Sample records for methaqualone

  1. 21 CFR 862.3630 - Methaqualone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methaqualone test system. 862.3630 Section 862.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3630 - Methaqualone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methaqualone test system. 862.3630 Section 862.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3630 - Methaqualone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methaqualone test system. 862.3630 Section 862.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3630 - Methaqualone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methaqualone test system. 862.3630 Section 862.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3630 - Methaqualone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methaqualone test system. 862.3630 Section 862.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  6. Combined cannabis/methaqualone withdrawal treated with psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide.


    Gillman, Mark A; Harker, Nadine; Lichtigfeld, Frederick J


    This article reports the first single-blind study using psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide (PAN) for treating acute withdrawal states following the abuse of methaqualone combined and smoked with cannabis. Smoked methaqualone combined with cannabis is called "white pipe" (WP). South Africa is the only country in the world where WP is a major form of substance abuse. This article demonstrates in 101 consecutively treated patients given placebo (100% oxygen) followed by PAN that this therapy produced a measurable therapeutic effect (more than 50% improvement) in 87 patients. This study confirms that WP is a form of substance abuse confined mainly to young adult male subjects.

  7. A Multifaceted GABAA Receptor Modulator: Functional Properties and Mechanism of Action of the Sedative-Hypnotic and Recreational Drug Methaqualone (Quaalude).


    Hammer, Harriet; Bader, Benjamin M; Ehnert, Corina; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Bunch, Lennart; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Schroeder, Olaf H-U; Bastlund, Jesper F; Gramowski-Voß, Alexandra; Jensen, Anders A


    In the present study, we have elucidated the functional characteristics and mechanism of action of methaqualone (2-methyl-3-o-tolyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone, Quaalude), an infamous sedative-hypnotic and recreational drug from the 1960s-1970s. Methaqualone was demonstrated to be a positive allosteric modulator at human α1,2,3,5β2,3γ2S GABAA receptors (GABAARs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, whereas it displayed highly diverse functionalities at the α4,6β1,2,3δ GABAAR subtypes, ranging from inactivity (α4β1δ), through negative (α6β1δ) or positive allosteric modulation (α4β2δ, α6β2,3δ), to superagonism (α4β3δ). Methaqualone did not interact with the benzodiazepine, barbiturate, or neurosteroid binding sites in the GABAAR. Instead, the compound is proposed to act through the transmembrane β((+))/α((-)) subunit interface of the receptor, possibly targeting a site overlapping with that of the general anesthetic etomidate. The negligible activities displayed by methaqualone at numerous neurotransmitter receptors and transporters in an elaborate screening for additional putative central nervous system (CNS) targets suggest that it is a selective GABAAR modulator. The mode of action of methaqualone was further investigated in multichannel recordings from primary frontal cortex networks, where the overall activity changes induced by the compound at 1-100 μM concentrations were quite similar to those mediated by other CNS depressants. Finally, the free methaqualone concentrations in the mouse brain arising from doses producing significant in vivo effects in assays for locomotion and anticonvulsant activity correlated fairly well with its potencies as a modulator at the recombinant GABAARs. Hence, we propose that the multifaceted functional properties exhibited by methaqualone at GABAARs give rise to its effects as a therapeutic and recreational drug. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. The effect of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), pentobarbital and methaqualone on punished responding in control and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-treated rats.


    Commissaris, R L; Lyness, W H; Rech, R H


    The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal systems in the effects of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2,5-methoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), pentobarbital (PB) and methaqualone (MQ) on punished responding in rats. Water-deprived rats were trained to drink from a tube that was electrified at intervals (variable interval 21 sec; 0.03 mA current intensity), electrification being signalled by a tone. In daily 10-min control sessions, these animals accepted a relatively constant number of shocks; water consumption was also quite stable. At maximally effective doses PB, and to a lesser extent MQ, produced large (400-600 percent of control) increases in punished responding with little decrease in water intake. Higher doses of these agents produced a significant depression of unpunished responding (water intake). The hallucinogens, on the other hand, produced only moderate (125-175 percent of control) increases in the number of shock received, yet a similar depression of unpunished responding. Selective destruction of 5-HT neurons by intracerebroventricular administration of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine per se produced little change in the number of shocks received or water consumed in controls sessions. This destruction of 5-HT neurons failed to alter the effects of PB or MQ on punished or unpunished responding. The increase in punished responding produced by the hallucinogens, however, was blocked by this destruction of 5-HT neurons. Furthermore, the capacity of the hallucinogens to decrease water intake was significantly potentiated by the neurotoxin pretreatment. These data demonstrate that the effects of the hallucinogens LSD and DOM on conditioned suppression are quite different from those of PB and MQ, and that this difference may be due to the extent of 5-HT involvement in the effects of these agents.

  9. Feasibility assessment of chemical testing for drug impairment : final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search


    An evaluation was made of existing data on concentrations of marijuana, secobarbital, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and methaqualone in blood, saliva and urine to assess the feasibility of establishing chemical teats for detecting drug-impaired driving....

  10. Feasibility assessment of chemical testing for drug impairment : final summary report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search


    An evaluation was made of existing data on concentrations of marijuana, secobarbital, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and methaqualone in blood, saliva and urine to assess the feasibility of establishing chemical tests for police use in detecting drug-imp...

  11. Changing pattern of drugs used for self-poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Proudfoot, A T; Park, J


    In 1967-76 the annual number of admissions to a poisoning treatment centre rose from 964 to 2134. The proportion of admissions caused by taking barbiturate hypnotics and methaqualone fell considerably while that caused by taking benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants increased. As a result the proportion of patients admitted unconscious fell from 23% to 15%. The declining contributions of barbiturates and methaqualone and increased importance of tricyclic antidepressants were significant in all grades of coma. The change in drugs taken, however, has not yet reduced the percentage of unconscious patients needing endotracheal intubation or assisted ventilation, and hypothermia remains as common. Only hypotension has become less frequent as antidepressants replace barbiturates as the main cause of drug-induced coma. The use of salicylates for self-poisoning is declining slowly, and paracetamol poisoning is now as common. PMID:620215

  12. 75 FR 10314 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... Acid (2010) I Methaqualone (2565) I Alpha-ethyltryptamine (7249) I Lysergic acid diethylamide (7315) I...-Methoxyamphetamine (7411) I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I...-Methylfentanyl (9813) I Alpha-Methylfentanyl (9814) I Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl (9815) I Beta-hydroxyfentanyl...

  13. 75 FR 69464 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ...) I Methaqualone (2565) I Alpha-ethyltryptamine (7249) I Lysergic acid diethylamide (7315) I 2,5...-Methoxyamphetamine (7411) I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I...).. I Tilidine (9750) I Para-Fluorofentanyl (9812) I 3-Methylfentanyl (9813) I Alpha-Methylfentanyl...

  14. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 18, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on methaqualone. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  15. Personnel-General: Army Substance Abuse Program Civilian Services

    DTIC Science & Technology


    destroyed. Additional reproduction and distribution of completed records is prohibited. c. SECTION I. IDENTIFICATION. (1) Block I. Date of Report. Enter...AMPHETAMINE B BARBITUATES C COCAINE H HALLUCINOGENS (LSD) M METHAQUALONE, SEDATIVE, HYPNOTIC , OR ANXIOLYTIC O OPIATES P PHENCYCLIDINE (PCP) T CANNABIS...Table 5–6 Codes for TABLE F (T-DIAG-CODE) Code Rejection Reason 30390 ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE 30400 OPIOID DEPENDENCE 30410 SEDATIVE, HYPNOTIC , OR ANXIOLYTIC

  16. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Air Force Drug Testing Program and Four Potential Modifications

    DTIC Science & Technology


    attempted to control substance abuse. In the 1920’s and 30’s, marijuana was commonly used as a substitute for alcohol during prohibition (1:4-7). In...discovered D-lysergic acia tiiethylamide (LSD), methaqualone (quaalude), and phencyclidine (PCP) joined heroin, amphetamines, and marijuana as drugs abused...themselves in Southeast Asia where drugs were plentiful and cheap. The most commonly used drugs were heroin and marijuana . Initially, the DOD policy

  17. Sleep-inducing N-alkyl-5-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinones and N-alkyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamamides.


    Houlihan, W J; Gogerty, J H; Ryan, E A; Schmitt, G


    A series of N-alkyl-3-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinones and N-alkyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-cinnamamides were prepared and screened in a series of tests designed to detect potential sleep inducers. The more active members of the series were evaluated for their ability to induce sleep in Cebus monkeys. The most active compound, N-methyl-5-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinone, was equal to methaqualone.

  18. [Effects of afloqualone, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, on the sleep-wakefulness cycle in cats with chronically implanted electrodes (author's transl)].


    Kojima, M; Kudo, Y; Ishida, R


    The present study was carried out to elucidate whether or whether not afloqualone has a hypnotic action because of its similarity in chemical structure to methaqualone. In the sleep-wakefulness cycles during the 8-hour observation period (9:00-17:00), afloqualone increased the percentages of resting (REST) and slow wave light sleep (SWLS) stages at a dose of 25 mg/kg (p.o.), producing a moderate muscle relaxation. Even at a dose of 50 mg/kg (p.o.) where a marked muscle relaxation was produced, afloqualone had no influence on the percentage of slow wave deep sleep (SWDS) stage, though it increased the percentages of SWLS and decreased the percentages of awake (AWK), REST and fast wave sleep (FWS) stages. On the other hand, tolperisone . HCl, chlormezanone, methaqualone and pentobarbital . Na, used as the reference drugs, all increased the percentage of SWDS stage, but either decreased or had no effect on the percentages of the other four stages at pharmacologically effective doses. From these results it was concluded that afloqualone seems to be devoid of a hypnotic action and has different effects on the sleep-wakefulness cycle than those of both the hypnotics and the other muscle relaxants used.

  19. Prism. Volume 2, Number 1, December 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology


    amphetamine known as mandrax (methaqualone).31 In North Africa, Morocco alone accounted for up to 40 percent of European cannabis supplies in 2003, while...Villagers building houses from radioactive rocks reported mild illnesses at that point, but there are fears that exposure will lead to high cancer rates...Review, July 1, 2005. 32 UNODC, Cannabis in Africa: An Overview (Vienna: UNODC, November 2007). 33 UNODC, Drug Trafficking as a Security Threat in West

  20. Proceedings of the drug testing laboratory managers symposium, 28 January--1 February 1974. Final report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Noe, E.R.; Romanchick, W.A.; Ainsworth, C.A. III


    This report deals with broad concepts of managing mass screening programs for drugs of abuse; e.g., morphine, barbiturate, amphetamine, cocaine, and methaqualone. The interactions of the screening process and of the rehabilitation program were covered. Psychotherapy and group therapy are both utilized in rehabilitation programs. The semiautomated radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening procedures are both sensitive and specific at nanogram quantities. Future evaluations of a wafer disk transferral system and of a latex test for morphine are presented. The unique quality control system employed by military drug abuse testing laboratories is discussed. (Author) (GRA)

  1. Self-reported drug use among secondary school students in two rapidly developing Nigerian towns.


    Nevadomsky, J


    A 32-item standardized multiple-choice and open-ended questionnaire was completed by nearly 500 male and female secondary school students in two rapidly developing Nigerian towns. About two thirds of the students reported some exposure to alcohol, and about one quarter reported some experience with tobacco. There was much less use of caffeine, methaqualone in combination with diphenhydramine, 2-ethylamino-3-phenylorcamphane in combination with vitamins, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, cannabis and dexamphetamine. Many students fell into the "past use" category. Parents were extremely disapproving of the use of almost any drug. Many students supported stronger penalties for the use of cannabis. Non-users claimed that drugs were dangerous to health. In addition, religious beliefs were associated with abstinence from drugs.

  2. Oxybuprocaine and five metabolites simultaneously determined in urine by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction with Extrelut.


    Kasuya, F; Igarashi, K; Fukui, M


    We describe a gas-liquid chromatographic (GC) method for determination of oxybuprocaine, and a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four of its nine metabolites in urine. We used an Extrelut column to simply and rapidly extract oxybuprocaine and its metabolites from urine. For the GC-MS analyses, we monitored the characteristic fragment ions at m/z 353, 395, 369, 411, and 235 for 3-butoxy-4-aminobenzoic acid (metabolite 2, M-2), 3-butoxy-4-acetylaminobenzoic acid (M-3), 3-hydroxy-4-aminobenzoic acid (M-4), 3-hydroxy-4-acetylaminobenzoic acid (M-5), and methaqualone (internal standard), respectively. We quantified the glucuronide of M-2 after enzymic treatment. The assay's selectivity and reproducibility (within-day and between-day CVs less than 8% for all metabolites) make it applicable to determine oxybuprocaine and its metabolites in human urine. Mean 9-h urinary excretion of oxybuprocaine and its five metabolites from four healthy volunteers was 89.2% after a 100-mg oral dose.

  3. Effect of T4 count and cofactors on the incidence of AIDS in homosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus.


    Goedert, J J; Biggar, R J; Melbye, M; Mann, D L; Wilson, S; Gail, M H; Grossman, R J; DiGioia, R A; Sanchez, W C; Weiss, S H


    We prospectively evaluated potential markers and cofactors for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 86 homosexual men who were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. During three years of follow-up, 19 men developed AIDS. Risk of AIDS was clearly predicted by the total number of circulating OKT4-positive lymphocytes (T4 count) at enrollment, while the corresponding T8 count was unrelated to subsequent AIDS development. Subjects in Manhattan had a higher risk of Kaposi's sarcoma than did subjects in Washington, DC, and the risk of AIDS tended to increase with numerous homosexual partners. Several of 40 potential cofactors defined ex post facto, including receptive fellatio, enemas, methaqualone use, and high levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, appeared to be associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with Pneumocystis pneumonia. Our data suggest that potent cofactors for Pneumocystis pneumonia were not prominent, pointing to the need for effective drug therapies, particularly to reduce the high AIDS risk of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and low T4 counts.

  4. Discriminative stimulus properties of intragastrically administered d-amphetamine and pentobarbital in rhesus monkeys.


    de la Garza, R; Johanson, C E


    Rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate intragastrically administered d-amphetamine (AMPH) or pentobarbital (PENTO) from saline using a signaled shock-avoidance trail procedure. All monkeys maintained criterion levels (greater than 90% drug-appropriate responding) throughout the duration of the study during training sessions. In the AMPH experiment, the anorectics diethylpropion, mazindol, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine and phentermine completely substituted for the training dose of AMPH. The atypical antidepressant bupropion and the psychomotor stimulant methylphenidate also completely substituted for AMPH. Other anorectics including benzphetamine, clortermine, fenetylline, mefenorex and the psychomotor stimulant pemoline that share some pharmacological properties with AMPH substituted for AMPH in some, but not all, of the monkeys tested. The anorectics fenfluramine and chlorphentermine failed to substitute for AMPH. Drugs from other pharmacological classes such as morphine, diazepam, nortripyline and PENTO also failed to substitute for AMPH, indicating pharmacological specificity. In the PENTO experiment, the benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam, flurazepam, halazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, oxazepam, temazepam and triazolam and the sedatives methaqualone and phenobarbital completely substituted for the training dose of PENTO. The nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic CL 218,872 only partially substituted for PENTO. In addition, morphine and AMPH failed to substitute for PENTO, indicating pharmacological specificity. In summary, drugs delivered intragastrically functioned as discriminative stimuli in a drug-class specific manner. The ability to use drugs delivered by this route as discriminative stimuli provides a way to compare anorectic drugs to AMPH or sedative drugs to PENTO under conditions that resemble the mode of human consumption to determine whether these drugs are likely to be associated with AMPH-like or PENTO-like drug dependence.

  5. Postmortem determination of the biological distribution of sufentanil and midazolam after an acute intoxication.


    Ferslew, K E; Hagardorn, A N; McCormick, W F


    A case is presented of a death caused by self-injection of sufentanil and midazolam. Biological fluids and tissues were analyzed for midazolam by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and for sufentanil by GC/MS. Midazolam was extracted from basified fluids or tissues homogenated with n-butyl chloride and analyzed by HPLC by using a phosphate buffer: acetonitrile (60:40) mobile phase on a mu-Bondapak C18 column at 240 nm. Sufentanil was extracted from basified fluids and tissue homogenates with hexane:ethanol (19:1). GC/MS methodology for both compounds consisted of chromatographic separation on a 15-m by 0.25-mm inside diameter (ID) DB-5 (1.0-micron-thick film) bonded phase fused silica capillary column with helium carrier (29 cm/s) splitless injection at 260 degrees C; column 200 degrees C (0.8 min) 10 degrees C/min to 270 degrees C; and electron ionization and multiple ion detection for midazolam (m/z 310), methaqualone (IS, m/z 235), sufentanil (m/z 289), and fentanyl (IS, m/z 245). Sufentanil concentrations were: blood 1.1 ng/mL, urine 1.3 ng/mL, vitreous humor 1.2 ng/mL, liver 1.75 ng/g, and kidney 5.5 ng/g. Midazolam concentrations were: blood 50 ng/mL, urine 300 ng/mL, liver 930 ng/g, and kidney 290 ng/g. Cause of death was attributed to an acute sufentanil/midazolam intoxication and manner of death a suicide.

  6. Determination of a selection of anti-epileptic drugs and two active metabolites in whole blood by reversed phase UPLC-MS/MS and some examples of application of the method in forensic toxicology cases.


    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Hasvold, Inger; Olsen, Kirsten Midtbøen; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Øiestad, Elisabeth


    Quantitative determination of anti-epileptic drug concentrations is of great importance in forensic toxicology cases. Although the drugs are not usually abused, they are important post-mortem cases where the question of both lack of compliance and accidental or deliberate poisoning might be raised. In addition these drugs can be relevant for driving under the influence cases. A reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of the anti-epileptic compounds carbamazepine, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, 10-OH-carbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, pregabalin, and topiramate in whole blood, using 0.1 mL sample volume with methaqualone as internal standard. Sample preparation was a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile and methanol. The diluted supernatant was directly injected into the chromatographic system. Separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC® BEH Phenyl column with gradient elution and a mildly alkaline mobile phase. The mass spectrometric detection was performed in positive ion mode, except for phenobarbital, and multiple reaction monitoring was used for drug quantification. The limits of quantification for the different anti-epileptic drugs varied from 0.064 to 1.26 mg/L in blood, within-day and day-to-day relative standard deviations from 2.2 to 14.7% except for phenobarbital. Between-day variation for phenobarbital was 20.4% at the concentration level of 3.5 mg/L. The biases for all compounds were within ±17.5%. The recoveries ranged between 85 and 120%. The corrected matrix effects were 88-106% and 84-110% in ante-mortem and post-mortem whole blood samples, respectively. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Investigating drug-facilitated sexual assault at a dedicated forensic centre in Cape Town, South Africa.


    Tiemensma, Marianne; Davies, Bronwen


    methamphetamine, methaqualone and diphenhydramine either alone or in combinations. The complexity and current inadequacy surrounding investigation of these cases is highlighted in this study as well as the necessity for greater investment into the development of infrastructure to support systematic toxicological analyses and services to assist in the investigation and understanding of these intricate cases. Training and empowerment of role players dealing with the investigation and management of DFSA is required, and subsequent public health education and policy development is essential. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.