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Sample records for method asare notronhaye

  1. A processing method for rice crop inventory using multi-date ENVISAT-1 ASAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Feilong; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Xiaoming

    2005-11-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is anticipated to be the dominant high-resolution remote sensing data source for agricultural applications in tropical and subtropical regions due to its independent from cloud cover. ENVISAT-1 ASAR is the most advanced satellite radar-imaging instrument, its capabilities include beam steering for acquiring images with different incidence angles, duel polarization and wide swath coverage. Agricultural crop inventory based on remote sensed data will be improved greatly by ASAR's new capabilities. In this paper, a procedure has been developed using multi-date ASAR data for rice crop inventory. The procedure comprises two parts: data preprocessing and classification of multi-date data for rice field. In order to carry out the research, 6 scenes of ASAR images covering Fuzhou area year round of 2004 were used. PCI 9.1 is used for data preprocessing which includes data calibration, image co-registration, speckle suppression, orthorecitification and amplitude-to-dB conversion. Some novel methods are applied in this procedure such as correlation matching for image co-registration and multi-channel filtering for speckle suppression. Object-oriented classifier was used, compared with K-means supervised classifier and maximum likelihood classifier, and higher classification accuracy was achieved. By adopting the procedure presented in this paper, more than 90% classification accuracy for rice was achieved in Fuzhou city with multi-date Envisat ASAR data. This indicates that the procedure is feasible for rice crop inventory using multi-date ASAR data.

  2. Mapping Yangtze coastal surface velocities from ASAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Ge, J.

    2013-12-01

    The routine sea surface current velocity measurement is principal and essential for assimilation in ocean circulation models, further for resolving coastal ocean dynamics. The obvious and unique advantages of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems have been successfully demonstrated over variously routine ocean surface phenomena. In this paper, the detailed procedures to derive the sea surface range Doppler velocities are presented from ASAR Wide Swath Mode (WSM) products. Doppler anomaly and Doppler range velocity are analyzed in measurements by three different WSM scenes over Yangtze Estuary. At the meantime, this Doppler centroid method is validated with simulated current fields from the numerical circulation model Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) and the results are promising. Comparisons to FVCOM data show that ASAR are capable to retrieve large gradient variation of surface velocities and capture quantitative information of strong surface currents, which are immensely attractive for the routine quantitative observation of sea surface currents from the radial Doppler anomaly. Surface Doppler velocity (V_D) from ASAR WSM scene on 31 Jan 2005 with the corresponding simulated surface currents based on FVCOM superimposed. Doppler anomaly RMS bias over land of the scenes

  3. Calibration of Interferometric Envisat/ASAR Image Mode Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, J.; Eineder, M.; Schättler, B.

    2003-03-01

    Interferometric data processing requires careful calibration and validation of the complex input products. Interferometric calibration comprises geometric and phase accuracy aspects. With respect to geometry, orbit and timing parameter have to be calibrated in order to allow accurate geo-coding and optimal processing of the interferometric products. Phase accuracy of the input complex products is an important prerequisite for the interferometric measurement technique. This paper describes methods for location accuracy determination and reports the preliminary results obtained during the ongoing calibration/ validation phase of ENVISAT/ASAR. The paper includes the first ENVISAT/ASAR interferogram over Berlin, Germany. It was obtained with DLR~@~Ys interferometric processor GENESIS. This interferogram is compared to the result from ERS-2 for the same season of year. In addition, for verification of timing parameters two methods are described in this paper. The conventional method relies on precisely known ground control points (transponders or corner reflectors) and compares predicted and measured position in the slant range co-ordinate system. The new method relies on the precisely known geometry of ERS and a strong target visible in the ERS and ENVISAT/ASAR data. This cross-calibration method only requires a coarse height estimate of the considered target. Both methods are used to derive preliminary results for the location accuracy of ENVISAT/ASAR.

  4. Forest and Non-Forest Mapping with Envisat ASAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F.; Li, Z.; Chen, E.; Huang, Y.; Tian, X.; Schmullius, C.; Leiterer, R.; Reiche, J.; Santoro, M.

    2013-01-01

    Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) dual-polarization data are shown to be effective for regional forest monitoring. To this scope, an automatic SAR image preprocessing procedure was developed using SRTM DEM and Landsat TM image for geocoding in rugged terrain and smooth terrain areas, respectively. An object-oriented forest and non-forest classification method is then proposed based on the HH to HV intensity ratio and HV images of ASAR data at single acquisition in winter. The developed methods were applied to forest and non-forest mapping in Northeast China. The overall accuracy, the user’s accuracy and the producer’s accuracy of forest are 83.7%, 85.6% and 75.7% respectively. The results indicate that the proposed methods are promising for operational forest mapping at regional scale.

  5. Validation of significant wave height product from Envisat ASAR using triple collocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Shi, C. Y.; Zhu, J. H.; Huang, X. Q.; Chen, C. T.

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has become a powerful tool for providing significant wave height. Traditionally, validation of SAR derived ocean wave height has been carried out against buoy measurements or model outputs, which only yield a inter-comparison, but not an 'absolute' validation. In this study, the triple collocation error model has been introduced in the validation of Envisat ASAR level 2 data. Significant wave height data from ASAR were validated against in situ buoy data, and wave model hindcast results from WaveWatch III, covering a period of six years. The impact of the collocation distance on the error of ASAR wave height was discussed. From the triple collocation validation analysis, it is found that the error of Envisat ASAR significant wave height product is linear to the collocation distance, and decrease with the decreasing collocation distance. Using the linear regression fit method, the absolute error of Envisat ASAR wave height was obtained with zero collocation distance. The absolute Envisat ASAR wave height error of 0.49m is presented in deep and open ocean from this triple collocation validation work.

  6. QuASAR: quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Chris T; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Davis, Gordon O; Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2015-04-15

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have discovered thousands of genetic variants that regulate gene expression, enabling a better understanding of the functional role of non-coding sequences. However, eQTL studies are costly, requiring large sample sizes and genome-wide genotyping of each sample. In contrast, analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE) is becoming a popular approach to detect the effect of genetic variation on gene expression, even within a single individual. This is typically achieved by counting the number of RNA-seq reads matching each allele at heterozygous sites and testing the null hypothesis of a 1:1 allelic ratio. In principle, when genotype information is not readily available, it could be inferred from the RNA-seq reads directly. However, there are currently no existing methods that jointly infer genotypes and conduct ASE inference, while considering uncertainty in the genotype calls. We present QuASAR, quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads, a novel statistical learning method for jointly detecting heterozygous genotypes and inferring ASE. The proposed ASE inference step takes into consideration the uncertainty in the genotype calls, while including parameters that model base-call errors in sequencing and allelic over-dispersion. We validated our method with experimental data for which high-quality genotypes are available. Results for an additional dataset with multiple replicates at different sequencing depths demonstrate that QuASAR is a powerful tool for ASE analysis when genotypes are not available. http://github.com/piquelab/QuASAR. fluca@wayne.edu or rpique@wayne.edu Supplementary Material is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. QuASAR: quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Chris T.; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A.; Davis, Gordon O.; Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have discovered thousands of genetic variants that regulate gene expression, enabling a better understanding of the functional role of non-coding sequences. However, eQTL studies are costly, requiring large sample sizes and genome-wide genotyping of each sample. In contrast, analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE) is becoming a popular approach to detect the effect of genetic variation on gene expression, even within a single individual. This is typically achieved by counting the number of RNA-seq reads matching each allele at heterozygous sites and testing the null hypothesis of a 1:1 allelic ratio. In principle, when genotype information is not readily available, it could be inferred from the RNA-seq reads directly. However, there are currently no existing methods that jointly infer genotypes and conduct ASE inference, while considering uncertainty in the genotype calls. Results: We present QuASAR, quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads, a novel statistical learning method for jointly detecting heterozygous genotypes and inferring ASE. The proposed ASE inference step takes into consideration the uncertainty in the genotype calls, while including parameters that model base-call errors in sequencing and allelic over-dispersion. We validated our method with experimental data for which high-quality genotypes are available. Results for an additional dataset with multiple replicates at different sequencing depths demonstrate that QuASAR is a powerful tool for ASE analysis when genotypes are not available. Availability and implementation: http://github.com/piquelab/QuASAR. Contact: fluca@wayne.edu or rpique@wayne.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary Material is available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25480375

  8. Dynamic Validation of Envisat ASAR Derived Ocean Swell Against Directional Buoy Measurements in Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Mouche, Alexis; Husson, Romain; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) in wave mode aboard Envisat satellite from ESA provides the unique 10-years swell spectra dataset on a continuous and global basis for scientific community. In this paper, a method of a dynamical validation approach for SAR swell spectra is developed, in which the in situ buoy spectra are reconstructed, partitioned, and retro- propagated to the vicinity of satellite observation along the great circle based upon the linear wave theory. More than 40,000 ASAR-buoy swell partitions are dynamically collocated for the full mission of Envisat, making this study the first to provide detailed quality assessment for ASAR derived ocean swell spectra. Comparison results show a general statistics of 0.40 m, 44.99 m and 16.89 ̊ for swell height, peak wavelength and direction RMSE, indicating a good agreement with buoy in-situ in Pacific Ocean.

  9. Crop discrimination on ENVISAT ASAR images acquired in alternating polarization mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Krystyna A.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study is to find an efficient method of crop classification based solely on satellite microwave data. Microwave data can sometimes be the only non-contaminated satellite data available for a selected area, where frequent cloudiness makes optical data useless. Hence, this approach has to be studied at least as an alternative method for application when other data are missing. Although ASAR is not a fully polarimetric instrument, a selection of dual polarization modes and a selection of incidence angles are available when using ASAR alternating polarization product (APP). Larger incidence angle and cross-polarized data are better for crop discrimination, while lower incidence angle and co-polarized data contain more information on soil moisture. In the years 2003 and 2004 a sequence of ASAR IS2, IS4 and IS6 images acquired during a growth season was analyzed. Supervised classification of ASAR APP was performed with ground truth data collected for 700 plots covered by homogeneous crops. For growth seasons of 2003 and 2004 various combination of images were tested in order to find the best set of data providing the highest accuracy of crop classification.

  10. Backscatter Change Index of Envisat ASAR Data for Rice Field Mapping in Fuzhou, Fujian Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingbai; Yang, Shenbin; Le Toan, Thuy; Tan, Bingxiang; He, Wei

    2008-04-01

    Radar remote sensing technology has become an important method for stable and long-time rice monitoring for its capability to operate in all weather conditions. In this paper, ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) alternative polarization VV/HH data was used for rice monitoring in Xinghua rice experiment site in the middle of Jiangsu Province. Firstly, a threshold classification method was developed for mapping rice growth area, according to the different characteristic of backscatter coefficients between paddy rice and other land surface objects. Then, relational models were built for retrieving rice growth parameters from ASAR image, based on correlation analysis between backscatter coefficients and field measurements. Meanwhile an optical multi-spectral image was used as ancillary data for rice parameters retrieval. As expected, the retrieved rice growth parameters were consistent with those of field measurements.

  11. ENVISAT-ASAR single polarized SLC data analysis for the study of snow pack characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gulab; Kumar, Vijay; Mohite, Kishor; Venkatraman, G.; Rao, Y. S.; Snehmani, .

    2006-12-01

    This paper discusses the methodology of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data analysis for studying various aspects of snow characteristics viz snow dielectric constant, snow wetness, grain size, snow density and snow water equivalent. ENVISAT- Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) single polarized, single look complex (SLC) data have been processed for backscattering coefficient image generation. Incidence angle image was extracted from the ASAR header data using interpolation method. These images were multi-looked 5 times in azimuth and 1 time in range direction. ASAR Backscattering coefficient images have been calibrated and processed into terrain corrected images in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), zone 43 north and WGS-84 datum map projection using ERDAS Imagine software. Corrected backscattering images are despeckled using Frost filter technique. The estimation of snow pack characteristics is optimal at different incidence angles. The relation between snow characteristics like wetness, snow water equivalent, grain size and radar backscatter has been studied and the importance of radar backscatter to infer various snow characteristics has been emphasized.

  12. Object-oriented approach to oil spill detection using ENVISAT ASAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konik, M.; Bradtke, K.

    2016-08-01

    The growing importance of oil spill detection as part of a rapid response system to oil pollution requires the ongoing development of algorithms. The aim of this study was to create a methodology for improving manual classification at the scale of entire water bodies, focusing on its repeatability. This paper took an object-oriented approach to radar image analysis and put particular emphasis on adaptation to the specificity of seas like the Baltic. Pre-processing using optimised filters enhanced the capability of a multilevel hierarchical segmentation, in order to detect spills of different sizes, forms and homogeneity, which occur as a result of shipping activities. Confirmed spills detected in ENVISAT/ASAR images were used to create a decision-tree procedure that classifies every distinct dark object visible in SAR images into one out of four categories, which reflect growing probability of the oil spill presence: look-alikes, dubious spots, blurred spots and potential oil spills. Our objective was to properly mark known spills on ASAR scenes and to reduce the number of false-positives by eliminating (classifying as background or look-alike) as many objects as possible from the vast initial number of objects appearing on full-scale images. A number of aspects were taken into account in the classification process. The method's performance was tested on a group of 26 oil spills recorded by HELCOM: 96.15% of them were successfully identified. The final target group was narrowed down to about 4% of dark objects extracted from ASAR images. Although a specialist is still needed to supervise the whole process of oil spill detection, this method gives an initial view, substantial for further evaluation of the scenes and risk estimation. It may significantly accelerate the pace of manual image analysis and enhance the objectivity of assessments, which are key aspects in operational monitoring systems.

  13. On the soil moisture estimate at basin scale in Mediterranean basins with the ASAR sensor: the Mulargia basin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fois, Laura; Montaldo, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in water and energy exchanges between soil, vegetation and atmosphere. For water resources planning and managementthesoil moistureneeds to be accurately and spatially monitored, specially where the risk of desertification is high, such as Mediterranean basins. In this sense active remote sensors are very attractive for soil moisture monitoring. But Mediterranean basinsaretypicallycharacterized by strong topography and high spatial variability of physiographic properties, and only high spatial resolution sensorsare potentially able to monitor the strong soil moisture spatial variability.In this regard the Envisat ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor offers the attractive opportunity ofsoil moisture mapping at fine spatial and temporal resolutions(up to 30 m, every 30 days). We test the ASAR sensor for soil moisture estimate in an interesting Sardinian case study, the Mulargia basin withan area of about 70 sq.km. The position of the Sardinia island in the center of the western Mediterranean Sea basin, its low urbanization and human activity make Sardinia a perfect reference laboratory for Mediterranean hydrologic studies. The Mulargia basin is a typical Mediterranean basinin water-limited conditions, and is an experimental basin from 2003. For soil moisture mapping23 satellite ASAR imagery at single and dual polarization were acquired for the 2003-2004period.Satellite observationsmay bevalidated through spatially distributed soil moisture ground-truth data, collected over the whole basin using the TDR technique and the gravimetric method, in days with available radar images. The results show that ASAR sensor observations can be successfully used for soil moisture mapping at different seasons, both wet and dry, but an accurate calibration with field data is necessary. We detect a strong relationship between the soil moisture spatial variability and the physiographic properties of the basin, such as soil water storage capacity

  14. Operational Application of Envisat ASAR in Tropical Production Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimadoya, M.; Trisasongko, B.

    2003-04-01

    A joint research between European Space Agency (ESA) and Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia, has been approved under Envisat AO (AO-ID 869). The research is intended to study the operational application of Advanced Synthetic-Aperture Radar (ASAR) for production forest management in Indonesia. Two test sites in forest plantation area of PT Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (Riaupulp) in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, Indonesia, have been selected recently for the implementation of this joint research. This paper briefs the recent progress of this two-year research (2002-2004) activity. The main objective is to explore the potential of ASAR image analysis application, including POLINSAR, for better and more efficient operational management of tropical plantation forest and its environment. Several interesting operational applications have been identified for the test sites. First application is vegetative cover classification of Acacias, mixed hardwoods, shrubs, oil palms and bare lands. The second is biomass-related application, which study Envisat data on biomass monitoring related to forest plantation. The third is environmental study particularly for site degradation, including issues on monitoring of water bodies and burn site.

  15. Asynchronous Replication, Mono-Allelic Expression, and Long Range Cis-Effects of ASAR6

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leslie; Montagna, Christina; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes initiate DNA replication at multiple sites along their length during each S phase following a temporal replication program. The majority of genes on homologous chromosomes replicate synchronously. However, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes, and genes on female X chromosomes replicate asynchronously. We have identified a cis-acting locus on human chromosome 6 that controls this replication-timing program. This locus encodes a large intergenic non-coding RNA gene named Asynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, or ASAR6. Disruption of ASAR6 results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic chromosome condensation, and activation of the previously silent alleles of mono-allelic genes on chromosome 6. The ASAR6 gene resides within an ∼1.2 megabase domain of asynchronously replicating DNA that is coordinated with other random asynchronously replicating loci along chromosome 6. In contrast to other nearby mono-allelic genes, ASAR6 RNA is expressed from the later-replicating allele. ASAR6 RNA is synthesized by RNA Polymerase II, is not polyadenlyated, is restricted to the nucleus, and is subject to random mono-allelic expression. Disruption of ASAR6 leads to the formation of bridged chromosomes, micronuclei, and structural instability of chromosome 6. Finally, ectopic integration of cloned genomic DNA containing ASAR6 causes delayed replication of entire mouse chromosomes. PMID:23593023

  16. On the assessment of re-assimilation of ASAR Wave Spectra in the ERA-Interim Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bué, Isabel; Semedo, Alvaro; Aouf, Lotfi; Catalão, João

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-1A satellite, launched on April 3 2014, is the first of the new European Spatial Agency (ESA) missions developed for the Copernicus initiative. The European Earth observations program Copernicus will offer vital environmental information for the global monitoring of climate, for meteorological forecast, as well as for new security aspects concerning environment catastrophes. The Sentinel-1 platform will ensure the continuity of global wave spectra measurements from space, already available since 1991 with ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT/ASAR, thanks to one mode of acquisition that is dedicated to swell measurements in open ocean, the wave mode. This satellite constellation comprises two polar orbiting satellites, operating in a tandem mode, with the second (the Sentinel 1B), sharing the same orbital plane with a 180° orbital phasing difference, being launched during 2016. The satellites will perform as a C-band ASAR imagers and will operate day and night, regardless of the weather. In this study significant wave height (SWH) comparisons between wave altimetry measurements from ERS-2 and ENVISAT and several wave buoy measurements in the North Atlantic, and the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis, are presented trough the triple-collocation method. The triple collocation method is needed to use all the different data (due to the different acquisitions, resolutions, time and space positioning), having the buoy positions as the key element for the positioning of all measurements. The triple collocated data will then be compared with SWH computed from the wave spectra retrievals from the ENVISAT ASAR wave mode. After that the ERA-Interim wave spectra is statistically corrected with the ENVISAT measured spectra, with an evaluation of the gains of this process.

  17. Comparison of Envisat ASAR and Submarine Sea Ice Thickness Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Nicolas E.; Rodrigues, Joao; Wadhams, Peter

    2010-12-01

    In April 2004 and March 2007 the Royal Navy sent the submarine HMS Tireless on missions into the Arctic Ocean. On both occasions the submarine traversed the area of remaining multi-year sea ice at latitude 85°N north of Greenland acquiring ice draft measurements using upward-looking sonar. The area is outside of the "Gore Box" used for the release of U.S. Submarine data and was beyond the latitude range of the radar altimeter satellites available at that time. This paper compares ice draft statistics with contemporary data from Envisat ASAR to evaluate the level of correlation between SAR backscatter and sea ice thickness. The decline in sea ice volume over the past decade has predominantly been caused by the loss of old multi-year ice due to increased outflow through Fram Strait. Although Tireless found little decrease in the overall ice thickness between 2004 and 2007, the ice rheology was significantly changed with greatly increased quantities of first- and second-year ice in 2007 than had been encountered in 2004. These are evident in changes to the ice draft probability density functions (PDFs) and the ice appearance as seen by the SAR, and presented here.

  18. Change Detection of the Amery Ice Shelf Front (2004-2012) Using ENVISAT ASAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Cheng, X.; Liu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Antarctic ice shelves are prominent constituent parts of ice sheets due to their ice-ocean-atmosphere interface and their vulnerability to regional and global changes in atmospheric and oceanic temperatures. The majority of mass loss from the Antarctic ice sheet occurs at the ice shelves via either iceberg calving or basal melting. To fully understand the complex process of ice shelf mass balance, it is necessary to monitor the ice shelf changes over an extended period of time. The Amery Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. Understanding the changes of the Amery Ice Shelf front are crucial for making accurate predictions about the response of ice sheets to global climate change. Here we use the time series of ENVISAT images from 2004 to 2012 and the ice flow lines in Antarctic to monitor the changes of 11 test areas in the Amery Ice Shelf front (Fig. 1). Each image was linearly stretched to enhance the edges and then filtered according to an efficient image denoising scheme. We then extracted the coastlines semi-automatically by combining an artificial drawing method with an improved watershed algorithm. The 11 test areas are chosen according to the ice flow lines of the Antarctic. The results show that the Amery Ice Shelf has been expanding obviously. The rate in the middle of the Amery Ice Shelf front is higher than that on both sides of the front. The highest average propagation rate is 3.36 m/day and the lowest rate is 1.65 m/day in the past 9 years. The rates of 11 test areas during 2009 and 2010 are generally lower than those in other periods. It indicates that the propagation rate would be influenced by the climate environment. Additionally, the short-term environmental forces, such as calving events, tidal bending, ocean swell and so on would influence the ice shelf propagation. In conclusion, the rapid propagation of the Amery Ice Shelf has confirmed the fact that the East Antarctic has been expanding. Once some large iceberg calving

  19. Mapping tillage operations over peri-urban croplands using a synchronous SPOT4/ASAR ENVISAT pair and soil roughness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Gilliot, Jean-Marc

    2014-05-01

    Tillage operations (TOs) affect nutrient uptake, carbon sequestration, water and CO2 exchanges in soil, and therefore impact soil ecology together with biophysical processes such as soil erosion, leaching, run-off and infiltration. They are critical for parameterizing complex dynamic models of carbon and nitrogen. This study done in the framework of the Prostock-Gessol3 project presents an approach for mapping TOs of bare agricultural fields over a peri-urban area characterized by conventional tillage system in the western suburbs of Paris (France), combining synchronous SPOT4 and ENVISAT/ASAR images (HH and HV polarizations). Spatial modeling relied on 57 reference within-field areas named 'reference zones' (RZs) homogeneous for their soil properties, constructed in the vicinity of 57 roughness measurement locations and spread across 20 agricultural fields for which TOs were known. Soil roughness expressed as the standard deviation of surface height (Hrms) was estimated on the ground with a fully automatic photogrammetric method based on the processing of a set of overlapping pictures taken from different viewpoints from a simple digital camera all around a rectangular frame. The relationship was studied between the mean backscattering coefficient of the ASAR image and Hrms choosing a limited set of 28 RZs, on which successive random selections of training/validating RZs were then performed; the remaining 29 RZs were kept for validating the final map results. Six supervised per-pixel classifiers were used in order to map 2 TOs classes (seedbed&harrowed and late winter plough) in addition to 4 landuse classes (forest, urban,crops and grass, water bodies): support vector machine with polynomial kernel (pSVM), SVM with radial basis kernel (rSVM), artificial neural network (ANN), Maximum Likelihood (ML), regression tree (RT), and random forests (RF). All 6 classifiers were implemented in a bootstrapping approach in order to assess the uncertainty of map results. The

  20. Hydrological characterization of volcanic island by DEM generation using ASAR (ENVISAT): Galapagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ozouville, N.; Violette, S.; Benveniste, J.; Wegmuller, U.; Deffontaines, B.; de Marsily, G.

    2007-12-01

    Low topographic oceanic islands often suffer from scarcity of freshwater resources and are poorly characterized due to their complex internal structure and challenging access. Remote sensing has proved to be an effective tool to generate valuable data for hydrological analysis. However, these are usually tested over areas with existing validation databases and not always where the need is greatest. Here we address the need for topographical data for hydrological understanding of Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago) where no high resolution, no high accuracy topographical data exists. 97 percent of Galapagos territory consists of inaccessible National Park land which makes the use of indirect methods indispensable. We used new ASAR data (ENVISAT) for Digital Elevation Model generation, in order to extract drainage network, watersheds, and flow characteristics from a morpho-structural analysis. Results show the high potential of this data for both interferometric and radargrammetric generation methods. If interferometry suffered from low coherence over highly vegetated areas, it showed high precision over the rest of the island. Radargrammetry gave consistent results over the entire island, and detail was enhanced by integrating the SRTM as an external DEM. Validation of the extracted river networks and watersheds was carried out using ground-based field observations, comparison to drainage network extracted from aerial photographs and to high resolution (1 m) satellite imagery. For the first time watershed characteristics and flow paths are made available for an island of the Galapagos archipelago. Drainage networks and underground percolation are strongly influenced by fractures.

  1. Paleochannel delineation using Landsat 8 OLI and Envisat ASAR image fusion techniques in Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zaheer Ul; Iqbal, Javed; Khan, Junaid Aziz; Qazi, Waqas A.

    2016-10-01

    Sustainability of desert ecosystem is highly dependent upon water availability from different sources. Paleochannels are important sources of groundwater, and exploiting such resources involves their identification/mapping and subsequent investigation for fresh groundwater. A study in which multisensor (optical/infrared Landsat 8 OLI and active microwave Envisat ASAR) images of the Cholistan desert of Pakistan were processed and analyzed to identify and map Hakra River paleochannels is presented. Radiometrically corrected optical and synthetic aperture radar datasets were fused using principal components image fusion method. The paleochannels were extracted from the analysis of this fused output, and normalized difference vegetative index analysis of Landsat 8 OLI atmospheric corrected images was used as supporting information. Identification and alignment of an identified paleochannel was validated with geophysical ground measurements (electrical resistivity and conductivity surveys) and historical records. The presence of high apparent electrical resistivity with corresponding low soil water conductivity values intersects well with the paleochannels identified from the remote sensing data. The results were also confirmed with historical evidence such as old wells beside forts and proposed ground water harvesting sites. The proposed methodology in this study could be adopted in other parts of the world for mapping of paleochannels.

  2. Multi-Scale Mapping of Forest Growing Stock Volume Using Envisat ASAR, ALOS PALSAR Landsat, and ICESat GLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartus, Oliver; Santoro, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    Multi-scale approaches for mapping aboveground biomass globally are evaluated that exploit the multi- temporal archive of low-resolution (1 km) ENVISAT ASAR C-band observations and ca. 30 m resolution ALOS PALSAR L-band and Landsat mosaics. The BIOMASAR algorithm, which was initially developed for ENVISAT ASAR C-band data and boreal forest [1], is deployed to map growing stock volume, a proxy for aboveground biomass, globally at 1 km resolution. We explore different options for improving ASAR based maps using high resolution data. Two approaches are pursued: 1) the BIOMASAR algorithm adopted for L- band, 2) a simple re-scaling of ASAR derived estimates of growing stock volume from 1 km pixel posting to 30 m using PALSAR and Landsat data [2]. The initial results for different forest ecosystems suggest that both approaches allow for improved estimates, albeit with the expected limitations in high biomass forests.

  3. Analysis of Envisat Orbit Maintenance Strategies to Improve/Increase Envisat ASAR Interferometry Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuijper, D.; Matatoros, Garcia

    2007-01-01

    The biggest and most advanced Earth Observation Satellite in-orbit, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states, is Envisat. It was launched on March 1, 2002 by an Ariane V from French Guyana and holds a total of 10 multi-disciplinary Earth observation instruments, among which an Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR). The ASAR user community requested the Flight Dynamics division of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to investigate how the orbit control maintenance strategy for Envisat could be changed to optimize ASAR interferometry opportunities overall and in addition support the International Polar Year 2007/2008 initiative. The Polar Regions play a pivotal role in understanding our planet and our impact on it as they are recognized as sensitive barometers of environmental change. One of the main themes of the International Polar Year 2007/2008 is therefore the study of Earth s changing ice and snow, and its impact on our planet and our lives. Naturally, ESA would like to support this very important initiative. This paper presents the investigations that have been conducted to support these requests in the best possible way. It discusses the orbit maintenance strategy that has been in place since its launch, ensuring the actual orbit to be within 1 km of a so-called reference orbit, and presents the new orbit maintenance strategy that is aimed at improving/increasing the opportunities for Envisat ASAR interferometry, while preserving the fuel on board the spacecraft. The hydrazine on-board Envisat happens to be a precious resource as only approximately 300 kg of it was available at launch, like ERS-2. The difference being however that the mass of Envisat is approximately 3.2 times that of ERS-2.

  4. Estimation of surface soil moisture and roughness from multi-angular ASAR imagery in the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. G.; Li, X.; Han, X. J.; Jin, R.

    2010-06-01

    Radar remote sensing has demonstrated its applicability to the retrieval of basin-scale soil moisture. The mechanism of radar backscattering from soils is complicated and strongly influenced by surface roughness. Furthermore, retrieval of soil moisture using AIEM-like models is a classic example of the underdetermined problem due to a lack of credible known soil roughness distributions at a regional scale. Characterization of this roughness is therefore crucial for an accurate derivation of soil moisture based on backscattering models. This study aims to directly obtain surface roughness information along with soil moisture from multi-angular ASAR images. The method first used a semi-empirical relationship that connects the roughness slope (Zs) and the difference in backscattering coefficient (Δσ) from ASAR data in different incidence angles, in combination with an optimal calibration form consisting of two roughness parameters (the standard deviation of surface height and the correlation length), to estimate the roughness parameters. The deduced surface roughness was then used in the AIEM model for the retrieval of soil moisture. An evaluation of the proposed method was performed in a grassland site in the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin, where the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) was taken place. It has demonstrated that the method is feasible to achieve reliable estimation of soil water content. The key challenge to surface soil moisture retrieval is the presence of vegetation cover, which significantly impacts the estimates of surface roughness and soil moisture.

  5. Subway Subsidence Monitoring and Analysis in Beijing through Envisat-Asar and Terrasar-X DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, G.; Gong, H.; Chen, B.; Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    Subway plays a significant role in public transport in Beijing, China. The safe operation of such underground rail transports are serious threatened by ground subsidence that mainly caused by groundwater over-exploitation. It is necessary to carry out a continuous observation and analysis of the surface deformation along the newly built rails. The paper mainly studied four subways which were built in different periods(see attachment). Envisat-ASAR and Terrasar-X images of the study area were selected to measure the ground deformation. Interferometric Point Target Analysis method was gathered to process the SAR data. The method is developed based on the idea of the Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method which can overcome the decorrelation and atmospheric effect to gain more precise estimation of the ground deformation. The master image can be selected according to the perpendicular, Doppler and temporal baselines to minimize the potential decorrelation. After the registration of all slave images to the master image, the PS candidates would be detected on the basis of the scattering properties of the images. A complex operation of the PSs was conducted to obtain the interferometric phase which was composed of terrain phase, atmospheric phase, deformation phase and noise. A model used for the evaluation of the contribution of each component was built by means of the least squares method. The deformation phase would be the remaining of the interferometric phase minus disturbance terms. Deformation information that came from two different kinds of data was jointly analyzed to reveal the temporal character of the rails before, during and after they were built. The regional LOS(line-of-sight) velocity around a special subway station shows that the rail has suffered from a serious uneven settlement along the rail during the observation period. In addition, time series data revealed the characteristic stages of each PS point. There is a clear accelerating trend of

  6. Using the MicroASAR on the NASA SIERRA UAS in the Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaugg, Evan; Long, David; Edwards, Matthew; Fladeland, Matthew; Kolyer, Richard; Crocker, Ian; Maslanik, James; Herzfeld, Ute; Wallin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The MicroASAR is a flexible, robust SAR system built on the successful legacy of the BYU microSAR. It is a compact LFM-CW SAR system designed for low-power operation on small, manned aircraft or UAS. The NASA SIERRA UAS was designed to test new instruments and support flight experiments. NASA used the MicroASAR on the SIERRA during a science field campaign in 2009 to study sea ice roughness and break-up in the Arctic and high northern latitudes. This mission is known as CASIE-09 (Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment 2009). This paper describes the MicroASAR and its role flying on the SIERRA UAS platform as part of CASIE-09.

  7. Using the MicroASAR on the NASA SIERRA UAS in the Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaugg, Evan; Long, David; Edwards, Matthew; Fladeland, Matthew; Kolyer, Richard; Crocker, Ian; Maslanik, James; Herzfeld, Ute; Wallin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The MicroASAR is a flexible, robust SAR system built on the successful legacy of the BYU microSAR. It is a compact LFM-CW SAR system designed for low-power operation on small, manned aircraft or UAS. The NASA SIERRA UAS was designed to test new instruments and support flight experiments. NASA used the MicroASAR on the SIERRA during a science field campaign in 2009 to study sea ice roughness and break-up in the Arctic and high northern latitudes. This mission is known as CASIE-09 (Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment 2009). This paper describes the MicroASAR and its role flying on the SIERRA UAS platform as part of CASIE-09.

  8. Analysis of ASAR Wide Swath Mode time series for the retrieval of soil moisture in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greifeneder, Felix; Notarnicola, Claudia; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Spindler, Nadine; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Stamenkovic, Jelena; Wagner, Wolgang

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is a key element in the global cycles of water, energy, and carbon. Knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of the soil moisture content (SMC) is therefore essential for a number of hydrological applications as well as earth sciences like meteorology or climatology (Heathman et al., 2003). In the last few years there has been an increasing interest towards the estimation of SMC at local scales using active microwave sensors (Barret et al., 2009). Compared to passive microwave sensors, SAR offers the potential to provide data at high spatial resolution (modern sensors can acquire images with up to approximately 1 m), which is particularly important in mountainous areas. So far, these areas have been considered only marginally in research and only pioneer studies can be found in the literature (Brocca et al., 2012; Bertoldi et al. 2013). In this work we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the surface SMC (0 - 5 cm depth) on the basis of ground data collected by fixed meteorological stations located in the emerging Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site Mazia Valley (Province of Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy), SAR data from ENVISATs ASAR sensor, wide swath (WS) mode (acquired between 2005 and 2012), and SMC estimates from the hydrological model GEOtop (Endrizzi et al., 2013). The SMC retrieval process was based on the support vector regression (SVR) method introduced by Pasolli et al. (2011). The training of the algorithm was based on data acquired in 2010. Furthermore, the SAR backscatter and derived SMC have been compared with time-series derived from the distributed hydrological model GEOtop. The differences in terms of temporal and spatial dynamic have been analyzed. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of SAR derived SMC at field scale and to correlate them with ground information. This is a preparatory study to establish a methodology for the retrieval of SMC with high spatial and

  9. Crossing Swell and Origins: Global View from ASAR Wave Mode Fireworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Mouche, Alexis; Husson, Romain; Chapron, Bertrand; Yang, Jingsong

    2016-08-01

    Crossing swell, is a complicated sea state characterized by the co-existence of swell systems generating from different swell origins. Although many investigations have focused on the global swell climatology, our understanding of global statistical distribution for the crossing swell is still limited. In this paper, we present a global view of crossing swell using 10-years Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) derived directional swell spectra from Envisat ASAR in Wave Mode from 2003 to 2011. In contrast to analyze the directly but occasionally SAR captured sea state of crossing swell, we employ an approach of propagating observed swell taking advantage of the internal consistency of swells. Results reveal three dominated crossing swell areas termed "crossing swell pools", in Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The pool in Atlantic Ocean shows a relative stable behaviour for all seasons, in contrast to the one in Indian Ocean with seasonal occurrence and the one in Pacific Ocean shrinking during boreal summer. The sources of the crossing swell are also inferred from ASAR wave mode data, and its global distribution analysis results indicate good agreement with the seasonal variation of crossing swell pools.

  10. Global monitoring of wetlands--the value of ENVISAT ASAR Global mode.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, A; Wagner, W; Scipal, K; Pathe, C; Sabel, D; Wolski, P

    2009-05-01

    This paper elaborates on recent advances in the use of ScanSAR technologies for wetland-related research. Applications of active satellite radar systems include the monitoring of inundation dynamics as well as time series analyses of surface soil wetness. For management purposes many wetlands, especially those in dry regions, need to be monitored for short and long-term changes. Another application of these technologies is monitoring the impact of climate change in permafrost transition zones where peatlands form one of the major land cover types. Therefore, examples from boreal and subtropical environments are presented using the analysed ENVISAT ASAR Global mode (GM, 1 km resolution) data acquired in 2005 and 2006. In the case of the ENVISAT ASAR instrument, data availability of the rather coarse Global Mode depends on request priorities of other competing modes, but acquisition frequency may still be on average fortnightly to monthly depending on latitude. Peatland types covering varying permafrost regimes of the West Siberian Lowlands can be distinguished from each other and other land cover by multi-temporal analyses. Up to 75% of oligotrophic bogs can be identified in the seasonal permafrost zone in both years. The high seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the subtropic Okavango Delta can also be captured by GM time series. Response to increased precipitation in 2006 differs from flood propagation patterns. In addition, relative soil moisture maps may provide a valuable data source in order to account for external hydrological factors of such complex wetland ecosystems.

  11. Estimation of surface soil moisture and roughness from multi-angular ASAR imagery in the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. G.; Li, X.; Han, X. J.; Jin, R.

    2011-05-01

    Radar remote sensing has demonstrated its applicability to the retrieval of basin-scale soil moisture. The mechanism of radar backscattering from soils is complicated and strongly influenced by surface roughness. Additionally, retrieval of soil moisture using AIEM (advanced integrated equation model)-like models is a classic example of underdetermined problem due to a lack of credible known soil roughness distributions at a regional scale. Characterization of this roughness is therefore crucial for an accurate derivation of soil moisture based on backscattering models. This study aims to simultaneously obtain surface roughness parameters (standard deviation of surface height σ and correlation length cl) along with soil moisture from multi-angular ASAR images by using a two-step retrieval scheme based on the AIEM. The method firstly used a semi-empirical relationship that relates the roughness slope, Zs (Zs = σ2/cl) and the difference in backscattering coefficient (Δσ) from two ASAR images acquired with different incidence angles. Meanwhile, by using an experimental statistical relationship between σ and cl, both these parameters can be estimated. Then, the deduced roughness parameters were used for the retrieval of soil moisture in association with the AIEM. An evaluation of the proposed method was performed in an experimental area in the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin, where the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) was taken place. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is feasible to achieve reliable estimation of soil water content. The key challenge is the presence of vegetation cover, which significantly impacts the estimates of surface roughness and soil moisture.

  12. EnviSAT ASAR Monitoring Of The Natural And Archaeological Landscape Of Nasca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We exploit the 4year-long archive of ENVISAT ASAR IS2 C-band imagery available through ESA Cat-1 project id.11073 over Nasca (Southern Peru), to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its impacts on the natural and cultural heritage preserved within this region, well- known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations who flourished between the 4th century BC and the 6th century AD. Inferences about the recent changes of the cultural landscapes and the main landforms in 2003-2007 were retrieved based on SAR backscattering (σ0) time series. Ancient aqueduct systems (the so-called puquios) and the famous geoglyphs ('Nasca Lines') were detected, even at a medium-resolution scale provided by ENVISAT images.

  13. Archaeological prospection of cultural heritage in the Nasca region, Peru, by coupling ENVISAT ASAR 2003-2007 and optical-VHR time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, Deodato; Cigna, Francesca; Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    We present the radar-interpretation of a 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR imagery, integrated and cross-validated with optical-Very High Resolution (VHR) data from QuickBird2, GeoEye and WorldView-1/2, and carried out over the cultural and natural heritage of the Nasca region in Southern Peru. This research is performed thanks to the provision of free-access archive SAR data from the European Space Agency (ESA) through the Cat-1 project 11073, and is supporting the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. The whole ENVISAT ASAR imagery archive, consisting of 8 ASAR IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, was processed by exploiting and analyzing SAR amplitude information and change detection to reconstruct the temporal evolution of radar signatures and related backscattering coefficient (σ0) of the targets on the ground in the monitoring period 2003-2007. The selection of a SAR amplitude-based change detection method was made to explore its actual potentials for archaeological prospection and monitoring purposes, complementarily to approaches of interferometric coherence used by other scholars over the same region of investigation. The novel contribution to heritage studies over Nasca includes remote sensing insights into the renowned UNESCO-WHL Nasca geoglyphs and archaeological mounds of the adobe Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, as well as the ancient puquios within the Rio Grande drainage basin. The latter are prehispanic underground aqueducts, and nowadays represent not only important cultural features to preserve, but also a potential driver to revitalize waterways and oases in such a dry region

  14. Detection and object-based classification of offshore oil slicks using ENVISAT-ASAR images.

    PubMed

    Akar, Sertac; Süzen, Mehmet Lutfi; Kaymakci, Nuretdin

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to propose and test a multi-level methodology for detection of oil slicks in ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) imagery, which can be used to support the identification of hydrocarbon seeps. We selected Andrusov Ridge in the Central Black Sea as the test study area where extensive hydrocarbon seepages were known to occur continuously. Hydrocarbon seepage from tectonic or stratigraphic origin at the sea floor causes oily gas plumes to rise up to the sea surface and form thin oil films called oil slicks. Microwave sensors like synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are very suitable for ocean remote sensing as they measure the backscattered radiation from the surface and show the roughness of the terrain. Oil slicks dampen the sea waves creating dark patches in the SAR image. The proposed and applied methodology includes three levels: visual interpretation, image filtering and object-based oil spill detection. Level I, after data preparation with visual interpretation, includes dark spots identification and subsets/scenes creation. After this process, the procedure continues with categorization of subsets/scenes into three cases based on contrast difference of dark spots to the surroundings. In level II, by image and morphological filtering, it includes preparation of subsets/scenes for segmentation. Level III includes segmentation and feature extraction which is followed by object-based classification. The object-based classification is applied with the fuzzy membership functions defined by extracted features of ASAR subsets/scenes, where the parameters of the detection algorithms are tuned specifically for each case group. As a result, oil slicks are discriminated from look-alikes with an overall classification accuracy of 83% for oil slicks and 77% for look-alikes obtained by averaging three different cases.

  15. Evaluation of Filters for Envisat Asar Speckle Suppression in Pasture Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ge, L.; Li, X.

    2012-07-01

    In order to quantify real time pasture biomass from SAR image, regression model between ground measurements of biomass and ENVISAT ASAR backscattering coefficient should be built up. An important prerequisite of valid and accurate regression model is accurate grass backscattering coefficient which, however, cannot be obtained when there is speckle. Speckle noise is the best known problem of SAR images because of the coherent nature of radar illumination imaging system. This study aims to choose better adaptive filter from NEST software to reduce speckle noise in homogeneous pasture area, with little regard to linear feature (e.g. edge between pasture and forest) or point feature (e.g. pond, tree) preservation. This paper presents the speckle suppression result of ENVISAT ASAR VV/VH images in pasture of Western Australia (WA) using four built-in adaptive filters of the NEST software: Frost, Gamma Map, Lee, and Refined Lee filter. Two indices are usually used for evaluation of speckle suppression ability: ENL (Equivalent Number of Looks) and SSI (Speckle Suppression Index). These two, however, are not reliable because sometimes they overestimate mean value. Therefore, apart from ENL and SSI, the authors also used a new index SMPI (Speckle Suppression and Mean Preservation Index). It was found that, Lee filter with window size 7×7 and Frost filter (damping factor = 2) with window size 5×5 gave the best performance for VV and VH polarization, respectively. The filtering, together with radiometric calibration and terrain correction, paves the way to extraction of accurate backscattering coefficient of grass in homogeneous pasture area in WA.

  16. Evaluating the value of ENVISAT ASAR Data for the mapping and monitoring of peatland water table depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, Michel; Schlaffer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ENVISAT collected C-Band microwave backscatter data from 2005 to 2012. Backscatter in the C-Band depends to a large degree on the roughness and the moisture status of vegetation and soil surface with a penetration depth of ca. 3 cm. In wetlands with stable high water levels, the annual soil surface moisture dynamics are very distinct compared to the surrounding areas, which allows the monitoring of such environments with ASAR data (Reschke et al. 2012). Also in drained peatlands, moisture status of vegetation and soil surface strongly depends on water table depth due to high hydraulic conductivities of many peat soils in the low suction range (Dettmann et al. 2014). We hypothesize that this allows the characterization of water table depths with ASAR data. Here we analyze whether ASAR data can be used for the spatial and temporal estimation of water table depths in different peatlands (natural, near-natural, agriculturally-used and rewetted). Mapping and monitoring of water table depths is of crucial importance, e.g. for upscaling greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating the success of peatland rewetting projects. Here, ASAR data is analyzed with a new map of water table depths for the organic soils in Germany (Bechtold et al. 2014) as well as with a comprehensive data set of monitored peatland water levels from 1100 dip wells and 54 peatlands. ASAR time series from the years 2005-2012 with irregular temporal sampling intervals of 3-14 days were processed. Areas covered by snow were masked. Primary results about the accuracy of spatial estimates show significant correlations between long-term backscatter statistics and spatially-averaged water table depths extracted from the map at the resolution of the ASAR data. Backscatter also correlates with long-term averages of point-scale water table depth data of the monitoring wells. For the latter, correlation is highest between the dry reference backscatter values and

  17. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  18. ASAR Revealing Hot-Spots of Internal Solitary Waves in the Arctic: Preliminary Results for the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Igor E.; Zubkova, Evgenia V.; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir N.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we present first preliminary results of internal solitary waves' observations in the Laptev Sea using a set of ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images. Analysis of 354 ASAR images acquired between May-October 2011 helped to identify 91 distinct patterns of oceanic internal waves and reveal main regions of their occurrence. As found, the primary regions of IW observations are located north-west to Arctic Cape, over the continental slope regions east to Maly Taymyr Island and north-west to Kotelny Island, and east to the Gulf of Khatanga. Detailed maps of main internal wave parameters are presented, and some features of their propagation and implications for the vertical mixing in the Laptev Sea are also discussed.

  19. ASAR15, A cis-Acting Locus that Controls Chromosome-Wide Replication Timing and Stability of Human Chromosome 15

    PubMed Central

    Donley, Nathan; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along each mammalian chromosome at different times during each S phase, following a temporal replication program. We have used a Cre/loxP-based strategy to identify cis-acting elements that control this replication-timing program on individual human chromosomes. In this report, we show that rearrangements at a complex locus at chromosome 15q24.3 result in delayed replication and structural instability of human chromosome 15. Characterization of this locus identified long, RNA transcripts that are retained in the nucleus and form a “cloud” on one homolog of chromosome 15. We also found that this locus displays asynchronous replication that is coordinated with other random monoallelic genes on chromosome 15. We have named this locus ASynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 15, or ASAR15. Previously, we found that disruption of the ASAR6 lincRNA gene results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic condensation and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Previous studies in the mouse found that deletion of the Xist gene, from the X chromosome in adult somatic cells, results in a delayed replication and instability phenotype that is indistinguishable from the phenotype caused by disruption of either ASAR6 or ASAR15. In addition, delayed replication and chromosome instability were detected following structural rearrangement of many different human or mouse chromosomes. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain similar cis-acting loci. Thus, under this scenario, all mammalian chromosomes contain four distinct types of essential cis-acting elements: origins, telomeres, centromeres and “inactivation/stability centers”, all functioning to promote proper replication, segregation and structural stability of each chromosome. PMID:25569254

  20. Potential contribution of ENVISAT ASAR alternating polarisation and Wide-Swath modes images for crop discrimination at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaes, X.; Holeck, F.; Defourny, P.

    2002-01-01

    This experimental study was carried out in the framework of the DUP project "Dedicated Remote Sensing Product Generation for the Agro-Industry: Cereal Case" leaded by Synoptics b.v. (NL). The main objective is to investigate the potential contribution of the ENVISAT images for the discrimination of the main crops at a regional scale. ASAR Alternating Polarisation (AP and Wide Swath (WS) modes have been simulated from 15 ERS images over Belgium. A quantitative approach was completed using 791 parcels corresponding to the following crops: winter wheat, winter barley, spring wheat, spring barley, grasses, sugar beet, maize and potato. The impact of the spatial resolution of the ASAR sensor is assessed through the comparison of the results obtained for the AP (30m) and WS (150m) modes with regards to the field size. Both pixel-based and parcel-based unsupervised classification approaches have been applied. Dedicated interpretation schemes were developed for specific crop discrimination. The promising results obtained from the 150-m ASAR signal are expected to be further enhanced by the very high acquisition rate of the WS mode, i.e. an acquisition every 3 to 5 days.

  1. Temporal Stability of Soil Moisture and Radar Backscatter Observed by the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Pathe, Carsten; Doubkova, Marcela; Sabel, Daniel; Bartsch, Annett; Hasenauer, Stefan; Blöschl, Günter; Scipal, Klaus; Martínez-Fernández, José; Löw, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The high spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture is the result of atmospheric forcing and redistribution processes related to terrain, soil, and vegetation characteristics. Despite this high variability, many field studies have shown that in the temporal domain soil moisture measured at specific locations is correlated to the mean soil moisture content over an area. Since the measurements taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments are very sensitive to soil moisture it is hypothesized that the temporally stable soil moisture patterns are reflected in the radar backscatter measurements. To verify this hypothesis 73 Wide Swath (WS) images have been acquired by the ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) over the REMEDHUS soil moisture network located in the Duero basin, Spain. It is found that a time-invariant linear relationship is well suited for relating local scale (pixel) and regional scale (50 km) backscatter. The observed linear model coefficients can be estimated by considering the scattering properties of the terrain and vegetation and the soil moisture scaling properties. For both linear model coefficients, the relative error between observed and modelled values is less than 5 % and the coefficient of determination (R2) is 86 %. The results are of relevance for interpreting and downscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data retrieved from active (METOP ASCAT) and passive (SMOS, AMSR-E) instruments. PMID:27879759

  2. ASAR images a diverse set of deformation patterns at Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, 27 independent look angles have been acquired by ENVISAT’s Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) instrument over the island of Hawai`i, allowing for the formation of thousands of interferograms showing deformation of the ground surface. On Kīlauea volcano, a transition from minor to broad-scale summit inflation was observed by interferograms that span 2003 to 2006. In addition, radar interferometry (InSAR) observations of Kīlauea led to the discovery of several previously unknown areas of localized subsidence in the caldera and along the volcano’s east rift zone. These features are probably caused by the cooling and contraction of accumulated lavas. After November 2005, a surface instability near the point that lava entered the ocean on the south flank of Kīlauea was observed in interferograms. The motion is most likely a result of unbuttressing of a portion of the coast following the collapse of a large lava delta in November 2005. InSAR data can also be used to map lava flow development over time, providing ~30 m spatial resolution maps at approximately monthly intervals. Future applications of InSAR to Kīlauea will probably result in more discoveries and insights, both as the style of volcano deformation changes and as data from new instruments are acquired.

  3. Texture of Wetland in Single-Band and Single-Polarization ENVISAT ASAR Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiag, Liaxiang; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yi

    2010-10-01

    Texture is an inherent property of virtually all surfaces. It contains important information about the structural arrangement of surfaces and the relationships with the surrounding environment. Image texture is a kind of important feature for object recognition. The paper has taken the ENVISAT ASAR image in the Yellow River Delta as an example, and analyzed four typical wetland types (aquaculture, salt field, tidal flat, and reservoir) and two other land-use categories(farmland and sea) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM). We ascertained the factors of GLCM on SAR wetland image such as orientation, displacement, quantization, and window size. The optimum orientation was average of the four orientations of 0°, 45°, 90° and 135°. The optimum quantization in these texture parameters was 64-level. The optimum window size was 13×13. With regard of the displacement, the optimum was 6. The textural analysis results indicated that reservoirs had lower gray value, marked boundary and the difference of texture curve between it and other wetland types; salt field and aquaculture had similarity on spatial structure and gray value, so their texture curve were close. Because the image had not been filtered before texture analysis, there were noise, the texture of sea was close to that of tidal flat. Farmland has a feature of higher gray value, complex spatial structure and confused orientation, so it was easy to distinguish it from others, although its texture feature was close to others.

  4. Statistical information of ASAR observations over wetland areas: An interaction model interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grings, F.; Salvia, M.; Karszenbaum, H.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Perna, P.; Barber, M.; Jacobo Berlles, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained after studying the relation between the statistical parameters that describe the backscattering distribution of junco marshes and their biophysical variables. The results are based on the texture analysis of a time series of Envisat ASAR C-band data (APP mode, V V +HH polarizations) acquired between October 2003 and January 2005 over the Lower Paraná River Delta, Argentina. The image power distributions were analyzed, and we show that the K distribution provides a good fitting of SAR data extracted from wetland observations for both polarizations. We also show that the estimated values of the order parameter of the K distribution can be explained using fieldwork and reasonable assumptions. In order to explore these results, we introduce a radiative transfer based interaction model to simulate the junco marsh σ0 distribution. After analyzing model simulations, we found evidence that the order parameter is related to the junco plant density distribution inside the junco marsh patch. It is concluded that the order parameter of the K distribution could be a useful parameter to estimate the junco plant density. This result is important for basin hydrodynamic modeling, since marsh plant density is the most important parameter to estimate marsh water conductance.

  5. Temporal Stability of Soil Moisture and Radar Backscatter Observed by the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Pathe, Carsten; Doubkova, Marcela; Sabel, Daniel; Bartsch, Annett; Hasenauer, Stefan; Blöschl, Günter; Scipal, Klaus; Martínez-Fernández, José; Löw, Alexander

    2008-02-21

    The high spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture is the result of atmosphericforcing and redistribution processes related to terrain, soil, and vegetation characteristics.Despite this high variability, many field studies have shown that in the temporal domainsoil moisture measured at specific locations is correlated to the mean soil moisture contentover an area. Since the measurements taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)instruments are very sensitive to soil moisture it is hypothesized that the temporally stablesoil moisture patterns are reflected in the radar backscatter measurements. To verify this hypothesis 73 Wide Swath (WS) images have been acquired by the ENVISAT AdvancedSynthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) over the REMEDHUS soil moisture network located inthe Duero basin, Spain. It is found that a time-invariant linear relationship is well suited forrelating local scale (pixel) and regional scale (50 km) backscatter. The observed linearmodel coefficients can be estimated by considering the scattering properties of the terrainand vegetation and the soil moisture scaling properties. For both linear model coefficients,the relative error between observed and modelled values is less than 5 % and thecoefficient of determination (R²) is 86 %. The results are of relevance for interpreting anddownscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data retrieved from active (METOP ASCAT)and passive (SMOS, AMSR-E) instruments.

  6. PALSAR/ALOS Interferometry in the Gulf of Corinth and Patras (Greece) Comparison with ASAR/ Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Panagiotis; Briole, Pierre; Sykioti, Olga

    2008-11-01

    In the western part of the Gulf of Corinth (Greece), nineteen PALSAR/ALOS images were acquired, processed and compared thematically with C-band ASAR/ENVISAT data. The rift of Corinth has been long identified as a site of major importance due to its intense geophysical activity. It is one of the world's most rapidly extending continental regions and it has one of the highest seismicity rates in the euro-Mediterranean region. Specifically, around the Gulf of Patras, the deformation field is less well known, and we hope to improve this knowledge by exploiting L-band data. This is also important for acquiring a better understanding of the ground deformation around the city of Patras, which is the third biggest city in Greece. The target area includes the E-W oriented Gulf of Patras, separating the north from the south part of Greece. For this reason, the two parts are examined each part separately in order to exclude the sea in the stage of cross-correlation between master and slave image. Interferograms from the Patras frame used for the detection of ground deformation due to June 8th, 2008 Andravida earththquake, showed no co-seismic and post-seismic signal. Finally, we conclude that L-band inteferograms present better coherence compared with C-band interferograms in this area.

  7. Integration of SMOS and ENVISAT ASAR data for sea ice change study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LUO, S.; Cheng, X.; Hui, F.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of nearly 30 years show that Arctic sea ice is changing rapidly since the 21st century. The coverage as well as the thickness of sea ice decreased year by year, indicating that the ice condition is getting lighter. The Northeast passage is the connection of the North Atlantic and North Pacific. The Northeast passage is expected to be open as a trading channel in the near future, which will shorten the journey, greatly reducing the transport costs from East Asia to northern Europe. The suitable navigation time of Northeast passage varies greatly year by year, which is mainly dominated by the sea ice conditions among Russia's New Siberian Island, severnaya zemlya and mainland. In this study, we choose the ocean surface area near New Siberian Island and Vilkitskogo Strait near severnaya zemlya as study area. The sea ice thickness data in the area (from October 15th to March 31st of the second year, 2010-2012) inverted from SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) brightness temperature are used to study the sea ice thickness change in the 3 years. ENVISAT ASAR data (2010-2012) were used to validate the accuracy of sea ice thickness inverted by brightness temperature of SMOS data, and also to study the spatio-temporal dynamic of sea ice. Preliminary results showed that: 1) The sea ice thickness has decreased in the area around New Siberian Island from 2012 to 2012, while the sea ice thickness of Vilkitskogo Strait near severnaya zemlya changes less. 2)As the most critical factor affectting navigation,sea ice thickness is of significant seasonal change. The freezing time in October is postponing. 3) The sea ice thickness data inverted by brightness temperature of SMOS data are more accurate in winter.

  8. ASAR analysis of the snow cover in Livingston and Deception Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, C.; Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.

    2009-04-01

    ASAR images from Envisat are analyzed to study the snow cover regime of Deception and Livingston Islands (South Sthetlands, Antarctic Peninsula). Data is provided by the European Space Agency in the framework of the Proposal Category-1: Snow cover characteristics and regime in the South Shetlands (Maritime Antarctic) - SnowAntar. Medium resolution images (WSW, APM and IMM) are analyzed since December 2008, and are prepared using the processing chains from BEST (Basic Envisat SAR Toolbox). The process includes the transformation of DN into power values, geometric and radiometric correction, image filtering and computation of the backscattering coefficient for each pixel. Thereafter, the imagery is analyzed in image analysis software for the classification of backscattering. A multitemporal imagery analysis is conducted in order to set a threshold on the differential backscatter between scenes under wet snow and snow free-conditions. These algorithms allow for the study of snow surface wetness and snow water equivalent. The study of snow cover regime is linked to the permafrost monitoring and modeling effort conducted in the region in the framework of the PERMANTAR-PERMAMODEL projects. The proprieties of snow are of major significance for the ground energy balance and therefore to the ground thermal regime, since thick snow provides excellent insulation. Permafrost is therefore influenced by snow cover properties, spatial distribution and regime. Snow cover maps will be produced for integration in permafrost modeling and also for comparison with re-analysis data from ERA-Interim. The poster presents the first results of the imagery analysis of the snow cover regime since December 2008. The satellite data is validated in the field with several areas of interest (AOI) with snow thickness monitoring devices based on thermal regimes at different heights.

  9. Impact of ASAR soil moisture data on the MM5 precipitation forecast for the Tanaro flood event of April 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panegrossi, G.; Ferretti, R.; Pulvirenti, L.; Pierdicca, N.

    2011-12-01

    The representation of land-atmosphere interactions in weather forecast models has a strong impact on the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and, in turn, on the forecast. Soil moisture is one of the key variables in land surface modelling, and an inadequate initial soil moisture field can introduce major biases in the surface heat and moisture fluxes and have a long-lasting effect on the model behaviour. Detecting the variability of soil characteristics at small scales is particularly important in mesoscale models because of the continued increase of their spatial resolution. In this paper, the high resolution soil moisture field derived from ENVISAT/ASAR observations is used to derive the soil moisture initial condition for the MM5 simulation of the Tanaro flood event of April 2009. The ASAR-derived soil moisture field shows significantly drier conditions compared to the ECMWF analysis. The impact of soil moisture on the forecast has been evaluated in terms of predicted precipitation and rain gauge data available for this event have been used as ground truth. The use of the drier, highly resolved soil moisture content (SMC) shows a significant impact on the precipitation forecast, particularly evident during the early phase of the event. The timing of the onset of the precipitation, as well as the intensity of rainfall and the location of rain/no rain areas, are better predicted. The overall accuracy of the forecast using ASAR SMC data is significantly increased during the first 30 h of simulation. The impact of initial SMC on the precipitation has been related to the change in the water vapour field in the PBL prior to the onset of the precipitation, due to surface evaporation. This study represents a first attempt to establish whether high resolution SAR-based SMC data might be useful for operational use, in anticipation of the launch of the Sentinel-1 satellite.

  10. Monitoring duration and extent of storm-surge and flooding in Western Coastal Louisiana marshes with Envisat ASAR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, E.; Lu, Zhiming; Suzuoki, Y.; Rangoonwala, A.; Werle, D.

    2011-01-01

    Inundation maps of coastal marshes in western Louisiana were created with multitemporal Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture (ASAR) scenes collected before and during the three months after Hurricane Rita landfall in September 2005. Corroborated by inland water-levels, 7 days after landfall, 48% of coastal estuarine and palustrine marshes remained inundated by storm-surge waters. Forty-five days after landfall, storm-surge inundated 20% of those marshes. The end of the storm-surge flooding was marked by an abrupt decrease in water levels following the passage of a storm front and persistent offshore winds. A complementary dramatic decrease in flood extent was confirmed by an ASAR-derived inundation map. In nonimpounded marshes at elevations <;80 cm, storm-surge waters rapidly receded while slower recession was dominantly associated with impounded marshes at elevations >;80 cm during the first month after Rita landfall. After this initial period, drainage from marshes-especially impounded marshes-was hastened by the onset of offshore winds. Following the abrupt drops in inland water levels and flood extent, rainfall events coinciding with increased water levels were recorded as inundation re-expansion. This postsurge flooding decreased until only isolated impounded and palustrine marshes remained inundated. Changing flood extents were correlated to inland water levels and largely occurred within the same marsh regions. Trends related to incremental threshold increases used in the ASAR change-detection analyses seemed related to the preceding hydraulic and hydrologic events, and VV and HH threshold differences supported their relationship to the overall wetland hydraulic condition.

  11. Mapping tillage operations over a peri-urban region using combined SPOT4 and ASAR/ENVISAT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, E.; Baghdadi, N.; Gilliot, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at assessing the potential of combining synchronous SPOT4 and ENVISAT/ASAR images (HH and HV polarizations) for mapping tillage operations (TOs) of bare agricultural fields over a peri-urban area characterized by conventional tillage system in the western suburbs of Paris (France). The reference spatial units for spatial modeling are 57 within-field areas named “reference zones” (RZs) homogeneous for their soil properties, constructed in the vicinity of 57 roughness measurement locations, spread across 20 agricultural fields for which TOs were known. The total RZ dataset was half dedicated to successive random selections of training/validating RZs, the remaining half (29 RZs) being kept for validating the final map results. Five supervised per-pixels classifiers were used in order to map 2 TOs classes (seedbed&harrowed and late winter plough) in addition to 4 landuse classes (forest, urban, crops and grass, water bodies): support vector machine with polynomial kernel (pSVM), SVM with radial basis kernel (rSVM), artificial neural network (ANN), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and regression tree (RT). All 5 classifiers were implemented in a bootstrapping approach in order to assess the uncertainty of map results. The best results were obtained with pSVM for the SPOT4/ASAR pair with producer's and user's mean validation accuracies (PmVA/UmVA) of 91.7%/89.8% and 73.2%/73.3% for seedbed&harrowed and late winter plough conditions, respectively. Whatever classifier, the SPOT4/ASAR pair appeared to perform better than each of the single images, particularly for late winter plough: PmVA/UmVA of 61.6%/53.0% for the single SPOT4 image; 0%/6% for the single ASAR image. About 73% of the validation agricultural fields (79% of the RZs) were correctly predicted in terms of TOs in the best pSVM-derived final map. Final map results could be improved through masking non-agricultural areas with land use identification system layer prior to classifying images. Such

  12. Interseismic strain accumulation across the Ashkabad fault (NE Iran) from MERIS-corrected ASAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; Elliott, J. R.; Li, Z.; Parsons, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    The right-lateral Ashkabad Fault separates deforming NE Iran from the stable Turkmenistan platform to the north, and also facilitates the north-westwards extrusion of the South Caspian block (along with the left-lateral Shahrud fault zone). The fault represents the northernmost boundary of significant deformation of the Arabia-Eurasia collision in NE Iran. The 1948 M 7.3 Ashkabad earthquake, which killed around 110,000 people and was the deadliest earthquake to hit Europe or the Middle East in the 20th Century, also possibly occurred on this fault. However, the slip rate and therefore the seismic hazard that the Ashkabad fault represents are not well known. GPS data in NE Iran are sparse, and there are no direct geological or quaternary rates for the main strand of the fault. We use Envisat ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2010 to measure interseismic strain accumulation across the fault, and hence estimate the slip rate across it. Due to the proximity of this region to the Caspian Sea and the presence of highly variable weather systems, we use data from Envisat's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument, as well as modelled weather data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), to correct interferograms for differences in water vapour and atmospheric pressure. We mitigate the effects of remaining noise by summing the 13 corrected interferograms that cover the fault, effectively creating a 30 year interferogram with improved signal-to-noise ratio, and we empirically correct for orbital errors. Our measurements of rates of displacement are consistent with an interseismic model for the Ashkabad fault where deformation occurs at depth on a narrow shear zone below a layer in which the fault is locked. We invert the data to solve for best fitting model parameters, estimating both the slip rate and the depth to which the fault is locked. Our measurements show that the Ashkabad fault is accumulating strain at a rate of 9 mm

  13. Snow cover regime in Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctic) using multitemporal analysis of ASAR imagery from 2009.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Carla; Vieira, Gonçalo; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    ASAR images from Envisat (WSW and IMM) are analyzed to study the snow cover regime of Deception and Livingston Islands (South Shetlands, Antarctic Peninsula) during 2009. The study is part of the project PERMANTAR focusing on monitoring and modeling the thermal regime of permafrost. For a GIS-based spatial modelling of snow cover distribution, spatially distributed data is required and the exploration of microwave remote sensing is the most suitable technique for mapping the snow cover characteristics and regime. This becomes especially true due to the long winter night and unstable weather conditions of the northern Antarctic Peninsula region. For this purpose a multitemporal ASAR imagery analysis was conducted in order to distinguish wet snow cover from snow free terrain using the absorption dependency of the radar signal on the liquid water content of the snow to set a threshold on the differential backscatter between scenes. The imagery was analyzed using the processing chains from NEST (ESA SAR Toolbox). Preliminary results of the analysis of the time-series show strong seasonal changes in the backscattering due to the variations of liquid water content in snow. Validation of the results obtained from the microwave imagery is done using the ground truth data. In January and February 2009 we have installed in Livingston and Deception islands time-lapse camera in key-areas, ultra-sonic sensors of the snow thickness and probes with snow temperature mini-loggers. This data will be collected from field sites n January 2010 and used for the calibration of the results. Satellite immagery is provided by the European Space Agency in the framework of the Proposal Category-1: Snow cover characteristics and regime in the South Shetlands (Maritime Antarctic) - SnowAntar.

  14. Application of ASAR-ENVISAT Data for Monitoring Andean Volcanic Activity : Results From Lastarria-Azufre Volcanic Complex (Chile-Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froger, J.; Remy, D.; Bonvalot, S.; Franco Guerra, M.

    2005-12-01

    Since the pioneer study on Mount Etna by Massonnet et al., in 1995, several works have illustrated the promising potentiality of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (INSAR) for the monitoring of volcanoes. In the case of wide, remote or hazardous volcanic areas, in particular, INSAR represents a safer and more economic way to acquire measurements than from ground based geodetic networks. Here we present the preliminary results of an interferometric survey made with ASAR-ENVISAT data on a selection of South American volcanoes where deformation signals had been previously evidenced or are expected. An interesting result is the detection of a present-day active ground deformation on the Azufre-Lastarria area (Chile-Argentina) indicating that process, identified during 1998-2000 by Pritchard and Simmons (2004) from ERS data, is still active. The phase signal visible on ASAR interferograms (03/2003-06/2005) is roughly elliptical with a 45 km NNE-SSW major axis. Its amplitude increases as a function of time and is compatible with ground uplift in the line of sight of the satellite. The ASAR time series (up to 840 days, 7 ASAR images) indicates variable deformation rate that might confirm the hypothesis of a non uniform deformation process. We investigated the origin and the significance of the deformation using various source modelling strategies (analytical and numerical). The observed deformation can be explained by the infilling of an elliptical magmatic reservoir lying between 7 and 10 km depth. The deformation could represent the first stage of a new caldera forming as it is correlated with a large, although subtle, topographic depression surrounded by a crown of monogenetic centers. A short wavelength inflation has also been detected on Lastaria volcano. It could result from the on-going infilling of a small subsurface magmatic reservoir, eventually supplied by the deeper one. All these observations point out the need of a closer monitoring of this area in

  15. Leaf Area Index and Biomass Assessment over Tropical Peatland Forest Ecosystem Using ALOS PalSAR and Envisat ASAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Arief; Susanti, Ari; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Wardhana, Wahyu; Yanto, Edi; Soeprijadi, Djoko; McFarlane, Craig; Qomar, Nurul

    2011-03-01

    Provision of accurate forest parameter properties is important as a basis for forest resources monitoring and carbon cycle assessment. The present study aims to model leaf area index (LAI), above ground biomass and carbon stocks over tropical peatland forests using single polarization SAR, full polarimetry SAR (PolSAR) data. Single band ALOS Palsar data (HH band, acquired on November 17, 2008) and polarimetric data (HH, VV, HV and VH, collected on April 4 and May 5, 2007) are used for the study. A series of ENVISAT ASAR data (5 datasets) collected in 2004 - 2005 are also used to model the forest properties. Landsat ETM data collected on January 22, 2009 is also used as a reference. The relationship between forest parameters and normalized radar backscattering is estimated using empirical models, and preliminary results show that Polarimetric SAR data has better correlations with the LAI and biomass than single polarimetry SAR data. The field data were collected during field work in March - April 2009 and the reliability of identified forest classes was also assessed from available Landsat ETM data. Analysis will be conducted on the basis of statistical correlations between radar data and modeled forest properties, such as LAI, biomass and tree age. This study focuses on a unique tropical peatland ecosystem in Kampar Peninsula, Sumatera, Indonesia, which has great potentials as carbon sinks and/or sources. Only few studies have been conducted in the study area due to limited satellite and field observation data.

  16. Long-term and wide-area subsidence pattern from time series of Envisat Asar Data in Konya Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustun, Aydin

    2016-04-01

    Konya Basin as a sub-part of Konya Closed Basin is dominated by the Neogene and Quaternary sediments that are largely fluvial and lacustrine characteristic. The wide plains cultivated over the last 10000 years are the remnants of the Pluvial lake basin during wet and humid climate environment after the last glacial period. With the form of isolated depression-block, the geomorphological landscape has been mainly driven by the neotectonic activity of striking normal fault systems of the region. Konya that has doubled in size over the last two and half decades is both expanding into the agricultural areas and increasing its building expansion in the city center. The level observations recorded at the monitoring stations indicate that groundwater resources have been exploited permanently or seasonally in some parts where water demand exceeds supply. In this study, a long-term and wide area subsidence pattern in Konya Basin has been analyzed by stacking the deformation interferograms for time series. The study area that covers approximately 7500 km squared was investigated through a large number of the raw images of Asar sensor onboard Envisat from December 2002 to October 2010. Almost a hundred SAR scenes imaged over three tracks in both ascending and descending modes have been used to create a set of 127 differential interferograms using GMTSAR processing system. A continuous deformation map on the basinwide scale has been produced by combining the stacked interferograms. The average contour map shows that the DInSAR detected line of sight subsidence (or uplift) rates vary between 0.6 and -3.3 cm/yr throughout 8 years. The subsidence pattern significantly is correlated with the land and groundwater use within the basin and it states that the anthropogenic effect is much greater than the identified geological and hydrogeological processes.

  17. [Breeding habitat characteristics of red-crowned crane at Zhalong of Northeast China: a multi-scale approach based on TM and ASAR image data].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Yue; Jiang, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Hou, Yun-Qiu; Lu, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV imagery data and by using the GPS data of red-crowned crane nesting sites (n = 28) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve of Northeast China, the models of the breeding habitat selection of red-crowned crane at the Reserve were established by binary Logistic regression to identify the key variables for the habitat selection at eight spatial scales (30-240 m). The relative performance of the two models based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV databases was compared, and the prediction capacity of the models across the eight scales was approached. The overall precisions of the two models were satisfactory (> or = 69.0%). At scale 30 m, only variable TCA_2 entered with negative value into the model based on Landsat TM database, which indicated that the crane at this scale avoided selecting higher density reed marshes. At scales 60-120 m, the variable PCA_2 entered with positive value into the two models, indicating that the crane at these scales had higher demand of high density reed marshes to improve its concealment. At scale 90 m, the variable HV backward scatting coefficient also entered into the combined model, which indicated that water condition was the important factor for the habitat selection of the crane at this scale. At scales > 120 m, the texture information of the two satellite sensors started to be involved into the two models, indicating that at larger scales, the crane had decreasing demand on the vegetation features for its breeding habitat selection but increasing sensitivity to the anthropogenic disturbance factors. The introduction of ASAR variables into the models increased the prediction accuracy of the models markedly at all scales.

  18. Detecting surface oil slick related to gas hydrate/petroleum on the ocean bed of South China Sea by ENVI/ASAR radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Chen, Duofu; Song, Zhiguang

    2013-03-01

    For exploring the distribution of oil slick related to gas hydrate or petroleum in the northern part of South China Sea and evaluating the potential of ENVI/ASAR radar data for detecting oil slick, this paper tries to detect the oil slick on ocean surface of some potential areas in South China Sea and map oil slick from anomaly area in radar image. Seven surface oil slicks in Qiongdongnan Basin and four potential targets of oil slicks in Taixi-Dongsha Basin were detected and extracted by using ENIV/ASAR data. The anomalies of the radar image representing oil slick are validated by in-site sampling and laboratory analyzing. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) results of the extracted oil from the water samples gathered from the sites of detected oil slick demonstrate a typical composition of oil rather than that of ocean microbial origins, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in two designed vertical profiles keep steady in different depths, showing that the organic contents in water column are steady from the deep area to ocean surface. These results suggest the detected oil slick is a thin floating oil rather than a thick spill. Influencing factors to the results of oil slick detection including wind speed, current, small islands and capes as well as deep-sea petroleum reservoirs are discussed. The results in this study exhibit that extracting the anomaly signals related to oil slick related to oil/gas seeps using image processing techniques from ENVI/ASAR data is helpful to predict anomaly areas as potential targets for further exploration in this area.

  19. ENVISAT.MERIS spectral bands and ENVISAT ASAR - discussion on applications of Sentinel 1 and 2 for agriculture in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Budzynska, M.; Tomaszewska, M.; Bartold, M.; Turlej, K.

    2012-04-01

    Presented studies were based on application of ENVISAT MERIS data for assessment of crop conditions in 04.05.2003; 26.04.2007 and 04.09.2004. Sentinel 2 will have better spatial resolution than MERIS and additionally short wave infrared band, but the results of LAI assessment were presented using various indices from MERIS and the same study will be repeated using Sentinel data. Also the indices derived from MERIS were correlated with the ASAR data to indicate the possibilities of LAI assessment using Sentinel 1. The study has been conducted at agricultural region Wielkopolska located in the West part of Poland - The dominating crops are: winter and spring wheat, winter rye, winter and spring triticale, winter and spring barley, winter rape, corn, alfalfa, and sugar beet. Also, grassland area is presented. For the test area ENVISAT.MERIS images has been obtained for the ESA projects: C1P.1427, AOALO.3677, and C1P.7389. Simultaneously to satellite overpasses ground measurement of various soil-vegetation parameters have been carried out including wet and dry biomass taken from 1 m2 (in the laboratory), LAI using LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser, height of the vegetation, and soil moisture using TRIME-FM. These measurements were applied for statistical analysis of parameters with satellite-derived indices. In this article only data for biomass and Leaf Area Index have been used in order to find the relationship between measured and satellite derived index. There has been found the high correlation between biomass and LAI for each of the studied crops, the highest for beet root and alfalfa (R2=0.95 and R2=0.90), the lowest for rape For the statistical analyses between LAI and satellite data the following indices calculated from Meris have been taken into account: 2/8 (443/681), 5/12 (550/779), 10/5 (754/560), 10/9 (754/709), 12/5 (779/560), and using red edge (10-9)/(10+9), using blue spectrum (10-2)/(10+2), (12-8)/(12+8), (13-7)/(13+7). MERIS blue bands are 1-3, green 4

  20. Segmentation of Multi-Temporal Envisat ASAR and HJ-1B Optical Data Using an Edge-Aware Region Growing and Merging Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Alexander; Ban, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to develop image segmentation algorithms for classification of multi-sensor data in urban areas. For this purpose an algorithm called KTHSEG has been developed using an edge-aware region growing and merging algorithm. Four-date ENVISAT ASAR C-HH data and one-date HJ-1B covering the city of Shanghai acquired during the vegetation season of 2009 were selected this research. The results show that the segmentation algorithm is effective for urban land cover classification using SAR and optical data. The results also confirm that the fusion of SAR and optical data is beneficial for urban land cover mapping. Further, the study showed that the combination of one SAR and one optical scene is enough to achieve good results and the addition of multitemporal SAR data from the same beam mode does not improve classification accuracy.

  1. Two scales of inflation at Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre volcanic complex, central Andes, revealed from ASAR-ENVISAT interferometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froger, J.-L.; Remy, D.; Bonvalot, S.; Legrand, D.

    2007-03-01

    ASAR-ENVISAT Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data collected over the Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre complex (Chile-Argentina) between March 2003 and May 2005 show the persistence of the large wavelength ground inflation revealed by Pritchard and Simons in 2002 from the analysis of ERS InSAR data [Nature 418 (2002) 167-170]. After reducing the tropospheric contribution in the interferograms using a combination of data network adjustment and analysis of MODIS images, we produced an accurate interferometric time series showing a 2 yr long temporal evolution of the ground displacements patterns. Two distinct inflating signals are detected. The main signal covers an elliptical area with a 45 km NNE-SSW major axis and a 37 km minor axis. It is correlated with a regional topographic dome. We estimated its maximum inflation rate to ˜ 2.5 cm yr - 1 . We inverted the InSAR data for a range of source geometries (spherical, prolate ellipsoids, penny-shaped cracks). The inferred source parameters for 2003-2005 period are consistent with an over-pressured reservoir at shallow to intermediate crustal depths (7-15 km), with an average volumetric rate of inflation of about 14 × 10 6 m 3 yr - 1 . In addition to this main signal a new feature highlighted by the ASAR data is short wavelength inflation (6 km wide) at the location of Lastarria volcano on the northern margin of the large wavelength signal. We explain this short wavelength signal by a spherical over-pressured source lying 1000 m below the summit of Lastarria volcano. We estimate the average volumetric rate of inflation during the observation period to be ˜ 35 × 10 3 m 3 yr - 1 . It is remarkable that both volumetric variations for the large and small inflations exhibit the same evolution during the 2003-2005 period, suggesting that both processes could be related. On the basis of the inversion results and of arguments provided by field evidences and a morpho-structural analysis of the Digital Elevation

  2. Land cover in the Guayas Basin using SAR images from low resolution ASAR Global mode to high resolution Sentinel-1 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrel, Luc; Brodu, Nicolas; Frappart, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Remotely sensed images allow a frequent monitoring of land cover variations at regional and global scale. Recently launched Sentinel-1 satellite offers a global cover of land areas at an unprecedented spatial (20 m) and temporal (6 days at the Equator). We propose here to compare the performances of commonly used supervised classification techniques (i.e., k-nearest neighbors, linear and Gaussian support vector machines, naive Bayes, linear and quadratic discriminant analyzes, adaptative boosting, loggit regression, ridge regression with one-vs-one voting, random forest, extremely randomized trees) for land cover applications in the Guayas Basin, the largest river basin of the Pacific coast of Ecuator (area ~32,000 km²). The reason of this choice is the importance of this region in Ecuatorian economy as its watershed represents 13% of the total area of Ecuador where 40% of the Ecuadorian population lives. It also corresponds to the most productive region of Ecuador for agriculture and aquaculture. Fifty percents of the country shrimp farming production comes from this watershed, and represents with agriculture the largest source of revenue of the country. Similar comparisons are also performed using ENVISAT ASAR images acquired in global mode (1 km of spatial resolution). Accuracy of the results will be achieved using land cover map derived from multi-spectral images.

  3. Pseudo-thermal bar in poorly salted autumnal waters of the Gulf of Finland from satellite-airborne SAR/ASAR/ALSAR survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, Vladimir; Bobylev, Leonid; Tsepelev, Valery; Melentyev, Konstantin; Bednov, Petr

    2010-05-01

    The thermal bar (TB) was disclosed at the end of XIX century by F.A. Forel - world-famed founder of limnology, who studied different processes in Lake Leman from point of view ecology and hydrobiology. Forel supposed that TB arises in temperate large lakes for short period in spring in presence windless calm weather. Well-directed investigations of TB were recommenced in the beginning 1950-s at the Institute of Lake Research Russian Academy of Sciences by Dr A.I. Tikhomirov who had described also specific features of this phenomenon in fall. At the end of 1960-s we began examination thermal and ice regime of fresh and saltish inland water bodies with using remote sensing including multi-spectral airborne-satellite SLR/SAR/ASAR/ALSAR survey. And as result the possibility revealing TB parameters in fall season by low-frequency radar (ALSAR) installed onboard research aircraft was fixed documentally in the Lake Ladoga [Melentyev et. al., 2002]. According to [Tikhomirov, 1959] TB represents convergence zone around temperature of maximum density of fresh water + 4 °C (3, 98 °C, really). This narrow vertical "curtain" appears in littoral in spring owing to heating coastal waters, in fall - due to its cooling. TB divides large lakes and artificial reservoirs on two unequal thermic zones - heat-active (HAZ) and heat-inert (HIZ) that has different stratification of water temperature. Possible existence of TB in poorly salted sea waters was predicted by outstanding Russian oceanographer professor N. Zubov. Obviously firstly it was disclosed but without explanation the physics by [Bychkova, 1987]. Our own sub-satellite studies onboard nuclear icebreaker "Jamal" in western Arctic in fall 1996 allows reveal the TB on saltish waters in north-eastern "corner" of the Yenisei Gulf in mixing zone of marine and river waters. Long-lived converged zone that we call as pseudo-thermal bar (PTB) was marked by stationary banding narrow continuous rough strip that could be destroyed by

  4. Synergy of ASAR and RADARSAT-2 ultra-fine acquisitions for ground deformation monitoring by means of DInSAR and PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Panagiotis; Briole, Pierre; Sykioti, Olga

    2010-05-01

    consideration the raised seismisity of the area. The Psathopyrgos fault zone as well as the Rion-Patras transfer fault zone are investigated for any detectable ground deformations that could be indications/precursors or inter-seismic accumulation processes before a main event. The city of Patras are investigated for any detectable ground/buildings deformation due to human interventions or geophysical processes. The potential of Rion-Antirion bridge monitoring for any detectable deformation as well as the surrounding ground on the two edges of it, are also investigated and assessed. The study area presents major difficulties for DInSAR/PSI applications, due to its intense vegetation coverage and high topography presenting various facets, varying high slopes and shadowing effects. Moreover its intense topography in conjunction with its location between Aegean and Ionian seas is leading to high precipitation rates and extend cloud coverage. All these characteristics of the study area contribute to high decorrelation of the interferometric products. For the estimation of the ocuured deformations a series of ASAR/ENVISAT (image swath 2) data are processed by means of PSI and DInSAR techniques, but RADARSAT-2 (ultra-fine beam mode) data are processed only by means of DInSAR technique due to its lack of historical data. The processing will be carried out exploiting commercial and in-house software. The medium and high ground resolution added value products of the acquired data are combined in the thematic level.

  5. Improving Methods of Crop Monitoring with Envisat Data- Final Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bingfang; Li, Qiangzi; Jia, Kun; Du, Xin; Meng, Jihua; Zhang, Miao; Dong, Qnghan; Eerens, Herman

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this project focus on two issues: crop yield estimation and new crop identification and crop acreage estimation methods based on ENVISAT data. Based on the difference of the water requirement of crop in different stages, the crop growing season was divided into several periods for crop biomass estimation. In each period, multi-year time-series ET data estimated with ETWatch was used to get the maximal ET value, which approximately equals to potential ET. And the water stress scalar was calculated for crop biomass estimation. HI was simulated by the ratio of NDVIpre (the average value of NDVI form emergence to anthesis) and NDVIpost (the average value of NDVI from anthesis to maturity). With the estimated crop biomass and HI, crop yield can be calculated by the follow expression: YIELD = BIOMASS * HI. For crop identification, the fusion data of Envisat ASAR VV polarization backscatter data and HJ satellite multi-spectral data was investigated using different classifiers. Results indicated that fusion data can take full advantage of spectral information of HJ multi-spectral data and the structure sensitivity feature of ASAR VV polarization data. The fusion data enlarges the spectral difference among different classifications and improves crop classification accuracy. Crop classification accuracy with fusion of HJ and ASAR was improved by 5 percent compared to the single HJ CCD data. Crop classification with support vector machine (SVM) classifier using multi-configuration SAR data including ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X was also investigated in our project. Multi-configuration SAR data achieved satisfactory classification accuracy (best overall accuracy of 91.83%) in the North China Plain. ASAR performed slightly better than TerraSAR data acquired in the same time span for crop classification, while the combination of C- and X-band data was better than the multi-temporal C-band data. Two temporal ASAR data acquired in late jointing and flowering

  6. [Spatial-temporal evolution characterization of land subsidence by multi-temporal InSAR method and GIS technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei-Bei; Gong, Hui-Li; Li, Xiao-Juan; Lei, Kun-Chao; Duan, Guang-Yao; Xie, Jin-Rong

    2014-04-01

    Long-term over-exploitation of underground resources, and static and dynamic load increase year by year influence the occurrence and development of regional land subsidence to a certain extent. Choosing 29 scenes Envisat ASAR images covering plain area of Beijing, China, the present paper used the multi-temporal InSAR method incorporating both persistent scatterer and small baseline approaches, and obtained monitoring information of regional land subsidence. Under different situation of space development and utilization, the authors chose five typical settlement areas; With classified information of land-use, multi-spectral remote sensing image, and geological data, and adopting GIS spatial analysis methods, the authors analyzed the time series evolution characteristics of uneven settlement. The comprehensive analysis results suggests that the complex situations of space development and utilization affect the trend of uneven settlement; the easier the situation of space development and utilization, the smaller the settlement gradient, and the less the uneven settlement trend.

  7. ASAR Surface Velocity Retrievals In The Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Morten W.; Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Mouche, Alexis; Collard, Fabrice

    2010-04-01

    Chapron et al. (2005), Collard et al. (2008), and Johannessen et al. (2008) have demonstrated that the Doppler centroid anomaly of SAR signals is related to the line-of-sight velocity of the moving ocean surface. In this study, the Doppler technique is applied to studies of the main current regimes in Norwegian waters including the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) and the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC). Results are in consistence with the large scale circulation pattern of the area, and qualitatively compares well with Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT), and drifter deduced and modelled climatologies. In summary, the mean range Doppler surface velocity map depict clear signals of the major currents in the North Sea and Norwegian Sea with magnitudes ranging from 20 to 50 cm/s.

  8. Change vector analysis method for inundation change detection using multi-temporal multi-polarized SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guozhuang; Guo, Huadong; Liao, Jingjuan

    2007-11-01

    With the all-weather and day-night imaging capability, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) plays an important role in inundation extent change detection. Inundation extent change detection using SAR will be easy as a result of the dark image tones yielded by specular reflection. Change vector analysis (CVA) method, an effective change detection method, is also a valuable inundation extent change detection method. In CVA method, change magnitude and change direction can be generated separately, which can be used to determine change areas and change types. CVA method also has the ability to process any number of spectral bands and to produce detailed change information. In this paper, CVA method was applied to inundation extent change detection using multi-temporal multi-polarization ENVISAT ASAR alternative polarization images acquired on 2004-08-29, 2004-12-12 and 2005-03-27. The test site is located in Poyang Lake wetland, where land surface had different inundation extent when images were acquired. Firstly these 3 phases of images were registered together. Then the change vectors were calculated using these images. After that change magnitude and direction cosine images were produced. At last the change areas and the corresponding change type were extracted separately using decision tree method. The result indicates that CVA method has potential utility in inundation extent change detection.

  9. Multi-sensor monitoring of Ulva prolifera blooms in the Yellow Sea using different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Zhang, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yongcun

    2016-06-01

    The massive Ulva (U.) prolifera bloom in the Yellow Sea was first observed and reported in summer of 2008. After that, the green tide event occurred every year and influenced coastal areas of Jiangsu and Shandong provinces of China. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring the floating macroalgae. In this paper, U. prolifera patches are detected from quasisynchronous satellite images with different spatial resolution, i.e., Aqua MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), HJ-1A/B (China Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting), CCD (Charge-Coupled Device), Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager), and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. Two comparative experiments are performed to explore the U. prolifera monitoring abilities by different data using detection methods such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) with different thresholds. Results demonstrate that spatial resolution is an important factor affecting the extracted area of the floating macroalgae. Due to the complexity of Case II sea water characteristics in the Yellow Sea, a fixed threshold NDVI method is not suitable for U. prolifera monitoring. A method with adaptive ability in time and space, e.g., the threshold selection method proposed by Otsu (1979), is needed here to obtain accurate information on the floating macroalgae.

  10. SAR Ice Classification Using Fuzzy Screening Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, R. S.

    2003-04-01

    A semi-automatic SAR sea ice classification algorithm is described. It is based on combining the information in the original SAR data with those in the three 'image' products derived from it, namely Power-to-Mean Ratio (PMR), the Gamma distribution and the second order texture parameter entropy, respectively. The latter products contain information which is often useful during the manual interpretation of the images. The technique used to fuse the information in these products is based on a method c lled Multi Experts Multi Criteria Decision Making fuzzy a screening. The Multiple Experts in this case are the above four 'image' products. The two criteria used currently for making decisions are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution matching and the statistical mean of different surface classes. The algorithm classifies an image into any number of predefined classes of sea ice and open water. The representative classes of these surface types are manually identified by the user. Further, as SAR signals from sea ice covered regions and open water are ambiguous, it was found that a minimum of 4 pre-identified surface classes (calm and turbulent water and sea ice with low and high backscatter values) are required to accurately classify an image. Best results are obtained when a total of 8 surface classes (2 each of sea ice and open water in the near range and a similar number in the far range of the SAR image) are used. The main advantage of using this image classification scheme is that, like neural networks, no prior knowledge is required of the statistical distribution of the different surface types. Furthermore, unlike the methods based on neural networks, no prior data sets are required to train the algorithm. All the information needed for image classification by the method is contained in the individual SAR images and associated products. Initial results illustrating the potential of this ice classification algorithm using the RADARSAT ScanSAR Wide data are presented

  11. A new Persistent Scatterer InSAR method based on phase decomposition, with application to subsidence in greater Houston area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, N.; Lee, H.; Jung, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    A Phase-Decomposition-based Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PD-PSInSAR) method is developed in this study to improve the coherence and spatial density of targets. The general idea of conventional PSInSAR is to find and analyze pointwise stable persistent scatterers (PS). In order to improve the PS network density, distributed scatterers (DS) has also been utilized in several advanced PSInSAR techniques. Unlike these techniques which assumes that a DS involves many independent small scatterers sharing the same scatterering mechanism, this study considers additional two general cases: (1) a DS that contains many small scatterers sharing two or more different scatterering mechanisms, (2) two or more dominant scatterers with different scatterering mechanisms that exist within the same resolution pixel. DSs with multiple scatterering mechanisms can occur in rural areas and some urban areas, especially with low spatial resolution. Extracting information from DSs with multiple scatterering mechanisms is difficult for the existing DS algorithms because of the interference between different scatterering mechanisms. The new PD-PSInSAR method is developed to overcome this limit by using Eigen-decomposition to estimate the phases corresponding to the different scatterering mechanisms, and then implement these estimated phases in conventional PSInSAR process. Therefore, the interference between different scatterering mechanisms becomes mitigated and the obtained phases are expected to have better coherence. This PD-PSInSAR technique is used to estimate the land deformation over the greater Houston area using 25 ENVISAT ASAR data spanning from July 2004 to June 2010. The deformation map reveals significant subsidence up to approximately 2 cm/year over north and northwestern part of greater Houston. Comparison between the conventional PSInSAR and PD-PSInSAR method verifies that the proposed method can detect more PSs and provide better coherences.

  12. Surface deformation adjacent to the Hukou fault in Northwestern Taiwan detected by ENVISAT ASAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Chang, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Taiwan Island, which is young, as revealed by its dense seismic activities and rapid surface deformation, is located at the convergent zone between Eurasia plate and Philippine Sea plate. Because of the continued northwestward movement of the Philippine Sea plate and the active extension of the Okinawa Trough, the northern part of Taiwan is now under deformation. Since the northern Taiwan is the most populated area in Taiwan, the tectonic activity and the potential geological hazard of this area is an important issue for Taiwan. In order to realize the surface deformation behavior of this area, we apply DInSAR-technique to engage this study. The Hukou fault, main focus of this study, is one of the major and active structures in northwestern Taiwan, along which some industrial parks and communities are well developed. The SAR images used in this study are all acquired from 2003 to 2007 by ENVISAT satellite, which is launched by the European Space Agency in 2002. Our preliminary interferometric results reveal that the surface deformation in the urban areas are much clear than that in mountainous and rural areas. In some areas, juxtaposed against the fault zones, clear deformation patterns are obviously observed indicates that the deformation of this area is still active. After stacking all our interferometric results, we obtain that the average slant range displacement (SRD) reaches to around 0.5 cm/yr near the fault area. Radar Interferometry can efficiently be applied to observe the land surface deformation, and further help us to interpret and predict the underground tectonics and potential natural hazard.

  13. ENVISAT ASAR satellite offshore wind resource statistics in Iceland compared to NORA10 model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Badger, Merete; Rugaard Furevik, Birgitte; Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Ferhat Bingol, Ferhat; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    In Iceland the offshore regions have been investigated from satellite images from the Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from the European Space Agency. The data have been retrieved from 2002 to 2012. Each satellite image has been calibrated and thereafter the CMOD5.N geophysical model function has been used to calculate the wind speed. Each resulting pixel is 1 km by 1 km. The wind direction is taken from the US Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) model. It has much lower spatial resolution and therefore the model wind directions are interpolated in space and time before performing the SAR-based wind retrieval. In total 2,500 images have been processed. This results in average 300 overlapping images. More data were available in the northern part of Iceland; therefore the number of overlapping samples is around 400 here and only 200 at the southern coast. The wind resource statistics of mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and energy density have been calculated using the Satellite-WAsP (S-WAsP) program. The coastline of Iceland is complex. The individual wind maps from SAR reveal a multitude of atmospheric phenomena including lee effects and gap flows in the fjords. The wind resource statistics shows the mean wind speed to range from 5 to 8 m/s at 10 m height above the sea level. Selected case study areas are being defined for further investigation. SAR-derived wind maps have the advantage of covering the coastal zone. Further offshore the SAR-derived winds will be compared to the NORA10 atmospheric model results and scatterometer winds. In Iceland the wind resources on land are promising for wind energy application but it is not yet exploited. The study on the offshore wind resource is useful as pre-feasibility in case this clean energy resource is to be exploited at a later stage. The work is part of the Nordic Icewind project.

  14. On Level Ice Thickness Retrieval in the Kara Sea Using MODIS and Envisat ASAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makynen, Marko; Simila, Markku; Cheng, Bin

    2010-12-01

    We propose here an approach to use jointly ENVISAT SAR and MODIS data and high-resolution thermodynamic snow/ice model (HIGHTSI) to estimate the thickness of first-year sea ice in cold winter conditions. For thin ice areas the sea ice thickness is retrieved from the MODIS based ice surface temperature (Ts) and HIRLAM forcing data. When estimating the ice thickness in the older and thicker drift ice areas, ice thickness field produced by HIGHTSI is used as a background field which constraints backscattering coefficient based ice thickness range. Our test data set consists of four MODIS-SAR image pairs taken over the Kara Sea in Dec 2008 - Mar 2009. The MODIS based ice thickness retrievals were consistent with each other. We estimated their uncertainty to be less than 25% for young ice. However, the HIRLAM modelled air temperature seems to be somewhat lower than could be inferred from Ts. This bias affected the MODIS ice thickness retrieval process by decreasing the retrieved ice thickness significantly for thicker ice fields. On a scale 10-100 km the spatial distribution of the ice thickness provided by our algorithm follows roughly the AARI ice charts which were used as a ground truth.

  15. Monitoring The Stability Of Levees With Time-Series ENVISAT ASAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yuanyuan; Liao, Mingsheng; Wang, Teng; Zhang, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Levees are constructed to protect coastal cities from typhoon, flood, and sea tide. Since the stability of levees is important, it is necessary to monitor their deformation regularly. Repeat-track space-borne SAR images are useful for environment monitoring, especially for ground deformation monitoring. Shanghai resides on the Yangtze River Delta on China’s eastern coast. Each year, the city is hit by typhoons from the Pacific Ocean and threatened by the flood of the Yangtze River. We used Persistent Scatterer Interferometry to monitor the deformation of the levees. Our experiments show that the levees around Pudong airport and Lingang town suffer from serious deformation.

  16. Synergistic method for boreal soil moisture and soil freeze retrievals using active and passive microwave instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, Tuomo; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Schwank, Mike; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture and soil freezing are important for diverse hydrological, biogeochemical, and climatological applications. They affect surface energy balance, surface and subsurface water flow, and exchange rates of carbon with the atmosphere. Soil freezing controls important biogeochemical processes, like photosynthetic activity of plants and microbial activity within soils. Permafrost covers approximately 24% of the land surface in the Northern Hemisphere and seasonal freezing occurs on approximately 51% of the area. The retrieval method presented is based on an inversion technique and applies a semiempirical backscattering model that describes the dependence of radar backscattering of forest as a function of stem volume, soil permittivity, the extinction coefficient of forest canopy, surface roughness, incidence angle, and radar frequency. It gives an estimate of soil permittivity using active microwave measurements. Applying a Bayesian assimilation scheme, it is also possible to use other soil permittivity retrievals to regulate this estimate to combine for example low resolution passive observations with high resolution active observations for a synergistic retrieval. This way the higher variance in the active retrieval can be constricted with the passive retrieval when at the same time the spatial resolution of the product is improved compared to the passive-only retrieval. The retrieved soil permittivity estimate can be used to detect soil freeze/thaw state by considering the soil to be frozen when the estimate is below a threshold value. The permittivity retrieval can also be used to estimate the relative moisture of the soil. The method was tested using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements from ENVISAT ASAR instrument for the years 2010-2012 and from Sentinel-1 satellite for the years 2015-2016 in Sodankylä area in Northern Finland. The synergistic method was tested combining the SAR measurements with a SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity) radiometer

  17. Inclusion cylinder method for aortic valve replacement utilising the Ross operation in adults with predominant aortic stenosis – 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Skillington, Peter D.; Mokhles, M. Mostafa; Wilson, William; Grigg, Leeanne; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Takkenberg, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: To report our experience with the Ross operation in patients with predominant aortic stenosis (AS) using an inclusion cylinder (IC) method. Methods: Out of 324 adults undergoing a Ross operation, 204 patients of mean age of 41.3 years (limits 16–62) underwent this procedure for either AS or mixed AS and regurgitation (AS/AR) between October, 1992 and February, 2012, implanting the PA with an IC method. Clinical follow up and serial echo data for this group is 97% complete with late mortality follow up 99% complete. Results: There has been zero (0%) early mortality, and late survival at 15 years is 98% (96%, 100%). Only one re-operation on the aortic valve for progressive aortic regurgitation (AR) has been required with freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years being 99% (96%, 100%). The freedom from all re-operations on the aortic and pulmonary valves at 15 years is 97% (94%, 100%). Echo analysis at the most recent study shows that 98% have nil, trivial or mild AR. Aortic root size has remained stable, shown by long-term (15 year) echo follow up. Conclusions: In an experience spanning 19 years, the Ross operation used for predominant AS using the IC method described, results in 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years, better than any other tissue or mechanical valve. For adults under 65 years without significant co-morbidities who present with predominant AS, the pulmonary autograft inserted with this technique gives excellent results. PMID:24749112

  18. Coastal flood inundation monitoring with Satellite C-band and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was evaluated as a method to operationally monitor the occurrence and distribution of storm- and tidal-related flooding of spatially extensive coastal marshes within the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Maps representing the occurrence of marsh surface inundation were created from available Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-Band SAR (PALSAR) (L-band) (21 scenes with HH polarizations in Wide Beam [100 m]) data and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced SAR (ASAR) (C-band) data (24 scenes with VV and HH polarizations in Wide Swath [150 m]) during 2006-2009 covering 500 km of the Louisiana coastal zone. Mapping was primarily based on a decrease in backscatter between reference and target scenes, and as an extension of previous studies, the flood inundation mapping performance was assessed by the degree of correspondence between inundation mapping and inland water levels. Both PALSAR- and ASAR-based mapping at times were based on suboptimal reference scenes; however, ASAR performance seemed more sensitive to reference-scene quality and other types of scene variability. Related to water depth, PALSAR and ASAR mapping accuracies tended to be lower when water depths were shallow and increased as water levels decreased below or increased above the ground surface, but this pattern was more pronounced with ASAR. Overall, PALSAR-based inundation accuracies averaged 84% (n = 160), while ASAR-based mapping accuracies averaged 62% (n = 245).

  19. Monitoring of infrastructural sites by means of advanced multi-temporal DInSAR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Andreas; Zucca, Francesco; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    With the launch of Sentinel-1, advanced interferometric measurements will become more applicable then ever. The foreseen standard Wide Area Product (WAP), with its higher spatial and temporal resolution than comparable SAR missions, will provide the basement for the use of new wide scale and multitemporal analysis. By now the use of SAR interferometry methods with respect to risk assessment are mainly conducted for active tectonic zones, plate boundaries, volcanoes as well as urban areas, where local surface movement rates exceed the expected error and enough pixels per area contain a relatively stable phase. This study, in contrast, aims to focus on infrastructural sites that are located outside cities and are therefore surrounded by rural landscapes. The stumbling bock was given by the communication letter by the European Commission with regard to the stress tests of nuclear power plants in Europe in 2012. It is mentioned that continuously re-evaluated risk and safety assessments are necessary to guarantee highest possible security to the European citizens and environment. This is also true for other infrastructural sites, that are prone to diverse geophysical hazards. In combination with GPS and broadband seismology, multitemporal Differential Interferometric SAR approaches demonstrated great potential in contributing valuable information to surface movement phenomenas. At this stage of the project, first results of the Stamps-MTI approach (combined PSInSAR and SBAS) will be presented for the industrial area around Priolo Gargallo in South East Sicily by using ENVISAT ASAR IM mode data from 2003-2010. This area is located between the Malta Escarpment fault system and the Hyblean plateau and is prone to earthquake and tsunami risk. It features a high density of oil refineries that are directly located at the coast. The general potential of these techniques with respect to the SENTINEL-1 mission will be shown for this area and a road-map for further improvements

  20. Regeneration methods

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; James B. Baker

    1991-01-01

    Southern pines can be regenerated naturally, by clearcutting, seedtree, shelterwood, or selection reproduction culling methods, or artificially, by direct seeding or by planting either container or bareroot seedlings. All regeneration methods have inherent advantages: and disadvantages; thus, land managers must consider many factors before deciding on a specific method...

  1. Vortex methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chorin, A.J. |

    1993-06-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

  2. Geophysical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how different kinds of measurements are combined to draw geological conclusions; surface, borehole, airborne, and satellite measurements; computer processing and interactive methods; geodetic, gravity, magnetic, radioactive, heat flow, and electrical methods; interpretation of natural processes such as earthquakes and heat flow; and a summation of present knowledge of the earth.

  3. RESISTIVITY METHODS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...

  4. Molecular methods

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 5, describes some of the most important molecular methods used in the study of chromosome structure and function. The methods discussed include fragmentation of DNA, cloning, flow cytometry and chromosome sorting, is situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Panel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashok

    1993-10-01

    A comprehensive description of panel methods has been given to enable an understanding of the underlying theory and the basic structure of the panel codes for aerodynamic applications. Panel methods have seen peak activity in the industry and remain as yet the sole technique for efficient and practical computations on complex-aircraft configurations. The method of the linearized approach of solving flow problems is well proven and till the turn of the century panel methods will continue to remain as the workhorse for computing aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft shapes in the industry. The alternative Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers have yet to mature for applications to complex shapes, hence panel methods will be in the light for at least another decade.

  6. Using the MicroASAR on the NASA SIERRA UAS in the Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Three digital cameras. • Up-looking and down-looking broadband shortwave ra- diation pyranometers . 978-1-4244-5813-4/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE 000272...degree to which ice-roughness monitoring via remote sensing can detect basic changes in ice conditions such as ice thickness and ice age, to investigate...surface topogra- phy observations, standard electro- optical (EO) imagery, SAR imagery, and surface reflectance and surface temperature mea- surements

  7. Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR) Head-Up Display (HUD) Symbology as a Primary Flight Reference Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    AGARD) Symposium on Combat Automation of Airborne Weapon Systems Man/Machine Interface: Trends and Technologies. AGARD-CP-520, Edinburgh, Scotland , 19...are the challenges? AGARD-CP-577, Edinburgh, Scotland , May 1995. 4. Wierwille, W. W. and Casali, J. G., “A Validated Rating Scale for Global Mental...Rd, Ste 0944 Attn: Mary Roth (DTIC/OMP) Fort Belvoir VA 22060-6218 AFRL/HECV 1 1 Attn: Dr. Paul Havig 2255 H St Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433

  8. Validation of Ship Signatures in Envisat ASAR AP Mode Data using AISLive: Data Acquisition, Processing, and Analysis Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    W. Geling Gary W. Geling Head, Radar Applications and Space Technologies Approved for release by Original signed by Pierre Lavoie Pierre Lavoie...by Centre: 2 Library 1 Gary Geling 1 Donald Bedard 1 Ryan English 1 Chen Liu 1 Chuck Livingstone 1 Ramin Sabry 1 Jeff Secker 2 Paris

  9. Seismic Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Seismic methods are the most commonly conducted geophysical surveys for engineering investigations. Seismic refraction provides engineers and geologists with the most basic of geologic data via simple procedures with common equipment.

  10. Electrodeionization method

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J.; Hestekin, Jamie; Arora, Michelle; St. Martin, Edward J.

    2004-09-28

    An electrodeionization method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit.

  11. Ensemble Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  12. Characterization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  13. Geophysical methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Near-surface geophysical methods have become have become important tools for agriculture. Geophysics employed for agriculture tends to be heavily focused on a 2 m zone directly beneath the ground surface, which includes the crop root zone and all, or at least most, of the soil profile. Resistivity...

  14. COATING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, R.G.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

  15. SINTERING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.

    1963-11-01

    Methods of making articles by powder metallurgy techniques are presented. An article is made by packing a metal powder into a desired shape, raising the temperature of the powder compact to a sintering temperature in the presence of a reducing gas, and alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the gas while the temperatume is being raised. The product has a greater density than can be achieved by sintering for the same length of time at a constant gas pressure. (AEC)

  16. Eigenvalue Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Charles A.

    1982-03-01

    The eigenvalues, Enl, of the radial Schrödinger equation are approximated by ck(E=Enl)=0 (k=2, 3, ...∞), where E is the energy and the ck are the power-series coefficients of f(r)=ψ(r)[rl+1w(r)] with ψ(r) the wave function and w(r) a weight function. This is an extension of the method used to solve certain potentials exactly where ck(E=Enl)=0 terminates a power series.

  17. Gelcasting methods

    DOEpatents

    Walls, Claudia A.; Kirby, Glen H.; Janney, Mark A.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; McMillan, April D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.

  18. Tensiometer methods

    DOEpatents

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2005-12-20

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  19. WELDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  20. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  1. Investigating snow wetness using dual polarization advanced synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, G.; Singh, Gulab; Kumar, V.; Mohite, Kishor; Rao, Y. S.

    2007-09-01

    The main objective of the study is to estimate snow wetness using ENVISAT ASAR data. Snow surface backscattering can be expressed as a function of permittivity of snow. Coding has been done for backscattering coefficient image generation using ENVISAT- Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR), single look complex (SLC) data with dual (HH and VV) polarization as well as single (HH) polarization data. Incidence angle images were extracted from the ASAR header data using interpolation method. These mages were multi-looked 5 times in azimuth and 1 time in range direction. ASAR backscattering coefficient images have been calibrated and processed into terrain corrected images in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), zone 43 north and WGS-84 datum map projection using ERDAS Imagine software. Corrected backscattering images are despeckled using Frost filter technique. For this study Integral equation method (IEM) for first order surface scattering based inversion model has been used. A Software has been developed using integral equation method (IEM) based inversion model to estimate snow permittivity, which can be further related to estimating snow wetness. A comparison was done between inversion model estimated snow wetness and field values of snow wetness in the study region. Comparison with field measurement showed that the correlation coefficient for snow wetness estimated from ASAR data was observed to be 0.94 at 95% confidence interval and standard error is observed as 1.28% by volume at 95% confidence interval. The comparison of ASAR derived snow wetness with ground measurements shows the average absolute error at 95% confidence interval as 2.8%. The snow wetness range varies from 0-15% by volume.

  2. [Contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Toivonen, J

    1987-01-01

    Interest in contraceptive devices has increased in recent years due to their safety and protection offered against venereal disease. Use of the devices prevents sperm from entering the uterine canal. Failure of a device is usually caused either because the contraceptive outside the uterus is wrongly positioned or because not enough active spermicidal ingredients were released before ejaculation. Mass production of condoms was made possible through utilization of latex rubber. Different color and shape alternatives have made condom usage more popular in developing countries. The diaphragm and its variation, the cervical cap, are treated with spermicide and then placed inside the vagina. Correct size of the contraceptive is an important consideration. Spermicides consist of active substances that kill sperm, as well as a carrier substance such as foam, ointment and jelly. The newest preventive device is the contraceptive sponge, which can stay in place for up to 36 hours. IN vitro studies show that effectiveness of condoms is 0.5-2.0 (Pearl's index). Combination use of diaphragm and spermicide yields a protection rate of 2-20 (life-table index), and spermicides 0.3-30.0. Risks associated with these methods include local irritation. It was believed that some spermicides increased rats of miscarriage, Down's Syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities, as well as limb anomalies. Diaphragm use increases potential for urinary tract infections. Toxic shock may occur with some users of sponge and diaphragm. All the mentioned contraceptives protect from infection, and are most suitable for people who cannot tolerate hormonal preparations or IUD's, who are in a casual sexual relationship or nursing mothers or youth.

  3. Satellite Monitoring of Urbanization in China for Sustainable Development: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gamba, Paolo; Gong, Peng; Du, Peijun

    2010-12-01

    The overall objective of this research is to investigate spaceborne SAR data and fusion of SAR and optical data for monitoring urbanization in China, and to assess the impact of urbanization on the environment for sustainable urban development. During 2008, spaceborne SAR data such as ENVISAT ASAR data, ERS-2 SAR data, ALOS PALSAR data as well as Chinese earth observation data such as Beijing-1 and HJ-1 multispectral data were acquired/collected over Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. During 2009, ASAR data and Beijing-1 data covering the part of the Yangtze River Delta were acquired. Fieldwork was conducted in the three case study areas in both 2008 and 2009 to facilitate calibration and validation. Several change detection algorithms including a minimum error thresholding algorithm were tested for detecting urban expansion using ENVISAT ASAR data acquired in 2008 and ERS-2 SAR data acquired in the late 1990s. Fusion of ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR and Terra SAR-X data as well as ASAR and HJ-1B data are also being performed. Local Indicators o Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) indexes were developed to extract urban area extent from ENVISAT ASAR data. Using Beijing-1, HJ-1, CBERS and Landsat data, the spatial and temporal patterns of urbanization in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou were also analyzed. Preliminary results have been validated using field data and are very encouraging. Future research is expected to focus on: i). further development of methodology for fusion of spaceborne SAR and optical data for urban land cover mapping and change detection; and ii). Analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of urbanization in Yangtze River Delta, Jingjinji and Pearl River Delta based on the methods developed.

  4. Birth Control Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods fact ... Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, or ...

  5. Turbine blade testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Testing procedures which could be used to model test turbine blades are developed. The methods studied were methods which used and extended current modal testing procedures. An acoustical impacting testing method was perfected for testing small turbine blades.

  6. Numerical methods in acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candel, S. M.

    This paper presents a survey of some computational techniques applicable to acoustic wave problems. Recent advances in wave extrapolation methods, spectral methods and boundary integral methods are discussed and illustrated by specific calculations.

  7. Uranium price forecasting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

  8. Large-Scale Forest Mapping in Northeast China and Map Updating by Using ERS-1/2 Tandem and Envisat ASAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartus, Oliver; Santoro, Maurizio; Schmullius, Christiane; Yong, Pang; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyan

    2008-04-01

    One of the objectives of the Forest DRAGON project is the generation of a forest biomass map for Northeast China based on ERS-1/2 tandem coherence. The ERS- 1/2 tandem dataset consisted of 223 image pairs acquired in all seasons between 1995 and 1998. ERS- 1/2 tandem coherence has been shown to provide accurate estimates of forest biomass but is also known to depend strongly on the meteorological and environmental conditions at image acquisition. For large-area mapping existing algorithms have not been able so far to classify forest biomass based on a multi- seasonal dataset. In this study a new classification approach, based on synergy between the optical remote sensing product MODIS Vegetation Continuous Field and ERS-1/2 tandem coherence, has been developed for automatic and seasonal-adaptive retrieval of forest biomass. The procedure integrates the semi-empirical Interferometric Water Cloud Model. With this procedure a forest biomass map of Northeast China ( 1.5 Million km2) discriminating between four stem volume classes (0-20, 20-50, 50-80 and > 80 m3/ha) has been generated.

  9. Intercomparisons of Antarctic sea ice types from visual ship, RADARSAT-1 SAR, Envisat ASAR, QuikSCAT, and AMSR-E satellite observations in the Bellingshausen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsoy-Cicek, Burcu; Kern, Stefan; Ackley, Stephen F.; Xie, Hongjie; Tekeli, Ahmet E.

    2011-05-01

    Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) visual ship-based observations were conducted in the Bellingshausen Sea during the Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) cruise in austral spring 2007. A total of 59 ASPeCt observations are compared to coincident satellite active and passive microwave data. Envisat and RADARSAT-1 C-Band HH-polarization radar backscatter values (called NRCS henceforth) are derived on km-scales for six individual ice types and ice type mixtures. C-Band HH-polarized and Ku-Band VV-polarized NRCS are extracted on several 10 km-scale areas from coincident Envisat, RADARSAT-1, and QuikSCAT radar images for areas primarily covered with multiyear, deformed first-year, and undeformed young ice, as well as ice of the marginal ice zone (MIZ). The C-Band NRCS permits distinction between first-year, MIZ, and undeformed young ice. However, NRCS of the multiyear ice zone overlaps with that of the other ice zones and types. Ku-Band NRCS obtained for the same ice types permits discrimination of the first-year ice zone only. Obtained NRCS agree with those of previous studies and suggest a high degree of deformation and considerable potential for flooding for the first-year ice case. In comparison to large scale NRCS, AMSR-E snow depth values form two clearly separated clusters, one for 0.24-0.35 m depth (first-year ice zone) and one for 0.36-0.54 m depth (multiyear ice zone). However, a comparison to ASPeCt observations suggests a remarkable underestimation of the snow depth by AMSR-E in the multiyear-first-year-ice transition zone and for first-year cake ice. Nevertheless, a fusion of the coarse AMSR-E snow depth ranges for interior pack ice regions with radar imagery at large scale, appears promising for mapping the major zones (MIZ and Pack Ice) and ice types (first-year and multiyear) of Antarctic sea ice on a circumpolar basis.

  10. Designing ROW Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1996-01-01

    There are many aspects to consider when designing a Rosenbrock-Wanner-Wolfbrandt (ROW) method for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) solving initial value problems (IVP's). The process can be simplified by constructing ROW methods around good Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. The formulation of a new, simple, embedded, third-order, ROW method demonstrates this design approach.

  11. On waveform multigrid method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taasan, Shlomo; Zhang, Hong

    1993-01-01

    Waveform multigrid method is an efficient method for solving certain classes of time dependent PDEs. This paper studies the relationship between this method and the analogous multigrid method for steady-state problems. Using a Fourier-Laplace analysis, practical convergence rate estimates of the waveform multigrid iterations are obtained. Experimental results show that the analysis yields accurate performance prediction.

  12. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  13. Radiochemical method development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

  14. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area.

  15. Quality Control Analytical Methods: Method Validation.

    PubMed

    Klang, Mark G; Williams, LaVonn A

    2016-01-01

    To properly determine the accuracy of a pharmaceutical product or compounded preparation, tests must be designed specifically for that evaluation. The procedures selected must be verified through a process referred to as method validation, an integral part of any good analytical practice. The results from a method validation procedure can be used to judge the quality, reliability, and consistency of analytical results. The purpose of this article is to deliver the message of the importance of validation of a pharmaceutical product or compounded preparation and to briefly discuss the results of a lack of such validation. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  16. Implementing EPA Method 537

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes EPA Method 537 for the analysis of 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids in drinking water as well as the challenges associated with preparing a laboratory for analysis using Method 537.

  17. SAM Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation

  18. Formal Methods Tool Qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Lucas G.; Cofer, Darren; Slind, Konrad; Tinelli, Cesare; Mebsout, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Formal methods tools have been shown to be effective at finding defects in safety-critical digital systems including avionics systems. The publication of DO-178C and the accompanying formal methods supplement DO-333 allows applicants to obtain certification credit for the use of formal methods without providing justification for them as an alternative method. This project conducted an extensive study of existing formal methods tools, identifying obstacles to their qualification and proposing mitigations for those obstacles. Further, it interprets the qualification guidance for existing formal methods tools and provides case study examples for open source tools. This project also investigates the feasibility of verifying formal methods tools by generating proof certificates which capture proof of the formal methods tool's claim, which can be checked by an independent, proof certificate checking tool. Finally, the project investigates the feasibility of qualifying this proof certificate checker, in the DO-330 framework, in lieu of qualifying the model checker itself.

  19. NIOSH Method 7905: Phosphorus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method 7905 describes procedures for analysis of phosphorus in air samples using GC-FPD. The method is applicable to vapor-phase phosphorus only; if particulate phosphorus is expected, a filter could be used in the sampling train.

  20. Implementing EPA Method 537

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes EPA Method 537 for the analysis of 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids in drinking water as well as the challenges associated with preparing a laboratory for analysis using Method 537.

  1. SAM Chemical Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery

  2. SAM Pathogen Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target pathogen analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select pathogens.

  3. SAM Biotoxin Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select biotoxins.

  4. SAM Radiochemical Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target radiochemical analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select radiochemical analytes.

  5. Electromagnetic induction methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...

  6. Redefining the "Scientific Method".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…

  7. Using Case Methods Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Neil

    1988-01-01

    The author describes the case study method of management education, which provides experiential learning in the classroom. He covers unique features of the case study method, as well as types of cases. Advantages and limitations of this method are presented. (CH)

  8. Methods in human cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Space methods in oceanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshakov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

  10. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  11. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  12. Topics in spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.

    1985-01-01

    After detailing the construction of spectral approximations to time-dependent mixed initial boundary value problems, a study is conducted of differential equations of the form 'partial derivative of u/partial derivative of t = Lu + f', where for each t, u(t) belongs to a Hilbert space such that u satisfies homogeneous boundary conditions. For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that L is an unbounded, time-independent linear operator. Attention is given to Fourier methods of both Galerkin and pseudospectral method types, the Galerkin method, the pseudospectral Chebyshev and Legendre methods, the error equation, hyperbolic partial differentiation equations, and time discretization and iterative methods.

  13. Methods for assessing geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The accepted systematics of geodiversity assessment methods will be presented in three categories: qualitative, quantitative and qualitative-quantitative. Qualitative methods are usually descriptive methods that are suited to nominal and ordinal data. Quantitative methods use a different set of parameters and indicators to determine the characteristics of geodiversity in the area being researched. Qualitative-quantitative methods are a good combination of the collection of quantitative data (i.e. digital) and cause-effect data (i.e. relational and explanatory). It seems that at the current stage of the development of geodiversity research methods, qualitative-quantitative methods are the most advanced and best assess the geodiversity of the study area. Their particular advantage is the integration of data from different sources and with different substantive content. Among the distinguishing features of the quantitative and qualitative-quantitative methods for assessing geodiversity are their wide use within geographic information systems, both at the stage of data collection and data integration, as well as numerical processing and their presentation. The unresolved problem for these methods, however, is the possibility of their validation. It seems that currently the best method of validation is direct filed confrontation. Looking to the next few years, the development of qualitative-quantitative methods connected with cognitive issues should be expected, oriented towards ontology and the Semantic Web.

  14. Consensus theoretic classification methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, Jon A.; Swain, Philip H.

    1992-01-01

    Consensus theory is adopted as a means of classifying geographic data from multiple sources. The foundations and usefulness of different consensus theoretic methods are discussed in conjunction with pattern recognition. Weight selections for different data sources are considered and modeling of non-Gaussian data is investigated. The application of consensus theory in pattern recognition is tested on two data sets: 1) multisource remote sensing and geographic data and 2) very-high-dimensional remote sensing data. The results obtained using consensus theoretic methods are found to compare favorably with those obtained using well-known pattern recognition methods. The consensus theoretic methods can be applied in cases where the Gaussian maximum likelihood method cannot. Also, the consensus theoretic methods are computationally less demanding than the Gaussian maximum likelihood method and provide a means for weighting data sources differently.

  15. The Optimal Prediction method

    SciTech Connect

    Burin des Roziers, Thibaut

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of the work is to test and show how well the numerical method called Optima Prediction works. This method is relatively new and only a few experiment have been made. The authors first did a series of simple tests to see how the method behaves. In order to have a better understanding of the method, they then reproduced one of the main experiment which was done about Optimal Prediction by Kupferman. Once they obtained the same results that Kupferman had, they changed a few parameters to see how dependant the method was on this parameters. In this paper, they will present all the tests they made, the results they obtained and what they concluded about the method. Before talking about the experiments, they have to explain what is the Optimal Prediction method and how does it work. This will be done in the first section of this paper.

  16. Adaptive Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasnacht, Marc

    We develop adaptive Monte Carlo methods for the calculation of the free energy as a function of a parameter of interest. The methods presented are particularly well-suited for systems with complex energy landscapes, where standard sampling techniques have difficulties. The Adaptive Histogram Method uses a biasing potential derived from histograms recorded during the simulation to achieve uniform sampling in the parameter of interest. The Adaptive Integration method directly calculates an estimate of the free energy from the average derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to the parameter of interest and uses it as a biasing potential. We compare both methods to a state of the art method, and demonstrate that they compare favorably for the calculation of potentials of mean force of dense Lennard-Jones fluids. We use the Adaptive Integration Method to calculate accurate potentials of mean force for different types of simple particles in a Lennard-Jones fluid. Our approach allows us to separate the contributions of the solvent to the potential of mean force from the effect of the direct interaction between the particles. With contributions of the solvent determined, we can find the potential of mean force directly for any other direct interaction without additional simulations. We also test the accuracy of the Adaptive Integration Method on a thermodynamic cycle, which allows us to perform a consistency check between potentials of mean force and chemical potentials calculated using the Adaptive Integration Method. The results demonstrate a high degree of consistency of the method.

  17. Inexact Newton dogleg methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Simonis, Joseph P.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Walker, Homer Franklin

    2005-05-01

    The dogleg method is a classical trust-region technique for globalizing Newton's method. While it is widely used in optimization, including large-scale optimization via truncated-Newton approaches, its implementation in general inexact Newton methods for systems of nonlinear equations can be problematic. In this paper, we first outline a very general dogleg method suitable for the general inexact Newton context and provide a global convergence analysis for it. We then discuss certain issues that may arise with the standard dogleg implementational strategy and propose modified strategies that address them. Newton-Krylov methods have provided important motivation for this work, and we conclude with a report on numerical experiments involving a Newton-GMRES dogleg method applied to benchmark CFD problems.

  18. New Dry Fractionation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

  19. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  20. Spectral methods for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.

  1. The Schwinger Variational Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

  2. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  3. Methods of inventory control.

    PubMed

    Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources.

  4. New Adsorption Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

  5. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  6. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  7. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  8. Methods for data classification

    DOEpatents

    Garrity, George [Okemos, MI; Lilburn, Timothy G [Front Royal, VA

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  9. DISCOURSE ON METHODS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOUCHER, JOHN G.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…

  10. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  11. The Oxygen Flask Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)

  12. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  13. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  14. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  15. The Training Methods Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowski, Frank; Eitington, Julius

    This manual is designed to (1) acquaint service supervisors and instructors with general principles of instruction; (2) familiarize them with the more common methods of individual and group instruction so that they will use the methods most adaptable to the subject matter and to the particular group being trained; and (3) offer an understanding of…

  16. Water treatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1990-02-02

    A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

  17. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  18. Attribute-Based Methods

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Holmes; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

    2003-01-01

    Stated preference methods of environmental valuation have been used by economists for decades where behavioral data have limitations. The contingent valuation method (Chapter 5) is the oldest stated preference approach, and hundreds of contingent valuation studies have been conducted. More recently, and especially over the last decade, a class of stated preference...

  19. The Comparative Method Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Glenn M.; Lutterschmidt, William I.; Hutchison, Victor H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the history of comparative methods and their use in biology as an investigative philosophy. Discusses Bernard's and Krogh's ideas and supports Jorgensen's arguments. Explains conceptual change in the comparative studies which is referred to as "comparative phylogenetic method". (Contains 33 references.) (YDS)

  20. Methods of Motivational Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Foster, Roxanne M.; Bhullar, Navjot

    2008-01-01

    As teachers, we want to motivate our students to learn during a unit and to continue learning about the topic after the unit ends. This article describes about a hundred methods we use to help motivate students to learn. The methods form 12 categories: (1) making content relevant to student values and goals; (2) helping students achieve their…

  1. The Comparative Method Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Glenn M.; Lutterschmidt, William I.; Hutchison, Victor H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the history of comparative methods and their use in biology as an investigative philosophy. Discusses Bernard's and Krogh's ideas and supports Jorgensen's arguments. Explains conceptual change in the comparative studies which is referred to as "comparative phylogenetic method". (Contains 33 references.) (YDS)

  2. METHODS OF MAGNETOTELLURIC ANALYSIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Magnetotelluric prospecting is a method of geophysical exploration that makes use of the fluctuations in the natural electric and magnetic fields...function of the conductivity structure of the earth’s substrata. This report describes some new methods for analyzing and interpreting magnetotelluric

  3. The Oxygen Flask Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)

  4. The Method of Curvatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.; Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes method for locating images in simple and complex systems of thin lenses and spherical mirrors. The method helps students to understand differences between real and virtual images. It is helpful in discussing the human eye and the correction of imperfect vision by the use of glasses. (Author/SK)

  5. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  6. Metalworking method for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divecha, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    Effective fabrication methods for aluminum/boron and aluminum/graphite composites have been investigated. Drawing and rolling were found to be adaptable to Al/B fabrication. Although graphite composites are not amenable to standard metal processing methods, it may be possible to reduce fabrication costs of Al/C through electron-beam heating.

  7. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  8. Data center cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  9. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  10. The Method of Archimedes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Grande, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

  11. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  12. Coping with Alinsky Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowson, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    "Alinsky methods," designed for confrontation, can include packing meetings, requesting marathon sessions, and using dramatic advertising. Developed by Saul Alinsky for oppressed people, the methods can be mitigated by 10 administrator actions, including building openness and trust, having good legal and public relations advice, and…

  13. The Method of Archimedes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Grande, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

  14. Sampling system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2014-05-20

    An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.

  15. Methods of beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

  16. Spectral collocation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.; Kopriva, D. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1987-01-01

    This review covers the theory and application of spectral collocation methods. Section 1 describes the fundamentals, and summarizes results pertaining to spectral approximations of functions. Some stability and convergence results are presented for simple elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations. Applications of these methods to fluid dynamics problems are discussed in Section 2.

  17. New Adsorption Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

  18. Vector potential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Vector potential and related methods, for the simulation of both inviscid and viscous flows over aerodynamic configurations, are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of several formulations are discussed and alternate strategies are recommended. Scalar potential, modified potential, alternate formulations of Euler equations, least-squares formulation, variational principles, iterative techniques and related methods, and viscous flow simulation are discussed.

  19. The Schwinger Variational Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.

  20. Probabilistic boundary element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.

  1. Counseling for barrier methods.

    PubMed

    Guest, F

    1979-08-01

    Despite the less serious risks of barrier methods (diaphragm, condom, foam, and other vaginal spermicides) compared with other contraceptive methods, many family planning programs find that only a minority of patients accept barrier methods as primary contraceptive choices. Some misconceptions patients have about barrier methods are: 1) they are less effective compared to oral contraceptives or IUDs, 2) foam kills sperm that are still inside a man's body, and 3) you need a prescription to use a barrier method. This article provides the following information about barrier methods to use in counseling patients: 1) couples who use barriers exactly right all the time can achieve high levels of effectiveness; average effectiveness rates for longterm users are 87% for the diaphragm, 90% for condoms, and 85% for foam; 2) noncontraceptive benefits include protection against sexually transmitted infections; barrier methods are nonhormonal and nonsurgical and posters to that effect are recommended for the counselor's waiting room; 3) patients need to be encouraged to use barrier methods even though they are less convenient in certain situations; support groups could improve patients' success; 4) counselors may be able to help users by giving them permission not to use the method on certain cycle days as a tradeoff for diligent use at other times thereby relieving the contraceptive burden; 5) recurring problems that patients should be warned about include waiting too late to put on a condom, running out of foam, using too little cream with the diaphragm, and douching after intercourse; and 6) improper care and storage problems which could cause failure are storing latex near heat, separating the foam bottle from the applicator, using old condoms and diaphragms, and suppositories that fail to melt. Patients' 2 biggest complaints about vaginal suppositories are messiness and irritation and switching to condoms can help. The last page of the article is a one page handout for

  2. [Methods of stopping smoking].

    PubMed

    Molimard, M; Hirsch, A

    1990-01-01

    The majority of smokers who stop smoking do it alone. The methods of stopping are aimed at helping those who cannot achieve this. The different methods used include psycho-therapy (individual-group), medication, and in the first place is nicotine chewing-gum (but also clonidine which opens a new perspective), aversive behaviour and reinforcement methods, hypnosis and acupuncture. The inadequacy of validated controlled trials by biological measurements makes it difficult to compare different methods. The levels of cessation evaluated varies as a function of recruitment, the relationship between the patient and the therapist, and between the association of the different methods. An important factor in the success resides in the motivation of the subjects explaining that the bias of recruitment readily lead to differences in the results which are superior to the action of the therapy itself. Associated to psychotherapy is the use of nicotine chewing-gum in pharmacologically dependent smokers, and seems to give good enough results. Behavioural methods have an important early success level but these are somewhat deceiving in the long-term and are not totally without risk. Acupuncture, hypnosis and the progressive reduction in nicotine levels (nicotine fading) requires controlled studies to judge their own efficacy. The frequency of failure in the first year remains the major current problem in the methods of stopping. It is convenient not only to develop maintenance strategies but also at the sociological level to diminish the environmental pressures inciting people to smoke.

  3. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  4. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  5. Methods of flash sintering

    DOEpatents

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  6. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  7. Generalized subspace correction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  8. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  9. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  10. Introduction to multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesseling, P.

    1995-01-01

    These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.

  11. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  12. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B [Chicago, IL; Hoek, Terry Vanden [Chicago, IL; Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  13. [Sequencing - classical method].

    PubMed

    Sedivcová, Monika; Martínek, Petr; Stehlík, Jan; Grossmann, Petr; Kašpírková, Jana; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2013-06-01

    In this article the basic methods of reading nucleotide sequences in DNA molecules are summarized. Sanger sequencing is described most thoroughly as it is the most frequent routine method currently being utilized. The article describes in detail the principle of sequence determination through the production of fragments with a known end base using chain termination synthesis of DNA and ways of separation and detection of the fragments. Some alternative methods of sequencing are mentioned in short. Basic approaches of analyzing sequence data are explained as well as different outcomes, obstacles and challenges.

  14. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  15. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  16. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Project Delivery Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)

  18. Method for making organooxysilanes

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2003-12-23

    A method for the preparation of organooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided which comprises reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with at least one transition metal organo compound.

  19. Method for making organyltriorganooxysilanes

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2002-01-01

    A method for the preparation of organyltriorganooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided comprising reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with an activated carbon and at least one base.

  20. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  1. Seismic Reflection Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Seismic methods are the most commonly conducted geophysical surveys for engineering investigations. Seismic refraction provides engineers and geologists with the most basic of geologic data via simple procedures with common equipment.

  2. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  3. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  4. PARTICLE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, N.G.

    1963-01-29

    An improved method of sedimentation is described. A series of spaced surfaces of powdered material positioned normal to the centrifugal field concentrates the larger, slower moving molecules of a liquid and hastens sedimentation. (AEC)

  5. Mathematics Case Methods Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)

  6. Lean Government Methods Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  7. Mathematics Case Methods Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)

  8. Method for synthesizing boracities

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA

    1982-01-01

    A method for producing boracites is disclosed in which a solution of divalent metal acetate, boric acid, and halogen acid is evaporated to dryness and the resulting solid is heated in an inert atmosphere under pressure.

  9. Bone Surface Mapping Method

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Bone shape is an important factor to determine the bone's structural function. For the asymmetrically shaped and anisotropically distributed bone in vivo, a surface mapping method is proposed on the bases of its geometric transformation invariance and its uniqueness of the principal axes of inertia. Using spiral CT scanning, we can make precise measurements to bone in vivo. The coordinate transformations lead to the principal axes of inertia, with which the prime meridian and the contour can be set. Methods such as tomographic reconstruction and boundary development are employed so that the surface of bone in vivo can be mapped. Experimental results show that the surface mapping method can reflect the shape features and help study the surface changes of bone in vivo. This method can be applied to research into the surface characteristics and changes of organ, tissue or cell whenever its digitalized surface is obtained. PMID:22412952

  10. The Myopia of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorik, John A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine a problem that exists in relation to teaching methods and which has quite possibly served to limit the value of many promising methodologies that have been developed. (Author)

  11. METHOD OF BRAZING

    DOEpatents

    Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-11-27

    A method of joining metal surfaces is given. Surfaces having nickel or iron as the base metal are joined together with a brazing composition consisting of 80% nickel, 10% phosphorus, and 10% chromium. (AEC)

  12. Methods for cellobiosan utilization

    DOEpatents

    Linger, Jeffrey; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2017-07-11

    Disclosed herein are enzymes useful for the degradation of cellobiosan in materials such a pyrolysis oils. Methods of degrading cellobiosan using enzymes or organisms expressing the same are also disclosed.

  13. Bone surface mapping method.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Bone shape is an important factor to determine the bone's structural function. For the asymmetrically shaped and anisotropically distributed bone in vivo, a surface mapping method is proposed on the bases of its geometric transformation invariance and its uniqueness of the principal axes of inertia. Using spiral CT scanning, we can make precise measurements to bone in vivo. The coordinate transformations lead to the principal axes of inertia, with which the prime meridian and the contour can be set. Methods such as tomographic reconstruction and boundary development are employed so that the surface of bone in vivo can be mapped. Experimental results show that the surface mapping method can reflect the shape features and help study the surface changes of bone in vivo. This method can be applied to research into the surface characteristics and changes of organ, tissue or cell whenever its digitalized surface is obtained.

  14. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  15. Polynomial Supertree Methods Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmeyer, Malte; Griebel, Thasso; Böcker, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Supertree methods allow to reconstruct large phylogenetic trees by combining smaller trees with overlapping leaf sets into one, more comprehensive supertree. The most commonly used supertree method, matrix representation with parsimony (MRP), produces accurate supertrees but is rather slow due to the underlying hard optimization problem. In this paper, we present an extensive simulation study comparing the performance of MRP and the polynomial supertree methods MinCut Supertree, Modified MinCut Supertree, Build-with-distances, PhySIC, PhySIC_IST, and super distance matrix. We consider both quality and resolution of the reconstructed supertrees. Our findings illustrate the tradeoff between accuracy and running time in supertree construction, as well as the pros and cons of voting- and veto-based supertree approaches. Based on our results, we make some general suggestions for supertree methods yet to come. PMID:22229028

  16. Concrete compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua

    2015-06-23

    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  17. Methods for polymer synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Scott D.; Simoneau, Christopher A.; Keefe, William D.; Conuel, Jeff R.

    2016-12-06

    The present invention provides methods for reducing induction periods in epoxide-CO.sub.2 copolymerizations. In certain embodiments, the methods include the step of contacting an epoxide with CO.sub.2 in the presence of two catalysts: an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst. In another aspect, the invention provides catalyst compositions comprising a mixture of an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst.

  18. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

    1983-05-13

    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  19. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Eric A.; Demain, Arnold L.; Madia, Ashwin

    1985-09-10

    A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  20. Ignitability test method. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

  1. Plating methods, a survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

  2. Force Method Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    The resulting problem is non-linear, but the use of a linear programming stage is effective in DD IO 1473 EDITION oF I NOV GSIS OSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED...programming techniques reached what was effectively a computational stalemate, the development of optimality criteria methods(’) in the early 70’s appeared to...constraints. In addition, the incorporation of stress and fabricational constraints is effectively based upon the FSD method. Work has been carried on by a

  3. Spline Classification Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Schumaker, L. L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of spline functions in the development of classification algorithms is discussed. A method is formulated for producing spline approximations to univariate density functions when each density function is described by a histogram of measurements. The resulting approximations are then incorporated into a Bayesian classification procedure for which the probability of misclassification can be readily computed. Some preliminary numerical results are presented to illustrate the method.

  4. Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    tracking in usability evaluation : A practitioner’s guide. In J. Hyönä, R. Radach, & H. Deubel. (Eds.), The mind’s eye: Cognitive and applied...Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods Terence S. Andre, Lt Col, USAF Margaret Schurig, Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Co...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  5. IRRADIATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Cabell, C.P.

    1962-12-18

    A method and apparatus are described for changing fuel bodies into a process tube of a reactor. According to this method fresh fuel elements are introduced into one end of the tube forcing used fuel elements out the other end. When sufficient fuel has been discharged, a reel and tape arrangement is employed to pull the column of bodies back into the center of the tube. Due provision is made for providing shielding in the tube. (AEC)

  6. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  7. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  8. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect

    Henriquez, B.

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  9. Multicriteria identification sets method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenev, G. K.

    2016-11-01

    A multicriteria identification and prediction method for mathematical models of simulation type in the case of several identification criteria (error functions) is proposed. The necessity of the multicriteria formulation arises, for example, when one needs to take into account errors of completely different origins (not reducible to a single characteristic) or when there is no information on the class of noise in the data to be analyzed. An identification sets method is described based on the approximation and visualization of the multidimensional graph of the identification error function and sets of suboptimal parameters. This method allows for additional advantages of the multicriteria approach, namely, the construction and visual analysis of the frontier and the effective identification set (frontier and the Pareto set for identification criteria), various representations of the sets of Pareto effective and subeffective parameter combinations, and the corresponding predictive trajectory tubes. The approximation is based on the deep holes method, which yields metric ɛ-coverings with nearly optimal properties, and on multiphase approximation methods for the Edgeworth-Pareto hull. The visualization relies on the approach of interactive decision maps. With the use of the multicriteria method, multiple-choice solutions of identification and prediction problems can be produced and justified by analyzing the stability of the optimal solution not only with respect to the parameters (robustness with respect to data) but also with respect to the chosen set of identification criteria (robustness with respect to the given collection of functionals).

  10. Methods in Molecular Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdyuk, Igor N.; Zaccai, Nathan R.; Zaccai, Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Our knowledge of biological macromolecules and their interactions is based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. These methods, which include mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy, diffraction and crystallography, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance, are complementary; each has its specific advantages and limitations. Organised by method, this textbook provides descriptions and examples of applications for the key physical methods in modern biology. It is an invaluable resource for undergraduate and graduate students of molecular biophysics in science and medical schools, as well as research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques beyond their specialty. As appropriate for this interdisciplinary field, the book includes short asides to explain physics aspects to biologists and biology aspects to physicists. Comprehensive coverage and up-to-date treatment of the latest physical methods in modern biology Each method includes a brief historical introduction, theoretical principles, applications, advantages and limitations, and concludes with a checklist of key ideas Interdisciplinary and accessible to biologists, physicists, and those with medical backgrounds

  11. [Unproven methods in oncology].

    PubMed

    Jallut, O; Guex, P; Barrelet, L

    1984-09-08

    As in some other chronic diseases (rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, etc.), unproven methods of diagnosis and treatment have long been current in cancer. Since 1960 the American Cancer Society has published an abundant literature on these "unproven methods", which serves as a basis for a historical review: some substances (Krebiozen, Laetrile) have enjoyed tremendous if shortlived success. The present trend is back to nature and "mild medicine". The proponents of this so-called natural medicine are often disciples of a pseudoscientific religion using irrational arguments. Direct attacks on these erroneous theories and their public refutation fail to convince the adepts, who trust in these methods and are not amenable to a scientific approach. Study of their psychological motivations reveals that in fact they seek something more reassuring than plain medical explanation which is aware of its limits. They feel reassured by theories which often bear some resemblance to the old popular medicine. To protect patients against these dangerous methods and all the disillusionment they entail, the Swiss Society of Oncology and the Swiss Cancer League have decided to gather information and draw up a descriptive list of the commonest unproven methods in Switzerland (our File No. 2, "Total anti-cancer cure", is given as an example). The files are published in French, German and English and are available to physicians, nursing teams, and also patients who wish to have more objective information on these methods.

  12. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  13. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method.

  14. [Barrier methods of contraception].

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A

    1982-01-01

    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  15. The ICARE Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Luke

    2010-01-01

    The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics

  16. Urban Dynamic Change Detection Using Interferometric SAR in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, Q.; Ling, F.; Chen, F.; Quegan, S.

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates the potential of ENVISAT ASAR data for rice crop mapping in Fujian Province, where the agricultural fields are cracked. The ASAR data with VV and HH polarization acquired between two acquisition dates over the whole rice growth season were used. The study area is located in Fuzhou, Fujian province, China. After analysis the backscatters of VV and HH polarization in the two dates during each rice growth season, a backscatter change index (BSCI) combining the VV and HH backscatters of the two dates was calculated. The BSCI value of rice field is much higher than those of other land covers. A method using the BSCI was proposed, which was a fast rice crop mapping method. The accuracy of rice field mapping in three rice seasons was all promising high.

  17. Evaluation of the predicted error of the soil moisture retrieval from C-band SAR by comparison against modelled soil moisture estimates over Australia.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Marcela; Van Dijk, Albert I J M; Sabel, Daniel; Wagner, Wolfgang; Blöschl, Günter

    2012-05-15

    the same basic physical measurement characteristics, and therefore very similar retrieval error estimation method can be applied. Because of the expected improvements in radiometric resolution of the Sentinel-1 backscatter measurements, soil moisture estimation errors can be expected to be an order of magnitude less than those for ASAR GM. This opens the possibility for operationally available medium resolution soil moisture estimates with very well-specified errors that can be assimilated into hydrological or crop yield models, with potentially large benefits for land-atmosphere fluxes, crop growth, and water balance monitoring and modelling.

  18. Evaluation of the predicted error of the soil moisture retrieval from C-band SAR by comparison against modelled soil moisture estimates over Australia

    PubMed Central

    Doubková, Marcela; Van Dijk, Albert I.J.M.; Sabel, Daniel; Wagner, Wolfgang; Blöschl, Günter

    2012-01-01

    the same basic physical measurement characteristics, and therefore very similar retrieval error estimation method can be applied. Because of the expected improvements in radiometric resolution of the Sentinel-1 backscatter measurements, soil moisture estimation errors can be expected to be an order of magnitude less than those for ASAR GM. This opens the possibility for operationally available medium resolution soil moisture estimates with very well-specified errors that can be assimilated into hydrological or crop yield models, with potentially large benefits for land-atmosphere fluxes, crop growth, and water balance monitoring and modelling. PMID:23483015

  19. Methods for Neutron Spectrometry

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1961-01-09

    The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)

  20. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  1. Methods of Melanoma Detection.

    PubMed

    Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed.

  2. New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2007-11-01

    We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.

  3. The lod score method.

    PubMed

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  4. Panel methods: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    Panel methods are numerical schemes for solving (the Prandtl-Glauert equation) for linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic speeds. The tools at the panel-method user's disposal are (1) surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions that can represent nearly arbitrary geometry, and (2) extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes, different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs, and various modeling techniques involving boundary conditions, jump properties, and trailing wakes are discussed. An approach for extending the method to nonlinear transonic flow is also presented. Three appendices supplement the main test. In appendix 1, additional detail is provided on how the basic concepts are implemented into a specific computer program (PANAIR). In appendix 2, it is shown how to evaluate analytically the fundamental surface integral that arises in the expressions for influence-coefficients, and evaluate its jump property. In appendix 3, a simple example is used to illustrate the so-called finite part of the improper integrals.

  5. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  6. Optimization Methods in Sherpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.

    2009-09-01

    Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  7. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  8. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  9. Shape Bonding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  10. Bayesian Methods in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

    2009-12-01

    Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

  11. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2017-03-07

    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  12. Robust iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saadd, Y.

    1994-12-31

    In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.

  13. Bayesian Methods in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

    2014-02-01

    Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

  14. Method of grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  15. Experimental Physics - Modern Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, R. A.

    1988-10-01

    Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

  16. Contaminant treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  17. Methods of visualizing graphs

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.

    2008-12-23

    Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

  18. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    DOEpatents

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  19. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  20. Methods for pretreating biomass

    DOEpatents

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  1. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1996-03-12

    The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  2. Unorthodox theoretical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Nedd, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

  3. FUEL ELEMENT FABRICATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Hix, J.N.; Cooley, G.E.; Cunningham, J.E.

    1960-05-31

    A method is given for assembling and fabricating a fuel element comprising a plurality of spaced parallel fuel plates of a bowed configuration supported by and between a pair of transperse aluminum side plates. In this method, a brasing alloy is preplated on one surface of the aluminum side plates in the form of a cladding or layer-of uniform thickness. Grooves are then cut into the side plates through the alloy layer and into the base aluminum which results in the utilization of thinner aluminum side plates since a portion of the necessary groove depth is supplied by the brazing alloy.

  4. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  5. Hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method

    DOEpatents

    Brecher, Lee E.; Mones, Charles G.; Guffey, Frank D.

    2015-06-02

    A hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method may involve a novel combination of heating, vaporizing and chemically reacting hydrocarbonaceous feedstock that is substantially unpumpable at pipeline conditions, and condensation of vapors yielded thereby, in order to upgrade that feedstock to a hydrocarbonaceous material condensate that meets crude oil pipeline specification.

  6. Coating method for graphite

    DOEpatents

    Banker, John G.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided comprising coating the graphite surface with a suspension of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4% by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  7. Method of purifying isosaccharinate

    DOEpatents

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-09-07

    A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

  8. Methods Evolved by Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  9. Root production method system

    Treesearch

    Wayne Lovelace

    2002-01-01

    The RPM system (Root Production Method) is a multistep production system of container tree production that places primary emphasis on the root system because the root system ultimately determines the tree's survival and performance in its outplanted environment. This particular container production system has been developed to facilitate volume production, in a...

  10. Selection: Evaluation and methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Procedures to collect and to analyze data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear type traits...

  11. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  12. Coating method for graphite

    DOEpatents

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1975-11-06

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  13. Method in Catholic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Quinn, K P

    2000-12-01

    Method in Catholic bioethics is distinguished by a specific philosophical and theological anthropology. Human beings are not to be considered simply as selves, but as selves in relation to God and each other. This essay reflects on that claim by reviewing four areas of concern from Catholic social teaching: common good, human dignity, option for the poor, and stewardship.

  14. Teaching Materials and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)

  15. The Effective Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  16. Teaching Materials and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Twelve abstracts of papers presented at the 33rd Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society are listed, focusing on teaching materials/methods. Topics, among others, include trends in physiology laboratory programs, cardiovascular system model, cardiovascular computer simulation with didactic feedback, and computer generated figures…

  17. Making Methods Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1980-01-01

    Methodological paradigms in evaluation research are discussed. This article is a response to the attacks on paradigmatic perspectives made by Reichardt and Cook in the opening chapter of their edited book, "Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Evaluation Research." (Author/GK)

  18. Method of photocatalytic nanotagging

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Song, Yujiang

    2010-04-27

    A nanotagged chemical structure comprising a chemical structure with an associated photocatalyst and a tagging nanoparticle (a nanotag) grown in proximity to the photocatalyst, and a method for making the nanotagged chemical structure. The nanoparticle is grown in proximity to the photocatalyst by using a photocatalytic reduction reaction.

  19. Soccer Coaching Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Bill

    The basic principles and techniques of soccer are explained and illustrated with photographs and diagrams to aid teachers who are introducing soccer into the physical education curriculum. In addition, it is designed to guide youth soccer coaches who wish to improve their presentations. The book discusses: (1) coaching methods; (2) passing and…

  20. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream…

  1. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  2. Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-12-30

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  3. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-10-14

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  4. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-08-05

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  5. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  6. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  7. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  8. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  9. Biomass treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  10. Qualitative Methods Reclaimed.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    concerning such a process (e.g., Schutz, 1970; Gadamer , 1975). If, however, readers feel philosophy is important enough to be left to the philosophers...Political Science Association. Gadamer , Hans G. 1975 Truth and Method. New York: Continuum. Glaser, Barney G. and Anselm Strauss 1967 The Discovery of

  11. Extrusion die and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, G.D.

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity. 4 figures.

  12. Ferrari's Method and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoen, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…

  13. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  14. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  15. Convergence of Arnoldi method

    SciTech Connect

    Nevanlinna, O.

    1994-12-31

    This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).

  16. Method for forming ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  17. Suzuki's Mother Tongue Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John

    1986-01-01

    Suzuki believed that all human beings are endowed with remarkable musical ability and can learn to play musical instruments in the same way they learn to speak. The Suzuki method of teaching music and its evolution in the United States are discussed. (RM)

  18. METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, K.

    1960-05-10

    A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

  19. Integrated College Methods Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Kent; Willis, Melinda

    This study compared the performance of two groups of preservice teachers at Kentucky's Morehead State University. One group had taken four of their methods courses (reading, language arts, social studies, and mathematics) in an integrated fashion from four faculty members. This group was termed the block group. The other group (the nonblock group)…

  20. Sixth Form Examining Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    The methods of examining in the sixth form of secondary education in England and Wales is the basis for discussion by subject committees of the Schools Council. Special reference is made to internal examinations, oral assessments, teacher's assessments, the relaxing of the time limits for examination, and the use of aids during examinations. The…

  1. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  2. Seismic Inversion Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiewicz, Jason

    2009-09-01

    With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

  3. Seismic Inversion Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jackiewicz, Jason

    2009-09-16

    With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

  4. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  5. Miracles and Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Explores how argumentation in the eighteenth-century miracles controversy (a century-long debate in Britain over the reasonableness of revealed religion) exhibited a controlling concern for procedural considerations. Discusses how the Deists and the Orthodox apologists used their argumentative force to advance rival methods for evaluating miracle…

  6. The Mnemonic Keyword Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Available experimental evidence is reviewed concerning the keyword method, a two-stage procedure for remembering materials having an associative component. The review examines subjects' memory for definitions, given vocabulary words; subjects' learning of other aspects of vocabulary, given definitions; group-administered keyword studies; and…

  7. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  8. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  9. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  10. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  11. Generalized fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Létourneau, Pierre-David; Cecka, Cristopher; Darve, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) is a technique allowing the fast calculation of long-range interactions between N points in O(N) or O(N ln N) steps with some prescribed error tolerance. The FMM has found many applications in the field of integral equations and boundary element methods, in particular by accelerating the solution of dense linear systems arising from such formulations. Original FMMs required analytical expansions of the kernel, for example using spherical harmonics or Taylor expansions. In recent years, the range of applicability and the ease of use of FMMs has been extended by the introduction of black box [1] or kernel independent techniques [2]. In these approaches, the user only provides a subroutine to numerically calculate the interaction kernel. This allows changing the definition of the kernel with minimal change to the computer program. In this talk we will present a novel kernel independent FMM, which leads to diagonal multipole-to-local operators. This results in a significant reduction in the computational cost [1], in particular when high accuracy is needed. The approach is based on Cauchy's integral formula and the Laplace transform. We will present a numerical analysis of the convergence, methods to choose the parameters in the FMM given some tolerance, and the steps required to build a multilevel scheme from the single level formulation. Numerical results are given for benchmark calculations to demonstrate the accuracy as a function of the number of multipole coefficients, and the computational cost of the different steps in the method.

  12. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  13. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream…

  14. Truth and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary…

  15. Heart imaging method

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  16. Teaching Materials and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)

  17. Postpartum contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    1990-08-01

    Contraceptive methods suitable for postpartum women include sterilization, intrauterine devices (IUDs), barrier methods, oral contraceptives, implants, injectables, breastfeeding, and natural family planning. Couples considering either male or female sterilization should receive counseling since this method is irreversible; however, it is very effective. IUDs are effective, reversible, and can be inserted as early as 10 minutes following placental delivery. Barrier methods are not as effective and include condoms, spermicides, diaphragm, and cervical caps. While condoms and spermicides can be employed whenever sexual activity resumes, diaphragms and cervical caps can be used 4-6 weeks postpartum. The progestin-only and the combined oral contraceptives are both very effective. There is disagreement among professionals regarding when nursing mothers should start taking oral contraceptives and implant and injectable contraceptives. Implants and injectable contraceptives have long acting effects. Breastfeeding is a natural form of contraception which can last up to 6 months; it also supplies nutritional and immunological benefits. Natural family planning requires providing women with information on fertility awareness.

  18. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R. E.

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  19. Transition Path Sampling Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellago, C.; Bolhuis, P. G.; Geissler, P. L.

    Transition path sampling, based on a statistical mechanics in trajectory space, is a set of computational methods for the simulation of rare events in complex systems. In this chapter we give an overview of these techniques and describe their statistical mechanical basis as well as their application.

  20. Photothermal methods in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John C.

    2000-10-01

    Photothermal imaging and spectroscopy are being applied to a variety of medical problems for diagnosis and therapy. This paper reviews some aspects of this field including the opportunities presented by non-optical sources and by use of detection methods targeted to the application.

  1. Water-budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone.Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  2. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  3. Monitoring of a Landslide Induced by New Highway Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Halounova, Lena

    2015-05-01

    During a highway construction, a nearby slope was discovered to be sliding down due to the geological character of the area. Our aim is to find the extent of the landslide and to find out whether the landslide was active even before the start of the highway construction. Persistent scatterers InSAR method has been applied using two tracks of Envisat ASAR data. The area of interest has a rural character. The time-series of ASAR data suffer from a couple of 1-year time gaps as well as long perpendicular baselines. Exclusion of the scenes from the processing was not feasible, because in that case there would be too few scenes for processing. On the contrary, we try to estimate the approximate accuracy empirically and separately for each date of acquisition.

  4. Open surface flotation method

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.M.; Wang, F.

    1981-11-24

    A method for the in situ separation of viscous crude oil from a reservoir such as, oil sand, or tar sand is disclosed. Hot water is introduced to the top surface of the reservoir while steam is injected into the reservoir through drill holes. The hot water and steam may contain a surfactant. The bouyancy of the crude oil creates an artificial water drive which causes the water and oil to ''flip-flop'' so that the oil rises to the top of the reservoir and separates from the remainder of the reservoir material. If the overburden is deep, underground mining techniques may be used to reach the reservoir prior to applying the present method.

  5. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  6. Methods for forming particles

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  7. Anthropological methods in ethnopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Etkin, N L

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews anthropological methods in ethnopharmacology to advance a critical and biobehavioral perspective for the construction of primary data in the light of indigenous paradigms of health and therapeutics. The unique contributions of anthropology are the conceptual and practical tools that allow one to develop the ethnography of plant use in sufficient depth to correlate with laboratory and clinical investigations of plant constituents and activities. This serves an ethnopharmacology that links bioscientific research to traditional empirical knowledge. Specific methods discussed include: key respondents, participant observation, focus groups, structured and unstructured interviews, survey instruments and questionnaires, lexical and semantic studies, and discourse and content analysis. The accommodation of rapid ethnographic techniques for ethnopharmacologic research is described, and several problem orientations based on assessments of efficacy are offered.

  8. Cold isopressing method

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C.; Stawisuck, Valerie M.; Prasad, Ravi

    2003-01-01

    A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

  9. Camshaft assembly and method

    SciTech Connect

    Madaffer, A.J.

    1986-07-01

    A method is described of manufacturing a camshaft assembly for internal combustion engines and the like. The method includes the steps of: providing cam and journal elements, the elements each including an axial opening, securing the elements in predetermined fixed orientation and spacing with the openings aligned on a common axis, inserting a hollow tube into the elements, in close fitting relation with openings, and expanding the hollow tube into mechanical interference engagement with all the element openings to secure the elements permanently onto the tube in the predetermined orientation while forming within the tube a uniform smooth sided interior cross-sectional configuration by forcing through the tube an element sufficiently larger than the tube inner diameter to outwardly deform the tube wall in the required degree.

  10. Method for welding beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

  11. Motor degradation prediction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  12. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  13. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  14. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  15. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

  16. Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

  17. Barrier methods of contraception.

    PubMed

    Skrine, R L

    1985-05-01

    Barrier methods of contraception make up an essential part of the present contraceptive range, and doctors need to know in detail how to choose and fit them as well as how to instruct patients in their use. This discussion reviews the mode of action of the barrier method and then focuses on the vaginal diaphragm, the cervical or vault cap, the collatex (Today) sponge, condoms, emotionl problems associated with the use of barrier methods, advantages of barrier methods, and future developments. Barrier methods of contraception are only effective if used consistently and carefully. Failure rates vary greatly between studies, but in selected populations the failure rate for the diaphragm with spermicide can be as low as 1.9/100 woman years (wy) and for the condom 3.6 per 100wy (Vessey et al., 1982). If known user failures are removed, the figure for the condom can drop to as low as 0.4 per 100wy (John, 1973), which compares favorably with that of the combined oral contraceptive. Other studies quote failure rates of 10 per 100wy or more. These methods call for considerable participation by the patient at or before each act of intercourse and there is, therefore, great scope for inefficient use, either as a result of poor instruction or because couples find that they interfere with happy, relaxed sexual activity -- or fear that they may do so. Doctors need to understand the feelings of their patients before recommending them. The aim of a barrier method is to prevent live sperm from meeting the ovum. This is accomplished by the combination of a physical barrier with a spermicide. In the case of the condom, the integrity of the physical barrier is the most important factor, although some patients feel more secure with an additional spermicide. The vaginal barriers used at present do not produce a "water-tight" fit, and the principle is that the spermicide is held over the cervix by the barrier. It is also possible that the device acts partially by holding the alkaline

  18. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  19. Method for reforming hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkmeyer, F.M.; Ewert, W.M.; Fox, H.M.; Rohr, D.F. Jr.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described for reforming a hydrocarbon feedstock using a steam-active reforming catalyst which includes a metal from Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements, said method comprising the steps of: (a) contacting a first fixed bed of said catalyst with a regeneration mixture consisting essentially of steam and a source of free oxygen in order to remove deactivating material from said catalyst in said first bed by combustion and produce a regeneration effluent gas stream consisting essentially of steam, inert gas, and free oxygen which is not consumed when said deactivating material is removed from said catalyst in said first bed; (b) removing from said regeneration effluent gas stream said free oxygen which is not consumed when said deactivating material is removed from said catalyst in said first bed; and (c) reforming said hydrocarbon feedstock in a second fixed bed of said catalyst and in the presence of said regeneration effluent gas stream.

  20. Ion sensing method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

    2004-05-18

    The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

  1. Inspection system calibration methods

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2004-12-28

    An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.

  2. The unified method rules

    SciTech Connect

    Juric, R.

    1996-12-31

    Any methodology for information systems development defines rules and conditions that are to be followed and satisfied when applying it to developing analysis and design models of a system. The newest attempt to achieve a successful systems development and establish standards in object oriented analysis and design technologies resulted in the unified method documentation set, version 0.8 being published in late 1995. In this paper I will analyse the first draft and present a set of rules that must be satisfied by the valid unified method. The rules are divided into different sections: (A) classes/objects and categories, (B) attributes and operations, (C) associations and inheritance, (D) message trace diagram/object message diagram/state diagram/use cases.

  3. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  4. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  5. RUTHENIUM DECONTAMINATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Gresky, A.T.

    1960-07-19

    A liquid-liquid extraction method of separating uranium from fission products is given. A small amount of a low molecular weight ketone is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing neutron-irradiated uranium and its associated fission products. The resulting solution is digested and then contacted with an organic liquid that extracts uranium values. The purpose of the step of digesting the aqueous solution in the presence of the ketone is to suppress the extractability of ruthenium.

  6. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  7. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  8. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, Shou-Heng; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  9. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  10. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  11. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  12. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  13. Comments on PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

  14. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar [Storrs, CT; Son, Young-Chan [Storrs, CT; Suib, Steven L [Storrs, CT

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  15. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  16. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  17. Thermal coupling measurement method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

  18. Thermal coupling measurement method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

  19. GRAPHITE IMPREGNATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, F.; Buttram, H.J.

    1962-04-24

    ABS>A method for impregnating a refractory material by filling its pores with a first salt having a high melting temperature is described. The salt is mixed with another, more volatile salt, giving the mixture a much lower melting temperature than that of the first salt. The material is coated with the mixture, then heated to drive off the volatile salt, leaving the first salt in place. (AEC)

  20. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  1. Mathematical Methods for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Tai L.

    2000-07-01

    Preface; 1. Vector and tensor analysis; 2. Ordinary differential equations; 3. Matrix algebra; 4. Fourier series and integrals; 5. Linear vector spaces; 6. Functions of a complex variable; 7. Special functions of mathematical physics; 8. The calculus of variations; 9. The Laplace transformation; 10. Partial differential equations; 11. Simple linear integral equations; 12. Elements of group theory; 13. Numerical methods; 14. Introduction to probability theory; Appendices; Further reading; Index.

  2. Method for detecting biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  3. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  4. Polymer compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.

    2016-09-27

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  5. Parameter Plane Design Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Th usr a toente aninteer a thca sms b esta 1 Fp-ocsing 2. Enter P1 values, lwgt, ldig - > 9 Table I give us proper values. Table 1. PARAMETER TABLE...necessary and identify by block number) In this thesis a control systems analysis package is developed using parameter plane methods. It is an interactive...designer is able to choose values of the parameters which provide a good compromise between cost and dynamic behavior. 20 Distribution Availability of

  6. Kinesimetric method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

  7. Statistical Methods in Hydrology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-01-01

    necessary end Identify by block nmember) Statistical methods, h~ydrologic aspects, frequency analysis , correlation analysis , regression analysis 20...4mates based on analysis of hydrologic records that have been adjusted as required to conform with selected reference base conditions) " (3) A...O I",: ) Since publication of the original paper of this title in July 1952, the general concept of runoff frequiency analysis contained in the paper

  8. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  9. Polysomnography methods and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Rundell, O H; Jones, R K

    1990-08-01

    As the field of sleep disorders medicine continues to mature, appropriate diagnostic techniques are becoming properly defined and standardized. This article focuses principally upon diagnostic testing for sleep apnea, although other sleep disorders are discussed briefly. When interpreting a polysomnogram, one must consider a number of complex variables. A critical discussion of the methods for adequately measuring these variables is provided together with guidelines for appropriate interpretation.

  10. Geometrical method of decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, C.

    2012-12-01

    The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances) the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E→, B→, and P→, which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of) transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When used iteratively, the decoupling

  11. Review of Godunov Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, second order Godunov methods are reviewed. The early versions by Colella and Woodward (PPM) and van Leer (MUSCL) are described in their original form. The simplification of these by Roe, based on approximate Riemann solver, is then presented. Attention is next given to the improvement in MUSCL due to Hancock and van Leer leading to a fuller paper by Huynh. Finally, brief reference is made to TVD and ENO schemes due to Harten.

  12. Coke gasification method

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, H.; Dungs, H.; Tippmer, K.

    1983-12-27

    A method for the gasification of coke is disclosed in which coke produced in a coke oven and having a temperature of 900/sup 0/ C. to 1100/sup 0/ C. is forced into a coke bucket, after coking in the coke oven, and fed by means of hot coke conveyors without substantial temperature changes to a gasifier. The coke is gasified in the gasifier while adding at least one of oxygen and air, and steam and carbon dioxide.

  13. Method for making nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

    2013-06-04

    A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

  14. Accuracy of Enrollment Forecasting Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert C.; Alspaugh, John; Wat-Aksorn, Patchara

    1997-01-01

    Reviews three special-purpose forecasting methods (population-ratio techniques, Bell Telephone method, method of analogy, and multiple-factor method) and three methods of universal applicability (the cohort-survival, percentage- survival, and law-of-growth methods) to help administrators grasp enrollment forecasting technicalities. A comparison…

  15. Adolescent contraception: nonhormonal methods.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J W

    1989-06-01

    A comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each method is presented in Table 1. Barrier methods of contraception offer adolescents protection against both pregnancy and STDs, but innovative approaches are needed to enhance availability and acceptability. Condom use in conjunction with a vaginal spermicide would provide optimal protection. The "female condom" may prove to be an effective alternative. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be prescribed for well-educated, highly motivated adolescents comfortable with insertion and removal. The vaginal contraceptive sponge provides many of the advantages of the diaphragm and cap without the need for an examination and fitting and also may be used as a backup method with the condom. Vaginal spermicides used alone are significantly less effective than in combination with a mechanical barrier. The IUD is not considered appropriate for most adolescents due to its association with an increased risk of pelvic infection. Periodic abstinence requires accurate identification of the fertile period, extensive education, and partner cooperation. Sterilization is rarely considered an option in adolescents. Alternate forms of sexual expression are available to adolescents who choose to abstain from intercourse.

  16. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovative sludge stabilization method

    SciTech Connect

    Riggenbach, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  18. Efficiency comparison method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Bhavyang

    This study describes the system integration and operation of Southern Methodist University (SMU) - University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) anechoic chamber; far-field measurements of antenna parameters such as radiation efficiency, radiation patterns, directivity, and gain; and methodologies to improve measurement results. Also, it provides a brief explanation of the different methods used to make near-field measurements. This study primarily focuses on the ways to improve chamber's performance for far-field measurements. First, a methodology to improve the measurement results for broad-beam antennas such as Dipole is proposed. A few experiments were performed to identify the source of scattering, and accordingly, the mounting structure for the antenna under test (AUT) was changed to improve the results for the AUT's radiation pattern. Second, a method to compute the radiation efficiency of the antenna with broad beam is introduced. In this method, the total radiated power of Standard Gain Horn (SGH) antenna is compared with that of the AUT to evaluate the radiation efficiency of the AUT with the least possible uncertainties.

  19. Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Billy Vaughn

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)

  20. The data embedding method

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  1. Methods for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Phillip G; Carr-Ellis, Sacheen; Borgatta, Lynn

    2004-07-01

    We describe present methods for induced abortion used in the United States. The most common procedure is first-trimester vacuum curettage. Analgesia is usually provided with a paracervical block and is not completely effective. Pretreatment with nonsteroidal analgesics and conscious sedation augment analgesia but only to a modest extent. Cervical dilation is accomplished with conventional tapered dilators, hygroscopic dilators, or misoprostol. Manual vacuum curettage is as safe and effective as the electric uterine aspirator for procedures through 10 weeks of gestation. Common complications and their management are presented. Early abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol combinations is replacing some surgical abortions. Two mifepristone/misoprostol regimens are used. The rare serious complications of medical abortion are described. Twelve percent of abortions are performed in the second trimester, the majority of these by dilation and evacuation (D&E) after laminaria dilation of the cervix. Uterine evacuation is accomplished with heavy ovum forceps augmented by 14-16 mm vacuum cannula systems. Cervical injection of dilute vasopressin reduces blood loss. Operative ultrasonography is reported to reduce perforation risk of D&E. Dilation and evacuation procedures have evolved to include intact D&E and combination methods for more advanced gestations. Vaginal misoprostol is as effective as dinoprostone for second-trimester labor-induction abortion and appears to be replacing older methods. Mifepristone/misoprostol combinations appear more effective than misoprostol alone. Uterine rupture has been reported in women with uterine scars with misoprostol abortion in the second trimester. Fetal intracardiac injection to reduce multiple pregnancies or selectively abort an anomalous twin is accepted therapy. Outcomes for the remaining pregnancy have improved with experience.

  2. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  3. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  4. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  5. Computational Methods for Crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Carden, Huey D. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    Presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Crashworthiness held at Langley Research Center on 2-3 Sep. 1992 are included. The presentations addressed activities in the area of impact dynamics. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air Force, the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories, the aircraft and automotive industries, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in the numerical simulation of crash and to provide guidelines for future research.

  6. Cooling apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C [Sugar Land, TX

    2009-05-05

    A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

  7. ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  8. Magnetic imager and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James; Reich, Morris; Danby, Gordon

    1997-07-22

    A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.

  9. Magnetic imager and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Danby, G.

    1997-07-22

    A magnetic imager includes a generator for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager also includes a sensor for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object. 25 figs.

  10. Adventures with Implicit Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warming, Robert F.; Beam, Richard M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In this lecture we trace the historical developments of alternating direction implicit methods. In particular, we emphasize contributions originating in the Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch at Ames Research Center in the 1970's and early 1980's. Joe Steger played a seminal role in demonstrating the practicality of using an efficient, vectorized, implicit code for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerous discussions with Joe had a significant impact on our own research and it is a pleasure to dedicate this lecture to honor his memory.

  11. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Smith, Frank M.; O'Leary, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

  12. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, Joseph A.

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  13. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.

  14. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  15. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  16. METHOD FOR MEASURING RADIATION

    DOEpatents

    Roesch, W.C.; McCall, R.C.

    1961-11-21

    A method for measuring an unknown integrated quantity of radiation with a condenser ionization chamber is described. The chamber is initially charged to a predetermined voltage by a voltage source. The chamber is then removed from the source and exposed to an unknown quantity of radiation for a period of time. The quantity of radiation to which the chamber was exposed is then measured by detecting the magnitude of the pulse of current necessary to recharge the chamber of its initial value through a suitable impedance. The current pulse is amplified and measured directly by a suitable pulse height analyzing system. (AEC)

  17. METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, T.I.; Spindel, W.

    1960-02-01

    A method of concentrating N/sup 15/ in a liquid is described. Gaseous nitric oxide and at least one liquid selected from the group consisting of the aqueous oxyacids and oxides of nitrogen, wherein the atomic ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is greater than unity, are brought into intimate contact to cause an enrichment of the liquid and a depletion of the gas in N/sup 15/. The liquid is, thereafter, reacted with sulfur dioxide to produce a gas contuining nitric oxide. The gas contuining nitric oxide is then continuously passed in countercurrent contact with the liquid to cause further enrichment of the liquid.

  18. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

    1996-03-05

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

  19. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  20. Preparation System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for preparing a sample for further analysis are provided. The system can include an enclosure. A membrane can be disposed within the enclosure. First and second reservoirs can be disposed within the enclosure, and at least one of the first and second reservoirs can be adapted to have a reagent disposed therein. A valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first or second reservoirs or both. The valve can also be in fluid communication with the membrane. The valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagent from the first reservoir, through the membrane, and into the second reservoir.

  1. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  2. Tool decontamination method

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, J.A.; Fowler, D.E.

    1984-04-17

    Disclosed is a system and method for cleaning radioactively contaminated articles, including tools and like items of hardware. The system includes a cleaning chamber for receiving and sealing therein the contaminated articles, a high pressure spray gun disposed within the cleaning chamber for spraying the contaminated articles with a clean solvent to dislodge and dissolve the contaminants, and a system for decontaminating the solvent for reuse. The cleaning chamber includes a drain having the capacity to remove contaminated solvent at a rate at least as great as that at which the solvent is sprayed into the chamber, such that substantially no contaminated solvent collects in the cleaning chamber.

  3. Statistical Methods for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, G. Jogesh

    Statistical methodology, with deep roots in probability theory, providesquantitative procedures for extracting scientific knowledge from astronomical dataand for testing astrophysical theory. In recent decades, statistics has enormouslyincreased in scope and sophistication. After a historical perspective, this reviewoutlines concepts of mathematical statistics, elements of probability theory,hypothesis tests, and point estimation. Least squares, maximum likelihood, andBayesian approaches to statistical inference are outlined. Resampling methods,particularly the bootstrap, provide valuable procedures when distributionsfunctions of statistics are not known. Several approaches to model selection andgoodness of fit are considered.

  4. Inspection Methods in Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    ADI A 0 030 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTE--ETC F/ G 9/2 INSPECTION METHODS IN PROGRAMMING. (U) JUN al C RICH N00014-75-C-0643...problem with flowchart schemas can be fixed by combining flowchart schemas with another network-like formalism, the dalaflow schemas of Dennis [191...presumably involve a much stronger control structure for hypothesis formation and testing. W- g A-. 94 QIAVrM FIVE tCofruv.CAL A lb It TLtc - r+iVp

  5. Lysimeter methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-12-07

    A suction lysimeter for sampling subsurface liquids includes a lysimeter casing having a drive portion, a reservoir portion, and a tip portion, the tip portion including a membrane through which subsurface liquids may be sampled; a fluid conduit coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the membrane, and which in operation facilitates the delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the membrane to the reservoir portion; and a plurality of tubes coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the reservoir portion, the tubes in operation facilitating delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the reservoir portion for testing. A method of sampling subsurface liquids comprises using this lysimeter.

  6. Methods of making monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA; Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA; Zemanian, Thomas S [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [Albuquerque, NM; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-08

    The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

  7. Methods of making monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA; Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA; Zemanian, Thomas S [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [Albuquerque, NM; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-09-15

    The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

  8. Construction Material And Method

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2006-02-21

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  9. Method for thinning specimen

    DOEpatents

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  10. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  11. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  12. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  13. Method of joining ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Brimhall, John L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

  14. METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1959-07-14

    A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.

  15. Research on Estimation Crop Planting Area by Integrating the Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Yu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Considering the problem in monitoring agricultural condition in the semi-arid areas of Northwest of China, we propose a new method for estimation of crop planting area, using the single phase optical and microwave remote sensing data collaboratively, which have demonstrated their respective advantages in the extraction of surface features. In the model, the ASAR backscatter coefficient is normalized by the incident angle at first, then the classifier based on Bayesian network is developed, and the VV, VH polarization of ASAR and all the 7 TM bands are taken as the input of the classifier to get the class labels of each pixel of the images. Moreover the crop planting areas can be extracted by the classification results. At last, the model is validated for the necessities of normalization by the incident angle and integration of TM and ASAR respectively. It results that the estimation accuracy of crop planting area of corn and other crops garden are 98.47% and 78.25% respectively using the proposed method, with an improvement of estimation accuracy of about 3.28% and 4.18% relative to single TM classification. These illustrate that synthesis of optical and microwave remote sensing data is efficient and potential in estimation crop planting area.

  16. Research on estimation crop planting area by integrating the optical and microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Yu, Fan; Liu, Dandan; Tian, Jing; Zhang, Weicheng; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Jinling; Zhang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Considering the problem in monitoring agricultural condition in the semi-arid areas of Northwest of China, we propose a new method for estimation of crop planting area, using the single phase optical and microwave remote sensing data collaboratively, which have demonstrated their respective advantages in the extraction of surface features. In the model, the ASAR backscatter coefficient is normalized by the incident angle at first, then the classifier based on Bayesian network is developed, and the VV, VH polarization of ASAR and all the 7 TM bands are taken as the input of the classifier to get the class labels of each pixel of the images. Moreover the crop planting areas can be extracted by the classification results. At last, the model is validated for the necessities of normalization by the incident angle and integration of TM and ASAR respectively. It results that the estimation accuracy of crop planting area of corn and other crops garden are 98.47% and 78.25% respectively using the proposed method, with an improvement of estimation accuracy of about 3.28% and 4.18% relative to single TM classification. These illustrate that synthesis of optical and microwave remote sensing data is efficient and potential in estimation crop planting area.

  17. Method for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  18. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  19. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  20. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  1. Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh

    2016-06-01

    Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.

  2. REACTOR AND NOVEL METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-06-24

    A nuclear reactor of the type which uses a liquid fuel and a method of controlling such a reactor are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a tank for containing the liquid fuel such as a slurry of discrete particles of fissionnble material suspended in a heavy water moderator, and a control means in the form of a disc of neutron absorbirg material disposed below the top surface of the slurry and parallel thereto. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the diameter of the tank and the disc is perforated to permit a flow of the slurry therethrough. The function of the disc is to divide the body of slurry into two separate portions, the lower portion being of a critical size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction and the upper portion between the top surface of the slurry and the top surface of the disc being of a non-critical size. The method of operation is to raise the disc in the reactor until the lower portion of the slurry has reached a critical size when it is desired to initiate the reaction, and to lower the disc in the reactor to reduce the size of the lower active portion the slurry to below criticality when it is desired to stop the reaction.

  3. Accelerated Adaptive Integration Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding may be too slow to observe on the time scales routinely accessible using molecular dynamics simulations. The adaptive integration method (AIM) leverages the notion that when a ligand is either fully coupled or decoupled, according to λ, barrier heights may change, making some conformational transitions more accessible at certain λ values. AIM adaptively changes the value of λ in a single simulation so that conformations sampled at one value of λ seed the conformational space sampled at another λ value. Adapting the value of λ throughout a simulation, however, does not resolve issues in sampling when barriers remain high regardless of the λ value. In this work, we introduce a new method, called Accelerated AIM (AcclAIM), in which the potential energy function is flattened at intermediate values of λ, promoting the exploration of conformational space as the ligand is decoupled from its receptor. We show, with both a simple model system (Bromocyclohexane) and the more complex biomolecule Thrombin, that AcclAIM is a promising approach to overcome high barriers in the calculation of free energies, without the need for any statistical reweighting or additional processors. PMID:24780083

  4. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-10-17

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; repeating the last two steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 rhoCi/gm.

  5. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals, the slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The method comprises: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron, the reaction zone being maintained at a temperature within the range of from about 60{degrees} to 90{degrees} C. and the weight of ratio of slag to acid being within the range of from about 1:2 to 1:6 to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; and repeating steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm.

  6. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  7. Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method

    PubMed Central

    Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098

  8. SPOPS statement of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong Hyeon

    2015-03-01

    The Simulation Programme for Overhead contact lines - Pantograph System (SPOPS) is based on a two-dimensional finite element model of an overhead contact line and a lumped mass model for a pantograph. The SPOPS allows for a lateral change of contact points between the pantograph and the contact wire and for the rolling motions of contact strips in the pantograph model. Thus, the programme can consider the stagger of a contact wire in a dynamic simulation. Either a penalty method or a Lagrange multiplier method can be chosen to model the contact phenomenon between a pantograph and a contact wire. According to pantograph-catenary benchmark results, the simulation results obtained from the SPOPS are very close to the average values of the simulation results obtained from programmes implemented in the benchmark work in all cases, including a three-dimensional (3-D) case. These benchmark results demonstrate that the SPOPS is as accurate as other fully 3-D simulation programmes while utilising minimal computational efforts.

  9. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.W.; Segre, E.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for obtaining a compound of uranium in an extremely pure state and in such a condition that it can be used in determinations of the isotopic composition of uranium. Uranium deposited in calutron receivers is removed therefrom by washing with cold nitric acid and the resulting solution, coataining uranium and trace amounts of various impurities, such as Fe, Ag, Zn, Pb, and Ni, is then subjected to various analytical manipulations to obtain an impurity-free uranium containing solution. This solution is then evaporated on a platinum disk and the residue is ignited converting it to U2/sub 3//sub 8/. The platinum disk having such a thin film of pure U/sub 2/O/sub 8/ is suitable for use with isotopic determination techaiques.

  10. Method for controlling brazing

    DOEpatents

    Hosking, F. Michael; Hall, Aaron C.; Givler, Richard C.; Walker, Charles A.

    2006-08-01

    A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.

  11. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  12. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  13. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  14. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  15. METHOD FOR PREPARING NORMORPHINE

    DOEpatents

    Rapoport, H.; Look, M.

    1959-06-01

    An improved method is presented for producing normorphine from morphine. Morphine as the starting material is acetylated by treatment with acetylating agents to produce di-acetyl morphine (heroin). The acetylated compound is reacted with cyanating agents to produce di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine (cyanonorheroin). The di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine compound is then treated in accordance with the improved hydrolysis reactions of the present invention in which concentrated hydrochloric acid is employed for a limited time period to hydrolyze the acetyl group therefrom forming cyanonormorphine. Subsequently, the reaction mixture is diluted and hydrolysis of the cyano groups from the cyanonormorphine is effected with a longer contact time with dilute hydrochloric acid thereby producing normorphine. A high over-all conversion and production of a high purity product which may be radioactlvely labeled, if desired, is obtained by operation of the process.

  16. Pumpable rockbolt method

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Manowitz, Bernard; Waide, Charles H.

    1976-01-06

    Method and apparatus for producing rockbolts in the roof of a subterranean cavity in which two components of an ambient temperature curable resin system are premixed and then inserted into a bore hole. The mixture is permitted to polymerize in situ and then the hardened material is cut off at the entrance to the hole leaving a hardened portion for insertion into the next hole as a precursor. In a preferred embodiment a flexible glass roving is employed to reinforce the material in the hole and a metal tube inserted to support the roving while it is fed into the hole and also to provide venting. The roving and tube is then cut off and left in the hole.

  17. Tensiometer methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2004-08-10

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  18. Catalysts and method

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  19. Methods for studying oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Andrew M; Cooley, Lynn

    2014-06-15

    Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more. The large size and relatively simple organization of egg chambers make them ideally suited for microscopy of both living and fixed whole mount tissue. A wide range of tools is available for oogenesis research. Newly available shRNA transgenic lines provide an alternative to classic loss-of-function F2 screens and clonal screens. Gene expression can be specifically controlled in either germline or somatic cells using the Gal4/UAS system. Protein trap lines provide fluorescent tags of proteins expressed at endogenous levels for live imaging and screening backgrounds. This review provides information on many available reagents and key methods for research in oogenesis.

  20. Microencapsulation system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  1. Microencapsulation system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  2. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  3. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  4. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  5. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  6. Method for radioactivity monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.

    1976-10-26

    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  7. Acoustophoresis separation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absorptions. The wave has a frequency tuned to or harmonized with the point of resonance of the species to be separated. This wave causes the species to be driven to an opposite end of the sample container for removal. A second ultrasonic transducer may be provided to apply a second, oppositely directed acoustic wave to prevent undesired streaming. In addition, a radio frequency tuned to the mechanical resonance and coupled with a magnetic field can serve to identify a species in a medium comprising species with similar absorption coefficients, whereby an acoustic wave having a frequency corresponding to this gyrational rate can then be applied to sweep the identified species to one end of the container for removal.

  8. Method for stabilizing hydroisomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, I.A.; Eadie, D.T.; MacDonald, J.M.; Hamner, G.P.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a method for improving the daylight stability of a lube oil base stock or blending stock produced by the isomerization of slack wax containing from 0% to 25% oil coming from the dewaxing of conventional petroleum crude oils. It comprises: hydrorefining the total liquid product produced in the petroleum slack wax isomerization unit the hydrorefining being practiced under mild conditions the conditions including a temperature of 170[degrees] to 270[degrees]C, a flow velocity of 0.25 to 10 v/v/hr., a pressure of 300 to 1500 psi h[sub 2], and a hydrogen gas rate of 500 to 10,000 SCF H[sub 2]/bbl using a Group VIII metal on halogenated refractory metal oxide catalyst.

  9. Connector pin and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electrical connector and method includes a connector and a conforming element proximate to or in contact with the mating end of the connector so as to prevent distortion of a matable end. The matable end of the connector may be of a female or male type and may be of a post, tube, blade, pin, or other configuration. An element made of conforming material, for example, an elastomer, epoxy or rubber type material, is configured and positioned in contact with the matable end of the connector, providing support during assembly to prevent distortion of the matable end. The conforming element may be rectangular, wedge, cylindrical, conical, annular, or of another configuration as required to provide support to the connector pin. The conforming element may be fastened with an adhesive to the matable end to further prevent distortion.

  10. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R [Idaho Falls, ID; Clark, Denis E [Idaho Falls, ID; Smartt, Herschel B [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Karen S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  11. Sand consolidation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.

    1984-01-24

    Methods are provided for selectively consolidating sand grains within a subterranean formation. First an acidic salt catalyst such as ZnCl/sub 2/ is injected into the subterranean formation, wherein the acidic salt catalyst is adsorbed to the surface of the sand grains. Next a polymerizable resin composition such as furfuryl alcohol oligomer is introduced into the well formation. Polymerization of the resin occurs upon exposure to the elevated well temperatures and contact with the acid salt catalyst adsorbed to the sand grains. The polymerized resin serves to consolidate the surfaces of the sand grains while retaining permeability through the pore spaces. An ester of a weak organic acid is included with the resin compositions to control the extent of a polymerization by consuming the water by-product formed druing the polymerization reaction.

  12. Well system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, H.P.; Heard, T.J.

    1982-10-26

    A method and apparatus especially adapted for use with an injection well in which a valve controlled h-member interconnects the two tubings of a two tubing installation and landing nipples are attached to the lower legs of the h-member to receive expendable fluid control means, such as standing valves, in which pressure applied to one tubing to create a pressure differential will move the valve controlling the interconnection between the H -members to open position to permit tfl operations to be carried out in the well and thereafter pressure exerted on a ball supported on the valve member of the control valve for the hmember closes the control valve, and the ball passes through the control valve. The fluid control members in the landing nipples may be ejected either before or after closing of the valve in the h-member.

  13. Baryons with functional methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    We summarise recent results on the spectrum of ground-state and excited baryons and their form factors in the framework of functional methods. As an improvement upon similar approaches we explicitly take into account the underlying momentum-dependent dynamics of the quark-gluon interaction that leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. For light octet and decuplet baryons we find a spectrum in very good agreement with experiment, including the level ordering between the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states. Comparing the three-body framework with the quark-diquark approximation, we do not find significant differences in the spectrum for those states that have been calculated in both frameworks. This situation is different in the electromagnetic form factor of the Δ, which may serve to distinguish both pictures by comparison with experiment and lattice QCD.

  14. Dominant modal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  15. Method for maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

  16. Parametric lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae Wan

    2017-06-01

    The discretized equilibrium distributions of the lattice Boltzmann method are presented by using the coefficients of the Lagrange interpolating polynomials that pass through the points related to discrete velocities and using moments of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The ranges of flow velocity and temperature providing positive valued distributions vary with regulating discrete velocities as parameters. New isothermal and thermal compressible models are proposed for flows of the level of the isothermal and thermal compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Thermal compressible shock tube flows are simulated by only five on-lattice discrete velocities. Two-dimensional isothermal and thermal vortices provoked by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are simulated by the parametric models.

  17. Ticks and control methods.

    PubMed

    Jongejan, F; Uilenberg, G

    1994-12-01

    Ticks are the most important ectoparasites of livestock in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and are responsible for severe economic losses both through the direct effects of blood sucking and indirectly as vectors of pathogens and toxins. Feeding by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight gain and anaemia among domestic animals, while tick bites also reduce the quality of hides. However, the major losses caused by ticks are due to the ability to transmit protozoan, rickettsial and viral diseases of livestock, which are of great economic importance world-wide. The authors review general aspects of tick biology, the taxonomy, pathogenic effects and vector role of these species, and methods for the control of ticks. The distribution of ticks is continuously changing, as illustrated by the spread of the African tick Amblyomma variegatum in the Caribbean, where a large-scale eradication campaign is now under way.

  18. Method for synthesizing HMX

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Raymond R.; Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

  19. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  20. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  1. Consolidation agent and method

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a sand consolidating method for an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation. It comprises perforating a cased borehole at an interval expected to produce fines or sand when producing hydrocarbonaceous fluids from the interval; injecting an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate into the interval through perforations contained in the borehole which solution is of a strength sufficient to react with an alcoholic solution of calcium salt to form a permeability retention cement; and injecting thereafter a solvent containing a calcium salt into the interval via the perforations in an amount sufficient to react with the alkali metal silicate so as to form a calcium silicate cement with permeability retention characteristics whereupon the interval is consolidated in a manner sufficient to prevent formation sand from being produced from the formation during the production of hydrocarbonaceous fluids, which solvent is selected from a member of the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, higher alcohols, ketones, tetrahydrofuran, and dimethyl sulfoxide.

  2. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  3. Geophysical methods: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  4. Standard environmental test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  5. GALFACTS RFI Excision Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrecut, M.; Guram, S. S.; George, S. J.; Taylor, A. R.

    2011-07-01

    Radio astronomical observations are susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) contamination. In this case, the signal from astrophysical sources is distorted due to close, and relatively strong, radio emissions from other sources operating on the same frequency spectrum (communication services, for example). As a consequence, the observed data needs to be cleaned, by removing the undesired RFI components, while preserving as much of the underlying useful information as possible. As the data acquisition rates of radio telescopes increases and observations bandwidth extend beyond protected spectral allocations, software systems to mitigate RFI signals are becoming critical. Here, we discuss some of the RFI excision methods implemented in the data processing pipeline of the Galactic ALFA Continuum Survey (GALFACTS), which is a large-area spectro-polarimetric survey being carried out with the Arecibo Radio telescope in Puerto Rico.

  6. Laser device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J. D.

    1985-06-25

    A simplified, relatively inexpensive laser device, wherein the laser elements are fixed in a body exoskeleton of electrical insulating material having a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The preferred embodiment includes a shotgun type laser filter having parallel bores which receive the laser flashlamp and laser rod in fixed relation in a body chamber. The reflector surrounds the laser filter and retains the filter within the body chamber. In the preferred method of this invention, several controlled lasing pulses are generated with each illumination pulse of the flashlamp, substantially increasing the efficiency of the laser device. The number of pulses is generally controlled by increasing the voltage to the flashlamp. The rapid multiple lasing pulses generate an elongated plasma in a fluid medium, such as the vitreous fluid body of an eye which makes the laser device extemely efficient for treating glaucoma and other medical treatments.

  7. METHOD OF SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.

    1958-08-26

    A process is presented fer separating uranium, plutonium, and fission products ions from uranyl nitrate solutions having a pH value between 1 and 3 obtained by dissolving neutron irradiated uranium. The method consists in passing such solutions through a bed of cation exchange resin, which may be a sulfonated phenol formaidehyde type. Following the adsorption step the resin is first treated with a solution of 0.2M to 0.3M sulfuric acid to desorb the uranium. Fission product ions are then desorbed by treating the resin in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid. Lastly, the plutonium may be desorbed by treating the resin with a solution approximately 0.8M in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid.

  8. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  9. Ophthalmic method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evvard, J. C.; Mcgannon, W. J.; Vargo, D. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing material and components such as the lens from an eye is described. High speed rotary cutting members at one end of a rod macerate the lens while an annular tubing disposed around the cutting members vibrates ultrasonically to coact with the cutting members in macerating the lens. At the same time, a liquid is supplied to the chamber behind the cornea of the eye. Spiral grooves extending along the rotating rod from the cutting members evacuate the liquid and the macerated material from the eye. An alternate embodiment of the apparatus includes a tube through which liquid is supplied to the operative site of the ultrasonically vibrating tube and the cutting members in the area of the lens.

  10. Unconventional methods for clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.

  11. The algebraic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, P. A.; Hurth, T.; Steinhauser, M.

    2001-09-01

    Combining the effect of an intermediate renormalization prescription (zero momentum subtraction) and the background field method (BFM), we show that the algebraic renormalization procedure needed for the computation of radiative corrections within non-invariant regularization schemes is drastically simplified. The present technique is suitable for gauge models and, here, is applied to the Standard Model. The use of the BFM allows a powerful organization of the counterterms and avoids complicated Slavnov-Taylor identities. Furthermore, the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) variation of background fields plays a special role in disentangling Ward-Takahashi identities (WTI) and Slavnov-Taylor identities (STI). Finally, the strategy to be applied to physical processes is exemplified for the process b→ sγ.

  12. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  13. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  14. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  15. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  16. Error detection method

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  17. Gas centrifuge purge method

    DOEpatents

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  18. Characterization Methods of Encapsulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

    , reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.

  19. Method of bonding

    DOEpatents

    Saller, deceased, Henry A.; Hodge, Edwin S.; Paprocki, Stanley J.; Dayton, Russell W.

    1987-12-01

    1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

  20. Flood mapping by combining the strengths of optical and Sentinel active radar remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, H. C.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Westerhoff, R.; Huizinga, J.; Villars, N.; Bishop, C.

    2012-04-01

    Flood mapping with remote sensing plays an important role in large scale disaster management procedures. For this purpose, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) gained experience since 1993 with the production of flood maps from optical satellite imagery and has currently established, together with NASA collaborators, a fully automated, global, near real-time service. Another consortium is also presently working on an automated, near real-time, global flood mapping procedure called the 'Global Flood Observatory' (GFO), which will make use of high resolution Sentinel data. The procedure is currently tested on Envisat active radar (ASAR) imagery. Both the DFO and GFO projects provide open data output of their data and maps. The optical and radar approaches to flood mapping each have advantages and suffer from shortcomings. Optical remote sensing via the U.S. MODIS and VIIRS sensors is constrained by cloud cover but can attain a high revisit frequency (>2 /day), whereas the Envisat ASAR is not affected by cloud cover, but uses a lower revisit frequency (generally once/3 days, depending on the location). In this contribution, we demonstrate the combination of both approaches into one flood mapping result. This results in improved flood mapping in a case study over the Chao Phraya basin (Bangkok surroundings) during the recent October-November 2011 extreme flooding. The combined map shows that during overpass, ASAR reveals flooded regions over cloud-obscured areas, which clearly follow elevated features in the landscape such as roads, embankments and railways. Meanwhile, the high frequency of delivery of the optical information ensures timely information. Also, the quite different water classification methods used for the optical and ASAR data sources show good agreement and have been successfully merged into one GIS data product. This can also be automatically generated and disseminated on a global basis.

  1. Proposed Revisions to Method 202

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing the following revisions to Method 202: Revisions to the procedures for determining the systematic error of the method, which is used to correct the results of the measurements made using this method; Removes some procedural options to

  2. Location predicting methods for UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Location prediction of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is important for fighting with its enemy and ensuring its normal operation. This paper presents the motion model of UAVs and reduces the state space into 7 dimensions. The Bayesian Network, Markov Chain, Curve Fitting and Neural Network are introduced for designing predicting methods. Then Curve Fitting Predicting method, Markov Chain Predicting method, Bayesian Network Predicting method and Neural Network Predicting method are designed for UAVs. The simulation result shows that 1) Neural Network Predicting method has highest predicting accuracy; 2) Markov Chain Predicting method and Bayesian Network Predicting method methods have similar performance and both are better than Bayesian Network Predicting method methods; 3) Neural Network Predicting method is the first choice when predicting the locations of UAVs.

  3. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  4. Methods of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J L

    1992-03-01

    Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine

  5. Measurement System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    System and methods are disclosed for fluid measurements which may be utilized to determine mass flow rates such as instantaneous mass flow of a fluid stream. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention may be utilized to compare an input mass flow to an output mass flow of a drilling fluid circulation stream. In one embodiment, a fluid flow rate is determined by utilizing a microwave detector in combination with an acoustic sensor. The acoustic signal is utilized to eliminate 2pi phase ambiguities in a reflected microwave signal. In another embodiment, a fluid flow rate may be determined by detecting a phase shift of an acoustic signal across two different predetermined transmission paths. A fluid density may be determined by detecting a calibrated phase shift of an acoustic signal through the fluid. In another embodiment, a second acoustic signal may be transmitted through the fluid to define a particular 2pi phase range which defines the phase shift. The present invention may comprise multiple transmitters/receivers operating at different frequencies to measure instantaneous fuel levels of cryogenic fuels within containers positioned in zero or near zero gravity environments. In one embodiment, a moveable flexible collar of transmitter/receivers may be utilized to determine inhomogenuities within solid rocket fuel tubes.

  6. Singularity Expansion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, Lloyd Stephen

    In this work the transient currents induced on an arbitrary system of thin linear scatterers by an electromagnetic plane wave are solved by using an electric field integral equation (EFIE) formulation. The transient analysis is carried out using the singularity expansion method (SEM). The general analysis developed here is useful for assessing the vulnerability of military aircraft to a nuclear generated electromagnetic pulse (EMP). It is also useful as a modal synthesis tool in the analysis and design of frequency selective surfaces (FSS). SEM parameters for a variety of thin cylindrical geometries have been computed. Specifically, SEM poles, modes, coupling coefficients, and transient currents are given for the two and three element planar array. Poles and modes for planar arrays with a larger number (as many as eight) of identical equally spaced elements are also considered. SEM pole-mode results are given for identical parallel elements with ends located at the vertices of a regular N-agon. Pole-mode patterns are found for symmetric (and slightly perturbed) single junction N-arm elements and for the five junction Jerusalem cross. The Jerusalem cross element has been used extensively in FSS.

  7. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

    1997-07-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

  8. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, Sterling; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    1997-01-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

  9. Consolidatable gravel pack method

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Surles, B.W.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for forming a consolidated gravel pack in a washed-out cavity adjacent to a producing well penetrating a subterranean oil formation comprising the steps of: (a) forming a quantity of resin coated gravel comprising granular mineral particles including gravel, the gravel particles being coated with a resin fluid containing a polymerizable oligomer of furfuryl alcohol resin, a catalyst comprising an oil soluble, very slightly water soluble organic acid and an ester of a weak organic acid to consume water produced by the polymerization of resin, the polymer coated gravel comprising a sticky solid material; (b) preparing an aqueous saline carrier fluid comprising water which is from 70 to 100% saturated with sodium chloride; (c) suspending the resin-coated gravel in the carrier fluid, forming a fluid mixture of resin-coated gravel and carrier fluid; (d) introducing the fluid mixture comprising the resin coated gravel particles suspended in the aqueous saline carrier fluid into the washed-out cavity of the formation adjacent to the producing well and shutting in the well for sufficient period of time to allow polymerization of the resin, forming the permeable gravel pack in the washed-out cavity of the formation.

  10. Mimetic finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.

  11. The Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, D W; Randall, R L

    1993-10-01

    While the use of external fixators is not revolutionary, the Ilizarov apparatus has dramatically improved the application of the principles of external fixation to the management of bony defects, malunions, infections, and pseudarthroses. Since its formal introduction in Western Siberia in 1951 by Gavril Abramovich Ilizarov, an international cadre of surgeons has employed its methods to pioneer modern limb salvaging procedures. Such techniques are made possible by the numerous advantages, including immediate loading of the limb postoperatively, and the use of healthy viable bone to replace devascularized dead bone "in situ" by osteoclasis, localized transport and osteogenesis. Accordingly, leg length discrepancy, deformity and infected nonunions may all be treated effectively. The basic premise of the llizarov technique is that osteogenesis can occur at a surgical osteotomy site given the appropriate degree of retained vascularity, fixation and quantified distraction. This dogma is a function of many variables which Ilizarov classified into three categories; biological, clinical, and technical. First, biologic variables include preservation of endosteal and periosteal blood supply via corticotomy and stable fixation to prevent shear forces, but to permit axial dynamization with postoperative weight bearing. Distraction should occur at approximately 1 mm. per day divided into four times per day. At the termination of distraction, neutral fixation should be permitted to allow strengthening of the new bone. In essence, the technique fools the body into believing it is a child again. The corticotomy sites now act as physes.

  12. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  13. Method for biological purification

    DOEpatents

    Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila

    2001-03-27

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  14. Bismuth generator method

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane Allan; DesChane, Jaquetta R.

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.

  15. Bismuth generator method

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.

    1998-05-05

    A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.

  16. Method for etherifications

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-03-12

    A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

  17. Method for etherifications

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.

  18. Test methods: anabolics.

    PubMed

    Saugy, M; Cardis, C; Robinson, N; Schweizer, C

    2000-03-01

    In the International Olympic Committee (IOC) accredited laboratories, specific methods have been developed to detect anabolic steroids in athletes' urine. The technique of choice to achieve this is gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In order to improve the efficiency of anti-doping programmes, the laboratories have defined new analytical strategies. The final sensitivity of the analytical procedure can be improved by choosing new technologies for use in detection, such as tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) or high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A better sample preparation using immuno-affinity chromatography (IAC) is also a good tool for improving sensitivity. These techniques are suitable for the detection of synthetic anabolic steroids whose structure is not found naturally in the human body. The more and more evident use, on a large scale, of substances chemically similar to the endogenous steroids obliges both the laboratory and the sports authorities to use the steroid profile of the athlete in comparison with reference ranges from a population or with intraindividual reference values.

  19. Detector Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.

  20. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.