Science.gov

Sample records for methods issues opportunities

  1. Household Waste. Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Andy; And Others

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide citizens with information about household waste and to indicate how they can contribute to its reduction. Information indicates how each individual can reduce waste by adopting new habits, making informed choices, and becoming involved in community action. Discussed are: (1) specific issues of general and…

  2. Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; et al

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimentalmore » and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.« less

  3. Issues and Opportunities in Exotic Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, R. A.; Cohen, T. D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, J. J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; Lebed, R. F.; Machado, F. A.; Mitchell, R. E.; Morningstar, C. J.; Peardon, M.; Pennington, M. R.; Peters, K.; Richard, J. M.; Shen, C. P.; Shepherd, M. R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Swanson, E. S.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Yuan, C. Z.

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy (Cohen); the Institute of Modern Physics and Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract Y104160YQ0 and agreement No. 2015-BH-02 (Coito); the U.S. Department of Energy, for grant DE-AC05-06OR23177, under which Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, manages and operates Jefferson Laboratory and DE-SC0006765, Early Career award (Dudek); Fermilab, operated by the Fermi Research Alliance under contract number DEAC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy (Eichten); BMBF, under contract No. 06GI7121, and the DAAD under contract No. 56889822 and by the Helmholtz International Center for FAIR within the LOEWE program of the State of Hesse (Fischer); the German Research Foundation DFG under contract number Collaborative Research Centre CRC-1044 (Gradl); the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, Grant No. 305894/2009-9 and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP, Grant No. 2013/01907-0 (Krein); U.S. National Science Foundation, under grants PHY-1068286 and PHY-1403891 (Lebed); the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development under grant CNPq/CAPES-208188/2014-2 (Machado); U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-05ER41374

  4. Issues and opportunities in space photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Robert W.; Somerville, W. A.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    Space power sources are becoming a central focus for determining man's potential and schedule for exploring and utilizing the benefits of space. The ability to search, probe, survey, and communicate throughout the universe will depend on providing adequate power to the instruments to do these jobs. Power requirements for space platforms are increasing and will continue to increase into the 21st century. Photovoltaics have been a dependable power source for space for the last 30 years and have served as the primary source of power on virtually all DOD and NASA satellites. The performance of silicon (Si) solar cells has increased from 10 percent air mass zero (AM0) solar energy conversion efficiency in the early 60's to almost 15 percent on today's spacecraft. Some technologists even think that the potential for solar photovoltaics has reached a plateau. However, present and near-future Air Force and NASA requirements show needs that, if the problems are looked upon as opportunities, can elevate the photovoltaic power source scientist and array structure engineer into the next technological photovoltaic growth curve.

  5. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Griffin, Mr. Bob; Wright, Anthony L

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  6. Evaluating Broader Impacts: Issues and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elthon, D.

    2010-12-01

    The NSF expects that funded projects will include activities that have intrinsic Intellectual Merit and that promote the Broader Impacts (BI) of this work to those outside the immediate research community. These BI activities take many forms, but often involve collaborations with schools, informal science centers, and media developers in efforts to promote the public understanding of science, encourage a talented and diverse pool of students to pursue careers in science, and illustrate the benefits society derives from scientific discoveries. A critical question is how to evaluate individual BI activities and the overall portfolio of BI activities. What are the metrics for success? How can evaluation results be used to improve the BI portfolio? Evaluation of BI activities is complicated by several factors, including: [1] The scope of BI activities is highly variable across different types of NSF-funded projects. Individual research projects typically have limited BI activities, with only modest funding (<10%) designated for these efforts, and evaluation efforts are rare. On the other hand, large projects such as research centers and major facilities typically have dedicated BI/education specialists and formal evaluation expertise. An additional complication is that many BI activities are unique or have novel aspects that reflect the local circumstances and opportunities, but make it difficult to develop broadly-applicable evaluation instruments;[2] There is not consensus on the perspective from which the evaluation should be conducted. Scientists, participants (teachers, students, museum/aquarium personnel), and the funding agencies typically have differing objectives and metrics for BI projects. [3] The timeframe for conducting any evaluation is frequently limited to a few years, placing limitations on the scope of the evaluation effort. Long-term learning, career impacts, and changes in cultural attitudes or perceptions are difficult to assess under this

  7. The geologist and public policy issues, opportunities and obligations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W. )

    1993-03-01

    Historically, geologists have been perceived by the public as solely involved in resource exploration and production or geologic hazards mitigation. This generally included mining, oil drilling, landslide or earthquake (after the fact) comments, and rock or mineral collecting. These operations have come to be associated with land exploitation involving extraction of non-renewable resources, and often, in consequence, pollution. These generic activities may not currently be considered environmentally sound or politically correct. Because of the high visibility of environmental issues in recent years, geologists now have an opportunity to offer necessary input contributing to solutions for many of these problems. Indeed, geologists must be thought of as part of the solution, and thus alter public perception that geologists are facilitators of environmental damage. After all, who may better protect and conserve the earth and its environments than people trained in the Earth Sciences Governmental and industry or consulting geologists are now involved in a wide range of interpretative geologic decisions regarding a cross-section of activities aimed at development and conservation of lands and natural resources. These can be grouped in generalized categories including: waste disposal issues, water resources issues, land-use planning and zoning issues, and resource conservation or regulation requirements.

  8. The Data Issue: Opportunities and Challenges for Scientific Publishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Using the recent report for the 'Opportunities in Data Exchange' Project produced by - and for - researchers, libraries/data centres and publishers (and which is based on a broad range of studies, questionnaires and evidence) we have defined current practices and expectations, and the gaps and dilemmas involved in producing data and datasets, and then analysed their relationship to formal publications. As a result, we identified potential opportunities to evolve scientific insights to be more useful and re-useful: with consequent implications for custodianship and long-term data management. We also defined a number of key incentives and barriers towards achieving these objectives. As a case study, the earth and environmental sciences have come under particularly close scrutiny with respect to data-ownership and -sharing arrangements, sometimes with damaging results to the discipline's reputation. These issues, along with considerable technological challenges, have to be handled effectively in order to best support all the users along the data chain. To that end, we show that key stakeholders - among them scientific publishers - need to have a clear idea of how to progress data-intensive derived information, which we demonstrate is often not the case. Towards bridging this knowledge gap, we have compiled a roadmap of next steps and key issues to be acknowledged and addressed by the scientific publishing community. These include: engaging directly with researchers, policy-makers, funding bodies and direct competitors to build innovative partnerships and enhance impact; providing technological and training investment and developing alongside the emerging discipline of 'data scientist': the 'data publisher'. This individual/company will need to combine a close understanding of researchers' priorities, together with market, legal and technical opportunities and restrictions.

  9. Virtual Environments: Issues and Opportunities for Researching Inclusive Educational Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    This chapter argues that virtual environments offer new research areas for those concerned with inclusive education. Further, it proposes that they also present opportunities for developing increasingly inclusive research processes. This chapter considers how researchers might approach researching some of these affordances. It discusses the relationship between specific features of inclusive pedagogy, derived from an international systematic literature review, and the affordances of different forms of virtual characters and environments. Examples are drawn from research in Second LifeTM (SL), virtual tutors and augmented reality. In doing this, the chapter challenges a simplistic notion of isolated physical and virtual worlds and, in the context of inclusion, between the practice of research and the research topic itself. There are a growing number of virtual worlds in which identified educational activities are taking place, or whose activities are being noted for their educational merit. These encompasses non-themed worlds such as SL and Active Worlds, game based worlds such as World of Warcraft and Runescape, and even Club Penguin, a themed virtual where younger players interact through a variety of Penguin themed environments and activities. It has been argued that these spaces, outside traditional education, are able to offer pedagogical insights (Twining 2009) i.e. that these global virtual communities have been identified as being useful as creative educational environments (Delwiche 2006; Sheehy 2009). This chapter will explore how researchers might use these spaces to investigative and create inclusive educational experiences for learners. In order to do this the chapter considers three interrelated issues: What is inclusive education?; How might inclusive education influence virtual world research? And, what might inclusive education look like in virtual worlds?

  10. Transformative research issues and opportunities in energy efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article presents a summary of research opportunities in energy efficiency identified in a workshop by a panel of experts assembled for the Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation Division of the U.S. National Science Foundation. The workshop and article are restricted to two areas – red...

  11. Reducing Dropout Rates through Expanded Learning Opportunities. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Laura; Princiotta, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Expanded learning opportunities (ELOs), which include afterschool, summer learning, and extended day and extended year programs, can help states reduce dropout rates and increase graduation rates. Effective elementary, middle, and high school ELOs support academic rigor, boost student engagement, and provide students with supportive relationships.…

  12. Secondary Use of EHR: Data Quality Issues and Informatics Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Chen, Fei; Weng, Chunhua

    2010-03-01

    Given the large-scale deployment of Electronic Health Records (EHR), secondary use of EHR data will be increasingly needed in all kinds of health services or clinical research. This paper reports some data quality issues we encountered in a survival analysis of pancreatic cancer patients. Using the clinical data warehouse at Columbia University Medical Center in the City of New York, we mined EHR data elements collected between 1999 and 2009 for a cohort of pancreatic cancer patients. Of the 3068 patients who had ICD-9-CM diagnoses for pancreatic cancer, only 1589 had corresponding disease documentation in pathology reports. Incompleteness was the leading data quality issue; many study variables had missing values to various degrees. Inaccuracy and inconsistency were the next common problems. In this paper, we present the manifestations of these data quality issues and discuss some strategies for using emerging informatics technologies to solve these problems.

  13. Universal coverage for children: alternatives, key issues, and political opportunities.

    PubMed

    Berman, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes four alternatives for expanding childhood insurance coverage, discusses key health policy issues, and assesses the political possibilities for enacting universal coverage. Alternatives are (1) a single federal child health program for all children; (2) a hybrid federal child health program (replacing Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program [SCHIP]), combined with employer coverage; (3) a new federal wraparound program for the uninsured (that keeps the existing Medicaid program); and (4) expansion of SCHIP. Key policy issues include the type of universal coverage, use of competing commercial health plans, financing, employer and individual mandates, and the definition of benefits.

  14. LCLS optics: Selected technological issues and scientific opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, R.

    1993-03-01

    The Stanford Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) promises to generate photon pulses of unprecedented brevity and peak brightness in the soft x-ray range. In this presentation selected limitations and novel opportunities for technology and science associated with the availability of such pulses will be briefly assessed. Special emphasis will be placed on possible techniques for extending the peak power density and the temporal and spectral regimes of the LCLS output radiation by orders of magnitude beyond their nominal (calculated) values, and to the associated instrumentation for processing this radiation.

  15. Tufts Health Sciences Database: Lessons, Issues, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mary Y.; Albright, Susan A.; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A.; Wang, Paul J.; Eaton, Elizabeth K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database, a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. Identifies major effects on teaching and learning. Also addresses issues of faculty development, copyright and…

  16. An Issues-Driven Approach to Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Neil D.

    2001-01-01

    An active participant in Indiana's and Washington's school-finance-reform process explains why one-size solutions pinch hardest on urban schools and how an issues-driven approach can keep states from being prematurely pushed to the "solution stage" of their deliberations. Child-centered approaches generally trump standards-based regimens. (MLH)

  17. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-05-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Abuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  18. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-09-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the US Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  19. National policies for biosphere greenhouse gas management: issues and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Steven A

    2002-11-01

    Biosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) management consists of preserving and enhancing terrestrial carbon pools and producing biomass as a fossil fuel substitute. The discussion of this topic has focused primarily on carbon-accounting and project-level issues, particularly relating to carbon sequestration as a source of emissions credits under the Kyoto Protocol. While international consensus on these matters is needed, this paper argues that an important domestic policy agenda also deserves attention. National policies for biosphere GHG management are necessary to bring about large-scale changes in land-use, forestry, and agricultural practices and can address some of the technical and policy issues that have proven to be particularly problematic from carbon-accounting and project-level perspectives. These policies should minimize land-use and resource-management conflicts, account for collateral benefits, and ensure institutional compatibility with existing resource-management regimes. Issues relating to project permanence, leakage, and transaction costs should also be addressed. A range of policy instruments should be used and biosphere GHG management should be one component of an integrated approach to environmental and resource management. Countries promoting biosphere GHG management as an important element of their climate change strategies should be developing these domestic policies to complement international negotiations and to demonstrate that carbon sequestration and biomass production can make an effective contribution to the stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations.

  20. A DOE Computer Code Toolbox: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A.M. III

    2001-06-12

    The initial activities of a Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Analysis Software Group to establish a Safety Analysis Toolbox of computer models are discussed. The toolbox shall be a DOE Complex repository of verified and validated computer models that are configuration-controlled and made available for specific accident analysis applications. The toolbox concept was recommended by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board staff as a mechanism to partially address Software Quality Assurance issues. Toolbox candidate codes have been identified through review of a DOE Survey of Software practices and processes, and through consideration of earlier findings of the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence Evaluation program sponsored by the DOE National Nuclear Security Agency/Office of Defense Programs. Planning is described to collect these high-use codes, apply tailored SQA specific to the individual codes, and implement the software toolbox concept. While issues exist such as resource allocation and the interface among code developers, code users, and toolbox maintainers, significant benefits can be achieved through a centralized toolbox and subsequent standardized applications.

  1. Transformative research issues and opportunities in alternative energy generation and storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, A.; Chung, Y. W.; Blaschek, H.; Butterfield, S.; Chance, R. R.; Ferekides, C.; Robinson, M.; Snyder, S. W; Thackeray, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a summary of research issues and opportunities in alternative energy source research identified by panels of experts assembled by the Engineering Directorate of the US National Science Foundation. The objective was to identify transformative research issues and opportunities to make alternative energy sources viable. The article presents motivations for energy research, grand challenges, and specific challenges in the research areas covered. The grand challenges identified for the United States include supplying 30% of US electricity from photovoltaics by 2030, supplying 25% of US electricity from wind by 2025, displacing 30% of US hydrocarbon use by 2030 with bio-based products, and providing a practical 250-300 W h/kg energy storage system by 2025. Similar challenges could be outlined along the same lines for the remainder of the world. Examples of specific areas of research focus identified as promising include high performance p-type transparent conductors, multijunction thin-film photovoltaic devices, defects in chalcogenide semiconductors, experimental study and numerical modeling of the fluid mechanics of airflow as applied to wind turbines, improved materials for wind turbines, methods for creating high energy density transportable biological feedstocks, biorefinery processes yielding infrastructure-compatible biofuels and biochemicals directly, and improved electrodes and electrolytes for Li ion batteries. Arguments for each of these as research priorities are given.

  2. Using Statistics to Explore Cross-Curricular and Social Issues Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    The area of statistics is one in which teachers may be encouraged to make important links to other curriculum areas and social issues. Statistical literacy is a key component of being numerate and living as an informed citizen. The teaching of statistics provides an opportunity to inform and educate students about social issues and moral…

  3. Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Challenges and Opportunities for Education About Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences workshop was held to engage the life sciences community on the particular security issues related to research with dual use potential. More than 60 participants from almost 30 countries took part and included practicing life scientists, bioethics and…

  4. Coordination of care in disease management: opportunities and financial issues.

    PubMed

    Mosley, C

    2000-01-01

    , the other critical component is the ability to have adequate income to stay in business, and make a profit. Each becomes very astute at working within the confines of the regulatory restrictions to provide good care. However, the continuity of care cannot be the overwhelming issue for many of the providers. The only person that is involved in every arena is the patient. The only provider that currently crosses over most arenas is the nephrologist. But the other element that exists in each arena is a payer.

  5. 78 FR 44104 - Notice of Intent To Issue a Funding Opportunity Announcement; Technical Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    .... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the intent to issue Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-FOA... also is to inform Federal agencies of the availability of technical assistance in advance of the FOA..., located at https://eere-exchange.energy.gov for the posting of the FOA. Upon release of a...

  6. Education Issues Raised by S.744: The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…

  7. Assessing Institutional Effectiveness: Issues, Methods, and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers was presented at a 1987 conference at which speakers presented personal perspectives on institutional effectiveness. Papers are organized under three major headings: "Managing Quality: Methods and Outcomes,""Institutional Response," and "Special Issues." Titles include: (1) "Managing the Meaning of Institutional…

  8. CELSS system control: issues, methods, and directions.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, C C; Blackwell, A L

    1992-01-01

    In the general control perspective, the CELSS concept implies a very complex system and presents challenges at every level. These challenges are generated by: (1) the prospect that the system will be inherently unstable, (2) the prospective difficulty of establishing an adequate mathematical model of the system for the purpose of control law synthesis (dimensionality is high, and the dynamics and interactive processes of some of the subsystems are not understood well), (3) assuring control law robustness (assuring that the resulting control law(s) will be effective over the domain of the specified uncertainties), (4) hardware realization of the control law, (5) hardware system robustness ("fault tolerance") and (6) achieving the logistics of the automation (or "management") aspects of the problem. A suggested organization of the problem, a sketch of the issues related to perceived difficulties, a commentary/evaluation of the issues, a review of methods available to address the issues, and a suggested strategy to address the broad CELSS systems control problem are presented.

  9. CELSS system control: issues, methods, and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Blackwell, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    In the general control perspective, the CELSS concept implies a very complex system and presents challenges at every level. These challenges are generated by: (1) the prospect that the system will be inherently unstable, (2) the prospective difficulty of establishing an adequate mathematical model of the system for the purpose of control law synthesis (dimensionality is high, and the dynamics and interactive processes of some of the subsystems are not understood well), (3) assuring control law robustness (assuring that the resulting control law(s) will be effective over the domain of the specified uncertainties), (4) hardware realization of the control law, (5) hardware system robustness ("fault tolerance") and (6) achieving the logistics of the automation (or "management") aspects of the problem. A suggested organization of the problem, a sketch of the issues related to perceived difficulties, a commentary/evaluation of the issues, a review of methods available to address the issues, and a suggested strategy to address the broad CELSS systems control problem are presented.

  10. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  11. Teaching Climate Change Science in Senior Secondary School: Issues, Barriers and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Rod; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite its difficulties, climate change can (and perhaps needs to) be taught rigorously to students by enquiry rather than through transmission and that such a method will enable students to make judgments on other issues of scientific controversy. It examines the issues and barriers to the teaching of climate change,…

  12. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    PubMed

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  13. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  14. Emerging technologies and web accessibility: research challenges and opportunities focussing on vision issues.

    PubMed

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    2012-01-01

    This is a technological review paper focussed on identifying both the research challenges and opportunities for further investigation arising from emerging technologies, and it does not aim to propose any recommendation or standard. It is focussed on blind and partially sighted World Wide Web (Web) users along with others who use assistive technologies. The Web is a fast moving interdisciplinary domain in which new technologies, techniques and research is in perpetual development. It is often difficult to maintain a holistic view of new developments within the multiple domains which together make up the Web. This suggests that knowledge of the current developments and predictions of future developments are additionally important for the accessibility community. Web accessibility has previously been characterised by the correction of our past mistakes to make the current Web fulfil the original vision of access for all. New technologies were not designed with accessibility in mind and technologies that could be useful for addressing accessibility issues were not identified or adopted by the accessibility community. We wish to enable the research community to undertake preventative measures and proactively address challenges, while recognising opportunities, before they become unpreventable or require retrospective technological enhancement. This article then reviews emerging trends within the Web and Web Accessibility domains.

  15. An essential need: creating opportunities for veterinary students and graduates to gain an appreciation of responsibilities and opportunities in global veterinary issues.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Bavia, M E; Stromberg, B E; Valadao, C; Wiles, W T; Diaz, J H; Bergquist, R

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation trends and bioterrorism issues have led to new concerns relating to public health, animal health, international trade and food security. There is an imperative to internationalise and strengthen global public health capacity by renewed emphasis on veterinary public health in veterinary education and increasing opportunities for elective experiential learning in public practice programmes for veterinary students. Recent experience with a US-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program is used as an example of potential ways in which veterinary students can gain an appreciation for global veterinary issues.

  16. Measuring and mapping threats to forests: issues and opportunities with an empirical study from Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially explicit tools for prioritizing conservation and land-use in human dominated landscapes are becoming common in recent years. Such efforts are also efficient in minimizing management costs and to provide future possible scenarios to aid management decisions. We propose and develop a spatially explicit framework and novel tool - Future Forest - for simulating scenarios for future forest management actions. We integrate both forest/vegetation characteristics, selected ecosystem services provided by corresponding forest/vegetation and nineteen possible threats and/or disturbances to forests that are either anthropogenic or occurring naturally, and may influence forest/vegetation characteristics and expected outcomes from forests. Our modelling framework provides options for necessary future actions either from conservation or from production forestry perspectives, and to ensure sustainable forest management in an area. In addition to that our threat assessment and mapping tool are useful in indentifying vulnerable zone of forests to specific anthropogenic, natural or other threats, and to take precautionary actions against each identified threats. We applied our modelling framework and spatial tool for measuring and mapping threats to a Bangladesh forest, with recommended actions to ensure sustainable forest management and to spatially prioritize zones for special management needs. We finally discuss issues and opportunities that our spatially explicit framework and novel tool may offer.

  17. Learning from Harvey Milk: The Limits and Opportunities of One Hero to Teach about LGBTQ People and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting a hero is a common response to including the history of marginalized people in the curriculum. Harvey Milk is becoming that hero as social studies curriculum responds to calls for including LGBTQ people. By studying Milk, what might young people learn about LGBTQ people, issues, and movements? What opportunities and limitations exist…

  18. Ending College Remediation: Consequences for Access and Opportunity. Policy Brief. ASHE/Lumina Fellows Series. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tara L.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent does eliminating remedial education impede or facilitate the opportunity to earn bachelor's degrees for underprepared students? Educating underprepared students is often viewed as one of the most challenging and complex issues facing higher education today. Recent policy decisions to end remedial education, however, signify a much…

  19. Fuzzy decision trees: issues and methods.

    PubMed

    Janikow, C Z

    1998-01-01

    Decision trees are one of the most popular choices for learning and reasoning from feature-based examples. They have undergone a number of alterations to deal with language and measurement uncertainties. We present another modification, aimed at combining symbolic decision trees with approximate reasoning offered by fuzzy representation. The intent is to exploit complementary advantages of both: popularity in applications to learning from examples, high knowledge comprehensibility of decision trees, and the ability to deal with inexact and uncertain information of fuzzy representation. The merger utilizes existing methodologies in both areas to full advantage, but is by no means trivial. In particular, knowledge inferences must be newly defined for the fuzzy tree. We propose a number of alternatives, based on rule-based systems and fuzzy control. We also explore capabilities that the new framework provides. The resulting learning method is most suitable for stationary problems, with both numerical and symbolic features, when the goal is both high knowledge comprehensibility and gradually changing output. We describe the methodology and provide simple illustrations.

  20. Pathways for building capacity and ensuring effective transboundary water resources management in Africa: Revisiting the key issues, opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikozho, Claudious

    The performance of most organizations and institutions set up to facilitate transboundary water resources management in Africa remains unsatisfactory and new frameworks are required to address this performance gap. Using the Nile and Senegal River Basins as case studies, this paper applies qualitative research methods to explore the transboundary river basin management terrain in Africa with a view to identifying and articulating some of the major issues, challenges and opportunities faced in building the capacity of the main actors and institutions in the sector. The paper establishes that the creation of basin management institutions as the assumed panacea to challenges evident in this sector has not delivered the desired results. Some of the institutions established for this purpose in Africa have remained functionally weak and ineffective. Thus, demand for capacity-building interventions in this landscape remains high. The paper concludes that comprehensive capacity-building interventions should seek to improve the competencies and skills of key actors in implementing the broad range of activities constituting integrated water resources management in transboundary basins. In-depth analysis of the fundamental capacity constraints and challenges that key players face in relation to key drivers for cooperation is the absolutely necessary ingredient.

  1. Predictive Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Irradiation Embrittlement Models: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, George Robert; Nanstad, Randy K

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension to 80 years will require accurate predictions of neutron irradiation-induced increases in the ductile-brittle transition temperature ( T) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels at high fluence conditions that are far outside the existing database. Remarkable progress in mechanistic understanding of irradiation embrittlement has led to physically motivated T correlation models that provide excellent statistical fi ts to the existing surveillance database. However, an important challenge is developing advanced embrittlement models for low fl ux-high fl uence conditions pertinent to extended life. These new models must also provide better treatment of key variables and variable combinations and account for possible delayed formation of late blooming phases in low copper steels. Other issues include uncertainties in the compositions of actual vessel steels, methods to predict T attenuation away from the reactor core, verifi cation of the master curve method to directly measure the fracture toughness with small specimens and predicting T for vessel annealing remediation and re-irradiation cycles.

  2. The Capstone Course: Origins, Goals, Methods, and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Agnes; Weld, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on Capstone Courses we describe a range of models for the capstone course, common goals for these different courses, popular teaching methods, the use of capstone courses in program assessment, and issues related to course maintenance and faculty development.

  3. An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method. PMID:16849979

  4. Helical Tomotherapy in Children and Adolescents: Dosimetric Comparisons, Opportunities and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Mascarin, Maurizio; Giugliano, Francesca Maria; Coassin, Elisa; Drigo, Annalisa; Chiovati, Paola; Dassie, Andrea; Franchin, Giovanni; Minatel, Emilio; Trovò, Mauro Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Helical Tomotherapy (HT) is a highly conformal image-guided radiation technique, introduced into clinical routine in 2006 at the Centro di Riferimento Oncologico Aviano (Italy). With this new technology, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is delivered using a helicoidal method. Here we present our dosimetric experiences using HT in 100 children, adolescents and young adults treated from May 2006 to February 2011. The median age of the patients was 13 years (range 1–24). The most common treated site was the central nervous system (50; of these, 24 were craniospinal irradiations), followed by thorax (22), head and neck (10), abdomen and pelvis (11), and limbs (7). The use of HT was calculated in accordance to the target dose conformation, the target size and shape, the dose to critical organs adjacent to the target, simultaneous treatment of multiple targets, and re-irradiation. HT has demonstrated to improve target volume dose homogeneity and the sparing of critical structures, when compared to 3D Linac-based radiotherapy (RT). In standard cases this technique represented a comparable alternative to IMRT delivered with conventional linear accelerator. In certain cases (e.g., craniospinal and pleural treatments) only HT generated adequate treatment plans with good target volume coverage. However, the gain in target conformality should be balanced with the spread of low-doses to distant areas. This remains an open issue for the potential risk of secondary malignancies (SMNs) and longer follow-up is mandatory. PMID:24213120

  5. Value and Opportunity: Comparable Pay for Comparable Worth. Series on Public Issues No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Deborah

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues, an argument is presented against comparable pay for comparable worth policies for women. Separate subsections present opposing viewpoints on this controversial issue as well as an examination of whether legislation has been a "friend"…

  6. The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program: Background and Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth

    The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (SEOG) program provides financial assistance to low-income undergraduate students attending postsecondary education institutions and is authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education Act. The program is administered on the campus of each participating postsecondary education institution which uses…

  7. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda; Harris, Linda; Bird, Kisha

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) created the Forward Promise initiative within its Vulnerable Populations Portfolio to place a strategic emphasis on the needs of middle school- and high school-aged young men of color. RWJF's goal is to strengthen educational opportunities, pathways to employment, and health outcomes for these…

  8. Social Issues and Problem-Based Learning in Sociology: Opportunities and Challenges in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglitis, Daina S.; Buntman, Fran L.; Alexander, Dameon V.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in the undergraduate sociology classroom. PBL shifts students from the role of passive listeners and learners to active knowledge builders and communicators through the use of concise and engaging social problem cases. PBL creates opportunities for building substantive area knowledge,…

  9. Preface to the Focus Issue: Chaos Detection Methods and Predictability

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Skokos, Charalampos

    2014-06-01

    This Focus Issue presents a collection of papers originating from the workshop Methods of Chaos Detection and Predictability: Theory and Applications held at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden, June 17–21, 2013. The main aim of this interdisciplinary workshop was to review comprehensively the theory and numerical implementation of the existing methods of chaos detection and predictability, as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The collection of twelve papers in this Focus Issue represents the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research. This Preface surveys the papers of this Issue.

  10. Ethics, politics and protests: using contentious issues in reproductive sciences as educational opportunities.

    PubMed

    Knight, J W

    2012-08-01

    Contentious issues and polarized viewpoints can be utilized in the classroom and beyond to create a reflective dialogue among students and citizens. This dialogue leads to both a greater understanding, as well as an enhanced appreciation of alternative viewpoints. Exploring and discussing the scientific, ethical, moral, political, legal and societal aspects of contentious issues of human reproduction provides ideal subject matter for developing critical thinking skills in the field of reproductive science. PMID:22827349

  11. Enhancing US competitiveness through Federal scientific and technical information: Issues and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using Federally funded scientific and technical information (STI) to increase U.S. industrial innovation and productivity is discussed. The history of Federally funded research and development in the fields of agriculture and aviation is reviewed as an example of successful government-sponsored research. Issues related to the production and utilization of information are considered and Federal STI policy is outlined. Issues related to the transfer of knowledge between government agencies and industry are examined and a model depicting the transfer of STI in aerospace research and development is presented. Also, consideration is given to the problem of open communication versus restricted access to STI.

  12. Enhancing U.S. competitiveness through federal scientific and technical information - Issues and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using federally funded scientific and technical information (STI) to increase U.S. industrial innovation and productivity is discussed. The history of federally funded research and development in the fields of agriculture and aviation is reviewed as an example of successful government-sponsored research. Issues related to the production and utilization of information are considered and federal STI policy is outlined. Issues related to the transfer of knowledge between government agencies and industry are examined and a model depicting the transfer of STI in aerospace research and development is presented. Also, consideration is given to the problem of open communication versus restricted access to STI.

  13. Issues and opportunities: the application of the numerical likelihood ratio framework to forensic speaker comparison.

    PubMed

    Gold, Erica; Hughes, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Across forensic speech science, the likelihood ratio (LR) is increasingly becoming accepted as the logically and legally correct framework for the expression of expert conclusions. However, there remain a number of theoretical and practical shortcomings in the procedures applied for computing LRs based on speech evidence. In this paper we review how the LR is currently applied to speaker comparison evidence and outline three specific areas which deserve further investigation: namely statistical modelling, issues relating to the relevant population and the combination of LRs from correlated parameters. We then consider future directions for confronting these issues and discuss the implications for forensic comparison evidence more generally.

  14. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  15. Sustainability issues and opportunities in the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum...

  16. Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special research topic eBOOK contains six review articles, three mini reviews and four original research articles. It opens up exciting perspectives on global health issues related to aflatoxins in the food chain and on the development of suitable strategies for preventing toxigenic fungal grow...

  17. Space Station Freedom Workshop Opportunities for Commercial Users and Providers: Issues and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The responses to issues and questions raised at the Space Station Freedom Workshops are compiled. The findings are presented under broad divisions of general, materials processing in space, commercial earth and ocean observations, life sciences, infrastructure services, and infrastructure policy. The responses represent the best answers available at this time and future modifications may be expected. Contact names, telephone numbers, and organizations are included.

  18. Islamic Education, Possibilities, Opportunities and Tensions: Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    If Islam continues to evoke skepticism, as it has done most intensely since 9/11, then it stands to reason that its tenets and education are viewed with equal mistrust, and as will be highlighted in this special issue, equal misunderstanding. The intention of this special edition is neither to counter the accusations Islam stands accused of, nor…

  19. Challenges for Continuing Higher Education Leadership. Global Interdependence: Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Univ. Continuing Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This fourth report in the National University Continuing Education Association (NUCEA) Challenges for Continuing Higher Education Leadership series draws attention to the wider and more complex set of issues surrounding the "internationalization" of U.S. society and its educational componets. The report consists of papers prsented at a…

  20. Environmental Management Accounting in the Taiwanese Higher Education Sector: Issues and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Huei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The…

  1. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  2. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  3. Small scale hydroelectric development and the environment: issues, challenge, and opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    A small scale hydroelectric (SSH) facility is defined as an existing dam that can be retrofitted to produce 25 MW or less capacity. An estimate of the total SSH potential in the United States indicates there are 4979 sites with 8775 MW capacity and 25,126 GWh average annual energy. This represents approximately 1% of existing total installed electrical capacity from all sources in the US. Some of the major environmental issues that must be analyzed to determine potential for adverse impact at SSH sites include dredging, fish passage, water level fluctuation, and instream (minimum) flow. Each of these issues is discussed. It is concluded that development of the SSH resource represents a good energy investment and that the attributes of renewable energy and the emphasis on existing dams as opposed to new dam construction are positive features from the environmental standpoint. (LCL)

  4. Report of the Energy Field Institute V on western energy opportunities, problems, and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, J.C.; Foss, M.M.

    1982-12-01

    The fifth Energy and Minerals Field Institute program for Washington, D.C. Congressional and Executive Aides was held during August 15-21, 1982. The five-and-one-half day program was conducted through Wyoming, Colorado and Utah and consisted of visits to: an R and D tertiary petroleum production facility; an historic oil field entering secondary production; a surface uranium mine; a petroleum exploration drilling rig; a surface coal mine; an air cooled, coal-fired power plant; an oil shale site; a geothermal-electrical generating facility; and open pit copper mine and associated smelter and refinery; a petroleum refinery and an oil shale semi-works retort. During the field program, participants had opportunities to view communities affected by these activities, such as Wright City and Gillette, Wyoming, Parachute, Colorado and Milford and Cedar City, Utah. Throughout the program, aides met with local, state and industry officials and citizen leaders during bus rides, meals and site visits.

  5. Cross-border issues in the development of medical tourism in Malaysia: legal challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nemie, Puteri; Kassim, Jahn

    2009-08-01

    Strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Malaysia has become one of the key players in the fast-growing and lucrative market for health care services in Asia. Medical travel across international boundaries has been made possible through affordable airfares and the favourable exchange rates of the Malaysian ringgit has contributed to the rise of the "medical tourism phenomenon" where medical travel is combined with visiting popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Further, competitive medical fees and modern medical facilities have also made Malaysia a popular destination for medical tourists. Nevertheless, the increased number of foreign patients has opened up possibilities of Malaysian health care providers being subjected to malpractice claims and triggering a myriad of cross-border legal issues. Presently, there is no internationally accepted legal framework to regulate medical tourism and issues of legal redress in relation to unsatisfactory provision of treatment across international boundaries. The economic benefits of medical tourism must be based upon a solid legal regulatory framework and strong ethical standards as well as upon high-quality medical and health care services. It is therefore important to assess the existing legal framework affecting the development of medical tourism in Malaysia in order to explore the gaps, deficiencies and possibilities for legal and regulatory reform. PMID:19771987

  6. Cross-border issues in the development of medical tourism in Malaysia: legal challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nemie, Puteri; Kassim, Jahn

    2009-08-01

    Strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Malaysia has become one of the key players in the fast-growing and lucrative market for health care services in Asia. Medical travel across international boundaries has been made possible through affordable airfares and the favourable exchange rates of the Malaysian ringgit has contributed to the rise of the "medical tourism phenomenon" where medical travel is combined with visiting popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Further, competitive medical fees and modern medical facilities have also made Malaysia a popular destination for medical tourists. Nevertheless, the increased number of foreign patients has opened up possibilities of Malaysian health care providers being subjected to malpractice claims and triggering a myriad of cross-border legal issues. Presently, there is no internationally accepted legal framework to regulate medical tourism and issues of legal redress in relation to unsatisfactory provision of treatment across international boundaries. The economic benefits of medical tourism must be based upon a solid legal regulatory framework and strong ethical standards as well as upon high-quality medical and health care services. It is therefore important to assess the existing legal framework affecting the development of medical tourism in Malaysia in order to explore the gaps, deficiencies and possibilities for legal and regulatory reform.

  7. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Amanda Rynes; Trond Bjornard

    2011-07-01

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  8. Drug Delivery Approaches in Addressing Clinical Pharmacology-Related Issues: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong; Jung, Huijeong; Li, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Various drug delivery approaches can be used to maximize therapeutic efficacy and minimize side effects, by impacting absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of a drug compound. For those drugs with poor water solubility or low permeability, techniques such as amorphous solid dispersion, liposomes, and complexations have been used to improve their oral bioavailability. Modified release (MR) formulations have been widely used to improve patient compliance, as well as to reduce side effects, especially for those drugs with short half-lives or narrow therapeutic windows. More than ten drugs using sterile long-acting release (LAR) formulations with clear clinical benefit have been successfully marketed. Furthermore, drug delivery systems have been used in delaying drug clearance processes. Additionally, modifying the in vivo drug distribution using targeted delivery systems has significantly improved oncology treatments. All the drug delivery approaches have their advantages and limitations. For both brand and generic drugs, the achievement of consistent quality and therapeutic performance using drug delivery systems can also pose serious challenges in developing a drug for the market, which requires close collaboration among industry, academia, and regulatory agencies. With the advent of personalized medicines, there will be great opportunities and challenges in utilizing drug delivery systems to provide better products and services for patients.

  9. E-Health Interventions for Eating Disorders: Emerging Findings, Issues, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Aardoom, Jiska J; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Van Furth, Eric F

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to review the emerging findings regarding E-health interventions for eating disorders and to critically discuss emerging issues as well as challenges for future research. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy and guided self-help have demonstrated promising results in terms of reducing eating disorder psychopathology. Emerging findings also suggest that E-health interventions reach an underserved population and improve access to care. The use of smartphone applications is becoming increasingly popular and has much potential although their clinical utility and effectiveness is presently unknown and requires investigation. Important challenges include the diagnostic process in E-health interventions, the optimization of E-health within existing health care models, and the investigation and implementation of blended care. More high-quality research is needed to bring the field forward and to determine the place for E-health in our health care service delivery systems.

  10. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  11. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  12. [Methods, challenges and opportunities for big data analyses of microbiome].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Hua-Fang; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Microbiome is a novel research field related with a variety of chronic inflamatory diseases. Technically, there are two major approaches to analysis of microbiome: metataxonome by sequencing the 16S rRNA variable tags, and metagenome by shot-gun sequencing of the total microbial (mainly bacterial) genome mixture. The 16S rRNA sequencing analyses pipeline includes sequence quality control, diversity analyses, taxonomy and statistics; metagenome analyses further includes gene annotation and functional analyses. With the development of the sequencing techniques, the cost of sequencing will decrease, and big data analyses will become the central task. Data standardization, accumulation, modeling and disease prediction are crucial for future exploit of these data. Meanwhile, the information property in these data, and the functional verification with culture-dependent and culture-independent experiments remain the focus in future research. Studies of human microbiome will bring a better understanding of the relations between the human body and the microbiome, especially in the context of disease diagnosis and therapy, which promise rich research opportunities. PMID:26198938

  13. New Methods for New Questions: Obstacles and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Two forces motivate this special section, "New Methods for New Questions in Developmental Psychology." First are recent developments in social science methodology and the increasing availability of those methods in common software packages. Second, at the same time psychologists' understanding of developmental phenomena has continued to grow. At…

  14. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  15. Towards a comprehensive medical language processing system: methods and issues.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, C.

    1997-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) systems can help solve the data entry problem by providing coded data from textual reports for clinical applications. A number of NLP systems have shown promise, but have not yet achieved wide-spread use for practical applications. In order to achieve such use, a system must have broad coverage of the clinical domain and not be restricted to limited applications. In addition, an NLP system must perform satisfactorily for real-world applications. This paper describes methods and issues associated with an ongoing extension of MedLEE, an operational NLP system, from a limited domain to a domain that encompasses comprehensive clinical information. PMID:9357695

  16. Intros, Issues, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom; Bell, Lori

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to share information and ideas about how libraries, technology companies, content creators, vendors, and users can work together to make the world of information technology in libraries more accessible for everyone, including people with visual, auditory, physical, and learning challenges. It will discuss how these…

  17. Issues in methods and measurement of thermodilution cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Sommers, M S; Woods, S L; Courtade, M A

    1993-01-01

    Criterion-related validity of the thermodilution cardiac output technique for cardiac output measurement has to have a high correlation (r = .91 to .98) with the direct Fick method, the gold standard of cardiac output measurement. Issues that can affect validity of the measurements include the position of the pulmonary artery catheter, the rate of injection of the indicator solution, the volume and temperature of the injectate, the timing of the injection of indicator solution during the respiratory cycle, the position of the subject, and the presence of concomitant infusions. Variation in measurement can be limited by considering the delivery system for the indicator solution, by recording time-temperature cardiac output curves, and by considering normal biologic variations. PMID:8337161

  18. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area.

  19. The Role of the Department of Health and Other Key Institutions in the Promotion of Equal Opportunities, Multi-Cultural and Anti-Racist Issues in Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    The role of Britain's Department of Health, the United Kingdom Central Council, and the English National Board in implementing equal opportunity, multicultural, and antiracist policies in nursing education was reviewed. Major policies have neglected or marginalized equity and racism issues. Ideologies underlying social and health policies are…

  20. Hawaiian temples and their orientations: issues of method and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural

  1. FOREWORD: Special issue on Statistical and Probabilistic Methods for Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Walter; Cox, Maurice G.

    2006-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia is the first that is not devoted to units, or constants, or measurement techniques in some specific field of metrology, but to the generic topic of statistical and probabilistic methods for metrology. The number of papers on this subject in measurement journals, and in Metrologia in particular, has continued to increase over the years, driven by the publication of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] and the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the CIPM [2]. The former stimulated metrologists to think in greater depth about the appropriate modelling of their measurements, in order to provide uncertainty evaluations associated with measurement results. The latter obliged the metrological community to investigate reliable measures for assessing the calibration and measurement capabilities declared by the national metrology institutes (NMIs). Furthermore, statistical analysis of measurement data became even more important than hitherto, with the need, on the one hand, to treat the greater quantities of data provided by sophisticated measurement systems, and, on the other, to deal appropriately with relatively small sets of data that are difficult or expensive to obtain. The importance of supporting the GUM and extending its provisions was recognized by the formation in the year 2000 of Working Group 1, Measurement uncertainty, of the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology. The need to provide guidance on key comparison data evaluation was recognized by the formation in the year 2001 of the BIPM Director's Advisory Group on Uncertainty. A further international initiative was the revision, in the year 2004, of the remit and title of a working group of ISO/TC 69, Application of Statistical Methods, to reflect the need to concentrate more on statistical methods to support measurement uncertainty evaluation. These international activities are supplemented by national programmes such as the Software Support

  2. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and the Opportunity. Issue Brief: Focus on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kisha; Bryant, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief was prepared for the "Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity" briefing held in June 2014 that was co-sponsored by National Council of La Raza, PolicyLink, the Executive Alliance to Expand Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color, and the Institute for Black Male Achievement. The…

  3. Method for Analyzing District Level IAI Data Bases to Identify Learning Opportunity Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milazzo, Patricia; And Others

    A learning opportunity risk is defined as an absence of instruction or insufficient attention to proficiency at an early grade of instruction in a subject matter which will generate serious learning problems in later grades. A method for identifying such risks has been derived from analysis of district-level Instructional Accomplishment…

  4. Career Issues and Laboratory Climates: Different Challenges and Opportunities for Women Engineers and Scientists (survey of Fiscal Year 1997 Powre Awardees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.; Zieseniss, Mireille

    A survey of fiscal year 1997 POWRE (Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education) awardees from the National Science Foundation revealed that women engineers and scientists face similar issues, challenges, and opportunities and think that the laboratory climate has similar impacts on their careers. Separating responses of women scientists from those of women engineers revealed that 70% of both groups listed balancing work with family responsibilities as the most difficult issue. Discrepancies in percentages of women, coupled with differences among disciplinary and subdisciplinary cultures within science, engineering, mathematics, and technology fields, complicate work climates and their impact on women's careers. More frequently than women scientists, women engineers listed issues such as (a) low numbers of women leading to isolation, (b) lack of camaraderie and mentoring, (c) gaining credibility/respect from peers and administrators, (d) time management, (e) prioritizing responsibilities due to disproportionate demands, and (f) learning the rules of the game to survive in a male-dominated environment. Women engineers also listed two positive issues more frequently than women scientists: active recruitment/more opportunities for women and impact of successful women in the profession. The small number of women engineers may explain these results and suggests that it may be inappropriate to group them with other women scientists for analysis, programs, and policies.

  5. Educator Training in Homosexual/Bisexual Youth Issues: Research Issues and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth

    As a result of hostile climates for homosexual/bisexual students, dropout rates, substance abuse, homelessness, isolation, and identity problems are growing rapidly. Recent court decisions hold educators and schools responsible for the safety and education of these youth. However, there is no consensus on how to teach such controversial issues to…

  6. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  7. The role of the Department of Health and other key institutions in the promotion of equal opportunities, multi-cultural and anti-racist issues in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Foolchand, M K

    2000-08-01

    Equal opportunities, multi-cultural and anti-racist issues have been discussed in nurse education for at least two decades. This paper discusses the extent to which the Department of Health (DoH), United Kingdom Central Council (UKCC) and the English National Board (ENB) have developed, implemented and evaluated the above policies in nurse education. A brief overview of the wider roles of the key institutions are outlined. More specifically, some of the major health and social policies implemented during the last two decades are reviewed. This review concludes that the major policies have neglected or marginalized equal opportunities and multi-cultural issues. This is especially so for anti-racism. It argues that the ideologies which underpin social and health policies reinforce white superiority and that these ideologies are rooted in Britain's history of colonialism.

  8. Older LGBT adult training panels: an opportunity to educate about issues faced by the older LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anissa; Rebbe, Rebecca; Gardella, Chanel; Worlein, Mary; Chamberlin, Mya

    2013-01-01

    Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults face unique issues that can impede their well-being. Although many advances have helped address these issues, there is a need for education efforts that raise awareness of service providers about these issues. This study explores evaluation data of training panels provided by older LGBT adults and the views of training participants on issues faced by the older LGBT community after attending the panels. Participants were 605 students and professionals from over 34 education and communication settings. Implications for trainings on participants and older LGBT trainers are discussed.

  9. Older LGBT adult training panels: an opportunity to educate about issues faced by the older LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anissa; Rebbe, Rebecca; Gardella, Chanel; Worlein, Mary; Chamberlin, Mya

    2013-01-01

    Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults face unique issues that can impede their well-being. Although many advances have helped address these issues, there is a need for education efforts that raise awareness of service providers about these issues. This study explores evaluation data of training panels provided by older LGBT adults and the views of training participants on issues faced by the older LGBT community after attending the panels. Participants were 605 students and professionals from over 34 education and communication settings. Implications for trainings on participants and older LGBT trainers are discussed. PMID:23905835

  10. The dating of ore genesis with using of sulfides: new opportunities of Sm-Nd method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekimova, N.; Serov, P.; Bayanova, T.

    2012-04-01

    Within the Fennoscandian Shield only on the surface there are hundreds of mafic-ultramafic intrusions, and on geophysical data - more than a thousand. Existing estimates of the ore potential related to the very costly and time-consuming drilling and analytical work (Mitrofanov, 2006). One of the express-and relatively inexpensive methods is a Sm-Nd dating of rocks and minerals. Feature of the Sm-Nd method is that it allows to use rock-forming minerals for the dating process. Our studies have shown that along with rock-forming, ore minerals (sulfides) can be used to determine the ore genesis time of industrially important geological sites, since exactly with the sulfides the industry Pt-Pd mineralization is closely connected. Age determination on sulphides is a direct method, since in this case the time of mineralization is determined directly, which can consist with the time of crystallization of the parent magma (syngenetic ores), and do not match - epigenetic, redeposited ore. Within Fennoscandia the both types of syngenetic and epigenetic manifestation of ore are known and setting of milestones mineralization is essential for understanding the evolution of ore-bearing magmatic sources and assess the prospects for PGE of many mafic massifs. Studies have shown that Sm-Nd dating method is applicable to both types of ore and dates obtained agree well with the known U-Pb ages of zircon or with key scenes of Svekofennian metamorphic events (eg, Sm-Nd age of the redeposited ores Ahmavaary - about 1900 Ma). One of the problems of Sm-Nd systematics of sulfides is the question of internal inclusions with high contents of REE. In this case, obtained isotope-geochronological features may not correspond to real geological events. To address this issue, the study of internal structure of sulfide minerals was carried out by CL high-local equipment - a scanning electron microscope LEO 1450 with cathodoluminescent attachment PanaCL. Studies have shown that these inclusions are

  11. Needs and Opportunities for Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Kenny, Sean P; Luckring, James M.; Maghami, Peiman; Padula, Sharon L.; Stroud, W. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    This report consists of a survey of the state of the art in uncertainty-based design together with recommendations for a Base research activity in this area for the NASA Langley Research Center. This report identifies the needs and opportunities for computational and experimental methods that provide accurate, efficient solutions to nondeterministic multidisciplinary aerospace vehicle design problems. Barriers to the adoption of uncertainty-based design methods are identified. and the benefits of the use of such methods are explained. Particular research needs are listed.

  12. Universal Design and LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, Bisexual, and Queer) Issues: Creating Equal Access and Opportunities for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Jennifer R.; Geiger, Tracy J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors extend the ideals set forth by the universal design (UD) framework seeking to include the unique needs of students in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community. Universal design is a philosophy that, when applied to higher education, constitutes acceptance of, equal access for, and equal opportunities for…

  13. Opportunity to Learn: A Key Access and Validity Issue of Academic Assessments for Students with Disabilities. Research Brief 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliot, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    An underlying assumption in our current test-based accountability system is that all participating students have an opportunity to learn the tested academic content. For students with disabilities (SWDs), this assumption is stated clearly in federal legislation intended to ensure their access to the same academic standards that define the general…

  14. Measuring Opportunity to Learn and Achievement Growth: Key Research Issues with Implications for the Effective Education of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The related constructs of opportunity to learn (OTL) and achievement growth are fundamental aspects of the current large-scale assessment and accountability system in operation in the United States. For purposes of this article, OTL is defined as the degree to which a teacher dedicates instructional time and content coverage to the intended…

  15. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings. PMID:24722814

  16. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  17. The application of knowledge synthesis methods in agri-food public health: recent advancements, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa; Sanchez, Javier; Wilhelm, Barbara; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge synthesis refers to the integration of findings from individual research studies on a given topic or question into the global knowledge base. The application of knowledge synthesis methods, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analysis, has increased considerably in the agri-food public health sector over the past decade and this trend is expected to continue. The objectives of our review were: (1) to describe the most promising knowledge synthesis methods and their applicability in agri-food public health, and (2) to summarize the recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities in the use of systematic review and meta-analysis methods in this sector. We performed a structured review of knowledge synthesis literature from various disciplines to address the first objective, and used comprehensive insights and experiences in applying these methods in the agri-food public health sector to inform the second objective. We describe five knowledge synthesis methods that can be used to address various agri-food public health questions or topics under different conditions and contexts. Scoping reviews describe the main characteristics and knowledge gaps in a broad research field and can be used to evaluate opportunities for prioritizing focused questions for related systematic reviews. Structured rapid reviews are streamlined systematic reviews conducted within a short timeframe to inform urgent decision-making. Mixed-method and qualitative reviews synthesize diverse sources of contextual knowledge (e.g. socio-cognitive, economic, and feasibility considerations). Systematic reviews are a structured and transparent method used to summarize and synthesize literature on a clearly-defined question, and meta-analysis is the statistical combination of data from multiple individual studies. We briefly describe and discuss key advancements in the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis, including: risk-of-bias assessments; an overall quality

  18. Capsule review on bioanalytical method transfer: opportunities and challenges for chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongping John; Li, Wenkui; Weng, Naidong

    2011-01-01

    With the globalization of drug development activities, transferring a validated bioanalytical procedure to a different site within a pharmaceutical company, or to one or multiple contract research organizations has been dramatically increased in recent years. Undeniably, bioanalytical method transfer is the needed step prior to routine sample analysis at the receiving laboratory. It is clearly stated in the 2001 US FDA Guidance on Bioanalytical Method Validation that a partial validation is needed for method transfer between laboratories. In the current EMA draft guidelines on method validation, the necessity of a method transfer is also emphasized. However, the above guidelines do not give many details on how and when a method transfer validation should be conducted. There is a need for a step-by-step deliberation on the overall strategies, procedures and even technical details for a successful bioanalytical method transfer. In this article, we review the contemporary information available in the scientific literature on method transfer and illustrate various bioanalytical method transfer scenarios using case studies. A 'flexible and fit-for-purpose' bioanalytical method transfer strategy is proposed.

  19. Issues in second trimester induced abortion (medical/surgical methods).

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian C Y; Ng, Ernest H Y; Ho, P C

    2010-08-01

    Second trimester abortion remains a common procedure worldwide. Dilatation and evacuation (D&E) is the surgical method of choice, if the surgical expertise and facilities are available. Adequate cervical dilatation preoperatively is a prerequisite for a safe D&E. Medical abortion using misoprostol together with mifepristone is the medical method of choice. The recommended regimen is 200mg mifepristone followed by 800 microg of vaginal misoprostol 36-48 h later. Subsequent doses of 400 microg of misoprostol can be given orally every 3h up to a maximum of four more doses. Proper preoperative assessment would not only help to provide safe abortion treatment, but it also guides the choice of method. If the expertise and facilities of both methods are available, both methods should be discussed and offered to the patient so that the patient can make an informed choice.

  20. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  1. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  2. Coarse-grained computer simulation of dynamics in thylakoid membranes: methods and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Anna R.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2013-01-01

    Coarse-grained simulation is a powerful and well-established suite of computational methods for studying structure and dynamics in nanoscale biophysical systems. As our understanding of the plant photosynthetic apparatus has become increasingly nuanced, opportunities have arisen for coarse-grained simulation to complement experiment by testing hypotheses and making predictions. Here, we give an overview of best practices in coarse-grained simulation, with a focus on techniques and results that are applicable to the plant thylakoid membrane–protein system. We also discuss current research topics for which coarse-grained simulation has the potential to play a key role in advancing the field. PMID:24478781

  3. Why, When, and How To Use Evaluation: Experts Speak Out. Issues and Opportunities in Out-of-School Time Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Heather B.; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    Noting that the disappointing findings of the first-year evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) after-school program were offered as a rationale for a requested decrease in funding in President Bush's fiscal year 2004 education budget, this report compiles expert commentary on methodological issues in that evaluation…

  4. Workplace Demographics and Technology: Challenges and Opportunities to the Campus Mission Including the Top Facilities Issues. APPA Thought Leaders 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2011

    2011-01-01

    It is not unusual in higher education circles to talk about issues affecting the campus. Experts might write about how shifting demographics are changing the campus, or say technology is becoming more pervasive on campus. The campus itself evolves alongside pedagogical practices, technological innovations, student needs, and the mission of the…

  5. Labor Laws and Issues: A Guide for Planning and Implementing Work-Based Learning Opportunities for Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, James W.

    The focus of this publication is to maximize the ability of business, education, and community partners to access information relating to legal issues and minor labor laws that have implications for school-based and work-based learning experiences. Each section is intended to provide the most applicable legal and labor law information. Since…

  6. The Pathways to Advancement Project: How States Can Expand Postsecondary Educational Opportunities for Working Adults. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Christopher; Strawn, Julie; Roberts, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    The Pathways to Advancement initiative was launched by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) to help governors and their policy advisors examine options and develop strategies for expanding working adults' access to and completion of postsecondary education. In September 2003, the NGA Center issued a request for…

  7. Learning through Expeditions: The Need for Method as Well as Opportunity--A Response to Allison and Von Wald (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Mark; Collins, Dave; Hathaway, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Allison and Von Wald (2010) highlight the substantial opportunities presented by expeditions to address the crucial topic of personal and social development. The present paper wishes to address the apparent oversight of transfer within such learning experiences. Issues that need to be addressed if the impact of transfer is to be optimised are…

  8. California Energy Incentive Programs: An Annual Update on Key Energy Issues and Financial Opportunities for Federal Sites in California

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    A spate of recently enacted energy legislation and associated program changes is providing numerous opportunities to help California federal energy managers cut costs and meet their renewables, energy efficiency and GHG emissions goals. In April 2011, Governor Jerry Brown approved the nation’s most ambitious renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which requires 33% of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Policy changes that will support the RPS include expanded eligibility rules that fill previous gaps in incentives for certain sizes of on-site renewable energy systems. Program updates described in this document include: $200 million more in funding for California Solar Initiative rebates to commercial and industrial customers; an increase in the eligible system size for the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) from 1.5MW to 3MW; and pending changes that may allow customer-side systems to sell tradable renewable energy credits (TRECs) to entities with RPS compliance obligations in California.

  9. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  10. Physically Based Landslide Hazard Model U Method and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, A. S.; Sidle, R. C.

    An Integrated Dynamic Slope Stability Model (IDSSM) that integrates GIS with topo- graphic, distributed hydrologic and vegetation models to assess the slope stability at a basin scale is described to address the issues related to prediction of landslide hazards with physically based landslide models. Data limitations, which can be addressed as one of the major problem range from lack of spatially distributed data on soil depth, soil physical and engineering properties, and vegetation root strength to the need for better digital elevation models to characterize topography. Many times point data and their averages such as for soil depth and soil cohesion needs to be used as the represen- tative values at the element scale. These factors result in a great degree of uncertainty in the simulation results. Since factors related to landsliding have different degree of importance in causing landsliding the introduced uncertainties may not be identical for the entire variables. The sensitivities of different parameters associated with landslid- ing were examined using the IDSSM. Since many variables are important for landslide occurrence effects of most of the soil and vegetation parameters were evaluated. To test for parameter uncertainty, one variable is altered while others were held constant and cumulative areas (percentage of the drainage area) with safety factor less than certain values were compared. The sensitivity analysis suggests that the safety factor is most sensitive to changes in soil cohesion, soil depth, and internal frictional an- gle. Changes in hydraulic conductivity greatly influenced ground water table and thus slope stability. Parameters such as soil unit weight and tree surcharge was less sen- sitive to landsliding. Considering the possible fine spatial variation of soil depth and hydraulic conductivity in a forest soil these two factors seem to produce large uncer- tainties. In forest soil, the presence of macropores and preferential flow presents

  11. Video Games in Volcanic Hazard Communications: Methods & Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul; Stewart, Iain

    2016-04-01

    eruptions (1902 &1979), which are reproduced based on historical data and personal accounts of the eruptions. Through a series of interactive scenes, each of the principal hazardous phenomena associated with La Soufriere - pyroclastic flows & surges, ash fall and lahars - are visualised and explained. The game concludes with a quiz in which players are required to answer questions are based on information provided throughout the game. The St. Vincent's Volcano game was trialled in St. Vincent during a volcano awareness education week in April 2015. The presentation will share reflections on how this type of interactive tool can be tested and implemented, and explore the issues and challenges with using video games in a dynamic environment.

  12. Random Sampling of Quantum States: a Survey of Methods. And Some Issues Regarding the Overparametrized Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed.

  13. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  14. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  15. Review of randomized clinical trials of donor management and organ preservation in deceased donors: opportunities and issues.

    PubMed

    Dikdan, George S; Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Koneru, Baburao

    2012-09-15

    Given the static number of deceased donors, improvements in donor management and organ preservation to increase the number and quality of organs transplanted per donor are more pressing. Because controlled trials provide the best evidence, we conducted a review of English-language literature of trials in donor management and organ preservation to provide a compendium and to promote additional discussion and studies. Eighty-seven reports were retrieved: 13 on hemodynamic and fluid management, 7 on immunosuppressants, 12 on preconditioning, 34 on preservation fluids, and 21 on pulsatile perfusion. Sixteen studies are ongoing. Although hormonal therapy is used widely, additional studies are needed to determine the benefit of thyroid hormone and insulin replacement and to optimize steroid regimens. Dopamine's success in reducing kidney delayed graft function highlights the opportunity for additional preconditioning trials of remote ischemia, gases, opioids, and others. More rapid progress requires addressing unique barriers in consent and research approval, legal constraints precluding research in cardiac death donors, and streamlining collaboration of multiple stakeholders. With little interest from industry, federal funding needs to be increased. While the University of Wisconsin solution still reigns supreme, several promising preservative solutions and additives with not only biophysical but also pharmacological effects are on the cusp of phase 1 to 2 trials. After nearly three decades of uncertainty, the recent success of a European trial has reenergized the topic not only of machine preservation of the kidney but also of other organs evident by trials in progress. However, the costs of such technical innovations merit the burden of rigorous proof from controlled trials.

  16. Editors' Introduction to the Thematic Issue: Mad about Methods? Teaching Research Methods in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adriaensen, Johan; Kerremans, Bart; Slootmaeckers, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue all seek to address the challenge of teaching research methods to political science students. This introduction aims to provide a concise framework for the various innovations presented throughout this issue, situating them in the wider literature. Particular emphasis is placed on the factors that distinguish…

  17. A Critical Commentary on Combined Methods Approach to Researching Educational and Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope Pius

    2009-01-01

    One major issue social science research is faced with concerns the methodological schism and internecine "warfare" that divides the field. This paper examines critically what is referred to as combined methods research, and the claim that this is the best methodology for addressing complex social issues. The paper discredits this claim on the…

  18. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  19. Qualitative and mixed methods research in dissemination and implementation science: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Dorsey, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This special issue provides examples of how qualitative and mixed methods research approaches can be used in dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide a brief rationale for why and how qualitative and mixed methods approaches can be useful in moving the field forward. Specifically, we provide a brief primer on common qualitative methods, including a review of guidelines provided by the National Institutes of Health. Next, we introduce the six articles in the issue. The first of the articles by Palinkas represents a more thorough and authoritative discussion related to qualitative methods, using the other five articles in the issue (and other published works) as examples. The remaining five articles are empirical and/or descriptive articles of recently completed or ongoing qualitative or mixed methods studies related to dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents.

  20. Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Mahbubur Rahman, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of advanced distance education delivers academic courses across time and distance, allowing educators and students to participate in a convenient learning method. "Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions" demonstrates communication technologies, intelligent…

  1. Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Study Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the study methods used for the "Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho" report. The purpose of this study was to describe how Title I 1003(g) School Improvement Grants awarded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) in the 2010-11…

  2. The Aims, Methods, and Effects of Deliberative Civic Education through the National Issues Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastil, John; Dillard, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the goals, methods, and effects of four current deliberative civic education programs, with an in-depth analysis of one: the National Issues Forums (NIF). Shows that NIF can bolster participants' political self-efficacy, refine their political judgments, broaden their political conversation networks, and reduce their conversational…

  3. Operational Issues for Further Study in the Implementation of the Policy of the State Board of Education for Providing Equitable Opportunities for an Essential Education for All Students in Nebraska Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This "Operational Issues" document is intended to accompany the State Board of Education?s policy recommendations for providing equitable opportunities for all Nebraska students to receive an essential education. The Essential Education Policy will serve as the foundation document to guide immediate and long-range planning to achieve the equitable…

  4. Safety issues and new rapid detection methods in traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    The safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a major strategic issue that involves human health. With the continuous improvement in disease prevention and treatment, the export of TCM and its related products has increased dramatically in China. However, the frequent safety issues of Chinese medicine have become the 'bottleneck' impeding the modernization of TCM. It was proved that mycotoxins seriously affect TCM safety; the pesticide residues of TCM are a key problem in TCM international trade; adulterants have also been detected, which is related to market circulation. These three factors have greatly affected TCM safety. In this study, fast, highly effective, economically-feasible and accurate detection methods concerning TCM safety issues were reviewed, especially on the authenticity, mycotoxins and pesticide residues of medicinal materials. PMID:26579423

  5. Safety issues and new rapid detection methods in traditional Chinese medicinal materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    The safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a major strategic issue that involves human health. With the continuous improvement in disease prevention and treatment, the export of TCM and its related products has increased dramatically in China. However, the frequent safety issues of Chinese medicine have become the ‘bottleneck’ impeding the modernization of TCM. It was proved that mycotoxins seriously affect TCM safety; the pesticide residues of TCM are a key problem in TCM international trade; adulterants have also been detected, which is related to market circulation. These three factors have greatly affected TCM safety. In this study, fast, highly effective, economically-feasible and accurate detection methods concerning TCM safety issues were reviewed, especially on the authenticity, mycotoxins and pesticide residues of medicinal materials. PMID:26579423

  6. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  7. Meaning in the Method: Pretesting Methods for a Diverse Population. Issue Brief. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprachman, Susan; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Aikens, Nikki; Caspe, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    A child's ability to develop relationships and connections with others, a sense of who he or she is in the world, and an ability to control impulses and emotions are at the core of social-emotional development. In early childhood, parent reports are one of the most common methods for assessing this type of development. However, parents from…

  8. School-to-Work Opportunities for All Youth: Intermediary Organizations and Expanding Options. School-to-Work Intermediary Project. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spera, Vincent; Williams, Andra

    The School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 requires that all young people, including young people with disabilities and out-of-school youth, have equal opportunities to participate in the activities funded by it. Local intermediary organizations that provide a critical convening role and offer services to core education and business partners can…

  9. The Increasing Availability of Official Datasets: Methods, Limitations and Opportunities for Studies of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The re-use of existing and official data has a very long and largely honourable history in education and social science. The principal change in the 60 years since the first issue of the "British Journal of Educational Studies" has been the increasing range, availability and quality of existing numeric datasets. New and valuable fields of…

  10. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  11. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  12. Forensic psychiatric evaluations: an overview of methods, ethical issues, and criminal and civil assessments.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Forensic psychiatry is frequently defined as the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law. Psychiatrists are called on by the legal system to provide testimony in a wide variety of cases, criminal and civil. In criminal cases, forensic psychiatrists may be asked to comment on the competence of a person to make decisions throughout all the phases of criminal investigation, trial, and punishment. These include the competence to stand trial, to plead guilty, to be sentenced, to waive appeal, and to be executed. In civil cases, forensic psychiatric experts are asked to evaluate a number of civil competences, including competence to make a will or contract or to make decisions about one's person and property. Psychiatrists are also called on to testify about many other issues related to civil cases. Forensic psychiatrists who work with children and adolescents are frequently involved in evaluations and testimonies concerning juvenile delinquency, child custody, termination of parental rights, and other issues. As such, forensic psychiatric experts have now developed into a reputable and well-known group of professionals. Forensic evaluation methods, ethical issues related to forensic psychiatric practice, and some common criminal and civil forensic psychiatric evaluations are discussed in this overview.

  13. Economic valuation of informal care: lessons from the application of the opportunity costs and proxy good methods.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner; van Exel, Job; Koopmanschap, Marc; van den Bos, Geertrudis A M; Rutten, Frans

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports the results of the application of the opportunity costs and proxy good methods to determine a monetary value of informal care. We developed a survey in which we asked informal caregivers in The Netherlands to indicate the different types of time forgone (paid work, unpaid work and leisure) in order to be able to provide care. Moreover, we asked informal caregivers how much time they spent on a list of 16 informal care tasks during the week before the interview. Data were obtained from surveys in two different populations: informal caregivers and their care recipients with stroke and with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 218 care recipients with stroke and their primary informal caregivers completed a survey as well as 147 caregivers and their care recipients with RA. The measurement of care according to both methods is more problematic compared to the valuation. This is especially the case for the opportunity costs method and for the housework part in the proxy good method. More precise guidelines are necessary for the consistent application of both methods in order to ensure comparability of results and of economic evaluations of health care.

  14. The DSL method for pediatric hearing instrument fitting: historical perspective and current issues.

    PubMed

    Seewald, Richard; Moodie, Sheila; Scollie, Susan; Bagatto, Marlene

    2005-01-01

    The Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method was originally developed in the early 1980s to provide clinicians with a systematic, science-based approach to pediatric hearing instrument fitting that ensures audibility of amplified speech by accounting for factors that are uniquely associated with the provision of amplification to infants and young children who have hearing loss. This review identifies and describes several of the primary factors that have been considered in the development of the DSL Method. Specifically, the issues discussed relate to: (1) the definition and measurement of relevant acoustic, electroacoustic and audiometric variables; (2) how the external ear acoustics of infants and young children are accounted for in the DSL Method for both audiometric assessment and in the fitting of amplification; and (3) how the DSL Method has evolved concurrently with developments in hearing instrument and electroacoustic measurement technologies. Finally, current issues in the field are identified that have motivated the development of version 5.0 of the DSL Method for hearing instrument fitting.

  15. Signal-to-noise issues in measuring nitrous oxide fluxes by the eddy covariance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicholas; Levy, Peter; Langford, Ben; Skiba, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Recently-developed fast-response gas analysers capable of measuring atmospheric N2O with high precision (< 50 ppt) at a rate of 10 Hz are becoming more widely available. These instruments are capable of measuring N2O fluxes using the eddy covariance method, with significantly less effort and uncertainty than previous instruments have allowed. However, there are still many issues to overcome in order to obtain accurate and reliable flux data. The signal-to-noise ratio of N2O measured using these instruments is still two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of CO2. The low signal-to-noise ratio can lead to systematic uncertainties, in the eddy covariance method, the most significant being in the calculation of the time lag between gas analyser and anemometer by maximisation of covariance (Langford et al., 2015). When signal-to-noise ratio is relatively low, as it is with many N2O measurements, the maximisation of covariance method can systematically overestimate fluxes. However, if constant time lags are assumed, then fluxes will be underestimated. This presents a major issue for N2O eddy covariance measurements. In this presentation we will focus on the signal to noise ratio for an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL). Eddy covariance flux measurements from multiple agricultural sites across the UK were investigated for potential uncertainties. Our presentation highlights some of these uncertainties when analysing eddy covariance data and offers suggestions as to how these issues may be minimised. Langford, B., Acton, W., Ammann, C., Valach, A. and Nemitz, E.: Eddy-covariance data with low signal-to-noise ratio: time-lag determination, uncertainties and limit of detection, Atmos Meas Tech, 8(10), 4197-4213, doi:10.5194/amt-8-4197-2015, 2015.

  16. INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM OFFICE EQUIPMENT: TEST METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development and evaluation of a large chamber test method for measuring emissions from dry-process photocopiers. The test method was developed in two phases. Phase 1 was a single-laboratory evaluation at Research Triangle Institute (RTI) using four, mid-r...

  17. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T.; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  18. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals - opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the 'method of choice' for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  19. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals - opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the 'method of choice' for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  20. Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified.

  1. Computational complexity and hardware implementation issues of Lattice-Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, Marco; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental aspect in CFD is the algorithmic complexity of the numerical solution methods adopted. The purpose of the investigation is a systematic analysis of traditional Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) methods in CFD (see, i.e., Refs. [1,2]), used in many numerical simulation of incompressible fluids, in order to characterize them in terms of their algorithmic complexity and identify possible computational bottlenecks, arising either due to actual physical effects or to the specific form and implementation of the currently adopted algorithms. The issue is not only relevant from a theoretical viewpoint, but appears of critical importance for software and hardware optimization of these numerical algorithms and to develop estimates for possible new improved LB-algorithms and/or implementations. The latter are of particular relevance in reconfigurable computing and for hardware implementations. References 1 - U. Frisch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1505, (1986). 2 - G. McNamara and G. Zanetti, Phys rev. Let 61, 2332 (1988).

  2. A NEW LOG EVALUATION METHOD TO APPRAISE MESAVERDE RE-COMPLETION OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Greer

    2003-09-11

    Artificial intelligence tools, fuzzy logic and neural networks were used to evaluate the potential of the behind pipe Mesaverde formation in BMG's Mancos formation wells. A fractal geostatistical mapping algorithm was also used to predict Mesaverde production. Additionally, a conventional geological study was conducted. To date one Mesaverde completion has been performed. The Janet No.3 Mesaverde completion was non-economic. Both the AI method and the geostatistical methods predicted the failure of the Janet No.3. The Gavilan No.1 in the Mesaverde was completed during the course of the study and was an extremely good well. This well was not included in the statistical dataset. The AI method predicted very good production while the fractal map predicted a poor producer.

  3. Investigation of opportunities of the optical non-invasive diagnostics method for the blood sugar control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of noninvasive method for determining the blood sugar is caused by necessity of regular monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients blood. Traditional invasive method is painful, because it requires a finger pricking. Despite the active studies in the field of non-invasive medical diagnostics, to date the painless and inexpensive instrument for blood sugar control for personal use doesn't exist. It's possible to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood with help of spectrophotometry method. It consists of registering and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the radiation which missed, reflected or absorbed by the object. The authors proposed a measuring scheme for studying the spectral characteristics of the radiation, missed by earlobe. Ultra-violet, visible and near infrared spectral ranges are considered. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed special retaining clip and results of experiment with real patient.

  4. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  5. Special Issue: Book Reviews 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This special issue reviews 71 books on the following topics: career management; career opportunities for people with disabilities; federal government career information; college career development/counseling; job search strategies, tools, methods; coaching; retirement issues; strategies for managers; women and careers; general career books; and…

  6. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

  7. g-FACTOR Measurements of Picosecond States:. Opportunities and Limitations of the Recoil-In Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, N. J.; Stone, J. R.; Bingham, C. R.; Fischer, C. Froese; Jönsson, P.

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports a new a-priori approach to the calibration of attenuations observed in Recoil-in-Vacuum angular distribution experiments which should allow extraction of g-factors for states of picosecond (ps) lifetime in many nuclei, of both odd-A and even-A without the need for extensive experimentally based calibration. The methods used and results for Ge and Mo isotopes are discussed, with outline applications to both on-line beam/target Coulomb excitation and fission fragment experiments.

  8. Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants. PMID:23736826

  9. Methods and opportunities in the recycling of rare earth based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.; Jones, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    Rare Earth based materials are increasingly being utilized in industrial and commercial practice. Large volume production of permanent magnet materials, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, SmCo{sub 5}, Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}, and rechargeable Ni/Metal Hydride batteries, LaNi{sub 5}, has increased the amount of rare earth based materials in the waste stream. Both for economic and environmental reasons, recycling and reuse of all materials is desirable. Unfortunately, the recycling methodology for these materials is in its infancy. In this paper the present {open_quotes}state of the art{close_quotes}, in recycling of rare earth based materials will be discussed. Additionally, new methods which alleviate many of the concerns of present aqueous based recycling technology will be presented.

  10. [OPPORTUNITIES OF HIFU TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT FIBROIDS DISEASES SUCH AS NON-INVASIVE AND ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Gincheva, D; Gorchev, G; Tomov, S

    2015-01-01

    Concepts of medical treatment are constantly evolving and improving. This opportunity provides treatment with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). In Europe and Asia more than 10,000 patients with uterine fibroids have been successfully treated with HIFU technology until now. This is completely innovative technology for non-invasive extracorporeal treatment of benign and malignant tumors. Neighboring healthy tissue is not damaged. The main indication in HIFU-Center in Pleven is uterine fibroid. It is the most common solid tumor in the female pelvis and is the leading cause of hysterectomy. The methods of treatment are hysterectomy, myomectomy or embolization of uterine arteries. HIFU-methodology allows non-invasive treatment of fibroids disease. PMID:27025105

  11. The detection and discovery of glycan motifs in biological samples using lectins and antibodies: new methods and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huiyuan; Hsueh, Peter; Kletter, Doron; Bern, Marshall; Haab, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent research is uncovering unexpected ways that glycans contribute to biology, as well as new strategies for combatting disease using approaches involving glycans. To make full use of glycans for clinical applications, we need more detailed information on the location, nature, and dynamics of glycan expression in vivo. Such studies require the use of specimens acquired directly from patients. Effective studies of clinical specimens require low-volume assays, high precision measurements, and the ability to process many samples. Assays using affinity reagents—lectins and glycan-binding antibodies—can meet these requirements, but further developments are needed to make the methods routine and effective. Recent advances in the use of glycan-binding proteins could meet that need. The advances involve improved determination of specificity using glycan arrays; the availability of databases for mining and analyzing glycan array data; lectin engineering methods; and the ability to quantitatively interpret lectin measurements. Here we describe many of the challenges and opportunities involved in the application of these new approaches to the study of biological samples. The new tools hold promise for developing methods to improve the outcomes of patients afflicted with diseases characterized by aberrant glycan expression. PMID:25727148

  12. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brick, S.

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Monitoring rationale, strategy, issues, and methods: UMRR-EMP LTRMP fish component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ickes, Brian S.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Rogala, James T.

    2014-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP), an element of the multiagency partnership Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program, has been monitoring fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) for over two decades, using scientific and highly standardized methods. Today, the LTRMP’s data assets represent one of the world’s largest and most extensive datasets on a great river. Methods and procedures used over the past two decades have been documented and have proven a key tool towards gaining data that are (a) scientifically valid, (b) comparable over time, and (c) comparable over space. These procedures manuals coordinate and standardize methods, procedures, and field behaviors in the execution of long-term monitoring, permitting the informed management and control of important sources of error actually under program control. As LTRMP databases have matured in scope and accumulated more years' worth of data, their utility in research and management in the UMRS basin has increased notably. To maximize their utility, data users need not only be aware of “how the data were collected,” as portrayed in the procedures manuals, but also “why the data were collected in the way they were, at the scales they were, and in the manner that they were.” Whereas the procedures manuals contribute information as to the “how” the data were gained, this document seeks to contribute information as to the “why.” As such, this document is intended to be a companion document to the procedures manuals. Herein, we present information on the rationale for monitoring nearly one-fifth of the entire North American freshwater fish fauna (representing the greatest freshwater fish diversity on the planet at temperate latitudes); strategies employed and their reasoning; and discussions on issues associated with the sampling design itself, data arising therefrom, and uses of those data in different contexts.

  14. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    SciTech Connect

    Payer, Joe H.; Scully, John R.

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  15. Fatigue life calculation of desuperheater for solving pipe cracking issue using finite element method (FEM) software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aravinda; Singh, Jeetendra Kumar; Mohan, K.

    2012-06-01

    Desuperheater assembly experiences thermal cycling in operation by design. During power plant's start up, load change and shut down, thermal gradient is highest. Desuperheater should be able to handle rapid ramp up or ramp down of temperature in these operations. With "hump style" two nozzle desuperheater, cracks were appearing in the pipe after only few cycles of operation. From the field data, it was clear that desuperheater is not able to handle disproportionate thermal expansion happening in the assembly during temperature ramp up and ramp down in operation and leading to cracks appearing in the piping. Growth of thermal fatigue crack is influenced by several factors including geometry, severity of thermal stress and applied mechanical load. This paper seeks to determine cause of failure of two nozzle "hump style" desuperheater using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation technique. Thermal stress simulation and fatigue life calculation were performed using commercial FEA software "ANSYS" [from Ansys Inc, USA]. Simulation result showed that very high thermal stress is developing in the region where cracks are seen in the field. From simulation results, it is also clear that variable thermal expansion of two nozzle studs is creating high stress at the water manifold junction. A simple and viable solution is suggested by increasing the length of the manifold which solved the cracking issues in the pipe.

  16. Summary of the workshop on issues in risk assessment: quantitative methods for developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Mattison, D R; Sandler, J D

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a conference on quantitative methods for assessing the risks of developmental toxicants. The conference was planned by a subcommittee of the National Research Council's Committee on Risk Assessment Methodology in conjunction with staff from several federal agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission, and Health and Welfare Canada. Issues discussed at the workshop included computerized techniques for hazard identification, use of human and animal data for defining risks in a clinical setting, relationships between end points in developmental toxicity testing, reference dose calculations for developmental toxicology, analysis of quantitative dose-response data, mechanisms of developmental toxicity, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, and structure-activity relationships. Although a formal consensus was not sought, many participants favored the evolution of quantitative techniques for developmental toxicology risk assessment, including the replacement of lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) and no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) with the benchmark dose methodology.

  17. Methods and Materials for Infusing Aging Issues into the Rehabilitation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.; Harley, Debra A.; Wadsworth, John S.; Smith, S. Mae

    2007-01-01

    In order to better prepare rehabilitation counselors to meet the needs of older workers, Kampfe, Wadsworth, Smith, and Harley (2005) suggested that aging issues can be infused into the curriculum of rehabilitation education programs. This article is a follow-up to the earlier publication that called for infusion of aging issues into the…

  18. Ethical Issues of Ethnography Method: A Comparative Approach to Subaltern, Self, and the Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeyemi, Christo

    2013-01-01

    Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the…

  19. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  20. Seizing Opportunity: "Opportunity as Transformation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael; Muller, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity creates conditions for achievement. We learn daily of the success of others that resulted from conditions they created through opportunity. Often these conditions of opportunity are the product of a compelling vision of a future steeped in possibility and rich in reward. These visions, however, must be operationalized in order to be…

  1. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues in dental education: a multipurpose method.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Paterson, Randy

    2011-10-01

    Discussion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues has fallen short in dental curricula. This article aims to describe the didactic approach used to present issues of sexuality in the D.M.D. curriculum at the University of British Columbia. This descriptive article discusses the main pedagogies employed to present and discuss LGBT issues: lecture-based seminars, guest panel discussion with members of the LGBT community, poster discussion, and student reflections on the topic of sexuality. The approach to sexual diversity presented here does not profess to make an otherwise homophobic student LGBT-friendly, but it exposes all students to alternative views of sexuality, challenges their values and beliefs, and celebrates diversity. The methodology presented has had a positive impact upon students as illustrated by their reflections, but further discussion is needed to better understand the implications of LGBT issues in both academic and professional settings.

  2. Issues and methods in incorporating environmental externalities into the integrated resource planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1994-11-01

    This report is a review of current practices and policies in considering environmental externalities in the integrated resource planning and performance based regulation (IRP/PBR) process. The following issues are presented and examined: What are the pros and cons of treating environmental externalities in the IRP process? How are potential future environmental regulations being treated? Are externalities being qualitatively or quantitatively considered, or monetized? Are offsets being allowed? How are externality policies being coordinated among different levels and branches of governments? Should environmental externalities be considered in dispatching a utility`s existing resources? What are the procedures for addressing uncertainty in incorporating environmental externalities into IRP? How are externalities valued? What are other approaches to addressing environmental externalities. This report describes seven major approaches for addressing environmental externalities in the IRP process: qualitative treatment, weighting and ranking, cost of control, damage function, percentage adders, monetization by emission, and multiattribute trade-off analysis. The discussion includes a taxonomy of the full range of alternative methods for addressing environmental externalities, a summary of state PUC actions, the role of state laws, the debate on environmental adders, and the choice of methodologies. In addition, this report characterizes the interests of stakeholders such as the electric industry, fuel suppliers, energy consumers, governmental agencies, public interest groups, consultants, and others. It appears that the views, positions, and interests of these stakeholders are affected by their perceptions of the potential impacts on their economic interests or the viability of their position on environmental policy, by the societal perspective they take, and by the orientation of the analysts toward market competition and their respective accumulated expertise.

  3. Technology, Pedagogy, and Epistemology: Opportunities and Challenges of Using Computer Modeling and Simulation Tools in Elementary Science Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Christina V.; Meyer, Jason; Sharma, Ajay

    2007-04-01

    This study infused computer modeling and simulation tools in a 1-semester undergraduate elementary science methods course to advance preservice teachers’ understandings of computer software use in science teaching and to help them learn important aspects of pedagogy and epistemology. Preservice teachers used computer modeling and simulation tools within their own science investigations; discussed general technology issues; and explored, evaluated, and taught their peers about a particular modeling tool. Preservice teachers expanded their vision of the software available and the role that software can play in science teaching, but desired fun, easy-to-use software with scientifically accurate information within a clear, familiar learning task. Such conflict provided a fruitful platform for discussion and for potentially advancing preservice teachers’ pedagogical and epistemological understandings.

  4. Testing for Moderator Variables in Meta-Analysis: Issues and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judith A.; Rosenthal, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of moderator variables in meta-analysis: (1) issues in testing theory using moderator variables; (2) when to look for moderators; (3) how not to look for moderators; and (4) how to look for moderators using contrast analysis. (SR)

  5. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  6. Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    The Water Power Program focuses on technological development, and deployment of innovative technologies capable of generating electricity from water. The program funds research and development activities through competitive solicitations. Financial opportunities are avaliable here.

  7. Using qualitative methods for attribute development for discrete choice experiments: issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Coast, Joanna; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Sutton, Eileen J; Horrocks, Susan A; Vosper, A Jane; Swancutt, Dawn R; Flynn, Terry N

    2012-06-01

    Attribute generation for discrete choice experiments (DCEs) is often poorly reported, and it is unclear whether this element of research is conducted rigorously. This paper explores issues associated with developing attributes for DCEs and contrasts different qualitative approaches. The paper draws on eight studies, four developed attributes for measures, and four developed attributes for more ad hoc policy questions. Issues that have become apparent through these studies include the following: the theoretical framework for random utility theory and the need for attributes that are neither too close to the latent construct nor too intrinsic to people's personality; the need to think about attribute development as a two-stage process involving conceptual development followed by refinement of language to convey the intended meaning; and the difficulty in resolving tensions inherent in the reductiveness of condensing complex and nuanced qualitative findings into precise terms. The comparison of alternative qualitative approaches suggests that the nature of data collection will depend both on the characteristics of the question (its sensitivity, for example) and the availability of existing qualitative information. An iterative, constant comparative approach to analysis is recommended. Finally, the paper provides a series of recommendations for improving the reporting of this element of DCE studies. PMID:21557381

  8. Nutrition for sports performance: issues and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    Diet can significantly influence athletic performance, but recent research developments have substantially changed our understanding of sport and exercise nutrition. Athletes adopt various nutritional strategies in training and competition in the pursuit of success. The aim of training is to promote changes in the structure and function of muscle and other tissues by selective modulation of protein synthesis and breakdown in response to the training stimulus. This process is affected by the availability of essential amino acids in the post-exercise period. Athletes have been encouraged to eat diets high in carbohydrate, but low-carbohydrate diets up-regulate the capacity of muscle for fat oxidation, potentially sparing the limited carbohydrate stores. Such diets, however, do not enhance endurance performance. It is not yet known whether the increased capacity for fat oxidation that results from training in a carbohydrate-deficient state can promote loss of body fat. Preventing excessive fluid deficits will maintain exercise capacity, and ensuring adequate hydration status can also reduce subjective perception of effort. This latter effect may be important in encouraging exercise participation and promoting adherence to exercise programmes. Dietary supplement use is popular in sport, and a few supplements may improve performance in specific exercise tasks. Athletes must be cautious, however, not to contravene the doping regulations. There is an increasing recognition of the role of the brain in determining exercise performance: various nutritional strategies have been proposed, but with limited success. Nutrition strategies developed for use by athletes can also be used to achieve functional benefits in other populations.

  9. Marketing Across Cultures: Issues, Problems and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdrabboh, Bob

    Now more than ever, a clear knowledge and understanding of languages, cultures, and customs is essential to successfully marketing products and services around the world. Barriers to competition may occur in differences in language, technology levels, conceptions of authority, environmental perceptions, contexting, and social organization. In…

  10. Focus issue: teaching tools and learning opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gough, Nancy R

    2010-01-01

    Science Signaling provides authoring experience for students and resources for educators. Students experience the writing and revision process involved in authoring short commentary articles that are published in the Journal Club section. By publishing peer-reviewed teaching materials, Science Signaling provides instructors with feedback that improves their materials and an outlet to share their tips and techniques and digital resources with other teachers.

  11. THE ONTARIO HYDRO METHOD FOR SPECIATED MERCURY MEASUREMENTS: ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ontario Hydro (OH) method has been developed for the measurement of total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion sources. The OH method was initially developed to support EPA's information collection request to characterize and inventory mercury emissions ...

  12. Did I Tell You That? Ethical Issues Related to Using Computational Methods to Discover Non-Disclosed Patient Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cato, Kenrick D; Bockting, Walter; Larson, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Widespread availability of electronic health records coupled with sophisticated statistical methods offer great potential for a variety of applications for health and disease surveillance, developing predictive models and advancing decision support for clinicians. However, use of "big data" mining and discovery techniques has also raised ethical issues such as how to balance privacy and autonomy with the wider public benefits of data sharing. Furthermore, electronic data are being increasingly used to identify individual characteristics, which can be useful for clinical prediction and management, but were not previously disclosed to a clinician. This process in computer parlance is called electronic phenotyping, and has a number of ethical implications. Using the Belmont Report's principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as a framework, we examined the ethical issues posed by electronic phenotyping. Ethical issues identified include the ability of the patient to consent for the use of their information, the ability to suppress pediatric information, ensuring that the potential benefits justify the risks of harm to patients, and acknowledging that the clinician's biases or stereotypes, conscious or unintended, may become a factor in the therapeutic interaction. We illustrate these issues with two vignettes, using the person characteristic of gender minority status (i.e., transgender identity) and health history characteristic of substance abuse. Data mining has the potential to uncover patient characteristics previously obscured, which can provide clinicians with beneficial clinical information. Hence, ethical guidelines must be updated to ensure that electronic phenotyping supports the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

  13. Did I Tell You That? Ethical Issues Related to Using Computational Methods to Discover Non-Disclosed Patient Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cato, Kenrick D; Bockting, Walter; Larson, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Widespread availability of electronic health records coupled with sophisticated statistical methods offer great potential for a variety of applications for health and disease surveillance, developing predictive models and advancing decision support for clinicians. However, use of "big data" mining and discovery techniques has also raised ethical issues such as how to balance privacy and autonomy with the wider public benefits of data sharing. Furthermore, electronic data are being increasingly used to identify individual characteristics, which can be useful for clinical prediction and management, but were not previously disclosed to a clinician. This process in computer parlance is called electronic phenotyping, and has a number of ethical implications. Using the Belmont Report's principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as a framework, we examined the ethical issues posed by electronic phenotyping. Ethical issues identified include the ability of the patient to consent for the use of their information, the ability to suppress pediatric information, ensuring that the potential benefits justify the risks of harm to patients, and acknowledging that the clinician's biases or stereotypes, conscious or unintended, may become a factor in the therapeutic interaction. We illustrate these issues with two vignettes, using the person characteristic of gender minority status (i.e., transgender identity) and health history characteristic of substance abuse. Data mining has the potential to uncover patient characteristics previously obscured, which can provide clinicians with beneficial clinical information. Hence, ethical guidelines must be updated to ensure that electronic phenotyping supports the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. PMID:27534587

  14. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL DATA: METHODS EVALUATION WITH REGARD TO DATA ISSUES AND ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities at a regional scale. An initial effort within this research program has been to develop and evaluate methods to synthesize ...

  15. Alternate scenarios for population control in Pakistan: the issue of contraceptive method mix.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T; Ali, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors review Pakistan's population program, with a focus on the ideal mix of contraceptive methods needed to slow population growth. "Our objective in this exercise is to estimate the extent of services required to achieve a certain level of the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) necessary to bring fertility down to a level desired by women." Comparison is made between single- and multiple-method approaches.

  16. Material Forming Models: to what extent numerical methods can treat physical and engineering issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenot, J.-L.; Coupez, T.; Haudin, J.-M.; Chastel, Y.

    2004-06-01

    The development of finite element simulation of material forming processes started about 30 years ago in academic laboratories, while the introduction of the corresponding commercial computer codes in industry is less than twenty years old. The main mechanical integral formulations for solid or viscous liquids are briefly recalled: classical Eulerian, Eulerian with a characteristic function, updated Lagrangian and arbitrary Euler Lagrange, with some comments on the finite element discretization using a mixed formulation and mini tetrahedral elements. The crucial remeshing issues are analyzed for non steady-state processes with different levels of sophistication: Updated Lagrangian for solids, or Euler and a characteristic function, possibly combined with error estimation and adaptivity. As real problems are usually very complex in industry, we must consider different levels of coupling such as thermal and mechanical coupling with the tools in forging and gas — liquid — solid coupling as in polymer foaming. In an attempt to model microstructure evolution of the work-piece during the different stages of forming, three approaches are reviewed. In the first example the physical evolution of metal is described by macroscopic parameters and their laws of evolution, while the second one is based on a finite element modeling of the two-phase material at the microscopic level. Finally the third case is the presentation of a new approach of polymer crystallization during injection molding and its introduction in a computer code.

  17. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  18. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  19. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.

  20. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. II. Sampling method affects ectoparasite studies.

    PubMed

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-08-31

    In this study, we assessed the impact of sampling method on the results of fish ectoparasite studies. Common roach Rutilus rutilus were sampled from the same gravel pit in the River Dyje flood plain (Czech Republic) using 3 different sampling methods, i.e. electrofishing, beach seining and gill-netting, and were examined for ectoparasites. Not only did fish caught by electrofishing have more of the most abundant parasites (Trichodina spp., Gyrodactylus spp.) than those caught by beach seining or gill-netting, they also had relatively rich parasite infracommunities, resulting in a significantly different assemblage composition, presumably as parasites were lost through handling and 'manipulation' in the net. Based on this, we recommend electrofishing as the most suitable method to sample fish for parasite community studies, as data from fish caught with gill-nets and beach seines will provide a biased picture of the ectoparasite community, underestimating ectoparasite abundance and infracommunity species richness. PMID:27596860

  1. mHealth Research: Current Methods, Alternative Approaches, and Issues for Discussion | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    On December 3, 2015, the National Cancer Institute convened a group of 18 behavioral scientists for a day-long meeting to discuss scientific methods for evaluating technology-mediated behavior change interventions, with an emphasis on mobile smoking cessation interventions. This post contains excerpts from a document provided to participants in advance of the December 3 meeting. The document was used to set context for discussion by providing a high-level overview of the methods most commonly used in published 

  2. Lattice Boltzmann method for relativistic hydrodynamics: Issues on conservation law of particle number and discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Luo, K. H.; Li, X. J.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we aim to address several important issues about the recently developed lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for relativistic hydrodynamics [M. Mendoza, B. Boghosian, H. Herrmann, and S. Succi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 014502 (2010)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.014502; Phys. Rev. D 82, 105008 (2010)PRVDAQ1550-799810.1103/PhysRevD.82.105008]. First, we study the conservation law of the particle number in the relativistic LB model. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that in the relativistic LB model the conservation equation of the particle number is a convection-diffusion equation rather than a continuity equation, which makes the evolution of the particle number dependent on the relaxation time. Furthermore, we investigate the origin of the discontinuities that appeared in the relativistic problems with high viscosities, which were reported in a recent study [D. Hupp, M. Mendoza, I. Bouras, S. Succi, and H. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. D 84, 125015 (2011)PRVDAQ1550-799810.1103/PhysRevD.84.125015]. A multiple-relaxation-time relativistic LB model is presented to examine the influences of different relaxation times on the discontinuities. Numerical experiments show the discontinuities can be eliminated by setting the relaxation time τe (related to the bulk viscosity) to be sufficiently smaller than the relaxation time τν (related to the shear viscosity). Meanwhile, it is found that the relaxation time τɛ, which has no effect on the conservation equations at the Navier-Stokes level, will affect the numerical accuracy of the relativistic LB model. Moreover, the accuracy of the relativistic LB model for simulating moderately relativistic problems is also investigated.

  3. Asking Difficult Questions: Exploring Research Methods with Children on Painful Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Assumptions about a child's competence to voice an opinion often inhibit efforts to find effective methods for participation. Answers to questions are sought from the significant adults who surround a child [Morris, J. 2003. "Including All Children: Finding Out about the Experiences of Children with Communication and/or Cognitive…

  4. The Enterococcus QPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Testing Background, Performance and Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently accepted culture-based monitoring methods for fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters take at least 24 hr to determine if unacceptable levels of fecal pollution have reached our recreational beaches. During this waiting period changing water conditions may result eit...

  5. Preservice Teachers in a Literacy Methods Course Consider Issues of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Shelley Hong

    2000-01-01

    Describes three case studies of young, middle-class European American female preservice teachers' experiences teaching literacy to diverse students literacy while enrolled in a field-based literacy methods course. Finds field experiences had a greater impact on one preservice teacher than on the other two in terms of enhanced capabilities for…

  6. The Language Laboratory: Methods and Materials. Kielikeskusuutisia. Language Centre News, No.l: Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautamatti, Liisa, Ed.; Lindgvist, Pirkko, Ed.

    This collection of articles deals with various aspects of the role of the language laboratory in language teaching, concentrating on laboratory teaching methods and materials. Topics range from evaluation of existing materials to the planning of courses and self-instruction systems, and include suggestions for the building up of a sound-library…

  7. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  8. Mathematical, Logical, and Formal Methods in Information Retrieval: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crestani, Fabio; Dominich, Sandor; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Cornelis Joost

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of research on the use of mathematical, logical, and formal methods in information retrieval to help enhance retrieval effectiveness and clarify underlying concepts of information retrieval. Highlights include logic; probability; spaces; and future research needs. (Author/LRW)

  9. Enhancing Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Michelle J.

    1994-01-01

    Hispanics can enhance their professional career by finding jobs with corporations that offer to pay for graduate tuition. This opportunity has positively influenced the careers of many Hispanics and has proven advantageous for corporations as well by increasing the knowledge and skills of their employees. (LP)

  10. Unequal opportunities.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    There are concerns that the reorganisation of the NHS will reduce opportunities for BME nurses to reach senior positions. This article considers the varied experiences of front line nurses. Several have been passed over for promotion, others have experienced overt racism from patients, while some have never felt discriminated against.

  11. Environmental issues in China

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Soil water content assessment: critical issues concerning the operational application of the triangle method.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  13. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  14. Escherichia coli inactivation by pressurized CO2 treatment methods at room temperature: Critical issues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongji; Huang, Doudou; Zhou, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to increase the inactivation efficiency of CO2 against Escherichia coli under mild conditions to facilitate the application of pressurized CO2 technology in water disinfection. Based on an aerating-cycling apparatus, three different treatment methods (continuous aeration, continuous reflux, and simultaneous aeration and reflux) were compared for the same temperature, pressure (0.3-0.7MPa), initial concentration, and exposure time (25min). The simultaneous aeration and reflux treatment (combined method) was shown to be the best method under optimum conditions, which were determined to be 0.7MPa, room temperature, and an exposure time of 10min. This treatment achieved 5.1-log reduction after 25min of treatment at the pressure of 0.3MPa and 5.73-log reduction after 10min at 0.7MPa. Log reductions of 4.4 and 5.0 occurred at the end of continuous aeration and continuous reflux treatments at 0.7MPa, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggested that cells were ruptured after the simultaneous aeration and reflux treatment and the continuous reflux treatment. The increase of the solubilization rate of CO2 due to intense hydraulic conditions led to a rapid inactivation effect. It was found that the reduction of intracellular pH caused by CO2 led to a more lethal bactericidal effect. PMID:27155435

  15. Perceptions of the Willingness of Part-Time Instructors in Community Colleges in the U.S. to Engage in Professional Development Opportunities and the Best Method(s) of Delivering These Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Brian A.; Dainty, Julie D.; Belcher, Gregory G.; Frisbee, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of occupational education officers concerning the willingness of part-time instructors in community colleges in the United States to attend professional development opportunities and the best methods and times to deliver these activities. The findings indicate that community colleges should…

  16. Gulliver's Eggs: Why Methods are not an Issue of Qualitative Research in Cultural Psychology.

    PubMed

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The future of qualitative methods regards the kind of object cultural psychology is interested and the kind of questions it can ask. I propose that the object should be experiencing, understood as a complex whole, consisting of lived-by action and counter-action, that is contextual inter-action with the world in the form of an experiencing subject and otherness. The kind of questions cultural psychology can ask is instead related to the epistemological status attributed to both researcher and participant. Probably few scholars such as Vygotsky, Piaget and Lewin understood to what extent experiencing is always changing, because the relationship between mind, alterity and culture is co-generative. This also implies a relativization and a decentralization of the psychology's perspective. Finally, I provide some examples from the history of psychology and some suggestions to work at the level of such complexity by using methods that can work with complex objects such as products of human activity (e.g., art, literature, architecture, etc.). PMID:25633519

  17. ISSUES IN AMERICAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEINBERG, MEYER

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THREE PROMINENT ISSUES OF CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN EDUCATION--UNEQUAL LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES, ACADEMIC FREEDOM, AND THE TEACHER AS A PROFESSIONAL WORKER. THE FIRST OF THESE ISSUES IS EXAMINED UNDER THE RUBRICS OF (1) THE GOALS OF INTEGRATION, (2) THE SEPARATION OF EDUCATION FROM INTEGRATION, (3) COMPENSATORY EDUCATION, (4)…

  18. Estimating Right Atrial Pressure Using Ultrasounds: An Old Issue Revisited With New Methods

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Baldi, Cesare; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Giasi, Anna; Cioppa, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the right atrial pressure (RAP) values is critical to ascertain the existence of a state of hemodynamic congestion, irrespective of the possible presence of signs and symptoms of clinical congestion and cardiac overload that can be lacking in some conditions of concealed or clinically misleading cardiac decompensation. In addition, a more reliable estimate of RAP would make it possible to determine more accurately also the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure with the only echocardiographic methods. The authors briefly illustrate some of the criteria that have been implemented to obtain a non-invasive RAP estimate, some of which have been approved by current guidelines and others are still awaiting official endorsement from the Scientific Societies of Cardiology. There is a representation of the sometimes opposing views of researchers who have studied the problem, and the prospects for development of new diagnostic criteria are outlined, in particular those derived from the matched use of two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic parameters. PMID:27429676

  19. Estimating Right Atrial Pressure Using Ultrasounds: An Old Issue Revisited With New Methods.

    PubMed

    De Vecchis, Renato; Baldi, Cesare; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Giasi, Anna; Cioppa, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of the right atrial pressure (RAP) values is critical to ascertain the existence of a state of hemodynamic congestion, irrespective of the possible presence of signs and symptoms of clinical congestion and cardiac overload that can be lacking in some conditions of concealed or clinically misleading cardiac decompensation. In addition, a more reliable estimate of RAP would make it possible to determine more accurately also the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure with the only echocardiographic methods. The authors briefly illustrate some of the criteria that have been implemented to obtain a non-invasive RAP estimate, some of which have been approved by current guidelines and others are still awaiting official endorsement from the Scientific Societies of Cardiology. There is a representation of the sometimes opposing views of researchers who have studied the problem, and the prospects for development of new diagnostic criteria are outlined, in particular those derived from the matched use of two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic parameters. PMID:27429676

  20. Using Dialogue between Researcher and Participants as a Method of Coping with Issues of Credibility in Translation of Hispanics' Professional Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Norma Landa

    This paper contrasts Edward Hall's microcultural analysis method of teaching members of different cultures how to interact with the others, with Norma Flores' macrocultural Intercultural Assessment of Communication Competency and English Speaking Skills (I ACCESS) method of giving members of different cultures an opportunity to collaborate with…

  1. Modelling climate impact on water in Australia: issues, methods and uncertainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiew, F. H.

    2010-12-01

    Australia is going through a significant period of water reform. The increasing demand for water for cities, industries, irrigation and the environment, and the current prolonged drought in southern Australia and predictions of a drier future are putting immense pressure on water resources. The management challenge in Australia is compounded by the low runoff coefficient and high river flow variability in Australia compared to elsewhere in the world. To underpin water planning and management, several large modelling studies to assess historical and future water availability were recently completed. This paper will discuss the different methods that can be used to estimate future water availability. Simple rules of thumb based on climate elasticities of streamflow and Budyko-type energy and water balance equations can be used for data limited regions or where only mean annual estimates are required. More detailed studies will combine projections from global and regional climate models, methods to downscale climate model projections to catchment-scale climate series and hydrological models that properly consider potential changes in dominant hydrological processes in a warmer, drier and higher CO2 environment. This paper will show that the largest uncertainty in predicting future water availability is in the projections of regional climate, in particular rainfall. For example, there is little agreement between the different global climate models on the direction of change in rainfall in the northern half of continental Australia. However, over the highly populated and important agricultural regions of south-eastern Australia, a large majority of climate models indicate a drier future. The median result from hydrological modelling with future climate projections from more than 20 global climate models indicate that averaged across south-eastern Australia, there will be 10 percent less water (range of result from -30 percent to +10 percent) for a 1oC global warming

  2. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    In the design of a new space suit it is necessary to have requirements that define what mobility space suit joints should be capable of achieving in both a system and at the component level. NASA elected to divide mobility into its constituent parts-range of motion (ROM) and torque- in an effort to develop clean design requirements that limit subject performance bias and are easily verified. Unfortunately, the measurement of mobility can be difficult to obtain. Current technologies, such as the Vicon motion capture system, allow for the relatively easy benchmarking of range of motion (ROM) for a wide array of space suit systems. The ROM evaluations require subjects in the suit to accurately evaluate the ranges humans can achieve in the suit. However, when it comes to torque, there are significant challenges for both benchmarking current performance and writing requirements for future suits. This is reflected in the fact that torque definitions have been applied to very few types of space suits and with limited success in defining all the joints accurately. This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages to historical joint torque evaluation methods, describes more recent efforts directed at benchmarking joint torques of prototype space suits, and provides an outline for how NASA intends to address joint torque in design requirements for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS).

  3. Interconnected but underprotected? Parents' methods and motivations for information seeking on digital safety issues.

    PubMed

    Davis, Vauna

    2012-12-01

    Parents need information and skills to meet the demands of mediating connected technology in their homes. Parents' methods and motivations for learning to protect children from digital risks were reported through a survey. This study explores relationships between information seeking, parents' concerns, risks children have experienced, and access to connected devices, in addition to the use and satisfaction of various digital safety resources. Three types of information-seeking behavior were identified: (a) protective information seeking, to protect children from being confronted with harmful content; (b) problem-solving information seeking, to help children who have been negatively affected by connected technology; and (c) attentive learning, by attending to media resources passively encountered on this topic. Friends and family are the dominant source of digital safety information, followed by presentations and the Internet. Parents' top concerns for their children using connected technology were accidental exposure to pornography, and sexual content in Internet-based entertainment. Higher numbers of risks experienced by children were positively associated with parents' problem-solving information seeking and level of attentive learning. Parents who were more concerned exhibited more problem-solving information seeking; but despite the high level of concern for children's safety online, 65 percent of parents seek information on this subject less than twice per year. Children have access to a mean of five connected devices at home; a higher number of devices was correlated with increased risks experienced by children, but was not associated with increased concern or information seeking from parents.

  4. Opportunity's Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Long Term Planning graphic was created from a mosaic of navigation camera images overlain by a polar coordinate grid with the center point as Opportunity's original landing site. The blue dots represent the rover position at various locations.

    The red dots represent the center points of the target areas for the instruments on the rover mast (the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer). Opportunity visited Stone Mountain on Feb. 5. Stone Mountain was named after the southernmost point of the Appalachian Mountains outside of Atlanta, Ga. On Earth, Stone Mountain is the last big mountain before the Piedmont flatlands, and on Mars, Stone Mountain is at one end of Opportunity Ledge. El Capitan is a target of interest on Mars named after the second highest peak in Texas in Guadaloupe National Park, which is one of the most visited outcrops in the United States by geologists. It has been a training ground for students and professional geologists to understand what the layering means in relation to the formation of Earth, and scientists will study this prominent point of Opportunity Ledge to understand what the layering means on Mars.

    The yellow lines show the midpoint where the panoramic camera has swept and will sweep a 120-degree area from the three waypoints on the tour of the outcrop. Imagine a fan-shaped wedge from left to right of the yellow line.

    The white contour lines are one meter apart, and each drive has been roughly about 2-3 meters in length over the last few sols. The large white blocks are dropouts in the navigation camera data.

    Opportunity is driving along and taking a photographic panorama of the entire outcrop. Scientists will stitch together these images and use the new mosaic as a 'base map' to decide on geology targets of interest for a more detailed study of the outcrop using the instruments on the robotic arm. Once scientists choose their targets of interest, they plan to study the outcrop for roughly five to

  5. Decision making under uncertainty: An investigation into the application of formal decision-making methods to safety issue decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M P

    1992-12-01

    As part of the NRC-sponsored program to study the implications of Generic Issue 57, Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment,'' a subtask was performed to evaluate the applicability of formal decision analysis methods to generic issues cost/benefit-type decisions and to apply these methods to the GI-57 results. In this report, the numerical results obtained from the analysis of three plants (two PWRs and one BWR) as developed in the technical resolution program for GI-57 were studied. For each plant, these results included a calculation of the person-REM averted due to various accident scenarios and various proposed modifications to mitigate the accident scenarios identified. These results were recomputed to break out the benefit in terms of contributions due to random event scenarios, fire event scenarios, and seismic event scenarios. Furthermore, the benefits associated with risk (in terms of person-REM) averted from earthquakes at three different seismic ground motion levels were separately considered. Given this data, formal decision methodologies involving decision trees, value functions, and utility functions were applied to this basic data. It is shown that the formal decision methodology can be applied at several different levels. Examples are given in which the decision between several retrofits is changed from that resulting from a simple cost/benefit-ratio criterion by virtue of the decision-makinger's expressed (and assumed) preferences.

  6. How reliable are methods to assess xylem vulnerability to cavitation? The issue of 'open vessel' artifact in oaks.

    PubMed

    Martin-StPaul, N K; Longepierre, D; Huc, R; Delzon, S; Burlett, R; Joffre, R; Rambal, S; Cochard, H

    2014-08-01

    Three methods are in widespread use to build vulnerability curves (VCs) to cavitation. The bench drying (BD) method is considered as a reference because embolism and xylem pressure are measured on large branches dehydrating in the air, in conditions similar to what happens in nature. Two other methods of embolism induction have been increasingly used. While the Cavitron (CA) uses centrifugal force to induce embolism, in the air injection (AI) method embolism is induced by forcing pressurized air to enter a stem segment. Recent studies have suggested that the AI and CA methods are inappropriate in long-vesselled species because they produce a very high-threshold xylem pressure for embolism (e.g., P50) compared with what is expected from (i) their ecophysiology in the field (native embolism, water potential and stomatal response to xylem pressure) and (ii) the P50 obtained with the BD method. However, other authors have argued that the CA and AI methods may be valid because they produce VCs similar to the BD method. In order to clarify this issue, we assessed VCs with the three above-mentioned methods on the long-vesselled Quercus ilex L. We showed that the BD VC yielded threshold xylem pressure for embolism consistent with in situ measurements of native embolism, minimal water potential and stomatal conductance. We therefore concluded that the BD method provides a reliable estimate of the VC for this species. The CA method produced a very high P50 (i.e., less negative) compared with the BD method, which is consistent with an artifact related to the vessel length. The VCs obtained with the AI method were highly variable, producing P50 ranging from -2 to -8.2 MPa. This wide variability was more related to differences in base diameter among samples than to differences in the length of samples. We concluded that this method is probably subject to an artifact linked to the distribution of vessel lengths within the sample. Overall, our results indicate that the CA

  7. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  8. Research on some issues of the method of photoelectric autocollimation for two-dimensional small angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qimeng; Yan, Bixi; Lu, Naiguang

    2008-12-01

    Four issues of the method of photoelectric autocollimation for two-dimensional small angle measurement such as adjustment of calibration system, elimination of the effect on the measurement result induced by the installing position of the CCD camera relative to the autocollimator, processing methods of experimental data and repeatability of the system are studied in the paper. The calibration system which is composed of a precision motorized stage, a dual-frequency laser interferometer and a photoelectric autocollimator, is regulated to accomplish two separate calibrations around Z-axis and X-axis in the measuring coordinates system which is established by considering horizontal, vertical line of the crosshair and optical axis as X-axis, Z-axis and Y-axis respectively. Experimental results show that the formula method which can reduce the random error and remove the system error effectively with the average error of zero and the standard deviation 0.59". Compared with traditional optical autocollimator, the improvement of the photoelectric autocollimation method can be used to achieve rapid and automatic positional detection and error compensation of CNC rotary shaft.

  9. Occupational fatigue and other health and safety issues for young Australian workers: an exploratory mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    PATERSON, Jessica Louise; CLARKSON, Larissa; RAINBIRD, Sophia; ETHERTON, Hayley; BLEWETT, Verna

    2015-01-01

    Youth are vulnerable to sleep loss and fatigue due to biological, social and psychological factors. However, there are few studies addressing the risk that sleep loss and fatigue pose for youth in the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore work health and safety (WHS) issues for young workers and develop strategies and solutions for improved WHS outcomes, with a focus on issues related to fatigue, using a mixed-method, multi-stage approach. Participants either completed a survey (n=212) or took part in focus groups (n=115) addressing WHS for young workers, or attended a Future Inquiry Workshop (n=29) where strategies for improving youth WHS were developed. Fatigue was identified as a significant problem by the majority of young workers and was associated with unpredictable working time arrangements, precarious employment, high workload, working overtime and limited ability to self-advocate. Participants identified six key areas for action to improve WHS outcomes for young workers; 1) develop expertise, 2) give young workers a voice, 3) improve education and training, 4) build stakeholder engagement, 5) increase employer awareness of WHS responsibilities and, 6) improve processes for employers to manage and monitor WHS outcomes. The application of these directives to fatigue is discussed. PMID:25752253

  10. Methods of Selecting Industries for Depressed Areas--An Introduction to Feasibility Studies. Developing Job Opportunities 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaassen, Leo H.

    This report presents severl alternative methods which may be employed by local authorities in identifying likely prospects for local industrialization, and describes a specialized input-output technique to define inter-industry relations and inter-regional relations of industries. This technique is applied, for illustrative purposes, to three…

  11. Two Methods for Classifying Jobs into Equal Employment Opportunity Categories. Working Paper 83/84-4-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Penny F.; Graham-Moore, Brian E.

    Most organizations planning to assess adverse impact or perform a stock analysis for affirmative action planning must correctly classify their jobs into appropriate occupational categories. Two methods of job classification were assessed in a combination archival and field study. Classification results from expert judgment of functional job…

  12. Technology, Pedagogy, and Epistemology: Opportunities and Challenges of Using Computer Modeling and Simulation Tools in Elementary Science Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Christina V.; Meyer, Jason; Sharma, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    This study infused computer modeling and simulation tools in a 1-semester undergraduate elementary science methods course to advance preservice teachers' understandings of computer software use in science teaching and to help them learn important aspects of pedagogy and epistemology. Preservice teachers used computer modeling and simulation tools…

  13. Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data: Results of a NEA International Collaborative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) established a Subgroup (called “Subgroup 33”) in 2009 on “Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data.” The first stage was devoted to producing the description of different adjustment methodologies and assessing their merits. A detailed document related to this first stage has been issued. Nine leading organizations (often with a long and recognized expertise in the field) have contributed: ANL, CEA, INL, IPPE, JAEA, JSI, NRG, IRSN and ORNL. In the second stage a practical benchmark exercise was defined in order to test the reliability of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. A comparison of the results obtained by the participants and major lessons learned in the exercise are discussed in the present paper that summarizes individual contributions which often include several original developments not reported separately. The paper provides the analysis of the most important results of the adjustment of the main nuclear data of 11 major isotopes in a 33-group energy structure. This benchmark exercise was based on a set of 20 well defined integral parameters from 7 fast assembly experiments. The exercise showed that using a common shared set of integral experiments but different starting evaluated libraries and/or different covariance matrices, there is a good convergence of trends for adjustments. Moreover, a significant reduction of the original uncertainties is often observed. Using the a–posteriori covariance data, there is a strong reduction of the uncertainties of integral parameters for reference reactor designs, mainly due to the new correlations in the a–posteriori covariance matrix. Furthermore, criteria have been proposed and applied to verify the consistency of differential and integral data used in the adjustment. Finally, recommendations are given

  14. Strategic opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    Despite statements of doom and gloom from numerous industry pundits, the potential for global hydropower development opportunities remains vast. Statistics demonstrating the potential for hydroelectric development in the United States alone are staggering. More than 80,000 dams exist in the United States, yet only 3 percent have been developed to tap their hydroelectric potential. There is currently about 70,800 MW of installed hydroelectric capacity, with more than 76,000 MW of undeveloped potential. It has been estimated that there are about 3,000 abandoned hydropower sites in the United States. Less than 200 of these sites have been redeveloped. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated redevelopment and rehabilitation of hydropower electric sites in the United States could add an additional 14,000 MW of potential.

  15. The World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance: Methods, Challenges, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Guthold, Regina; Cowan, Melanie; Savin, Stefan; Bhatti, Lubna; Armstrong, Timothy; Bonita, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to outline the framework and methods used by the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to noncommunicable disease (NCD) surveillance (STEPS), describe the development and current status, and discuss strengths, limitations, and future directions of STEPS surveillance. Methods. STEPS is a WHO-developed, standardized but flexible framework for countries to monitor the main NCD risk factors through questionnaire assessment and physical and biochemical measurements. It is coordinated by national authorities of the implementing country. The STEPS surveys are generally household-based and interviewer-administered, with scientifically selected samples of around 5000 participants. Results. To date, 122 countries across all 6 WHO regions have completed data collection for STEPS or STEPS-aligned surveys. Conclusions. STEPS data are being used to inform NCD policies and track risk-factor trends. Future priorities include strengthening these linkages from data to action on NCDs at the country level, and continuing to develop STEPS’ capacities to enable a regular and continuous cycle of risk-factor surveillance worldwide. PMID:26696288

  16. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  17. Development of a national Flash flood warning system in France using the AIGA method: first results and main issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Demargne, Julie; de Saint-Aubin, Céline; Garandeau, Léa; Janet, Bruno; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Fouchier, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Developing a national flash flood (FF) warning system is an ambitious and difficult task. On one hand it rises huge expectations from exposed populations and authorities since induced damages are considerable (ie 20 casualties in the recent October 2015 flood at the French Riviera). But on the other hand, many practical and scientific issues have to be addressed and limitations should be clearly stated. The FF warning system to be implemented by 2016 in France by the SCHAPI (French national service in charge of flood forecasting) will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014). The AIGA method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr). It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km² resolution to reference flood quantiles of different return periods, at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France. Model calibration was based on ~700 hydrometric stations over the 2002-2015 period and then hourly discharges were computed at ~76 000 catchment outlets, with areas ranging from 10 to 3 500 km², over the last 19 years. This product makes it possible to calculate reference flood quantiles at each outlet. The on-going evaluation of the FF warnings is currently made at two levels: in a 'classical' way, using discharges available at the hydrometric stations, but also in a more 'exploratory' way, by comparing past flood reports and warnings issued by the system over the 76 000 catchment outlets. The interest of the last method is that it better fit the system objectives since it is designed to monitor small ungauged catchments. Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D, .Pansu, J, .Arnaud, P. (2014). Evaluating flash-flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system

  18. Methodological Issues in Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL): What Methods, What to Measure and When to Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) methods utilized in mobile computer-supported collaborative learning (mCSCL) research which focuses on studying, learning and collaboration mediated by mobile devices; (2) whether these methods have examined mCSCL effectively; (3) when the methods are administered; and (4) what methodological issues exist in…

  19. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E.; Baxter, Elizabeth; Saunders, Aoine; Pocock, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science. Methodology / Principal Findings The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups) visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp.) were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7–11 years old) from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant). However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high. Conclusions / Significance Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects) highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs) would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified

  20. Telemedicine: legal and licensure issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael B.; Whelan, Leo J.

    1995-10-01

    The National Information Infrastructure program offers a great opportunity for the United States to capitalize on remarkable technological advancements over a broad range of applications benefiting society. One such application, telemedicine, has the potential to offer widespread access to sophisticated medical care, curtailed health care delivery costs, and homogeneous health and health-related educational opportunities. However, there are a variety of barriers to widespread application of telemedicine once the technical infrastructure of the information highway is well established and ubiquitous. These barriers include technical limitations, reimbursement issues, equipment and networking costs, and appropriate scientific studies to document efficacy and cost effectiveness. These issues may prove to be only transient disincentives which can be surmounted. Additional barriers exist, however, that may not be as readily resolved by traditional methods of analysis and more widespread practice applications. These political and regulatory obstacles will require clarification of the issues and solutions based on national consensus. It is the purpose of this discussion to amplify on these particular barriers which include licensure and tort jurisdiction.

  1. EDITORIAL: Introduction to the special issue on electromagnetic inverse problems: emerging methods and novel applications Introduction to the special issue on electromagnetic inverse problems: emerging methods and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, O.; Lesselier, D.

    2010-07-01

    Inverse problems in electromagnetics have a long history and have stimulated exciting research over many decades. New applications and solution methods are still emerging, providing a rich source of challenging topics for further investigation. The purpose of this special issue is to combine descriptions of several such developments that are expected to have the potential to fundamentally fuel new research, and to provide an overview of novel methods and applications for electromagnetic inverse problems. There have been several special sections published in Inverse Problems over the last decade addressing fully, or partly, electromagnetic inverse problems. Examples are: Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and T Habashy) October 2000 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data (Guest Editors: K Belkebir and M Saillard) December 2001 Electromagnetic and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and J Bowler) December 2002 Electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and W C Chew) December 2004 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data: inhomogeneous targets (Guest Editors: K Belkebir and M Saillard) December 2005 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data: 3D targets (Guest Editors: A Litman and L Crocco) February 2009 In a certain sense, the current issue can be understood as a continuation of this series of special sections on electromagnetic inverse problems. On the other hand, its focus is intended to be more general than previous ones. Instead of trying to cover a well-defined, somewhat specialized research topic as completely as possible, this issue aims to show the broad range of techniques and applications that are relevant to electromagnetic imaging nowadays, which may serve as a source of inspiration and encouragement for all those entering this active and rapidly developing research area. Also, the

  2. A correlation method to predict the surface pressure distribution on an infinite plate from which a jet is issuing. [effects of a lifting jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, S. C., Jr.; Menhall, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation method to predict pressures induced on an infinite plate by a jet issuing from the plate into a subsonic free stream was developed. The complete method consists of an analytical method which models the blockage and entrainment properties of the jet and a correlation which accounts for the effects of separation. The method was developed for jet velocity ratios up to ten and for radial distances up to five diameters from the jet. Correlation curves and data comparisons are presented for jets issuing normally from a flat plate with velocity ratios one to twelve. Also, a list of references which deal with jets in a crossflow is presented.

  3. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  4. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  5. Teaching design in the first years of a traditional mechanical engineering degree: methods, issues and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Arlindo; Fontul, Mihail; Henriques, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design is known as an answer to an ill-defined problem. As any answer to an ill-defined problem, it can never be completely right or absolutely wrong. The methods that universities use to teach engineering design, as a consequence of this, suffer from the same fate. However, the accumulated experience with the 'chalk and talk' teaching tradition has led to a reality in which the employers of fresh graduates are not happy with the engineers they are getting. Part of their complaints are related with the inability of recently graduate engineers to work in problems where the boundaries are not well defined, are interdisciplinary, require the use of effective communication and integrate non-technical issues. These skills are mostly absent from traditional engineering curricula. This paper demonstrates the implementation of engineering design perspectives enhancing some of the aforementioned skills in a traditional mechanical engineering curriculum. It emphasises in particular a design project that is tackled in a sequence of conventional courses with a focus that depends on the course objectives and disciplinary domain. This transdisciplinary design project conveys the idea (and effectively implements it concurrently) that design is multidisciplinary.

  6. Problems and Issues for the Classroom: What Works in Generating Class Discussions Using the Method of Shared Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Potential extinction of the human smallpox virus lies in the hands of a few scientists and policymakers. Whether this decision should be made can serve as an excellent issue for extended, focused classroom discussion. Outlines the history of smallpox, illustrates the debate, and describes preparation needed before discussing the issue. Also…

  7. National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Demonstrating an appreciation for the perspectives of others is now recognized as one of the single most important learning outcomes of a college education. This skill, fundamental to democracy and civic engagement, is honed in college by institutions that provide opportunities for students to interact with their peers and others on issues that…

  8. Employment. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue addresses current trends and new developments in ensuring that individuals with disabilities have meaningful employment opportunities, especially in the context of recent federal legislation. Stressed throughout is the importance of collaboration among professionals, individuals with disabilities, and family members in achieving…

  9. Assistive Technologies, Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wobschall, Rachel, Ed.; Lakin, Charlie, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This feature issue of a newsletter on community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities considers the role of assistive technologies. It describes efforts to utilize consumer direction, public policy, creativity, energy, and professional know-how in the pursuit of technology-based opportunities to enhance community inclusion,…

  10. Understanding the Korean Peninsula in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part II, U.S. and Japanese Relations with the Korean Peninsula: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Cheng, Amy; Amar, Jasmine; Donahue, Dave; Fisher, Grace; Klein, Emily; Lee, Joanne

    This curriculum unit is part two of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to challenges and opportunities presented by policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with the Korean Peninsula at the turn of the…

  11. Opportunity knocks.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1990-01-01

    A preference for bearing sons has existed for centuries in some cultures. In India, for example, female infanticide, the neglect of daughters, and the abuse and deprivation of adult females have long been common practice and an integral part of society. Bearing and nurturing sons at the expense of daughters resulted in the creation of large local forces of males considered to be a normal and necessary factor in maintaining the economic and political strength of the family, lineage, and village. Daughters were the expendable offspring. Indeed, the neglect and murder of female offspring has led to a national population in which there are 20-30 million fewer females than males. This skewed sex ratio is real and increasing in India, especially in recent decades. Scattered information on imbalanced sex ratios favoring males exists for some parts of eastern and southern India. Most evidence, however, indicates the existence of a longstanding and pervasive culture limiting female survival in the northwestern plains, especially among propertied groups. On this issue, northern India therefore resembles neighboring districts in Pakistan, while eastern India resembles Bangladesh. The author notes that progress in improving female child health in the Punjab, a region in which daughter neglect has been extreme and pervasive, signals hope for the future. At Ludhiana Christian Medical College, the decentralized program of household visits, careful record-keeping, and maternal education have been making a difference in female child survival rates. That program can and should serve as a model for the rest of India, with appropriate modifications depending upon the social and economic context.

  12. Making the case for STEM integration at the upper elementary level: A mixed methods exploration of opportunity to learn math and science, teachers' efficacy and students' attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brianna M.

    Student achievement in science and math has been linked to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth propagating the belief that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is an important factor in economic prosperity. However, The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), favors math over science, positioning the subjects as competitors rather than collaborators. Additionally, NCLB focuses almost exclusively on the cognitive outcome of students' achievement with the affective outcome of students' attitudes being nearly ignored. Positive attitudes toward science and math early on are essential for subsequent and cumulative decisions students make in taking courses, choosing majors, and pursuing careers. Positioning students' attitudes as a desirable educational outcome comparable to students' achievement is an emerging goal in the literature. Using the case of one school district in south-central Pennsylvania with three elementary schools, 15 upper elementary teachers, and 361 students, the purpose of this study was to better understand influences on upper elementary students' attitudes toward STEM (SA) subjects and careers. The study aimed to explore two influences on SA, opportunity to learn (OTL) and teacher's efficacy (TE), in the comparative contexts of math and science. The studied employed a mixed methods convergent design in which five data sets from four sources were collected over three phases to triangulate three constructs: OTL, TE, and SA. The goal of the study was to offer recommendations to the case school district for enhancing OTL, TE, and thus SA. Findings regarding OTL revealed that the opportunity to learn science was lower than math. Finding regarding TE revealed that outcome expectancy was lower than personal teaching efficacy in both science and math; and, teachers had low STEM career awareness, STEM integration, and technology use. Findings regarding SA revealed a lower perceived usefulness of science compared to math

  13. Quantitative method to determine sporicidal decontamination of building surfaces by gaseous fumigants, and issues related to laboratory-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Vipin K; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S; Ryan, Shawn P; Martin, Blair

    2009-06-01

    Chlorine dioxide gas and vaporous hydrogen peroxide sterilant have been used in the cleanup of building interiors contaminated with spores of Bacillus anthracis. A systematic study, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was jointly undertaken by the U.S. Army-Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to determine the sporicidal efficacies of these two fumigants on six building structural materials: carpet, ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted I-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. Critical issues related to high-throughput sample processing and spore recovery from porous and nonporous surfaces included (i) the extraction of spores from complex building materials, (ii) the effects of titer challenge levels on fumigant efficacy, and (iii) the impact of bioburden inclusion on spore recovery from surfaces and spore inactivation. Small pieces (1.3 by 1.3 cm of carpet, ceiling tile, wallboard, I-beam steel, and pinewood and 2.5 by 1.3 cm for cinder block) of the materials were inoculated with an aliquot of 50 microl containing the target number (1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7), or 1 x 10(8)) of avirulent spores of B. anthracis NNR1Delta1. The aliquot was dried overnight in a biosafety cabinet, and the spores were extracted by a combination of a 10-min sonication and a 2-min vortexing using 0.5% buffered peptone water as the recovery medium. No statistically significant drop in the kill efficacies of the fumigants was observed when the spore challenge level was increased from 6 log units to 8 log units, even though a general trend toward inhibition of fumigant efficacy was evident. The organic burden (0 to 5%) in the spore inoculum resulted in a statistically significant drop in spore recovery (at the 2 or 5% level). The effect on spore killing was a function of the organic bioburden amount and the material type. In summary, a high-throughput quantitative method was developed for determining the efficacies of fumigants, and the spore

  14. Quantitative method to determine sporicidal decontamination of building surfaces by gaseous fumigants, and issues related to laboratory-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Vipin K; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S; Ryan, Shawn P; Martin, Blair

    2009-06-01

    Chlorine dioxide gas and vaporous hydrogen peroxide sterilant have been used in the cleanup of building interiors contaminated with spores of Bacillus anthracis. A systematic study, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was jointly undertaken by the U.S. Army-Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to determine the sporicidal efficacies of these two fumigants on six building structural materials: carpet, ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted I-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. Critical issues related to high-throughput sample processing and spore recovery from porous and nonporous surfaces included (i) the extraction of spores from complex building materials, (ii) the effects of titer challenge levels on fumigant efficacy, and (iii) the impact of bioburden inclusion on spore recovery from surfaces and spore inactivation. Small pieces (1.3 by 1.3 cm of carpet, ceiling tile, wallboard, I-beam steel, and pinewood and 2.5 by 1.3 cm for cinder block) of the materials were inoculated with an aliquot of 50 microl containing the target number (1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7), or 1 x 10(8)) of avirulent spores of B. anthracis NNR1Delta1. The aliquot was dried overnight in a biosafety cabinet, and the spores were extracted by a combination of a 10-min sonication and a 2-min vortexing using 0.5% buffered peptone water as the recovery medium. No statistically significant drop in the kill efficacies of the fumigants was observed when the spore challenge level was increased from 6 log units to 8 log units, even though a general trend toward inhibition of fumigant efficacy was evident. The organic burden (0 to 5%) in the spore inoculum resulted in a statistically significant drop in spore recovery (at the 2 or 5% level). The effect on spore killing was a function of the organic bioburden amount and the material type. In summary, a high-throughput quantitative method was developed for determining the efficacies of fumigants, and the spore

  15. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Charrles; Kampfe, Charlene

    This chapter examines issues related to working with diverse populations with addictions. A brief history of multiculturalism and multicultural counseling is presented. Issues particular to the treatment of people with addictions are examined, as well as prevention and assessment issues. Substance abuse issues among people in the gay male and…

  16. ERCMExpress. Volume 3, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Mary Frances; McDonald, Dale

    2007-01-01

    The Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" is a newsletter that provides comprehensive information on key issues in school emergency management. This issue, entitled "Emergency Management Opportunities and Challenges for Non-Public Schools," examines integrating non-public schools into emergency…

  17. Women in the Work Force: Supreme Court Issues. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1986

    This U.S. Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative Matthew G. Martinez (California), focuses on women in the work force. Issues, such as equal participation, pay, and advancement, along with sex discrimination and sexual harassment, are addressed. Testimony and written statements were presented by representatives from District of Columbia…

  18. Disaster research: a nursing opportunity.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Gloria; Savage, Jane; Barcelona-deMendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W

    2014-09-01

    Nurses working or living near a community disaster have the opportunity to study health-related consequences to disaster or disaster recovery. In such a situation, the researchers need to deal with the conceptual and methodological issues unique to postdisaster research and know what resources are available to guide them, even if they have no specialized training or previous experience in disaster research. The purpose of this article is to review issues and challenges associated with conducting postdisaster research and encourage nurses to seek resources and seize opportunities to conduct research should the situation arise. Current disaster studies and the authors' personal experiences conducting maternal-child research in post-Katrina New Orleans (2005-2013) provide real-life examples of how health professionals and nurses faced the challenges of doing postdisaster research. After catastrophic events, nurses need to step forward to conduct disaster research that informs and improves future disaster planning and healthcare responses.

  19. The Contribution of Qualitative Research Towards the Issues Affecting Female Undergraduate Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Louise Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of qualitative research methods towards our understanding of the issues affecting female undergraduate engineers. As outlined in this article female engineering students face many challenges during their undergraduate studies. Qualitative research methods provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the…

  20. Semi-automatic methods for landslide features and channel network extraction in a complex mountainous terrain: new opportunities but also challenges from high resolution topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia; Pirotti, Francesco; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, remotely sensed technologies such as airborne and terrestrial laser scanner have improved the detail of analysis providing high-resolution and high-quality topographic data over large areas better than other technologies. A new generation of high resolution (~ 1m) Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) are now available for different landscapes. These data call for the development of the new generation of methodologies for objective extraction of geomorphic features, such as channel heads, channel networks, bank geometry, landslide scars, service roads, etc. The most important benefit of a high resolution DTM is the detailed recognition of surface features. It is possible to recognize in detail divergent-convex landforms, associated with the dominance of hillslope processes, and convergent-concave landforms, associated with fluvial-dominated erosion. In this work, we test the performance of new methodologies for objective extraction of geomorphic features related to landsliding and channelized processes in order to provide a semi-automatic method for channel network and landslide features recognition in a complex mountainous terrain. The methodologies are based on the detection of thresholds derived by statistical analysis of variability of surface curvature. We considered a study area located in the eastern Italian Alps where a high-quality set of LiDAR data is available and where channel heads, related channel network, and landslides have been mapped in the field by DGPS. In the analysis we derived 1 m DTMs from bare ground LiDAR points, and we used different smoothing factors for the curvature calculation in order to set the more suitable curvature maps for the recognition of selected features. Our analyses suggest that: i) the scale for curvature calculations has to be a function of the scale of the features to be detected, (ii) rougher curvature maps are not optimal as they do not explore a sufficient range at which features occur, while smoother

  1. Issues in Selecting Methods of Evaluating Clinical Competence in the Health Professions: Implications for Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlemas, David A.; Hensal, Carleton

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine methods used to evaluate the clinical competence and proficiency of students in medicine and allied health professions. To identify factors that would be valuable to educators in athletic training and other medical and allied health professions in the development and use of clinical assessment methods. Data Sources: We…

  2. 75 FR 52956 - Funding Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Older Americans Act (OAA), Title VI, Part A... funding opportunity. Funding Opportunity Number: Program Announcement No. is HHS-2011-...

  3. A Systematic Review on methods of evaluate sentence production deficits in agrammatic aphasia patients: Validity and Reliability issues

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Azar; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The grammar assessment in aphasia has been done by few standard tests, but today these tests cannot precise evaluate the sentence production in agrammatic patients. In this study, we review structures and contents of tests or tasks designed to find more frequent methods for sentence production ability in aphasia patients. Materials and Methods: We searched the Cochrane library, Medline by PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 1980 to October 1, 2013 and evaluated all of exist tests or tasks included in the articles and systematic reviews. The sentence production has been studied in three methods. It contains the use of sentence production in spontaneous speech, tasks designed and both methods. The quality of studies was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Results: The 160 articles were reviewed and 38 articles were studied according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were classified into three categories based on assessment methods of sentence production. In 39.5% studies, researchers have used tasks designed, 7.9% articles have applied spontaneous speech and 52.6% articles have used both methods for evaluation production. Inter-rater reliability was between 90% and 100% and intra-rater reliability was between 96% and 98% in studied. Conclusion: Agrammatic aphasia has syntax disorders, especially in sentence production. Most researchers and clinicians used both methods for evaluation production. PMID:25535505

  4. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  5. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  6. GNAT Educational Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Roger B.; Craine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    The GNAT MG1 Catalogue of Variable Stars contains some 26,000 new variable star entries, many of which are short period variable stars with periods of one day or less. This reservoir of GNAT data provides virtually limitless opportunities for a variety of publishable follow-up observational projects for student involvement at every educational level from middle school through upper division undergraduate college, In addition, analyses of the source images can be employed in a variety of student projects addressing issues such as photometric properties of the night sky and monitoring of sky brightness. To this end, we have developed protocols and software tools to help non-science majors to understand how science is done, and to assist science majors in gaining experience and publications that will help secure their professional futures. We have been fortunate to work with a number of students, representing several colleges and universities, who have helped establish and test pilot programs for these student projects. We describe a number of sample projects as well as several preliminary pilot projects which are currently in progress. Procedures for working with GNAT on these and other projects are also discussed.

  7. Detection of metazoan species as a public health issue: simple methods for the validation of food safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Vassioukovitch, O; Orsini, M; Paparini, A; Gianfranceschi, G; Cattarini, O; Di Michele, P; Montuori, E; Vanini, G C; Romano Spica, V

    2005-01-01

    Species identification represents a critical issue in food chain safety and quality control. Several procedures are available to detect animal proteins in cattle feed or to trace transgenic foods. The most effective approach is based on the use of DNA as a marker. Amplification of DNA provides rapid, sensitive and specific protocols. Several target genes can be used, but new insights come from the mitochondrial genome, which is naturally amplified in each cell and shows a remarkable resistance to degradation. These are key points when analysing complex matrices such as foods, animal feedstuff or environmental samples. Traceability is important to prevent BSE or to monitor novel foods, such as genetically modified organisms. Amplification is commonly performed, but it requires expertise and a molecular biology laboratory to perform restriction analysis, electrophoresis or gel staining for the visualisation of results. Hereby, we consider a strategy based on multiple nested amplification and reverse hybridisation assay that virtually requires only a thermocycler and a water bath. The protocol is rapid and simple and can simultaneously detect different species in a DNA sample. This promising approach allows microarray developments, opening up to further perspectives. An international application has been published under the patent cooperation treaty. Presently, a ban on feeding ruminants on cattle-derived proteins is in force in Europe and USA. The identification of metazoan traces in a sample is not only a mere preventive measure for BSE, but represents a possible screening system for monitoring biotechnology products and procedures, as well as a quality control strategy to assure consumer's rights.

  8. A Review of Methods and Instruments Used in State and Local School Readiness Evaluations. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Glyn; Scott-Little, Catherine; Amwake, Lynn; Wynn, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    The report provides detailed information about the methods and instruments used to evaluate school readiness initiatives, discusses important considerations in selecting instruments, and provides resources and recommendations that may be helpful to those who are designing and implementing school readiness evaluations. Study results indicate that…

  9. Teaching Design in the First Years of a Traditional Mechanical Engineering Degree: Methods, Issues and Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Arlindo; Fontul, Mihail; Henriques, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design is known as an answer to an ill-defined problem. As any answer to an ill-defined problem, it can never be completely right or absolutely wrong. The methods that universities use to teach engineering design, as a consequence of this, suffer from the same fate. However, the accumulated experience with the "chalk and…

  10. METHODS DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE LOW-LEVEL PERCHLORATE DETECTION IN DRINKING WATER BY CONDUCTIVITY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY - ISSUES AND IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research is to develop a USEPA method for the determination of sub-ppb concentrations of the perchlorate anion in ground and surface drinking waters. To date, ion chromatography using a KOH mobile phase, electrolytic conductivity suppression and electrospray ion...

  11. Opportunities in Training & Development Careers. VGM Opportunities Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edward E.; Petrini, Catherine M.; Campagna, Ann P.

    This volume is a resource for those who want to explore opportunities in training and development careers. Chapter 1 covers the evolution of training and the future of education at work. Chapter 2 considers trainers' roles; program design and development; needs assessment; development of program objectives; program content, training methods,…

  12. Gender Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" focuses on gender issues in early childhood. The first article, "Both Halves of the Sky: Gender Socialization in the Early Years," focuses on the arguments that have led to an international call for increased participation of girls in education, an introduction to studies which map young children's…

  13. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  14. Reduction of CO2 Emissions Due to Wind Energy - Methods and Issues in Estimating Operational Emission Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Millgan, Michael; Pineda, Ivan; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Orths, Antje; Wolfgang, Ove

    2015-10-05

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. Estimates based on historical data have more pitfalls in methodology than estimates based on dispatch simulations. Taking into account exchange of electricity with neighboring regions is challenging for all methods. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. Wind power will reduce emissions for about 0.3-0.4 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly gas and up to 0.7 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly coal powered generation. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions from power system operation phase, but long term impacts are shortly discussed.

  15. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  16. Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Dornelas, Maria; Magurran, Anne E; Buckland, Stephen T; Chao, Anne; Chazdon, Robin L; Colwell, Robert K; Curtis, Tom; Gaston, Kevin J; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Kosnik, Matthew A; McGill, Brian; McCune, Jenny L; Morlon, Hélène; Mumby, Peter J; Ovreås, Lise; Studeny, Angelika; Vellend, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Growing concern about biodiversity loss underscores the need to quantify and understand temporal change. Here, we review the opportunities presented by biodiversity time series, and address three related issues: (i) recognizing the characteristics of temporal data; (ii) selecting appropriate statistical procedures for analysing temporal data; and (iii) inferring and forecasting biodiversity change. With regard to the first issue, we draw attention to defining characteristics of biodiversity time series--lack of physical boundaries, uni-dimensionality, autocorrelation and directionality--that inform the choice of analytic methods. Second, we explore methods of quantifying change in biodiversity at different timescales, noting that autocorrelation can be viewed as a feature that sheds light on the underlying structure of temporal change. Finally, we address the transition from inferring to forecasting biodiversity change, highlighting potential pitfalls associated with phase-shifts and novel conditions.

  17. Transonics and fighter aircraft: Challenges and opportunities for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Luis R.

    1989-01-01

    The application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to fighter aircraft design and development is discussed. Methodology requirements for the aerodynamic design of fighter aircraft are briefly reviewed. The state-of-the-art of computational methods for transonic flows in the light of these requirements is assessed and the techniques found most adequate for the subject application are identified. Highlights from some proof-of-feasibility Euler and Navier-Stokes computations about a complete fighter aircraft configuration are presented. Finally, critical issues and opportunities for design application of CFD are discussed.

  18. Sodium in the food supply: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, John A; Beauchamp, Gary K; Drewnowski, Adam; Johnson, Guy H

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on proceedings from the Symposium on Sodium in the Food Supply: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute, at Experimental Biology 2010 in Anaheim, California. The symposium aimed to address the issue of dietary sodium and its consequences for public health. Presenters spoke on a variety of key topics, including salt taste reception mechanisms and preferences, methods and measures to assess sodium in the US food supply, and considerations regarding the reduction of sodium in processed foods. Information from these presentations, as well as literature references, are provided in this article. PMID:23282251

  19. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  20. The Pan Genera Detection immunoassay: a novel point-of-issue method for detection of bacterial contamination in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Hinse, Dennis; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2010-10-01

    Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) still represents an ongoing risk in transfusion-transmitted sepsis. Recently the Pan Genera Detection (PGD) system was developed and FDA licensed for screening of bacterial contamination of PCs directly prior to transfusion. The test principle is based on the immunological detection of lipopolysaccharide (for Gram-negative bacteria) or lipoteichoic acid (for Gram-positive bacteria). In the present study we analyzed the applicability of this method with regard to detection limit, practicability, implementation, and performance. PCs were spiked with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and five different Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, as well as eight different Escherichia coli strains. The presence of bacteria was assessed by the PGD immunoassay, and bacteria were enumerated by plating cultures. Application of the PGD immunoassay showed that it is a rapid test with a short hands-on time for sample processing and no demand for special technical equipment and instrument operation. The lower detection limits of the assay for Gram-positive bacteria showed a good agreement with the manufacturer's specifications (8.2 × 10(3) to 5.5 × 10(4) CFU/ml). For some strains of K. pneumoniae and E. coli, the PGD test showed analytical sensitivities (>10(6) CFU/ml) that were divergent from the designated values (K. pneumoniae, 2.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml; E. coli, 2.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml). Result interpretation is sometimes difficult due to very faint bands. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the PGD immunoassay is an easy-to-perform bedside test for the detection of bacterial contamination in PCs. However, to date there are some shortcomings in the interpretation of results and in the detection limits for some strains of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:20702673

  1. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  2. Formal Training in Women's Issues in Psychiatry: A Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Liza H.; Epstein, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the availability of formal residency training opportunities in women's issues in psychiatry and explore the potential relationships between the availability of training and characteristics of residency programs. Method: The authors surveyed psychiatry residency training directors to identify program characteristics…

  3. Key Issues in Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Capstick; et. Al.

    2000-12-01

    A group of fifty physicists met in Duck, NC, Nov. 6-9 to discuss the current status and future goals of hadronic physics. The main purpose of the meeting was to define the field by identifying its key issues, challenges, and opportunities. The conclusions, incorporating considerable input from the community at large, are presented in this white paper.

  4. Self-Determination. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IMPACT, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the relevance of self-determination for persons with developmental disabilities across the life span, ways in which it is or can be expressed, and obstacles to its exercise. The articles show the futility of enhancing self-determination by teaching choice-making skills if environments offer no opportunities to exercise…

  5. ERCMExpress. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" promotes emergency exercises as an effective way to validate school safety plans. Simulations of emergency situations, or emergency exercises, are integral to a sound school safety plan. They offer opportunities for district and schools to…

  6. Exploring the Realities of Curriculum-by-Random-Opportunity: The Case of Geriatrics on the Internal Medicine Clerkship Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Diachun, Laura; Charise, Andrea; Goldszmidt, Mark; Hui, Yin; Lingard, Lorelei

    2014-01-01

    Background While major clerkship blocks may have objectives related to specialized areas such as geriatrics, gay and lesbian bisexual transgender health, and palliative care, there is concern that teaching activities may not attend sufficiently to these objectives. Rather, these objectives are assumed to be met “by random opportunity”.(1) This study explored the case of geriatric learning opportunities on internal medicine clinical teaching units, to better understand the affordances and limitations of curriculum by random opportunity. Methods Using audio-recordings of morning case review discussions of 13 patients > 65 years old and the Canadian geriatric core competencies for medical students, we conducted a content analysis of each case for potential geriatric and non-geriatric learning opportunities. These learning opportunities were compared with attendings’ case review teaching discussions. The 13 cases contained 40 geriatric-related and 110 non-geriatric-related issues. While many of the geriatric issues (e.g., delirium, falls) were directly relevant to the presenting illness, attendings’ teaching discussions focused almost exclusively on non-geriatric medical issues, such as management of diabetes and anemia, many of which were less directly relevant to the reason for presenting to hospital. Results The authors found that the general medicine rotation provides opportunities to acquire geriatric competencies. However, the rare uptake of opportunities in this study suggests that, in curriculum-by-random-opportunity, presence of an opportunity does not justify the assumption that learning objectives will be met. Conclusions More studies are required to investigate whether these findings are transferrable to other vulnerable populations about which undergraduate students are expected to learn through curriculum by random opportunity. PMID:25452825

  7. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  8. Pitfalls and opportunities for environmental marketers.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, R J

    1992-01-01

    Issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, insufficient landfill capacity, and excess packaging are foremost on the minds of consumers. Companies face a myriad of environmental challenges, but they also recognize the opportunities to be gained by implementing responsible marketing action plans. PMID:10120306

  9. Institutional Opportunities Plan for International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Chyrlene M.

    This two-part report describes Florida Community College at Jacksonville's (FCCJ's) Institutional Opportunities Plan for International Development, part of a new programmatic thrust encompassing job-specific training, economic development support, cultural exchange, and focus on world issues. The following topics are covered in both parts of the…

  10. Opportunities for ESAs Serving Rural School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    2003-01-01

    Opportunities abound for educational service agencies (ESAs) to assist rural schools districts with implementing the No Child Left Behind Act. Strategies that ESAs could pursue are presented for critical issues in the areas of school-community relationships, school roles in rural development, funding, standard setting, school size, facility…

  11. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  12. Disaster Research: A Nursing Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jane; Barcelona-deMendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W.

    2013-01-01

    Nurses working or living near a community disaster have the opportunity to study health-related consequences to disaster or disaster recovery. In such a situation, the researchers need to deal with the conceptual and methodological issues unique to post-disaster research and know what resources are available to guide them, even if they have no specialized training or previous experience in disaster research. The purpose of this article is to review issues and challenges associated with conducting post-disaster research and encourage nurses to seek resources and seize opportunities to conduct research should the situation arise. Current disaster studies and the authors’ personal experiences conducting maternal-child research in post-Katrina New Orleans (2005–2013) provide real-life examples of how health professionals and nurses faced the challenges of doing post-disaster research. After catastrophic events, nurses need to step forward to conduct disaster research that informs and improves future disaster planning and health care responses. PMID:23899191

  13. An Opportunity to Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's wheels in their stowed configuration. As of 9:00 a.m. January 28, 2004, the rover had deployed its wheels and completed the first half of the stand-up process. This image was taken at Opportunity's landing site, Meridiani Planum, by the hazard-identification camera.

  14. RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELDON, RENA

    RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MOST RURAL YOUTH ARE CENTERED AROUND SCHOOLS, BUT WITH INCREASING EMPHASIS ON ACADEMIC SUBJECTS THE STUDENTS ARE BEING DEPRIVED OF OPPORTUNITIES TO PARTICIPATE IN CERTAIN ACTIVITIES FOR ENJOYMENT ONLY. SUGGESTIONS INCLUDE TAKING THE PERFORMING ARTS TO THE RURAL AREAS, PLANNING ART FESTIVALS THAT WOULD…

  15. RECREATION AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARVEY, ELLEN E.

    RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES SEEM TO BE CLOSELY INVOLVED WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, BOTH IN FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND IN THE ACTUAL OPPORTUNITIES POSSIBLE. CONSEQUENTLY, THE TIME IS RIPE FOR THE ORIGIN AND/OR DEVELOPMENT OF ONE OR MORE NEW AGENCIES WITH THE INTERESTS AND NEEDS OF MODERN YOUTH AS THE LEVER FOR THEIR BEGINNING. TO…

  16. Opportunity Tracks Seen from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed on the red planet a year ago. This enhanced-resolution image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter is the only picture obtained thus far (by Jan. 24, 2005) that shows the tracks made by Opportunity.

    The image was acquired on April 26, 2004, during Opportunity's 91st martian day, or sol. That was the first day of Opportunity's extended mission, and the rover had recently completed exploration of small 'Fram Crater' on the route from its landing site toward 'Endurance Crater,' where it would eventually spend six months. The rover itself can be seen in this image -- an amazing accomplishment, considering that the orbiter was nearly 400 kilometers (nearly 250 miles) away at the time! Also visible and labeled on this image are the spacecraft's lander, backshell, parachute and heat shield, plus effects of its landing rockets.

    The camera captured this image with use of a technique called compensated pitch and roll targeted observation. In this method, the entire spacecraft rolls as it passes over the target area so the camera can scan in a way that sees details at three times higher resolution than the camera's normal high-resolution capability.

    The tracks made by Opportunity on the sandy surface of Meridiani Planum are not quite as visible from orbit as are the tracks made in Gusev Crater by the other Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. A dustier surface at the Spirit site increases contrast between the tracks and the surrounding surfaces. Indeed, some parts of the track made by Opportunity are not visible in this image. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left. North is toward the top of the image. The 100-meter scale bar is 109 yards long.

  17. Issues in workforce composition analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, D.C.; Rogers, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    An issue of paramount interest to US industry is the supply and quality of human resources available for this country`s scientific and technological activities. The changing composition of the workforce and the responsibility that an organization has to assure equal opportunity, give rise to various issues. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with the scientific and technical workforce. Specifically, it explores some of the questions pertaining to workforce composition and measures of workforce composition. This paper should be useful to those responsible for personnel policies.

  18. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  19. Fulbright Opportunities in the Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewindt, Katrin

    2013-03-01

    The Fulbright Scholar Program is sponsored by the United States Department of State and is principally funded by taxpayer contributions. Bi-national in nature, it includes academic year opportunities for both American and foreign scholars. More than 800 grants in 125 countries are available each year. The Program supports research, teaching and lecturing opportunities in all academic disciplines, numerous professional fields and the arts. American academics and administrators have multiple opportunities to internationalize their campuses and their discipline points of view. Further, Fulbright not only sends American scholars abroad but also brings scholars to the United States and should be considered a strategic internationalization opportunity both for individuals and for campuses. During the 2013-14 competition cycle there were 33 awards available in physics and astronomy and 175 all discipline awards. The presentation will guide attendees in identifying appropriate opportunities through the Fulbright Scholar Program and will make suggestions as to how to be successful in a proposal. Special attention will be given to opportunities available for specialists in physics. The workshop will also cover non-Core Fulbright Scholar opportunities for physicists and university administrators, including a number of short-term, innovative programs that send an additional 400 scholars from the United States to universities and research institutes abroad to offer expertise on issues of global interest from cutting-edge research to policy, to technical expertise in curriculum development, institutional planning, program assessment, and institutional capacity building.

  20. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  1. Bond Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  2. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  3. Faculty Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for courses on faculty issues are discussed, and four sample syllabi are presented. Few doctoral programs in higher education administration were identified that devote an entire course to the subject of American college and university faculty. For four courses that did devote an entire course to the…

  4. Newspaper Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Thomas A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This special issue includes "The Microfilming of Newspapers: An Overview" (Thomas Bourke); "United States Newspaper Program: Progress and Propsects" (Larry Sullivan); "The Preservation of Canadian Newspapers" (Mary Jane Starr); "Current Filming of the New York Times at UMI" (Kenneth Tillman); and "The Cooperative Africana Microform Project" (Ray…

  5. GREAT LAKES BASIN LAND-COVER DATA: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a consistent land-cover (LC) data set for the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The acquisition of consistent LC data has proven difficult both within the US and across GLB political boundaries due to disparate...

  6. Issues and opportunities in accelerator mass spectrometry for stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has developed in the last 30 years many notable applications to the spectrometry of radioisotopes, particularly in radiocarbon dating. The instrumentation science of trace element AMS (TEAMS) that analyzes stable isotopes, also called Accelerator SIMS or MegaSIMS, while unique in many features, has also shared in many of these significant advances and has pushed TEAMS sensitivity to concentration levels surpassing many competing mass spectroscopic technologies. This review examines recent instrumentation developments, the capabilities of the new instrumentation and discernable trends for future development.

  7. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, D.; Busch, J.; Starrs, T.

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  8. Educational Opportunities in the Netherlands: Policy, Students' Performance and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Dekkers, Hetty

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Educational Priority Policy (EPP), implemented in the Netherlands in 1985 to reduce the educational disadvantage of socioeconomically challenged students. Describes an EPP evaluation that examined the impact of gender, social class, and ethnic background on test performance. Social class and immigrant status were found to…

  9. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carolyn; DeMuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians’ expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies. PMID:23104048

  10. Educational Opportunities in the Netherlands: Policy, Students' Performance and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert; Dekkers, Hetty

    1997-07-01

    Since 1985 the Educational Priority Policy (EPP) has been in effect in the Netherlands. This policy is aimed at reducing the educational disadvantage of children due to their social, economic and cultural circumstances. The first section of this article describes the outlines of the EPP. The second section presents the results of an EPP evaluation study conducted in secondary education among 20,000 students from nearly 400 schools. The emphasis is on test performance in relation to three student characteristics: gender, social class and ethnic background. The analyses show that the test results are largely determined by social class. Gender hardly plays a role, while the influence of ethnic origin is also limited. It should however be added that the performance of two migrant groups, the Turks and Moroccans, is the worst of all. As most Turks and Moroccans belong to the lowest socioeconomic category, the factor of ethnic origin is so closely interwoven with the factor of social class, that it is not really possible to distinguish the two. In the final section of the article these findings are related to three theoretical perspectives regarding the explanation of differences in educational performance. This is followed by a discussion on possible consequences for the EPP.

  11. Issues and opportunities in the regulation of home health care.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, A D; Hyman, H H; Gary, L R

    1980-10-01

    Recent federal legislation established a Certificate of Need (CON) process by which health care providers must receive state approval before building or renovating a facility, or adding a new service. Certainly, strict regulation of cost and quality of home health care is needed, but it is asserted that CON is an ineffective way of organizing the delivery of services and limiting costs, and furthermore, that CON is biased in favor of institutionally-based providers and maintenance of the status quo. The authors feel that vested interests have a history of trying to use earlier state CON regulations to control their turf, limit competition, and consequently stifle innovation. Home health care should be incorporated into national health planning goals and integrated into state and regional health plans. Such planning must precede CON regulations and should not be confused with it. Alternatives to CON can achieve quality service and moderate costs and include licensing of personnel, standards for provider accreditation, and utilization review. Planning for these alternatives should begin now to avoid fragmented expansion of home health care. Evidence suggests a comprehensive use of home health care as a cost-effective alternative for many levels of care given in hospitals and nursing homes.

  12. Gender identity issues in youth: opportunities, terminologies, histories, and advancements.

    PubMed

    Pleak, Richard R

    2011-10-01

    An expanding number of mental health professionals evaluate, advocate for, treat, and refer gender variant children and transgender youth.Official recognition of these persons and their needs as well as support for improvement and change come from several different national surveys and professional policy and accreditation organizations. Being informed about these and other available resources can help with patient advocacy. The author provides a reading list for youth and families, definitions of terms, a history of youth gender variance, history and policies of professional organizations, and recent reports and initiatives. An appendix with a patient's first-hand story is included.

  13. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Carolyn; Demuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians' expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies.

  14. Discourse on Disability and Rehabilitation Issues: Opportunities for Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pledger, Constance

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the old and new paradigms of disability. Examines the relevance to psychology, summarizes the fundamental theoretical frameworks that have influenced the current state of the science in disability and rehabilitation, and offers an overview of definitions, terminology, and models of disability. Concludes with an introduction to four other…

  15. Student Spirituality and School Counseling: Issues, Opportunities, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.; Devlin, James M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the professional school counseling community is introduced to the value of addressing student spirituality as a way to foster personal and social growth. Prior to discussing the robust theoretical and research foundation for this endeavor, 3 workable definitional strands of spirituality are summarized and applied to educational…

  16. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35??years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures occur to Landsat-5 and -7. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  17. Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Rackstraw, John Palmisano

    2001-01-15

    OAK-B135 This paper focuses on credits that are derived from wind energy technology, but the same concepts apply to other renewable energy technologies as well. Credit trading can be applied to a wide variety of policies, programs and private market activities and represents a means of tapping into revenue streams that heretofore have largely excluded wind and other renewables. In addition, credit trading can help to ''create'' new revenue streams for wind and other renewables by helping to grow new markets.

  18. Scope: Opportunities for International Study of Global Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defries, Ruth, S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the origin, function, and involvements of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE). Outlines SCOPE's governing principles and explains its operating procedures. Provides summaries of current projects, with a listing of available reports and publications. (ML)

  19. The Calculation of ROE: Pedagogical Issues and Integrative Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinfeldt, Jeff; Rindler, Denise

    2010-01-01

    One of the most widely used measures of firm profitability and stockholder return is return-on-equity (ROE). However, depending upon an individual firm's financial decisions (for example, dividend policy) and an analyst's assumptions used for the ROE calculation, the results can vary significantly. This variation can create confusion for students…

  20. Joint modeling of survival and longitudinal non-survival data: current methods and issues. Report of the DIA Bayesian joint modeling working group

    PubMed Central

    Gould, A. Lawrence; Boye, Mark Ernest; Crowther, Michael J.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Quartey, George; Micallef, Sandrine; Bois, Frederic Y.

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly modeling underlying relationships between a survival endpoint and processes that generate longitudinal measured or reported outcomes potentially could improve the efficiency of clinical trials and provide greater insight into the various dimensions of the clinical effect of interventions included in the trials. Various strategies have been proposed for using longitudinal findings to elucidate intervention effects on clinical outcomes such as survival. The application of specifically Bayesian approaches for constructing models that address longitudinal and survival outcomes explicitly has been recently addressed in the literature. We review currently available methods for carrying out joint analyses, including issues of implementation and interpretation, identify software tools that can be used to carry out the necessary calculations, and review applications of the methodology. PMID:24634327

  1. Wind Power Across Native America: Opportunities, Challenges, and Status (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.; Gough, R.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.

    2009-05-01

    Wind projects on tribal lands are differennt, and this poster outlines the ways in which these projects differ, a summary of existing and pending Native American Wind Projects (50 kW and larger), and tribal wind opportunities and issues.

  2. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  3. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  4. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  5. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  6. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  7. Career Opportunities in Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Physiologists offer their viewpoints on career opportunities in the pharmaceutical industries. A director's and an employee's views of what a director of pharmacology looks for in a physiologist are included. (JN)

  8. Opportunities with thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Vaahs, Tilo

    2003-04-01

    Whether as substitutes for glass and metal, or completely novel injection moulded applications, engineering polymers offer a range of opportunities for developing cost-effective, safe and smart medical devices.

  9. Towards an Analytical Framework for Accountability Regarding Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Johan; Prinsloo, Justus

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue of accountability for equal educational opportunities against the background of the constitutional provision that elevates accountability above a management tool to a national goal and value. It asserts that the government is indeed accountable for equal educational opportunities. However, government reporting on…

  10. Reflections on the Opportunities and Challenges of Disaster Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juntunen, Cindy L.

    2011-01-01

    This reaction article applauds the authors of the Major Contribution for their thoughtful and thorough consideration of the myriad issues that accompany disaster mental health work. The reaction highlights three themes that emerged in the articles of the contribution: opportunities for collaboration, opportunities for the application of social…

  11. New Opportunities with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) ACTS program review; 2) Spot beam locations; 3) Key ACTS technologies; 4) ACTS accomplishments; 5) Experiments operations; 6) Inclined orbit opportunity, mission and impact; 7) Modifications summary; 8) Experiment opportunity, categories, processes; and 9) Recent and ongoing activity.

  12. Opportunity Spies Its Backshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    From its new location at the inner edge of the small crater surrounding it, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was able to look out to the plains where its backshell (left) and parachute (right) landed. Opportunity is currently investigating a rock outcropping with its suite of robotic geologic tools. This approximate true-color image was created by combining data from the panoramic camera's red, green and blue filters.

  13. Equal opportunity for low-degree network nodes: a PageRank-based method for protein target identification in metabolic graphs.

    PubMed

    Bánky, Dániel; Iván, Gábor; Grolmusz, Vince

    2013-01-01

    Biological network data, such as metabolic-, signaling- or physical interaction graphs of proteins are increasingly available in public repositories for important species. Tools for the quantitative analysis of these networks are being developed today. Protein network-based drug target identification methods usually return protein hubs with large degrees in the networks as potentially important targets. Some known, important protein targets, however, are not hubs at all, and perturbing protein hubs in these networks may have several unwanted physiological effects, due to their interaction with numerous partners. Here, we show a novel method applicable in networks with directed edges (such as metabolic networks) that compensates for the low degree (non-hub) vertices in the network, and identifies important nodes, regardless of their hub properties. Our method computes the PageRank for the nodes of the network, and divides the PageRank by the in-degree (i.e., the number of incoming edges) of the node. This quotient is the same in all nodes in an undirected graph (even for large- and low-degree nodes, that is, for hubs and non-hubs as well), but may differ significantly from node to node in directed graphs. We suggest to assign importance to non-hub nodes with large PageRank/in-degree quotient. Consequently, our method gives high scores to nodes with large PageRank, relative to their degrees: therefore non-hub important nodes can easily be identified in large networks. We demonstrate that these relatively high PageRank scores have biological relevance: the method correctly finds numerous already validated drug targets in distinct organisms (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus), and consequently, it may suggest new possible protein targets as well. Additionally, our scoring method was not chosen arbitrarily: its value for all nodes of all undirected graphs is constant; therefore its high value captures importance in the

  14. Open the door whenever opportunity knocks.

    PubMed

    Downs, Mallery H; Kaminsky, Alexis; Lewis, Johnnye

    2006-01-01

    The Community Environmental Health Program/Community Outreach and Education Program (CEHP/COEP) New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences has learned that listening and responding to opportunities that arise in local communities can be a more effective means of reaching health care providers, lay health workers, and community members than structured plans of action. While specific opportunities that have occurred in New Mexico may be unique, they are presented here with the hope that they might suggest new strategies to the reader and help to identify parallel opportunities in other communities. The paper is organized around three major opportunities to which CEHP/COEP has responded: (1) the need for more informed health care in communities with unique and complex environmental and occupational exposures due to their proximity to National Laboratories; (2) the need for resources on environmental health within local provider networks and issue-specific groups; and (3) the need for community environmental health projects within the College of Nursing. CEHP/COEP's responses, observations, and lessons learned through these experiences are discussed. In the end, the major lesson is that the ability to respond to opportunities requires flexibility and creativity; by sticking doggedly to plans, valuable-and sometimes more profitable and productive-opportunities may be missed.

  15. Open the door whenever opportunity knocks.

    PubMed

    Downs, Mallery H; Kaminsky, Alexis; Lewis, Johnnye

    2006-01-01

    The Community Environmental Health Program/Community Outreach and Education Program (CEHP/COEP) New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences has learned that listening and responding to opportunities that arise in local communities can be a more effective means of reaching health care providers, lay health workers, and community members than structured plans of action. While specific opportunities that have occurred in New Mexico may be unique, they are presented here with the hope that they might suggest new strategies to the reader and help to identify parallel opportunities in other communities. The paper is organized around three major opportunities to which CEHP/COEP has responded: (1) the need for more informed health care in communities with unique and complex environmental and occupational exposures due to their proximity to National Laboratories; (2) the need for resources on environmental health within local provider networks and issue-specific groups; and (3) the need for community environmental health projects within the College of Nursing. CEHP/COEP's responses, observations, and lessons learned through these experiences are discussed. In the end, the major lesson is that the ability to respond to opportunities requires flexibility and creativity; by sticking doggedly to plans, valuable-and sometimes more profitable and productive-opportunities may be missed. PMID:16961562

  16. 19 CFR 181.95 - Oral discussion of issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral discussion of issues. 181.95 Section 181.95... of issues. (a) General. A person submitting a request for an advance ruling and desiring an opportunity to orally discuss the issue or issues involved should indicate that desire in writing at the...

  17. Research opportunities to improve DSM impact estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Misuriello, H.; Hopkins, M.E.F.

    1992-03-01

    This report was commissioned by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) as part of its research mission to advance the energy efficiency and productivity of all end-use sectors in California. Our specific goal in this effort has been to identify viable research and development (R&D) opportunities that can improve capabilities to determine the energy-use and demand reductions achieved through demand-side management (DSM) programs and measures. We surveyed numerous practitioners in California and elsewhere to identify the major obstacles to effective impact evaluation, drawing on their collective experience. As a separate effort, we have also profiled the status of regulatory practices in leading states with respect to DSM impact evaluation. We have synthesized this information, adding our own perspective and experience to those of our survey-respondent colleagues, to characterize today`s state of the art in impact-evaluation practices. This scoping study takes a comprehensive look at the problems and issues involved in DSM impact estimates at the customer-facility or site level. The major portion of our study investigates three broad topic areas of interest to CIEE: Data analysis issues, field-monitoring issues, issues in evaluating DSM measures. Across these three topic areas, we have identified 22 potential R&D opportunities, to which we have assigned priority levels. These R&D opportunities are listed by topic area and priority.

  18. Research opportunities to improve DSM impact estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Misuriello, H.; Hopkins, M.E.F. )

    1992-03-01

    This report was commissioned by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) as part of its research mission to advance the energy efficiency and productivity of all end-use sectors in California. Our specific goal in this effort has been to identify viable research and development (R D) opportunities that can improve capabilities to determine the energy-use and demand reductions achieved through demand-side management (DSM) programs and measures. We surveyed numerous practitioners in California and elsewhere to identify the major obstacles to effective impact evaluation, drawing on their collective experience. As a separate effort, we have also profiled the status of regulatory practices in leading states with respect to DSM impact evaluation. We have synthesized this information, adding our own perspective and experience to those of our survey-respondent colleagues, to characterize today's state of the art in impact-evaluation practices. This scoping study takes a comprehensive look at the problems and issues involved in DSM impact estimates at the customer-facility or site level. The major portion of our study investigates three broad topic areas of interest to CIEE: Data analysis issues, field-monitoring issues, issues in evaluating DSM measures. Across these three topic areas, we have identified 22 potential R D opportunities, to which we have assigned priority levels. These R D opportunities are listed by topic area and priority.

  19. Physics research opportunities with XFEL's.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-12-06

    The advent of x-ray Free Electron Lasers will present a number of unique new scientific opportunities. These arise from their special characteristics which include intensely brilliant pulses of x-rays delivered in very short times, complete transverse coherence, and high photon quantum degeneracy, amongst other things. While clearly much thought needs to be given to a detailed quantitative assessment of the feasibility of various experiments using such sources, including methods of dealing with heat loads on beamline optics and radiation damage to samples, there are a number of areas in which one can see new opportunities, and other exciting possibilities about which one might speculate. In this talk the author briefly reviews some of these areas, such as x-ray holography, pump-probe type experiments, correlation spectroscopy and quantum optics experiments with x-rays.

  20. Physics opportunities with meson beams

    SciTech Connect

    Briscoe, William J.; Doring, Michael; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D. Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2015-10-20

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. Furthermore, the present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.

  1. Opportunity and the charge nurse.

    PubMed

    Brown, R

    Nursing Standard has, over the past six weeks, produced a series of articles dealing with issues in ward management for charge nurses. Series co-ordinator Ros Brown now offers a postscript which acts as a conclusion for the series and reflects on the dilemmas and opportunities which face charge nurses as they enter into the world of purchasers and providers, hospital Trusts and PREPP. It is essential that the role of the charge nurse is not only preserved in this changing climate, she argues, but is cultivated, nurtured and recognised as an indispensable function. The future looks bright for those prepared to discard the habits of the past and grasp the challenges of the present.

  2. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breece, G.A.; Ward, B.J.

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

  3. Multiphysics simulations: challenges and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D.; McInnes, L. C.; Woodward, C.; Gropp, W.; Myra, E.; Pernice, M.

    2012-11-29

    This report is an outcome of the workshop Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the Institute of Computing in Science (ICiS). Additional information about the workshop, including relevant reading and presentations on multiphysics issues in applications, algorithms, and software, is available via https://sites.google.com/site/icismultiphysics2011/. We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where 'algorithmic' includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and 'architectural' includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.

  4. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities. PMID:26499130

  5. 48 CFR 15.205 - Issuing solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 15.205 Issuing solicitations. (a) The contracting officer shall issue solicitations to...

  6. Paved Path for Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues a southward trek from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the terrain consists of large sand ripples and patches of flat-lying rock outcrops, as shown in this image. Whenever possible, rover planners keep Opportunity on the 'pavement' for best mobility.

    This false-color image mosaic was assembled using images acquired by the panoramic camera on Opportunity's 784th sol (April 8, 2006) at about 11:45 a.m. local solar time. The camera used its 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. This view shows a portion of the outcrop named 'Bosque,' including rover wheel tracks, fractured and finely-layered outcrop rocks and smaller, dark cobbles littered across the surface.

  7. Opportunity's Heat Shield Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity reveals the scene of the rover's heat shield impact. In this view, Opportunity is approximately 130 meters (427 feet) away from the device that protected it while hurtling through the martian atmosphere.

    The rover spent 36 sols investigating how the severe heating during entry through the atmosphere affected the heat shield. The most obvious is the fact that the heat shield inverted upon impact.

    This is the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true-color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. It was generated from a mathematical combination of six calibrated, left-eye panoramic camera images acquired around 1:50 p.m. local solar time on Opportunity's sol 322 (Dec. 19, 2004) using filters ranging in wavelengths from 430 to 750 nanometers.

  8. Desalting ``opportunity crudes``

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    The escalating cost of environmental compliance, combined with fluctuating market conditions, have refiners struggling to remain profitable. To help maintain profitability, many refiners are realigning their processes and resources to allow them to run heavier, lower cost, opportunity crudes. Many of these heavier crudes are difficult to desalt (due to the lower density difference between the crude and water), and can significantly contribute to downstream corrosion, fouling and catalyst poisoning. Consequently, effective desalting is a critical first step to successfully processing these crudes. The real challenge when desalting these crudes is to maintain clean effluent brine and at the same time minimize total operating costs. Lose control of either, and the economic benefit of processing opportunity crudes in the first place can be diminished. This paper will discuss how recent technological advancements, specifically emulsion polymers combined with a patented split feed application technique, can help maintain optimum desalter performance and minimize overall treatment costs when processing opportunity crudes.

  9. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  10. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  11. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  12. A clinical method for physicians in palliative care: the four points of agreement vital to a consultation; context, issues, story, plan.

    PubMed

    Noble, Bill; George, Rob; Vedder, Rachel

    2014-09-01

    In palliative care, where interactions cross clinical, pathological, psychological, social and spiritual considerations, it may be useful to take a minimal approach and avoid an overcomplicated or formulaic structure for the consultation. We will concern ourselves with points in the encounter where doctor and patient with or without family or carers need to be in agreement. Whether a consultation is based on a structured interview, a cue-based assessment or a narrative approach, the points of agreement or concordance need to cover four key areas; missing any of these has grave consequences for the clinical relationship. Without concordance, patients may be right to conclude that you don't know why you're all there (context), you don't know what's the matter (issues), you don't know what's going on (story) or you don't know what you're doing (plan). These four elements may serve also as a guide to the quality and effectiveness of an encounter among a doctor, patient and carers. We consider how this clinical method might integrate the nosological practices of doctors in palliative care services better, and we argue that finding concordance is likely to establish a better doctor-patient relationship at a human and professional level through empathy and trust rather than just a technical exchange. PMID:24644197

  13. [Neuroethics: ethical issues in neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Crozier, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    Neuroethics is a field of bioethics on the ethical challenges of advances in neuroscience. Born in the early 2000s, neuroethics is considering a number of issues raised by the opportunities created by advances in knowledge and techniques in the field of neurology and psychiatry. In fact, what we learn about brain functions allows us to potentially influence our behavior and our actions, and questions human nature, freedom and individual responsibility, and even the place of morality in our society.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities in the Advancement of Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Mehtala, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine-based approaches to cancer treatment face several challenges that differ from those encountered by conventional medicines during clinical development. A systematic exploration of these issues has led us to identify the following needs and opportunities for further development: (1) robust and general methods for the accurate characterization of nanoparticle size, shape, and composition; (2) scalable approaches for producing nanomedicines with optimized bioavailability and excretion profiles; (3) particle engineering for maintaining low levels of nonspecific cytotoxicity and sufficient stability during storage; (4) optimization of surface chemistries for maximum targeted delivery and minimum nonspecific adsorption; (5) practical methods for quantifying ligand density and distributions on multivalent nanocarriers; and (6) the design of multifunctional nanomedicines for novel combination therapies with supportable levels of bioaccumulation. PMID:23064314

  15. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  16. Trend: Shrinking Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Kati; Gerald, Danette

    2007-01-01

    There has been a surge of attention to issues of access and success in higher education. The U.S. Education Secretary's Commission on the Future of Higher Education has discussed it. State policymakers are proposing new goals and accountability systems to address these issues. Even the mainstream press has been increasingly critical of higher…

  17. Legal Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Salome

    2011-01-01

    For legal issues in the field of disability compliance, this is an exciting time in postsecondary education. The twentieth anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) signals a reawakening of the commitment to provide equal access to individuals with disabilities. This chapter explores three of the compliance issues that will be of…

  18. Expanding Student Assessment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartscher, Beth; Carter, Andrea; Lawlor, Anna; McKelvey, Barbara

    This paper describes an approach for expanding assessment opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of content. The targeted population consisted of elementary and junior high school students in two schools in a growing middle-class community in north central Illinois. The elementary school enrolled 467 students and the junior…

  19. Opportunities in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Because of the changes occurring in the chemical sciences, a new survey of chemistry and its intellectual and economic impact was clearly needed. This report presents a current assessment of the status of chemistry and of the future opportunities in the field. This analysis contains: (1) an introductory chapter (establishing the need for the…

  20. Educational Opportunity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Science Advisory Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report presents a proposal for the establishment of the Educational Opportunity Bank as an agency of the Federal Government, authorized to borrow money at going government rates, and to lend money to postsecondary students regardless of the student's resources. The Bank is to recoup the loans through annual payments collected in conjunction…

  1. Opportunity Turns 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccio, Maria; Pierre-Vil, Samienta

    2016-01-01

    The New England Educational Opportunity Association (NEOA) drew more than 250 TRIO and college access professionals to its 40th annual conference in Massachusetts earlier this spring. NEOA's mission is to advocate for access to and success in postsecondary education for low-income individuals, "first-generation" college students, and…

  2. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  3. Window of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Newt

    1985-01-01

    Advances in space, communications, and biotechnology are creating many opportunities and hope for the future. But to take full advantage of these technological breakthroughs, the United States must rethink its approaches to education, welfare, health, justice, and defense. (Author/RM)

  4. EERE Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) works with business, industry, universities, and others to increase the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. One way EERE encourages the growth of these technologies is by offering financial assistance opportunities for their development and demonstration.

  5. Opportunity Spies Its Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a forward-looking view of the Meridiani Planum plains that lie between the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and its primary drive target, 'Endurance Crater.' The images in this image mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 88.

  6. Summer Opportunities for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winds of Change, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Eleven summer internships, work experience programs, research opportunities, and courses are described. Some offer stipends. Some are specifically for American Indian, minority, disadvantaged, or disabled students in high school or college. Most are in science or engineering related fields. Each entry contains a brief program description,…

  7. Opportunities and progress.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, John H

    2014-01-01

    In this review, I cover my professional experiences in food science and technology and related areas of applied and industrial microbiology over the span of my career. It emphasizes opportunities and technological problems that I encountered together with my progress in follow-up development of products and processes. PMID:24580071

  8. Demographic Problems and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Frances P.

    A comparison of Monroe County projections of high school graduates and the March 1986 Rochester Labor Area Summary points to some excellent opportunities for marketing Monroe Community College (MCC). Projections of high school graduation rates show a 25% decrease in the number of graduates between 1989 and 1991, while the demand for entry-level…

  9. Opportunity Cost: A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The author's objective for this reply in reexamining opportunity cost was to draw attention to two conflicting definitions of the concept in current use and to argue the case for dropping one of them. The comments of Daniel Arce, Rod O'Donnell, and Daniel Stone might be read as demonstration that the author has failed on both counts. Such a…

  10. The Educational Opportunity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellema, William W.

    The Educational Opportunity Bank (EOB) has received short shrift among educators and many objections have been raised to establishing it. Among these are the workability of the plan, the problem for women borrowers, and the creation of a new force--student financial power - in opposition to the influence of the Federal Government. Though…

  11. Equality of Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    A consideration of the use of the phrase "equality of educational opportunity" and of the educational models used to attempt its implementation suggest the following recommendations. If education is to devise learning models that will maximize individual potential and aid in matching human abilities to the work required by societies, then (1) we…

  12. Flexible Learning Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    One way for colleges to meet the demand for a wider range of learning opportunities for adults in Great Britain is to provide more flexibility within the further education system. The concept of flexible learning involves the modification of delivery systems, specific providing agencies, target populations, specific determinants such as geographic…

  13. Wisconsin Education Opportunity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for School Financial Resources and Management Services.

    This report describes the history and programs of the Wisconsin Education Opportunity Program (WEOP), a bureau within the State Department of Public Instruction that provides support services for Wisconsin youths and adults (particularly the disadvantaged) who intend to complete a postsecondary education program. Currently, it is said, WEOP…

  14. Environmental issues in operations management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthulingam, Suresh

    Adoption of sustainable operating practices is becoming an increasingly important issue for many organizations in the world today. In this dissertation, I use empirical methods to investigate factors that influence the adoption of sustainable practices and also identify issues that may hinder the adoption of such practices. I explore these issues in two diverse settings. In Chapter 1, I investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, I identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. In Chapter 2, I examine the depth of adoption of the voluntary LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards for green buildings. Depth of adoption refers to the extent to which the buildings adopt practices related to the standard

  15. Antibody biosimilars: Fears or opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    Guillon-Munos, Audrey; Daguet, Arnaud; Watier, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The annual “LabEx MAbImprove industrial workshops” are primarily intended to provide scientists involved in therapeutic antibodies, a comprehensive view about topics of interest for the pharmaceutical industry. They are organized by the “LabEx MAbImprove industrial committee”, for this first edition especially in partnership with ARITT, the regional agency for innovation and technology transfer which operates in the French Région Centre, the 1st French region for pharmaceutical production. The 2013 edition, held May 28 at the Vinci Center of Tours, was dedicated to antibody biosimilars. Depending on opinions, the impending expiry of antibody patents and the imminent marketing approval of competitors to blockbusters can be perceived as good or bad things. Fears or opportunities? Risks for patients? Breath of fresh air for the health systems? Opportunity for re-industrializing France? In this context, it is necessary for people to form a fair and informed opinion on the current landscape of antibody biosimilars. In particular, this is especially important for scientists from the academic world, from the industry or from the regulation agencies, for pharmacists, for pharmacovigilance specialists, for health authorities, and staff from health insurance and decision makers. The first session was devoted to market and regulatory issues, and included both an overview of the evolution of the patent landscape and a description of biosimilars regulation in the European Union (EU). This session was closed by a talk on manufacturing processes for biosimilars. In the next session, quality control attributes of biosimilars were discussed and compared with the consistent quality of biotechnology products to raise the question: “How close is close enough?” In vitro assays for evaluating the Fc function of therapeutic antibodies were also discussed. The third session focused on development of biosimilars and primarily on the stepwise process for introducing an antibody

  16. SAP Minutes No. 2014-03 for FIFRA meeting held July 29-31, 2014. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding new high throughput methods to estimate chemical exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On July 29-31, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “new High Throughput Methods to Estimate Chemical Exposure”. EPA is proposing to use these methods to identify...

  17. Examining the ethical and social issues of health technology design through the public appraisal of prospective scenarios: a study protocol describing a multimedia-based deliberative method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The design of health technologies relies on assumptions that affect how they will be implemented, such as intended use, complexity, impact on user autonomy, and appropriateness. Those who design and implement technologies make several ethical and social assumptions on behalf of users and society more broadly, but there are very few tools to examine prospectively whether such assumptions are warranted and how the public define and appraise the desirability of health innovations. This study protocol describes a three-year study that relies on a multimedia-based prospective method to support public deliberations that will enable a critical examination of the social and ethical issues of health technology design. Methods The first two steps of our mixed-method study were completed: relying on a literature review and the support of our multidisciplinary expert committee, we developed scenarios depicting social and technical changes that could unfold in three thematic areas within a 25-year timeframe; and for each thematic area, we created video clips to illustrate prospective technologies and short stories to describe their associated dilemmas. Using this multimedia material, we will: conduct four face-to-face deliberative workshops with members of the public (n = 40) who will later join additional participants (n = 25) through an asynchronous online forum; and analyze and integrate three data sources: observation, group deliberations, and a self-administered participant survey. Discussion This study protocol will be of interest to those who design and assess public involvement initiatives and to those who examine the implementation of health innovations. Our premise is that using user-friendly tools in a deliberative context that foster participants’ creativity and reflexivity in pondering potential technoscientific futures will enable our team to analyze a range of normative claims, including some that may prove problematic and others that may

  18. International Issues in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggeri, Kai; Diaz, Carmen; Kelley, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Dempster, Martin; Hanna, Donncha

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety, negative attitudes, and attrition are all issues presented in the teaching of statistics to undergraduates in research-based degrees regardless of location. Previous works have looked at these obstacles, but none have consolidated a multilingual, multinational effort using a consistent method. Over 400 Spanish-, English-, and…

  19. [Censorship and Other Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchikes, Alice W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The five articles in this journal issue discuss attempts to censor certain nonprint media in the schools, the conflict between intellectual freedom and community values, recent efforts by Tennessee educators and librarians to achieve a better measure of intellectual freedom, the need for English teachers to reexamine their teaching methods and…

  20. Emerging Issues in Duoethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breault, Rick A.

    2016-01-01

    Duoethnography is a relatively new research method in which two participants interrogate the cultural contexts of autobiographical experiences in order to gain insight into their current perspectives on and experience of issues related to personal and professional identities. Commonly explored themes include race, gender, pedagogy, professional…

  1. Issues Associated with a Hypersonic Maglev Sled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, Joseph W.; Lenzo, J.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic levitation has been explored for application from motors to transportation. All of these applications have been at velocities where the physics of the air or operating fluids are fairly well known. Application of Maglev to hypersonic velocities (Mach greater than 5) presents many opportunities, but also issues that require understanding and resolution. Use of Maglev to upgrade the High Speed Test Track at Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo New Mexico is an actual hypersonic application that provides the opportunity to improve test capabilities. However, there are several design issues that require investigation. This paper presents an overview of the application of Maglev to the test track and the issues associated with developing a hypersonic Maglev sled. The focus of this paper is to address the issues with the Maglev sled design, rather than the issues with the development of superconducting magnets of the sled system.

  2. Issues in Modeling System Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Annis, Chuck; Booker, Jane; Robinson, David; Sues, Rob

    2002-10-01

    This paper discusses various issues in modeling system reliability. The topics include: 1) Statistical formalisms versus pragmatic numerics; 2) Language; 3) Statistical methods versus reliability-based design methods; 4) Professional bias; and 5) Real issues that need to be identified and resolved prior to certifying designs. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  3. Stakeholders' Engagement Methods for the Mining Social Responsibility Practice: Determination of Local Issues and Concerns Related to the Mines Operations in Northwest of the US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, all around the world, global environmental change affects the human habitat. This is effect enhanced by the mining operation, and creates new challenges in relationship between the mining and local community. The purpose of this project are developed the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan which is currently developed in University of Nevada, Reno for the Emigrant mining project, located in the central Nevada, USA, and belong to the Newmont Mining Corporation, one of the gold production leader worldwide. The needs for this project is to create the open dialog between Newmont mining company and all interested parties which have social or environmental impacts from the Emigrant mine. Identification of the stakeholders list is first and one of the most difficult steps in the developing of mine social responsibility. Stakeholders' engagement evaluation plan must be based on the timing and available resources of the mining company, understanding the goals for the engagement, and on analyzes of the possible risks from engagement. In conclusion, the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan includes: first, determinations of the stakeholders list, which must include any interested or effected by the mine projects groups, for example: state and local government representatives, people from local communities, business partners, environmental NGOs, indigenous people, and academic groups. The contacts and availability for communication is critical for Stakeholders engagement. Next, is to analyze characteristics of all these parties and determinate the level of interest and level of their influence on the project. The next step includes the Stakeholders matrix and mapping development, where all these information will be put together.After that, must be chosen the methods for stakeholders' engagement. The methods usually depends from the goals of engagement (create the dialog lines, collect the data, determinations of the local issues and concerns, or establish

  4. Community Colleges and Teacher Preparation: Roles, Issues and Opportunities. Issue Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Tricia; Vandal, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The role of community colleges in preparing the next generation of teachers in U.S. classrooms continues to evolve. In many states, community colleges are no longer playing an informal or tangential role in teacher preparation and instead are becoming critical leaders in efforts to develop a pool of highly effective teachers for states and regions…

  5. Opportunity's Outcrop Outing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This composite of three images from the navigation camera shows the view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity toward the southeast, in the direction of 'Victoria Crater,' on the rover's 817th Martian day, or sol (May 12, 2006). To reach Victoria Crater, still about 1,100 meters (two-thirds of a mile) from this location, the rover must navigate among the large ripples visible on the left and ahead in the distance.

    On this sol, Opportunity was preparing to deploy its arm instrument suite to analyze a rock on the outcrop pavement. At upper right is a small depression that was the target of further imaging on sols 825 and 826 (May 20 and 21, 2006).

  6. Seizing opportunities for change at the operational level.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Diana; Charron-Latour, Julie; Pourmonet, Hugo; Bassetto, Samuel

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - This paper presents a method for handling everyday opportunities for improvement, led by floor staff in healthcare institutions. More than 400,000 incidents and accidents were recorded in Quebec healthcare institutions in 2013. The burden of treatment falls on hospital floor staff. The purpose of this paper is to raise the visibility of this problem and support staff better in their efforts to handle opportunities for improvement. Design/methodology/approach - Based on issues identified in the literature, which have been found to exist in various organizations, the method involved reviewing practices in the field, proposing a solution, and testing it to assess its relevance and limitations. The method was tested in partnership with the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, in the internal medicine unit at Hôtel-Dieu campus. The test lasted three months. Indicators from this test have been compared to results in the literature. Findings - The proposed method presents a 68 per cent increase in ideas generated per person and per week compared to the reference study. The mean time for closing actions was about 41 per cent better (lower) than in the reference case. Research limitations/implications - The test lasted 15 weeks; a longer test is needed to collect more data. Practical implications - The first practical implication of this study was the creation of a method allowing employees to seize opportunities for improvement in their daily work. The application of this method revealed: first, the operational nature of the proposal (empowerment of the work team); second, the operationalization of continuous improvement (71 per cent of ideas were finalized while the initiative was monitored); third, the smooth operation of the mechanism for facilitating continuous improvement (organization of weekly meetings and team participation in these meetings in 90 per cent of cases); and fourth, a shared feeling that intra- and inter-team communication had

  7. Seizing opportunities for change at the operational level.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Diana; Charron-Latour, Julie; Pourmonet, Hugo; Bassetto, Samuel

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - This paper presents a method for handling everyday opportunities for improvement, led by floor staff in healthcare institutions. More than 400,000 incidents and accidents were recorded in Quebec healthcare institutions in 2013. The burden of treatment falls on hospital floor staff. The purpose of this paper is to raise the visibility of this problem and support staff better in their efforts to handle opportunities for improvement. Design/methodology/approach - Based on issues identified in the literature, which have been found to exist in various organizations, the method involved reviewing practices in the field, proposing a solution, and testing it to assess its relevance and limitations. The method was tested in partnership with the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, in the internal medicine unit at Hôtel-Dieu campus. The test lasted three months. Indicators from this test have been compared to results in the literature. Findings - The proposed method presents a 68 per cent increase in ideas generated per person and per week compared to the reference study. The mean time for closing actions was about 41 per cent better (lower) than in the reference case. Research limitations/implications - The test lasted 15 weeks; a longer test is needed to collect more data. Practical implications - The first practical implication of this study was the creation of a method allowing employees to seize opportunities for improvement in their daily work. The application of this method revealed: first, the operational nature of the proposal (empowerment of the work team); second, the operationalization of continuous improvement (71 per cent of ideas were finalized while the initiative was monitored); third, the smooth operation of the mechanism for facilitating continuous improvement (organization of weekly meetings and team participation in these meetings in 90 per cent of cases); and fourth, a shared feeling that intra- and inter-team communication had

  8. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for Landscape Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.; Raubfogel, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    DOE orders mandate the development of a waste minimization program. The program`s goals are to: reduce volumes of wastes and toxicity; implement a system of tracking and reporting improvements; and devise a method for performing tasks. To satisfy the requirements of this program, Sandia conducts pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) to identify waste-generating processes. The information collected from a PPOA then is used to identify waste minimization opportunities. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted using Sandia`s new methodology for prioritizing, evaluating and managing site-wide waste streams. This new methodology and the list of priority waste streams are described in the wastes revision of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Plant. This PPOA addresses landscape waste minimization, partially in response to recent legislation and regulations.

  9. Caution: business opportunity ahead.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1986-01-01

    Increasing competition in the market for health care services has led many providers to contemplate activities that would not have received consideration a decade ago. Entrepreneurial in nature, these endeavors require a form of business analysis with which many health care administrators are unfamiliar. Evaluation of health care business opportunities should include consideration of market perspective, relative difficulty of implementation and execution, likely response of competition, and unique aspects of the entrepreneurial personality when found in traditional health care organizations.

  10. Emergicenters. Opportunity or threat?

    PubMed

    Meyer, L C

    1983-01-01

    Political, social, and economic pressures on the healthcare industry are resulting in the development of new approaches to the delivery of quality health care to consumers. One of the newest responses to these change forces has been the development and proliferation of freestanding emergency centers. This article examines the underlying causes behind their development, describes the distinct services and strengths of the "emergicenter" concept, and shows how medical group practices can turn a potential competitive threat into an opportunity for future growth.

  11. 'Payson' Panorama by Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Payson' Panorama by Opportunity (QTVR)

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meters (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This approximately true-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  12. Ethical issues in stem cell research and therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy. Although debate about the moral status of the embryo in human embryonic stem cell research continues to have relevance, the discovery of other highly multipotent stem cell types and alternative methods of isolating and creating highly multipotent stem cells has raised new questions and concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise, but care is needed to ensure their safety in translational clinical trials, despite the temptation to move quickly from bench to bedside. A variety of highly multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, or urine - present the opportunity for widespread biobanking and increased access. With these increased opportunities, however, come pressing policy issues of consent, control, and justice. The imperatives to minimize risks of harm, obtain informed consent, reduce the likelihood of the therapeutic misconception, and facilitate sound translation from bench to bedside are not unique to stem cell research; their application to stem cell research and therapy nonetheless merits particular attention. Because stem cell research is both scientifically promising and ethically challenging, both the application of existing ethical frameworks and careful consideration of new ethical implications are necessary as this broad and diverse field moves forward. PMID

  13. Ethical issues in stem cell research and therapy.

    PubMed

    King, Nancy Mp; Perrin, Jacob

    2014-07-07

    Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy. Although debate about the moral status of the embryo in human embryonic stem cell research continues to have relevance, the discovery of other highly multipotent stem cell types and alternative methods of isolating and creating highly multipotent stem cells has raised new questions and concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise, but care is needed to ensure their safety in translational clinical trials, despite the temptation to move quickly from bench to bedside. A variety of highly multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, or urine - present the opportunity for widespread biobanking and increased access. With these increased opportunities, however, come pressing policy issues of consent, control, and justice. The imperatives to minimize risks of harm, obtain informed consent, reduce the likelihood of the therapeutic misconception, and facilitate sound translation from bench to bedside are not unique to stem cell research; their application to stem cell research and therapy nonetheless merits particular attention. Because stem cell research is both scientifically promising and ethically challenging, both the application of existing ethical frameworks and careful consideration of new ethical implications are necessary as this broad and diverse field moves forward.

  14. Nano-Imprinted Thin Films of Reactive, Azlactone-Containing Polymers: Combining Methods for the Topographic Patterning of Cell Substrates with Opportunities for Facile Post-Fabrication Chemical Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Fredin, Nathaniel J.; Broderick, Adam H.; Buck, Maren E.; Lynn, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Approaches to the fabrication of surfaces that combine methods for the topographic patterning of soft materials with opportunities for facile, post-fabrication chemical functionalization could contribute significantly to advances in biotechnology and a broad range of other areas. Here, we report methods that can be used to introduce well-defined nano- and microscale topographic features to thin films of reactive polymers containing azlactone functionality using nano-imprint lithography (NIL). We demonstrate that NIL can be used to imprint topographic patterns into thin films of poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) and a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone using silicon masters having patterns of grooves and ridges ranging in width from 400 nm to 2 μm, demonstrating the potential of this method to transfer patterns to films of these reactive polymers over a range of feature sizes and densities. We demonstrate further that the azlactone functionality of these polymers survives temperatures and pressures associated with NIL, and that topographically patterned films can be readily functionalized post-fabrication by treatment of surface-accessible azlactone functionality with small molecules and polymers containing primary amines. The results of experiments in which NIH-3T3 cells were seeded onto films imprinted with lined patterns having a pitch of 4 μm demonstrated that cells attach and proliferate on these azlactone-containing films and that they align in the direction of the imprinted pattern. Finally, we demonstrate that the treatment of these materials with amine-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can be used to create regions of topographically patterned films that prevent cell adhesion. The results of this study suggest approaches to the functionalization of topographically patterned surfaces with a broad range of chemical functionality (e.g., peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, etc.) of biotechnological interest. The

  15. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  16. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity. PMID:15719505

  17. Boundary issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    can (and ultimately must) learn to capture and re-use P in human and animal wastes. And, as Carpenter and Bennett highlight, inequities in P availability across world regions are not just a problem, they are an opportunity: transfers from P-rich to P-poor regions could simultaneously reduce environmental and food security risks. Above all, Carpenter and Bennett's analyses highlight the need for new management strategies that better target not only P's environmental risks, but also recognize the element's standing as an irreplaceable resource. Human society has been built from the massive alteration of four global biogeochemical cycles (C, N, H2O and P). We can replace carbon-based fuels, plant legumes in lieu of Haber-Bosch-based N fixation, and the rain will still fall. But for P, there is neither substitute nor renewal. Without an almost closed loop between fertilizer application, food consumption, and waste management, society could solve the remainder of the environmental threats Rockström and colleagues identify, and still be facing a bleak future. References Carpenter S R and Bennett E M 2011 Reconsideration of the planetary boundary for phosphorus Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014009 Childers C L, Corman J, Edwards M and Elser J J 2011 Sustainability challenges of phosphorus and food: solutions from closing the human phosphorus cycle BioScience 61 117-24 Cordell D, Drangert J-O and White S 2009 The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought global Environmental Change 19 292-305 Diamond J 2005 Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (New York: Viking) Engelhardt H T and Caplan A L (ed) 1987 Scientific Controversies: Case Studies in the Resolution and Closure of Disputes in Science and Technology (New York: Cambridge University Press) Filippelli G M 2008 The global phosphorus cycle: Past, present, and future Elements 4 89-95 Galloway J N, Townsend A R, Erisman J W, Bekunda M, Cai Z C, Freney J R, Martinelli L A, Seitzinger S P and Sutton M

  18. In This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-04-01

    Advanced Instrumentation in the Educational Laboratory The instruments that chemists use in their research have changed dramatically in the past decades. The explosion in new techniques and their instrumental counterparts has been made possible by two significant advances. The rapid propagation of computer chips and circuitry provides opportunities to collect more specialized and refined data than ever before. Computer-controlled instruments can detect events that a human researcher would never perceive and can record hundreds of data points in the time that a person could only observe one or two. Coupled with these advances in technology are advances in theory that allow more sophisticated interpretation of data. A hundred years ago a sophisticated instrument was a balance that could weigh minute quantities. Today a sophisticated instrument is one that can identify the composition of that minute sample, determine its molecular weight, or reveal a great deal about its energy states and bonding. This bonanza of new instruments is wonderful for the research chemist but a curricular headache for the chemistry teacher. It takes more time to learn how to run an NMR than to use a balance, and more sophistication on the part of the student is needed to interpret the data. And yet many courses that only a generation ago sported an expensive analytical balance as its prize instrument now require students to understand and operate a whole panoply of complex tools. Teachers faced with accommodating these curricular changes will find several articles in this issue helpful--either providing information on new techniques or descriptions of how to incorporate them into the classroom. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is one of the newest tools that has been added to the analytical arsenal. It is an extension of mass spectrometry that overcomes the old barrier that allowed only analysis of low molecular weight, volatile compounds. It is now possible to use MS for

  19. Research Methods and Methodologies for Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in Art Education. Crossing Cultural, Artistic, and Cyber Borders: Issues and Examples in Art Education Conference (Tempe, Arizona, January 7-8, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Pierre, Sharon D., Ed; Stokrocki, Mary, Ed.; Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.

    This monograph is the outgrowth of a conference that explored research concerns related to multi-cultural and cross-cultural contexts in art education. In the monograph, presentations are organized into three sections. Section 1 deals with basic research methods and methodologies, and introduces new methodological perspectives for consideration.…

  20. [Biostatistical issues].

    PubMed

    Hudec, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss some fundamental aspects of biostatistics in the context of research in clinical oncology. Starting with a general presentation of basic principles of confirmatory statistics we deal with specific questions which typically arise in practical situations. This covers the importance of prespecification of statistical analyses before looking at the data as well as the judgment of multiple p-values and the interpretation of subgroup analyses. Subsequently we propose essential principles and techniques for the design and analysis of controlled clinical trials, which are relevant to achieve valid results with regard to cause-effect relationships from clinical observations. We specifically point out that an exact definition of the whole research design together with the methods of analysis and evaluation as well as planning of interim analyses and possible termination strategies have to be defined clearly in advance. General hints with regard to reporting standards conclude this chapter. In the final chapter we discuss general ideas behind meta-studies and demonstrate by means of a small example some basic analytical techniques for the summarization of single study results.

  1. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-11-30

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.

  2. Building waste management in Bulgaria: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hadjieva-Zaharieva, R; Dimitrova, E; Buyle-Bodin, François

    2003-01-01

    Building waste recycling as aggregates is a modern approach for preventing environmental pollution through both reducing the stocks of waste and decreasing the use of natural aggregates. The reuse of building waste is a relatively new issue for Bulgaria despite the existing considerable quantity of building waste and the significant changes in the environmental rules applied. The paper discusses generated and potential waste streams in Bulgaria in the context of the social and economic restructuring and recent urban development undergone by the country. The main preliminary conditions for developing the recycling activity such as: streams of building waste, experience in recycling, technical and environmental standardization, appropriate technologies, etc. are examined. The authors analyze current practice and research activities with regard to the implementation of advanced EU building-waste recycling methods. Conclusions are drawn about existing opportunities and the priorities of the needed building waste management strategy in the country. PMID:14522194

  3. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Cancer.gov

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  4. Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology seeks to exploit novel physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and other properties, which arise primarily due to the nanoscale nature of certain materials. A key example is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which exhibit unique electrical and extraordinary mechanical properties and offer remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing, and data storage technology, sensors, composites, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization, and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. This presentation will provide an overview and progress report on this and other major research candidates in Nanotechnology and address opportunities and challenges ahead.

  5. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  6. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  7. The Teaching Experiment as a Powerful Method to Develop and Evaluate Teaching and Learning Sequences in the Domain of Non-Linear Systems. Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komorek, Michael; Duit, Reinders

    2004-01-01

    The educational potential of non-linear systems is given surprisingly little attention in science education research--at least in research that links content matter and educational issues. The project on educational reconstruction of non-linear systems at the IPN has investigated the educational significance of threferring phenomena and the…

  8. Advancing the practice of health impact assessment in Canada: Obstacles and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, Lindsay C.; Ollson, Christopher A.; Stefanovic, Ingrid L.

    2015-11-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is recognized as a useful tool that can identify potential health impacts resulting from projects or policy initiatives. Although HIA has become an established practice in some countries, it is not yet an established practice in Canada. In order to enable broader support for HIA, this study provides a comprehensive review and analysis of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the state of HIA practice. The results of this review revealed that, although there is an abundance of publications relating to HIA, there remains a lack of transparent, consistent and reproducible approaches and methods throughout the process. Findings indicate a need for further research and development on a number of fronts, including: 1) the nature of HIA triggers; 2) consistent scoping and stakeholder engagement approaches; 3) use of evidence and transparency of decision-making; 4) reproducibility of assessment methods; 5) monitoring and evaluation protocols; and, 6) integration within existing regulatory frameworks. Addressing these issues will aid in advancing the more widespread use of HIA in Canada. - Highlights: • Reviewed current state of practice in the field of HIA • Identified key obstacles and opportunities for HIA advancement • Major issues include lack of consistent approach and methodology. • No national regulatory driver hinders opportunity for widespread use of HIA. • Identified research opportunities vital to developing HIA practice in Canada.

  9. Using strategic foresight to assess conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Wintle, Bonnie C; Aldrich, Stephen C; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-12-01

    The nature of conservation challenges can foster a reactive, rather than proactive approach to decision making. Failure to anticipate problems before they escalate results in the need for more costly and time-consuming solutions. Proactive conservation requires forward-looking approaches to decision making that consider possible futures without being overly constrained by the past. Strategic foresight provides a structured process for considering the most desirable future and for mapping the most efficient and effective approaches to promoting that future with tools that facilitate creative thinking. The process involves 6 steps: setting the scope, collecting inputs, analyzing signals, interpreting the information, determining how to act, and implementing the outcomes. Strategic foresight is ideal for seeking, recognizing, and realizing conservation opportunities because it explicitly encourages a broad-minded, forward-looking perspective on an issue. Despite its potential value, the foresight process is rarely used to address conservation issues, and previous attempts have generally failed to influence policy. We present the strategic foresight process as it can be used for proactive conservation planning, describing some of the key tools in the foresight tool kit and how they can be used to identify and exploit different types of conservation opportunities. Scanning is an important tool for collecting and organizing diverse streams of information and can be used to recognize new opportunities and those that could be created. Scenario planning explores how current trends, drivers of change, and key uncertainties might influence the future and can be used to identify barriers to opportunities. Backcasting is used to map out a path to a goal and can determine how to remove barriers to opportunities. We highlight how the foresight process was used to identify conservation opportunities during the development of a strategic plan to address climate change in New York

  10. Using strategic foresight to assess conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Wintle, Bonnie C; Aldrich, Stephen C; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-12-01

    The nature of conservation challenges can foster a reactive, rather than proactive approach to decision making. Failure to anticipate problems before they escalate results in the need for more costly and time-consuming solutions. Proactive conservation requires forward-looking approaches to decision making that consider possible futures without being overly constrained by the past. Strategic foresight provides a structured process for considering the most desirable future and for mapping the most efficient and effective approaches to promoting that future with tools that facilitate creative thinking. The process involves 6 steps: setting the scope, collecting inputs, analyzing signals, interpreting the information, determining how to act, and implementing the outcomes. Strategic foresight is ideal for seeking, recognizing, and realizing conservation opportunities because it explicitly encourages a broad-minded, forward-looking perspective on an issue. Despite its potential value, the foresight process is rarely used to address conservation issues, and previous attempts have generally failed to influence policy. We present the strategic foresight process as it can be used for proactive conservation planning, describing some of the key tools in the foresight tool kit and how they can be used to identify and exploit different types of conservation opportunities. Scanning is an important tool for collecting and organizing diverse streams of information and can be used to recognize new opportunities and those that could be created. Scenario planning explores how current trends, drivers of change, and key uncertainties might influence the future and can be used to identify barriers to opportunities. Backcasting is used to map out a path to a goal and can determine how to remove barriers to opportunities. We highlight how the foresight process was used to identify conservation opportunities during the development of a strategic plan to address climate change in New York

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine--a business opportunity?

    PubMed

    Hofgard, M W; Zipin, M L

    1999-01-01

    This desire for health and well-being is driving the rapid growth of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) industry and points to a new role for health care professionals, including business opportunities for medical groups. CAM represents the opportunity to grow practice revenues, expand a group's tool kit for assisting patients with health care issues, and retain or increase market share by proactively responding to consumers. With respect to CAM, physician practices can lead their market, follow it or ignore it.

  12. Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of this research newsletter for the year 2000. The purpose of the newsletter is to inform those who formulate, fund, and administer policy related to higher education. The lead articles for this volume are: (1) Institutional Graduation Rates for Pell Grant Recipients by Institutional Academic…

  13. Education: Straitjacket or Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, James, Ed.; Daniels, Arlene Kaplan, Ed.

    Spurred on by such discussions of education as Jenk's "Inequality" and Coleman's controversial pronouncements on desegregation orders and "white flight," this anthology focuses on the efficacy of educational reform. The articles were compiled from two issues of the journal "Social Problems." The introductory essay by Benet and Daniels provides an…

  14. Marine geomorphometry: Overview and opportunities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micallef, Aaron; Lecours, Vincent; Dolan, Margaret; Lucieer, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Multibeam echosounder data comprise the primary source for digital terrain models of the seafloor. Recent advances in seafloor surveying technologies have resulted in a dramatic increase in the quantity and resolution of multibeam echosounder data, prompting a renewed interest in employing geomorphometric techniques to investigate the seafloor. Marine geomorphometric techniques are not as varied and as extensively applied as in terrestrial environments. This is due to the difficultly with capturing terrain variability underwater, since changes in topography are more subdued in comparison to terrestrial landscapes. Issues related to scale are also relevant in submarine settings, but they manifest themselves differently due to the differences in input data. In the last decade, a suite of marine geomorphometric techniques have been developed - terrain attributes, feature-based quantitative representation, automated classification - and employed to investigate a wide range of phenomena - seafloor landforms and geomorphic processes, geohazards, hydrodynamics, habitats. This contribution provides an overview of progress made in marine geomorphometry in the last decade as well as highlights the opportunities and challenges faced by this thriving field of research in the near future.

  15. Physics opportunities with meson beams

    DOE PAGES

    Briscoe, William J.; Doring, Michael; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D. Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2015-10-20

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledgemore » in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. Furthermore, the present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.« less

  16. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries. PMID:20664223

  17. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries.

  18. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  19. Ionospheric research opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickel, Dwight

    1985-05-01

    Ground-based explosions have been exploited successfully in the past as a relatively controlled source for producing ionospheric disturbances. On June 25, the Defense Nuclear Agency will conduct a high explosives test on the northern section of the White Sands Missile Range. Approximately 4,800 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) will be detonated at ground level, producing an acoustic shock wave with a surface pressure change of approximately 20 mbar at a 6 km range. This shock front will have sufficient strength to propagate into the ionosphere with at least a 10% change in the ambient pressure across the disturbance front in the lower F region. Such an ionospheric perturbation will give ionospheric researchers an excellent opportunity to investigate acoustic propagation at ionospheric heights, shock dissipation effect, the ion-neutral coupling process, acoustic-gravity wave (traveling ionospheric disturbance) generation mechanisms, and associated RF phenomena.

  20. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term “constraint” has negative connotations, I use the term “regulated variation” to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch “on” or “off” preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection). PMID:24769155

  1. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2014-04-22

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term "constraint" has negative connotations, I use the term "regulated variation" to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch "on" or "off" preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection).

  2. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2014-09-01

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term "constraint" has negative connotations, I use the term "regulated variation" to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch "on" or "off" preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection).

  3. Conversations with Principals: Issues, Values, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Andrew E.

    2006-01-01

    "Conversations With Principals: Issues, Values, and Politics" is a unique compilation of interviews with principals at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels. Unlike any other text in Educational Administration, this book allows students the unusual opportunity to experience the inner voice of principals as they discuss the many decisions…

  4. Nuclear Issues: Strategies and Worksheets. Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantieri, Linda; And Others

    This document is designed to provide students with an opportunity to share feelings and clarify their own values given the facts about nuclear technology. Using this short curriculum, students should be able to: (1) explore their associations with nuclear issues; (2) analyze guidelines for conflict resolution in personal situations; (3) analyze…

  5. TESOL at Forty: What Are the Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh

    2006-01-01

    This overview delineates the direction of pedagogical developments since the 25th anniversary issue of "TESOL Quarterly." Three tendencies characterize our professional practice: (a) a continuation along the earlier lines of progression (i.e., in opening up the classroom to learning opportunities, integrating skills, and teaching for specific…

  6. Network Virtualization - Opportunities and Challenges for Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapinha, Jorge; Feil, Peter; Weissmann, Paul; Thorsteinsson, Saemundur E.; Etemoğlu, Çağrı; Ingþórsson, Ólafur; Çiftçi, Selami; Melo, Márcio

    In the last few years, the concept of network virtualization has gained a lot of attention both from industry and research projects. This paper evaluates the potential of network virtualization from an operator's perspective, with the short-term goal of optimizing service delivery and rollout, and on a longer term as an enabler of technology integration and migration. Based on possible scenarios for implementing and using network virtualization, new business roles and models are examined. Open issues and topics for further evaluation are identified. In summary, the objective is to identify the challenges but also new opportunities for telecom operators raised by network virtualization.

  7. June 6—7, 2011 Clinical Trials Conference: New Challenges & Opportunities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. June 6–7, 2011 Clinical Trials Conference: New Challenges & Opportunities Past Issues / Spring 2011 ... pressing issues in clinical trials, including: Support the Clinical Trials Conference If you or your organization would like ...

  8. Reuse and recycling - reverse logistics opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Kopicki, R.; Berg, M.J.; Legg, L.

    1993-12-31

    This book is intended to serve as a managerial guide for planning and implementing waste reduction programs. It is based on the premise that proactive management of environmental issues is becoming vital to corporate success, and that these issues are creating new roles and opportunities for logistic professionals. Examined in detail are nonhazardous waste reduction activities; reuse and recycling activities; and source reduction. The book is based on in-depth interviews with seventeen firms and several trade associations acknowledged to be leaders in waste reduction efforts. Topics discussed include adapting inbound supply chains to use more recycled goods; minimizing packaging waste; reverse distribution capabilities for taking back products and packaging; and the use of third party services for recycling, reuse, and source reduction activities. Included are two case analyses of progressive firms like E.I. Dupont Nemours and Home Depot and their waste reduction efforts.

  9. Arc of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Adam Vai

    2011-07-01

    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia.

  10. Arc of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Adam Vai

    2011-07-01

    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia. PMID:21878026

  11. Using new approaches to environmental decision-making: An application of integrated assessment methods to water resource issues in the binational Lower Rio Grande basin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, M.L.

    1999-12-31

    This article examines a unique application of integrated assessment methodologies to analyze water scarcity, development and the environment in the semi-arid Lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo watershed. US and Mexican data are analyzed to produce an integrated baseline report of current socio-economic, ecological, water supply and demand, water quality, and management conditions and trends. The baseline report provides the basis for subsequent analysis of alternative future scenarios for the region. Scenarios are developed by combining demographic projections with alternatives for future water availability, irrigation technologies, and management practices. The integrated assessment methodology is evaluated as a general tool for environmental decision-making. Problems encountered in applying the methodology are discussed, as are possibilities for improvements. The article concludes that, despite inherent difficulties, integrated assessments can provide a powerful framework by which to analyze complex environmental issues involving different disciplines and large amounts of information.

  12. Computational methods of Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier on economic dispatch issues (case study on electrical system of Java-Bali IV area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komsiyah, S.

    2014-03-01

    The objective in this paper is about economic dispatch problem of electric power generation where scheduling the committed generating units outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost, while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraint. In the operating of electric power system, an economic planning problem is one of variables that its must be considered since economically planning will give more efficiency in operational cost. In this paper the economic dispatch problem which has non linear cost function solved by using swarm intelligent method is Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier. GPSO is a population-based stochastic algorithms which their moving inspired by swarm intelligent and probabilities theories. To analize its accuracy, the economic dispatch solution by GPSO method will be compared with Lagrange multiplier method. From the running test result the GPSO method give economically planning calculation which it better than Lagrange multiplier method and the GPSO method faster to getting error convergence. Therefore the GPSO method have better performance to getting global best solution than the Lagrange method.

  13. Career Growth and Organizational Power: Issues for Educational Management in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    1981-01-01

    Quality of work-life issues are described in relation to a changing labor force. Organizational issues affecting work motivation include opportunity and power. An integrated approach is taken to productivity and quality of work life. (JN)

  14. Issues in Distance Education: A Primer for Higher Education Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of current issues related to distance learning in higher education. It identifies central questions, issues, challenges, and opportunities that must be addressed by decision makers, as well as key attributes of effective leaders.

  15. Opportunities in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.; Donoghue, N.

    1994-11-01

    Vietnam`s energy needs are clear and acute. Economic reforms have triggered a dynamic development process with a large and growing appetite for power. In view of the Vietnamese government`s own shortages of capital, private international power companies have been identified as key problem-solvers in the country`s efforts to meet a skyrocketing demand for energy resources. There are no restrictions on the nature of projects in which non-Vietnamese investors may participate. A number of legal issues need resolution before independent power producers can take advantage of the Republic`s recently created Builder-Operator-Transfer Contracts (the BOT Regulations). This paper discusses these regulations and how they affect independent power producers

  16. Medical devices; medical device distributor reporting; opportunity for comments--FDA. Final rule; opportunity for comments.

    PubMed

    1993-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an opportunity for public comments on the final rule on medical device distributor reporting, which is published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register. The medical device distributor reporting tentative final rule became final on May 28, 1992, by operation of the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 (the SMDA), as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1992 (the 1992 amendments). Although not required to do so, FDA realizes that there may be issues not previously considered, such as technical issues on specific provisions, and therefore is providing this additional time for comment. If changes are warranted by comments, FDA will make further changes in the rules.

  17. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation's defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE's capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  18. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation`s defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE`s capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  19. Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Progress and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) are a hazard to conducting networks such as high-voltage power and pipeline grids. GIC have been known for decades to affect power systems at higher latitudes (e.g. Europe and North America), although more recently GIC have also been found to affect power networks at middle and lower latitudes. Mitigating the effects of GIC remains an issue for the power and pipeline industries and for governments concerned with the societal and economic implications. To understand, e.g. to model and predict, GIC in conducting grids needs expertise drawn from electrical engineering, geophysics and space weather science - a truly multi-disciplinary undertaking. In terms of geophysics and space physics, issues such as Earth structure (e.g. 3D versus 1D mantle and lithospheric conductivity structure), ocean/continent conductivity contrasts, ionospheric current systems and their variability and Sun-Earth magnetic interactions are all relevant. The start of solar cycle 24 provides an opportune time to consider the status of GIC research and to assess what new studies are required in geophysical modelling and in hazard analysis. What do we need to improve on to better specify/predict GIC flowing in power grids, from ‘up-stream' observations of coronal mass ejections through to geomagnetic field measurements made during magnetic storms? In this invited review we will consider aspects of a) Measurement: how do we measure GIC in grids; b) Analysis: how do measured GIC relate to geophysical and space physics data; c) Modelling: what methods exist for modelling GIC, again in relation to other data, and how accurate are models; and d) Prediction: how predictable are GIC and what are the implications for, e.g., the power industry and national governments. We will review the more recent developments in GIC and related geomagnetism and space weather science. We will outline what issues are widely believed to now be understood and what issues remain to be

  20. PFBC and IGCC power generation technologies: status and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Brdar, R.D.; Reuther, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    View graphs are presented for pressurized fluidized bed combustion and combined-cycle power plants/coal gasification technologies. Photographs, graphs and flowsheets are included covering the following topics: product line; product goals; product development strategy; this year`s success; barrier issues; key plans for next year; technical status; and market opportunities.

  1. Creating Better Educational and Employment Opportunities for Rural Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Peter; Sercombe, Howard; Black, Alan; Lhuede, Dominica

    This study explores current education, training, and employment issues and opportunities for rural youth in Australia, and suggests ways in which relevant education, training, and employment options and prospects can be generated for rural youth. Specifically, this study documents the ways that economic and social changes in rural communities have…

  2. Workplace Diversity and Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An…

  3. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  4. Food Processing and Marketing: New Directions...New Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue uses tomato processing to illustrate the new directions and opportunities available in the food market. Comparative advantage and economies of scale are discussed in relation to markets. Forecasting success in the market is attributed to studying consumer consumption trends by type and monitoring standards of living in 32 newly…

  5. Matching Students to Opportunity: Expanding College Choice, Access, and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Howell, Jessica S., Ed.; Sattin-Bajaj, Carolyn, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "Matching Students to Opportunity" expands on the discussion of a critical issue in college access and success: the match between prospective students and the colleges in which they enroll. Research indicates that ensuring a good match significantly increases a student's chance of graduating. The contributors to this volume argue that…

  6. Opportunities, problems seen in China's remote Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-12

    China's offering of onshore blocks in the vast Tarim basin for competitive bidding by foreign firms has created significant opportunities for international oil companies. This article describes the Tarim basin potential and the planned pipeline, and gives details about key exploration contract issues and elements. Reserve estimates range from 10 to 30 billion bbl of oil.

  7. Viewpoint. Community-Supported Agriculture: Opportunities for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Community Farm of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the context of critical social, economic, and environmental issues related to agriculture and the rural environment and the emerging movement for community-supported agriculture (CSA) in the United States. Discusses how CSA works, biodynamic agriculture, and opportunities for environmental…

  8. Economic Segregation of Higher Education Opportunity, 1973 to 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The first report in this issue, "Economic Segregation of Higher Education Opportunity 1973 to 2001," describes the way higher education enrollments in U.S. colleges and universities are rapidly being sorted by family income and social class. Students born into different economic class backgrounds are increasingly concentrated in distinct segments…

  9. Mobile Technologies Enhance the E-Learning Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Keh-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the mobile technologies that enhance the E-Learning opportunity, examine the educational benefits and implementation issues in mobile learning, discuss the guidelines for implementing effective mobile learning, identify the current application and operation of mobile learning, and discuss the future of…

  10. 43 CFR 3420.1-3 - Special leasing opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leasing opportunities for businesses qualifying under 13 CFR part 121. (ii) Leases issued under this section may be assigned only to other small businesses qualifying under 13 CFR part 121. (c) Potential...) Public bodies. (i) Only public bodies with a definite plan for producing energy for their own use or...

  11. Whites' Beliefs about Blacks' Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluegel, James R.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1982-01-01

    Cites data which show that Whites tend to perceive widespread reverse discrimination, to see Blacks' opportunities as having greatly improved in recent years, and to deny structural limits to Black opportunity. Posits that these perceptions are related to (1) prevailing public beliefs about stratification and (2) peoples' own social positions and…

  12. Opportunity Structures Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that we have a theory--namely, opportunity structure theory--which can account for how school-to-work transitions were accomplished "then" and "now", and also why "now" is different from "then". Opportunity structures are formed primarily by the inter-relationships between family backgrounds, education, labour market processes…

  13. A correlation method to predict the surface pressure distribution of an infinite plate or a body of revolution from which a jet is issuing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, S. C., Jr.; Mendenhall, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    A correlation method to predict pressures induced on an infinite plate by a jet exhausting normal to the plate into a subsonic free stream was extended to jets exhausting at angles to the plate and to jets exhausting normal to the surface of a body revolution. The complete method consisted of an analytical method which models the blockage and entrainment properties of the jet and an empirical correlation which accounts for viscous effects. For the flat plate case, the method was applicable to jet velocity ratios up to ten, jet inclination angles up to 45 deg from the normal, and radial distances up to five diameters from the jet. For the body of revolution case, the method was applicable to a body at zero degrees angle of attack, jet velocity ratios 1.96 and 3.43, circumferential angles around the body up to 25 deg from the jet, axial distances up to seven diameters from the jet, and jet-to-body diameter ratios less than 0.1.

  14. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  15. Biomass in the Deregulated Marketplace: Current Issues for Biomass Power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-12-01

    This issue brief provides readers with a monthly review and analysis of electric utility deregulation as it impacts biomass power production and distribution. The topical areas to be routinely covered will include Federal activities, State activities, Current challenges, and Current opportunities. Additionally, a monthly highlighted topic will provide more in-depth analysis of current issue impacting biomass power.

  16. Baseline Online Attention Trends for Marine Conservation Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidinger, R.

    2012-12-01

    A unique window of opportunity exists to create a meteorology of online conversations. Upwell is using keyword-based analysis to determine baseline levels of online social mentions for conservation issues. With these baselines in the volume of attention established, we seek to increase the volume of social mentions on key marine conservation issues.

  17. Links and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    At the end of June a new website was launched to enable young people to get involved with the UK's national Foresight programme and to help shape the future. `School of the Future - Young people with Foresight' will provide young people with the means to contribute to the national programme which develops scenarios of the future, looking at possible needs, opportunities or threats and deciding what should be done now to make sure these challenges can be met. The site can be found at www.asset.org.uk and it will be run by the Association for Schools' Science, Engineering and Technology (ASSET). The latest round of Foresight began in April and panels are taking a look at the aging population, crime prevention, built environment and transport, aerospace and systems, energy and the natural environment, information, communications and media, materials and sustainable development, amongst other topics. Information about Foresight activities and events can be obtained from the Office of Science and Technology or the Foresight Knowledge pool at www.foresight.gov.uk. The pool will act as a unique and freely accessible electronic library of views and information about the future that young people will be able to draw on for assistance and reference material. Futher assistance for students will also be on offer from museums and art galleries from now on, thanks to additional funding which has been made available over the next three years. Forty museums and galleries will share up to #2.5m for projects intended to improve students' literacy, numeracy and science skills as well as their understanding of history and art. Examples of the imaginative projects which have been put forward include use of the large collection of steam engines at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester to assist boys' science and literacy skills. The Museum of London will be working with over 2000 schools in the South East to provide materials for the schools' own mini-museums on the Romans

  18. A review of modeling issues and analysis methods for the thermal response of cargoes transported in the Safe Secure Trailer subjected to fire environments

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.R.; Larsen, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    This paper discusses thermal analysis in support of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to predict the heating of cargoes shipped in vehicles like the Safe Secure Trailer. Fire environments contribute very significantly to the risk associated with ground transport of special nuclear materials. The tradeoff between thermal model complexity and the affordable number of scenarios used to represent the hazard space is discussed as it impacts PRA. The relevant heat transfer mechanisms are discussed along with the applicability of methods from the literature for analysis of these mechanisms. Many of the subject`s real problems remain too complex for affordable and rigorous analysis. Available models are generally restricted to idealizations that are quickly obviated by real effects. Approximate treatment methods, striving to produce conservative, realistic estimates are also discussed.

  19. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nema, Vijay

    2012-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field. PMID:22919166

  20. Engineering opportunities in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jeanbart, Laura; Swartz, Melody A

    2015-11-24

    Immunotherapy has great potential to treat cancer and prevent future relapse by activating the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. A variety of strategies are continuing to evolve in the laboratory and in the clinic, including therapeutic noncellular (vector-based or subunit) cancer vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, engineered T cells, and immune checkpoint blockade. Despite their promise, much more research is needed to understand how and why certain cancers fail to respond to immunotherapy and to predict which therapeutic strategies, or combinations thereof, are most appropriate for each patient. Underlying these challenges are technological needs, including methods to rapidly and thoroughly characterize the immune microenvironment of tumors, predictive tools to screen potential therapies in patient-specific ways, and sensitive, information-rich assays that allow patient monitoring of immune responses, tumor regression, and tumor dissemination during and after therapy. The newly emerging field of immunoengineering is addressing some of these challenges, and there is ample opportunity for engineers to contribute their approaches and tools to further facilitate the clinical translation of immunotherapy. Here we highlight recent technological advances in the diagnosis, therapy, and monitoring of cancer in the context of immunotherapy, as well as ongoing challenges.

  1. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  2. Some issues related to the novel spectral acceleration method for the fast computation of radiation/scattering from one-dimensional extremely large scale quasi-planar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrungrueng, Danai; Johnson, Joel T.; Chou, Hsi-Tseng

    2002-03-01

    The novel spectral acceleration (NSA) algorithm has been shown to produce an $[\\mathcal{O}]$(Ntot) efficient iterative method of moments for the computation of radiation/scattering from both one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional large-scale quasi-planar structures, where Ntot is the total number of unknowns to be solved. This method accelerates the matrix-vector multiplication in an iterative method of moments solution and divides contributions between points into ``strong'' (exact matrix elements) and ``weak'' (NSA algorithm) regions. The NSA method is based on a spectral representation of the electromagnetic Green's function and appropriate contour deformation, resulting in a fast multipole-like formulation in which contributions from large numbers of points to a single point are evaluated simultaneously. In the standard NSA algorithm the NSA parameters are derived on the basis of the assumption that the outermost possible saddle point, φs,max, along the real axis in the complex angular domain is small. For given height variations of quasi-planar structures, this assumption can be satisfied by adjusting the size of the strong region Ls. However, for quasi-planar structures with large height variations, the adjusted size of the strong region is typically large, resulting in significant increases in computational time for the computation of the strong-region contribution and degrading overall efficiency of the NSA algorithm. In addition, for the case of extremely large scale structures, studies based on the physical optics approximation and a flat surface assumption show that the given NSA parameters in the standard NSA algorithm may yield inaccurate results. In this paper, analytical formulas associated with the NSA parameters for an arbitrary value of φs,max are presented, resulting in more flexibility in selecting Ls to compromise between the computation of the contributions of the strong and weak regions. In addition, a ``multilevel'' algorithm

  3. [Opportunity and challenge on molecular epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Duan, G C; Chen, S Y

    2016-08-10

    Molecular epidemiology, a branch of epidemiology, combines the theories and methods, both in epidemiology and molecular biology. Molecular epidemiology mainly focuses on biological markers, describing the distribution, occurrence, development and prognosis of diseases at the molecular level. The completion of Human Genome Project and rapid development of Precision Medicine and Big Data not only offer the new development opportunities but also bring about a higher demand and new challenge for molecular epidemiology. PMID:27539332

  4. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  5. Health-related quality of life in small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review on reporting of methods and clinical issues in randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zikos, Efstathios; Ghislain, Irina; Coens, Corneel; Ediebah, Divine E; Sloan, Elizabeth; Quinten, Chantal; Koller, Michael; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Stupp, Roger; Pallis, Athanasios; Czimbalmos, Agnes; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Bottomley, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Small-cell lung cancer represents about 15% of all lung cancers; increasingly, randomised controlled trials of this disease measure the health-related quality of life of patients. In this Systematic Review we assess the adequacy of reporting of health-related quality-of-life methods in randomised controlled trials of small-cell lung cancer, and the potential effect of this reporting on clinical decision making. Although overall reporting of health-related quality of life was acceptable, improvements are needed to optimise the use of health-related quality of life in randomised controlled trials.

  6. Characterizing Sleep Issues Using Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Chunara, Rumi; Chatterjee, Arnaub K; Bhandari, Aman; Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Jain, Sachin H; Brownstein, John S

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep issues such as insomnia affect over 50 million Americans and can lead to serious health problems, including depression and obesity, and can increase risk of injury. Social media platforms such as Twitter offer exciting potential for their use in studying and identifying both diseases and social phenomenon. Objective Our aim was to determine whether social media can be used as a method to conduct research focusing on sleep issues. Methods Twitter posts were collected and curated to determine whether a user exhibited signs of sleep issues based on the presence of several keywords in tweets such as insomnia, “can’t sleep”, Ambien, and others. Users whose tweets contain any of the keywords were designated as having self-identified sleep issues (sleep group). Users who did not have self-identified sleep issues (non-sleep group) were selected from tweets that did not contain pre-defined words or phrases used as a proxy for sleep issues. Results User data such as number of tweets, friends, followers, and location were collected, as well as the time and date of tweets. Additionally, the sentiment of each tweet and average sentiment of each user were determined to investigate differences between non-sleep and sleep groups. It was found that sleep group users were significantly less active on Twitter (P=.04), had fewer friends (P<.001), and fewer followers (P<.001) compared to others, after adjusting for the length of time each user's account has been active. Sleep group users were more active during typical sleeping hours than others, which may suggest they were having difficulty sleeping. Sleep group users also had significantly lower sentiment in their tweets (P<.001), indicating a possible relationship between sleep and pyschosocial issues. Conclusions We have demonstrated a novel method for studying sleep issues that allows for fast, cost-effective, and customizable data to be gathered. PMID:26054530

  7. New Opportunities for Targeted Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    A team of NCI researchers has reported that several types of gastrointestinal cancer have tumor-specific mutations that can be recognized by the immune system, thereby offering a new therapeutic opportunity for patients with these tumors.

  8. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  9. Opportunity's View on Sol 354

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this 360-degree panorama with its navigation camera on the rover's 354th martian day, or sol (Jan. 21, 2005). The view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Just to the right of center is the divot where Opportunity's heat shield hit the ground after protecting the spacecraft during descent through Mars'atmosphere. The heat shield was jettisoned about 90 seconds before Opportunity landed about 800 meters (half a mile) away. To the left of the divot is the flank portion of the heat shield debris and in the left foreground is the main wreckage of the heat shield. On the far right is a basketball-size rock dubbed 'Heat Shield Rock,' which Opportunity's inspection identified as an iron-nickel meteorite. The rim of 'Endurance Crater' is visible on the horizon on both the left and right ends of this full-circle view.

  10. Social Exclusion, and Educational Opportunity: The Case of British Education Policies within a European Union Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Nafsika

    2005-01-01

    This paper first examines the New Labour government's redefinition of equality of opportunity in Britain, mainly with regard to education and the ways in which it mediates "opportunity". In doing so, it also draws on wider social policy issues, such as the use of education policies to combat social exclusion. Second, the paper reviews European…

  11. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  12. Framing and Assessing Classroom Opportunity to Learn: The Case of Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bryant; Pérez Martínez, María Guadalupe; Aguilar Escobar, Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy in Mexico and throughout Latin America is shifting focus from school access to school quality. Improving "quality" is often interpreted as enhancing student learning opportunities, but three issues remain unresolved: (a) what constitutes opportunity to learn (OTL) in classrooms; (b) how to assess classroom OTL (COTL);…

  13. Equal Opportunity in Higher Education: The Past and Future of California's Proposition 209

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodsky, Eric, Ed.; Kurlaender, Michal, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This timely book examines issues pertaining to equal opportunity--affirmative action, challenges to it, and alternatives for improving opportunities for underrepresented groups--in higher education today. Its starting point is California's Proposition 209, which ended race-based affirmative action in public education and the workplace in 1996. The…

  14. Opportunity Lowers for Egress (animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation strings together three images from the rear hazard-identification camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The 'movie' shows the lander before and after it successfully tilted itself forward by hyperextending its rear lander petal downward. This manuever was performed in preparation for egress, or rolling off the lander at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Opportunity will roll north off the lander, opposite this viewpoint.

  15. Minority marketing for resource conservation. A research project to study methods of outreach in Hispanic minority communities regarding issues of energy and resource conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Minority Marketing Program established baseline environmental informational data related to City of Tucson minority communities. The data is intended to be used to further develop the energy conservation, environmental education and neighborhood outreach programs. The goal of these new programs is to positively affect the participating rates of all City sponsored community environmental programs with a special emphasis on minority communities. The Minority Marketing Program developed a survey, in conjunction with the University of Arizona, to establish a database of environmental awareness information City-wide but with a special emphasis on an area composed of 10 census tracts within a primarily Hispanic community. This survey was constructed using federal non-proprietary software entitled Questionnaire Programming Language (QPL) and was administered as a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), as well as a total design method mail-out survey. This approach produced data that is reliable within {+-} 5%. It will also establish a database against which future data can be compared.

  16. Precision medicine: opportunities, possibilities, and challenges for patients and providers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Petersen, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    Precision medicine approaches disease treatment and prevention by taking patients' individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle into account. Although the ideas underlying precision medicine are not new, opportunities for its more widespread use in practice have been enhanced by the development of large-scale databases, new methods for categorizing and representing patients, and computational tools for analyzing large datasets. New research methods may create uncertainty for both healthcare professionals and patients. In such situations, frameworks that address ethical, legal, and social challenges can be instrumental for facilitating trust between patients and providers, but must protect patients while not stifling progress or overburdening healthcare professionals. In this perspective, we outline several ethical, legal, and social issues related to the Precision Medicine Initiative's proposed changes to current institutions, values, and frameworks. This piece is not an exhaustive overview, but is intended to highlight areas meriting further study and action, so that precision medicine's goal of facilitating systematic learning and research at the point of care does not overshadow healthcare's goal of providing care to patients.

  17. Precision medicine: opportunities, possibilities, and challenges for patients and providers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Petersen, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    Precision medicine approaches disease treatment and prevention by taking patients' individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle into account. Although the ideas underlying precision medicine are not new, opportunities for its more widespread use in practice have been enhanced by the development of large-scale databases, new methods for categorizing and representing patients, and computational tools for analyzing large datasets. New research methods may create uncertainty for both healthcare professionals and patients. In such situations, frameworks that address ethical, legal, and social challenges can be instrumental for facilitating trust between patients and providers, but must protect patients while not stifling progress or overburdening healthcare professionals. In this perspective, we outline several ethical, legal, and social issues related to the Precision Medicine Initiative's proposed changes to current institutions, values, and frameworks. This piece is not an exhaustive overview, but is intended to highlight areas meriting further study and action, so that precision medicine's goal of facilitating systematic learning and research at the point of care does not overshadow healthcare's goal of providing care to patients. PMID:26977101

  18. Materials issues in art and archaeology. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vandiver, P.B. ); Druzik, J. ); Wheeler, G.S. )

    1991-01-01

    the purpose of this meeting is to present new and current research which: shares an empirical methodology of observation and measurement; concerns interdisciplinary studies of art, archaeology, architecture, ancient technology, and conservation; and uses the knowledge, methods and tools of materials science and engineering. Druzik introduced the symposium as follows: It is not inaccurate to say that Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II is a continuing experiment. It is an experiment in the sense that conservation scientists, materials scientists who usually deal with the properties and processing of modern technology, and those who study the materials and processing of ancient cultures seldom have an opportunity to experience each other's unique problems. While the conservation of artistic and cultural properties often involves the very same objects as those studied by students of ancient technology these two specialized species seldom, if ever, attend the same meetings, publish in the same journals, or can even name a paltry subset of the other discipline's more famous characters and controversies. And, what do the Real Material Scientists think of these two odd birds. Well, that's what we really want to find out. Because it's certainly clear to myself and my co-organizers that the MRS has undreamed of potential and wealth to help solve many of the questions we pose about past cultures, their tools, their aesthetic sensibilities and their preservation for future generations were we only imaginative enough to exploit it.

  19. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  20. A Physicist in Business: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Lifestyle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, John

    2007-03-01

    A traditional education in physics does not normally include business classes or dealing with opportunities to start a company, yet scientists often now start and run small companies. Physicists are mainly interested in technology. However, other factors quickly dominate chances for business success. These include finance, accounting, cash flow analysis, recruiting, interviewing, personnel issues, marketing, investments, retirement plans, patents and other not always so fun activities. Technical decisions are often strongly influenced by company finances and market-analysis. This talk discusses how to recognize opportunity, how to minimize chances for failure, and lifestyle changes one needs to be aware of before entrepreneurship involvement.

  1. Issues in data analysis.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Denis

    2015-05-01

    NURSE RESEARCHER publishes a wide range of methodology papers, many of which aim to give guidance to early researchers. Here I comment on two papers. The first, Qualitative case study data analysis: an example from practice ( Houghton et al 2015 ) is clearly comprehendible by novice researchers. The second, Multiple imputation method for handling missing data: A case study of a secondary data analysis study ( Walani and Cleland 2015 ) is a rather different case. This is a useful paper but deals with a complex issue in quantitative data analysis. If you have looked at this paper and found it hard going then please read the following few paragraphs where I try to put this paper into context. PMID:25976530

  2. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  3. Integrated regional assessment: qualitative and quantitative issues

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-19

    Qualitative and quantitative issues are particularly significant in integrated regional assessment. This chapter examines the terms “qualitative” and “quantitative” separately and in relation to one another, along with a discussion of the degree of interdependence or overlap between the two. Strategies for integrating the two general approaches often produce uneasy compromises. However, integrated regional assessment provides opportunities for strong collaborations in addressing specific problems in specific places.

  4. SU-E-T-547: A Method to Correlate Treatment Planning Issue with Clinical Analysis for Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K; Jung, E; Newton, J; Cornell, D; Able, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, the algorithms and calculation setting effect and contribution weighing on prostate Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) based SBRT were evaluated for clinical analysis. Methods: A low risk prostate patient under SBRT was selected for the treatment planning evaluation. The treatment target was divided into low dose prescription target volume (PTV) and high Dose PTV. Normal tissue constraints include urethra and femur head, and rectum was separated into anterior, lateral and posterior parts. By varying the constraint limit of treatment plan calculation setting and algorithms, the effect on dose coverage and normal tissue dose constraint parameter carried effective comparison for the nominal prescription and constraint. For each setting, their percentage differences to the nominal value were calculated with geometric mean and harmonic mean. Results: In the arbitrary prostate SBRT case, 14 variables were selected for this evaluation by using nominal prescription and constraint. Six VMAT planning settings were anisotropic analytic algorithm stereotactic beam with and without couch structure in grid size of 1mm and 2mm, non stereotactic beam, Acuros algorithm . Their geometry means of the variable sets for these plans were 112.3%, 111.9%, 112.09%, 111.75%, 111.28%, and 112.05%. And the corresponding harmonic means were 2.02%, 2.16%, 3.15%, 4.74%, 5.47% and 5.55%. Conclusions: In this study, the algorithm difference shows relatively larger harmonic mean between prostate SBRT VMAT plans. This study provides a methodology to find sensitive combined variables related to clinical analysis, and similar approach could be applied to the whole treatment procedure from simulation to treatment in radiotherapy for big clinical data analysis.

  5. The Pan Genera Detection Immunoassay: a Novel Point-of-Issue Method for Detection of Bacterial Contamination in Platelet Concentrates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Tanja; Hinse, Dennis; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) still represents an ongoing risk in transfusion-transmitted sepsis. Recently the Pan Genera Detection (PGD) system was developed and FDA licensed for screening of bacterial contamination of PCs directly prior to transfusion. The test principle is based on the immunological detection of lipopolysaccharide (for Gram-negative bacteria) or lipoteichoic acid (for Gram-positive bacteria). In the present study we analyzed the applicability of this method with regard to detection limit, practicability, implementation, and performance. PCs were spiked with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and five different Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, as well as eight different Escherichia coli strains. The presence of bacteria was assessed by the PGD immunoassay, and bacteria were enumerated by plating cultures. Application of the PGD immunoassay showed that it is a rapid test with a short hands-on time for sample processing and no demand for special technical equipment and instrument operation. The lower detection limits of the assay for Gram-positive bacteria showed a good agreement with the manufacturer's specifications (8.2 × 103 to 5.5 × 104 CFU/ml). For some strains of K. pneumoniae and E. coli, the PGD test showed analytical sensitivities (>106 CFU/ml) that were divergent from the designated values (K. pneumoniae, 2.0 × 104 CFU/ml; E. coli, 2.8 × 104 CFU/ml). Result interpretation is sometimes difficult due to very faint bands. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the PGD immunoassay is an easy-to-perform bedside test for the detection of bacterial contamination in PCs. However, to date there are some shortcomings in the interpretation of results and in the detection limits for some strains of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:20702673

  6. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  7. What! Teach Issues!?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Faye

    1986-01-01

    Discusses how to incorporate the teaching of issues as well as natural history into environmental education to build environmentally aware citizens. Describes several issues-oriented curriculums which all use direct student participation in environmental conservation. (NEC)

  8. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  9. Emotional and Social Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ...

  10. Medical Issues: Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ... Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local ...

  11. Crisis management: some opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kupperman, R H; Wilcox, R H; Smith, H A

    1975-02-01

    Modern crises present decision makers with many agonizing management choices. Very often a crisis manager is confronted with a plethora of conflicting information and given very little time to choose an appropriate course of action. Although contemporary methods of systems analysis have been used in attempts to organize data and clarify options, they have generally been of little use in presenting an accurate picture of an opponent's values and perceptions. Thus it is clear that we must now make use of the improved communications and technological devices at our disposal if crises are to be avoided or resolved with minimum damage. Our proposal to establish international model-oriented computer-assisted conferences is designed to promote greater cooperation and understanding among scientists and crisis managers of differing nations by enabling them to share images of themselves and one another. With better information and more rational options available, the chances of catastrophic misunderstanding or miscalculation can be meaningfully reduced. We have proposed a possible scenario for the initial implementation of such a system to combat famine, and hope that the same approach might be used in other areas over time. The ultimate goal is a system by which specialists of all persuasions cooperate so that international crises will be resolved on the bases of mutual benefits without resort to armed conflict.

  12. New opportunities in X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peele, A. G.; Quiney, H. M.; Dhal, B. B.; Mancuso, A. P.; Arhatari, B.; Nugent, K. A.

    2006-11-01

    We discuss standard X-ray-imaging techniques. Phase-imaging methods and a new class of nano-focus and nano-resolution laboratory systems offer new opportunities in true laboratory-based X-ray microtomography with a host of possible applications that have mainly been demonstrated only at synchrotron sources. Notwithstanding these advances, the diffraction limit for X-ray-imaging methods is a long way off. We preview the link between high-resolution 'standard' imaging schemes and the new field of coherent diffractive imaging.

  13. Atlantic opportunities for ENSO prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rey, Marta Martin; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Polo, Irene

    2015-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of tropical climate variability with worldwide impacts. Major advances in ENSO research have been done in the last decades, focusing on the mechanisms involved in its onset and development, as well as, its global climate teleconnections. Although modelling efforts have been made in ENSO forecast, the prediction of these episodes still remains a challenge for the scientific community. Recent studies put forward the role of extra-tropical and tropical regions as precursors of ENSO, but these teleconnections have changed along the 20th century. In particular, an Atlantic Niño precedes the development of a Pacific La Niña (and vice versa) 6 months in advance, taking part of an air-sea coupled mode of variability which only shows up during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The non-stationarity of this mode opens window opportunities for ENSO forecast, using the Tropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as the predictor field. Here, we present for the first time a statistical crossvalidated hindcast of ENSO events based on an Extended Multiple Maximum Covariance Analysis (EMMCA). This method considers a unique predictor field, the summer Atlantic SSTs, and a set of predictant fields in different regions and seasons, according to the Atlantic-Pacific mechanism. The predicted tropical Pacific variables involved in ENSO development, show a good agreement with the observed ones during negative AMO phases, with a remarkable increase of the predictability skill based on correlations. During those negative AMO decades, the hindcast reproduces quite well the observed Atlantic-modulated ENSO episodes, but with stronger signal than observations. This AMO-dependency of the ENSO predictability could help to resolve some open questions about the seasonal to decadal ENSO forecast and its impacts.

  14. Issues in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that there are selected issues in mathematics instruction that educators should be well aware of when planning lessons and units of study. These issues provide a basis for thought and discussion when assisting pupils to attain more optimally. Purposeful studying of issues guides mathematics teachers in…

  15. Contemporary American Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bill; And Others

    This nine-week unit from a junior high American government curriculum covers the following topics: (1) What are the current issues in our physical and social environment?; (2) How do we investigate and evaluate issues?; and (3) What contemporary issues in my physical or social environment do I want to investigate? Students are required to do…

  16. Sulfoximines: a neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lücking, Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    Innovation has frequently been described as the key to drug discovery. However, in the daily routine, medicinal chemists often tend to stick to the functional groups and structural elements they know and love. Blockbuster cancer drug Velcade (bortezomib), for example, was rejected by more than 50 companies, supposedly because of its unusual boronic acid function (as often repeated: "only a moron would put boron in a drug!"). Similarly, in the discovery process of the pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394, the unconventional proposal to introduce a sulfoximine group into the lead series also led to sneers and raised eyebrows, since sulfoximines have seldom been used in medicinal chemistry. However, it was the introduction of the sulfoximine group that finally allowed the fundamental issues of the project to be overcome, culminating in the identification of the clinical sulfoximine pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394. This Minireview provides an overview of a widely neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry--the sulfoximine group.

  17. Opportunities for strengthening provider-initiated testing and counselling for HIV in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Davyduke, Tracy; Pietersen, Ismelda; Lowrance, David; Amwaama, Selma; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This short report identifies enablers and barriers to the uptake of provider-initiated testing and counselling for HIV (PITC) in Namibia and identifies key opportunities for strengthening this vital aspect of the national HIV response. We explored this through facility mapping, register reviews and qualitative methods including focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Four health facilities (clinics and hospitals) in two regions were included in the study. We identified that PITC in Namibia was largely delivered by lay counsellors operating in designated rapid testing rooms located in health facilities and found a large number of missed opportunities for HIV testing through this model. Nurses did not see it as an integral part of their role, were not aware of HIV testing and counselling policy, felt inadequately trained and supported, and experienced staffing shortages. Institutional issues also acted as barriers to nurses performing or initiating discussions about PITC. Wider dissemination and implementation of policy, increasing privacy of consultation spaces and community sensitisation are simple measures that represent opportunities for strengthening this response and ensuring that symptomatic individuals who are unaware of their HIV status do not fall through the net.

  18. Grading journals in clinical practice: a delicate issue.

    PubMed

    Holmes, V

    1997-12-01

    Offering students opportunities to gain a strong sense of self, a positive professional image, and a chance to articulate their clinical practice is a challenge for nurse educators. Writing journals in clinical placements is one way in which students can create a dialogue with their teacher and reflect upon and explore their clinical experiences in the context in which these experiences occur. However, grading journals according to numerous predetermined criteria can sabotage the benefits and opportunities of writing journals. Judgment and control are two aspects of evaluation and subsequent grading that can sabotage the benefits. Limiting predetermined criteria and not assigning grades to students' journals are two answers to this delicate issue. To function as competent practitioners, nursing students must be able to meet standards of practice; they must achieve a strong sense of self and a positive professional image. Clinical placements offer students the opportunity to explore the experience of clinical nursing and the context in which these experiences unfold. As students acquire skills and explore the practice of nursing, they also face the reality that their instructors will award a judgment of worth to their efforts. This evaluation is necessary to determine whether students have met the required standards. Evaluation and subsequent grades, therefore, must be an integral part of the students' clinical experience. Writing journals is often used as a method of exploring experiences in clinical nursing. Journals are also used as a method of clinical evaluation. Assigning a grade to student journals has a detrimental effect on the purpose of the assignment. An emphasis on exploring the purpose of writing journals and an analysis of the impact that grading has on this exercise will expose the incompatibility between writing and grading journals.

  19. Opportunity recognition in complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, L.

    1996-12-31

    An agent operating in an unpredictable world must be able to take advantage of opportunities but cannot afford to perform a detailed analysis of the effects of every nuance of the current situation on its goals if it is to respond in a timely manner. This paper describes a filtering mechanism that enables the effective recognition of opportunities. The mechanism is based on a characterization of the world in terms of reference features, features that are both cheap and functional and that appear to be prevalent in everyday life. Its use enables the plan execution system PARETO to recognize types of opportunities that other systems cannot. Reference features can also play a role in the detection of threats, and may be involved in the development of expertise.

  20. Career opportunities in clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Morse, W A

    1992-01-01

    The varied career opportunities open to clinical engineers are described in this paper. Many of these opportunities are within the medical device industry in research, development, manufacturing design, regulatory activities, production, operations, sales, marketing, service, and management. Additional opportunities are available in hospitals, with the Veterans Administration, or working as an entrepreneur or a consultant. Each of these careers requires specific training and skills, and they all require a fundamental scientific knowledge of physical principles and mathematics. Research and management, however, require different educational preparation. The research emphasis should be on theoretical principles and creativity; the management emphasis should be on financial and labor problems. In all clinical engineering careers, the individual is a problem solver. PMID:10120058

  1. A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Lynn V.; Paxton, Robert J.; Baldock, Katherine C.R.; Barron, Andrew B.; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Freitas, Breno M.; Goulson, Dave; Jepsen, Sarina; Kremen, Claire; Li, Jilian; Neumann, Peter; Pattemore, David E.; Potts, Simon G.; Schweiger, Oliver; Seymour, Colleen L.; Stout, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pollinators, which provide the agriculturally and ecologically essential service of pollination, are under threat at a global scale. Habitat loss and homogenisation, pesticides, parasites and pathogens, invasive species, and climate change have been identified as past and current threats to pollinators. Actions to mitigate these threats, e.g., agri-environment schemes and pesticide-use moratoriums, exist, but have largely been applied post-hoc. However, future sustainability of pollinators and the service they provide requires anticipation of potential threats and opportunities before they occur, enabling timely implementation of policy and practice to prevent, rather than mitigate, further pollinator declines. Methods.Using a horizon scanning approach we identified issues that are likely to impact pollinators, either positively or negatively, over the coming three decades. Results.Our analysis highlights six high priority, and nine secondary issues. High priorities are: (1) corporate control of global agriculture, (2) novel systemic pesticides, (3) novel RNA viruses, (4) the development of new managed pollinators, (5) more frequent heatwaves and drought under climate change, and (6) the potential positive impact of reduced chemical use on pollinators in non-agricultural settings. Discussion. While current pollinator management approaches are largely driven by mitigating past impacts, we present opportunities for pre-emptive practice, legislation, and policy to sustainably manage pollinators for future generations.

  2. A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark J F; Dicks, Lynn V; Paxton, Robert J; Baldock, Katherine C R; Barron, Andrew B; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Freitas, Breno M; Goulson, Dave; Jepsen, Sarina; Kremen, Claire; Li, Jilian; Neumann, Peter; Pattemore, David E; Potts, Simon G; Schweiger, Oliver; Seymour, Colleen L; Stout, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pollinators, which provide the agriculturally and ecologically essential service of pollination, are under threat at a global scale. Habitat loss and homogenisation, pesticides, parasites and pathogens, invasive species, and climate change have been identified as past and current threats to pollinators. Actions to mitigate these threats, e.g., agri-environment schemes and pesticide-use moratoriums, exist, but have largely been applied post-hoc. However, future sustainability of pollinators and the service they provide requires anticipation of potential threats and opportunities before they occur, enabling timely implementation of policy and practice to prevent, rather than mitigate, further pollinator declines. Methods.Using a horizon scanning approach we identified issues that are likely to impact pollinators, either positively or negatively, over the coming three decades. Results.Our analysis highlights six high priority, and nine secondary issues. High priorities are: (1) corporate control of global agriculture, (2) novel systemic pesticides, (3) novel RNA viruses, (4) the development of new managed pollinators, (5) more frequent heatwaves and drought under climate change, and (6) the potential positive impact of reduced chemical use on pollinators in non-agricultural settings. Discussion. While current pollinator management approaches are largely driven by mitigating past impacts, we present opportunities for pre-emptive practice, legislation, and policy to sustainably manage pollinators for future generations. PMID:27602260

  3. A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark J F; Dicks, Lynn V; Paxton, Robert J; Baldock, Katherine C R; Barron, Andrew B; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Freitas, Breno M; Goulson, Dave; Jepsen, Sarina; Kremen, Claire; Li, Jilian; Neumann, Peter; Pattemore, David E; Potts, Simon G; Schweiger, Oliver; Seymour, Colleen L; Stout, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pollinators, which provide the agriculturally and ecologically essential service of pollination, are under threat at a global scale. Habitat loss and homogenisation, pesticides, parasites and pathogens, invasive species, and climate change have been identified as past and current threats to pollinators. Actions to mitigate these threats, e.g., agri-environment schemes and pesticide-use moratoriums, exist, but have largely been applied post-hoc. However, future sustainability of pollinators and the service they provide requires anticipation of potential threats and opportunities before they occur, enabling timely implementation of policy and practice to prevent, rather than mitigate, further pollinator declines. Methods.Using a horizon scanning approach we identified issues that are likely to impact pollinators, either positively or negatively, over the coming three decades. Results.Our analysis highlights six high priority, and nine secondary issues. High priorities are: (1) corporate control of global agriculture, (2) novel systemic pesticides, (3) novel RNA viruses, (4) the development of new managed pollinators, (5) more frequent heatwaves and drought under climate change, and (6) the potential positive impact of reduced chemical use on pollinators in non-agricultural settings. Discussion. While current pollinator management approaches are largely driven by mitigating past impacts, we present opportunities for pre-emptive practice, legislation, and policy to sustainably manage pollinators for future generations.

  4. A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Lynn V.; Paxton, Robert J.; Baldock, Katherine C.R.; Barron, Andrew B.; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Freitas, Breno M.; Goulson, Dave; Jepsen, Sarina; Kremen, Claire; Li, Jilian; Neumann, Peter; Pattemore, David E.; Potts, Simon G.; Schweiger, Oliver; Seymour, Colleen L.; Stout, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pollinators, which provide the agriculturally and ecologically essential service of pollination, are under threat at a global scale. Habitat loss and homogenisation, pesticides, parasites and pathogens, invasive species, and climate change have been identified as past and current threats to pollinators. Actions to mitigate these threats, e.g., agri-environment schemes and pesticide-use moratoriums, exist, but have largely been applied post-hoc. However, future sustainability of pollinators and the service they provide requires anticipation of potential threats and opportunities before they occur, enabling timely implementation of policy and practice to prevent, rather than mitigate, further pollinator declines. Methods.Using a horizon scanning approach we identified issues that are likely to impact pollinators, either positively or negatively, over the coming three decades. Results.Our analysis highlights six high priority, and nine secondary issues. High priorities are: (1) corporate control of global agriculture, (2) novel systemic pesticides, (3) novel RNA viruses, (4) the development of new managed pollinators, (5) more frequent heatwaves and drought under climate change, and (6) the potential positive impact of reduced chemical use on pollinators in non-agricultural settings. Discussion. While current pollinator management approaches are largely driven by mitigating past impacts, we present opportunities for pre-emptive practice, legislation, and policy to sustainably manage pollinators for future generations. PMID:27602260

  5. Psychology of Sport. Issues & Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, A. Craig, Ed.

    This book is designed to provide instructors and students in sport psychology courses with a learning instrument that combines the continuity of a textbook with the range of opinion, in-depth treatment of selected issues, and insight into research methods of a book of readings. The subject is divided into four topical categories. Under the heading…

  6. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  7. Cybernetics and Education (Special Issue)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopstein, Felix F., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This is a special issue examining the potential of cybernetics in educational technology. Articles discuss: cybernetic methods, algorithms, feedback learning theory, a structural approach to behavioral objectives and criterion-referenced testing, task specifications and diagnosis, teacher-child interaction, educational development, teaching…

  8. Opportunities with Polarized Hadron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzon, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Spin physics at future hadron facilities provide unique opportunities for the study of QCD well beyond those available at existing facilities. Opportunities with polarized protons in the Fermilab Main Injector are discussed that encompass polarized Drell-Yan scattering of unprecedented precision and also enable measurements of transversity, helicty and other transverse momentum dependent distributions. Forthcoming measurements at COMPASS-II that aim to test fundamental predictions of non-perturbative QCD, and complementary studies at RHIC-Spin that address, among others, open puzzles such as the sharing of the nucleon spin among its constituents are also discussed.

  9. Opportunity's View on Sol 347

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of its heat shield debris field on the rover's 347th martian day, or sol (Jan. 14, 2005). The view is a southward-looking, 60-degree panorama assembled from four images taken by Opportunity's navigation camera. It is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. The main piece of the heat shield is in the middle of the image, with the smaller flank piece behind it and the divot caused by the impact on the right.

  10. Window of opportunity studies: Do they fulfil our expectations?

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Sandra; Duhoux, François; Machiels, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Window of opportunity studies are trials in which patients receive one or more new compounds between their cancer diagnosis and standard treatment (mainly surgery). Patients are generally cancer treatment naïve. Tumor biopsies before and after the investigational treatment are collected for translational research. Similarly, anatomic and functional pre- and post-treatment imaging may be incorporated. Ideally, the investigational treatment is kept short to avoid delaying standard treatment. Window of opportunity trials may expedite drug development, improve our understanding of pharmacodynamic parameters, and help to identify biomarkers for better patient selection. They can, however, have major drawbacks including potential safety and logistical issues, delayed standard treatment, and a probable lack of patient benefit. By focusing on breast and head and neck cancers, in this paper we discuss the advantages, disadvantages and design of window of opportunity studies.

  11. Predicting Suicide: Issues, Methods and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettieri, Dan J.

    With the proliferation of suicide prevention centers in the United States, the task of rapidly and effectively assessing an individual caller's suicide potential has become an important research problem. However, the social science researcher is often confronted with an ethical problem when the results of his predictive equations can be used to…

  12. SEDIMENT TOXICOLOGY TESTING, ISSUES AND METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The significant role that sediments play in aquatic ecosystems is well known. They serve as both a sink and a source of organic and inorganic materials, where critical cycling processes for organic matter and the critical elements (e.g., C, N, P, and S). The majority of decomposi...

  13. Retirement preparation programs: differentials in opportunity and use.

    PubMed

    Beck, S H

    1984-09-01

    Two issues rarely addressed in the retirement planning field are (a) the proportion of older workers who participate, or have the opportunity to participate, in retirement preparation programs; and (b) socioeconomic differentials in access to such programs. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of older men were used to investigate these two issues. The data indicate that fewer than 4% of this sample of men aged 60 to 74 in 1981 had participated in a retirement preparation program. Logistic multiple regression analysis indicated that level of education, occupational status, government employment, and private pension coverage were positively related to the likelihood of participation as well as the likelihood of opportunity to participate. Conclusions from this analysis are (a) very few older men are ever exposed to retirement preparation programs and (b) those who would seem to benefit most from preparation programs, low status and low income workers, are the least likely to have access to these programs.

  14. Newspaper coverage of residential fires: an opportunity for prevention communication

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Cho, Juhee; Gielen, Andrea; Vernick, Jon S

    2007-01-01

    Background Worldwide, fire-related burns are a major cause of unintentional injury, morbidity and mortality, with the majority of deaths occurring in developing countries. In the US, as in other countries, most fatal fires occur in the home. Effective prevention strategies for residential fires are, however, currently underutilized. The news media is one available communication channel to promote such strategies, and analyzing current news coverage is a first step towards incorporating media advocacy into injury prevention efforts related to residential fires. Methods Four daily newspapers circulating widely in Maryland were monitored for 1 year. Articles describing residential fires were coded for measures of prominence, content and frame. Analysis focused on measures of issue newsworthiness, reporting of causation and consequences of fires, and inclusion of public health context and conveyance of prevention messages. Results The data indicate that fires are newsworthy, with 374 relevant news articles in a 1-year period, 32% of which appear on the first page of a section. Coverage generally concerned recent local fire events. Most articles discussed the consequences of fires (88%), and identified a causal factor (58%). Only 36%, however, included prevention information, and less than one-quarter set residential fires in a public health context. Conclusion The newsworthiness of residential fires provides a clear opportunity for widespread communication around injury prevention. Improving media advocacy will entail framing discussion of recent fire events in such a way as to support inclusion of prevention strategies and a public health context in news coverage. PMID:17446251

  15. Packaging biological cargoes in mesoporous materials: opportunities for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Siefker, Justin; Karande, Pankaj; Coppens, Marc-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Confinement of biomolecules in structured nanoporous materials offers several desirable features ranging from chemical and thermal stability, to resistance to degradation from the external environment. A new generation of mesoporous materials presents exciting new possibilities for the formulation and controlled release of biological agents. Such materials address niche applications in enteral and parenteral delivery of biologics, such as peptides, polypeptides, enzymes and proteins for use as therapeutics, imaging agents, biosensors, and adjuvants. Areas covered: Mesoporous silica Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15), with its unique, tunable pore diameter, and easily functionalized surface, provides a representative example of this new generation of materials. Here, we review recent advances in the design and synthesis of nanostructured mesoporous materials, focusing on SBA-15, and highlight opportunities for the delivery of biological agents to various organ and tissue compartments. Expert opinion: The SBA-15 platform provides a delivery carrier that is inherently separated from the active biologic due to distinct intra and extra-particle environments. This permits the SBA-15 platform to not require direct modification of the active biological therapeutic. Additionally, this makes the platform universal and allows for its application independent of the desired methods of discovery and development. The SBA-15 platform also directly addresses issues of targeted delivery and controlled release, although future challenges in the implementation of this platform reside in particle design, biocompatibility, and the tunability of the internal and external material properties. Examples illustrating the flexibility in the application of the SBA-15 platform are also discussed. PMID:25016923

  16. Risk genes for schizophrenia: translational opportunities for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Catherine L; Pratt, Judith A; Morris, Brian J

    2014-07-01

    Despite intensive research over many years, the treatment of schizophrenia remains a major health issue. Current and emerging treatments for schizophrenia are based upon the classical dopamine and glutamate hypotheses of disease. Existing first and second generation antipsychotic drugs based upon the dopamine hypothesis are limited by their inability to treat all symptom domains and their undesirable side effect profiles. Third generation drugs based upon the glutamate hypothesis of disease are currently under evaluation but are more likely to be used as add on treatments. Hence there is a large unmet clinical need. A major challenge in neuropsychiatric disease research is the relatively limited knowledge of disease mechanisms. However, as our understanding of the genetic causes of the disease evolves, novel strategies for the development of improved therapeutic agents will become apparent. In this review we consider the current status of knowledge of the genetic basis of schizophrenia, including methods for identifying genetic variants associated with the disorder and how they impact on gene function. Although the genetic architecture of schizophrenia is complex, some targets amenable to pharmacological intervention can be discerned. We conclude that many challenges lie ahead but the stratification of patients according to biobehavioural constructs that cross existing disease classifications but with common genetic and neurobiological bases, offer opportunities for new approaches to effective drug discovery.

  17. Sharing clinical trial data on patient level: Opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Franz; Slattery, Jim; Groves, Trish; Lang, Thomas; Benjamini, Yoav; Day, Simon; Bauer, Peter; Posch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In recent months one of the most controversially discussed topics among regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, journal editors, and academia has been the sharing of patient-level clinical trial data. Several projects have been started such as the European Medicines Agency´s (EMA) “proactive publication of clinical trial data”, the BMJ open data campaign, or the AllTrials initiative. The executive director of the EMA, Dr. Guido Rasi, has recently announced that clinical trial data on patient level will be published from 2014 onwards (although it has since been delayed). The EMA draft policy on proactive access to clinical trial data was published at the end of June 2013 and open for public consultation until the end of September 2013. These initiatives will change the landscape of drug development and publication of medical research. They provide unprecedented opportunities for research and research synthesis, but pose new challenges for regulatory authorities, sponsors, scientific journals, and the public. Besides these general aspects, data sharing also entails intricate biostatistical questions such as problems of multiplicity. An important issue in this respect is the interpretation of multiple statistical analyses, both prospective and retrospective. Expertise in biostatistics is needed to assess the interpretation of such multiple analyses, for example, in the context of regulatory decision-making by optimizing procedural guidance and sophisticated analysis methods. PMID:24942505

  18. Active Play Opportunities at Child Care

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brian E.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) is important for children’s health and development, yet preschoolers are not meeting PA recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine different PA opportunities at child care and how variation in indoor versus outdoor and free versus teacher-led opportunities relate to children’s PA. METHODS: An observational study of 98 children (mean age 4.5 years, 49% girls) from 10 child care centers. Classrooms were observed for at least 4 full days per center (total 50 days) to categorize time into (1) not an active play opportunity (APO); (2) naptime; (3) APO, outdoor free play; (4) APO, outdoor teacher-led; (5) APO, indoor free play; and (6) APO, indoor teacher-led. Children wore accelerometers during observations. Linear regression models examined the influence of APO categories on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. RESULTS: Children’s activity was 73% sedentary, 13% light, and 14% MVPA. For 88% of time children did not have APOs, including 26% time as naptime. On average, 48 minutes per day were APOs (41% sedentary, 18% light, and 41% MVPA), 33 minutes per day were outdoors. The most frequent APO was outdoor free play (8% of time); outdoor teacher-led time was <1%. Children were more active and less sedentary outdoors versus indoors and during the child-initiated APOs (indoors and outdoors) versus teacher-led APOs. CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers were presented with significantly fewer than recommended opportunities for PA at child care. More APOs are needed for children to meet recommendations, particularly those that encourage more outdoor time, more teacher-led and child-initiated active play, and flexibility in naptime for preschoolers. PMID:25986016

  19. Proposals Relating to Increasing Housing Opportunities for Homeless Persons. Discussion Paper 91-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laura; Matthias, Mary

    This paper provides a basis for discussion of housing proposals relating to increasing housing opportunities for homeless persons in Wisconsin. Six major topics relating to housing for homeless and potentially homeless persons are presented. Issues are listed under each topic. For each issue, background information is provided and alternatives for…

  20. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…