify methanogens, PCR primers specific for each of the Archaea; a grouping of the orders Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales and Methanococcales; the order Methanobacteriales; the order Methanococcales; the order Methanosarcinales; the genus Methanobacterium; and the genus Methanobrevibacter were designed. Primer-pair specificities were confirmed in tests with target and non-target micro-organisms. PCR analysis of DNA extracts revealed that all the detectable ruminal methanogens belonged to the order Methanobacteriales, with no methanogens belonging to the Methanomicrobiales, the Methanosarcinales, or the Methanococcales being detected. In 3 lambs, the initial colonising methanogens were Methanobrevibacter spp. and in 2 lambs were a mixture of Methanobrevibacter and Methanobacterium spp. In the latter case, the initial colonising Methanobacterium spp. subsequently disappeared and were not detectable 12-19 days after birth. Seven weeks after birth, lambs contained only Methanobrevibacter spp. This study, the first to provide information on the identities of methanogens colonising pre-ruminants, suggests that the predominant methanogens found in the mature rumen establish very soon after birth and well before a functioning rumen develops.

  5. Removal of Cyclohexane from a Contaminated Air Stream Using a Dense Phase Membrane Bioreactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    E.J. Nyns. “Pressure-drops control strategy in a fixed - bed reactor,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, 81: 115-122 (2001). UFC (Unified...21 Carbon Adsorption Systems .....................................................................................21...gases are conventional bioreactor designs including bioscrubbers, biotrickling filters, and packed beds (Min, et al, 2002). Bioscrubbers use

  6. Molecular identification of methanogenic archaea from surti buffaloes (bubalus bubalis), reveals more hydrogenotrophic methanogens phylotypes.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Pandya, P R; Parnerkar, S; Tripathi, A K; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2011-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming.

  7. Pack Artillery, A Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Washington, DC: American Untv Soro, 1965. UC300 Parrino , Michael Francis. An Introduction to Pack P3 Transport and Pack Artillery; the Role of the Mule...Field for the Territorial Force," JORAj 37:15, 1910. " Parrino , Michael F. "Development of Pack Artillery and Its Signi- ficance in Modern Warfare

  8. Enzymatic cascade bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Blake A.; Volponi, Joanne V.; Ingersoll, David; Walker, Andrew

    2007-09-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  9. Propionic acid fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 in a multi-point fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Hai; Chen, Fei; Xu, Hong; Wu, Bo; Yao, Jun; Ying, Han-Jie; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2010-11-01

    Propionic acid was produced in a multi-point fibrous-bed (MFB) bioreactor by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015. The MFB bioreactor, comprising spiral cotton fiber packed in a modified 7.5-l bioreactor, was effective for cell-immobilized propionic acid production compared with conventional free cell fermentation. Batch fermentations at various glucose concentrations were investigated in the MFB bioreactor. Based on analysis of the time course of production, a fed-batch strategy was applied for propionic acid production. The maximum propionic acid concentration was 67.05 g l(-1) after 496 h of fermentation, and the proportion of propionic acid to total organic acids was approximately 78.28% (w/w). The MFB bioreactor exhibited excellent production stability during batch fermentation and the propionic acid productivity remained high after 78 days of fermentation.

  10. BioReactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, John; Roberts, Randy; Cleland, Tim; Gray, Perry

    2003-04-18

    BioReactor is a simulation tool kit for modeling networks of coupled chemical processes (or similar productions rules). The tool kit is implemented in C++ and has the following functionality: 1. Monte Carlo discrete event simulator 2. Solvers for ordinary differential equations 3. Genetic algorithm optimization routines for reverse engineering of models using either Monte Carlo or ODE representation )i.e., 1 or 2)

  11. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  12. Genomic characterization of methanomicrobiales reveals three classes of methanogens.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-06-04

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  13. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Hooper, Sean; Lykidis, A; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla L.; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  14. Sulfur formation and recovery in a thiosulfate-oxidizing bioreactor.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, A; Meulepas, R; Revah, S

    2008-08-01

    This work describes the design and performance of a thiosulfate-oxidizing bioreactor that allowed high elemental sulfur production and recovery efficiency. The reactor system, referred to as a Supernatant-Recycling Settler Bioreactor (SRSB), consisted of a cylindrical upflow reactor and a separate aeration vessel. The reactor was equipped with an internal settler and packing material (structured corrugated PVC sheets) to facilitate both cell retention and the settling of the formed elemental sulfur. The supernatant from the reactor was continuously recirculated through the aerator. An inlet thiosulfate concentration of 100 mmol l(-1) was used. The reactor system was fed with 89 mmol l(-1) d(-1) thiosulfate reaching 98 to 100% thiosulfate conversion with an elemental sulfur yield of 77%. Ninety-three percent of the produced sulfur was harvested from the bottom of the reactor as sulfur sludge. The dry sulfur sludge contained 87% elemental sulfur. The inclusion of an internal settler and packing material in the reactor system resulted in an effective retention of sulfur and biomass inside the bioreactor, preventing the oxidation of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur to sulfate in the aerator and, therefore, improving the efficiency of elemental sulfur formation and recovery.

  15. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  16. Molecular ecological perspective of methanogenic archaeal community in rice agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Alpana, Singh; Vishwakarma, P; Adhya, T K; Inubushi, K; Dubey, S K

    2017-10-15

    Methane leads to global warming owing to its warming potential higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Rice fields represent the major source of methane (CH4) emission as the recent estimates range from 34 to 112 Tg CH4 per year. Biogenic methane is produced by anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and isolation methodologies enabled investigators to decipher methanogens to be unexpectedly diverse in phylogeny and ecology. Exploring the link between biogeochemical methane cycling and methanogen community dynamics can, therefore, provide a more effective mechanistic understanding of CH4 emission from rice fields. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the diversity and activity of methanogens, factors controlling their ecology, possible interactions between rice plants and methanogens, and their potential involvement in the source relationship of greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phage diversity in a methanogenic digester.

    PubMed

    Park, M-O; Ikenaga, H; Watanabe, K

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that phages are present in natural and engineered ecosystems and influence the structure and performance of prokaryotic communities. However, little has been known about phages occurring in anaerobic ecosystems, including those in methanogenic digesters for waste treatment. This study investigated phages produced in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket methanogenic digester treating brewery wastes. Phage-like particles (PLPs) in the influent and effluent of the digester were concentrated and purified by sequential filtration and quantified and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence assay, and field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). Results indicate that numbers of PLPs in the effluent of the digester exceeded 1 x 10(9) L-1 and at least 10 times greater than those in the influent, suggesting that substantial amounts of PLPs were produced in the digester. A production rate of the PLPs was estimated at least 5.2 x 10(7) PLPs day-1 L-1. TEM and FIGE showed that a variety of phages were produced in the digester, including those affiliated with Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Cystoviridae.

  18. Energetics of syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Schink, B

    1997-01-01

    Fatty acids and alcohols are key intermediates in the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, e.g., in anaerobic sewage sludge digestors or freshwater lake sediments. They are produced by classical fermenting bacteria for disposal of electrons derived in simultaneous substrate oxidations. Methanogenic bacteria can degrade primarily only one-carbon compounds. Therefore, acetate, propionate, ethanol, and their higher homologs have to be fermented further to one-carbon compounds. These fermentations are called secondary or syntrophic fermentations. They are endergonic processes under standard conditions and depend on intimate coupling with methanogenesis. The energetic situation of the prokaryotes cooperating in these processes is problematic: the free energy available in the reactions for total conversion of substrate to methane attributes to each partner amounts of energy in the range of the minimum biochemically convertible energy, i.e., 20 to 25 kJ per mol per reaction. This amount corresponds to one-third of an ATP unit and is equivalent to the energy required for a monovalent ion to cross the charged cytoplasmic membrane. Recent studies have revealed that syntrophically fermenting bacteria synthesize ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation and reinvest part of the ATP-bound energy into reversed electron transport processes, to release the electrons at a redox level accessible by the partner bacteria and to balance their energy budget. These findings allow us to understand the energy economy of these bacteria on the basis of concepts derived from the bioenergetics of other microorganisms. PMID:9184013

  19. Chemical markers for rumen methanogens and methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    McCartney, C A; Bull, I D; Dewhurst, R J

    2013-06-01

    The targeting of mcrA or 16S rRNA genes by quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the dominant method for quantifying methanogens in rumen. There are considerable discrepancies between estimates based on different primer sets, and the literature is equivocal about the relationship with methane production. There are a number of problems with qPCR, including low primer specificity, multiple copies of genes and multiple genomes per cell. Accordingly, we have investigated alternative markers for methanogens, on the basis of the distinctive ether lipids of archaeal cell membranes. The membranes of Archaea contain dialkyl glycerol ethers such as 2,3-diphytanayl-O-sn-glycerol (archaeol), and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) such as caldarchaeol (GDGT-0) in different proportions. The relationships between estimates of methanogen abundance using qPCR and archaeol measurements varied across primers. Studies in other ecosystems have identified environmental effects on the profile of ether lipids in Archaea. There is a long history of analysing easily accessible samples, such as faeces, urine and milk, to provide information about digestion and metabolism in livestock without the need for intrusive procedures. Purine derivatives in urine and odd-chain fatty acids in milk have been used to study rumen function. The association between volatile fatty acid proportions and methane production is probably the basis for empirical relationships between milk fatty acid profiles and methane production. However, these studies have not yet identified consistent predictors. We have evaluated the relationship between faecal archaeol concentration and methane production across a range of diets in studies on beef and dairy cattle. Faecal archaeol is diagnostic for ruminant faeces being below the limit of detection in faeces from non-ruminant herbivores. The relationship between faecal archaeol and methane production was significant when comparing treatment means across diets, but

  20. Development of droplet digital PCR assays for methanogenic taxa and examination of methanogen communities in full-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Jeong, So-Yeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a new DNA quantification platform without an external DNA calibrator. This study examined methanogen communities in four full-scale anaerobic digesters treating municipal sewage sludge, using ddPCR with taxon-specific primer/TaqMan probe sets (5 orders, 11 families, and 13 genera), many of which were developed in this study. Total methanogen abundance was positively correlated with hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature (p < 0.05), though the effect of HRT was stronger (r = 0.864 vs. 0.682, respectively). Moreover, total abundance was strongly correlated with biogas production rate (r = 0.896). HRT was positively correlated with seven methanogenic taxa, while temperature was positively or negatively correlated with 13 taxa (p < 0.05). For instance, the predominant genera Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina were negatively and positively associated, respectively, with temperature only (p < 0.05). Redundancy analysis and principal component analysis using the absolute-abundance dataset indicated that only temperature explained the variability in the methanogen communities at all classification levels. Therefore, HRT was the most important operational factor to influence net methanogen abundance and activity, while temperature governed the composition of the methanogen community. ddPCR enabled absolute quantification of methanogens without the external DNA standards and linked methanogen communities and operational factors, suggesting that it is a promising tool for analyzing the microbial ecology of anaerobic digestion.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Methanoregula formicica SMSPT, a Mesophilic Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen Isolated from a Methanogenic Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Zinder, Stephen H; Kamagata, Yoichi; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-09-04

    Methanoregula formicica SMSP(T) is a mesophilic H2/formate-utilizing methanogenic archaeon and a representative of the family Methanoregulaceae, a recently proposed novel family within the order Methanomicrobiales. Here, we report a 2.8-Mb complete genome sequence of this methanogenic archaeon.

  2. Redox zones stratification and the microbial community characteristics in a periphyton bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhuo; Liu, Wei; Wang, Fengwu; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong

    2016-03-01

    Bioremediation techniques based on microorganisms have been widely applied to treat polluted surface water, but the efficiencies have been limited, especially in deep and static waters. Microbial aggregates, known as periphyton, were introduced into a tank bioreactor to improve pollutants removal and a periphyton bioreactor with an 84 cm column was built to investigate microbe-wastewater interactions. Periphyton greatly improved water quality and produced a distinct stratification in the water column into five redox zones with slight overlaps. From top to bottom these were: oxygen reduction, nitrate reduction, iron reduction, sulfate reduction and methanogenic zone. Periphyton communities had high species diversities (767-947 OTUs) with the facultative zone (middle layer) having higher species richness and functional diversity than the aerobic (top layer) and anaerobic zones (bottom layer). A good knowledge of interactions between periphyton and water column stratification could benefit from integration of periphyton to improve bioremediation of deep and static water.

  3. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  4. Landfill bioreactor design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.

    1998-12-31

    Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

  5. Characteristics, process parameters, and inner components of anaerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive.

  6. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  7. Membrane bioreactors: Engineering aspects.

    PubMed

    Chang, H N

    1987-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors have in-situ separation capability lacking in other types of immobilized cell reactors. This makes them very useful for certain systems. Enzyme reactions utilizing cofactors and hydrolysis of macromolecules are advantageous in membrane reactors. Anaerobic cell culture may be efficiently carried out in membrane cell recycle systems, while aerobic cultures work well in dual hollow fiber reactors. Animal and plant cells have much a better chance of success in membrane reactors because of the protective environment of the reactor and the small oxygen uptake rate of these cells.

  8. Perfusion Bioreactor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

  9. Different cultivation methods to acclimatise ammonia-tolerant methanogenic consortia.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Mancini, Enrico; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-02-11

    Bioaugmentation with ammonia tolerant-methanogenic consortia was proposed as a solution to overcome ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion process recently. However, appropriate technology to generate ammonia tolerant methanogenic consortia is still lacking. In this study, three basic reactors (i.e. batch, fed-batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR)) operated at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed, based on methane production efficiency, incubation time, TAN/FAN (total ammonium nitrogen/free ammonia nitrogen) levels and maximum methanogenic activity. Overall, fed-batch cultivation was clearly the most efficient method compared to batch and CSTR. Specifically, by saving incubation time up to 150%, fed-batch reactors were acclimatised to nearly 2-fold higher FAN levels with a 37%-153% methanogenic activity improvement, compared to batch method. Meanwhile, CSTR reactors were inhibited at lower ammonia levels. Finally, specific methanogenic activity test showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were more active than aceticlastic methanogens in all FAN levels above 540mgNH3-NL(-1).

  10. Identification of toluene degraders in a methanogenic enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Fowler, S Jane; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Manefield, Mike; Gieg, Lisa M

    2014-09-01

    Methanogenic biodegradation involves the cooperative metabolism of syntrophic bacteria that catalyse the initial attack and subsequent degradation of hydrocarbons, and methanogens that convert intermediates such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide, formate, and/or acetate to methane. The identity of syntrophic microbes and the nature of their interactions with other syntrophs and methanogens are not well understood. Furthermore, it is difficult to isolate the organisms responsible for the initial activation and subsequent degradation of hydrocarbon substrates under methanogenic conditions due to the thermodynamic relationships that exist among microbes in methanogenic communities. We used time-resolved RNA stable isotope probing and RT-qPCR to identify the organisms involved in the initial attack on toluene and subsequent degradation reactions in a highly enriched toluene-degrading methanogenic culture. Our results reveal the importance of a Desulfosporosinus sp. in anaerobic toluene activation in the culture. Other organisms that appear to play roles in toluene degradation include Syntrophaceae, Desulfovibrionales and Chloroflexi. The high bacterial diversity observed in this culture and the extensive labelling of different phylogenetic groups over the course of the stable isotope probing experiment highlight the complexity of the relationships that exist in methanogenic ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved Technique for Identification and Enumeration of Methanogenic Bacterial Colonies on Roll Tubes by Epifluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Naoaki; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    1991-01-01

    Methanogenic fluorescent colonies can be clearly identified on roll tubes by using an epifluorescence microscope equipped with a × 2 objective. Methanogenic and nonmethanogenic colonies could be counted in roll tubes prepared from methanogenic enrichment cultures. Late-developing colonies appearing after 25 days of incubation were mainly methanogenic. PMID:16348613

  12. Electronically configured battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  13. Microbial precipitation of dolomite in methanogenic groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Jennifer A.; Bennett, Philip C.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Macpherson, G.L.; Milliken, Kitty L.

    2004-01-01

    We report low-temperature microbial precipitation of dolomite in dilute natural waters from both field and laboratory experiments. In a freshwater aquifer, microorganisms colonize basalt and nucleate nonstoichiometric dolomite on cell walls. In the laboratory, ordered dolomite formed at near-equilibrium conditions from groundwater with molar Mg:Ca ratios of <1; dolomite was absent in sterile experiments. Geochemical and microbiological data suggest that methanogens are the dominant metabolic guild in this system and are integral to dolomite precipitation. We hypothesize that the attached microbial consortium reacts with the basalt surface, releasing Mg and Ca into solution, which drives dolomite precipitation via nucleation on the cell wall. These findings provide insight into the long-standing dolomite problem and suggest a fundamental role for microbial processes in the formation of dolomite across a wide range of environmental conditions.

  14. Unique ATPases in the methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, J.R. Jr.; Al-Mahrouq, H.A.; Carper, S.W.; Rogers, K.R.

    1986-05-01

    The authors report the properties of two ATPase activities in methanogens. M. voltae is capable of ATP synthesis driven by an imposed membrane potential, but only in the presence of sodium. ATP synthesis is eliminated by monensin but not by SF6847. In the absence of medium potassium, addition of sodium to cells results in ATP synthesis, but only in the presence of a permeant counterion (TPB). These results indicate the presence of an electrogenic ATPase which translocates sodium without potassium. M. Thermoautotrophicum contains an active nucleoside triphosphatase activity, which is insensitive to DCCD and appears to associate with a large but soluble protein complex responsible for dissimilatory electron transfer. These results are consistent with a previously proposed unique bioenergetic scheme indicating direct coupling of ATP synthesis to electron transfer with ATP-driven sodium translocation responsible for internal ion homeostasis.

  15. Methanogenic Conversion of CO2 Into CH4

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.H., Ferry, J.G., Schoell, M.

    2012-05-06

    This SBIR project evaluated the potential to remediate geologic CO2 sequestration sites into useful methane gas fields by application of methanogenic bacteria. Such methanogens are present in a wide variety of natural environments, converting CO2 into CH4 under natural conditions. We conclude that the process is generally feasible to apply within many of the proposed CO2 storage reservoir settings. However, extensive further basic R&D still is needed to define the precise species, environments, nutrient growth accelerants, and economics of the methanogenic process. Consequently, the study team does not recommend Phase III commercial application of the technology at this early phase.

  16. The role of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in an acidogenic reactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory-scale acidogenic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was set up to test the effect of pH change on microbial community structure of the reactor biomass and process performance. No immediate performance change on acidogenesis was observed after the pH change. However, as the hydrogenotrophic methanogen population decreased, hydrogen content in biogas increased followed by a sharp decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with acetic acid (HAc) in particular. Recovery of reactor performance following pH correction was only apparent after recovery of hydrogenotrophic methanogen population. These suggested hydrogenotrophic methanogens played a very important role in performance of the acidogenic process.

  17. Microtechnology in space bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Walther, I; van der Schoot, B; Boillat, M; Muller, O; Cogoli, A

    1999-03-01

    Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. In the next decades it will play a prominent role in the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of the future projects in space biology. Bioreactors will be needed to supply fresh living material (cells and tissues) either to study still obscure basic biological mechanisms or to develop profitable bioprocesses which will take advantage of the peculiar microgravity conditions. Since more than twenty years, the Space Biology Group of the ETHZ is carrying out research projects in space (Space Shuttle/Spacelab, MIR Station, satellites, and sounding rockets) that involve also the development of space-qualified instrumentation. In the last ten years we have developed, in collaboration with Mecanex SA, Nyon, and the Institute of Microtechnology of the University of Neuchatel, a space bioreactor for the continuous culture of yeast cells under controlled conditions. Sensors, pH control, nutrients pump and fluid flowmeter are based on state-of-the-art silicon technology. After two successful space flights, a further improved version is presently prepared for a flight in the year 2000.

  18. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  19. Hydrogen-limited growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens at deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Ver Eecke, Helene C; Butterfield, David A; Huber, Julie A; Lilley, Marvin D; Olson, Eric J; Roe, Kevin K; Evans, Leigh J; Merkel, Alexandr Y; Cantin, Holly V; Holden, James F

    2012-08-21

    Microbial productivity at hydrothermal vents is among the highest found anywhere in the deep ocean, but constraints on microbial growth and metabolism at vents are lacking. We used a combination of cultivation, molecular, and geochemical tools to verify pure culture H(2) threshold measurements for hyperthermophilic methanogenesis in low-temperature hydrothermal fluids from Axial Volcano and Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Two Methanocaldococcus strains from Axial and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii showed similar Monod growth kinetics when grown in a bioreactor at varying H(2) concentrations. Their H(2) half-saturation value was 66 μM, and growth ceased below 17-23 μM H(2), 10-fold lower than previously predicted. By comparison, measured H(2) and CH(4) concentrations in fluids suggest that there was generally sufficient H(2) for Methanocaldococcus growth at Axial but not at Endeavour. Fluids from one vent at Axial (Marker 113) had anomalously high CH(4) concentrations and contained various thermal classes of methanogens based on cultivation and mcrA/mrtA analyses. At Endeavour, methanogens were largely undetectable in fluid samples based on cultivation and molecular screens, although abundances of hyperthermophilic heterotrophs were relatively high. Where present, Methanocaldococcus genes were the predominant mcrA/mrtA sequences recovered and comprised ∼0.2-6% of the total archaeal community. Field and coculture data suggest that H(2) limitation may be partly ameliorated by H(2) syntrophy with hyperthermophilic heterotrophs. These data support our estimated H(2) threshold for hyperthermophilic methanogenesis at vents and highlight the need for coupled laboratory and field measurements to constrain microbial distribution and biogeochemical impacts in the deep sea.

  20. Hydrogen-limited growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens at deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    PubMed Central

    Ver Eecke, Helene C.; Butterfield, David A.; Huber, Julie A.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Olson, Eric J.; Roe, Kevin K.; Evans, Leigh J.; Merkel, Alexandr Y.; Cantin, Holly V.; Holden, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial productivity at hydrothermal vents is among the highest found anywhere in the deep ocean, but constraints on microbial growth and metabolism at vents are lacking. We used a combination of cultivation, molecular, and geochemical tools to verify pure culture H2 threshold measurements for hyperthermophilic methanogenesis in low-temperature hydrothermal fluids from Axial Volcano and Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Two Methanocaldococcus strains from Axial and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii showed similar Monod growth kinetics when grown in a bioreactor at varying H2 concentrations. Their H2 half-saturation value was 66 μM, and growth ceased below 17–23 μM H2, 10-fold lower than previously predicted. By comparison, measured H2 and CH4 concentrations in fluids suggest that there was generally sufficient H2 for Methanocaldococcus growth at Axial but not at Endeavour. Fluids from one vent at Axial (Marker 113) had anomalously high CH4 concentrations and contained various thermal classes of methanogens based on cultivation and mcrA/mrtA analyses. At Endeavour, methanogens were largely undetectable in fluid samples based on cultivation and molecular screens, although abundances of hyperthermophilic heterotrophs were relatively high. Where present, Methanocaldococcus genes were the predominant mcrA/mrtA sequences recovered and comprised ∼0.2–6% of the total archaeal community. Field and coculture data suggest that H2 limitation may be partly ameliorated by H2 syntrophy with hyperthermophilic heterotrophs. These data support our estimated H2 threshold for hyperthermophilic methanogenesis at vents and highlight the need for coupled laboratory and field measurements to constrain microbial distribution and biogeochemical impacts in the deep sea. PMID:22869718

  1. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. Flat Pack Toy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with…

  4. TLC Pack Unpacked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, Margret; Colpaert, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    TLC Pack stands for Teaching Languages to Caregivers and is a course designed to support migrants working or hoping to work in the caregiving sector. The TLC Pack resources range from A2 to B2 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), and will be made available online in the six project languages: Dutch, English,…

  5. Theory of random packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makse, Hernan; Song, Chaoming; Wang, Ping

    2009-03-01

    We present a theory of random packings to describe the statistical mechanics of jammed matter with the aim of shedding light to the long-standing problem of characterizing the random close packing (RCP) and random loose packing (RLP) of particles. We describe the jammed system with equations of state relating observables such as entropy, coordination number, volume fraction, and compactivity as well as the probability distributions of volume and contacts. We follow a systematic route to classify packings into a phase diagram of jamming, from frictionless to frictional particles, from hard to deformable particles, from monodisperse to polydisperse systems, from spherical particles to nonspherical convex particles, in an attempt to understand the packing problem from a unifying perspective. The studies of RCP and RLP includes 2d, nd, and the mean field limit of infinite dimension.

  6. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; O'Neil, Kyle; Bradley, P.M.; Methe, B.A.; Ciufo, S.A.; Knobel, L.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem1-5. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

  7. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; O'Neill, Kathleen; Bradley, Paul M.; Methé, Barbara A.; Ciufo, Stacy A.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2002-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

  8. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Francis H; O'Neill, Kathleen; Bradley, Paul M; Methé, Barbara A; Ciufo, Stacy A; Knobel, LeRoy L; Lovley, Derek R

    2002-01-17

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

  9. The Effects of Perchlorate on Methane Production of Methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhart, T.; Kral, T. A.

    2010-04-01

    In May 2008, the Phoenix space craft analyzed the martian soil, detecting perchlorate, which is a highly oxidizing compound and potentially harmful to organic matter. This presentation discusses the effects that perchlorate has on methanogen growth.

  10. Influent wastewater microbiota and temperature influence anaerobic membrane bioreactor microbial community.

    PubMed

    Seib, M D; Berg, K J; Zitomer, D H

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable municipal wastewater recovery scenarios highlight benefits of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). However, influences of continuous seeding by influent wastewater and temperature on attached-growth AnMBRs are not well understood. In this study, four bench-scale AnMBR operated at 10 and 25°C were fed synthetic (SPE) and then real (PE) primary effluent municipal wastewater. Illumina sequencing revealed different bacterial communities in each AnMBR in response to temperature and bioreactor configuration, whereas differences were not observed in archaeal communities. Activity assays revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant methanogenic pathway at 10°C. The significant relative abundance of Methanosaeta at 10°C concomitant with low acetoclastic methanogenic activity may indicate possible Methanosaeta-Geobacter direct interspecies electron transfer. When AnMBR feed was changed to PE, continual seeding with wastewater microbiota caused AnMBR microbial communities to shift, becoming more similar to PE microbiota. Therefore, influent wastewater microbiota, temperature and reactor configuration influenced the AnMBR microbial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comment on methanogenic bacteria and the primitive ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    As the phenotype of methanogenic bacteria is suggested to have been one of the major factors creating a dynamic balance between CO2 and CH4 in the primitive atmosphere, these organisms are thought to be very ancient. Their antiquity may be further postulated by comparative characterization of their ribosomal RNA. Accepting this antiquity, it is concluded that a carbon-dioxide-methane cycle, driven by photosynthesis, was the major carbon cycle in primitive ecology, and that photosynthesis and methanogens were thus contemporaneous.

  12. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Populations of Methanogenic Bacteria in a Georgia Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Michael J.; Wiebe, William J.; Whitman, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Methanogens represented about 0.5% of the total bacteria in sediments from a Georgia salt marsh in which Spartina alterniflora is the predominant vegetation. The population of methanogens was composed of at least two groups of nearly equal size. One group was represented by cocci which were able to utilize trimethylamine and were unable to use H2 or acetate. The second group was composed of two subgroups which were able to utilize H2 but were unable to use trimethylamine or acetate. The more common subgroup included rod- or plate-shaped methanogens which could utilize isopropanol in addition to H2 and formate. The second subgroup included Methanococcus maripaludis, which utilized only H2 and formate. Other groups of methanogens were also present, including Methanosarcina sp. which utilized acetate, H2, and methylamines. In addition to the overall variability in the types of methanogens, the numbers of methanogens in sediments also exhibited significant spatial variability both within and between tall- and short-Spartina zones. Images PMID:16347628

  14. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominate in biogas reactors fed with defined substrates.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, K; Ratering, S; Baumann, R; Schmidt, M; Zerr, W; Schnell, S

    2012-09-01

    Methanogenic communities in 200L biogas reactors containing liquid manure were investigated for 33 d. The reactors were consecutively fed with casein, starch and cream. Real-time PCR with primers targeting the gene for methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) resulted in copy numbers of up to 2.1×10(9) g dry mass(-1). Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis revealed a stable community consisting of few hydrogenotrophic methanogens. One of the two most abundant species was closely related to Methanospirillum hungatei, whereas the other one was only distantly related to other methanogens, with Methanopyrus kandleri being the closest cultivated relative. Most probable number (MPN) cultivations were accomplished with a sample from a 600 m(3) reactor from which all manures used in the experiments originated, and equal cell counts of ca. 10(9) g dry mass(-1) were found for cultivations with acetate, H(2) and methanol. SSCP analysis of these samples and sequencing of the DNA bands identified different hydrogenotrophic methanogens in all samples, and acetoclastic methanogens closely related to Methanosarcina mazei in the samples cultivated with acetate and methanol. As the acetoclastic species were not found in any other SSCP sample, it was supposed that the ammonia values in the manure of the laboratory biogas reactor, which ranged from 2.48 to 3.61 g NH(4)-NL(-1), inhibited the growth of the acetoclastic methanogens.

  15. [Transgenic animals bioreactors].

    PubMed

    Gou, Ke-Mian; An, Xiao-Rong; Tian, Jian-Hui; Chen, Yong-Fu

    2002-01-01

    The production of human recombinant proteins in milk of transgenic farm animals offers a safe, very cost-effective source of commercially important proteins that cannot be produced as efficiently in adequate quantities by other methods. This review has summarized the current status of gene selection, vector construct, transgenic methods, economics, and obvious potential in transgenic animals bioreactors. Recently, a more powerful approach was adopted in the transgenic animals founded on the application of nuclear transfer. As we will illustrate, this strategy presents a breakthrough in the overall efficiency of generating transgenic farm animals, product consistency, and time of product development. The successful adaptation of Cre-/lox P-mediated site-specific DNA recombination systems in farm animals will offer unprecedented possibilities for generating transgenic animals.

  16. Spiral vane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

  17. Controlled-Turbulence Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwartz, Ray; Trinh, Tinh

    1989-01-01

    Two versions of bioreactor vessel provide steady supplies of oxygen and nutrients with little turbulence. Suspends cells in environment needed for sustenance and growth, while inflicting less damage from agitation and bubbling than do propeller-stirred reactors. Gentle environments in new reactors well suited to delicate mammalian cells. One reactor kept human kidney cells alive for as long as 11 days. Cells grow on carrier beads suspended in liquid culture medium that fills cylindrical housing. Rotating vanes - inside vessel but outside filter - gently circulates nutrient medium. Vessel stationary; magnetic clutch drives filter cylinder and vanes. Another reactor creates even less turbulence. Oxygen-permeable tubing wrapped around rod extending along central axis. Small external pump feeds oxygen to tubing through rotary coupling, and oxygen diffuses into liquid medium.

  18. Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

  19. Fast multipoint immobilized MOF bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Wu, Cheng-You; Chen, Chien-Yu; Singco, Brenda; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2014-07-14

    An enzyme-NBD@MOF bioreactor with exemplary proteolytic performance, even after successive reuse and storage, was produced through a novel, rapid and simple multipoint immobilization technique without chemical modification of the solid support. Enzyme loading and distribution could be directly monitored from the fluorescence emission of the bioreactor. The dye molecular dimension plays a role in its overall performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    and recycling of effluent supernatant were evaluated to maximize degradation and minimize water input. The off-gases proceeded to a bioregenerative air-treatment reactor, and the sludge effluent was investigated for multiple downstream uses including dewatering by reed beds, use as a nutrient supplement for fish or mushroom growth, and as a growth medium and nutrient source for various crops. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe I) reactor treated greywater and off-gases from the thermophilic aerobic digestion reactor which contained elevated levels of ammonia (NH3 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). BREATHe I development focused initially on removing greywater contaminants with clean air supplied to a biotrickling filter. Limited removal of organic carbon (70%) led to studies indicating that biodegradation metabolites of the surfactant disodium cocoamphodiacetate are recalcitrant. Subsequent studies showed that NH3 loaded at 150 mg/min and H2 S at 0.83 mg/min were removed completely, while removal of carbonaceous compounds from greywater remained constant. A BREATHe II reactor emphasized biofilters and biotrickling filters for removal of ersatz multicomponent gaseous waste streams representative of habitat air and atmospheric condensate. The model waste stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Both biofilters and biotrickling filters packed with different media were able to achieve complete removal of easily soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia within a short startup period, whereas methane was not removed because of its extreme aqueous insolubility. Different packing media and bioreactor configurations were subsequently assessed, as well as the effect of influent ammonia concentration. Research sponsored in part by NASA grant NAG5-12686.

  1. Evaluation of different configurations of hybrid membrane bioreactors for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Rodríguez, G; Cervantes-Avilés, P; Torres-Chávez, I; Bernal-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with the same dimensions were studied for 180 days: three hybrid growth membrane bioreactors with biofilm attached in different packing media and a conventional MBR (C-MBR). The four MBRs had an identical membrane module of hollow fiber with a nominal porous diameter of 0.4 μm. The MBRs were: (1) a C-MBR; (2) a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR), which was packed with 2 L of carrier Kaldnes-K1, presenting an exposed surface area of 678.90 m²/m³; (3) a non-submerged organic fixed bed (OFB-MBR) packed with 6.5 L of organic packing media composed of a mixture of cylindrical pieces of wood, providing an exposed surface area of 178.05 m²/m³; and (4) an inorganic fixed bed non-submerged membrane bioreactor (IFB-MBR) packed with 6 L of spherical volcanic pumice stone with an exposed surface area of 526.80 m²/m³. The four MBRs were fed at low organic loading (0.51 ± 0.19 kgCOD/m³ d). The results were recorded according to the behavior of the total resistance, transmembrane pressure (TMP), permeability, and removal percentages of the nutrients during the experimental time. The results showed that the MB-MBR presented the better performance on membrane filtration, while the higher nutrient removals were detected in the OFB-MBR and IFB-MBR.

  2. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  3. Packing in protein cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  4. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  5. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  6. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  7. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  8. Biotransformation of nitrocellulose under methanogenic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Caenepeel, B.M.; Freedman, D.; Kim, B.

    1996-11-01

    Treatment/disposal of nitrocellulose (NC) waste fines is a serious problem currently facing the US Army. For example, over 500,000 pounds of NC waste fines are generated annually at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant. While NC does not pose any human health problems, it is classified as a KO44 hazardous material because it is a highly energetic compound. Biological treatment of NC has been proposed as an economical alternative. However, evaluating the feasibility of biological treatment has been complicated by the lack of analytical methods for directly measuring NC. The purpose of this research was to adapt a cold acid digestion method for measuring the nitrogen content of NC when exposed to methanogenic and acetogenic conditions. Previous studies have indicated that NC inhibits methanogenesis and concluded that NC is not biodegradable under anaerobic conditions. The authors are examining the possibility that NC acts as a fortuitous electron acceptor. If so, the energetic content of NC will be reduced, resulting in a nonhazardous material. Results will be presented for the reduction of NC in methanol enrichment cultures developed from sewage sludge inoculum.

  9. Methanogenic Archaea and human periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Lepp, Paul W.; Brinig, Mary M.; Ouverney, Cleber C.; Palm, Katherine; Armitage, Gary C.; Relman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Archaea have been isolated from the human colon, vagina, and oral cavity, but have not been established as causes of human disease. In this study, we reveal a relationship between the severity of periodontal disease and the relative abundance of archaeal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA) in the subgingival crevice by using quantitative PCR. Furthermore, the relative abundance of archaeal small subunit rDNA decreased at treated sites in association with clinical improvement. Archaea were harbored by 36% of periodontitis patients and were restricted to subgingival sites with periodontal disease. The presence of archaeal cells at these sites was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The archaeal community at diseased sites was dominated by a Methanobrevibacter oralis-like phylotype and a distinct Methanobrevibacter subpopulation related to archaea that inhabit the gut of numerous animals. We hypothesize that methanogens participate in syntrophic relationships in the subgingival crevice that promote colonization by secondary fermenters during periodontitis. Because they are potential alternative syntrophic partners, our finding of larger Treponema populations sites without archaea provides further support for this hypothesis. PMID:15067114

  10. Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

    In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active

  11. Removal of tetrachloroethylene in an anaerobic column bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Noftsker, C; Watwood, M E

    1997-09-01

    Removal of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene; C2Cl4) by microbial consortia from two sites with different C2Cl4 exposure histories was examined in a bench-scale anaerobic column bioreactor. It was hypothesized that optimal removal would be observed in the reactor packed with sediments having an extensive exposure history. Microbial consortia were enriched from hyporheic-zone (HZ) sediments from the Portneuf aquifer near Pocatello, Idaho, and from industrial-zone (IZ) sediments from a highly contaminated aquifer in Portland, Oregon. Lactate and acetate were the electron donors during experiments conducted over 9 and 7 months for HZ and IZ sediments, respectively. In the HZ bioreactor, the retention time ranged from 31 h to 81 h, and inlet C2Cl4 concentrations ranged from 0.1 ppm to 1.0 ppm. Dechlorination of C2Cl4 averaged 60% and reached a maximum of 78%. An increase in C:N from 27:1 to 500:1 corresponded to an 18% increase in removal efficiency. Trichloroethylene production corresponded to decreased effluent C2Cl4; further intermediates were not detected. In the IZ bioreactor, the retention time varied from 34 h to 115 h; the inlet C2Cl4 concentration was 1.0 ppm. C2Cl4 removal averaged 70% with a maximum of 98%. Trichloroethylene and cis-dichloroethylene were detected in the effluent. Increases in C:N from 50:1 to 250:1 enhanced dechlorination activity.

  12. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  13. Mathematical modeling of the integrated process of mercury bioremediation in the industrial bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Głuszcz, Paweł; Petera, Jerzy; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2011-03-01

    The mathematical model of the integrated process of mercury contaminated wastewater bioremediation in a fixed-bed industrial bioreactor is presented. An activated carbon packing in the bioreactor plays the role of an adsorbent for ionic mercury and at the same time of a carrier material for immobilization of mercury-reducing bacteria. The model includes three basic stages of the bioremediation process: mass transfer in the liquid phase, adsorption of mercury onto activated carbon and ionic mercury bioreduction to Hg(0) by immobilized microorganisms. Model calculations were verified using experimental data obtained during the process of industrial wastewater bioremediation in the bioreactor of 1 m³ volume. It was found that the presented model reflects the properties of the real system quite well. Numerical simulation of the bioremediation process confirmed the experimentally observed positive effect of the integration of ionic mercury adsorption and bioreduction in one apparatus.

  14. Field Evidence for Magnetite Formation by a Methanogenic Microbial Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossbach, S.; Beaver, C. L.; Williams, A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Lund, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aged, subsurface petroleum spill in Bemidji, Minnesota, has been surveyed with magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements. High MS values were found in the free-product phase around the fluctuating water table. Although we had hypothesized that high MS values are related to the occurrence of the mineral magnetite resulting from the activity of iron-reducing bacteria, our microbial analysis pointed to the presence of a methanogenic microbial community at the locations and depths of the highest MS values. Here, we report on a more detailed microbial analysis based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of sediment samples from four consecutive years. In addition, we provide geochemical data (FeII/FeIII concentrations) to refine our conceptual model of methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation at aged petroleum spills and demonstrate that the microbial induced changes of sediment properties can be monitored with MS. The methanogenic microbial community at the Bemidji site consisted mainly of the syntrophic, hydrocarbon-degrading Smithella and the hydrogenotrophic, methane-generating Methanoregula. There is growing evidence in the literature that not only Bacteria, but also some methanogenic Archaea are able to reduce iron. In fact, a recent study reported that the methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila produced magnetite during the reduction of ferrihydrite in a laboratory experiment when hydrogen was present. Therefore, our finding of high MS values and the presence of magnetite in the methanogenic zone of an aged, subsurface petroleum spill could very well be the first field evidence for magnetite formation during methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation.

  15. Micro-scale H2–CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D. M.; Voigt, Niels V.; Kofoed, M. W.; Revsbech, Niels P.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m3 H2 m-3 day-1 developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9. PMID:27582736

  16. Micro-scale H2-CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D M; Voigt, Niels V; Kofoed, M W; Revsbech, Niels P

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m(3) H2 m(-3) day(-1) developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9.

  17. Progress in bioreactors of bioartificial livers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Bo; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Li, Lan-Juan

    2009-04-01

    Bioartificial liver support systems are becoming an effective therapy for hepatic failure. Bioreactors, as key devices in these systems, can provide a favorable growth and metabolic environment, mass exchange, and immunological isolation as a platform. Currently, stagnancy in bioreactor research is the main factor restricting the development of bioartificial liver support systems. A PubMed database search of English-language literature was performed to identify relevant articles using the keywords "bioreactor", "bioartificial liver", "hepatocyte", and "liver failure". More than 40 articles related to the bioreactors of bioartificial livers were reviewed. Some progress has been made in the improvement of structures, functions, and modified macromolecular materials related to bioreactors in recent years. The current data on the improvement of bioreactor configurations for bioartificial livers or on the potential of the use of certain scaffold materials in bioreactors, combined with the clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of cultured hepatocytes in vitro, indicate that the AMC (Academic Medical Center) BAL bioreactor and MELS (modular extracorporeal liver support) BAL bioreactor system can partly replace the synthetic and metabolic functions of the liver in phase I clinical studies. In addition, it has been indicated that the microfluidic PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) bioreactor, or SlideBioreactor, and the microfabricated grooved bioreactor are appropriate for hepatocyte culture, which is also promising for bioartificial livers. Similarly, modified scaffolds can promote the adhesion, growth, and function of hepatocytes, and provide reliable materials for bioreactors. Bioreactors, as key devices in bioartificial livers, play an important role in the therapy for liver failure both now and in the future. Bioreactor configurations are indispensable for the development of bioartificial livers used for liver failure, just as the modified scaffold materials available for

  18. Methanogenic archaea isolated from Taiwan's Chelungpu fault.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sue-Yao; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2011-02-01

    Terrestrial rocks, petroleum reservoirs, faults, coal seams, and subseafloor gas hydrates contain an abundance of diverse methanoarchaea. However, reports on the isolation, purification, and characterization of methanoarchaea in the subsurface environment are rare. Currently, no studies investigating methanoarchaea within fault environments exist. In this report, we succeeded in obtaining two new methanogen isolates, St545Mb(T) of newly proposed species Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre FG694aF, from the Chelungpu fault, which is the fault that caused a devastating earthquake in central Taiwan in 1999. Strain FG694aF was isolated from a fault gouge sample obtained at 694 m below land surface (mbls) and is an autotrophic, mesophilic, nonmotile, thin, filamentous-rod-shaped organism capable of using H(2)-CO(2) and formate as substrates for methanogenesis. The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to Methanobacterium palustre. The mesophilic strain St545Mb(T), isolated from a sandstone sample at 545 mbls, is a nonmotile, irregular, coccoid organism that uses methanol and trimethylamine as substrates for methanogenesis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain St545Mb(T) was 99.0% similar to that of Methanolobus psychrophilus strain R15 and was 96 to 97.5% similar to the those of other Methanolobus species. However, the optimal growth temperature and total cell protein profile of strain St545Mb(T) were different from those of M. psychrophilus strain R15, and whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization revealed less than 20% relatedness between these two strains. On the basis of these observations, we propose that strain St545Mb(T) (DSM 19953(T); BCRC AR10030; JCM 15159) be named Methanolobus chelungpuianus sp. nov. Moreover, the environmental DNA database survey indicates that both Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre are widespread in the

  19. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  20. Anaerobic Degradation of Phthalate Isomers by Methanogenic Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Kleerebezem, Robbert; Pol, Look W. Hulshoff; Lettinga, Gatze

    1999-01-01

    Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (μSmax) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for μSmax and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate. PMID:10049876

  1. Methanogenic Diversity in Marine Sediments at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, M. M.; Boone, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    Little is known about the mechanism of methanogenic degradation of acetate or the fate of hydrogen and formate in cold marine sediments, or the ability of methanogens to grow and produce methane there. We used cultivation and molecular techniques to examine the microbes that produce methane from these substrates in permanently cold, anoxic marine sediments at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon (44° 35'N, 125° 10'W, depth 800 m). Sediment samples (15 to 35 cm deep) were collected from areas of active methane ebullition or areas where methane hydrates occurred. The samples were anoxically diluted and inoculated into enrichment media with formate, acetate, or trimethylamine as catabolic substrate. After 2 years incubation at 4° C to 15° C, enrichment cultures grew and produced methane. DNA was extracted from the highest dilutions that grew. The sequence data suggested that each enrichment culture contained a single strain of methanogen, and many of these sequences were dissimilar to known sequences of methanogens. This level of similarity (89 to 91% similar) suggests that these methanogens belong to novel genera. A clone library of 16S rRNA genes was also created from DNA extracted from the sediment samples. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries also revealed phylotypes that were only distantly related to cultivated organisms. The sequences of the clone library and of the enrichment cultures indicate a high degree of phylogenetic diversity among the Hydrate Ridge Archaea.

  2. Hydrogen transfer between methanogens and fermentative heterotrophs in hyperthermophilic cocultures

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, V.; Hirsh, I.S.; Bouwer, E.J.; Rinker, K.D.; Kelly, R.M.

    1997-11-05

    Interactions involving hydrogen transfer were studied in a coculture of two hyperthermophilic microorganisms: Thermotoga maritima, an anaerobic heterotroph, and Methanococcus jannaschii, a hydrogenotrophic methanogen. Cell densities of T. maritima increased 10-fold when cocultured with M. jannaschii at 85 C, and the methanogen was able to grow in the absence of externally supplied H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The coculture could not be established if the two organisms were physically separated by a dialysis membrane, suggesting the importance of spatial proximity. The significance of spatial proximity was also supported by cell cytometry, where the methanogen was only found in cell sorts at or above 4.5 {micro}m in samples of the coculture in exponential phase. An unstructured mathematical model was used to compare the influence of hydrogen transport and metabolic properties on mesophilic and hyperthermophilic cocultures. Calculations suggest the increases in methanogenesis rates with temperature result from greater interactions between the methanogenic and fermentative organisms, as evidenced by the sharp decline in H{sub 2} concentration in the proximity of a hyperthermophilic methanogen. The experimental and modeling results presented here illustrate the need to consider the interactions within hyperthermophilic consortia when choosing isolation strategies and evaluating biotransformations at elevated temperatures.

  3. Distribution of compatible solutes in the halophilic methanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Meichin Lai; Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1991-09-01

    Accumulation of compatible solutes, by uptake or de novo synthesis, enables bacteria to reduce the difference between osmotic potentials of the cell cytoplasm and the extracellular environment. To examine this process in the halophilic and halotolerant methanogenic archaebacteria, 14 strains were tested for the accumulation of compatible solutes in response to growth in various extracellular concentrations of NaCl. In external NaCl concentrations of 0.7 to 3.4 M, the halophilic methanogens accumulated K{sup +} ion and low-molecular-weight organic compounds. {beta}-Glutamate was detected in two halotolerant strains that grew below 1.5 M NaCl. Two unusual {beta}-amino acids, N{sub {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine and {beta}-glutamine (3-aminoglutaramic acid), as well as L-{alpha}-glutamate were compatible solutes among all of these strains. De novo synthesis of glycine betaine was also detected in several strains of moderately and extremely halophilic methanogens. The zwitterionic compounds ({beta}-glutamine, N{sub {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine,a nd glycine betaine) and potassium were the predominant compatible solutes among the moderately and extremely halophilic methanogens. This is the first report of {beta}-glutamine as a compatible solute and de novo biosynthesis of glycine betaine in the methanogenic archaebacteria.

  4. Evaluation of straw as a biofilm carrier in the methanogenic stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of crop residues.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jonatan; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2002-10-01

    Straw was evaluated as a biofilm carrier in the methanogenic stage of the two-stage anaerobic digestion of crop residues. Three reactor configurations were studied, a straw-packed-bed reactor, a glass packed-bed reactor and a reactor containing suspended plastic carriers. The reactor with the packed straw bed showed the best results. It had the highest methane production, 5.4 11(-1) d(-1), and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal ranged from 73-50% at organic loading rates from 2.4-25 g COD l(-1) d(-1). The degradation pattern of volatile fatty acids showed that the degradation of propionate and longer-chain fatty acids was limiting at higher organic loading rates. A stable effluent pH showed that the packed-bed reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that can occur in the two-stage process. The conclusion is that straw would work very well in the intended application. A further benefit is that straw is a common agricultural waste product and requires only limited resources concerning handling and cost.

  5. Zinc deprivation of methanol fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Collins, Gavin; Bartacek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of omitting zinc from the influent of mesophilic (30 °C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors, and latter zinc supplementation to the influent to counteract the deprivation, was investigated by coupling the UASB reactor performance to the microbial ecology of the bioreactor sludge. Limitation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) on methanol due to the absence of zinc from the influent developed after 137 days of operation. At that day, the SMA in medium with a complete trace metal solution except Zn was 3.4 g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1, compared to 4.2 g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1 in a medium with a complete (including zinc) trace metal solution. The methanol removal capacity during these 137 days was 99% and no volatile fatty acids accumulated. Two UASB reactors, inoculated with the zinc-deprived sludge, were operated to study restoration of the zinc limitation by zinc supplementation to the bioreactor influent. In a first reactor, no changes to the operational conditions were made. This resulted in methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent after 12 days of operation, which subsequently induced acetogenic activity 5 days after the methanol accumulation started. Methanogenesis could not be recovered by the continuous addition of 0.5 μM ZnCl2 to the reactor for 13 days. In the second reactor, 0.5 μM ZnCl2 was added from its start-up. Although the reactor stayed 10 days longer methanogenically than the reactor operated without zinc, methanol accumulation was observed in this reactor (up to 1.1 g COD-MeOH L−1) as well. This study shows that zinc limitation can induce failure of methanol fed UASB reactors due to acidification, which cannot be restored by resuming the continuous supply of the deprived metal. PMID:18283507

  6. Bioaugmentation of a soil bioreactor designed for pilot-scale anaerobic bioremediation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fantroussi, S.E. |; Belkacemi, M.; Naveau, H.; Agathos, S.N.; Top, E.M.; Mahillon, J.

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this work was to answer the following questions: (i) can the authors realize a long-term dechlorination with a pure anaerobic strain in soil and (ii) can the authors monitor the process on an adequate scale with a controlled simulator of in situ conditions. The soil bioreactor was fed continuously with 3-chlorobenzonate (3-CB) as a model chloroaromatic compound. Bioaugmentation was carried out by inoculating Desulfomonile tiedjei in localized areas in the bioreactor. Temporal and spatial distribution of the 3-CB dechlorination activity was investigated with specific biological activity tests for approximately 4 months following the inoculation. These tests involved the minimally invasive sampling of geometrically distinct points in the reactor and their off-site handling within reconstructed microcosms, allowing the assessment of dechlorinating and methanogenic soil activities. Using autoclaved and nonautoclaved agricultural soil, the results showed a heterogeneous distribution of the dechlorination activity in the bioreactor. The autoclaved soil expressed a high microbial activity as reflected by biogas production and 3-CB dechlorination. Furthermore, durable establishment of D. tiedjei in both autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil was shown, although in the latter portion of the reactor the microorganism was maintained only at the top surface.

  7. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  8. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  9. Growth of Methanogens on a Mars Soil Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Timothy A.; Bekkum, Curtis R.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2004-12-01

    Currently, the surface of Mars is probably too cold, too dry, and too oxidizing for life, as we know it, to exist. But the subsurface is another matter. Life forms that might exist below the surface could not obtain their energy from photosynthesis, but rather they would have to utilize chemical energy. Methanogens are one type of microorganism that might be able to survive below the surface of Mars. A potential habitat for existence of methanogens on Mars might be a geothermal source of hydrogen, possibly due to volcanic or hydrothermal activity, or the reaction of basalt and anaerobic water, carbon dioxide, which is abundant in the martian atmosphere, and of course, subsurface liquid water. We report here that certain methanogens can grow on a Mars soil simulant when supplied with carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen, and varying amounts of water.

  10. Growth of methanogens on a Mars soil simulant.

    PubMed

    Kral, Timothy A; Bekkum, Curtis R; McKay, Christopher P

    2004-12-01

    Currently, the surface of Mars is probably too cold, too dry, and too oxidizing for life, as we know it, to exist. But the subsurface is another matter. Life forms that might exist below the surface could not obtain their energy from photosynthesis, but rather they would have to utilize chemical energy. Methanogens are one type of microorganism that might be able to survive below the surface of Mars. A potential habitat for existence of methanogens on Mars might be a geothermal source of hydrogen, possibly due to volcanic or hydrothermal activity, or the reaction of basalt and anaerobic water, carbon dioxide, which is abundant in the martian atmosphere, and of course, subsurface liquid water. We report here that certain methanogens can grow on a Mars soil simulant when supplied with carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen, and varying amounts of water.

  11. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  12. The packing of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Cumberland, D.J.; Crawford, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The wide range of information currently available on the packing of particles is brought together in this monograph. The authors' interest in the subject was initially aroused by the question of whether there is an optimum particle size distribution which would maximise the packing density of particles - a question which has attracted the interest of scientists and engineers for centuries. The densification of a powder mass is of relevance in a great many industries, among them the pharmaceutical, ceramic, powder metallurgy and civil engineering industries. In addition, the packing of regular - or irregular - shaped particles is also of relevance to a surprisingly large number of other industries and subject areas, i.e. the foundry industry, nuclear engineering, chemical engineering, crystallography, geology, biology, telecommunications, and so on. Accordingly, this book is written for a wide audience.

  13. Spiral disk packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Sushida, Takamichi

    2017-04-01

    It is shown that van Iterson's metric for disk packings, proposed in 1907 in the study of a centric model of spiral phyllotaxis, defines a bounded distance function in the plane. This metric is also related to the bifurcation of Voronoi tilings for logarithmic spiral lattices, through the continued fraction expansion of the divergence angle. The phase diagrams of disk packings and Voronoi tilings for logarithmic spirals are dual graphs to each other. This gives a rigorous proof that van Iterson's diagram in the centric model is connected and simply connected. It is a nonlinear analog of the duality between the phase diagrams for disk packings and Voronoi tilings on the linear lattices, having the modular group symmetry.

  14. Syntrophic Degradation of Lactate in Methanogenic Co-cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Birte; Stahl, David

    2010-05-17

    In environments where the amount of the inorganic electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, sulfur oroxidized metal ions (Fe3+;Mn4+) is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic associations of fermenting, acetogenic bacteria (e.g., sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as"secondary fermenters") and methanogenic archaea. In these consortia, the conversion of lactate to acetate, CO2 and methane depends on the cooperating activities of both metabolically distinct microbial groups that are tightly linked by the need to maintain the exchanged metabolites (hydrogenandformate) at very low concentrations.

  15. An ancient divergence among the bacteria. [methanogenic phylogeny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balch, W. E.; Magrum, L. J.; Fox, G. E.; Wolfe, R. S.; Woese, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNZs from two species of met methanogenic bacteria, the mesophile Methanobacterium ruminantium and the thermophile Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, have been characterized in terms of the oligonucleotides produced by digestion with T1 ribonuclease. These two organisms are found to be sufficiently related that they can be considered members of the same genus or family. However, they bear only slight resemblance to 'typical' Procaryotic genera; such as Escherichia, Bacillus and Anacystis. The divergence of the methanogenic bacteria from other bacteria may be the most ancient phylogenetic event yet detected - antedating considerably the divergence of the blue green algal line for example, from the main bacterial line.

  16. Molecular Signatures of Methanogens in Cultures and Environmental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Baumgartner, M.

    2002-12-01

    The core lipids of methanogens comprise C20 and C40 isoprenoid chains, linked through ether bonds to glycerol. Additional structural diversity is encoded into the polar head groups that are attached to the glycerol ether cores. These compounds are potentially very useful as taxonomic markers in microbial mats and other environmental samples while the nature of the hydrocarbon chains provide a means to identify methanogenic inputs to ancient sediments. The structural diversity of methanogen polar lipids is most valuable when it can be directly correlated to 16S rRNA phylogeny. On the other hand, this diversity can also leads to analytical challenges because there is no single approach that works for all structural types. While some intact methanogen lipids have been identified using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, the most common means of analysing the lipid cores involves cleavage of the ether bonds using HI and subsequent reduction of the alkyl iodides to hydrocarbons with LiAlH4. One class of methanogenic lipids, the 3?-hydroxyarchaeols, escaped detection for some years because strong acid treatments in the analysis protocols destroyed hydroxyl-containing isoprenoid chains. We have been systematically re-examining the lipids of methanogens, using milder procedures involving weak acid hydrolysis of polar head groups, derivatisation to form trimethylsilyl ethers and analysis by GC-MS. As well as archaeol, sn-2- and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol, we have tentatively identified a dihydroxyarchaeol in several Methanococcus sp. For Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus an analysis of the total lipid extracts using BBr3 as an ether cleavage reagent followed by LiBEt3H, reduction revealed a very complex mixture consisting of phytane, phytenes, biphytane, biphytenes and a suite of related alcohols. The latter compounds were analysed by GC-MS as their trimethylsilyl ethers and found to comprise a mixture tentatively identified as phytan-N-ol and biphytan-N-ol where N= 3 or 7

  17. METHANOGENS WITH PSEUDOMUREIN USE DIAMINOPIMELATE AMINOTRANSFERASE IN LYSINE BIOSYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David E.; Huse, Holly K.

    2008-01-01

    Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus uses lysine for both protein synthesis and cross-linking pseudomurein in its cell wall. A diaminopimelate aminotransferase enzyme from this methanogen (MTH0052) converts tetrahydrodipicolinate to L,L-diaminopimelate, a lysine precursor. This gene complemented an Escherichia coli diaminopimelate auxotrophy, and the purified protein catalyzed the transamination of diaminopimelate to tetrahydrodipicolinate. Phylogenetic analysis indicated this gene was recruited from anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria. These results expand the family of diaminopimelate aminotransferases to a diverse set of plant, bacterial and archaeal homologs. In contrast marine methanogens from the Methanococcales, which lack pseudomurein, appear to use a different diaminopimelate pathway for lysine biosynthesis. PMID:18371309

  18. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Comparative 16S rRNA gene surveys of granular sludge from three upflow anaerobic bioreactors treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Scalfone, N B; Angenent, L T

    2011-01-01

    The microbial communities from three upflow anaerobic bioreactors treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater were characterized with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing surveys. Universal bacterial and archaeal primers were used to compare the bioreactor communities to each other. A total of 1,733 bacterial sequences and 383 archaeal sequences were characterized. The high number of Syntrophus spp. and Pelotomaculum spp. found within these reactors indicates efficient removal of benzoate and terephthalate. Under anaerobic conditions benzoate can be degraded through syntrophic associations between these bacteria and hydrogen-scavenging microbes, such as Desulfovibrio spp. and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which remove H(2) to force the thermodynamically unfavourable reactions to take place. The authors did not observe a relatively high percentage of hydrogenotrophic methanogens with the archaeal gene survey because of a high acetate flux (acetate is a main component in PTA wastewater and is the main degradation product of terephthalate/benzoate fermentation), and because of the presence of Desulfovibrio spp. (a sulfate reducer that scavenges hydrogen). The high acetate flux also explains the high percentage of acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosaeta among the archaeal sequences. A group of uncultured bacteria (OD1) may be involved in the degradation of p-toluate (4-methyl benzoate), which is a component of PTA wastewater.

  20. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  1. DIY Fraction Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  2. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  3. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  4. Sun Packs Double Punch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On August 3, the sun packed a double punch, emitting a M6.0-class flare at 9:43 am EDT. This video is of the second, slightly stronger M9.3-class flare at 11:41 pm EDT. Both flares had significant ...

  5. DIY Fraction Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  6. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  7. Two new disposable bioreactors for plant cell culture: The wave and undertow bioreactor and the slug bubble bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier; Hénault, Nicolas; Cuvier, Arnaud; Bastin, Maryse; Aknin, Aziz; Dubreuil, Julien; Pétiard, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The present article describes two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors. The first one, the WU bioreactor, is based on the principle of a wave and undertow mechanism that provides agitation while offering convenient mixing and aeration to the plant cell culture contained within the bioreactor. The second one is a high aspect ratio bubble column bioreactor, where agitation and aeration are achieved through the intermittent generation of large diameter bubbles, "Taylor-like" or "slug bubbles" (SB bioreactor). It allows an easy volume increase from a few liters to larger volumes up to several hundred liters with the use of multiple units. The cultivation of tobacco and soya cells producing isoflavones is described up to 70 and 100 L working volume for the SB bioreactor and WU bioreactor, respectively. The bioreactors being disposable and pre-sterilized before use, cleaning, sterilization, and maintenance operations are strongly reduced or eliminated. Both bioreactors represent efficient and low cost cell culture systems, applicable to various cell cultures at small and medium scale, complementary to traditional stainless-steel bioreactors.

  8. CASKAD. Manual Mixing in Bioreactor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-05

    ISS037-E-005694 (5 Oct. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, prepares to manually mix samples in a Bioreactor for the CASKAD experiment in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  9. CASKAD. Manual Mixing in Bioreactor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-05

    ISS037-E-005692 (5 Oct. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, prepares to manually mix samples in a Bioreactor for the CASKAD experiment in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  10. Space bioreactors and their applications.

    PubMed

    Walther, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. With the prospect of longer space missions and the construction of the International Space Station several aspects of biotechnology will play a prominent role in space. In fact, biotechnological processes allowing the recycling of vital elements, such as oxygen or water, and the in-flight production of food becomes essential when considering the financial and logistic standpoint. Every kilogram which, having been recycled or produced in space, does not have to be uploaded will drastically reduce the cost of space missions. In addition, the scientific community is offered a better opportunity to investigate long-term biotechnological processes performing experiments with a duration ranging from weeks to months. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of future projects in space biology. The carryover of knowledge from conventional bioreactor technology to miniature space bioreactors for a monitored and controlled cell culturing is one of the key elements for this new dimension in space life science. The first space bioreactors were developed and flown at the end of the last century. It has been demonstrated that cells of different types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, can be successfully grown in this type of culture vessel. This chapter presents different generations of bioreactors developed so far, their performances in space and their potential for the future, as well as the activities of the European Space Agency (ESA) in this domain. A dedicated chapter by Lisa Freed on the rotating wall vessel reactor and the latest NASA bioreactor research is also part of this volume.

  11. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF MTBE IN THE SUBSURFACE UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This case study was conducted at the former Fuel Farm Site at the U.S.Coast Guard Support Center at Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The study is intended to answer the following questions. Can MTBE be biodegraded under methanogenic conditions in ground water that was contaminated...

  12. Metabolic reconstruction of the archaeon methanogen Methanosarcina Acetivorans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Methanogens are ancient organisms that are key players in the carbon cycle accounting for about one billion tones of biological methane produced annually. Methanosarcina acetivorans, with a genome size of ~5.7 mb, is the largest sequenced archaeon methanogen and unique amongst the methanogens in its biochemical characteristics. By following a systematic workflow we reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic model for M. acetivorans. This process relies on previously developed computational tools developed in our group to correct growth prediction inconsistencies with in vivo data sets and rectify topological inconsistencies in the model. Results The generated model iVS941 accounts for 941 genes, 705 reactions and 708 metabolites. The model achieves 93.3% prediction agreement with in vivo growth data across different substrates and multiple gene deletions. The model also correctly recapitulates metabolic pathway usage patterns of M. acetivorans such as the indispensability of flux through methanogenesis for growth on acetate and methanol and the unique biochemical characteristics under growth on carbon monoxide. Conclusions Based on the size of the genome-scale metabolic reconstruction and extent of validated predictions this model represents the most comprehensive up-to-date effort to catalogue methanogenic metabolism. The reconstructed model is available in spreadsheet and SBML formats to enable dissemination. PMID:21324125

  13. Dynamics of the Methanogenic Archaea in Tropical Estuarine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Alvarado, María del Rocío; Fernández, Francisco José; Ramírez Vives, Florina; Varona-Cordero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenesis may represent a key process in the terminal phases of anaerobic organic matter mineralization in sediments of coastal lagoons. The aim of the present work was to study the temporal and spatial dynamics of methanogenic archaea in sediments of tropical coastal lagoons and their relationship with environmental changes in order to determine how these influence methanogenic community. Sediment samples were collected during the dry (February, May, and early June) and rainy seasons (July, October, and November). Microbiological analysis included the quantification of viable methanogenic archaea (MA) with three substrates and the evaluation of kinetic activity from acetate in the presence and absence of sulfate. The environmental variables assessed were temperature, pH, Eh, salinity, sulfate, solids content, organic carbon, and carbohydrates. MA abundance was significantly higher in the rainy season (106–107 cells/g) compared with the dry season (104–106 cells/g), with methanol as an important substrate. At spatial level, MA were detected in the two layers analyzed, and no important variations were observed either in MA abundance or activity. Salinity, sulfate, solids, organic carbon, and Eh were the environmental variables related to methanogenic community. A conceptual model is proposed to explain the dynamics of the MA. PMID:23401664

  14. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF MTBE IN THE SUBSURFACE UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This case study was conducted at the former Fuel Farm Site at the U.S.Coast Guard Support Center at Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The study is intended to answer the following questions. Can MTBE be biodegraded under methanogenic conditions in ground water that was contaminated...

  15. Dynamics of the methanogenic archaea in tropical estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Torres-Alvarado, María del Rocío; Fernández, Francisco José; Ramírez Vives, Florina; Varona-Cordero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenesis may represent a key process in the terminal phases of anaerobic organic matter mineralization in sediments of coastal lagoons. The aim of the present work was to study the temporal and spatial dynamics of methanogenic archaea in sediments of tropical coastal lagoons and their relationship with environmental changes in order to determine how these influence methanogenic community. Sediment samples were collected during the dry (February, May, and early June) and rainy seasons (July, October, and November). Microbiological analysis included the quantification of viable methanogenic archaea (MA) with three substrates and the evaluation of kinetic activity from acetate in the presence and absence of sulfate. The environmental variables assessed were temperature, pH, Eh, salinity, sulfate, solids content, organic carbon, and carbohydrates. MA abundance was significantly higher in the rainy season (10(6)-10(7) cells/g) compared with the dry season (10(4)-10(6) cells/g), with methanol as an important substrate. At spatial level, MA were detected in the two layers analyzed, and no important variations were observed either in MA abundance or activity. Salinity, sulfate, solids, organic carbon, and Eh were the environmental variables related to methanogenic community. A conceptual model is proposed to explain the dynamics of the MA.

  16. Survival of methanogens during desiccation: implications for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Michael G; Kral, Timothy A

    2006-08-01

    The relatively recent discoveries that liquid water likely existed on the surface of past Mars and that methane currently exists in the martian atmosphere have fueled the possibility of extant or extinct life on Mars. One possible explanation for the existence of the methane would be the presence of methanogens in the subsurface. Methanogens are microorganisms in the domain Archaea that can metabolize molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a carbon source and produce methane. One factor of importance is the arid nature of Mars, at least at the surface. If one is to assume that life exists below the surface, then based on the only example of life that we know, liquid water must be present. Realistically, however, that liquid water may be seasonal just as it is at some locations on our home planet. Here we report on research designed to determine how long certain species of methanogens can survive desiccation on a Mars soil simulant, JSC Mars-1. Methanogenic cells were grown on JSC Mars-1, transferred to a desiccator within a Coy anaerobic environmental chamber, and maintained there for varying time periods. Following removal from the desiccator and rehydration, gas chromatographic measurements of methane indicated survival for varying time periods. Methanosarcina barkeri survived desiccation for 10 days, while Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii were able to survive for 25 days.

  17. Methane as a product of chloroethene biodegradation under methanogenic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Radiometric detection headspace analyses of microcosms containing bed sediments from two geographically distinct sites indicated that 10-39% of the radiolabeled carbon transformed during anaerobic biodegradation of [1,2- 14C]trichloroethene (TCE) or [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) under methanogenic conditions was ultimately incorporated into 14CH4. The results demonstrate that, in addition to ethene, ethane, and CO2, CH4 can be a significant product of chloroethene biodegradation in some methanogenic sediments.Radiometric detection headspace analyses of microcosms containing bed sediments from two geographically distinct sites indicated that 10-39% of the radiolabeled carbon transformed during anaerobic biodegradation of [1,2-14C]trichloroethene (TCE) or [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) under methanogenic conditions was ultimately incorporated into 14CH4. The results demonstrate that, in addition to ethene, ethane, and CO2, CH4 can be a significant product of chloroethene biodegradation in some methanogenic sediments.

  18. Relating methanogen community structure and anaerobic digester function.

    PubMed

    Bocher, B T W; Cherukuri, K; Maki, J S; Johnson, M; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Much remains unknown about the relationships between microbial community structure and anaerobic digester function. However, knowledge of links between community structure and function, such as specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and COD removal rate, are valuable to improve anaerobic bioprocesses. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) to predict SMA using methanogen community structure descriptors for 49 cultures. Community descriptors were DGGE demeaned standardized band intensities for amplicons of a methanogen functional gene (mcrA). First, predictive accuracy of MLR QSARs was assessed using cross validation with training (n = 30) and test sets (n = 19) for glucose and propionate SMA data. MLR equations correlating band intensities and SMA demonstrated good predictability for glucose (q(2) = 0.54) and propionate (q(2) = 0.53). Subsequently, data from all 49 cultures were used to develop QSARs to predict SMA values. Higher intensities of two bands were correlated with higher SMA values; high abundance of methanogens associated with these two bands should be encouraged to attain high SMA values. QSARs are helpful tools to identify key microorganisms or to study and improve many bioprocesses. Development of new, more robust QSARs is encouraged for anaerobic digestion or other bioprocesses, including nitrification, nitritation, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

  19. Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation by Methylotrophic Methanogenic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Penger, Jörn; Conrad, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    In natural environments methane is usually produced by aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea. However, some methanogens can use C1 compounds such as methanol as the substrate. To determine the contributions of individual substrates to methane production, the stable-isotope values of the substrates and the released methane are often used. Additional information can be obtained by using selective inhibitors (e.g., methyl fluoride, a selective inhibitor of acetoclastic methanogenesis). We studied stable carbon isotope fractionation during the conversion of methanol to methane in Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanosarcina barkeri, and Methanolobus zinderi and generally found large fractionation factors (−83‰ to −72‰). We further tested whether methyl fluoride impairs methylotrophic methanogenesis. Our experiments showed that even though a slight inhibition occurred, the carbon isotope fractionation was not affected. Therefore, the production of isotopically light methane observed in the presence of methyl fluoride may be due to the strong fractionation by methylotrophic methanogens and not only by hydrogenotrophic methanogens as previously assumed. PMID:22904062

  20. Methanogen Sensitivity to Ultraviolet Radiation: Implications for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, N.; Kral, T. A.

    2013-09-01

    If an organism is to exist near the surface of Mars, it must be able to deal with UV radiation. The sensitivity of four species of methanogens to UV radiation was determined. They survived from 1 to 12 hours, depending on the organism tested.

  1. Survival of Methanogens During Desiccation: Implications for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Michael G.; Kral, Timothy A.

    2006-08-01

    The relatively recent discoveries that liquid water likely existed on the surface of past Mars and that methane currently exists in the martian atmosphere have fueled the possibility of extant or extinct life on Mars. One possible explanation for the existence of the methane would be the presence of methanogens in the subsurface. Methanogens are microorganisms in the domain Archaea that can metabolize molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a carbon source and produce methane. One factor of importance is the arid nature of Mars, at least at the surface. If one is to assume that life exists below the surface, then based on the only example of life that we know, liquid water must be present. Realistically, however, that liquid water may be seasonal just as it is at some locations on our home planet. Here we report on research designed to determine how long certain species of methanogens can survive desiccation on a Mars soil simulant, JSC Mars-1. Methanogenic cells were grown on JSC Mars-1, transferred to a desiccator within a Coy anaerobic environmental chamber, and maintained there for varying time periods. Following removal from the desiccator and rehydration, gas chromatographic measurements of methane indicated survival for varying time periods. Methanosarcina barkeri survived desiccation for 10 days, while Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii were able to survive for 25 days.

  2. Effect of packing method on the randomness of disc packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. P.; Yu, A. B.; Oakeshott, R. B. S.

    1996-06-01

    The randomness of disc packings, generated by random sequential adsorption (RSA), random packing under gravity (RPG) and Mason packing (MP) which gives a packing density close to that of the RSA packing, has been analysed, based on the Delaunay tessellation, and is evaluated at two levels, i.e. the randomness at individual subunit level which relates to the construction of a triangle from a given edge length distribution and the randomness at network level which relates to the connection between triangles from a given triangle frequency distribution. The Delaunay tessellation itself is also analysed and its almost perfect randomness at the two levels is demonstrated, which verifies the proposed approach and provides a random reference system for the present analysis. It is found that (i) the construction of a triangle subunit is not random for the RSA, MP and RPG packings, with the degree of randomness decreasing from the RSA to MP and then to RPG packing; (ii) the connection of triangular subunits in the network is almost perfectly random for the RSA packing, acceptable for the MP packing and not good for the RPG packing. Packing method is an important factor governing the randomness of disc packings.

  3. Impact of dewatering technologies on specific methanogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Batstone, Damien J; Lu, Yang; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    Dewatering methods for recuperative thickening and final dewatering can potentially impact methanogenic activity and microbial community. This influences both the feasibility of recuperative thickening to increase solids residence time within a digester, and the utilisation of dewatered digestate as inoculum for new digesters. Thickening technology can reduce methanogenic activity through either air contact (rotary drum, DAF, or belt filter press), or by lysing cells through shear (centrifuge). To assess this, two plants with recuperative thickening (rotary drum) in their anaerobic digester, and five without recuperative thickening, had specific methanogenic activity tested in all related streams, including dewatering feed, thickened return, final cake, and centrate. All plants had high speed centrifuges for final dewatering. The digester microbial community was also assessed through 16s pyrotag sequencing and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA). The specific methanogenic activity of all samples was in the expected range of 0.2-0.4 gCOD gVS(-1)d(-1). Plants with recuperative thickening did not have lower digester activity. Centrifuge based dewatering had a significant and variable impact on methanogenic activity in all samples, ranging between 20% and 90% decrease but averaging 54%. Rotary drum based recuperative thickening had a far smaller impact on activity, with a 0% per-pass drop in activity in one plant, and a 20% drop in another. However, the presence of recuperative thickening was a major predictor of overall microbial community (PC1, p = 0.0024). Microbial community PC3 (mainly driven by a shift in methanogens) was a strong predictor for sensitivity in activity to shear (p = 0.0005, p = 0.00001 without outlier). The one outlier was related to a plant producing the wettest cake (17% solids). This indicates that high solids is a potential driver of sensitivity to shear, but that a resilient microbial community can also bestow resilience

  4. Conversion of Cn-Unsaturated into Cn-2-Saturated LCFA Can Occur Uncoupled from Methanogenesis in Anaerobic Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Ana J; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Guedes, Ana P; Stams, Alfons J M; Alves, M Madalena; Sousa, Diana Z

    2016-03-15

    Fat, oils, and grease present in complex wastewater can be readily converted to methane, but the energy potential of these compounds is not always recyclable, due to incomplete degradation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) released during lipids hydrolysis. Oleate (C18:1) is generally the dominant LCFA in lipid-containing wastewater, and its conversion in anaerobic bioreactors results in palmitate (C16:0) accumulation. The reason why oleate is continuously converted to palmitate without further degradation via β-oxidation is still unknown. In this work, the influence of methanogenic activity in the initial conversion steps of unsaturated LCFA was studied in 10 bioreactors continuously operated with saturated or unsaturated C16- and C18-LCFA, in the presence or absence of the methanogenic inhibitor bromoethanesulfonate (BrES). Saturated Cn-2-LCFA accumulated both in the presence and absence of BrES during the degradation of unsaturated Cn-LCFA, and represented more than 50% of total LCFA. In the presence of BrES further conversion of saturated intermediates did not proceed, not even when prolonged batch incubation was applied. As the initial steps of unsaturated LCFA degradation proceed uncoupled from methanogenesis, accumulation of saturated LCFA can be expected. Analysis of the active microbial communities suggests a role for facultative anaerobic bacteria in the initial steps of unsaturated LCFA biodegradation. Understanding this role is now imperative to optimize methane production from LCFA.

  5. Development of a two-stage immobilized cell bioreactor for the production of methane from organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsos, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was on the design and development of an immobilized cell bioreactor for the conversion of alcohol stillage to methane. The study also included the development of optimization methods for the inoculation and operation of the reactor, and the quantitation of mass transfer limitations within the immobilized biomass. A two-stage fixed-film bioreactor using immobilized anaerobic bacteria on a microporous support matrix evolved after testing different reactor configurations and support materials. The specifically enriched methanogenic cultures used as inocula for the start-up of the reactor reached a methanogenic activity of 4.2 acetate consumption/1 of culture/day. This was a 20-fold increase over the activity of conventional inoculum obtained from a municipal digestor. The second part of this work was dedicated to the measurement of the effective diffusivities of the common intermediate, rate-limiting metabolic compounds, acetate and propionate. This was accomplished with an experimental biofilm/support matrix system configured as a two-chamber continuous flow apparatus. The effective diffusivity of a Li tracer through a biofilm, with a thickness that ranged from 400 to 1600 {mu}m, was calculated as being less than 10% of its diffusivity in water at infinite dilution. By applying zero-order kinetics the maximum acetate consumption rate was 1.04 g acetate/g Volatile Solids of biofilm/day. The system became mass transfer limited for thickness above 480 {mu} for an external liquid phase concentration of 1 g acetate/1.

  6. CT appearance of omental packs

    SciTech Connect

    Sefczek, R.J.; Lupetin, A.R.; Beckman, I.; Dash, N.

    1985-08-01

    Liver lacerations may be surgically treated by using the omentum as packing. A radiologist can differentiate potential postoperative complications, such as abscess, hematoma, and biloma, from these packs on computed tomographic scans by noting attenuation values.

  7. In vitro susceptibility of cultured human methanogens to lovastatin.

    PubMed

    Demonfort Nkamga, Vanessa; Armstrong, Nicholas; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Lovastatin is a prodrug that is hydrolysed in vivo to β-hydroxy acid lovastatin, which inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-Co-A) reductase (HMGR), thereby lowering cholesterol in humans. A side effect of lovastatin is inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis and cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea, which are members of the human digestive tract microbiota and are emerging pathogens. In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of the human-associated methanogens Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanobrevibacter massiliense, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus and Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis to lovastatin (1-4 µg/mL) was tested in the presence of five gut anaerobes aiming to metabolise lovastatin into β-hydroxy acid lovastatin as confirmed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Five days of incubation with lovastatin had no measurable effect on the growth of the five gut anaerobes but significantly reduced CH4 production and methanogen growth as measured by quantitative PCR (P <0.01). Quantitative PCR analyses indicated that compared with controls, β-hydroxy acid lovastatin significantly increased the expression of the genes mta and mcrA implicated in methanogenesis and significantly decreased the expression of the fno gene implicated in methanogenesis. Expression of the HMGR gene (hmg) implicated in cell wall synthesis was significantly increased by β-hydroxy acid lovastatin (P <0.01). These results strongly suggest that in the presence of gut anaerobes, lovastatin yields β-hydroxy acid lovastatin, which inhibits methane production and growth of methanogens by affecting their cell membrane biosynthesis. Lovastatin is the first licensed drug to exclusively affect the growth of methanogens whilst protecting the bacterial microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Global Biogeographic Analysis of Methanogenic Archaea Identifies Community-Shaping Environmental Factors of Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xi; Yang, Sizhong; Horn, Fabian; Winkel, Matthias; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea are important for the global greenhouse gas budget since they produce methane under anoxic conditions in numerous natural environments such as oceans, estuaries, soils, and lakes. Whether and how environmental change will propagate into methanogenic assemblages of natural environments remains largely unknown owing to a poor understanding of global distribution patterns and environmental drivers of this specific group of microorganisms. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis targeting the biogeographic patterns and environmental controls of methanogenic communities using 94 public mcrA gene datasets. We show a global pattern of methanogenic archaea that is more associated with habitat filtering than with geographical dispersal. We identify salinity as the control on methanogenic community composition at global scale whereas pH and temperature are the major controls in non-saline soils and lakes. The importance of salinity for structuring methanogenic community composition is also reflected in the biogeography of methanogenic lineages and the physiological properties of methanogenic isolates. Linking methanogenic alpha-diversity with reported values of methane emission identifies estuaries as the most diverse methanogenic habitats with, however, minor contribution to the global methane budget. With salinity, temperature and pH our study identifies environmental drivers of methanogenic community composition facing drastic changes in many natural environments at the moment. However, consequences of this for the production of methane remain elusive owing to a lack of studies that combine methane production rate with community analysis.

  9. Global Biogeographic Analysis of Methanogenic Archaea Identifies Community-Shaping Environmental Factors of Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xi; Yang, Sizhong; Horn, Fabian; Winkel, Matthias; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea are important for the global greenhouse gas budget since they produce methane under anoxic conditions in numerous natural environments such as oceans, estuaries, soils, and lakes. Whether and how environmental change will propagate into methanogenic assemblages of natural environments remains largely unknown owing to a poor understanding of global distribution patterns and environmental drivers of this specific group of microorganisms. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis targeting the biogeographic patterns and environmental controls of methanogenic communities using 94 public mcrA gene datasets. We show a global pattern of methanogenic archaea that is more associated with habitat filtering than with geographical dispersal. We identify salinity as the control on methanogenic community composition at global scale whereas pH and temperature are the major controls in non-saline soils and lakes. The importance of salinity for structuring methanogenic community composition is also reflected in the biogeography of methanogenic lineages and the physiological properties of methanogenic isolates. Linking methanogenic alpha-diversity with reported values of methane emission identifies estuaries as the most diverse methanogenic habitats with, however, minor contribution to the global methane budget. With salinity, temperature and pH our study identifies environmental drivers of methanogenic community composition facing drastic changes in many natural environments at the moment. However, consequences of this for the production of methane remain elusive owing to a lack of studies that combine methane production rate with community analysis. PMID:28769904

  10. Distribution of Methanogenic and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Near-Shore Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Mark E.; Buck, John D.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria was examined in sediments from three sites off the coast of eastern Connecticut and five sites in Long Island Sound. Both bacterial groups were detected at all sites. Three distributional patterns were observed: (i) four sites exhibited methanogenic and sulfate-reducing populations which were restricted to the upper 10 to 20 cm, with a predominance of sulfate reducers; (ii) three sites in western Long Island Sound exhibited a methanogenic population most abundant in sediments deeper than those occupied by sulfate reducers; (iii) at one site that was influenced by fresh groundwater, methanogens and sulfate reducers were numerous within the same depths; however, the number of sulfate reducers varied vertically and temporally with sulfate concentrations. It was concluded that the distributions of abundant methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria were mutually exclusive. Methanogenic enrichments yielded all genera of methanogens except Methanosarcina, with the methanobacteria predominating. PMID:16345950

  11. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues.

  12. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  13. EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

  14. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen Isolated from Methanogenic Digester Sludge.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Zinder, Stephen H; Kamagata, Yoichi; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-09-04

    Here, we report a 2.0-Mb complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1(T), a methanogenic archaeon isolated from an anaerobic digested sludge. This is the first genome report of the genus Methanolinea isolate belonging to the family Methanoregulaceae, a recently proposed novel family within the order Methanomicrobiales.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from methanogenic digester sludge

    DOE PAGES

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; ...

    2014-09-04

    In this study, we report a 2.0-Mb complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a methanogenic archaeon isolated from an anaerobic digested sludge. This is the first genome report of the genus Methanolinea isolate belonging to the family Methanoregulaceae, a recently proposed novel family within the order Methanomicrobiales.

  17. Prepacking perforations improves gravel packs

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.E.; Pace, J.R. )

    1990-05-21

    Productivity can be increased by prepacking perforations with gravel before a major gravel pack is pumped. The main gravel-pack treatment follows immediately after the prepack. This procedure can increase perforation permeability due to a more complete gravel fill of the perforation. The gravel pack prevents perforations from collapsing or filling with formation sand.

  18. A vaccine against rumen methanogens can alter the composition of archaeal populations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Yvette J; Popovski, Sam; Rea, Suzanne M; Skillman, Lucy C; Toovey, Andrew F; Northwood, Korinne S; Wright, André-Denis G

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to formulate a vaccine based upon the different species/strains of methanogens present in sheep intended to be immunized and to determine if a targeted vaccine could be used to decrease the methane output of the sheep. Two 16S rRNA gene libraries were used to survey the methanogenic archaea in sheep prior to vaccination, and methanogens representing five phylotypes were found to account for >52% of the different species/strains of methanogens detected. A vaccine based on a mixture of these five methanogens was then formulated, and 32 sheep were vaccinated on days 0, 28, and 103 with either a control or the anti-methanogen vaccine. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that each vaccination with the anti-methanogen formulation resulted in higher specific immunoglobulin G titers in plasma, saliva, and rumen fluid. Methane output levels corrected for dry-matter intake for the control and treatment groups were not significantly different, and real-time PCR data also indicated that methanogen numbers were not significantly different for the two groups after the second vaccination. However, clone library data indicated that methanogen diversity was significantly greater in sheep receiving the anti-methanogen vaccine and that the vaccine may have altered the composition of the methanogen population. A correlation between 16S rRNA gene sequence relatedness and cross-reactivity for the methanogens (R(2) = 0.90) also exists, which suggests that a highly specific vaccine can be made to target specific strains of methanogens and that a more broad-spectrum approach is needed for success in the rumen. Our data also suggest that methanogens take longer than 4 weeks to adapt to dietary changes and call into question the validity of experimental results based upon a 2- to 4-week acclimatization period normally observed for bacteria.

  19. A Vaccine against Rumen Methanogens Can Alter the Composition of Archaeal Populations▿

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Yvette J.; Popovski, Sam; Rea, Suzanne M.; Skillman, Lucy C.; Toovey, Andrew F.; Northwood, Korinne S.; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to formulate a vaccine based upon the different species/strains of methanogens present in sheep intended to be immunized and to determine if a targeted vaccine could be used to decrease the methane output of the sheep. Two 16S rRNA gene libraries were used to survey the methanogenic archaea in sheep prior to vaccination, and methanogens representing five phylotypes were found to account for >52% of the different species/strains of methanogens detected. A vaccine based on a mixture of these five methanogens was then formulated, and 32 sheep were vaccinated on days 0, 28, and 103 with either a control or the anti-methanogen vaccine. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that each vaccination with the anti-methanogen formulation resulted in higher specific immunoglobulin G titers in plasma, saliva, and rumen fluid. Methane output levels corrected for dry-matter intake for the control and treatment groups were not significantly different, and real-time PCR data also indicated that methanogen numbers were not significantly different for the two groups after the second vaccination. However, clone library data indicated that methanogen diversity was significantly greater in sheep receiving the anti-methanogen vaccine and that the vaccine may have altered the composition of the methanogen population. A correlation between 16S rRNA gene sequence relatedness and cross-reactivity for the methanogens (R2 = 0.90) also exists, which suggests that a highly specific vaccine can be made to target specific strains of methanogens and that a more broad-spectrum approach is needed for success in the rumen. Our data also suggest that methanogens take longer than 4 weeks to adapt to dietary changes and call into question the validity of experimental results based upon a 2- to 4-week acclimatization period normally observed for bacteria. PMID:19201957

  20. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a biocarrier on volatile fatty acids production of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chaikasem, Supawat; Abeynayaka, Amila; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    This work studied the effect of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-gel) beads, as an effective biocarrier for volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in hydrolytic reactor of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (TAnMBR). The two-stage TAnMBR, treating synthetic high strength particulate wastewater with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) [16.4±0.8 g/L], was operated at 55 °C. Under steady state conditions, the reactor was operated at an organic loading rate of 8.2±0.4 kg COD/m(3) d. Operational performance of the system was monitored by assessing VFA composition and quantity, methane production and COD removal efficiency. Increment of VFA production was observed with PVA-gel addition. Hydrolytic effluent contained large amount of acetic acid and n-butyric acid. However, increase in VFA production adversely affected the methanogenic reactor performance due to lack of methanogenic archaea.

  1. Kinetics of anaerobic digestion of soft drink wastewater in immobilized cell bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Borja, R; Banks, C J

    1994-07-01

    A kinetic study of the anaerobic digestion of soft drink wastewater was undertaken, using bioreactors containing various suspended supports (bentonite, zeolite, sepiolite, saponite and polyurethane foam), on to which the microorganisms effecting the purification were immobilized. Assuming the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to first-order kinetics, the specific rate constants, K0, derived from the reactors with saponite and sepiolite (magnesium silicates) were approximately twice those from bentonite and zeolite (aluminium silicates) and almost five times higher than in the control reactor (without support); the polyurethane support showed an intermediate behaviour. The methanogenic activity increased linearly with COD load, with saponite and sepiolite supports showing the highest values. The average yield coefficient of methane was 325 cm3 CH4 STP g-1 COD and the percentage elimination of COD was 77.8%; these values were not significantly altered by the type of support used.

  2. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  3. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  5. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  6. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  7. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  8. Detection of acidification limit in anaerobic membrane bioreactors at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Kjerstadius, Hamse; de Vrieze, Jo; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Davidsson, Åsa

    2016-12-01

    High-volume, low-strength industrial wastewaters constitute a large potential for biogas production, which could be realized by membrane bioreactors operating at the ambient temperature of the wastewater. However, the start-up of low-temperature anaerobic processes using unadapted inoculum can be sensitive to overloading, which results in acidification. This study assessed if a novel acidification limit test can be used to identify stable organic loading rates as well as process over-loading. The test is based on easy-to-apply batch experiments for determination of the hydrolysis rate constant and the specific methanogenic activity of the acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic pathways. For evaluation, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors, treating synthetic dairy wastewater at an ambient temperature of 24 °C, were used with a slow or a rapid start-up regime, respectively. Tests for hydrolysis rate and methanogenic activity were performed throughout the experiment and were used to calculate acidification limits for each system throughout the start-up. The acidification limit test was able to successfully identify both stable operation of one reactor and process failure of the other reactor as the organic loading rate increased. The reactor failure was caused by over-loading the acetotrophic pathway and coincided with microbial changes observed in real-time PCR and moving window analysis. Overall, the acidification limit tests seem promising as an easy applicable method for estimating what organic loading rate can be utilized, without risking acidification of anaerobic systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioreactor concepts for cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Ramírez, Lilí Esmeralda; Nikolay, Alexander; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing processes are designed to meet present and upcoming challenges associated with a growing vaccine market and to include multi-use facilities offering a broad portfolio and faster reaction times in case of pandemics and emerging diseases. The final products, from whole viruses to recombinant viral proteins, are very diverse, making standard process strategies hardly universally applicable. Numerous factors such as cell substrate, virus strain or expression system, medium, cultivation system, cultivation method, and scale need consideration. Reviewing options for efficient and economical production of human vaccines, this paper discusses basic factors relevant for viral antigen production in mammalian cells, avian cells and insect cells. In addition, bioreactor concepts, including static systems, single-use systems, stirred tanks and packed-beds are addressed. On this basis, methods towards process intensification, in particular operational strategies, the use of perfusion systems for high product yields, and steps to establish continuous processes are introduced.

  10. Microbial abatement of toluene using Aspergillus niger in upflow bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, M; Mohanapriya, C; Sivakumar, K; Baskar, G; Muthukumaran, C; Dhanasekar, R

    2016-12-01

    Microbial abatement of toluene using Aspergillus niger in coir packed upflow bioreactor was investigated in this study. Toluene degrading microbes were isolated from municipal sewage effluent and identified by 16s rRNA sequencing method. The microbes were cultured in 2% (v/v) toluene input per day, which exhibited 95% removal efficiency with the kinetic correction value (R(2)) of 0.9024 at the optimum flow rate of about 0.4m(3)h(-1). Various parameters such as effect of flow rate, column height, elimination capacity and EBRT with removal efficiency for 50 day cycle were also optimized. The plug flow model for toluene degradation was properly expressed and the Monod kinetics constant Km and rmax values were determined as 2.25gm(-3) and 67.773gm(-3)h(-1) respectively for microbial growth rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioreactor production of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Knop, David R; Harrell, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Serotypical application of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to gene therapy (type 1) and prophylactic vaccines (types 1 and 2) has garnered substantial clinical interest recently. HSV vectors and amplicons have also been employed as helper virus constructs for manufacture of the dependovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV). Large quantities of infectious HSV stocks are requisite for these therapeutic applications, requiring a scalable vector manufacturing and processing platform comprised of unit operations which accommodate the fragility of HSV. In this study, production of a replication deficient rHSV-1 vector bearing the rep and cap genes of AAV-2 (denoted rHSV-rep2/cap2) was investigated. Adaptation of rHSV production from T225 flasks to a packed bed, fed-batch bioreactor permitted an 1100-fold increment in total vector production without a decrease in specific vector yield (pfu/cell). The fed-batch bioreactor system afforded a rHSV-rep2/cap2 vector recovery of 2.8 x 10(12) pfu. The recovered vector was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF), permitting vector stocks to be formulated at greater than 1.5 x 10(9) pfu/mL.

  12. Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation

    PubMed

    Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

    1999-01-01

    Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production.

  13. Oxygen supply for CHO cells immobilized on a packed-bed of Fibra-Cel disks.

    PubMed

    Meuwly, F; Loviat, F; Ruffieux, P-A; Bernard, A R; Kadouri, A; von Stockar, U

    2006-03-05

    Packed-bed bioreactors (PBR) have proven to be efficient systems to culture mammalian cells at very high cell density in perfusion mode, thus leading to very high volumetric productivity. However, the immobilized cells must be continuously supplied with all nutrients in sufficient quantities to remain viable and productive over the full duration of the perfusion culture. Among all nutrients, oxygen is the most critical since it is present at very low concentration due to its low solubility in cell culture medium. This work presents the development of a model for oxygenation in a packed-bed bioreactor system. The experimental system used to develop the model was a packed-bed of Fibra-Cel disk carriers used to cultivate Chinese Hamster Ovary cells at high density ( approximately 6.1 x 10(7) cell/mL) in perfusion mode. With the help of this model, it was possible to identify if a PBR system is operated in optimal or sub-optimal conditions. Using the model, two options were proposed, which could improve the performance of the basal system by about twofold, that is, by increasing the density of immobilized cells per carrier volume from 6.1 x 10(7) to 1.2 x 10(8) cell/mL, or by increasing the packed-bed height from 0.2 to 0.4 m. Both strategies would be rather simple to test and implement in the packed-bed bioreactor system used for this study. As a result, it would be possible to achieve a substantial improvement of about twofold higher productivity as compared with the basal conditions.

  14. Methanogen prevalence throughout the gastrointestinal tract of pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Chen, Yanhong; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic community throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pre-weaned calves has not been well studied. The current study firstly investigated the distribution and composition of the methanogenic community in the rumen, ileum, and colon of 3–4 week-old milk-fed dairy calves (n = 4) using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The occurrence of methanogens in the GIT of pre-weaned calves was further validated by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was applied to quantify the methanogenic community in the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum of 8 3–4 week old animals. Both cloning libraries and PCR-DGGE revealed that phylotypes close to Methanobrevibacter were the main taxon along the GIT in pre-weaned sucking calves. The composition and abundance of methanogens varied significantly among individual animals, suggesting that host conditions may influence the composition of the symbiotic microbiota. Segregation of methanogenic communities throughout the GIT was also observed within individual animals, suggesting possible functional differences among methanogens residing in different GIT regions. This is the first study to analyze methanogenic communities throughout the GIT of milk-fed newborn dairy calves and reveal both their diversity and abundance. The identification of methanogens in the lower GIT of pre-weaned dairy calves warrants further investigation to better define methanogen roles in GIT function and their impact on host metabolism and health. PMID:25483332

  15. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens to ammonia inhibition effect are still unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine the ammonia toxicity levels of various pure strains of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Moreover, ammonia toxicity on the syntrophic-cultivated strains of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens was tested. Thus, four hydrogenotrophic methanogens (i.e. Methanoculleus bourgensis, Methanobacterium congolense, Methanoculleu thermophilus and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus), two SAOB (i.e. Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and Thermacetogenium phaeum) and their syntrophic cultivation were assessed under 0.26, 3, 5 and 7 g NH4 (+)-N L(-1). The results showed that some hydrogenotrophic methanogens were equally, or in some cases, more tolerant to high ammonia levels compared to SAOB. Furthermore, a mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogen was more sensitive to ammonia toxicity compared to thermophilic methanogens tested in the study, which is contradicting to the general belief that thermophilic methanogens are more vulnerable to high ammonia loads compared to mesophilic. This unexpected finding underlines the fact that the complete knowledge of ammonia inhibition effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens is still absent.

  16. Establishment and Development of Ruminal Hydrogenotrophs in Methanogen-Free Lambs▿

    PubMed Central

    Fonty, Gérard; Joblin, Keith; Chavarot, Michel; Roux, Remy; Naylor, Graham; Michallon, Fabien

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether reductive acetogenesis can provide an alternative to methanogenesis in the rumen. Gnotobiotic lambs were inoculated with a functional rumen microbiota lacking methanogens and reared to maturity on a fibrous diet. Lambs with a methanogen-free rumen grew well, and the feed intake and ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations for lambs lacking ruminal methanogens were lower but not markedly dissimilar from those for conventional lambs reared on the same diet. A high population density (107 to 108 cells g−1) of ruminal acetogens slowly developed in methanogen-free lambs. Sulfate- and fumarate-reducing bacteria were present, but their population densities were highly variable. In methanogen-free lambs, the hydrogen capture from fermentation was low (28 to 46%) in comparison with that in lambs containing ruminal methanogens (>90%). Reductive acetogenesis was not a significant part of ruminal fermentation in conventional lambs but contributed 21 to 25% to the fermentation in methanogen-free meroxenic animals. Ruminal H2 utilization was lower in lambs lacking ruminal methanogens, but when a methanogen-free lamb was inoculated with a methanogen, the ruminal H2 utilization was similar to that in conventional lambs. H2 utilization in lambs containing a normal ruminal microflora was age dependent and increased with the animal age. The animal age effect was less marked in lambs lacking ruminal methanogens. Addition of fumarate to rumen contents from methanogen-free lambs increased H2 utilization. These findings provide the first evidence from animal studies that reductive acetogens can sustain a functional rumen and replace methanogens as a sink for H2 in the rumen. PMID:17675444

  17. Membrane biofilm development improves COD removal in anaerobic membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Skerlos, Steven J; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2015-09-01

    Membrane biofilm development was evaluated to improve psychrophilic (15°C) anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treatment of domestic wastewater. An AnMBR containing three replicate submerged membrane housings with separate permeate collection was operated at three levels of membrane fouling by independently controlling biogas sparging for each membrane unit. High membrane fouling significantly improved permeate quality, but resulted in dissolved methane in the permeate at a concentration two to three times the equilibrium concentration predicted by Henry's law. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA targeting Bacteria and Archaea and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) gene in methanogens indicated that the membrane biofilm was enriched in highly active methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. Restoring fouled membranes to a transmembrane pressure (TMP) near zero by increasing biogas sparging did not disrupt the biofilm's treatment performance, suggesting that microbes in the foulant layer were tightly adhered and did not significantly contribute to TMP. Dissolved methane oversaturation persisted without high TMP, implying that methanogenesis in the biofilm, rather than high TMP, was the primary driving force in methane oversaturation. The results describe an attractive operational strategy to improve treatment performance in low-temperature AnMBR by supporting syntrophy and methanogenesis in the membrane biofilm through controlled membrane fouling.

  18. Membrane biofilm development improves COD removal in anaerobic membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam L; Skerlos, Steven J; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2015-01-01

    Membrane biofilm development was evaluated to improve psychrophilic (15°C) anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treatment of domestic wastewater. An AnMBR containing three replicate submerged membrane housings with separate permeate collection was operated at three levels of membrane fouling by independently controlling biogas sparging for each membrane unit. High membrane fouling significantly improved permeate quality, but resulted in dissolved methane in the permeate at a concentration two to three times the equilibrium concentration predicted by Henry’s law. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA targeting Bacteria and Archaea and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) gene in methanogens indicated that the membrane biofilm was enriched in highly active methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. Restoring fouled membranes to a transmembrane pressure (TMP) near zero by increasing biogas sparging did not disrupt the biofilm’s treatment performance, suggesting that microbes in the foulant layer were tightly adhered and did not significantly contribute to TMP. Dissolved methane oversaturation persisted without high TMP, implying that methanogenesis in the biofilm, rather than high TMP, was the primary driving force in methane oversaturation. The results describe an attractive operational strategy to improve treatment performance in low-temperature AnMBR by supporting syntrophy and methanogenesis in the membrane biofilm through controlled membrane fouling. PMID:26238293

  19. A sphere packing slideshow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda; Gortler, Steven; Brenner, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We have enumerated all the ways to arrange n <= 13+ spheres as a cluster that is nonlinearly rigid. We have discovered many packings that are hypostatic, namely they have fewer than the 3n-6 contacts required to be linearly rigid. Simple scaling arguments explain why these are thermodynamically important when the spheres are colloids interacting with a short-range potential. We discuss these clusters, as well as other surprises that came up along the way. (''+'' means we have enumerated only a particular kind of cluster for n=14, 15, and beyond.)

  20. Genome sequence of Methanobacterium congolense strain Buetzberg, a hydrogenotrophic, methanogenic archaeon, isolated from a mesophilic industrial-scale biogas plant utilizing bio-waste.

    PubMed

    Tejerizo, Gonzalo Torres; Kim, Yong Sung; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Off, Sandra; Pühler, Alfred; Scherer, Paul; Schlüter, Andreas

    2017-04-10

    Methanogenic Archaea are of importance at the end of the anaerobic digestion (AD) chain for biomass conversion. They finally produce methane, the end-product of AD. Among this group of microorganisms, members of the genus Methanobacterium are ubiquitously present in anaerobic habitats, such as bioreactors. The genome of a novel methanogenic archaeon, namely Methanobacterium congolense Buetzberg, originally isolated from a mesophilic biogas plant, was completely sequenced to analyze putative adaptive genome features conferring competitiveness of this isolate within the biogas reactor environment. Sequencing and assembly of the M. congolense Buetzberg genome yielded a chromosome with a size of 2,451,457bp and a mean GC-content of 38.51%. Additionally, a plasmid with a size of 18,118bp, featuring a GC content of 36.05% was identified. The M. congolense Buetzberg plasmid showed no sequence similarities with the plasmids described previously suggesting that it represents a new plasmid type. Analysis of the M. congolense Buetzberg chromosome architecture revealed a high collinearity with the Methanobacterium paludis chromosome. Furthermore, annotation of the genome and functional predictions disclosed several genes involved in cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Compilation of specific genes among Methanobacterium strains originating from AD environments revealed 474 genetic determinants that could be crucial for adaptation of these strains to specific conditions prevailing in AD habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of methanogenic pathways through carbon isotope (δ13C) analysis for the two-stage anaerobic digestion of high-solids substrates.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tito; Klang, Johanna; Niedermayr, Andrea; Berzio, Stephan; Immenhauser, Adrian; Klocke, Michael; Wichern, Marc; Lübken, Manfred

    2015-04-07

    This study used carbon isotope (δ(13)C)-based calculations to quantify the specific methanogenic pathways in a two-stage experimental biogas plant composed of three thermophilic leach bed reactors (51-56 °C) followed by a mesophilic (36.5 °C) anaerobic filter. Despite the continuous dominance of the acetoclastic Methanosaeta in the anaerobic filter, the methane (CH4) fraction derived from carbon dioxide reduction (CO2), fmc, varied significantly over the investigation period of 200 days. At organic loading rates (OLRs) below 6.0 gCOD L(-1) d(-1), the average fmc value was 33%, whereas at higher OLRs, with a maximum level of 17.0 gCOD L(-1) d(-1), the fmc values reached 47%. The experiments allowed for a clear differentiation of the isotope fractionation related to the formation and consumption of acetate in both stages of the plant. Our data indicate constant carbon isotope fractionation for acetate formation at different OLRs within the thermophilic leach bed reactors as well as a negligible contribution of homoacetogenesis. These results present the first quantification of methanogenic pathway (fmc values) dynamics for a continually operated mesophilic bioreactor and highlight the enormous potential of δ(13)C analysis for a more comprehensive understanding of the anaerobic degradation processes in CH4-producing biogas plants.

  2. Vaccination of Sheep with a Methanogen Protein Provides Insight into Levels of Antibody in Saliva Needed to Target Ruminal Methanogens

    PubMed Central

    Subharat, Supatsak; Shu, Dairu; Zheng, Tao; Buddle, Bryce M.; Kaneko, Kan; Hook, Sarah; Janssen, Peter H.; Wedlock, D. Neil

    2016-01-01

    Methane is produced in the rumen of ruminant livestock by methanogens and is a major contributor to agricultural greenhouse gases. Vaccination against ruminal methanogens could reduce methane emissions by inducing antibodies in saliva which enter the rumen and impair ability of methanogens to produce methane. Presently, it is not known if vaccination can induce sufficient amounts of antibody in the saliva to target methanogen populations in the rumen and little is known about how long antibody in the rumen remains active. In the current study, sheep were vaccinated twice at a 3-week interval with a model methanogen antigen, recombinant glycosyl transferase protein (rGT2) formulated with one of four adjuvants: saponin, Montanide ISA61, a chitosan thermogel, or a lipid nanoparticle/cationic liposome adjuvant (n = 6/formulation). A control group of sheep (n = 6) was not vaccinated. The highest antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in both saliva and serum were observed with Montanide ISA61, which promoted levels of salivary antibodies that were five-fold higher than the second most potent adjuvant, saponin. A rGT2-specific IgG standard was used to determine the level of rGT2-specific IgG in serum and saliva. Vaccination with GT2/Montanide ISA61 produced a peak antibody concentration of 7 × 1016 molecules of antigen-specific IgG per litre of saliva, and it was estimated that in the rumen there would be more than 104 molecules of antigen-specific IgG for each methanogen cell. Both IgG and IgA in saliva were shown to be relatively stable in the rumen. Salivary antibody exposed for 1–2 hours to an in vitro simulated rumen environment retained approximately 50% of antigen-binding activity. Collectively, the results from measuring antibody levels and stablility suggest a vaccination-based mitigation strategy for livestock generated methane is in theory feasible. PMID:27472482

  3. Removal of ammonia from contaminated air in a biotrickling filter - denitrifying bioreactor combination system.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takeyuki; Jinsiriwanit, Siriwat; Hattori, Toshihiro; Deshusses, Marc A

    2008-11-01

    The removal of gaseous ammonia in a system consisting of a biotrickling filter, a denitrification reactor and a polishing bioreactor for the trickling liquid was investigated. The system allowed sustained treatment of ammonia while preventing biological inhibition by accumulating nitrate and nitrite and avoiding generation of contaminated water. All bioreactors were packed with cattle bone composite ceramics, a porous support with a large interfacial area. Excellent removal of ammonia gas was obtained. The critical loading ranged from 60 to 120 gm(-3)h(-1) depending on the conditions, and loadings below 56 gm(-3)h(-1) resulted in essentially complete removal of ammonia. In addition, concentrations of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and COD in the recycle liquid of the inlet and outlet of each reactor were measured to determine the fate of nitrogen in the reactor, close nitrogen balances and calculate nitrogen to COD ratios. Ammonia absorption and nitrification occurred in the biotrickling filter; nitrate and nitrite were biologically removed in the denitrification reactor and excess dissolved COD and ammonia were treated in the polishing bioreactor. Overall, ammonia gas was very successfully removed in the bioreactor system and steady state operation with respect to nitrogen species was achieved.

  4. Methanohalophilus zhilinae sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, halophilic, methylotrophic methanogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathrani, I. M.; Boone, D. R.; Mah, R. A.; Fox, G. E.; Lau, P. P.

    1988-01-01

    Methanohalophilus zhilinae, a new alkaliphilic, halophilic, methylotrophic species of methanogenic bacteria, is described. Strain WeN5T (T = type strain) from Bosa Lake of the Wadi el Natrun in Egypt was designated the type strain and was further characterized. This strain was nonmotile, able to catabolize dimethylsulfide, and able to grow in medium with a methyl group-containing substrate (such as methanol or trimethylamine) as the sole organic compound added. Sulfide (21 mM) inhibited cultures growing on trimethylamine. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of strain WeN5T was typical of the pattern for archaeobacteria, and the guanine-plus-cytosine content of the deoxyribonucleic acid was 38 mol%. Characterization of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequence indicated that strain WeN5T is phylogenetically distinct from members of previously described genera other than Methanohalophilus and supported the partition of halophilic methanogens into their own genus.

  5. Methanolobus taylorii sp nov, a new methylotropic, estuarine methanogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Boone, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Strain GS-16T (T = type strain) is a methylotrophic methanogen that was isolated from estuarine sediments from San Francisco Bay (4) and has been deposited in the Oregon Collection of Methanogens (Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland) as strain OCM 5ST. This strain was isolated by using dimethyl sulfide as the catabolic substrate (4), but it can also grow on methylamines (13) and methanethiol (8, 9) and grew when it was inoculated into MSHA medium (6) supplemented with 20 mM methanol as the sole catabolic substrate. Strain GS-16T cells form methane from methylmercury (12) and dimethylselenide (16), although they cannot grow on these substrates, and form traces of ethane from diethyl sulfide (15). Methanogenesis from trimethylamine is inhibited by methyl fluoride (11) and methyl bromide (14), but not by dimethyl ether (1 1).

  6. Methanohalophilus zhilinae sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, halophilic, methylotrophic methanogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathrani, I. M.; Boone, D. R.; Mah, R. A.; Fox, G. E.; Lau, P. P.

    1988-01-01

    Methanohalophilus zhilinae, a new alkaliphilic, halophilic, methylotrophic species of methanogenic bacteria, is described. Strain WeN5T (T = type strain) from Bosa Lake of the Wadi el Natrun in Egypt was designated the type strain and was further characterized. This strain was nonmotile, able to catabolize dimethylsulfide, and able to grow in medium with a methyl group-containing substrate (such as methanol or trimethylamine) as the sole organic compound added. Sulfide (21 mM) inhibited cultures growing on trimethylamine. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of strain WeN5T was typical of the pattern for archaeobacteria, and the guanine-plus-cytosine content of the deoxyribonucleic acid was 38 mol%. Characterization of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequence indicated that strain WeN5T is phylogenetically distinct from members of previously described genera other than Methanohalophilus and supported the partition of halophilic methanogens into their own genus.

  7. Factors in the determination of methanogenic potential of manure.

    PubMed

    Chamy, Rolando; Ramos, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    The influence of the substrate concentration, the micro and macro nutrients and buffer requirements, the sludge origin (biomass that is acclimatized or not acclimatized to waste) and the inoculum/substrate ratio (ISR) were studied to determine their effects in the methanogenic potential of turkey manure, which is a solid waste. According to the results obtained, the methane production determination does not require the addition of nutrients (additional to the contents in the waste) and a buffer for this type of assay. The methane yield (γ(CH) ₄) performance is given by the substrate concentration and the sludge origin, therefore it is better to carry out the assay with biomass that is already adapted to the waste. The methanogenic potential of this type of waste is not determined by the amount of sludge and it does not need an external inoculum (external to the waste contents). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Specific methanogenic activity test for anaerobic degradation of influents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Athar; Dubey, Shashi Kant

    2017-05-01

    Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) determines the methane-producing capability of the sludge for a specific substrate. Methanogenic activity test can be used to delineate the operating conditions for anaerobic systems and a parameter to assess the system performance by giving a better perceptive of the system and its stability. At the beginning of the start-up period of a new digester, the SMA is of great importance for the determination of proper initial organic loading rate. In different phases, a regular determination of SMA also ascertains the development stages of the sludge. Also, a change in SMA indicates an inhibition or an accumulation of slow degradable or even non-biodegradable organic matter from the influents. This paper reviews the SMA of anaerobic sludge under different operating conditions using different substrates.

  9. Polyphasic Analyses of Methanogenic Archaeal Communities in Agricultural Biogas Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Nettmann, E.; Bergmann, I.; Pramschüfer, S.; Mundt, K.; Plogsties, V.; Herrmann, C.; Klocke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the microbial consortia participating in the generation of biogas, especially in methane formation, is still limited. To overcome this limitation, the methanogenic archaeal communities in six full-scale biogas plants supplied with different liquid manures and renewable raw materials as substrates were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out to quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the reactor samples. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) was used to support and complete the FISH analysis. Five of the six biogas reactors were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. The average values were between 60 to 63% of archaeal cell counts (FISH) and 61 to 99% of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copies (Q-PCR). Within this order, Methanoculleus was found to be the predominant genus as determined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. The aceticlastic family Methanosaetaceae was determined to be the dominant methanogenic group in only one biogas reactor, with average values for Q-PCR and FISH between 64% and 72%. Additionally, in three biogas reactors hitherto uncharacterized but potentially methanogenic species were detected. They showed closest accordance with nucleotide sequences of the hitherto unclassified CA-11 (85%) and ARC-I (98%) clusters. These results point to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as a predominant pathway for methane synthesis in five of the six analyzed biogas plants. In addition, a correlation between the absence of Methanosaetaceae in the biogas reactors and high concentrations of total ammonia (sum of NH3 and NH4+) was observed. PMID:20154117

  10. An Intertwined Evolutionary History of Methanogenic Archaea and Sulfate Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Susanti, Dwi; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F420)-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr) where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C) are homologs of F420H2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP), both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest), carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe4-S4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex), with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster and an additional [Fe4-S4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs with group I features and a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster were proposed as evolutionary intermediates. Group III is the precursor of Fsr-C. The freestanding Fsr-N homologs serve as F420H2 dehydrogenase unit of a putative novel glutamate synthase, previously described membrane-bound electron transport system in methanogens and of assimilatory type sulfite reductases in certain haloarchaea. Among archaea, only methanogens carried Dsr-LPs. They also possessed homologs of sulfate activation and reduction enzymes. This suggested a shared evolutionary history for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and Dsr-LPs could have been the source of the oldest (3.47-Gyr ago) biologically produced sulfide deposit. PMID:23028926

  11. The nif Gene Operon of the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Peter S.; Blank, Carrine; Leigh, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation occurs in two domains, Archaea and Bacteria. We have characterized a nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. Sequence analysis revealed eight genes, six with sequence similarity to known nif genes and two with sequence similarity to glnB. The gene order, nifH, ORF105 (similar to glnB), ORF121 (similar to glnB), nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, and nifX, was the same as that found in part in other diazotrophic methanogens and except for the presence of the glnB-like genes, also resembled the order found in many members of the Bacteria. Using transposon insertion mutagenesis, we determined that an 8-kb region required for nitrogen fixation corresponded to the nif gene cluster. Northern analysis revealed the presence of either a single 7.6-kb nif mRNA transcript or 10 smaller mRNA species containing portions of the large transcript. Polar effects of transposon insertions demonstrated that all of these mRNAs arose from a single promoter region, where transcription initiated 80 bp 5′ to nifH. Distinctive features of the nif gene cluster include the presence of the six primary nif genes in a single operon, the placement of the two glnB-like genes within the cluster, the apparent physical separation of the cluster from any other nif genes that might be in the genome, the fragmentation pattern of the mRNA, and the regulation of expression by a repression mechanism described previously. Our study and others with methanogenic archaea reporting multiple mRNAs arising from gene clusters with only a single putative promoter sequence suggest that mRNA processing following transcription may be a common occurrence in methanogens. PMID:9515920

  12. Inhibitory effects of nitrogen oxides on a mixed methanogenic culture.

    PubMed

    Tugtas, A Evren; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2007-02-15

    The effect of nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide on a mixed, mesophilic (35 degrees C) methanogenic culture was investigated. Short-term inhibition assays were conducted at a concentration range of 10-350 mg N/L nitrate, 17-500 mg N/L nitrite, 0.02-0.8 mg N/L aqueous NO, and 19-191 mg N/L aqueous nitrous oxide. Simultaneous methane production and N-oxide reduction was observed in 10 and 30 mg N/L nitrate and 0.02 mg N/L aqueous NO-amended cultures. However, addition of N-oxide resulted in immediate cessation of methanogenesis in all other cultures. Methanogenesis completely recovered subsequent to the complete reduction of N-oxides to nitrogen gas in all N-oxide-amended cultures, with the exception of the 500 mg N/L nitrite- and 0.8 mg N/L aqueous NO-amended cultures. Partial recovery of methanogenesis was observed in the 500 mg N/L nitrite-amended culture in contrast to complete inhibition of methanogenesis in the 0.8 mg N/L aqueous NO-amended culture. Accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed in both cultures at the end of the incubation period. Among all N-oxides, NO exerted the most and nitrate exerted the least inhibitory effect on the fermentative/methanogenic consortia. The effect of multiple additions of nitrate (300 mg N/L) on the same methanogenic culture was also investigated. Long-term exposure of the methanogenic culture to nitrate resulted in an increase of N-oxide reduction rates and decrease of methane production rates, which was attributed to changes in the microbial community structure due to nitrate addition.

  13. Transformation of phenol into phenylalanine by a methanogenic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Beaudet, R.; Villemur, R.

    1996-03-01

    Phenol is a widely used chemical found in many wastewaters of industrial origin. The degradation of phenol by methanogenic bacterial consortia has been reported by many investigators. To better characterise the metabolism of this consortium, a new metabolic pathway of benzoic acid, an intermediary in the degradation of phenol, is reported. This study describes the transformations of benzoic acid into 3-phenylpropionic acid and phenylalanine. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  14. The nif gene operon of the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis.

    PubMed

    Kessler, P S; Blank, C; Leigh, J A

    1998-03-01

    Nitrogen fixation occurs in two domains, Archaea and Bacteria. We have characterized a nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. Sequence analysis revealed eight genes, six with sequence similarity to known nif genes and two with sequence similarity to glnB. The gene order, nifH, ORF105 (similar to glnB), ORF121 (similar to glnB), nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, and nifX, was the same as that found in part in other diazotrophic methanogens and except for the presence of the glnB-like genes, also resembled the order found in many members of the Bacteria. Using transposon insertion mutagenesis, we determined that an 8-kb region required for nitrogen fixation corresponded to the nif gene cluster. Northern analysis revealed the presence of either a single 7.6-kb nif mRNA transcript or 10 smaller mRNA species containing portions of the large transcript. Polar effects of transposon insertions demonstrated that all of these mRNAs arose from a single promoter region, where transcription initiated 80 bp 5' to nifH. Distinctive features of the nif gene cluster include the presence of the six primary nif genes in a single operon, the placement of the two glnB-like genes within the cluster, the apparent physical separation of the cluster from any other nif genes that might be in the genome, the fragmentation pattern of the mRNA, and the regulation of expression by a repression mechanism described previously. Our study and others with methanogenic archaea reporting multiple mRNAs arising from gene clusters with only a single putative promoter sequence suggest that mRNA processing following transcription may be a common occurrence in methanogens.

  15. Methanogenic Archaea as Potential Candidates for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.

    Within our solar system, Mars has been considered as a prime candidate for extraterrestrial life beyond Earth. Various paleo-climate models of the early Mars showed that prior 3.8 Ga ago Mars was characterised by moderate temperatures, the presence of liquid water and an anoxic atmosphere comparable to those on early Earth, where the evolution of microorganisms had already started. Assuming that early life developed on Mars as well, Martian life must have adapted to drastically changing environmental conditions or became extinct. Within the scope of a project in the DFG (German Research Foundation) Priority Program "Mars and the Terrestrial Planets" the tolerances of methanogenic archaea under unfavourable life conditions of terrestrial or extraterrestrial permafrost (Mars simulation) were studied. The borders of growth influenced by desiccation, temperature extremes, radiation and high salt concentration were analyzed for the organisms in pure cultures obtained from permafrost soils as well as in their natural environment of Siberian permafrost. The presented results show the high survival capability of methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost under unfavourable environmental conditions exhibiting metabolic activity even below the freezing point. Furthermore, Methanosarcina SMA21 is also extremely resistant against UV radiation and high salinity. It survives three weeks of simulated Martian diurnal changes in temperature and humidity nearly completely. Our studies demonstrate for the first time the possible survival of methanogenic archaea under present Martian conditions. These results in connection with the finding of methane in the Martian atmosphere by the ESA mission "Mars Express" supported the hypothesis that methanogens are the most likely candidates for life on Mars.

  16. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  17. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    PubMed Central

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-01-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type. PMID:27501855

  18. Genetics and molecular biology of methanogen genes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Konisky, J.

    1997-10-07

    Adenylate kinase has been isolated from four related methanogenic members of the Archaea. For each the optimum temperature for enzyme activity was similar to the temperature for optimal microbial growth and was approximately 30 C for Methanococcus voltage, 70 C for Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, 80 C for Methanococcus igneus and 80--90 C for Methanococcus jannaschii. The enzymes were sensitive to the adenylate kinase inhibitor, Ap{sub 5}A [P{sup 1}, P{sup 5}-di(adenosine-5{prime}) pentaphosphate], a property that was exploited to purify the enzymes by CIBACRON Blue affinity chromatography. The enzymes had an estimated molecular weight (approximately 23--25 kDa) in the range common for adenylate kinases. Each of the enzymes had a region of amino acid sequence close to its N-terminus that was similar to the canonical P-loop sequence reported for all adenylate kinases. However, the methanogen sequences lacked a lysine residue that has previously been found to be invariant in adenylate kinases including an enzyme isolated from the Archeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. If verified as a nucleotide binding domain, the methanogen sequence would represent a novel nucleotide binding motif. There was no correlation between amino acid abundance and the optimal temperature for enzyme activity.

  19. Cometabolic Enzymatic Transformation of Organic Micropollutants under Methanogenic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Lorena; Carballa, Marta; Lema, Juan M

    2017-02-23

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been shown to have the biological potential to decrease concentrations of several organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge. However, the mechanisms and factors behind these biotransformations, which are essential for elucidating the possible transformation products and to foster the complete removal of OMPs via operational strategies, remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the transformation mechanisms of 20 OMPs during the methanogenic step of AD with a focus on the role of acetate kinase (AK), which is a key enzyme in methane production. The results from lab-scale methanogenic reactors showed that this step accounts for much of the reported OMP biotransformation in AD. Furthermore, enzymatic assays confirmed that AK transforms galaxolide, naproxen, nonylphenol, octylphenol, ibuprofen, diclofenac, bisphenol A, and triclosan. Except for galaxolide, for which further studies are required to refine conclusions, the OMP's chemical structure was a determinant for AK action because only compounds that contain a carboxyl or hydroxyl group and have moderate steric hindrance were enzymatically transformed, likely by phosphorylation. For these seven compounds, this enzymatic mechanism accounts for 10-90% of the measured methanogenic biotransformation, suggesting that other active enzymes of the AD process are also involved in OMP biotransformation.

  20. Methanogenic Hydrocarbon Degradation: Evidence from Field and Laboratory Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Núria; Richnow, Hans H; Vogt, Carsten; Treude, Tina; Krüger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial transformation of hydrocarbons to methane is an environmentally relevant process taking place in a wide variety of electron acceptor-depleted habitats, from oil reservoirs and coal deposits to contaminated groundwater and deep sediments. Methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is considered to be a major process in reservoir degradation and one of the main processes responsible for the formation of heavy oil deposits and oil sands. In the absence of external electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate or Fe(III), fermentation and methanogenesis become the dominant microbial metabolisms. The major end product under these conditions is methane, and the only electron acceptor necessary to sustain the intermediate steps in this process is CO2, which is itself a net product of the overall reaction. We are summarizing the state of the art and recent advances in methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation research. Both the key microbial groups involved as well as metabolic pathways are described, and we discuss the novel insights into methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading populations studied in laboratory as well as environmental systems enabled by novel cultivation-based and molecular approaches. Their possible implications on energy resources, bioremediation of contaminated sites, deep-biosphere research, and consequences for atmospheric composition and ultimately climate change are also addressed.

  1. Metabolic Pathways in Methanococcus jannaschii and Other Methanogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sprott, G D; Ekiel, I; Patel, G B

    1993-04-01

    Eleven strains of methanogenic bacteria were divided into two groups on the basis of the directionality (oxidative or reductive) of their citric acid pathways. These pathways were readily identified for most methanogens from the patterns of carbon atom labeling in glutamate, following growth in the presence of [2-C]acetate. All used noncyclic pathways, but members of the family Methanosarcinaceae were the only methanogens found to use the oxidative direction. Methanococcus jannaschii failed to incorporate carbon from acetate despite transmembrane equilibration comparable to other weak acids. This organism was devoid of detectable activities of the acetate-incorporating enzymes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase, acetate kinase, and phosphotransacetylase. However, incorporation of [1-C]-, [2-C]-, or [3-C]pyruvate during the growth of M. jannaschii was possible and resulted in labeling patterns indicative of a noncyclic citric acid pathway operating in the reductive direction to synthesize amino acids. Carbohydrates were labeled consistent with glucogenesis from pyruvate. Leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine, formate, glycerol, and mevalonate were incorporated when supplied to the growth medium. Lysine was preferentially incorporated into the lipid fraction, suggesting a role as a phytanyl chain precursor.

  2. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kral, T. A.; Brink, K. M.; Miller, S. L.; McKay, C. P.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is possible that the first autotroph used chemical energy rather than light. This could have been the main source of primary production after the initial inventory of abiotic organic material had been depleted. The electron acceptor most readily available for use by this first chemoautotroph would have been CO2. The most abundant electron donor may have been H2 that would have been outgassing from volcanoes at a rate estimated to be as large as 10(12) moles yr-1, as well as from photo-oxidation of Fe+2. We report here that certain methanogens will consume H2 down to partial pressures as low as 4 Pa (4 x 10(-5) atm) with CO2 as the sole carbon source at a rate of 0.7 ng H2 min-1 microgram-1 cell protein. The lower limit of pH2 for growth of methanogens can be understood on the basis that the pH2 needs to be high enough for one ATP to be synthesized per CO2 reduced. The pH2 values needed for growth measured here are consistent with those measured by Stevens and McKinley for growth of methanogens in deep basalt aquifers. H2-consuming autotrophs are likely to have had a profound effect on the chemistry of the early atmosphere and to have been a dominant sink for H2 on the early Earth after life began rather than escape from the Earth's atmosphere to space.

  3. Pulp mill wastewater sediment reveals novel methanogenic and cellulolytic populations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyu; Wang, Wei; Du, Miaofen; Li, Chunfang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    Pulp mill wastewater generated from wheat straw is characterized as high alkalinity and very high COD pollution load. A naturally developed microbial community in a pulp mill wastewater storage pool that had been disused were investigated in this study. Owing to natural evaporation and a huge amount of lignocellulose's deposition, the wastewater sediment contains high concentrations of organic matters and sodium ions, but low concentrations of chloride and carbonate. The microbiota inhabiting especially anaerobic community, including methanogenic arhcaea and cellulolytic species, was studied. All archaeal sequences fall into 2 clusters of family Halobacteriaceae and methanogenic archaeon in the phylum Euryarchaeota. In the methanogenic community, phylogenetic analysis of methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) genes targeted to novel species in genus Methanoculleus or novel genus of order Methanomicrobiales. The predominance of Methanomicrobiales suggests that methanogenesis in this system might be driven by the hydrogenotrophic pathway. As the important primary fermenter for methane production, the cellulolytic community of enzyme GHF48 was found to be dominated by narrower breadth of novel clostridial cellulase genes. Novel anoxic functional members in such extreme sediment provide the possibility of enhancing the efficiency of anoxic treatment of saline and alkaline wastewaters, as well as benefiting to the biomass transformation and biofuel production processes.

  4. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-09

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  5. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kral, T. A.; Brink, K. M.; Miller, S. L.; McKay, C. P.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is possible that the first autotroph used chemical energy rather than light. This could have been the main source of primary production after the initial inventory of abiotic organic material had been depleted. The electron acceptor most readily available for use by this first chemoautotroph would have been CO2. The most abundant electron donor may have been H2 that would have been outgassing from volcanoes at a rate estimated to be as large as 10(12) moles yr-1, as well as from photo-oxidation of Fe+2. We report here that certain methanogens will consume H2 down to partial pressures as low as 4 Pa (4 x 10(-5) atm) with CO2 as the sole carbon source at a rate of 0.7 ng H2 min-1 microgram-1 cell protein. The lower limit of pH2 for growth of methanogens can be understood on the basis that the pH2 needs to be high enough for one ATP to be synthesized per CO2 reduced. The pH2 values needed for growth measured here are consistent with those measured by Stevens and McKinley for growth of methanogens in deep basalt aquifers. H2-consuming autotrophs are likely to have had a profound effect on the chemistry of the early atmosphere and to have been a dominant sink for H2 on the early Earth after life began rather than escape from the Earth's atmosphere to space.

  6. Methanogenic biodegradation of two-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Dong, Xiaoli; Soh, Jung; Sensen, Christoph W; Gieg, Lisa M

    2012-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread in methane-rich subsurface environments, such as oil reservoirs and fuel-contaminated aquifers; however, little is known about the biodegradation of these compounds under methanogenic conditions. To assess the metabolism of PAH in the absence of electron acceptors, a crude oil-degrading methanogenic enrichment culture was tested for the ability to biodegrade naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN), 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MN), and 2, 6-dimethylnaphthalene (2, 6-diMN). When methane was measured as an indicator of metabolism, nearly 400 μmol of methane was produced in the 2-MN- and 2, 6-diMN-amended cultures relative to substrate-unamended controls, which is close to the amount of methane stoichiometrically predicted based on the amount of substrate added (51-56 μmol). In contrast, no substantial methane was produced in the naphthalene- and 1-MN-amended enrichments. In time course experiments, metabolite analysis of enrichments containing 2-MN and 2, 6-diMN revealed the formation of 2-naphthoic acid and 6-methyl-2-naphthoic acid, respectively. Microbial community analysis by 454 pyrosequencing revealed that these PAH-utilizing enrichments were dominated by archaeal members most closely affiliated with Methanosaeta and Methanoculleus species and bacterial members most closely related to the Clostridiaceae, suggesting that these organisms play an important role in the methanogenic metabolism of the substituted naphthalenes in these cultures.

  7. Acetoclastic methanogenic activity measurement by a titration bioassay.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, Alberto; Castellazzi, Luca; Speece, Richard E

    2002-01-05

    A titration bioassay, designed to accurately determine the activity of acetoclastic methanogens, is described that also allows evaluation of inhibition due to potential toxicants on the active biomass. The instrument is made of a pH-stat connected to an anaerobic batch reactor. Acetate is blended and mixed with anaerobic sludge in the reactor where a 1:1 N2 and CO2 mixture is sparged at the beginning of each test. As the acetoclastic methanogens consume acetate, the pH increase, and the titration unit adds acetic acid and keeps the pH constant. The rate of titrant addition is directly proportional to the methanogenic activity. A very useful feature of the system is its potential to operate for long periods (days) at constant pH and substrate (acetate) concentration. The theoretical background and principle of operation are described as well as some of the practical problems encountered with the use of the instrument. Estimation of kinetic constants for an anaerobic culture according to the Michaelis-Menten model is presented. Examples of inhibition by inorganics (NaCl) and chlorinated solvents (chloroform) are also given.

  8. ExactPack Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, Jr., Robert; Israel, Daniel M.; Doebling, Scott William; Woods, Charles Nathan; Kaul, Ann; Walter, Jr., John William; Rogers, Michael Lloyd

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  9. Consolidatable gravel pack method

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Surles, B.W.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for forming a consolidated gravel pack in a washed-out cavity adjacent to a producing well penetrating a subterranean oil formation comprising the steps of: (a) forming a quantity of resin coated gravel comprising granular mineral particles including gravel, the gravel particles being coated with a resin fluid containing a polymerizable oligomer of furfuryl alcohol resin, a catalyst comprising an oil soluble, very slightly water soluble organic acid and an ester of a weak organic acid to consume water produced by the polymerization of resin, the polymer coated gravel comprising a sticky solid material; (b) preparing an aqueous saline carrier fluid comprising water which is from 70 to 100% saturated with sodium chloride; (c) suspending the resin-coated gravel in the carrier fluid, forming a fluid mixture of resin-coated gravel and carrier fluid; (d) introducing the fluid mixture comprising the resin coated gravel particles suspended in the aqueous saline carrier fluid into the washed-out cavity of the formation adjacent to the producing well and shutting in the well for sufficient period of time to allow polymerization of the resin, forming the permeable gravel pack in the washed-out cavity of the formation.

  10. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  11. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  12. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  13. Methane production potentials, pathways, and communities of methanogens in vertical sediment profiles of river Sitka

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Václav; Blaser, Martin B.; Claus, Peter; Chaudhary, Prem P.; Rulík, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Biological methanogenesis is linked to permanent water logged systems, e.g., rice field soils or lake sediments. In these systems the methanogenic community as well as the pathway of methane formation are well-described. By contrast, the methanogenic potential of river sediments is so far not well-investigated. Therefore, we analyzed (a) the methanogenic potential (incubation experiments), (b) the pathway of methane production (stable carbon isotopes and inhibitor studies), and (c) the methanogenic community composition (terminal restriction length polymorphism of mcrA) in depth profiles of sediment cores of River Sitka, Czech Republic. We found two depth-related distinct maxima for the methanogenic potentials (a) The pathway of methane production was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (b) The methanogenic community composition was similar in all depth layers (c) The main TRFs were representative for Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, and Methanomicrobium species. The isotopic signals of acetate indicated a relative high contribution of chemolithotrophic acetogenesis to the acetate pool. PMID:26052322

  14. Identification of Methanogenic archaea in the Hyporheic Sediment of Sitka Stream

    PubMed Central

    Buriánková, Iva; Brablcová, Lenka; Mach, Václav; Dvořák, Petr; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Rulík, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea produce methane as a metabolic product under anoxic conditions and they play a crucial role in the global methane cycle. In this study molecular diversity of methanogenic archaea in the hyporheic sediment of the lowland stream Sitka (Olomouc, Czech Republic) was analyzed by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing analysis of the methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) gene. Sequencing analysis of 60 clones revealed 24 different mcrA phylotypes from hyporheic sedimentary layers to a depth of 50 cm. Phylotypes were affiliated with Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales and Methanobacteriales orders. Only one phylotype remains unclassified. The majority of the phylotypes showed higher affiliation with uncultured methanogens than with known methanogenic species. The presence of relatively rich assemblage of methanogenic archaea confirmed that methanogens may be an important component of hyporheic microbial communities and may affect CH4 cycling in rivers. PMID:24278322

  15. Numerical simulation of gravel packing

    SciTech Connect

    Winterfeld, P.H.; Schroeder, D.E. Jr. )

    1992-08-01

    To obtain maximum productivity from unconsolidated formations where sand control is required, it is important to understand the mechanics of gravel packing. This paper describes a finite-element, numerical simulator that can predict gravel placement in the perforations and annulus of a wellbore. The equations for the simulator include mass and momentum conservation. Wellbore geometry, physical properties, and fluid and gravel-pack properties are simulator input. Experiments in a 100-ft full-scale wellbore model for three gravel-packing configurations have been successfully simulated. These configurations are a circulating pack with a washpipe, a squeeze pack, and a circulating/squeeze pack with a washpipe and a lower telltale screen. The low cost, speed, and extrapolation capabilities of the numerical simulator will greatly enhance our ability to predict gravel placement in a wellbore.

  16. Effects of Methanogenic Inhibitors on Methane Production and Abundances of Methanogens and Cellulolytic Bacteria in In Vitro Ruminal Cultures ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Yu, Zhongtang

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate and compare the effects of select antimethanogen compounds on methane production, feed digestion and fermentation, and populations of ruminal bacteria and methanogens using in vitro cultures. Seven compounds, including 2-bromoethanesulphonate (BES), propynoic acid (PA), nitroethane (NE), ethyl trans-2-butenoate (ETB), 2-nitroethanol (2NEOH), sodium nitrate (SN), and ethyl-2-butynote (EB), were tested at a final concentration of 12 mM. Ground alfalfa hay was included as the only substrate to simulate daily forage intake. Compared to no-inhibitor controls, PA, 2NEOH, and SN greatly reduced the production of methane (70 to 99%), volatile fatty acids (VFAs; 46 to 66%), acetate (30 to 60%), and propionate (79 to 82%), with 2NEOH reducing the most. EB reduced methane production by 23% without a significant effect on total VFAs, acetate, or propionate. BES significantly reduced the propionate concentration but not the production of methane, total VFAs, or acetate. ETB or NE had no significant effect on any of the above-mentioned measurements. Specific quantitative-PCR (qPCR) assays showed that none of the inhibitors significantly affected total bacterial populations but that they did reduce the Fibrobacter succinogenes population. SN reduced the Ruminococcus albus population, while PA and 2NEOH increased the populations of both R. albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Archaeon-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that all the inhibitors affected the methanogen population structure, while archaeon-specific qPCR revealed a significant decrease in methanogen population in all treatments. These results showed that EB, ETB, NE, and BES can effectively reduce the total population of methanogens but that they reduce methane production to a lesser extent. The results may guide future in vivo studies to develop effective mitigation of methane emission from ruminants. PMID:21357427

  17. Effects of methanogenic inhibitors on methane production and abundances of methanogens and cellulolytic bacteria in in vitro ruminal cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Yu, Zhongtang

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate and compare the effects of select antimethanogen compounds on methane production, feed digestion and fermentation, and populations of ruminal bacteria and methanogens using in vitro cultures. Seven compounds, including 2-bromoethanesulphonate (BES), propynoic acid (PA), nitroethane (NE), ethyl trans-2-butenoate (ETB), 2-nitroethanol (2NEOH), sodium nitrate (SN), and ethyl-2-butynote (EB), were tested at a final concentration of 12 mM. Ground alfalfa hay was included as the only substrate to simulate daily forage intake. Compared to no-inhibitor controls, PA, 2NEOH, and SN greatly reduced the production of methane (70 to 99%), volatile fatty acids (VFAs; 46 to 66%), acetate (30 to 60%), and propionate (79 to 82%), with 2NEOH reducing the most. EB reduced methane production by 23% without a significant effect on total VFAs, acetate, or propionate. BES significantly reduced the propionate concentration but not the production of methane, total VFAs, or acetate. ETB or NE had no significant effect on any of the above-mentioned measurements. Specific quantitative-PCR (qPCR) assays showed that none of the inhibitors significantly affected total bacterial populations but that they did reduce the Fibrobacter succinogenes population. SN reduced the Ruminococcus albus population, while PA and 2NEOH increased the populations of both R. albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Archaeon-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that all the inhibitors affected the methanogen population structure, while archaeon-specific qPCR revealed a significant decrease in methanogen population in all treatments. These results showed that EB, ETB, NE, and BES can effectively reduce the total population of methanogens but that they reduce methane production to a lesser extent. The results may guide future in vivo studies to develop effective mitigation of methane emission from ruminants.

  18. Estimation of methanogen biomass via quantitation of coenzyme M

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Krumholz, Lee R.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    Determination of the role of methanogenic bacteria in an anaerobic ecosystem often requires quantitation of the organisms. Because of the extreme oxygen sensitivity of these organisms and the inherent limitations of cultural techniques, an accurate biomass value is very difficult to obtain. We standardized a simple method for estimating methanogen biomass in a variety of environmental matrices. In this procedure we used the thiol biomarker coenzyme M (CoM) (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid), which is known to be present in all methanogenic bacteria. A high-performance liquid chromatography-based method for detecting thiols in pore water (A. Vairavamurthy and M. Mopper, Anal. Chim. Acta 78:363–370, 1990) was modified in order to quantify CoM in pure cultures, sediments, and sewage water samples. The identity of the CoM derivative was verified by using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The assay was linear for CoM amounts ranging from 2 to 2,000 pmol, and the detection limit was 2 pmol of CoM/ml of sample. CoM was not adsorbed to sediments. The methanogens tested contained an average of 19.5 nmol of CoM/mg of protein and 0.39 ± 0.07 fmol of CoM/cell. Environmental samples contained an average of 0.41 ± 0.17 fmol/cell based on most-probable-number estimates. CoM was extracted by using 1% tri-(N)-butylphosphine in isopropanol. More than 90% of the CoM was recovered from pure cultures and environmental samples. We observed no interference from sediments in the CoM recovery process, and the method could be completed aerobically within 3 h. Freezing sediment samples resulted in 46 to 83% decreases in the amounts of detectable CoM, whereas freezing had no effect on the amounts of CoM determined in pure cultures. The method described here provides a quick and relatively simple way to estimate methanogenic biomass.

  19. Energetic and hydrogen limitations of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, L. C.; Holden, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are a unique ecosystem, based ultimately not on photosynthesis but chemosynthetic primary production. This makes them an excellent analog environment for the early Earth, and for potential extraterrestrial habitable environments, such as those on Mars and Europa. The habitability of given vent systems for chemoautotrophic prokaryotes can be modeled energetically by estimating the available Gibbs energy for specific modes of chemoautotrophy, using geochemical data and mixing models for hydrothermal fluids and seawater (McCollom and Shock, 1997). However, modeling to date has largely not taken into account variation in organisms' energy demands in these environments. Controls on maintenance energies are widely assumed to be temperature-dependent, rising with increasing temperature optima (Tijhuis et al., 1993), and species-independent. The impacts of other environmental stressors and particular energy-gathering strategies on maintenance energies have not been investigated. We have undertaken culture-based studies of growth and maintenance energies in thermophilic and hyperthermophilic methanogenic (hydrogenotrophic) archaea from deep-sea hydrothermal vents to investigate potential controls on energy demands in hydrothermal vent microbes, and to quantify their growth and maintenance energies for future bioenergetic modeling. We have investigated trends in their growth energies over their full temperature range and a range of nitrogen concentrations, and in their maintenance energies at different hydrogen concentrations. Growth energies in these organisms appear to rise with temperature, but do not vary between hyperthermophilic and thermophilic methanogens. Nitrogen availability at tested levels (40μM - 9.4 mM) does not appear to affect growth energies in all but one tested organism. In continuous chemostat culture, specific methane production varied with hydrogen availability but was similar between a thermophilic and a hyperthermophilic

  20. Methanogenic paraffin degradation proceeds via alkane addition to fumarate by 'Smithella' spp. mediated by a syntrophic coupling with hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

    PubMed

    Wawrik, Boris; Marks, Christopher R; Davidova, Irene A; McInerney, Michael J; Pruitt, Shane; Duncan, Kathleen E; Suflita, Joseph M; Callaghan, Amy V

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic microbial biodegradation of recalcitrant, water-insoluble substrates, such as paraffins, presents unique metabolic challenges. To elucidate this process, a methanogenic consortium capable of mineralizing long-chain n-paraffins (C28 -C50 ) was enriched from San Diego Bay sediment. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated the dominance of Syntrophobacterales (43%) and Methanomicrobiales (26%). Metagenomic sequencing allowed draft genome assembly of dominant uncultivated community members belonging to the bacterial genus Smithella and the archaeal genera Methanoculleus and Methanosaeta. Five contigs encoding homologs of the catalytic subunit of alkylsuccinate synthase (assA) were detected. Additionally, mRNA transcripts for these genes, including a homolog binned within the 'Smithella' sp. SDB genome scaffold, were detected via RT-PCR, implying that paraffins are activated via 'fumarate addition'. Metabolic reconstruction and comparison with genome scaffolds of uncultivated n-alkane degrading 'Smithella' spp. are consistent with the hypothesis that syntrophically growing 'Smithella' spp. may achieve reverse electron transfer by coupling the reoxidation of ETFred to a membrane-bound FeS oxidoreductase functioning as an ETF:menaquinone oxidoreductase. Subsequent electron transfer could proceed via a periplasmic formate dehydrogenase and/or hydrogenase, allowing energetic coupling to hydrogenotrophic methanogens such as Methanoculleus. Ultimately, these data provide fundamental insight into the energy conservation mechanisms that dictate interspecies interactions salient to methanogenic alkane mineralization. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of triclosan, diclofenac, and nonylphenol on mesophilic and thermophilic methanogenic activity and on the methanogenic communities.

    PubMed

    Symsaris, Evangelos C; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-06-30

    In this study, a toxicity assay using a mesophilic wastewater treatment plant sludge-based (SI) and a thermophilic manure-based inoculum (MI), under different biomass concentrations was performed to define the effects of diclofenac (DCF), triclosan (TCS), and nonylphenol (NP) on anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Additionally, the influence of DCF, TCS, and NP on the relative abundance of the methanogenic populations was investigated. Results obtained demonstrated that, in terms of methane production, SI inoculum was more resistant to the toxicity effect of DCF, TCS, and NP, compared to the MI inoculum. The IC50 values were 546, 35, and 363 mg L(-1) for SI inoculum and 481, 32, and 74 mg L(-1) for MI inoculum for DCF, TCS, and NP, respectively. For both inocula, higher biomass concentrations reduced the toxic effect of TCS (higher methane production up to 64%), contrary to DCF, where higher biomass loads decreased methane yield up to 31%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were more resistant to the inhibitory effect of DCF, TCS, and NP compared to aceticlastic methanogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Granular Packings and Fault Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Herrmann, H. J.; Timonen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The failure of a two-dimensional packing of elastic grains is analyzed using a numerical model. The packing fails through formation of shear bands or faults. During failure there is a separation of the system into two grain-packing states. In a shear band, local ``rotating bearings'' are spontaneously formed. The bearing state is favored in a shear band because it has a low stiffness against shearing. The ``seismic activity'' distribution in the packing has the same characteristics as that of the earthquake distribution in tectonic faults. The directions of the principal stresses in a bearing are reminiscent of those found at the San Andreas Fault.

  3. Diversity of bacteria, archaea and protozoa in a perchlorate treating bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Anupama, V N; Prajeesh, P V G; Anju, S; Priya, P; Krishnakumar, B

    2015-08-01

    A microbial consortium reducing high level of perchlorate was developed and in a fed batch bioreactor using acetate as substrate perchlorate was reduced at 0.25 g/g vss. day. Under stable performance, the microbial community structure of the reactor was analyzed through molecular and phenotypic methods. The diversity of bacteria and archaea were analyzed through whole cell Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), whereas higher trophic community was analyzed phenotypically. FISH analysis revealed the presence of alpha, beta, gamma and delta proteobacteria in the sludge, dominated by beta proteobacteria (68.7%). DGGE analysis of bacteria revealed the presence of a single known perchlorate reducing bacterium-Dechloromonas, nitrate reducers like Thaeura and Azoarcus and a number of other genera so far not reported as perchlorate or nitrate reducing. The archaea community was represented by an acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta harundinacea. We have also observed the presence of an acetate consuming flagellate, Polytomella sp. in significant number in the reactor. Archaea and protozoa community in perchlorate treating bioreactor is reported first time in this study and point out further the significance of non perchlorate reducing but acetate scavenging microbial groups in acetate fed perchlorate treating reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Shifts in methanogenic community composition and methane fluxes along the degradation of discontinuous permafrost

    PubMed Central

    Liebner, Susanne; Ganzert, Lars; Kiss, Andrea; Yang, Sizhong; Wagner, Dirk; Svenning, Mette M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of methanogens to thawing permafrost is an important factor for the global greenhouse gas budget. We tracked methanogenic community structure, activity, and abundance along the degradation of sub-Arctic palsa peatland permafrost. We observed the development of pronounced methane production, release, and abundance of functional (mcrA) methanogenic gene numbers following the transitions from permafrost (palsa) to thaw pond structures. This was associated with the establishment of a methanogenic community consisting both of hydrogenotrophic (Methanobacterium, Methanocellales), and potential acetoclastic (Methanosarcina) members and their activity. While peat bog development was not reflected in significant changes of mcrA copy numbers, potential methane production, and rates of methane release decreased. This was primarily linked to a decline of potential acetoclastic in favor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Although palsa peatland succession offers similarities with typical transitions from fen to bog ecosystems, the observed dynamics in methane fluxes and methanogenic communities are primarily attributed to changes within the dominant Bryophyta and Cyperaceae taxa rather than to changes in peat moss and sedge coverage, pH and nutrient regime. Overall, the palsa peatland methanogenic community was characterized by a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs). These OTUs seem to be indicative for methanogenic species that thrive in terrestrial organic rich environments. In summary, our study shows that after an initial stage of high methane emissions following permafrost thaw, methane fluxes, and methanogenic communities establish that are typical for northern peat bogs. PMID:26029170

  5. Shifts in methanogenic community composition and methane fluxes along the degradation of discontinuous permafrost.

    PubMed

    Liebner, Susanne; Ganzert, Lars; Kiss, Andrea; Yang, Sizhong; Wagner, Dirk; Svenning, Mette M

    2015-01-01

    The response of methanogens to thawing permafrost is an important factor for the global greenhouse gas budget. We tracked methanogenic community structure, activity, and abundance along the degradation of sub-Arctic palsa peatland permafrost. We observed the development of pronounced methane production, release, and abundance of functional (mcrA) methanogenic gene numbers following the transitions from permafrost (palsa) to thaw pond structures. This was associated with the establishment of a methanogenic community consisting both of hydrogenotrophic (Methanobacterium, Methanocellales), and potential acetoclastic (Methanosarcina) members and their activity. While peat bog development was not reflected in significant changes of mcrA copy numbers, potential methane production, and rates of methane release decreased. This was primarily linked to a decline of potential acetoclastic in favor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Although palsa peatland succession offers similarities with typical transitions from fen to bog ecosystems, the observed dynamics in methane fluxes and methanogenic communities are primarily attributed to changes within the dominant Bryophyta and Cyperaceae taxa rather than to changes in peat moss and sedge coverage, pH and nutrient regime. Overall, the palsa peatland methanogenic community was characterized by a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs). These OTUs seem to be indicative for methanogenic species that thrive in terrestrial organic rich environments. In summary, our study shows that after an initial stage of high methane emissions following permafrost thaw, methane fluxes, and methanogenic communities establish that are typical for northern peat bogs.

  6. Polarizable protein packing.

    PubMed

    Ng, Albert H; Snow, Christopher D

    2011-05-01

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol(-1)] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role of nickel in high rate methanol degradation in anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Collins, Gavin; Bartacek, Jan; O’Flaherty, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The effect of nickel deprivation from the influent of a mesophilic (30°C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated by coupling the reactor performance to the evolution of the Methanosarcina population of the bioreactor sludge. The reactor was operated at pH 7.0 and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5–15 g COD l−1 day−1 for 191 days. A clear limitation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) on methanol due to the absence of nickel was observed after 129 days of bioreactor operation: the SMA of the sludge in medium with the complete trace metal solution except nickel amounted to 1.164 (±0.167) g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1 compared to 2.027 (±0.111) g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1 in a medium with the complete (including nickel) trace metal solution. The methanol removal efficiency during these 129 days was 99%, no volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed and the size of the Methanosarcina population increased compared to the seed sludge. Continuation of the UASB reactor operation with the nickel limited sludge lead to incomplete methanol removal, and thus methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent from day 142 onwards. This methanol accumulation subsequently induced an increase of the acetogenic activity in the UASB reactor on day 160. On day 165, 77% of the methanol fed to the system was converted to acetate and the Methanosarcina population size had substantially decreased. Inclusion of 0.5 μM Ni (dosed as NiCl2) to the influent from day 165 onwards lead to the recovery of the methanol removal efficiency to 99% without VFA accumulation within 2 days of bioreactor operation. PMID:18247139

  8. Packing Products: Polystyrene vs. Cornstarch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Packing materials such as polystyrene take thousands of years to decompose, whereas packing peanuts made from cornstarch, which some companies are now using, can serve the same purpose, but dissolve in water. The author illustrates this point to her class one rainy day using the sculptures students made from polystyrene and with the cornstarch…

  9. Packing Products: Polystyrene vs. Cornstarch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Packing materials such as polystyrene take thousands of years to decompose, whereas packing peanuts made from cornstarch, which some companies are now using, can serve the same purpose, but dissolve in water. The author illustrates this point to her class one rainy day using the sculptures students made from polystyrene and with the cornstarch…

  10. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and... that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which they are packed, and that...

  13. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and... that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which they are packed, and that...

  14. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and... that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which they are packed, and that...

  15. Packed Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.; Greenberg, R.

    2005-08-01

    Planetary systems display a wide range of appearances, with apparently arbitrary values of semi-major axis, eccentricity, etc. We reduce the complexity of orbital configurations to a single value, δ , which is a measure of how close, over secular timescales ( ˜10,000 orbits), two consecutive planets come to each other. We measure this distance relative to the sum of the radii of their Hill spheres, sometimes referred to as mutual Hill radii (MHR). We determine the closest approach distance by numerically integrating the entire system on coplanar orbits, using minimum masses. For non-resonant systems, close approach occurs during apsidal alignment, either parallel or anti-parallel. For resonant pairs the distance at conjunction determines the closest approach distance. Previous analytic work found that planets on circular orbits were assuredly unstable if they came within 3.5 MHR (i.e. Gladman 1993; Chambers, Wetherill & Boss 1996). We find that most known pairs of jovian planets (including those in our solar system) come within 3.5 -- 7 MHR of each other. We also find that several systems are unstable (their closest approach distance is less than 3.5 MHR). These systems, if they are real, probably exist in an observationally permitted location somewhat different from the current best fit. In these cases, the planets' closest approach distance will most likely also be slightly larger than 3.5 MHR. Most pairs beyond 7 MHR probably experienced post-formation migration (i.e. tidal circularization, inward scattering of small bodies) which moved them further apart. This result is even more remarkable since we have used the minimum masses; most likely the systems are inclined to the line of sight, making the Hill spheres larger, and shrinking δ . This dense packing may reflect a tendency for planets to form as close together as they can without being dynamically unstable. This result further implies there may be a large number of smaller, currently undetectable

  16. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  17. Bioreactor design considerations for hollow organs.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jeff; Halberstadt, Craig; McCoy, Darell W; Robbins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    There are many important considerations in the design, construction, and use of a bioreactor for growing hollow organs such as vessels, gastrointestinal tissue, esophagus, and others. The growth of new organs requires a specialized container that provides sterility and an environment conducive to cell-seeding and attachment onto a three-dimensional bioabsorbable porous scaffold, incubation, maturation, and shipping for implantation. The materials' selection, dimensions, manufacturing, testing, and use of the bioreactor are all factors that should be considered in designing a bioreactor for the development of hollow organs.

  18. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  19. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  20. Degradation of hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in different geosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straaten, Nontje; Jiménez García, Núria; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    With increasing energy demand the search for new resources is becoming increasingly important for the future energy supply. Therefore the knowledge about fossil fuels like oil or natural gas and their extraction should be expanded. Biodegraded oil is found in many reservoirs worldwide. Consequently, it is very important to get insight in the microbial communities and metabolic processes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Due to the lack of alternative electron acceptors in hydrocarbon-rich geosystems, degradation often takes place under methanogenic conditions. The aim of the present study is to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the degradation of complex hydrocarbons, like BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using culture dependent and independent techniques. For this purpose enrichment cultures from marine sediments, shales, coal and oil reservoirs are monitored for their capability to degrade alkanes and aromatic compounds. Moreover the environmental samples of these different geosystems analysed for evidence for the in situ occurrence of methanogenic oil degradation. The gas geochemical data provided in several cases hints for a recent biological origin of the methane present. First results of the microbial community analysis showed in environmental samples and enrichment cultures the existence of Bacteria known to degrade hydrocarbons. Also a diverse community of methanogenic Archaea could be found in the clone libraries. Additionally, in oil and coal reservoir samples the degradation of model hydrocarbons, e.g. methylnaphthalene, hexadecane and BTEX, to CH4 was confirmed by 13C-labeling. To explore the mechanisms involved in biodegradation, the enrichments as well as the original environmental samples are further analysed for the presence of respective functional genes.

  1. Magnetic resonance microscopy of iron transport in methanogenic granules.

    PubMed

    Bartacek, Jan; Vergeldt, Frank J; Gerkema, Edo; Jenicek, Pavel; Lens, Piet N L; Van As, Henk

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between anaerobic biofilms and heavy metals such as iron, cobalt or nickel are largely unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method that allows in situ studies of metal transport within biofilm matrixes. The present study investigates quantitatively the penetration of iron (1.7 5mM) bound to ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the methanogenic granules (spherical biofilm). A spatial resolution of 109x109x218 microm(3) and a temporal resolution of 11 min are achieved with 3D Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) measurements. The longitudinal relaxivity, i.e. the slope the dependence of the relaxation rate (1/T(1)) on the concentration of paramagnetic metal ions, was used to measure temporal changes in iron concentration in the methanogenic granules. It took up to 300 min for the iron-EDTA complex ([FeEDTA](2-)) to penetrate into the methanogenic granules (3-4mm in diameter). The diffusion was equally fast in all directions with irregularities such as diffusion-facilitating channels and diffusion-resistant zones. Despite these irregularities, the overall process could be modeled using Fick's equations for diffusion in a sphere, because immobilization of [FeEDTA](2-) in the granular matrix (or the presence of a reactive barrier) was not observed. The effective diffusion coefficient (D(ejf)) of [FeEDTA](2-) was found to be 2.8x10(-11)m(2)s(-1), i.e. approximately 4% of D(ejf) of [FeEDTA](2-) in water. The Fickian model did not correspond to the processes taking place in the core of the granule (3-5% of the total volume of the granule), where up to 25% over-saturation by iron (compare to the concentration in the bulk solution) occurred.

  2. Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants.

    PubMed

    Fedorak, Phillip M; Coy, Debora L; Salloum, Myrna J; Dudas, Marvin J

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large areas of land to reclaim. There are estimates that the consolidation of the mature fine tails (MFT) in the settling ponds will take about 150 years. Some of the settling ponds are now evolving microbially produced methane, a greenhouse gas. To hasten consolidation, gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) is added to MFT, yielding materials called consolidated or composite tailings (CT). Sulfate from the gypsum has the potential to stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to out-compete methanogens, thereby stopping methanogenesis. This investigation examined three MFT and four CT samples from three oil sands extractions companies. Each was found to contain methanogens and SRB. Serum bottle microcosm studies showed sulfate in the CT samples stopped methane production. However, if the microcosms were amended with readily utilizable electron donors, the sulfate was consumed, and when it reached approximately 20 mg/L, methane production began. Some unamended microcosms were incubated for 372 days, with no methane production detected. This work showed that each MFT and CT sample has the potential to become methanogenic, but in the absence of exogenous electron donors, the added sulfate can inhibit methanogenesis for a long time.

  3. Anaerobic degradation of citrate under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Victor M; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Waltz, Rebecca J; Field, James A

    2009-07-01

    Citrate is an important component of metal processing effluents such as chemical mechanical planarization wastewaters of the semiconductor industry. Citrate can serve as an electron donor for sulfate reduction applied to promote the removal of metals, and it can also potentially be used by methanogens that coexist in anaerobic biofilms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation of citrate with sulfate-reducing and methanogenic biofilms. During batch bioassays, the citrate, acetate, methane and sulfide concentrations were monitored. The results indicate that independent of the biofilm or incubation conditions used, citrate was rapidly fermented with specific rates ranging from 566 to 720 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) consumed per gram volatile suspended solids per day. Acetate was found to be the main fermentation product of citrate degradation, which was later degraded completely under either methanogenic or sulfate reducing conditions. However, if either sulfate reduction or methanogenesis was infeasible due to specific inhibitors (2-bromoethane sulfonate), absence of sulfate or lack of adequate microorganisms in the biofilm, acetate accumulated to levels accounting for 90-100% of the citrate-COD consumed. Based on carbon balances measured in phosphate buffered bioassays, acetate, CO(2) and hydrogen are the main products of citrate fermentation, with a molar ratio of 2:2:1 per mol of citrate, respectively. In bicarbonate buffered bioassays, acetogenesis of H(2) and CO(2) increased the yield of acetate. The results taken as a whole suggest that in anaerobic biofilm systems, citrate is metabolized via the formation of acetate as the main metabolic intermediate prior to methanogenesis or sulfate reduction. Sulfate reducing consortia must be enriched to utilize acetate as an electron donor in order to utilize the majority of the electron-equivalents in citrate.

  4. Magnetic resonance microscopy of iron transport in methanogenic granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartacek, Jan; Vergeldt, Frank J.; Gerkema, Edo; Jenicek, Pavel; Lens, Piet N. L.; Van As, Henk

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between anaerobic biofilms and heavy metals such as iron, cobalt or nickel are largely unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method that allows in situ studies of metal transport within biofilm matrixes. The present study investigates quantitatively the penetration of iron (1.75 mM) bound to ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the methanogenic granules (spherical biofilm). A spatial resolution of 109 × 109 × 218 μm 3 and a temporal resolution of 11 min are achieved with 3D Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) measurements. The longitudinal relaxivity, i.e. the slope the dependence of the relaxation rate (1/ T1) on the concentration of paramagnetic metal ions, was used to measure temporal changes in iron concentration in the methanogenic granules. It took up to 300 min for the iron-EDTA complex ([FeEDTA] 2-) to penetrate into the methanogenic granules (3-4 mm in diameter). The diffusion was equally fast in all directions with irregularities such as diffusion-facilitating channels and diffusion-resistant zones. Despite these irregularities, the overall process could be modeled using Fick's equations for diffusion in a sphere, because immobilization of [FeEDTA] 2- in the granular matrix (or the presence of a reactive barrier) was not observed. The effective diffusion coefficient ( D ejf) of [FeEDTA] 2- was found to be 2.8 × 10 -11 m 2 s -1, i.e. approximately 4% of D ejf of [FeEDTA] 2- in water. The Fickian model did not correspond to the processes taking place in the core of the granule (3-5% of the total volume of the granule), where up to 25% over-saturation by iron (compare to the concentration in the bulk solution) occurred.

  5. Effect of temperature on perchloroethylene dechlorination by a methanogenic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Skeen, R.S.; Hooker, B.S.

    1995-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the kinetics of growth, substrate metabolism, and perchloroethylene (PCE) dechlorination by a methanogenic consortium is reported. In all cases, a simple kinetic model accurately reflected experimental data. Values for the substrate and methane yield coefficients, and the maximum specific growth rate are fairly consistent at each temperature. Also, the substrate and methane yield coefficients show little temperature sensitivity. In contrast, both the maximum specific growth rate and the PCE dechlorination yield coefficient (Y{sub PCE}) are temperature dependent.

  6. Trace Elements Induce Predominance among Methanogenic Activity in Anaerobic Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wintsche, Babett; Glaser, Karin; Sträuber, Heike; Centler, Florian; Liebetrau, Jan; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control, and supplementation of TEs lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while TE deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by TE deprivation. Two identical lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors fed with distiller’s grains and supplemented with TEs (cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten) and a commercial iron additive were operated in parallel. After 72 weeks of identical operation, the feeding regime of one reactor was changed by omitting TE supplements and reducing the amount of iron additive. Both reactors were operated for further 21 weeks. Various process parameters (biogas production and composition, total solids and volatile solids, TE concentration, volatile fatty acids, total ammonium nitrogen, total organic acids/alkalinity ratio, and pH) and the composition and activity of the microbial communities were monitored over the total experimental time. While the methane yield remained stable, the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, total ammonia nitrogen, and acetate increased in the TE-depleted reactor compared to the well-supplied control reactor. Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus dominated the methanogenic communities in both reactors. However, the activity ratio of these two genera was shown to depend on TE supplementation explainable by different TE requirements of their energy conservation systems. Methanosarcina dominated the well-supplied anaerobic digester, pointing to acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway. Under TE deprivation, Methanoculleus and thus hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was favored although Methanosarcina was not overgrown

  7. Trace Elements Induce Predominance among Methanogenic Activity in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Wintsche, Babett; Glaser, Karin; Sträuber, Heike; Centler, Florian; Liebetrau, Jan; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control, and supplementation of TEs lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while TE deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by TE deprivation. Two identical lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors fed with distiller's grains and supplemented with TEs (cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten) and a commercial iron additive were operated in parallel. After 72 weeks of identical operation, the feeding regime of one reactor was changed by omitting TE supplements and reducing the amount of iron additive. Both reactors were operated for further 21 weeks. Various process parameters (biogas production and composition, total solids and volatile solids, TE concentration, volatile fatty acids, total ammonium nitrogen, total organic acids/alkalinity ratio, and pH) and the composition and activity of the microbial communities were monitored over the total experimental time. While the methane yield remained stable, the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, total ammonia nitrogen, and acetate increased in the TE-depleted reactor compared to the well-supplied control reactor. Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus dominated the methanogenic communities in both reactors. However, the activity ratio of these two genera was shown to depend on TE supplementation explainable by different TE requirements of their energy conservation systems. Methanosarcina dominated the well-supplied anaerobic digester, pointing to acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway. Under TE deprivation, Methanoculleus and thus hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was favored although Methanosarcina was not overgrown by

  8. Accelerated glycerol fermentation in Escherichia coli using methanogenic formate consumption.

    PubMed

    Richter, Katrin; Gescher, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Escherichia coli can ferment glycerol anaerobically only under very defined restrictive conditions. Hence, it was the aim of this study to overcome this limitation via a co-cultivation approach. Anaerobic glycerol fermentation by a pure E. coli culture was compared to a co-culture that also contained the formate-oxidizing methanogen Methanobacterium formicicum. Co-cultivation of the two strains led to a more than 11-fold increased glycerol consumption. Furthermore, it supported a constantly neutral pH and a shift from ethanol to succinate production. Moreover, M. formicicum was analyzed for its ability to grow on different standard media and a surprising versatility could be demonstrated.

  9. [Evaluation of capillary chromatographic columns packed by electrokinetic packing method].

    PubMed

    Li, Z; You, H; Hu, S; Wei, W; Luo, G

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a method for electrokinetic packing capillary columns is reported. A higher column effeciency was obtained by performing electrochromatography on electrokinetic packing columns. The highest column efficiency in number of theoretical plate per meter was more than 200000, corresponding to reduced plate height less than 2. The reproducibilities of the same column in different intervals and different columns prepared from the same or different batches were compared. The relative standard deviations of the number of theoretical plate and retention time were less than 10% and 8%, respectively. The results indicated that high column efficiency and good reproducibility can be obtained on these new capillary packed columns.

  10. Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content.

    PubMed

    Mockaitis, G; Pantoja, J L R; Rodrigues, J A D; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a new type of anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) in which the support for the biomass consists of polyurethane foam strips placed along the length of the bioreactor. This configuration prevents the accumulation of biomass or solids in the bed as well as clogging and channeling effects. In this study, complex synthetic wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand of 404.4 mg O(2) L(-1) is treated by the reactor. The ABFSB, which has a working volume of 4.77 L, was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. A removal efficiency of 78 % for organic matter and an effluent pH of 6.97 were achieved. An analysis of the organic volatile acids produced by the ABFSB indicated that it operated under stable conditions during an experimental run of 36 days. The stable and efficient operation of the bioreactor was compared with the configurations of other anaerobic bioreactors used for complex wastewater treatment. The results of the study indicate that the ABFSB is a technological alternative to packed-bed bioreactors.

  11. Nasal packing after septoplasty: a randomized comparison of packing versus no packing in 88 patients.

    PubMed

    Awan, Mohammad Sohail; Iqbal, Moghira

    2008-11-01

    The once-common practice of packing the nose after septoplasty was based on a desire to prevent postoperative complications such as bleeding, septal hematoma, and adhesion formation. However, it was since found that not only is nasal packing ineffective in this regard, it can actually cause these complications. Although the consensus in the world literature is that packing should be avoided, to the best of our knowledge, no truly randomized study has been undertaken in Southwest Asia upon which to justify this recommendation here. Therefore, we conducted a prospective randomized comparison of the incidence of a variety of postoperative signs and symptoms in 88 patients, 15 years of age and older, who did (n = 44) and did not (n = 44) undergo nasal packing following septoplasty. We found that the patients who underwent packing experienced significantly more postoperative pain, headache, epiphora, dysphagia, and sleep disturbance on the night of surgery. Oral and nasal examinations 7 days postoperatively revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of bleeding, septal hematoma, adhesion formation, and local infection. Finally, the packing group reported a moderate to high level of pain during removal of the packing. Our findings confirm that nasal packing after septoplasty is not only unnecessary, it is actually a source of patient discomfort and other signs and symptoms.

  12. Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis" Issoire-Mx1, a Third Thermoplasmatales-Related Methanogenic Archaeon from Human Feces.

    PubMed

    Borrel, Guillaume; Harris, Hugh M B; Parisot, Nicolas; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Mihajlovski, Agnès; Deane, Jennifer; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Bardot, Olivier; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre; O'Toole, Paul W; Brugère, Jean-François

    2013-07-11

    "Candidatus Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis" Issoire-Mx1 is a methanogenic archaeon found in the human gut and is a representative of the novel order of methanogens related to Thermoplasmatales. Its complete genome sequence is presented here.

  13. Spatial Variations of the Methanogenic Communities in the Sediments of Tropical Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Hongmei; Cheung, Shunyan; Zhou, Zhi; Wu, Chen; Nagarajan, Sanjay; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Methane production by methanogens in mangrove sediments is known to contribute significantly to global warming, but studies on the shift of methanogenic community in response to anthropogenic contaminations were still limited. In this study, the effect of anthropogenic activities in the mangrove sediments along the north and south coastlines of Singapore were investigated by pyrosequencing of the mcrA gene. Our results showed that hydrogenotrophic, acetoclastic and methylotrophic methanogens coexist in the sediments. The predominance of the methylotrophic Methanosarcinales reflects the potential for high methane production as well as the possible availability of low acetate and high methylated C-1 compounds as substrates. A decline in the number of acetoclastic/methylotrophic methanogens in favor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens was observed along a vertical profile in Sungei Changi, which was contaminated by heavy metals. The diversity of methanogens in the various contaminated stations was significantly different from that in a pristine St. John’s Island. The spatial variation in the methanogenic communities among the different stations was more distinct than those along the vertical profiles at each station. We suggest that the overall heterogeneity of the methanogenic communities residing in the tropical mangrove sediments might be due to the accumulated effects of temperature and concentrations of nitrate, cobalt, and nickel. PMID:27684479

  14. Relationship between methanogenic archaea and subgingival microbial complexes in human periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Horz, H P; Robertz, N; Vianna, M E; Henne, K; Conrads, G

    2015-10-01

    We compared the amounts of methanogenic archaea with ten of the most important periodontal pathogens in 125 clinical samples. Correlation analysis suggests that the support of the periodontitis-associated bacterial consortium by methanogenic archaea may be driven through direct or indirect interactions with Prevotella intermedia.

  15. Method for Indirect Quantification of CH4 Production via H2O Production Using Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens

    PubMed Central

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Rittmann, Simon K.-M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens are an intriguing group of microorganisms from the domain Archaea. Methanogens exhibit extraordinary ecological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and possess a huge biotechnological potential. Yet, the only possibility to assess the methane (CH4) production potential of hydrogenotrophic methanogens is to apply gas chromatographic quantification of CH4. In order to be able to effectively screen pure cultures of hydrogenotrophic methanogens regarding their CH4 production potential we developed a novel method for indirect quantification of the volumetric CH4 production rate by measuring the volumetric water production rate. This method was established in serum bottles for cultivation of methanogens in closed batch cultivation mode. Water production was estimated by determining the difference in mass increase in a quasi-isobaric setting. This novel CH4 quantification method is an accurate and precise analytical technique, which can be used to rapidly screen pure cultures of methanogens regarding their volumetric CH4 evolution rate. It is a cost effective alternative determining CH4 production of methanogens over CH4 quantification by using gas chromatography, especially if applied as a high throughput quantification method. Eventually, the method can be universally applied for quantification of CH4 production from psychrophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens. PMID:27199898

  16. Effect of paddy-upland rotation on methanogenic archaeal community structure in paddy field soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongyan; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Nishida, Mizuhiko; Tsuchiya, Kazunari; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kimura, Makoto; Asakawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea are strict anaerobes and demand highly reduced conditions to produce methane in paddy field soil. However, methanogenic archaea survive well under upland and aerated conditions in paddy fields and exhibit stable community. In the present study, methanogenic archaeal community was investigated in fields where paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) under flooded conditions was rotated with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) under upland conditions at different rotation histories, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR methods targeting 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. Soil samples collected from the fields before flooding or seeding, during crop cultivation and after harvest of crops were analyzed. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal populations decreased to about one-tenth in the rotational plots than in the consecutive paddy (control) plots. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community also changed. Most members of the methanogenic archaea consisting of the orders Methanosarcinales, Methanocellales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanobacteriales existed autochthonously in both the control and rotational plots, while some were strongly affected in the rotational plots, with fatal effect to some members belonging to the Methanosarcinales. This study revealed that the upland conversion for one or longer than 1 year in the rotational system affected the methanogenic archaeal community structure and was fatal to some members of methanogenic archaea in paddy field soil.

  17. Method for Indirect Quantification of CH4 Production via H2O Production Using Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens are an intriguing group of microorganisms from the domain Archaea. Methanogens exhibit extraordinary ecological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and possess a huge biotechnological potential. Yet, the only possibility to assess the methane (CH4) production potential of hydrogenotrophic methanogens is to apply gas chromatographic quantification of CH4. In order to be able to effectively screen pure cultures of hydrogenotrophic methanogens regarding their CH4 production potential we developed a novel method for indirect quantification of the volumetric CH4 production rate by measuring the volumetric water production rate. This method was established in serum bottles for cultivation of methanogens in closed batch cultivation mode. Water production was estimated by determining the difference in mass increase in a quasi-isobaric setting. This novel CH4 quantification method is an accurate and precise analytical technique, which can be used to rapidly screen pure cultures of methanogens regarding their volumetric CH4 evolution rate. It is a cost effective alternative determining CH4 production of methanogens over CH4 quantification by using gas chromatography, especially if applied as a high throughput quantification method. Eventually, the method can be universally applied for quantification of CH4 production from psychrophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

  18. In vitro detection and primary cultivation of bacteria producing materials inhibitory to ruminal methanogens.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Rosalind A; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Zhang, Li Hua; Klieve, Athol V

    2010-02-01

    A novel method for screening bacterial isolates for their potential to inhibit the growth of ruminal methanogenic Archaea was developed using a modification of the soft agar overlay technique, formally used for the isolation of lytic bacteriophages. This method may be used in the specific, hydrogen-rich conditions required for the growth of ruminal methanogenic Archaea.

  19. Methane Production and Methanogenic Archaea in the Digestive Tracts of Millipedes (Diplopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Šustr, Vladimír; Chroňáková, Alica; Semanová, Stanislava; Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Methane production by intestinal methanogenic Archaea and their community structure were compared among phylogenetic lineages of millipedes. Tropical and temperate millipedes of 35 species and 17 families were investigated. Species that emitted methane were mostly in the juliform orders Julida, Spirobolida, and Spirostreptida. The irregular phylogenetic distribution of methane production correlated with the presence of the methanogen-specific mcrA gene. The study brings the first detailed survey of methanogens’ diversity in the digestive tract of millipedes. Sequences related to Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and some unclassified Archaea were detected using molecular profiling (DGGE). The differences in substrate preferences of the main lineages of methanogenic Archaea found in different millipede orders indicate that the composition of methanogen communities may reflect the differences in available substrates for methanogenesis or the presence of symbiotic protozoa in the digestive tract. We conclude that differences in methane production in the millipede gut reflect differences in the activity and proliferation of intestinal methanogens rather than an absolute inability of some millipede taxa to host methanogens. This inference was supported by the general presence of methanogenic activity in millipede faecal pellets and the presence of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens in all tested taxa in the two main groups of millipedes, the Helminthophora and the Pentazonia. PMID:25028969

  20. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  1. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  2. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  3. Efficient proteolysis strategies based on microchip bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2013-04-26

    In proteome research, proteolysis is an important procedure prior to the mass spectrometric identification of proteins. The typical time of conventional in-solution proteolysis is as long as several hours to half a day. To enhance proteolysis efficiency, a variety of microchip bioreactors have been developed for the rapid digestion and identification of proteins in the past decade. This review mainly focuses on the recent advances and the key strategies of microchip bioreactors in protein digestion. The subjects covered include microchip proteolysis systems, the immobilization of proteases in microchannels, the applications of microchip bioreactors in highly efficient proteolysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip bioreactors will become powerful tools in protein analysis and will find a wide range of applications in high-throughput protein identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo bioreactors for mandibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tatara, A M; Wong, M E; Mikos, A G

    2014-12-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach.

  5. Bioreactor design for tendon/ligament engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake; Smith, David W; Lloyd, David G; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-04-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments.

  6. Hydrophobicity of imidazole derivatives correlates with improved activity against human methanogenic archaea.

    PubMed

    Khelaifia, Saber; Brunel, Jean Michel; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-06-01

    Methanogenic archaea are involved in periodontitis in humans. They have also been implicated in digestive tract pathologies and obesity. These microorganisms are broadly resistant to antibiotics, except for metronidazole and ornidazole. In this study, eight imidazole derivatives were synthesised and their in vitro cytotoxicity and activity against six species of methanogenic archaea, including Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobacterium beijingense, Methanosaeta concilii and Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, were tested. Whilst the effective half-maximum cytotoxic concentrations (EC50 values) of all compounds were ≤50 mg/L, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 0.05-0.8 mg/L for most methanogenic archaea and 0.1-1mg/L for M. stadtmanae. These results indicated a >20-400 therapeutic index (EC50/MIC) for these compounds, which compared with metronidazole exhibited 1-log increased activity against methanogenic archaea cultured from the human microbiota. These compounds are therefore promising molecules for the treatment of methanogenic archaea-related infections.

  7. Survival of methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost under simulated Martian thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Daria; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Wagner, Dirk

    2007-04-01

    Methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost complementary to the already well-studied methanogens from non-permafrost habitats were exposed to simulated Martian conditions. After 22 days of exposure to thermo-physical conditions at Martian low- and mid-latitudes up to 90% of methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost survived in pure cultures as well as in environmental samples. In contrast, only 0.3%-5.8% of reference organisms from non-permafrost habitats survived at these conditions. This suggests that methanogens from terrestrial permafrost seem to be remarkably resistant to Martian conditions. Our data also suggest that in scenario of subsurface lithoautotrophic life on Mars, methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost could be used as appropriate candidates for the microbial life on Mars.

  8. Oligonucleotide primers, probes and molecular methods for the environmental monitoring of methanogenic archaea

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Summary For the identification and quantification of methanogenic archaea (methanogens) in environmental samples, various oligonucleotide probes/primers targeting phylogenetic markers of methanogens, such as 16S rRNA, 16S rRNA gene and the gene for the α‐subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), have been extensively developed and characterized experimentally. These oligonucleotides were designed to resolve different groups of methanogens at different taxonomic levels, and have been widely used as hybridization probes or polymerase chain reaction primers for membrane hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, rRNA cleavage method, gene cloning, DNA microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for studies in environmental and determinative microbiology. In this review, we present a comprehensive list of such oligonucleotide probes/primers, which enable us to determine methanogen populations in an environment quantitatively and hierarchically, with examples of the practical applications of the probes and primers. PMID:21375721

  9. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOEpatents

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  10. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  11. Aspiration of Nasopore nasal packing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan; Reddy, Ekambar

    2017-10-04

    We present a case of postoperative Nasopore aspiration in an otherwise fit and well 11-year-old. An endoscopic adenoidectomy had been performed without incident and Nasopore packing placed into each nasal cavity. Immediately after extubation, there was marked hypoxia, tachypnoea and high clinical suspicion of pack aspiration. The patient returned to theatre for emergency rigid bronchoscopy and retrieval of nasal packing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in

  13. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  14. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  15. Methanogens rapidly transition from methane production to iron reduction.

    PubMed

    Sivan, O; Shusta, S S; Valentine, D L

    2016-03-01

    Methanogenesis, the microbial methane (CH4 ) production, is traditionally thought to anchor the mineralization of organic matter as the ultimate respiratory process in deep sediments, despite the presence of oxidized mineral phases, such as iron oxides. This process is carried out by archaea that have also been shown to be capable of reducing iron in high levels of electron donors such as hydrogen. The current pure culture study demonstrates that methanogenic archaea (Methanosarcina barkeri) rapidly switch from methanogenesis to iron-oxide reduction close to natural conditions, with nitrogen atmosphere, even when faced with substrate limitations. Intensive, biotic iron reduction was observed following the addition of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite and complex organic matter and was accompanied by inhibition of methane production. The reaction rate of this process was of the first order and was dependent only on the initial iron concentrations. Ferrous iron production did not accelerate significantly with the addition of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) but increased by 11-28% with the addition of phenazine-1-carboxylate (PCA), suggesting the possible role of methanophenazines in the electron transport. The coupling between ferrous iron and methane production has important global implications. The rapid transition from methanogenesis to reduction of iron-oxides close to the natural conditions in sediments may help to explain the globally-distributed phenomena of increasing ferrous concentrations below the traditional iron reduction zone in the deep 'methanogenic' sediment horizon, with implications for metabolic networking in these subsurface ecosystems and in past geological settings.

  16. Glycine Betaine as a Direct Substrate for Methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Andrew J.; Roussel, Erwan G.; Parkes, R. John

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners. PMID:24162571

  17. Presence of an Unusual Methanogenic Bacterium in Coal Gasification Waste

    PubMed Central

    Tomei, Francisco A.; Rouse, Dwight; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37°C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 μm wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. Images PMID:16347791

  18. Restricted diversity of dental calculus methanogens over five centuries, France

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Hong T. T.; Nkamga, Vanessa D.; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Pinguet, Romuald; Audoly, Gilles; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are acknowledged archaeal members of modern dental calculus microbiota and dental pathogen complexes. Their repertoire in ancient dental calculus is poorly known. We therefore investigated archaea in one hundred dental calculus specimens collected from individuals recovered from six archaeological sites in France dated from the 14th to 19th centuries AD. Dental calculus was demonstrated by macroscopic and cone-beam observations. In 56 calculus specimens free of PCR inhibition, PCR sequencing identified Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 in 44.6%, Methanobrevibacter oralis in 19.6%, a new Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis-like methanogen in 12.5%, a Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis-like in one and Methanoculleus bourgensis in one specimen, respectively. One Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 dental calculus was further documented by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The prevalence of dental calculus M. oralis was significantly lower in past populations than in modern populations (P = 0.03, Chi-square test). This investigation revealed a previously unknown repertoire of archaea found in the oral cavity of past French populations as reflected in preserved dental calculus. PMID:27166431

  19. Characterization of methanogenic and methanotrophic assemblages in landfill samples.

    PubMed Central

    Uz, Ilker; Rasche, M E; Townsend, T; Ogram, A V; Lindner, A S

    2003-01-01

    A greater understanding of the tightly linked trophic groups of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria residing in municipal solid waste landfills will increase our ability to control methane emissions and pollutant fate in these environments. To this end, we characterized the composition of methanogenic and methanotrophic bacteria in samples taken from two regions of a municipal solid waste landfill that varied in age. A method combining polymerase chain reaction amplification, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and phylogenetic analysis was used for this purpose. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed a rich assemblage of methanogens in both samples, including acetoclasts, H2/CO2-users and formate-users in the newer samples and H2/CO2-users and formate-users in the older samples, with closely related genera including Methanoculleus, Methanofollis, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina. Fewer phylotypes of type 1 methanotrophs were observed relative to type 2 methanotrophs. Most type 1 sequences clustered within a clade related to Methylobacter, whereas type 2 sequences were broadly distributed among clades associated with Methylocystis and Methylosinus species. This genetic characterization tool promises rapid screening of landfill samples for genotypes and, therefore, degradation potentials. PMID:14667383

  20. Glycine betaine as a direct substrate for methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.).

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew J; Roussel, Erwan G; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners.

  1. Hydrogen or formate: Alternative key players in methanogenic degradation.

    PubMed

    Schink, Bernhard; Montag, Dominik; Keller, Anja; Müller, Nicolai

    2017-02-15

    Hydrogen and formate are important electron carriers in methanogenic degradation in anoxic environments such as sediments, sewage sludge digestors and biogas reactors. Especially in the terminal steps of methanogenesis, they determine the energy budgets of secondary (syntrophically) fermenting bacteria and their methanogenic partners. The literature provides considerable data on hydrogen pool sizes in such habitats, but little data exist for formate concentrations due to technical difficulties in formate determination at low concentration. Recent evidence from biochemical and molecular biological studies indicates that several secondary fermenters can use both hydrogen and formate for electron release, and may do so even simultaneously. Numerous strictly anaerobic bacteria contain enzymes which equilibrate hydrogen and formate pools to energetically equal values, and recent measurements in sewage digestors and biogas reactors indicate that - beyond occasional fluctuations - the pool sizes of hydrogen and formate are indeed energetically nearly equivalent. Nonetheless, a thermophilic archaeon from a submarine hydrothermal vent, Thermococcus onnurineus, can obtain ATP from the conversion of formate to hydrogen plus bicarbonate at 80°C, indicating that at least in this extreme environment the pools of formate and hydrogen are likely to be sufficiently different to support such an unusual type of energy conservation.

  2. Restricted diversity of dental calculus methanogens over five centuries, France.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hong T T; Nkamga, Vanessa D; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Pinguet, Romuald; Audoly, Gilles; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-05-11

    Methanogens are acknowledged archaeal members of modern dental calculus microbiota and dental pathogen complexes. Their repertoire in ancient dental calculus is poorly known. We therefore investigated archaea in one hundred dental calculus specimens collected from individuals recovered from six archaeological sites in France dated from the 14(th) to 19(th) centuries AD. Dental calculus was demonstrated by macroscopic and cone-beam observations. In 56 calculus specimens free of PCR inhibition, PCR sequencing identified Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 in 44.6%, Methanobrevibacter oralis in 19.6%, a new Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis-like methanogen in 12.5%, a Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis-like in one and Methanoculleus bourgensis in one specimen, respectively. One Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 dental calculus was further documented by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The prevalence of dental calculus M. oralis was significantly lower in past populations than in modern populations (P = 0.03, Chi-square test). This investigation revealed a previously unknown repertoire of archaea found in the oral cavity of past French populations as reflected in preserved dental calculus.

  3. Methane formation and methane oxidation by methanogenic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Zehnder, A J; Brock, T D

    1979-01-01

    Methanogenic bacteria were found to form and oxidize methane at the same time. As compared to the quantity of methane formed, the amount of methane simultaneously oxidized varied between 0.3 and 0.001%, depending on the strain used. All the nine tested strains of methane producers (Methanobacterium ruminantium, Methanobacterium strain M.o.H., M. formicicum, M. thermoautotrophicum, M. arbophilicum, Methanobacterium strain AZ, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanospirillum hungatii, and the "acetate organism") reoxidized methane to carbon dioxide. In addition, they assimilated a small part of the methane supplied into cell material. Methanol and acetate also occurred as oxidation products in M. barkeri cultures. Acetate was also formed by the "acetate organism," a methane bacterium unable to use methanogenic substrates other than acetate. Methane was the precursor of the methyl group of the acetate synthesized in the course of methane oxidation. Methane formation and its oxidation were inhibited equally by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Short-term labeling experiments with M. thermoautotrophicum and M. hungatii clearly suggest that the pathway of methane oxidation is not identical with a simple back reaction of the methane formation process. Images PMID:762019

  4. Presence of an unusual methanogenic bacterium in coal gasification waste.

    PubMed

    Tomei, F A; Rouse, D; Maki, J S; Mitchell, R

    1988-12-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37 degrees C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 mum wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed.

  5. Modeling steady-state methanogenic degradation of phenols in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Godsy, E. Michael; Goerlitz, Donald F.

    1993-01-01

    Field and microcosm observations of methanogenic phenolic compound degradation indicate that Monod kinetics governs the substrate disappearance but overestimates the observed biomass. In this paper we present modeling results from an ongoing multidisciplinary study of methanogenic biodegradation of phenolic compounds in a sand and gravel aquifer contaminated by chemicals and wastes used in wood treatment. Field disappearance rates of four phenols match those determined in batch microcosm studies previously performed by E.M. Godsy and coworkers. The degradation process appears to be at steady-state because even after a sustained influx over several decades, the contaminants still are disappearing in transport downgradient. The existence of a steady-state degradation profile of each substrate together with a low biomass density in the aquifer indicate that the bacteria population is exhibiting no net growth. This may be due to the oligotrophic nature of the biomass population in which utilization and growth are approximately independent of concentration for most of the concentration range. Thus a constant growth rate should exist over much of the contaminated area which may in turn be balanced by an unusually high decay or maintenance rate due to hostile conditions or predation.

  6. Conserved gene structures and expression signals in methanogenic archaebacteria.

    PubMed

    Allmansberger, R; Bokranz, M; Kröckel, L; Schallenberg, J; Klein, A

    1989-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cotranscribed gene clusters comprising the structural genes mcrA, mcrB, mcrC, mcrD, and mcrG was carried out in three species of methanogens. mcrA, mcrB, and mcrG are the structural genes for the three subunits of methyl coenzyme M reductase, while the two other genes encode polypeptides of unknown functions. The degree of conservation of the mcr gene products among different species of methanogens varies. No correlation was found between the conservation of the G+C contents of the homologous genes and of the amino acid sequences of their products among the different bacteria. The comparison of RNA polymerase core subunit genes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum as evolutionary markers with their equivalents in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila melanogaster showed that homologous polypeptide domains are encoded by different numbers of genes suggesting gene fusion of adjacent genes in the course of evolution. The archaebacterial subunits exhibit much stronger homology with their eukaryotic than with their eubacterial equivalents on the polypeptide sequence level. All the analyzed genes are preceded by ribosome binding sites of eubacterial type. In addition to known putative promoter sequences, conserved structural elements of the DNA were detected surrounding the transcription initiation sites of the mcr genes.

  7. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

  8. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  9. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  10. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  11. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

  12. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  13. Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

  14. Response of Jammed Ellipsoid Packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeravcic, Zorana; Liu, Andrea; Nagel, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the nature of the jamming transition for packings of spheroids by examining the elastic moduli as a function of the aspect ratio of the particles ɛ and the compression. Irrespective of the particle aspect ratio, both shear modulus G and bulk modulus B show the same scaling as a function of compression as is found for packings of spheres. Moreover, for any value of ɛ , G is proportional to the excess of the coordination number above that found at the jamming threshold; this recovers the result for frictionless spheres at ɛ = 1 . Our results imply a new diverging length scale associated with the loss of rigidity of these spheroid packings. The critical behavior of ellipsoid packings is an extension of that found for spheres.

  15. Storing Chemicals in Packed Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    Reactants released by crushing or puncturing. Agglomerated gas-filled spheres hexagonally close packed and sintered or glued together into rods strung together at ends. Rods fed into crushing machine to release material in spheres as needed.

  16. Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

  17. Pattern formations and optimal packing.

    PubMed

    Mityushev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Patterns of different symmetries may arise after solution to reaction-diffusion equations. Hexagonal arrays, layers and their perturbations are observed in different models after numerical solution to the corresponding initial-boundary value problems. We demonstrate an intimate connection between pattern formations and optimal random packing on the plane. The main study is based on the following two points. First, the diffusive flux in reaction-diffusion systems is approximated by piecewise linear functions in the framework of structural approximations. This leads to a discrete network approximation of the considered continuous problem. Second, the discrete energy minimization yields optimal random packing of the domains (disks) in the representative cell. Therefore, the general problem of pattern formations based on the reaction-diffusion equations is reduced to the geometric problem of random packing. It is demonstrated that all random packings can be divided onto classes associated with classes of isomorphic graphs obtained from the Delaunay triangulation. The unique optimal solution is constructed in each class of the random packings. If the number of disks per representative cell is finite, the number of classes of isomorphic graphs, hence, the number of optimal packings is also finite.

  18. Advanced microscale bioreactor system: a representative scale-down model for bench-top bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Traul, Donald L; Yuk, Inn H

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several automated scale-down bioreactor systems have been developed to increase efficiency in cell culture process development. ambr™ is an automated workstation that provides individual monitoring and control of culture dissolved oxygen and pH in single-use, stirred-tank bioreactors at a working volume of 10-15 mL. To evaluate the ambr™ system, we compared the performance of four recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines in a fed-batch process in parallel ambr™, 2-L bench-top bioreactors, and shake flasks. Cultures in ambr™ matched 2-L bioreactors in controlling the environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) and in culture performance (growth, viability, glucose, lactate, Na(+), osmolality, titer, and product quality). However, cultures in shake flasks did not show comparable performance to the ambr™ and 2-L bioreactors.

  19. Long-term immunologically competent human peripheral lymphoid tissue cultures in a 3D bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Kuzin, Igor; Sun, Hongliang; Moshkani, Safiekhatoon; Feng, Changyong; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Wu, JH David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral lymphoid organs (PLOs), the primary sites of development of adaptive immune responses, display a complex structural organization reflecting separation of cellular subsets (e.g. T and B lymphocytes) and functional compartments which is critical for immune function. The generation of in vitro culture systems capable of recapitulating salient features of PLOs for experimental, biotechnological and clinical applications would be highly desirable, but has been hampered so far by the complexity of these systems. We have previously developed a three-dimensional bioreactor system for long-term, functional culture of human bone marrow cells on macroporous microspheres in a packed-bed bioreactor with frequent medium change. Here we adapt the same system for culture of human primary cells from PLOs (tonsil) in the absence of specific exogenous growth factors or activators. Cells in this system displayed higher viability over several weeks, and maintain population diversity and cell surface markers largely comparable to primary cells. Light microscopy showed cells organizing in large diverse clusters within the scaffold pores and presence of B cell-enriched areas. Strikingly, these cultures generated a significant number of antibody-producing B cells when challenged with a panel of diverse antigens, as expected from a lymphoid tissue. Thus the three-dimensional tonsil bioreactor culture system may serve as a useful model of PLOs by recapitulating their structural organization and function ex vivo. PMID:21309085

  20. Chromium(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 in fixed-film bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T.

    1997-08-01

    The potential for Cr(VI) reduction in a bench-scale, fixed-film bioreactor system was investigated using a Cr(VI) reducing bacterial species, Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300. The bench-scale reactor was packed by glass beads and was operated to steady-state conditions with near complete removal of Cr(VI) under a range of influent Cr(VI) concentrations and hydraulic retention times Cr(VI) over-loadings were observed when the bioreactor system was operated at 200 mg Cr(VI)/L under a 14.2 min hydraulic retention time and at 50 mg Cr(VI)/L under a 3.6 min hydraulic retention time. The system recovered in both cases after reducing Cr(VI) loadings by lowering influent Cr(VI) concentration to 10 mg/L. Cr(VI) reduction was carried out by biological mechanisms through both attached and suspended biomass. Control studies using Cr(VI) showed that abiotic Cr(VI) reduction in the bioreactor was insignificant. Nearly all the influent Cr(VI) reduced in the reactor was recovered in the form of Cr(III) in the effluent.

  1. Removal of nitric oxide in a fungal vapor-phase bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Woertz, J.R.; Kinney, K.A.; McIntosh, N.D.P.; Szaniszlo, P.J.

    1999-07-01

    Stricter emission regulations on ozone precursors have been mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. As a result, more efficient and cost effective treatment methods for nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are needed. One promising new technology for removing both NO{sub x} and VOCs from off-gas streams is biofiltration; a simple process whereby contaminated air is passed through a biologically-active packed bed. In this study, a toluene-degrading fungal biofilm was used to treat an aerobic gas stream contaminated with nitric oxide (NO). The fungal bioreactor removed 93% of the inlet 250 ppmv NO at an empty bed contact time of 1 minute when supplied with 90 g/(m{sup 3} h) toluene. The bioreactor achieved a maximum toluene elimination capacity of 270 g/(m{sup 3} h) and maintained greater than 95% toluene removal efficiencies over the 175-day study period. Adverse operating conditions such as low moisture content and nitrogen limitations did not adversely affect the removal of NO or toluene in the fungal bioreactor.

  2. Experimental investigation on feasible bioreactor using mechanism of hydrogen oxidation of natural soil for detritiation system.

    PubMed

    Edao, Yuki; Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Hayashi, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    A passive reactor for tritium oxidation at room temperature has been widely studied in nuclear engineering especially for a detritiation system (DS) of a tritium process facility taking possible extraordinary situation severely into consideration. We have focused on bacterial oxidation of tritium by hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria in natural soil to realize the passive oxidation reactor. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a bioreactor with hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria in soil from a point of view of engineering. The efficiency of the bioreactor was evaluated by kinetics. The bioreactor packed with natural soil shows a relative high conversion rate of tritium under the saturated moisture condition at room temperature, which is obviously superior to that of a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst generally used for tritium oxidation in the existing tritium handling facilities. The order of reaction for tritium oxidation with soil was the pseudo-first order as assessed with Michaelis-Menten kinetics model. Our engineering suggestion to increase the reaction rate is the intentional addition of hydrogen at a small concentration in the feed gas on condition that the oxidation of tritium with soil is expressed by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics model.

  3. Methanogens in hypersaline environments and their substrates for methane production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, J. A.; Kelley, C. A.; Chanton, J.; Tazaz, A.; Bebout, B.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of our study was to determine the dominant substrates being used by methanogens in salt ponds in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. These are extreme environments that have been used as analogs for ancient life, terrestrial and extraterrestrial. Microbial mat and/or sediments from the ponds, amended either with site water only (controls) or with site water and various substrates, were incubated in N2 flushed serum vials. We hypothesized that trimethylamine, a degradation product of the osmoregulant glycine betaine, would be a dominant substrate in all ponds, as has been previously reported. Additionally we incubated with methanol, dimethylsulfide, monomethylamine, bicarbonate, and acetate, all reported to be substrates of great importance in other hypersaline environments. Concentrations of methane in the vial headspaces were monitored through time to obtain methane production rates. As expected, trimethylamine stimulated methane production over the controls in all incubations. Dimethylsulfide and methanol also stimulated methane production; the former increased methane production in the lowest salinity pond (55 ppt salinity) and the latter at one of the highest salinity ponds (184 ppt salinity). In addition to methane production data, stable carbon isotopic values of the methane in methane-rich bubbles collected at the sites as well as in the particulate organic carbon (POC) of the microbial mat/sediment were obtained. Fractionation factors, a measure of the isotopic differences between methane and substrate, can help indicate dominant substrates. Published fractionation factors differ depending on the substrate used and increase in the following order of use by methanogens: acetate, dimethylsulfide, CO2 reduction/trimethylamine and methanol. Since trimethylamine was used as a substrate at all of these sites, high fractionation factors in the range of 1.05 to 1.07 (the published range for trimethylamine) were expected. However, the apparent

  4. Random close packing revisited: ways to pack frictionless disks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; O'Hern, Corey S

    2005-06-01

    We create collectively jammed (CJ) packings of 50-50 bidisperse mixtures of smooth disks in two dimensions (2D) using an algorithm in which we successively compress or expand soft particles and minimize the total energy at each step until the particles are just at contact. We focus on small systems in 2D and thus are able to find nearly all of the collectively jammed states at each system size. We decompose the probability P(phi) for obtaining a collectively jammed state at a particular packing fraction phi into two composite functions: (1) the density of CJ packing fractions rho(phi), which only depends on geometry, and (2) the frequency distribution beta(phi), which depends on the particular algorithm used to create them. We find that the function rho(phi) is sharply peaked and that beta(phi) depends exponentially on phi. We predict that in the infinite-system-size limit the behavior of P(phi) in these systems is controlled by the density of CJ packing fractions--not the frequency distribution. These results suggest that the location of the peak in P(phi) when N --> infinity can be used as a protocol-independent definition of random close packing.

  5. Cultivation of methanogens from shallow marine sediments at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Melissa M.; Boone, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the methanogenic degradation of acetate, the fate of molecular hydrogen and formate or the ability of methanogens to grow and produce methane in cold, anoxic marine sediments. The microbes that produce methane were examined in permanently cold, anoxic marine sediments at Hydrate Ridge (44°35' N, 125°10' W, depth 800 m). Sediment samples (15 to 35 cm deep) were collected from areas of active methane ebullition or areas where methane hydrates occurred. The samples were diluted into enrichment medium with formate, acetate or trimethylamine as catabolic substrate. After 2 years of incubation at 4 °C to 15 °C, enrichment cultures produced methane. PCR amplification and sequencing of the rRNA genes from the highest dilutions with growth suggested that each enrichment culture contained a single strain of methanogen. The level of sequence similarity (91 to 98%) to previously characterized prokaryotes suggested that these methanogens belonged to novel genera or species within the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries from DNA extracted directly from the sediment samples revealed phylotypes that were either distantly related to cultivated methanogens or possible anaerobic methane oxidizers related to the ANME-1 and ANME-2 groups of the Archaea. However, no methanogenic sequences were detected, suggesting that methanogens represented only a small proportion of the archaeal. PMID:16877319

  6. Taxonomic status and ecologic function of methanogenic bacteria isolated from the oral cavity of humans

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The detection of methane gas in samples of dental plaque and media inoculated with dental plaque was attributed to the presence of methane-producing bacteria in the plaque microbiota. The results of a taxonomic analysis of the 12 methanogenic isolates obtained from human dental plaque, (ABK1-ABK12), placed the organisms in the genus Methanobrevibacter. A DNA-DNA hybridization survey established three distinct genetic groups of oral methanogens based on percent homology values. The groups exhibited less than 32% homology between themselves and less than 17% homology with the three known members of the genus methanobrevibacter. The ecological role of the oral methanogens was established using mixed cultures of selected methanogenic isolates (ABK1, ABK4, ABK6, or ABK7) with oral heterotrophic bacteria. Binary cultures of either Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Veillonella rodentium, Lactobacillus casei, or Peptostreptococcus anaerobius together with either methanogenic isolates ABK6 or ABK7 were grown to determine the effect of the methanogens on the distribution of carbon end products produced by the heterotrophs. Binary cultures of S. mutans and ABK7 exhibited a 27% decrease in lactic acid formation when compared to pure culture of S. mutans. The decrease in lactic acid production was attributed to the removal of formate by the methanogen, (ABK7), which caused an alteration in the distribution of carbon end products by S. mutans.

  7. Cultivation of methanogens from shallow marine sediments at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Melissa M; Boone, David R

    2006-08-01

    Little is known about the methanogenic degradation of acetate, the fate of molecular hydrogen and formate or the ability of methanogens to grow and produce methane in cold, anoxic marine sediments. The microbes that produce methane were examined in permanently cold, anoxic marine sediments at Hydrate Ridge (44 degrees 35' N, 125 degrees 10' W, depth 800 m). Sediment samples (15 to 35 cm deep) were collected from areas of active methane ebullition or areas where methane hydrates occurred. The samples were diluted into enrichment medium with formate, acetate or trimethylamine as catabolic substrate. After 2 years of incubation at 4 degrees C to 15 degrees C, enrichment cultures produced methane. PCR amplification and sequencing of the rRNA genes from the highest dilutions with growth suggested that each enrichment culture contained a single strain of methanogen. The level of sequence similarity (91 to 98%) to previously characterized prokaryotes suggested that these methanogens belonged to novel genera or species within the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries from DNA extracted directly from the sediment samples revealed phylotypes that were either distantly related to cultivated methanogens or possible anaerobic methane oxidizers related to the ANME-1 and ANME-2 groups of the Archaea. However, no methanogenic sequences were detected, suggesting that methanogens represented only a small proportion of the archaeal community.

  8. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Laura E; Lepine, Christine; Sharrer, Kata L; Summerfelt, Steven T

    2016-11-15

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewater treatment option in waters with relatively higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) such as aquaculture wastewater. This work: (1) evaluated hydraulic retention time (HRT) impacts on COD/TSS removal, and (2) assessed the potential for woodchip clogging under this wastewater chemistry. Four pilot-scale woodchip denitrification bioreactors operated for 267 d showed excellent TSS removal (>90%) which occurred primarily near the inlet, and that COD removal was maximized at lower HRTs (e.g., 56% removal efficiency and 25 g of COD removed per m(3) of bioreactor per d at a 24 h HRT). However, influent wastewater took progressively longer to move into the woodchips likely due to a combination of (1) woodchip settling, (2) clogging due to removed wastewater solids and/or accumulated bacterial growth, and (3) the pulsed flow system pushing the chips away from the inlet. The bioreactor that received the highest loading rate experienced the most altered hydraulics. Statistically significant increases in woodchip P content over time in woodchip bags placed near the bioreactor outlets (0.03 vs 0.10%P2O5) and along the bioreactor floor (0.04 vs. 0.12%P2O5) confirmed wastewater solids were being removed and may pose a concern for subsequent nutrient mineralization and release. Nevertheless, the excellent nitrate-nitrogen and TSS removal along with notable COD removal indicated woodchip bioreactors are a viable water treatment technology for these types of wastewaters given they are used downstream of a filtration device. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis during low-temperature anaerobic digestion of dilute dairy wastewater in an inverted fluidised bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Bialek, Katarzyna; Cysneiros, Denise; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The application of low-temperature (10 °C) anaerobic digestion (LtAD) for the treatment of complex dairy-based wastewater in an inverted fluidised bed (IFB) reactor was investigated. Inadequate mixing intensity provoked poor hydrolysis of the substrate (mostly protein), which resulted in low chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency throughout the trial, averaging ~69 % at the best operational period. Overgrowth of the attached biomass to the support particles (Extendospheres) induced bed stratification by provoking agglutination of the particles and supporting their washout by sedimentation, which contributed to unstable bioprocess performance at the organic loading rates (OLRs) between 0.5 and 5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1). An applied OLR above 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) additionally promoted acidification and strongly influenced the microbial composition and dynamics. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens appeared to be the mostly affected group by the Extendospheres particle washout as a decrease in their abundance was observed by quantitative PCR analysis towards the end of the trial, although the specific methanogenic activity and maximum substrate utilisation rate on H2/CO2 indicated high metabolic activity and preference towards hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis of the reactor biomass at this stage. The bacterial community in the bioreactor monitored via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) also suggested an influence of OLR stress on bacterial community structure and population dynamics. The data presented in this work can provide useful information in future optimisation of fluidised reactors intended for digestion of complex industrial wastewaters during LtAD.

  10. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  11. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology. PMID:26830464

  12. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  13. Two-stage anaerobic membrane bioreactor for the treatment of sugarcane vinasse: assessment on biological activity and filtration performance.

    PubMed

    Mota, Vera Tainá; Santos, Fábio S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    2013-10-01

    A two-stage submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (2-SAnMBR) was designed for the treatment of sugarcane vinasse. For start-up, the flow rate was reduced whenever VFA levels reached critical levels in the methanogenic reactor. After acclimation, the system was operated under a continuous flow. Separation of the stages was observed during the entire period of operation. VFA, COD and DOC levels of raw effluent, acidified effluent and permeate averaged 2141, 3525 and 61 mg VFA L(-1) (as acetic acid), 15727, 11512 and 488 mg COD L(-1), and, 3544, 3533 and 178 mg DOC L(-1), respectively. Overall COD and DOC removal efficiencies of 96.9±0.7% and 95.0±1.1%, respectively, were reached. Methane content of the biogas from the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors ranged 0.1-4.6% and 60.1-70.1%, respectively. Removable fouling strongly affected filtration performance and cake layer formation accounted for most of filtration resistance. Membrane resistance was related to presence of protein-like substances and carbohydrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

  15. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Standard Pack § 51.1527 Standard pack. (a) Packing. (1) All... plums or prunes in the top layer of any package shall b