Science.gov

Sample records for methods issues opportunities

  1. Mixed-Methods Research in Language Teaching and Learning: Opportunities, Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi; Candlin, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art paper foregrounds mixed-methods research (MMR) in language teaching and learning by discussing and critically reviewing issues related to this newly developed research paradigm. The paper has six sections. The first provides a context for the discussion of MMR through an introductory review of quantitative and qualitative…

  2. Mixed-Methods Research in Language Teaching and Learning: Opportunities, Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi; Candlin, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art paper foregrounds mixed-methods research (MMR) in language teaching and learning by discussing and critically reviewing issues related to this newly developed research paradigm. The paper has six sections. The first provides a context for the discussion of MMR through an introductory review of quantitative and qualitative…

  3. Equal Opportunity is a Leadership Issue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-08

    Equal Opportunity is a Leadership Issue EWS 2005 Subject Area Leadership Contemporary Issues Paper Equal... Opportunity is a Leadership Issue By Captain Alphonso Capers Jr. Faculty Advisor: Major Griffin Date: 08 February 2005 Report...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Equal Opportunity is a Leadership Issue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  4. Household Waste. Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Andy; And Others

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide citizens with information about household waste and to indicate how they can contribute to its reduction. Information indicates how each individual can reduce waste by adopting new habits, making informed choices, and becoming involved in community action. Discussed are: (1) specific issues of general and…

  5. Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; Lebed, Richard F.; Machado, F. A.; Mitchell, R. E.; Morningstar, C. J.; Peardon, M.; R. Pennington, M.; Peters, K.; M. Richard, J.; P. Shen, C.; Shepherd, M. R.; Skwarnicki, T.; S. Swanson, E.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Yuan, C. Z.

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.

  6. A Primer on Risks, Issues and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 8 9 Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 A Primer on Risks , Issues and Opportunities Thomas L. Conroy II, Ed.D. Conroy...example, program offices deal with tech­ nical risks in the form of technologies that are not mature enough or are unable to provide the same capability...in production that was achieved in development. They also deal with cost risks such as an insufficient budget or budgetary cost overruns and

  7. Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; ...

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimentalmore » and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.« less

  8. Issues and Opportunities in Exotic Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, R. A.; Cohen, T. D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, J. J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; Lebed, R. F.; Machado, F. A.; Mitchell, R. E.; Morningstar, C. J.; Peardon, M.; Pennington, M. R.; Peters, K.; Richard, J. M.; Shen, C. P.; Shepherd, M. R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Swanson, E. S.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Yuan, C. Z.

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy (Cohen); the Institute of Modern Physics and Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract Y104160YQ0 and agreement No. 2015-BH-02 (Coito); the U.S. Department of Energy, for grant DE-AC05-06OR23177, under which Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, manages and operates Jefferson Laboratory and DE-SC0006765, Early Career award (Dudek); Fermilab, operated by the Fermi Research Alliance under contract number DEAC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy (Eichten); BMBF, under contract No. 06GI7121, and the DAAD under contract No. 56889822 and by the Helmholtz International Center for FAIR within the LOEWE program of the State of Hesse (Fischer); the German Research Foundation DFG under contract number Collaborative Research Centre CRC-1044 (Gradl); the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, Grant No. 305894/2009-9 and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP, Grant No. 2013/01907-0 (Krein); U.S. National Science Foundation, under grants PHY-1068286 and PHY-1403891 (Lebed); the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development under grant CNPq/CAPES-208188/2014-2 (Machado); U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-05ER41374

  9. Emerging Issues and Opportunities Prospective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Sharlene A.

    This paper discusses 14 issues related to gender equity in intercollegiate athletics, including: (1) the cost dilemma, in which institutions have to cut men's sports to introduce women's sports; (2) equal pay for the coaches of men's and women's teams; (3) the gender of coaches, namely men coaching women's teams; (4) peer harassment among…

  10. Framing the Dialogue: Strategies, Issues and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    intercity passenger, urban/suburban mobility , international, etc. @ FEDERAL POUCY 5 INFRASTRUCTURE AS A FEDERAL POLICY ISSUE The condition of the...waste. CORPS OF ENGINEERS TEHNOLOGY A number of currently available technologies developed by the Corps of Engineers were considered for demonstration...distances. Interior (DOI). " Telecommunications systems In other words, services like mobility involve the Federal and safety are of prime importance, not

  11. Issues and opportunities in space photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Robert W.; Somerville, W. A.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    Space power sources are becoming a central focus for determining man's potential and schedule for exploring and utilizing the benefits of space. The ability to search, probe, survey, and communicate throughout the universe will depend on providing adequate power to the instruments to do these jobs. Power requirements for space platforms are increasing and will continue to increase into the 21st century. Photovoltaics have been a dependable power source for space for the last 30 years and have served as the primary source of power on virtually all DOD and NASA satellites. The performance of silicon (Si) solar cells has increased from 10 percent air mass zero (AM0) solar energy conversion efficiency in the early 60's to almost 15 percent on today's spacecraft. Some technologists even think that the potential for solar photovoltaics has reached a plateau. However, present and near-future Air Force and NASA requirements show needs that, if the problems are looked upon as opportunities, can elevate the photovoltaic power source scientist and array structure engineer into the next technological photovoltaic growth curve.

  12. Wound Care Nursing: Professional Issues and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Lisa Q.

    2012-01-01

    As the field of wound care advances and seeks validity as a distinctive healthcare specialty, it becomes imperative to define practice competencies for all related professionals in the arena. As such, the myriad nurses practicing wound care in settings across the continuum should be understood for their unique contribution to the wound care team. Furthermore, the hierarchy of wound care nursing with varying levels of licensure, certification, and scope of practice can be clarified to delineate leadership and reimbursement issues to meet current health care challenges. A review of the role of nursing in wound care from a historical and evolutionary perspective helps to characterize the trend towards advanced practice nursing in the wound care specialty. PMID:24527304

  13. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Griffin, Mr. Bob; Wright, Anthony L

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  14. Equal Employment Opportunity: Legal Issues and Societal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Mitchell

    1978-01-01

    The legal issues that have led to today's affirmative action programs are reviewed and interpreted. Several studies are reviewed that illustrate the complexity of the equal employment opportunity issue and point out some areas for research that would aid organizations in successfully integrating their work force. (Author/MLF)

  15. Evaluating Broader Impacts: Issues and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elthon, D.

    2010-12-01

    The NSF expects that funded projects will include activities that have intrinsic Intellectual Merit and that promote the Broader Impacts (BI) of this work to those outside the immediate research community. These BI activities take many forms, but often involve collaborations with schools, informal science centers, and media developers in efforts to promote the public understanding of science, encourage a talented and diverse pool of students to pursue careers in science, and illustrate the benefits society derives from scientific discoveries. A critical question is how to evaluate individual BI activities and the overall portfolio of BI activities. What are the metrics for success? How can evaluation results be used to improve the BI portfolio? Evaluation of BI activities is complicated by several factors, including: [1] The scope of BI activities is highly variable across different types of NSF-funded projects. Individual research projects typically have limited BI activities, with only modest funding (<10%) designated for these efforts, and evaluation efforts are rare. On the other hand, large projects such as research centers and major facilities typically have dedicated BI/education specialists and formal evaluation expertise. An additional complication is that many BI activities are unique or have novel aspects that reflect the local circumstances and opportunities, but make it difficult to develop broadly-applicable evaluation instruments;[2] There is not consensus on the perspective from which the evaluation should be conducted. Scientists, participants (teachers, students, museum/aquarium personnel), and the funding agencies typically have differing objectives and metrics for BI projects. [3] The timeframe for conducting any evaluation is frequently limited to a few years, placing limitations on the scope of the evaluation effort. Long-term learning, career impacts, and changes in cultural attitudes or perceptions are difficult to assess under this

  16. The geologist and public policy issues, opportunities and obligations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W. )

    1993-03-01

    Historically, geologists have been perceived by the public as solely involved in resource exploration and production or geologic hazards mitigation. This generally included mining, oil drilling, landslide or earthquake (after the fact) comments, and rock or mineral collecting. These operations have come to be associated with land exploitation involving extraction of non-renewable resources, and often, in consequence, pollution. These generic activities may not currently be considered environmentally sound or politically correct. Because of the high visibility of environmental issues in recent years, geologists now have an opportunity to offer necessary input contributing to solutions for many of these problems. Indeed, geologists must be thought of as part of the solution, and thus alter public perception that geologists are facilitators of environmental damage. After all, who may better protect and conserve the earth and its environments than people trained in the Earth Sciences Governmental and industry or consulting geologists are now involved in a wide range of interpretative geologic decisions regarding a cross-section of activities aimed at development and conservation of lands and natural resources. These can be grouped in generalized categories including: waste disposal issues, water resources issues, land-use planning and zoning issues, and resource conservation or regulation requirements.

  17. Emerging Issues and Opportunities in Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Elizabeth A; Lentz, Lisa Korin; Winckworth-Prejsnar, Katherine; Abernethy, Amy P; Carlson, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    When used effectively, health information technology (HIT) can transform clinical care and contribute to new research discoveries. Despite advances in HIT and increased electronic health record adoption, many challenges to optimal use, interoperability, and data sharing exist. Data standardization across systems is limited, and scanned medical note documents result in unstructured data that make reporting on quality measures for reimbursement burdensome. Different policies and initiatives, including the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, and the National Cancer Moonshot initiative, among others, all recognize the impact that HIT can have on cancer care. Given the growing role HIT plays in health care, it is vital to have effective and efficient HIT systems that can exchange information, collect credible data that is analyzable at the point of care, and improves the patient-provider relationship. In June 2016, NCCN hosted the Emerging Issues and Opportunities in Health Information Technology Policy Summit. The summit addressed challenges, issues, and opportunities in HIT as they relate to cancer care. Keynote presentations and panelists discussed moving beyond Meaningful Use, HIT readiness to support and report on quality care, the role of HIT in precision medicine, the role of HIT in the National Cancer Moonshot initiative, and leveraging HIT to improve quality of clinical care.

  18. The Data Issue: Opportunities and Challenges for Scientific Publishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Using the recent report for the 'Opportunities in Data Exchange' Project produced by - and for - researchers, libraries/data centres and publishers (and which is based on a broad range of studies, questionnaires and evidence) we have defined current practices and expectations, and the gaps and dilemmas involved in producing data and datasets, and then analysed their relationship to formal publications. As a result, we identified potential opportunities to evolve scientific insights to be more useful and re-useful: with consequent implications for custodianship and long-term data management. We also defined a number of key incentives and barriers towards achieving these objectives. As a case study, the earth and environmental sciences have come under particularly close scrutiny with respect to data-ownership and -sharing arrangements, sometimes with damaging results to the discipline's reputation. These issues, along with considerable technological challenges, have to be handled effectively in order to best support all the users along the data chain. To that end, we show that key stakeholders - among them scientific publishers - need to have a clear idea of how to progress data-intensive derived information, which we demonstrate is often not the case. Towards bridging this knowledge gap, we have compiled a roadmap of next steps and key issues to be acknowledged and addressed by the scientific publishing community. These include: engaging directly with researchers, policy-makers, funding bodies and direct competitors to build innovative partnerships and enhance impact; providing technological and training investment and developing alongside the emerging discipline of 'data scientist': the 'data publisher'. This individual/company will need to combine a close understanding of researchers' priorities, together with market, legal and technical opportunities and restrictions.

  19. Professional Development Opportunities for Two-Year College Geoscience Faculty: Issues, Opportunities, and Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, E. M.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Granshaw, F. D.; Wenner, J. M.; Hodder, J.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Filson, R. H.; Guertin, L. A.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) play a critical role in geoscience education in the United States. Nearly half of the undergraduate students who take introductory geoscience do so at a 2YC. With awide reach and diverse student populations, 2YCs may be key to producing a well-trained, diverse and sufficiently large geoscience workforce. However, faculty at 2YCs often face many barriers to professional development including lack of financial resources, heavy and inflexible teaching loads, lack of awareness of opportunities, and few professional development resources/events targeted at their needs. As an example, at the 2009 GSA meeting in Portland, fewer than 80 of the 6500 attendees were from community colleges, although this was more than twice the 2YC faculty attendance the previous year. Other issues include the isolation described by many 2YC geoscience faculty who may be the only full time geoscientist on a campus and challenges faced by adjunct faculty who may have even fewer opportunities for professional development and networking with other geoscience faculty. Over the past three years we have convened several workshops and events for 2YC geoscience faculty including technical sessions and a workshop on funding opportunities for 2YC faculty at GSA annual meetings, a field trip and networking event at the fall AGU meeting, a planning workshop that examined the role of 2YCs in geoscience education and in broadening participation in the geosciences, two workshops supporting use of the 'Math You Need, When You Need It' educational materials that included a majority of 2YC faculty, and marine science summer institutes offered by COSEE-Pacific Partnerships for 2YC faculty. Our experience indicates that 2YC faculty desire professional development opportunities when the experience is tailored to the needs and character of their students, programs, and institutions. The content of the professional development opportunity must be useful to 2YC faculty -workshops and

  20. Virtual Environments: Issues and Opportunities for Researching Inclusive Educational Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    This chapter argues that virtual environments offer new research areas for those concerned with inclusive education. Further, it proposes that they also present opportunities for developing increasingly inclusive research processes. This chapter considers how researchers might approach researching some of these affordances. It discusses the relationship between specific features of inclusive pedagogy, derived from an international systematic literature review, and the affordances of different forms of virtual characters and environments. Examples are drawn from research in Second LifeTM (SL), virtual tutors and augmented reality. In doing this, the chapter challenges a simplistic notion of isolated physical and virtual worlds and, in the context of inclusion, between the practice of research and the research topic itself. There are a growing number of virtual worlds in which identified educational activities are taking place, or whose activities are being noted for their educational merit. These encompasses non-themed worlds such as SL and Active Worlds, game based worlds such as World of Warcraft and Runescape, and even Club Penguin, a themed virtual where younger players interact through a variety of Penguin themed environments and activities. It has been argued that these spaces, outside traditional education, are able to offer pedagogical insights (Twining 2009) i.e. that these global virtual communities have been identified as being useful as creative educational environments (Delwiche 2006; Sheehy 2009). This chapter will explore how researchers might use these spaces to investigative and create inclusive educational experiences for learners. In order to do this the chapter considers three interrelated issues: What is inclusive education?; How might inclusive education influence virtual world research? And, what might inclusive education look like in virtual worlds?

  1. Issues in electric power in India: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongia, Rahul

    This dissertation provides an examination of three facets of the Indian power program. The first issue we analyze is the current regulatory environment and guidelines in place for independent power producers and other generators, focusing on possible tradeoffs between prices and investor returns. The analysis shows that investor rates of return are significantly higher than the nominal 16% as stipulated by the Central Electricity Authority guidelines, and an uncertainty analysis reveals the relative importance of various input and project parameters. We discuss problems with the existing guidelines, and provide options for changes in policy. Adoption of modified guidelines that are more transparent and do not focus on project capital structures are likely to result in more affordable tariffs, less delays in project completion and yet provide adequate rates of return for investors. India's nuclear power program is based on indigenous materials and technology, with the potential for providing energy security for many decades. We examine the technical validity of this plan, especially the role of fast breeder reactors for extending the domestic uranium supplies. The analysis shows that breeding is unlikely to occur at anywhere near the rates envisioned, leading to a slow growth of fast breeder reactors. In addition, domestic uranium reserves restrict growth of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors, which are likely to be the main contributors to nuclear capacity in the short term. To increase the share of nuclear power in the coming decades, India should consider the construction of a number of large thermal reactors based on indigenous and imported uranium. We also present policy options for such changes to India's nuclear power program. This dissertation examines in detail the policy, technology, and economics of an overland pipeline supplying natural gas to India and Pakistan. Such a pipeline would be shared by both countries, and would be a strong confidence building

  2. Tufts Health Sciences Database: lessons, issues, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary Y; Albright, Susan A; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A; Wang, Paul J; Eaton, Elizabeth K

    2003-03-01

    The authors present their seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database (Tufts HSDB), a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. They describe a future where online tools will provide a health sciences learning infrastructure that fosters the work of an increasingly interdisciplinary community of learners and allows content to be shared across institutions as well as with academic and commercial information repositories. The authors note the key partners in Tufts HSDB's success--the close collaboration of the health sciences library, educational affairs, and information technology staff. Tufts HSDB moved quickly from serving the medical curriculum to supporting Tufts' veterinary, dental, biomedical sciences, and nutrition schools, thus leveraging Tufts HSDB research and development with university-wide efforts including Internet2 middleware, wireless access, information security, and digital libraries. The authors identify major effects on teaching and learning, e.g., what is better taught with multimedia, how faculty preparation and student learning time can be more efficient and effective, how content integration for interdisciplinary teaching and learning is promoted, and how continuous improvement methods can be integrated. Also addressed are issues of faculty development, copyright and intellectual property, budgetary concerns, and coordinating IT across schools and hospitals. The authors describe Tufts' recent experience with sharing its infrastructure with other schools, and welcome inquiries from those wishing to explore national and international partnerships to create a truly open and integrated infrastructure for education across the health sciences.

  3. Health Issues at Work: Opportunities for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses why health issues should be addressed, and why industrial/organizational psychologists should address these issues in the workplace. Presents five models for addressing health at work. Explores health-related criteria as sources for studying and developing programs concerning health. Discusses responses to health at work on an individual…

  4. Reducing Dropout Rates through Expanded Learning Opportunities. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Laura; Princiotta, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Expanded learning opportunities (ELOs), which include afterschool, summer learning, and extended day and extended year programs, can help states reduce dropout rates and increase graduation rates. Effective elementary, middle, and high school ELOs support academic rigor, boost student engagement, and provide students with supportive relationships.…

  5. Transformative research issues and opportunities in energy efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article presents a summary of research opportunities in energy efficiency identified in a workshop by a panel of experts assembled for the Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation Division of the U.S. National Science Foundation. The workshop and article are restricted to two areas – red...

  6. FTIR Calibration Methods and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, Gaetan

    Over the past 10 years, several space-borne FTIR missions were launched for atmospheric research, environmental monitoring and meteorology. One can think of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) launched by the European Space Agency, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) launched by the Canadian Space Agency, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) launched by NASA and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched by Eumetsat in Europe. Others are near to be launched, namely the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) from the Integrated Program Of- fice in the United States and the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Moreover, several missions under definition foresee the use of this technology as sensor, e.g. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), Eumetsat Polar System (EPS) and the Premier mission, one of the six candidates of the next ESA Earth Explorer Core Mission. In order to produce good quality products, calibration is essential. Calibrated data is the output of three main sub-systems that are tightly coupled: the instrument, the calibration targets and the level 1B processor. Calibration requirements must be carefully defined and propagated to each sub-system. Often, they are carried out by different parties which add to the complexity. Under budget and schedule pressure, some aspects are sometimes neglected and jeopardized final quality. For space-borne FTIR, level 1B outputs are spectra that are radiometrically, spectrally calibrated and geolocated. Radiometric calibration means to assign an intensity value in units to the y-axis. Spectral calibration means to assign to the x-axis the proper frequency value in units. Finally, geolocated means to assign a target position over the earth geoid i.e. longitude, latitude and altitude. This paper will present calibration methods and issues related to space-borne FTIR missions, e.g. two

  7. Secondary Use of EHR: Data Quality Issues and Informatics Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Chen, Fei; Weng, Chunhua

    2010-01-01

    Given the large-scale deployment of Electronic Health Records (EHR), secondary use of EHR data will be increasingly needed in all kinds of health services or clinical research. This paper reports some data quality issues we encountered in a survival analysis of pancreatic cancer patients. Using the clinical data warehouse at Columbia University Medical Center in the City of New York, we mined EHR data elements collected between 1999 and 2009 for a cohort of pancreatic cancer patients. Of the 3068 patients who had ICD-9-CM diagnoses for pancreatic cancer, only 1589 had corresponding disease documentation in pathology reports. Incompleteness was the leading data quality issue; many study variables had missing values to various degrees. Inaccuracy and inconsistency were the next common problems. In this paper, we present the manifestations of these data quality issues and discuss some strategies for using emerging informatics technologies to solve these problems. PMID:21347133

  8. Tufts Health Sciences Database: Lessons, Issues, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mary Y.; Albright, Susan A.; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A.; Wang, Paul J.; Eaton, Elizabeth K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database, a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. Identifies major effects on teaching and learning. Also addresses issues of faculty development, copyright and…

  9. School-to-Work Programs: Opportunities and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Curtis R.

    1999-01-01

    The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1998 (Perkins III), with increased emphasis on curriculum flexibility and academic/vocational collaboration, has formalized commitment to the school-to-work concept. However, STW implementation issues (whole-school reform, logistics, cost effectiveness, liability, and…

  10. School-To-Work: Opportunity or Barrier? ASPIRA Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Christina; Ramirez, Elizabeth Weiser

    This report examines the issues associated with school-to-work programs being developed in the U.S. and provides recommendations designed to facilitate the process of developing a national school-to-work initiative. It stresses the nation's increasing need for better-educated workers but notes the low rate (less than 50 percent) of high school…

  11. An Issues-Driven Approach to Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Neil D.

    2001-01-01

    An active participant in Indiana's and Washington's school-finance-reform process explains why one-size solutions pinch hardest on urban schools and how an issues-driven approach can keep states from being prematurely pushed to the "solution stage" of their deliberations. Child-centered approaches generally trump standards-based…

  12. Tufts Health Sciences Database: Lessons, Issues, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mary Y.; Albright, Susan A.; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A.; Wang, Paul J.; Eaton, Elizabeth K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database, a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. Identifies major effects on teaching and learning. Also addresses issues of faculty development, copyright and…

  13. National policies for biosphere greenhouse gas management: issues and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Steven A

    2002-11-01

    Biosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) management consists of preserving and enhancing terrestrial carbon pools and producing biomass as a fossil fuel substitute. The discussion of this topic has focused primarily on carbon-accounting and project-level issues, particularly relating to carbon sequestration as a source of emissions credits under the Kyoto Protocol. While international consensus on these matters is needed, this paper argues that an important domestic policy agenda also deserves attention. National policies for biosphere GHG management are necessary to bring about large-scale changes in land-use, forestry, and agricultural practices and can address some of the technical and policy issues that have proven to be particularly problematic from carbon-accounting and project-level perspectives. These policies should minimize land-use and resource-management conflicts, account for collateral benefits, and ensure institutional compatibility with existing resource-management regimes. Issues relating to project permanence, leakage, and transaction costs should also be addressed. A range of policy instruments should be used and biosphere GHG management should be one component of an integrated approach to environmental and resource management. Countries promoting biosphere GHG management as an important element of their climate change strategies should be developing these domestic policies to complement international negotiations and to demonstrate that carbon sequestration and biomass production can make an effective contribution to the stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations.

  14. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-05-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Abuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  15. Natural gas and the environment: new issues, new opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Because gas is a clean-burning fuel, natural gas technologies now under development can play a major role in improving the quality of the environment. Alone or in combination with other fuels, natural gas can be used to reduce emissions in a wide range of industrial, power plant, and vehicular applications. Its chemical composition makes natural gas suitable as a nutrient that stimulates certain bacteria to break down environmental pollutants in ground water. GRI's efforts in these fields are briefly discussed, along with the environmental issues addressed by such research efforts.

  16. Avoiding Pitfalls and Realising Opportunities: Reflecting on Issues of Sampling and Recruitment for Online Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Boydell, Nicola; Fergie, Gillian; McDaid, Lisa; Hilton, Shona

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prominence of the Internet in everyday life has prompted methodological innovations in qualitative research, particularly the adaptation of established methods of data collection for use online. The alternative online context brings with it both opportunities and challenges. To date the literature on online focus groups has focused mainly on the suitability of the method for qualitative data collection, and the development of approaches to facilitation that maximise interaction. By reflecting on our experiences of designing and attempting to recruit participants to online focus groups for two exploratory research projects, we aim to contribute some novel reflections around the less articulated issues of sampling and recruitment for online focus groups. In particular, we highlight potentially problematic issues around offline recruitment for an online method of data collection; the potential of using social media for recruitment; and the uncertainties around offering incentives in online recruitment, issues which have received little attention in the growing literature around online focus groups. More broadly, we recommend continued examination of online social practices and the social media environment to develop appropriate and timely online recruitment strategies and suggest further areas for future research and innovation. PMID:28127272

  17. Transformative research issues and opportunities in alternative energy generation and storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, A.; Chung, Y. W.; Blaschek, H.; Butterfield, S.; Chance, R. R.; Ferekides, C.; Robinson, M.; Snyder, S. W; Thackeray, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a summary of research issues and opportunities in alternative energy source research identified by panels of experts assembled by the Engineering Directorate of the US National Science Foundation. The objective was to identify transformative research issues and opportunities to make alternative energy sources viable. The article presents motivations for energy research, grand challenges, and specific challenges in the research areas covered. The grand challenges identified for the United States include supplying 30% of US electricity from photovoltaics by 2030, supplying 25% of US electricity from wind by 2025, displacing 30% of US hydrocarbon use by 2030 with bio-based products, and providing a practical 250-300 W h/kg energy storage system by 2025. Similar challenges could be outlined along the same lines for the remainder of the world. Examples of specific areas of research focus identified as promising include high performance p-type transparent conductors, multijunction thin-film photovoltaic devices, defects in chalcogenide semiconductors, experimental study and numerical modeling of the fluid mechanics of airflow as applied to wind turbines, improved materials for wind turbines, methods for creating high energy density transportable biological feedstocks, biorefinery processes yielding infrastructure-compatible biofuels and biochemicals directly, and improved electrodes and electrolytes for Li ion batteries. Arguments for each of these as research priorities are given.

  18. Life After Being a Pathology Department Chair: Issues and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bailey, David N; Lipscomb, Mary F; Gorstein, Fred; Wilkinson, David; Sanfilippo, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a considerable literature on transition of faculty members to the position of department chair, there is a dearth of publications about transitioning from the chair to other activities including retirement. The Association of Pathology Chairs senior fellows (all of whom are former chairs of academic departments of pathology) made this topic a focus of discussion at the Association of Pathology Chairs 2016 Annual Meeting. Of the 33 senior fellows engaged in this discussion, following their time as chairs, a small majority (18) transitioned to other administrative posts within or outside the university, while the others either returned to the active faculty (7) or retired (8). The motivating factors and influences for transitioning from the chair were probed along with the processes used in executing the transition, such as the development of transition plans. The reasons for selecting the specific type of postchair activity were also investigated. There was extraordinary diversity in the type of post-chair activities pursued. To our knowledge, no other medical specialty has examined these issues, which may be potentially relevant for the career planning of active chairs.

  19. Social Studies: Issues and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    This competency based workbook in social studies education provides information on developing teaching strategies and instructional materials. Designed for undergraduate students in social studies, student teachers, and methods instructors, it serves as a source of assignments for students, a guide in testing student competencies in social studies…

  20. Using Statistics to Explore Cross-Curricular and Social Issues Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    The area of statistics is one in which teachers may be encouraged to make important links to other curriculum areas and social issues. Statistical literacy is a key component of being numerate and living as an informed citizen. The teaching of statistics provides an opportunity to inform and educate students about social issues and moral…

  1. Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Challenges and Opportunities for Education About Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences workshop was held to engage the life sciences community on the particular security issues related to research with dual use potential. More than 60 participants from almost 30 countries took part and included practicing life scientists, bioethics and…

  2. Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Challenges and Opportunities for Education About Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences workshop was held to engage the life sciences community on the particular security issues related to research with dual use potential. More than 60 participants from almost 30 countries took part and included practicing life scientists, bioethics and…

  3. Coordination of care in disease management: opportunities and financial issues.

    PubMed

    Mosley, C

    2000-01-01

    , the other critical component is the ability to have adequate income to stay in business, and make a profit. Each becomes very astute at working within the confines of the regulatory restrictions to provide good care. However, the continuity of care cannot be the overwhelming issue for many of the providers. The only person that is involved in every arena is the patient. The only provider that currently crosses over most arenas is the nephrologist. But the other element that exists in each arena is a payer.

  4. Reflections on Teaching App Inventor for Non-Beginner Programmers: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    App Inventor has been used successfully to teach introduction to programming course for CS/IS/IT and Non-CS majors. Now, researchers are looking on how to include the tool in the curriculum of more advanced computing courses. This paper presents some Issues, Challenges and Opportunities observed while teaching courses on Mobile Application…

  5. Education Issues Raised by S.744: The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…

  6. A Non-Statutory Framework for Religious Education: Issues and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, William K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers issues in religious education that ought to be addressed by the recent non-statutory framework for England. It outlines problematic features of the current situation and paints a generally welcoming picture of the educational opportunities afforded by this new initiative. (Contains 4 notes.)

  7. Assessing Institutional Effectiveness: Issues, Methods, and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers was presented at a 1987 conference at which speakers presented personal perspectives on institutional effectiveness. Papers are organized under three major headings: "Managing Quality: Methods and Outcomes,""Institutional Response," and "Special Issues." Titles include: (1) "Managing the Meaning of Institutional…

  8. Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estkowski, Terri

    2008-01-01

    In life, each person is offered opportunities, one after the other, until life ceases. For the author, one of those opportunities was to attend the Kalamazoo Area Mathematics and Science Center (KAMSC), an NCSSSMST school. While attending KAMSC as a member of its inaugural class required a bit of imagination regarding the opportunity at hand, and…

  9. Teaching Climate Change Science in Senior Secondary School: Issues, Barriers and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Rod; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite its difficulties, climate change can (and perhaps needs to) be taught rigorously to students by enquiry rather than through transmission and that such a method will enable students to make judgments on other issues of scientific controversy. It examines the issues and barriers to the teaching of climate change,…

  10. CELSS system control: issues, methods, and directions.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, C C; Blackwell, A L

    1992-01-01

    In the general control perspective, the CELSS concept implies a very complex system and presents challenges at every level. These challenges are generated by: (1) the prospect that the system will be inherently unstable, (2) the prospective difficulty of establishing an adequate mathematical model of the system for the purpose of control law synthesis (dimensionality is high, and the dynamics and interactive processes of some of the subsystems are not understood well), (3) assuring control law robustness (assuring that the resulting control law(s) will be effective over the domain of the specified uncertainties), (4) hardware realization of the control law, (5) hardware system robustness ("fault tolerance") and (6) achieving the logistics of the automation (or "management") aspects of the problem. A suggested organization of the problem, a sketch of the issues related to perceived difficulties, a commentary/evaluation of the issues, a review of methods available to address the issues, and a suggested strategy to address the broad CELSS systems control problem are presented.

  11. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  12. Educational Opportunity Forum. Special Issue on Psychological Humanistic Education, Volume 1, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Higher Education.

    This edition provides an introduction to the psychological-humanistic education (PHE) movement. SUNY and the NY State Education Department have established a PHE program to develop new methods to achieve human potential, generate basic research, effect social change, and establish training programs and learning opportunities. The program is…

  13. Changes in coverage of sun protection in the news: threats and opportunities from emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012. Coding variables included theme, article type, prominence, spokesperson and topic slant. Articles were collapsed into three 4-year blocks and a series of chi-square analyses conducted to examine changes over time in coverage of topical issues (i.e. vitamin D and sunbeds) and established sun protection themes [i.e. health effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure, education/prevention, attitudes/behaviour]. Coverage of vitamin D and sunbed issues increased over time and became more positive for sun protection objectives. The proportion of articles reporting on established sun protection themes remained steady over time (range: 36-38%) and there were no changes observed in the way these topics were presented in the news media. These results highlight that potentially competing sun protection issues that emerge over time need not pose a threat to existing skin cancer prevention programmes but instead can provide opportunities to further spread programme messages while increasing credibility.

  14. Issues and Methods in Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Alvarez, Maria; Colon, Angel; Esteban, Cynthia; Febo, Vivian; Klein, Robert B.; Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Montealegre, Federico; Ortega, Alexander N.; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Seifer, Ronald; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Epidemiologic studies have documented higher rates of asthma prevalence and morbidity in minority children compared to non-Latino white (NLW) children. Few studies focus on the mechanisms involved in explaining this disparity, and fewer still on the methodological challenges involved in rigorous disparities research. Objectives and Methods This article provides an overview of challenges and potential solutions to research design for studies of health disparities. The methodological issues described in this article were framed on an empirical model of asthma health disparities that views disparities as resulting from several factors related to the healthcare system and the individual/community system. The methods used in the Rhode Island–Puerto Rico Asthma Center are provided as examples, illustrating the challenges in executing disparities research. Results Several methods are described: distinguishing ethnic/racial differences from methodological artifacts, identifying and adapting culturally sensitive measures to explain disparities, and addressing the challenges involved in determining asthma and its severity in Latino and other minority children. The measures employed are framed within each of the components of the conceptual model presented. Conclusions Understanding ethnic and/or cultural disparities in asthma morbidity is a complicated process. Methodologic approaches to studying the problem must reflect this complexity, allowing us to move from documenting disparities to understanding them, and ultimately to reducing them. PMID:19658111

  15. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    PubMed

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  16. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  17. Abortion law reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: issue networks and opportunity contexts.

    PubMed

    Reuterswärd, Camilla; Zetterberg, Pär; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Molyneux, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun's (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes.

  18. Emerging technologies and web accessibility: research challenges and opportunities focussing on vision issues.

    PubMed

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    2012-01-01

    This is a technological review paper focussed on identifying both the research challenges and opportunities for further investigation arising from emerging technologies, and it does not aim to propose any recommendation or standard. It is focussed on blind and partially sighted World Wide Web (Web) users along with others who use assistive technologies. The Web is a fast moving interdisciplinary domain in which new technologies, techniques and research is in perpetual development. It is often difficult to maintain a holistic view of new developments within the multiple domains which together make up the Web. This suggests that knowledge of the current developments and predictions of future developments are additionally important for the accessibility community. Web accessibility has previously been characterised by the correction of our past mistakes to make the current Web fulfil the original vision of access for all. New technologies were not designed with accessibility in mind and technologies that could be useful for addressing accessibility issues were not identified or adopted by the accessibility community. We wish to enable the research community to undertake preventative measures and proactively address challenges, while recognising opportunities, before they become unpreventable or require retrospective technological enhancement. This article then reviews emerging trends within the Web and Web Accessibility domains.

  19. Analysis of live cell images: Methods, tools and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nketia, Thomas A; Sailem, Heba; Rohde, Gustavo; Machiraju, Raghu; Rittscher, Jens

    2017-02-15

    Advances in optical microscopy, biosensors and cell culturing technologies have transformed live cell imaging. Thanks to these advances live cell imaging plays an increasingly important role in basic biology research as well as at all stages of drug development. Image analysis methods are needed to extract quantitative information from these vast and complex data sets. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of available image analysis methods for live cell imaging, in particular required preprocessing image segmentation, cell tracking and data visualisation methods. The potential opportunities recent advances in machine learning, especially deep learning, and computer vision provide are being discussed. This review includes overview of the different available software packages and toolkits.

  20. An essential need: creating opportunities for veterinary students and graduates to gain an appreciation of responsibilities and opportunities in global veterinary issues.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Bavia, M E; Stromberg, B E; Valadao, C; Wiles, W T; Diaz, J H; Bergquist, R

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation trends and bioterrorism issues have led to new concerns relating to public health, animal health, international trade and food security. There is an imperative to internationalise and strengthen global public health capacity by renewed emphasis on veterinary public health in veterinary education and increasing opportunities for elective experiential learning in public practice programmes for veterinary students. Recent experience with a US-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program is used as an example of potential ways in which veterinary students can gain an appreciation for global veterinary issues.

  1. Measuring and mapping threats to forests: issues and opportunities with an empirical study from Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially explicit tools for prioritizing conservation and land-use in human dominated landscapes are becoming common in recent years. Such efforts are also efficient in minimizing management costs and to provide future possible scenarios to aid management decisions. We propose and develop a spatially explicit framework and novel tool - Future Forest - for simulating scenarios for future forest management actions. We integrate both forest/vegetation characteristics, selected ecosystem services provided by corresponding forest/vegetation and nineteen possible threats and/or disturbances to forests that are either anthropogenic or occurring naturally, and may influence forest/vegetation characteristics and expected outcomes from forests. Our modelling framework provides options for necessary future actions either from conservation or from production forestry perspectives, and to ensure sustainable forest management in an area. In addition to that our threat assessment and mapping tool are useful in indentifying vulnerable zone of forests to specific anthropogenic, natural or other threats, and to take precautionary actions against each identified threats. We applied our modelling framework and spatial tool for measuring and mapping threats to a Bangladesh forest, with recommended actions to ensure sustainable forest management and to spatially prioritize zones for special management needs. We finally discuss issues and opportunities that our spatially explicit framework and novel tool may offer.

  2. Learning from Harvey Milk: The Limits and Opportunities of One Hero to Teach about LGBTQ People and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting a hero is a common response to including the history of marginalized people in the curriculum. Harvey Milk is becoming that hero as social studies curriculum responds to calls for including LGBTQ people. By studying Milk, what might young people learn about LGBTQ people, issues, and movements? What opportunities and limitations exist…

  3. Learning from Harvey Milk: The Limits and Opportunities of One Hero to Teach about LGBTQ People and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting a hero is a common response to including the history of marginalized people in the curriculum. Harvey Milk is becoming that hero as social studies curriculum responds to calls for including LGBTQ people. By studying Milk, what might young people learn about LGBTQ people, issues, and movements? What opportunities and limitations exist…

  4. Opportunities and Challenges: Perspectives on NCLBA from Special Education Directors in Urban School Districts. EPRRI Issue Brief Six

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Kate; Crawford, Jinny

    2004-01-01

    This issue brief presents the views of 13 individuals, all in special education leadership positions in selected urban school districts in the United States, concerning the opportunities and challenges their districts face in implementing key NCLBA requirements for students with disabilities. Results from a survey and two focus groups reveal that…

  5. Ending College Remediation: Consequences for Access and Opportunity. Policy Brief. ASHE/Lumina Fellows Series. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tara L.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent does eliminating remedial education impede or facilitate the opportunity to earn bachelor's degrees for underprepared students? Educating underprepared students is often viewed as one of the most challenging and complex issues facing higher education today. Recent policy decisions to end remedial education, however, signify a much…

  6. Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Worthington, Roger L.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is…

  7. Pathways for building capacity and ensuring effective transboundary water resources management in Africa: Revisiting the key issues, opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikozho, Claudious

    The performance of most organizations and institutions set up to facilitate transboundary water resources management in Africa remains unsatisfactory and new frameworks are required to address this performance gap. Using the Nile and Senegal River Basins as case studies, this paper applies qualitative research methods to explore the transboundary river basin management terrain in Africa with a view to identifying and articulating some of the major issues, challenges and opportunities faced in building the capacity of the main actors and institutions in the sector. The paper establishes that the creation of basin management institutions as the assumed panacea to challenges evident in this sector has not delivered the desired results. Some of the institutions established for this purpose in Africa have remained functionally weak and ineffective. Thus, demand for capacity-building interventions in this landscape remains high. The paper concludes that comprehensive capacity-building interventions should seek to improve the competencies and skills of key actors in implementing the broad range of activities constituting integrated water resources management in transboundary basins. In-depth analysis of the fundamental capacity constraints and challenges that key players face in relation to key drivers for cooperation is the absolutely necessary ingredient.

  8. Predictive Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Irradiation Embrittlement Models: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, George Robert; Nanstad, Randy K

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension to 80 years will require accurate predictions of neutron irradiation-induced increases in the ductile-brittle transition temperature ( T) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels at high fluence conditions that are far outside the existing database. Remarkable progress in mechanistic understanding of irradiation embrittlement has led to physically motivated T correlation models that provide excellent statistical fi ts to the existing surveillance database. However, an important challenge is developing advanced embrittlement models for low fl ux-high fl uence conditions pertinent to extended life. These new models must also provide better treatment of key variables and variable combinations and account for possible delayed formation of late blooming phases in low copper steels. Other issues include uncertainties in the compositions of actual vessel steels, methods to predict T attenuation away from the reactor core, verifi cation of the master curve method to directly measure the fracture toughness with small specimens and predicting T for vessel annealing remediation and re-irradiation cycles.

  9. The Capstone Course: Origins, Goals, Methods, and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Agnes; Weld, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on Capstone Courses we describe a range of models for the capstone course, common goals for these different courses, popular teaching methods, the use of capstone courses in program assessment, and issues related to course maintenance and faculty development.

  10. Value and Opportunity: Comparable Pay for Comparable Worth. Series on Public Issues No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Deborah

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues, an argument is presented against comparable pay for comparable worth policies for women. Separate subsections present opposing viewpoints on this controversial issue as well as an examination of whether legislation has been a…

  11. Critical Issues in Higher Education. (Opportunities for Our Profession and a Request for Your Involvement.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    A variety of issues, challenges, and criticisms of higher education has emerged in recent years, and some salient themes are briefly introduced in this paper as discussion points for conference attendees. These issues concern a return to excellence, financial demands, a decline in the traditional college age cohort, changing enrollment profiles,…

  12. An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method. PMID:16849979

  13. The Dominance of Language in the Curriculum: Issues of Access, Equity, and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Authors Elliot Eisner, Ivan Illich, and Aldous Huxley take similar positions about language in education, professing that schools limit student access to an adequate range of learning opportunities, resulting in narrow definitions of literacy and education. Examines Eisner's attitude about curriculum balance, Illich's beliefs about tools for…

  14. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda; Harris, Linda; Bird, Kisha

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) created the Forward Promise initiative within its Vulnerable Populations Portfolio to place a strategic emphasis on the needs of middle school- and high school-aged young men of color. RWJF's goal is to strengthen educational opportunities, pathways to employment, and health outcomes for these…

  15. Social Issues and Problem-Based Learning in Sociology: Opportunities and Challenges in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglitis, Daina S.; Buntman, Fran L.; Alexander, Dameon V.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in the undergraduate sociology classroom. PBL shifts students from the role of passive listeners and learners to active knowledge builders and communicators through the use of concise and engaging social problem cases. PBL creates opportunities for building substantive area knowledge,…

  16. The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program: Background and Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth

    The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (SEOG) program provides financial assistance to low-income undergraduate students attending postsecondary education institutions and is authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education Act. The program is administered on the campus of each participating postsecondary education institution which uses…

  17. Social Issues and Problem-Based Learning in Sociology: Opportunities and Challenges in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglitis, Daina S.; Buntman, Fran L.; Alexander, Dameon V.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in the undergraduate sociology classroom. PBL shifts students from the role of passive listeners and learners to active knowledge builders and communicators through the use of concise and engaging social problem cases. PBL creates opportunities for building substantive area knowledge,…

  18. Malaria and Economic Evaluation Methods: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Drake, Tom L; Lubell, Yoel

    2017-01-19

    There is a growing evidence base on the cost effectiveness of malaria interventions. However, certain characteristics of malaria decision problems present a challenge to the application of healthcare economic evaluation methods. This paper identifies five such challenges. The complexities of (i) declining incidence and cost effectiveness in the context of an elimination campaign; (ii) international aid and its effect on resource constraints; and (iii) supranational priority setting, all affect how health economists might use a cost-effectiveness threshold. Consensus and guidance on how to determine and interpret cost-effectiveness thresholds in the context of internationally financed elimination campaigns is greatly needed. (iv) Malaria interventions are often complimentary and evaluations may need to construct intervention bundles to represent relevant policy positions as sets of mutually exclusive alternatives. (v) Geographic targeting is a key aspect of malaria policy making that is only beginning to be addressed in economic evaluations. An approach to budget-based geographic resource allocation is described in an accompanying paper in this issue and addresses some of these methodological challenges.

  19. Preface to the Focus Issue: Chaos Detection Methods and Predictability

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Skokos, Charalampos

    2014-06-01

    This Focus Issue presents a collection of papers originating from the workshop Methods of Chaos Detection and Predictability: Theory and Applications held at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden, June 17–21, 2013. The main aim of this interdisciplinary workshop was to review comprehensively the theory and numerical implementation of the existing methods of chaos detection and predictability, as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The collection of twelve papers in this Focus Issue represents the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research. This Preface surveys the papers of this Issue.

  20. Preface to the Focus Issue: chaos detection methods and predictability.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, Georg A; Skokos, Charalampos

    2014-06-01

    This Focus Issue presents a collection of papers originating from the workshop Methods of Chaos Detection and Predictability: Theory and Applications held at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden, June 17-21, 2013. The main aim of this interdisciplinary workshop was to review comprehensively the theory and numerical implementation of the existing methods of chaos detection and predictability, as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The collection of twelve papers in this Focus Issue represents the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research. This Preface surveys the papers of this Issue.

  1. An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2006-01-01

    Despite the positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known on the practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. The aim of this study was to describe the practical issues encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranging from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of the discussions were reviewed and analyzed using content analysis. Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: (a) a high response and retention rate and (b) automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants' forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

  2. Age Discrimination and Other Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in the Federal Work Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-20

    complaints dealing with race, sex, national origin, or other discrimination issues. The severity of age discrimination in the Federal work force. Occupational exemptions from the Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

  3. Ethics, politics and protests: using contentious issues in reproductive sciences as educational opportunities.

    PubMed

    Knight, J W

    2012-08-01

    Contentious issues and polarized viewpoints can be utilized in the classroom and beyond to create a reflective dialogue among students and citizens. This dialogue leads to both a greater understanding, as well as an enhanced appreciation of alternative viewpoints. Exploring and discussing the scientific, ethical, moral, political, legal and societal aspects of contentious issues of human reproduction provides ideal subject matter for developing critical thinking skills in the field of reproductive science. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Enhancing US competitiveness through Federal scientific and technical information: Issues and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using Federally funded scientific and technical information (STI) to increase U.S. industrial innovation and productivity is discussed. The history of Federally funded research and development in the fields of agriculture and aviation is reviewed as an example of successful government-sponsored research. Issues related to the production and utilization of information are considered and Federal STI policy is outlined. Issues related to the transfer of knowledge between government agencies and industry are examined and a model depicting the transfer of STI in aerospace research and development is presented. Also, consideration is given to the problem of open communication versus restricted access to STI.

  5. Enhancing U.S. competitiveness through federal scientific and technical information - Issues and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using federally funded scientific and technical information (STI) to increase U.S. industrial innovation and productivity is discussed. The history of federally funded research and development in the fields of agriculture and aviation is reviewed as an example of successful government-sponsored research. Issues related to the production and utilization of information are considered and federal STI policy is outlined. Issues related to the transfer of knowledge between government agencies and industry are examined and a model depicting the transfer of STI in aerospace research and development is presented. Also, consideration is given to the problem of open communication versus restricted access to STI.

  6. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  7. Environmental Management Accounting in the Taiwanese Higher Education Sector: Issues and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Huei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The…

  8. Expanded Learning Opportunities: Helping Latino Students Achieve Success. Expanded Learning Time and Latinos Series, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, 2013

    2013-01-01

    As states, districts, and schools work to improve academic rigor so that all students graduate prepared for college and careers, it has become clear that more learning time and building additional capacity within the public education system are essential. These issues have particular implications for Latino students, especially English language…

  9. Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    there are some differences in how they are interpreted and applied between the Department of Defense (DOD) and civilian organizations. DOD’s... Percentage of Total Active Duty Force ............... 25 Figure 2. Religious Diversity in the Active Duty Force...the general population, women make up a significantly smaller percentage of the total Armed Forces.) The Commission did not address issues related

  10. Space Station Freedom Workshop Opportunities for Commercial Users and Providers: Issues and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The responses to issues and questions raised at the Space Station Freedom Workshops are compiled. The findings are presented under broad divisions of general, materials processing in space, commercial earth and ocean observations, life sciences, infrastructure services, and infrastructure policy. The responses represent the best answers available at this time and future modifications may be expected. Contact names, telephone numbers, and organizations are included.

  11. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  12. Islamic Education, Possibilities, Opportunities and Tensions: Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    If Islam continues to evoke skepticism, as it has done most intensely since 9/11, then it stands to reason that its tenets and education are viewed with equal mistrust, and as will be highlighted in this special issue, equal misunderstanding. The intention of this special edition is neither to counter the accusations Islam stands accused of, nor…

  13. Environmental Management Accounting in the Taiwanese Higher Education Sector: Issues and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Huei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The…

  14. Challenges for Continuing Higher Education Leadership. Global Interdependence: Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Univ. Continuing Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This fourth report in the National University Continuing Education Association (NUCEA) Challenges for Continuing Higher Education Leadership series draws attention to the wider and more complex set of issues surrounding the "internationalization" of U.S. society and its educational componets. The report consists of papers prsented at a…

  15. Equal Apprenticeship Opportunities: The Nature of the Issue and the New York Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, F. Ray; Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.

    The main issues in this study are the paucity of black apprentices and the transferability of success achieved in New York by the Workers Defense League (WDL) to other places. The paper: (1) outlines the general nature of apprenticeship in the United States; (2) discusses the reason for the low participation of the blacks in these programs in the…

  16. Islamic Education, Possibilities, Opportunities and Tensions: Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    If Islam continues to evoke skepticism, as it has done most intensely since 9/11, then it stands to reason that its tenets and education are viewed with equal mistrust, and as will be highlighted in this special issue, equal misunderstanding. The intention of this special edition is neither to counter the accusations Islam stands accused of, nor…

  17. Challenges for Continuing Higher Education Leadership. Global Interdependence: Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Univ. Continuing Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This fourth report in the National University Continuing Education Association (NUCEA) Challenges for Continuing Higher Education Leadership series draws attention to the wider and more complex set of issues surrounding the "internationalization" of U.S. society and its educational componets. The report consists of papers prsented at a…

  18. Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: challenges and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This special research topic eBOOK contains six review articles, three mini reviews and four original research articles. It opens up exciting perspectives on global health issues related to aflatoxins in the food chain and on the development of suitable strategies for preventing toxigenic fungal grow...

  19. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  20. Sustainability issues and opportunities in the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum...

  1. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  2. Issues and opportunities: the application of the numerical likelihood ratio framework to forensic speaker comparison.

    PubMed

    Gold, Erica; Hughes, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Across forensic speech science, the likelihood ratio (LR) is increasingly becoming accepted as the logically and legally correct framework for the expression of expert conclusions. However, there remain a number of theoretical and practical shortcomings in the procedures applied for computing LRs based on speech evidence. In this paper we review how the LR is currently applied to speaker comparison evidence and outline three specific areas which deserve further investigation: namely statistical modelling, issues relating to the relevant population and the combination of LRs from correlated parameters. We then consider future directions for confronting these issues and discuss the implications for forensic comparison evidence more generally. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Report of the Energy Field Institute V on western energy opportunities, problems, and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, J.C.; Foss, M.M.

    1982-12-01

    The fifth Energy and Minerals Field Institute program for Washington, D.C. Congressional and Executive Aides was held during August 15-21, 1982. The five-and-one-half day program was conducted through Wyoming, Colorado and Utah and consisted of visits to: an R and D tertiary petroleum production facility; an historic oil field entering secondary production; a surface uranium mine; a petroleum exploration drilling rig; a surface coal mine; an air cooled, coal-fired power plant; an oil shale site; a geothermal-electrical generating facility; and open pit copper mine and associated smelter and refinery; a petroleum refinery and an oil shale semi-works retort. During the field program, participants had opportunities to view communities affected by these activities, such as Wright City and Gillette, Wyoming, Parachute, Colorado and Milford and Cedar City, Utah. Throughout the program, aides met with local, state and industry officials and citizen leaders during bus rides, meals and site visits.

  4. Cross-border issues in the development of medical tourism in Malaysia: legal challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nemie, Puteri; Kassim, Jahn

    2009-08-01

    Strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Malaysia has become one of the key players in the fast-growing and lucrative market for health care services in Asia. Medical travel across international boundaries has been made possible through affordable airfares and the favourable exchange rates of the Malaysian ringgit has contributed to the rise of the "medical tourism phenomenon" where medical travel is combined with visiting popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Further, competitive medical fees and modern medical facilities have also made Malaysia a popular destination for medical tourists. Nevertheless, the increased number of foreign patients has opened up possibilities of Malaysian health care providers being subjected to malpractice claims and triggering a myriad of cross-border legal issues. Presently, there is no internationally accepted legal framework to regulate medical tourism and issues of legal redress in relation to unsatisfactory provision of treatment across international boundaries. The economic benefits of medical tourism must be based upon a solid legal regulatory framework and strong ethical standards as well as upon high-quality medical and health care services. It is therefore important to assess the existing legal framework affecting the development of medical tourism in Malaysia in order to explore the gaps, deficiencies and possibilities for legal and regulatory reform.

  5. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Amanda Rynes; Trond Bjornard

    2011-07-01

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  6. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1997-05-01

    In this project, the authors show the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This technical analysis provides estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies have been matched to their most viable (high quality and quantity) regional resources (e.g., examining wind electricity production in high wind resource areas only). The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which is instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity is used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for use later in the day, week or year. The hydrogen production from renewables and hydrogen storage use are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 20% of electric load). Renewable production/utility load/hydrogen storage coupling models have been developed for wind, photovoltaics, and solar thermal. Hydro power (which normally has its own inherent storage capability) has been analyzed separately.

  7. Trends and Issues in ELT Methods and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Trends and issues in ELT methods and methodology can be identified at two main levels. One is in terms of the theoretical pronouncements of the "professional discourse", as manifested by major publications, conference presentations, and so on. This article therefore begins by briefly summarizing some of the main developments of this kind from 1995…

  8. E-Health Interventions for Eating Disorders: Emerging Findings, Issues, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Aardoom, Jiska J; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Van Furth, Eric F

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to review the emerging findings regarding E-health interventions for eating disorders and to critically discuss emerging issues as well as challenges for future research. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy and guided self-help have demonstrated promising results in terms of reducing eating disorder psychopathology. Emerging findings also suggest that E-health interventions reach an underserved population and improve access to care. The use of smartphone applications is becoming increasingly popular and has much potential although their clinical utility and effectiveness is presently unknown and requires investigation. Important challenges include the diagnostic process in E-health interventions, the optimization of E-health within existing health care models, and the investigation and implementation of blended care. More high-quality research is needed to bring the field forward and to determine the place for E-health in our health care service delivery systems.

  9. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  10. Health services research in workers' compensation medical care: policy issues and research opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Buchanan, J L; Dembe, A E; Stevens, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe some of the unique aspects of medical care offered under workers' compensation insurance systems and discuss the major policy considerations relevant to health services researchers undertaking investigations in this area. BACKGROUND AND FINDINGS: State-based workers' compensation (WC) insurance systems requiring employers to pay for medical care and wage replacement for workplace injuries and illnesses were first developed between 1910 and 1920 in the United States. Employers are generally required to purchase state-regulated workers' compensation insurance that includes first-dollar payment for all medical and rehabilitative services and payment of lost wages to workers with work-related illness or injury. Injured workers have variable but usually limited latitude in choosing their health care provider. Employers and workers' compensation insurers have incentives for controlling both the cost of medical care and lost wages. CONCLUSION: The major policy issues in WC medical care--the effect of patient choice of provider and delivery system structure, the ensuring of high-quality care, the effect of integrating benefits, and investigation of the interrelationships between work, health, and productivity--can be informed by current studies in health services research and by targeted future studies of workers' compensation populations. These studies must consider the extent of patient choice of physician, the regulatory environment, the unique role of the workplace as a risk and modifying factor, and the complex interaction between health and disability insurance benefits. PMID:10199686

  11. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  12. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    PubMed

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  13. Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities in Geoscience Education and Broadening Participation in the Geosciences at Two-year Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Guertin, L. A.; Filson, R. H.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    A workshop on The Role of Two-Year Colleges in Geoscience Education and Broadening Participation in the Geosciences was held at Northern Virginia Community College in June 2010 to identify issues, challenges, and opportunities for geoscience faculty and students in two-year colleges (2YC) and to make recommendations for strengthening this component of the geoscience community. Given the wide diversity of 2YC students, a long term goal for this workshop was to work toward broadening the participation of underrepresented students to the geosciences. The workshop included sessions on strategies for supporting all students to be successful, the role of 2YC in broadening participation in the geosciences, and preparing geoscience students for the future (recruiting and retaining students in the geosciences, career preparation and workforce development, and transfer and 2YC and 4YC partnerships). Conversations between participants and professional organizations and societies focused on how increased communication with 2YC faculty could support faculty and students from two-year colleges. Participants considered strategies for addressing isolation and building community including interdisciplinary collaborations, scholarly practices, using Web 2.0, and working with adjunct faculty. Working groups addressed the following topics: establishment of a geoscience 2YC community, best practices for geoscience 2YC programs, faculty professional development, recruitment and retention of students, diversity in the geosciences, the role of 2YC in K-12 teacher preparation, and ocean science education in 2YC. Recommendations included the need to collect and disseminate information about 2YC including demographic information and best practices of 2YC geoscience programs, the desire to establish an organization for 2YC geoscience faculty, more opportunities to communicate (workshops and electronic communications), and other approaches for supporting 2YC students, faculty, and programs

  14. 2015 President's Plenary International Psycho-oncology Society: psychosocial care as a human rights issue-challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the "Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right" was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward.

  15. Issues in identifying germ tube positive yeasts by conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Atta; Khaithir, Tzar Mohd Nizam

    2014-01-01

    Candida speciation is vital for epidemiology and management of candidiasis. Nonmolecular conventional methods often fail to identify closely related germ tube positive yeasts from clinical specimens. The present study was conducted to identify these yeasts and to highlight issues in conventional versus molecular methods of identification. A total of 98 germ tube positive yeasts from high vaginal swabs were studied over a 12-month period. Isolates were examined with various methods including growth at 42 °C and 45 °C on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), color development on CHROMagar Candida medium, chlamydospore production on corn meal agar at 25 °C, carbohydrate assimilation using ID 32C system, and polymerase chain reaction using a single pair of primers targeting the hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1) gene. Of all the isolates studied, 97 were molecularly confirmed as C. albicans and one isolate was identified as C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was detected in this study. The molecular method used in our study was an accurate and useful tool for discriminating C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. africana. The conventional methods, however, were less accurate and riddled with many issues that will be discussed in further details.

  16. White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and Research Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TOR-2015-02548 White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and...SUBTITLE White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and Research Opportunities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...verification. This white paper describes methods of assessment and possibly to mitigate multipactor for spacecraft components in multiple carrier

  17. Intros, Issues, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom; Bell, Lori

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to share information and ideas about how libraries, technology companies, content creators, vendors, and users can work together to make the world of information technology in libraries more accessible for everyone, including people with visual, auditory, physical, and learning challenges. It will discuss how these…

  18. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  19. Estimating duration in partnership studies: issues, methods and examples

    PubMed Central

    Burington, Bart; Hughes, James P; Whittington, William L H; Stoner, Brad; Garnett, Geoff; Aral, Sevgi O; Holmes, King K

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives Understanding the time course of sexual partnerships is important for understanding sexual behaviour, transmission risks for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and development of mathematical models of disease transmission. Study design The authors describe issues and biases relating to censoring, truncation and sampling that arise when estimating partnership duration. Recommendations for study design and analysis methods are presented and illustrated using data from a sexual-behaviour survey that enrolled individuals from an adolescent-health clinic and two STD clinics. Survey participants were queried, for each of (up to) four partnerships in the last 3 months, about the month and year of first sex, the number of days since last sex and whether partnerships were limited to single encounters. Participants were followed every 4 months for up to 1 year. Results After adjustment for censoring and truncation, the estimated median duration of sexual partnerships declined from 9 months (unadjusted) to 1.6 months (adjusted). Similarly, adjustment for censoring and truncation reduced the bias in relative risks for the effect of age in a Cox model. Other approaches, such as weighted estimation, also reduced bias in the estimated duration distribution. Conclusion Methods are available for estimating partnership duration from censored and truncated samples. Ignoring censoring, truncation and other sampling issues results in biased estimates. PMID:20332366

  20. The Role of the Department of Health and Other Key Institutions in the Promotion of Equal Opportunities, Multi-Cultural and Anti-Racist Issues in Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    The role of Britain's Department of Health, the United Kingdom Central Council, and the English National Board in implementing equal opportunity, multicultural, and antiracist policies in nursing education was reviewed. Major policies have neglected or marginalized equity and racism issues. Ideologies underlying social and health policies are…

  1. The Components of Moral-Developmental Controversy: Issues and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    An analysis of four foundational issues in the study of moral development is provided. The four issues involve: (1) the definition of morality; (2) individual or cultural moral variation; (3) moral ontogeny; and (4) moral epistemology. The first section of the paper describes each issue. The second section is based on the argument that the four…

  2. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area.

  3. Hawaiian temples and their orientations: issues of method and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural

  4. The business case for preconception care: methods and issues.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Scott D; Sotnikov, Sergey V; Leatherman, Sheila; Curtis, Michele

    2006-09-01

    Only a limited number of economic evaluations have addressed the costs and benefits of preconception care. In order to persuade health care providers, payers, or purchasers to become actively involved in promoting preconception care, it is important to demonstrate the value of doing so through development of a "business case". Perceived benefits in terms of organizational reputation and market share can be influential in forming a business case. In addition, it is standard to include an economic analysis of financial costs and benefits from the perspective of the provider practice, payer, or purchaser in a business case. The methods, data needs, and other issues involved with preparing an economic analysis of the likely financial return on investment in preconception care are presented here. This is accompanied by a review or case study of economic evaluations of preconception care for women with recognized diabetes. Although the data are not sufficient to draw firm conclusions, there are indications that such care may yield positive financial benefits to health care organizations through reduction in maternal and infant hospitalizations. More work is needed to establish how costs and economic benefits are distributed among different types of organizations. Also, the optimum methods of delivering preconception care for women with diabetes need to be evaluated. Similar assessments should also be conducted for other forms of preconception care, including comprehensive care.

  5. Method for Analyzing District Level IAI Data Bases to Identify Learning Opportunity Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milazzo, Patricia; And Others

    A learning opportunity risk is defined as an absence of instruction or insufficient attention to proficiency at an early grade of instruction in a subject matter which will generate serious learning problems in later grades. A method for identifying such risks has been derived from analysis of district-level Instructional Accomplishment…

  6. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and the Opportunity. Issue Brief: Focus on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kisha; Bryant, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief was prepared for the "Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity" briefing held in June 2014 that was co-sponsored by National Council of La Raza, PolicyLink, the Executive Alliance to Expand Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color, and the Institute for Black Male Achievement. The…

  7. FOREWORD: Special issue on Statistical and Probabilistic Methods for Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Walter; Cox, Maurice G.

    2006-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia is the first that is not devoted to units, or constants, or measurement techniques in some specific field of metrology, but to the generic topic of statistical and probabilistic methods for metrology. The number of papers on this subject in measurement journals, and in Metrologia in particular, has continued to increase over the years, driven by the publication of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] and the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the CIPM [2]. The former stimulated metrologists to think in greater depth about the appropriate modelling of their measurements, in order to provide uncertainty evaluations associated with measurement results. The latter obliged the metrological community to investigate reliable measures for assessing the calibration and measurement capabilities declared by the national metrology institutes (NMIs). Furthermore, statistical analysis of measurement data became even more important than hitherto, with the need, on the one hand, to treat the greater quantities of data provided by sophisticated measurement systems, and, on the other, to deal appropriately with relatively small sets of data that are difficult or expensive to obtain. The importance of supporting the GUM and extending its provisions was recognized by the formation in the year 2000 of Working Group 1, Measurement uncertainty, of the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology. The need to provide guidance on key comparison data evaluation was recognized by the formation in the year 2001 of the BIPM Director's Advisory Group on Uncertainty. A further international initiative was the revision, in the year 2004, of the remit and title of a working group of ISO/TC 69, Application of Statistical Methods, to reflect the need to concentrate more on statistical methods to support measurement uncertainty evaluation. These international activities are supplemented by national programmes such as the Software Support

  8. Replacement of in vivo acute oral toxicity studies by in vitro cytotoxicity methods: opportunities, limits and regulatory status.

    PubMed

    Ukelis, Ute; Kramer, Peter-Jürgen; Olejniczak, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan O

    2008-06-01

    The development of a new medicinal product is a long and costly process in particular due to the regulatory requirements for quality, safety and efficacy. There is a common interest to increase the efficiency of drug development and to provide new, better quality medicinal products much faster to the public. One possible way to economize time and costs, as well as to consider animal protection issues, is to introduce new alternative methods into non-clinical toxicity testing. Currently, animal tests are mandatory for the evaluation of acute toxicity of chemicals and new drugs. The replacement of the in vivo tests by alternative in vitro assays would offer the opportunity to screen and assess numerous compounds at the same time, to predict acute oral toxicity and thus accelerate drug development. Moreover, the substitution of in vivo tests by in vitro methods shows a proactive pursuit of ethical and animal welfare issues. Importantly, the implementation of in vitro assays for acute oral toxicity would require the establishment of common test guidelines across the EU, USA and Japan, i.e., the regions of ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use). Presently, alternative in vitro tests are being investigated internationally. Yet, in order to achieve regulatory acceptance and implementation of in vitro assays, convincing results from validation studies are required. In this review, we discuss the current regulatory status of acute oral toxicity testing and point out achievements of alternative methods. We describe the application of in vitro tests, correlating in vitro with in vivo data. The use of in vitro data to predict in vivo acute oral toxicity is analyzed using the Registry of Cytotoxicity, an official independent database. We have then analyzed opportunities and drawbacks for future implementation of in vitro test methods, with particular focus on industrial use.

  9. Career Issues and Laboratory Climates: Different Challenges and Opportunities for Women Engineers and Scientists (survey of Fiscal Year 1997 Powre Awardees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.; Zieseniss, Mireille

    A survey of fiscal year 1997 POWRE (Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education) awardees from the National Science Foundation revealed that women engineers and scientists face similar issues, challenges, and opportunities and think that the laboratory climate has similar impacts on their careers. Separating responses of women scientists from those of women engineers revealed that 70% of both groups listed balancing work with family responsibilities as the most difficult issue. Discrepancies in percentages of women, coupled with differences among disciplinary and subdisciplinary cultures within science, engineering, mathematics, and technology fields, complicate work climates and their impact on women's careers. More frequently than women scientists, women engineers listed issues such as (a) low numbers of women leading to isolation, (b) lack of camaraderie and mentoring, (c) gaining credibility/respect from peers and administrators, (d) time management, (e) prioritizing responsibilities due to disproportionate demands, and (f) learning the rules of the game to survive in a male-dominated environment. Women engineers also listed two positive issues more frequently than women scientists: active recruitment/more opportunities for women and impact of successful women in the profession. The small number of women engineers may explain these results and suggests that it may be inappropriate to group them with other women scientists for analysis, programs, and policies.

  10. Stressful life events, social health issues and low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort: challenges and opportunities in antenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Investment in strategies to promote 'a healthy start to life' has been identified as having the greatest potential to reduce health inequalities across the life course. The aim of this study was to examine social determinants of low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort and consider implications for health policy and health care systems. Methods Population-based survey distributed by hospitals and home birth practitioners to >8000 women six months after childbirth in two states of Australia. Participants were women who gave birth to a liveborn infant in Victoria and South Australia in September/October 2007. Main outcome measures included stressful life events and social health issues, perceived discrimination in health care settings, infant birthweight. Results 4,366/8468 (52%) of eligible women returned completed surveys. Two-thirds (2912/4352) reported one or more stressful life events or social health issues during pregnancy. Women reporting three or more social health issues (18%, 768/4352) were significantly more likely to have a low birthweight infant (< 2500 grams) after controlling for smoking and other socio-demographic covariates (Adj OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.1-2.8). Mothers born overseas in non-English speaking countries also had a higher risk of having a low birthweight infant (Adj OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.2-2.9). Women reporting three or more stressful life events/social health issues were more likely to attend antenatal care later in pregnancy (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.3-3.1), to have fewer antenatal visits (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.4-3.4) and to experience discrimination in health care settings (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.2-3.3). Conclusions There is a window of opportunity in antenatal care to implement targeted preventive interventions addressing potentially modifiable risk factors for poor maternal and infant outcomes. Developing the evidence base and infrastructure necessary in order for antenatal services to respond effectively to the

  11. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  12. Needs and Opportunities for Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Kenny, Sean P; Luckring, James M.; Maghami, Peiman; Padula, Sharon L.; Stroud, W. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    This report consists of a survey of the state of the art in uncertainty-based design together with recommendations for a Base research activity in this area for the NASA Langley Research Center. This report identifies the needs and opportunities for computational and experimental methods that provide accurate, efficient solutions to nondeterministic multidisciplinary aerospace vehicle design problems. Barriers to the adoption of uncertainty-based design methods are identified. and the benefits of the use of such methods are explained. Particular research needs are listed.

  13. Tuberculosis drug resistance testing by molecular methods: opportunities and challenges in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Gemeda; Paasch, Fabienne; Apers, Ludwig; Rigouts, Leen; Colebunders, Robert

    2011-02-01

    One of the greatest threats to global tuberculosis (TB) control is the growing prevalence of drug-resistant bacilli. Correctly diagnosing drug-resistant TB patients is more problematic in resource-limited settings as there is no or limited infrastructure for drug susceptibility testing (DST) of TB bacilli. The conventional phenotypic DST method for TB takes weeks before declaring the results and initiating proper anti-TB treatment. Molecular DST offers advantages over the phenotypic methods mainly because of the short turnaround time. This review summarizes the different molecular DST methods for TB and discusses challenges and opportunities in implementing them in resource-limited settings.

  14. Older LGBT adult training panels: an opportunity to educate about issues faced by the older LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anissa; Rebbe, Rebecca; Gardella, Chanel; Worlein, Mary; Chamberlin, Mya

    2013-01-01

    Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults face unique issues that can impede their well-being. Although many advances have helped address these issues, there is a need for education efforts that raise awareness of service providers about these issues. This study explores evaluation data of training panels provided by older LGBT adults and the views of training participants on issues faced by the older LGBT community after attending the panels. Participants were 605 students and professionals from over 34 education and communication settings. Implications for trainings on participants and older LGBT trainers are discussed.

  15. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings. PMID:24722814

  16. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  17. The application of knowledge synthesis methods in agri-food public health: recent advancements, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa; Sanchez, Javier; Wilhelm, Barbara; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge synthesis refers to the integration of findings from individual research studies on a given topic or question into the global knowledge base. The application of knowledge synthesis methods, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analysis, has increased considerably in the agri-food public health sector over the past decade and this trend is expected to continue. The objectives of our review were: (1) to describe the most promising knowledge synthesis methods and their applicability in agri-food public health, and (2) to summarize the recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities in the use of systematic review and meta-analysis methods in this sector. We performed a structured review of knowledge synthesis literature from various disciplines to address the first objective, and used comprehensive insights and experiences in applying these methods in the agri-food public health sector to inform the second objective. We describe five knowledge synthesis methods that can be used to address various agri-food public health questions or topics under different conditions and contexts. Scoping reviews describe the main characteristics and knowledge gaps in a broad research field and can be used to evaluate opportunities for prioritizing focused questions for related systematic reviews. Structured rapid reviews are streamlined systematic reviews conducted within a short timeframe to inform urgent decision-making. Mixed-method and qualitative reviews synthesize diverse sources of contextual knowledge (e.g. socio-cognitive, economic, and feasibility considerations). Systematic reviews are a structured and transparent method used to summarize and synthesize literature on a clearly-defined question, and meta-analysis is the statistical combination of data from multiple individual studies. We briefly describe and discuss key advancements in the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis, including: risk-of-bias assessments; an overall quality

  18. Universal Design and LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, Bisexual, and Queer) Issues: Creating Equal Access and Opportunities for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Jennifer R.; Geiger, Tracy J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors extend the ideals set forth by the universal design (UD) framework seeking to include the unique needs of students in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community. Universal design is a philosophy that, when applied to higher education, constitutes acceptance of, equal access for, and equal opportunities for…

  19. Measuring Opportunity to Learn and Achievement Growth: Key Research Issues with Implications for the Effective Education of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The related constructs of opportunity to learn (OTL) and achievement growth are fundamental aspects of the current large-scale assessment and accountability system in operation in the United States. For purposes of this article, OTL is defined as the degree to which a teacher dedicates instructional time and content coverage to the intended…

  20. Integrating Electronic Reverse Auctions into Defense Procurement: Exploratory Research on Opportunities, Issues, Processes, Risks, and Cultural Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-18

    explicated. Finally study limitations are disclosed, and opportunities for future research are identified. 15 . SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION... 15 D. National Culture.............................................................................18 E. Technology Adoption Model...187 Appendix M. FAR Part 15 using LPTA ..........................................................189 Appendix N. FAR Paert 15 Using

  1. Key Issues and Opportunities in the Initial Identification and Classification of English Learners. Research Report. ETS RR-16-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Alexis A.; Pooler, Emilie; Linquanti, Robert

    2016-01-01

    English learners (ELs) require access to appropriate instructional services that match their strengths and needs to have an equal opportunity to achieve the same academic standards as other students. If ELs are not properly identified and classified, they may be excluded from services that would better help them meet high academic standards, and…

  2. Measuring Opportunity to Learn and Achievement Growth: Key Research Issues with Implications for the Effective Education of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The related constructs of opportunity to learn (OTL) and achievement growth are fundamental aspects of the current large-scale assessment and accountability system in operation in the United States. For purposes of this article, OTL is defined as the degree to which a teacher dedicates instructional time and content coverage to the intended…

  3. Cross correlation of chemical profiles in minerals: Technical issues and numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Line; Caricchi, Luca; Gander, Martin; Wallace, Glen; Sheldrake, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Crystals grown in magma reservoirs and develop chemical zoning because of the lack of re-equilibration when thermodynamic conditions change. Therefore, the study of chemical zoning in minerals offers the opportunity to reconstruct the pre-eruptive conditions and the temporal evolution of magma reservoirs. We are building a quantitative method that allows the comparison between zonation patterns within minerals. The aim of this method is to identify if similar crystal have partially similar zonation patterns and thus shared a part of their growth history. Our method is based on the correlation method developed first by G. Wallace and G. Bergantz (2004). Here we present some technical issues linked to the use of a numerical method to compare crystals within their textural context in thin sections. The first issue is related to the acquisition of chemical profiles from images of thin sections (e.g. BSE or cathodoluminescence images). We present a new procedure that significantly improves both image and profile processing. A second issue is related to the random orientation of crystals in a thin section. The software we are building takes in account different orientation of crystals by applying different stretching factors to chemical profiles. Thus the automated selection of the best stretching factor is crucial for the rest of the procedure. The last point is the significance level, the threshold above which the correlation between two profiles is considered as real (and not random). This threshold must also be carefully defined and justified. All these points were studied with statistical analysis and we present results leading to a more reliable and robust method. [1] Wallace, G.S. and Bergantz, G.W., 2004. Constraints on mingling of crystal populations from off-center zoning profiles: A statistical approach. American Mineralogist, vol. 89 (1), pp. 64-73. [2] Wallace, G.S. and Bergantz, G.W., 2004. Reconciling heterogeneity in crystal zoning data: An application of

  4. Capsule review on bioanalytical method transfer: opportunities and challenges for chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongping John; Li, Wenkui; Weng, Naidong

    2011-01-01

    With the globalization of drug development activities, transferring a validated bioanalytical procedure to a different site within a pharmaceutical company, or to one or multiple contract research organizations has been dramatically increased in recent years. Undeniably, bioanalytical method transfer is the needed step prior to routine sample analysis at the receiving laboratory. It is clearly stated in the 2001 US FDA Guidance on Bioanalytical Method Validation that a partial validation is needed for method transfer between laboratories. In the current EMA draft guidelines on method validation, the necessity of a method transfer is also emphasized. However, the above guidelines do not give many details on how and when a method transfer validation should be conducted. There is a need for a step-by-step deliberation on the overall strategies, procedures and even technical details for a successful bioanalytical method transfer. In this article, we review the contemporary information available in the scientific literature on method transfer and illustrate various bioanalytical method transfer scenarios using case studies. A 'flexible and fit-for-purpose' bioanalytical method transfer strategy is proposed.

  5. Brokered dialogue: A new research method for controversial health and social issues.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Janet A; Lavery, James V

    2012-07-02

    Dialogue is a foundational feature of social life and an important way in which we come to understand one another. In situations of controversy dialogue is often absent because of a range of social barriers. We have developed a new film-based qualitative research method for studying controversial issues in healthcare and social policy. We call this method Brokered Dialogue. Theoretically informed by the traditions in narrative inquiry and visual anthropology, the method is premised on the idea that dialogue possesses features making it unique as a generator of new knowledge and opportunities for social intervention. Film is not only an extraordinarily rich data source, but an excellent medium for knowledge transfer and dissemination. The paper introduces the Brokered Dialogue method. We outline its critical steps, including the procedures for sampling, data collection and data analysis of both textual and visual data. Participants in a Brokered Dialogue engage in filmed interviews that capture their perspectives on a given topic; they then share their perspectives with, and pose questions of, one another through the medium of film. Using a participatory editing process, only footage that participants feel comfortable showing to others is incorporated. This technique offers participants a 'safe' space for respectful interaction. The editing process itself is analytic, and the final assembly of footage approximates a dialogue on the topic at hand. A link to a film produced from a project piloting the method is provided to demonstrate its real world application. Brokered Dialogue is a method for promoting respectful interactions among those with seemingly divergent views on a controversial topic and for discovering critical points of divergence that may represent pathways for improvement. While the end product is a 'film', the goal is to have these films used as catalysts for ongoing respectful dialogue and problem-solving concerning the topic at hand informing

  6. Analytical difficulties facing today's regulatory laboratories: issues in method validation.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, James D

    2012-08-01

    The challenges facing analytical laboratories today are not unlike those faced in the past, although both the degree of complexity and the rate of change have increased. Challenges such as development and maintenance of expertise, maintenance and up-dating of equipment, and the introduction of new test methods have always been familiar themes for analytical laboratories, but international guidelines for laboratories involved in the import and export testing of food require management of such changes in a context which includes quality assurance, accreditation, and method validation considerations. Decisions as to when a change in a method requires re-validation of the method or on the design of a validation scheme for a complex multi-residue method require a well-considered strategy, based on a current knowledge of international guidance documents and regulatory requirements, as well the laboratory's quality system requirements. Validation demonstrates that a method is 'fit for purpose', so the requirement for validation should be assessed in terms of the intended use of a method and, in the case of change or modification of a method, whether that change or modification may affect a previously validated performance characteristic. In general, method validation involves method scope, calibration-related parameters, method precision, and recovery. Any method change which may affect method scope or any performance parameters will require re-validation. Some typical situations involving change in methods are discussed and a decision process proposed for selection of appropriate validation measures.

  7. The Lidcombe Programme of early stuttering intervention: methods and issues.

    PubMed

    Onslow, M; O'Brian, S; Harrison, E

    1997-01-01

    The Lidcombe Programme is an operant intervention for early stuttering that parents administer to children in their everyday speaking environments. The treatment was developed at the Suttering Unit, Bankstown Health Service, Sydney, and The University of Sydney. Recently, staff from the Australian Stuttering Research Centre. The University of Sydney, toured universities and clinics in the UK to present lectures about this treatment. We were encouraged to write this paper because an independent survey showed that most speech and language therapists who attended the presentations were open to this treatment. Prior to and following that lecture tour, publications in the press and professional journals in the UK alluded to many positive features of the Lidcombe Programme, but also raised several issues about it. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the Lidcombe Programme and address the following criticisms of the treatment that were raised in the UK: (1) Stuttering is complex but the Lidcombe Programme is simple; (2) the Lidcombe Programme is not an operant treatment, but invokes positive changes in children's environments; (3) the Lidcombe Programme is harmful to children; and (4) the scientific evidence in support of the Lidcombe Programme is flawed. Each of these issues is addressed from logical, theoretical and empirical viewpoints.

  8. Opportunities and methods for studying alternative splicing in cancer with RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huijuan; Qin, Zhiyi; Zhang, Xuegong

    2013-11-01

    The biogenesis, development and metastases of cancer are associated with many variations in the transcriptome. Alternative splicing of genes is a major post-transcriptional regulation mechanism that is involved in many types of cancer. The next-generation sequencing applied on RNAs (RNA-Seq) provides a new technology for studying transcriptomes. It provides an unprecedented opportunity for quantitatively studying alternative splicing in a systematic way. This mini-review summarizes the current RNA-Seq studies on cancer transcriptomes especially studies on cancer-related alternative splicing, and discusses the strategy for quantitative study of alternative splicing in cancers with RNA-Seq, the bioinformatics methods available and existing questions.

  9. Coarse-grained computer simulation of dynamics in thylakoid membranes: methods and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Anna R.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2013-01-01

    Coarse-grained simulation is a powerful and well-established suite of computational methods for studying structure and dynamics in nanoscale biophysical systems. As our understanding of the plant photosynthetic apparatus has become increasingly nuanced, opportunities have arisen for coarse-grained simulation to complement experiment by testing hypotheses and making predictions. Here, we give an overview of best practices in coarse-grained simulation, with a focus on techniques and results that are applicable to the plant thylakoid membrane–protein system. We also discuss current research topics for which coarse-grained simulation has the potential to play a key role in advancing the field. PMID:24478781

  10. Longitudinal Studies of Attitude Change: Issues and Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    relative contributions of variables which are presently influencing attitudes from historical variables. Conversely a longitudinal method can be used to...different training techniques. Neidt and Meredith (1966) used a longitudinal method to determine the changes in attitudes of a single group of Air... longitudinal method is viewed as the most promising for measurement of change. With the increasing improvement in unobtrusive measures (e.g., Webb

  11. Workplace Demographics and Technology: Challenges and Opportunities to the Campus Mission Including the Top Facilities Issues. APPA Thought Leaders 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2011

    2011-01-01

    It is not unusual in higher education circles to talk about issues affecting the campus. Experts might write about how shifting demographics are changing the campus, or say technology is becoming more pervasive on campus. The campus itself evolves alongside pedagogical practices, technological innovations, student needs, and the mission of the…

  12. Why, When, and How To Use Evaluation: Experts Speak Out. Issues and Opportunities in Out-of-School Time Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Heather B.; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    Noting that the disappointing findings of the first-year evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) after-school program were offered as a rationale for a requested decrease in funding in President Bush's fiscal year 2004 education budget, this report compiles expert commentary on methodological issues in that evaluation…

  13. Why, When, and How To Use Evaluation: Experts Speak Out. Issues and Opportunities in Out-of-School Time Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Heather B.; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    Noting that the disappointing findings of the first-year evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) after-school program were offered as a rationale for a requested decrease in funding in President Bush's fiscal year 2004 education budget, this report compiles expert commentary on methodological issues in that evaluation…

  14. Labor Laws and Issues: A Guide for Planning and Implementing Work-Based Learning Opportunities for Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, James W.

    The focus of this publication is to maximize the ability of business, education, and community partners to access information relating to legal issues and minor labor laws that have implications for school-based and work-based learning experiences. Each section is intended to provide the most applicable legal and labor law information. Since…

  15. The Pathways to Advancement Project: How States Can Expand Postsecondary Educational Opportunities for Working Adults. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Christopher; Strawn, Julie; Roberts, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    The Pathways to Advancement initiative was launched by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) to help governors and their policy advisors examine options and develop strategies for expanding working adults' access to and completion of postsecondary education. In September 2003, the NGA Center issued a request for…

  16. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  17. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  18. California Energy Incentive Programs: An Annual Update on Key Energy Issues and Financial Opportunities for Federal Sites in California

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    A spate of recently enacted energy legislation and associated program changes is providing numerous opportunities to help California federal energy managers cut costs and meet their renewables, energy efficiency and GHG emissions goals. In April 2011, Governor Jerry Brown approved the nation’s most ambitious renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which requires 33% of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Policy changes that will support the RPS include expanded eligibility rules that fill previous gaps in incentives for certain sizes of on-site renewable energy systems. Program updates described in this document include: $200 million more in funding for California Solar Initiative rebates to commercial and industrial customers; an increase in the eligible system size for the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) from 1.5MW to 3MW; and pending changes that may allow customer-side systems to sell tradable renewable energy credits (TRECs) to entities with RPS compliance obligations in California.

  19. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  20. Vaccine development and trials in low and lower-middle income countries: Key issues, advances and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Grenham, Amy; Villafana, Tonya

    2017-09-02

    Over the past 10 years there has been an increase in the number of vaccine clinical studies conducted in resource limited countries. These include vaccine trials for diseases such as malaria and dengue fever which are endemic to many low and lower-middle income countries. Concurrent with the increase in the number of trials, has been the increase and improvement in local infrastructure to enable the appropriate conduct and oversight of trials in these settings, including strengthening of local scientific capabilities, ethical and regulatory oversight. While significant advances have been made, there remain gaps to be addressed including strengthening pharmacovigilance in these regions. There are also opportunities to establish novel collaborations to address diseases specific to these populations including strengthening local manufacturers, new ways to engage established large pharmaceutical companies and leveraging established global infrastructure and pathways to develop innovative products beyond vaccines.

  1. Forestry sector analysis for developing countries: issues and methods.

    Treesearch

    R.W. Haynes

    1993-01-01

    A satellite meeting of the 10th Forestry World Congress focused on the methods used for forest sector analysis and their applications in both developed and developing countries. The results of that meeting are summarized, and a general approach for forest sector modeling is proposed. The approach includes models derived from the existing...

  2. Video Games in Volcanic Hazard Communications: Methods & Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul; Stewart, Iain

    2016-04-01

    eruptions (1902 &1979), which are reproduced based on historical data and personal accounts of the eruptions. Through a series of interactive scenes, each of the principal hazardous phenomena associated with La Soufriere - pyroclastic flows & surges, ash fall and lahars - are visualised and explained. The game concludes with a quiz in which players are required to answer questions are based on information provided throughout the game. The St. Vincent's Volcano game was trialled in St. Vincent during a volcano awareness education week in April 2015. The presentation will share reflections on how this type of interactive tool can be tested and implemented, and explore the issues and challenges with using video games in a dynamic environment.

  3. Random Sampling of Quantum States: a Survey of Methods. And Some Issues Regarding the Overparametrized Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed.

  4. Semicompeting risks in aging research: methods, issues and needs

    PubMed Central

    Varadhan, Ravi; Xue, Qian-Li; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A semicompeting risks problem involves two-types of events: a nonterminal and a terminal event (death). Typically, the nonterminal event is the focus of the study, but the terminal event can preclude the occurrence of the nonterminal event. Semicompeting risks are ubiquitous in studies of aging. Examples of semicompeting risk dyads include: dementia and death, frailty syndrome and death, disability and death, and nursing home placement and death. Semicompeting risk models can be divided into two broad classes: models based only on observables quantities (class O) and those based on potential (latent) failure times (class L). The classical illness-death model belongs to class O. This model is a special case of the multistate models, which has been an active area of methodology development. During the past decade and a half, there has also been a flurry of methodological activity on semicompeting risks based on latent failure times (L models). These advances notwithstanding, the semi-competing risks methodology has not penetrated biomedical research, in general, and gerontological research, in particular. Some possible reasons for this lack of uptake are: the methods are relatively new and sophisticated, conceptual problems associated with potential failure time models are difficult to overcome, paucity of expository articles aimed at educating practitioners, and non-availability of readily usable software. The main goals of this review article are: (i) to describe the major types of semicompeting risks problems arising in aging research, (ii) to provide a brief survey of the semicompeting risks methods, (iii) to suggest appropriate methods for addressing the problems in aging research, (iv) to highlight areas where more work is needed, and (v) to suggest ways to facilitate the uptake of the semicompeting risks methodology by the broader biomedical research community. PMID:24729136

  5. Galactic cosmic ray transport methods and radiation quality issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) interaction and transport methods, as implemented in the Langley Research Center GCR transport code, is presented. Representative results for solar minimum, exo-magnetospheric GCR dose equivalents in water are presented on a component by component basis for various thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The impact of proposed changes to the currently used quality factors on exposure estimates and shielding requirements are quantified. Using the cellular track model of Katz, estimates of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the mixed GCR radiation fields are also made.

  6. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  7. Measuring primary care services performance: issues and opportunities from a home care pilot experience in the Tuscan health system.

    PubMed

    Cinquini, Lino; Vainieri, Milena

    2008-08-01

    In recent years in Italy, as in other European countries, profound changes have been introduced in health care both at central and regional levels. Most of them were oriented towards a shift from 'hospital-centred' health care to health care based more on primary care services. This transition pursues two objectives: giving more effective responses to citizens' needs and reducing public health expenditure. Changes that involve organizational structure must also be carried out with the introduction of measurement tools that can help in planning and can control the changes. The paper provides the results obtained through the experience of modelling a measurement system for primary care carried out in 2004 and 2005 by some territorial managers and controllers in the Tuscan Health system, and the main issues in measuring primary care services emerging from this pilot experience focused on integrated home care services.

  8. Brokered dialogue: A new research method for controversial health and social issues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dialogue is a foundational feature of social life and an important way in which we come to understand one another. In situations of controversy dialogue is often absent because of a range of social barriers. We have developed a new film-based qualitative research method for studying controversial issues in healthcare and social policy. We call this method Brokered Dialogue. Theoretically informed by the traditions in narrative inquiry and visual anthropology, the method is premised on the idea that dialogue possesses features making it unique as a generator of new knowledge and opportunities for social intervention. Film is not only an extraordinarily rich data source, but an excellent medium for knowledge transfer and dissemination. Discussion The paper introduces the Brokered Dialogue method. We outline its critical steps, including the procedures for sampling, data collection and data analysis of both textual and visual data. Participants in a Brokered Dialogue engage in filmed interviews that capture their perspectives on a given topic; they then share their perspectives with, and pose questions of, one another through the medium of film. Using a participatory editing process, only footage that participants feel comfortable showing to others is incorporated. This technique offers participants a ‘safe’ space for respectful interaction. The editing process itself is analytic, and the final assembly of footage approximates a dialogue on the topic at hand. A link to a film produced from a project piloting the method is provided to demonstrate its real world application. Summary Brokered Dialogue is a method for promoting respectful interactions among those with seemingly divergent views on a controversial topic and for discovering critical points of divergence that may represent pathways for improvement. While the end product is a ‘film’, the goal is to have these films used as catalysts for ongoing respectful dialogue and problem

  9. Tunneling in low-power device-design: A bottom-up view of issues, challenges, and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathi, Kartik

    Simulation of electronic transport in nanoscale devices plays a pivotal role in shedding light on underlying physics, and in guiding device-design and optimization. The length scale of the problem and the physical mechanism of device operation guide the choice of formalism. In the sub-20 nanometer regime, semi-classical approaches start breaking down, thus necessitating a quantum-mechanical treatment of the electronic transport problem. Non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) is a theoretical framework for investigating quantum-mechanical systems---interacting with surroundings through exchange of quasiparticles---far from equilibrium. Although hugely computation-intensive with a realistic device-representation, it provides a rigorous way to include particle-particle interactions and to model phenomena that are inherently quantum-mechanical. We build the Berkeley Quantum Transport Simulator (BQTS)---a massively parallel, generic, NEGF-based numerical simulator---to explore low-power device-design opportunities. Demonstrating scalability and benchmarking results with experimental tunnel diode data, we set out to understand tunneling in devices and to leverage it for both digital and analog applications. Investigating InAs short-channel band-to-band tunneling transistors (TFETs), we show that direct source-to-drain tunneling sets the leakage-floor in such devices, thereby limiting the minimum subthreshold swing (SS) in spite of excellent electrostatics. A heterojunction TFET with a halo doping in the source-channel overlap region is proposed and is shown to achieve steep SS as well as large ON current. We discover that by band-offset engineering, the steepness therein could be controlled primarily by the modulation of heterojunction-barrier. Subsequently, exploring layered materials for analog applications, we demonstrate that doping the drain underlap region in graphene FETs prolongs the onset of tunneling in their output characteristics, and hence significantly

  10. Stigma towards mental illness and substance use issues in primary health care: Challenges and opportunities for Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Sena, Brena F; Bustamante, Inés V; Bobbili, Sireesha J; Velasco, Paola R; Mascayano, Franco; Alvarado, Rubén; Khenti, Akwatu

    2017-08-02

    Stigma towards mental illness and addictive disorders is a global problem and one of the main obstacles in tackling this issue remains the effective integration of mental health services into primary health care (PHC). In Latin America, information has significantly increased on the existence of stigma; however, little is known about effective interventions to prevent stigma and promote recovery-oriented practices in PHC. The aim of this study is to understand the existing evidence regarding mental health stigma in PHC with a special focus on the Latin American region. A scoping review of the literature related to mental health stigma in PHC was conducted. Two hundred and seventeen articles were evaluated; 74 met inclusion criteria and 14 additional articles were selected from references of search results. Results were subdivided into five different perspectives: users, family members and significant others, health professionals, contextual factors, and potential effective interventions. Only nine studies were based in Latin America, and only one described an intervention to reduce stigma in mental health services, not specifically in PHC. We found an urgent need to develop interventions to understand and reduce stigma in PHC settings, especially in Latin America.

  11. Editors' Introduction to the Thematic Issue: Mad about Methods? Teaching Research Methods in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adriaensen, Johan; Kerremans, Bart; Slootmaeckers, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue all seek to address the challenge of teaching research methods to political science students. This introduction aims to provide a concise framework for the various innovations presented throughout this issue, situating them in the wider literature. Particular emphasis is placed on the factors that distinguish…

  12. Editors' Introduction to the Thematic Issue: Mad about Methods? Teaching Research Methods in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adriaensen, Johan; Kerremans, Bart; Slootmaeckers, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue all seek to address the challenge of teaching research methods to political science students. This introduction aims to provide a concise framework for the various innovations presented throughout this issue, situating them in the wider literature. Particular emphasis is placed on the factors that distinguish…

  13. A Critical Commentary on Combined Methods Approach to Researching Educational and Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope Pius

    2009-01-01

    One major issue social science research is faced with concerns the methodological schism and internecine "warfare" that divides the field. This paper examines critically what is referred to as combined methods research, and the claim that this is the best methodology for addressing complex social issues. The paper discredits this claim on the…

  14. A Critical Commentary on Combined Methods Approach to Researching Educational and Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope Pius

    2009-01-01

    One major issue social science research is faced with concerns the methodological schism and internecine "warfare" that divides the field. This paper examines critically what is referred to as combined methods research, and the claim that this is the best methodology for addressing complex social issues. The paper discredits this claim on the…

  15. Applying the 5-Step Method to Children and Affected Family Members: Opportunities and Challenges within Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwin, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to consider how the 5-Step Method could be developed to meet the needs of affected family members (AFMs) with children under the age of 18. This would be an entirely new development. This article examines opportunities and challenges within practice and policy and makes suggestions on how the Method could be taken…

  16. Conceptual Issues and Analytic Strategies in Mixed-Method Studies of Preschool Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shouming; Marquart, Jules M.; Zercher, Craig

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the conceptual issues of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in early intervention research by illustrating how two analytic approaches were used for different mixed-method purposes in the study of preschool inclusion. It describes practical strategies for conducting mixed-method data analysis in terms of data…

  17. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  18. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  19. Photovoice as a community-based participatory research method among women living with HIV/AIDS: ethical opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Murray, Cynthia; Johnson, LaShaune; Binson, Diane

    2012-10-01

    Photovoice is a method in which participants use photography to identify, express, and disseminate their experiences. We conducted photovoice projects with women living with HIV/AIDS (N=21) to explore opportunities and challenges associated with the method. Photovoice provided a means to achieve two key principles of ethical public health practice: It gives participants opportunities to define their health priorities, and facilitates participant empowerment. Ethical challenges that were encountered related to exposing, through photographs, one's identity as living with HIV/AIDS, illicit activities, and other people. We discuss lessons learned for future practice to maximize the ethical opportunities and manage the challenges associated with using photovoice as an HIV-related CBPR strategy.

  20. Qualitative and mixed methods research in dissemination and implementation science: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Dorsey, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This special issue provides examples of how qualitative and mixed methods research approaches can be used in dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide a brief rationale for why and how qualitative and mixed methods approaches can be useful in moving the field forward. Specifically, we provide a brief primer on common qualitative methods, including a review of guidelines provided by the National Institutes of Health. Next, we introduce the six articles in the issue. The first of the articles by Palinkas represents a more thorough and authoritative discussion related to qualitative methods, using the other five articles in the issue (and other published works) as examples. The remaining five articles are empirical and/or descriptive articles of recently completed or ongoing qualitative or mixed methods studies related to dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents.

  1. Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Study Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the study methods used for the "Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho" report. The purpose of this study was to describe how Title I 1003(g) School Improvement Grants awarded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) in the…

  2. Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Mahbubur Rahman, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of advanced distance education delivers academic courses across time and distance, allowing educators and students to participate in a convenient learning method. "Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions" demonstrates communication technologies, intelligent…

  3. Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Mahbubur Rahman, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of advanced distance education delivers academic courses across time and distance, allowing educators and students to participate in a convenient learning method. "Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions" demonstrates communication technologies, intelligent…

  4. Toward a Method for Exposing and Elucidating Ethical Issues with Human Cognitive Enhancement Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    To develop a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues with human cognitive enhancement (HCE). The intended use of the method is to support and facilitate open and transparent deliberation and decision making with respect to this emerging technology with great potential formative implications for individuals and society. Literature search to identify relevant approaches. Conventional content analysis of the identified papers and methods in order to assess their suitability for assessing HCE according to four selection criteria. Method development. Amendment after pilot testing on smart-glasses. Based on three existing approaches in health technology assessment a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues in the assessment of HCE technologies was developed. Based on a pilot test for smart-glasses, the method was amended. The method consists of six steps and a guiding list of 43 questions. A method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues in the assessment of HCE was developed. The method provides the ground work for context specific ethical assessment and analysis. Widespread use, amendments, and further developments of the method are encouraged.

  5. Learning Opportunities for Adults. Vol. II: New Structures, Programmes and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document is the second in a series of four volumes presented under the title of "Learning Opportunities for Adults." Included in this volume are eight special studies which were commissioned to investigate the needs related to the national development of adult education. These needs are summarized as follows: the introduction of new…

  6. How International Studies Contributed to Educational Theory and Methods through Measurement of Opportunity to Learn Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Larry E.

    2017-01-01

    The international comparative studies in 1959 were conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) researchers who recognized that differences in student achievement measures in mathematics across countries could be caused by differences in curricula. The measurements of opportunity to learn (OTL) grew…

  7. The Aims, Methods, and Effects of Deliberative Civic Education through the National Issues Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastil, John; Dillard, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the goals, methods, and effects of four current deliberative civic education programs, with an in-depth analysis of one: the National Issues Forums (NIF). Shows that NIF can bolster participants' political self-efficacy, refine their political judgments, broaden their political conversation networks, and reduce their conversational…

  8. The Aims, Methods, and Effects of Deliberative Civic Education through the National Issues Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastil, John; Dillard, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the goals, methods, and effects of four current deliberative civic education programs, with an in-depth analysis of one: the National Issues Forums (NIF). Shows that NIF can bolster participants' political self-efficacy, refine their political judgments, broaden their political conversation networks, and reduce their conversational…

  9. Issues in Creating and Reporting Concordance Results Based on Equipercentile Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; Hanson, Bradley A.; Harris, Deborah J.; Sconing, James A.

    This paper focuses on methodological issues in applying equipercentile equating methods to pairs of tests that do not meet the assumptions of equating. This situation is referred to as a concordance situation, as opposed to an equating situation, and the end result is a concordance table that gives "comparable" scores between the tests.…

  10. Safety issues and new rapid detection methods in traditional Chinese medicinal materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    The safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a major strategic issue that involves human health. With the continuous improvement in disease prevention and treatment, the export of TCM and its related products has increased dramatically in China. However, the frequent safety issues of Chinese medicine have become the ‘bottleneck’ impeding the modernization of TCM. It was proved that mycotoxins seriously affect TCM safety; the pesticide residues of TCM are a key problem in TCM international trade; adulterants have also been detected, which is related to market circulation. These three factors have greatly affected TCM safety. In this study, fast, highly effective, economically-feasible and accurate detection methods concerning TCM safety issues were reviewed, especially on the authenticity, mycotoxins and pesticide residues of medicinal materials. PMID:26579423

  11. The Increasing Availability of Official Datasets: Methods, Limitations and Opportunities for Studies of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The re-use of existing and official data has a very long and largely honourable history in education and social science. The principal change in the 60 years since the first issue of the "British Journal of Educational Studies" has been the increasing range, availability and quality of existing numeric datasets. New and valuable fields…

  12. The Increasing Availability of Official Datasets: Methods, Limitations and Opportunities for Studies of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The re-use of existing and official data has a very long and largely honourable history in education and social science. The principal change in the 60 years since the first issue of the "British Journal of Educational Studies" has been the increasing range, availability and quality of existing numeric datasets. New and valuable fields…

  13. School-to-Work Opportunities for All Youth: Intermediary Organizations and Expanding Options. School-to-Work Intermediary Project. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spera, Vincent; Williams, Andra

    The School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 requires that all young people, including young people with disabilities and out-of-school youth, have equal opportunities to participate in the activities funded by it. Local intermediary organizations that provide a critical convening role and offer services to core education and business partners can…

  14. Meaning in the Method: Pretesting Methods for a Diverse Population. Issue Brief. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprachman, Susan; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Aikens, Nikki; Caspe, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    A child's ability to develop relationships and connections with others, a sense of who he or she is in the world, and an ability to control impulses and emotions are at the core of social-emotional development. In early childhood, parent reports are one of the most common methods for assessing this type of development. However, parents from…

  15. Density functional theory and beyond-opportunities for quantum methods in materials modeling semiconductor technology.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sadasivan; Simka, Harsono; Haverty, Michael

    2008-02-13

    In the semiconductor industry, the use of new materials has been increasing with the advent of nanotechnology. As critical dimensions decrease, and the number of materials increases, the interactions between heterogeneous materials themselves and processing increase in complexity. Traditionally, applications of ab initio techniques are confined to electronic structure and band gap calculations of bulk materials, which are then used in coarse-grained models such as mesoscopic and continuum models. Density functional theory is the most widely used ab initio technique that was successfully extended to several applications. This paper illustrates applications of density functional theory to semiconductor processes and proposes further opportunities for use of such techniques in process development.

  16. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  17. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  18. Small Sample Research Designs for Evidence-based Rehabilitation: Issues and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James E.; Karmarkar, Amol M.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional research methods, including randomized controlled trials, are powerful techniques for determining the efficacy of interventions. These designs, however, have practical limitations when applied to many rehabilitation settings and research questions. Alternative methods are available that can supplement findings from traditional research designs and improve our ability to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for individual patients. The focus on individual patients is an important element of evidenced-based rehabilitation. This paper examines one such alternate approach: small-N research designs. Small-N designs usually focus on ten or fewer participants whose behavior (outcomes) are measured repeatedly and compared over time. The advantages and limitations of various small-N designs are described and illustrated using three examples from the rehabilitation literature. The challenges and opportunities of applying small-N designs to enhance evidence-based rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:22580169

  19. Small sample research designs for evidence-based rehabilitation: issues and methods.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Karmarkar, Amol M; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2012-08-01

    Conventional research methods, including randomized controlled trials, are powerful techniques for determining the efficacy of interventions. These designs, however, have practical limitations when applied to many rehabilitation settings and research questions. Alternative methods are available that can supplement findings from traditional research designs and improve our ability to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for individual patients. The focus on individual patients is an important element of evidenced-based rehabilitation. This article examines one such alternate approach: small-N research designs. Small-N designs usually focus on 10 or fewer participants whose behavior (outcomes) are measured repeatedly and compared over time. The advantages and limitations of various small-N designs are described and illustrated using 3 examples from the rehabilitation literature. The challenges and opportunities of applying small-N designs to enhance evidence-based rehabilitation are discussed.

  20. Forensic psychiatric evaluations: an overview of methods, ethical issues, and criminal and civil assessments.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Forensic psychiatry is frequently defined as the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law. Psychiatrists are called on by the legal system to provide testimony in a wide variety of cases, criminal and civil. In criminal cases, forensic psychiatrists may be asked to comment on the competence of a person to make decisions throughout all the phases of criminal investigation, trial, and punishment. These include the competence to stand trial, to plead guilty, to be sentenced, to waive appeal, and to be executed. In civil cases, forensic psychiatric experts are asked to evaluate a number of civil competences, including competence to make a will or contract or to make decisions about one's person and property. Psychiatrists are also called on to testify about many other issues related to civil cases. Forensic psychiatrists who work with children and adolescents are frequently involved in evaluations and testimonies concerning juvenile delinquency, child custody, termination of parental rights, and other issues. As such, forensic psychiatric experts have now developed into a reputable and well-known group of professionals. Forensic evaluation methods, ethical issues related to forensic psychiatric practice, and some common criminal and civil forensic psychiatric evaluations are discussed in this overview.

  1. The DSL Method for Pediatric Hearing Instrument Fitting: Historical Perspective and Current Issues

    PubMed Central

    Seewald, Richard; Moodie, Sheila; Scollie, Susan; Bagatto, Marlene

    2005-01-01

    The Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method was originally developed in the early 1980s to provide clinicians with a systematic, science-based approach to pediatric hearing instrument fitting that ensures audibility of amplified speech by accounting for factors that are uniquely associated with the provision of amplification to infants and young children who have hearing loss. This review identifies and describes several of the primary factors that have been considered in the development of the DSL Method. Specifically, the issues discussed relate to: (1) the definition and measurement of relevant acoustic, electroacoustic and audiometric variables; (2) how the external ear acoustics of infants and young children are accounted for in the DSL Method for both audiometric assessment and in the fitting of amplification; and (3) how the DSL Method has evolved concurrently with developments in hearing instrument and electroacoustic measurement technologies. Finally, current issues in the field are identified that have motivated the development of version 5.0 of the DSL Method for hearing instrument fitting. PMID:16424944

  2. The DSL method for pediatric hearing instrument fitting: historical perspective and current issues.

    PubMed

    Seewald, Richard; Moodie, Sheila; Scollie, Susan; Bagatto, Marlene

    2005-01-01

    The Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method was originally developed in the early 1980s to provide clinicians with a systematic, science-based approach to pediatric hearing instrument fitting that ensures audibility of amplified speech by accounting for factors that are uniquely associated with the provision of amplification to infants and young children who have hearing loss. This review identifies and describes several of the primary factors that have been considered in the development of the DSL Method. Specifically, the issues discussed relate to: (1) the definition and measurement of relevant acoustic, electroacoustic and audiometric variables; (2) how the external ear acoustics of infants and young children are accounted for in the DSL Method for both audiometric assessment and in the fitting of amplification; and (3) how the DSL Method has evolved concurrently with developments in hearing instrument and electroacoustic measurement technologies. Finally, current issues in the field are identified that have motivated the development of version 5.0 of the DSL Method for hearing instrument fitting.

  3. Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Each of the 12 issues of this 1999 publication contains 1 or more analyses of postsecondary educational opportunities. Titles of the individual analyses are: (1) Parental Educational Attainment and Higher Educational Opportunity (number 79); (2) Refinancing Higher Education, 1952 to 1997 (number 79); (3) State Outreach Efforts to Students from Low…

  4. INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM OFFICE EQUIPMENT: TEST METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development and evaluation of a large chamber test method for measuring emissions from dry-process photocopiers. The test method was developed in two phases. Phase 1 was a single-laboratory evaluation at Research Triangle Institute (RTI) using four, mid-r...

  5. INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM OFFICE EQUIPMENT: TEST METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development and evaluation of a large chamber test method for measuring emissions from dry-process photocopiers. The test method was developed in two phases. Phase 1 was a single-laboratory evaluation at Research Triangle Institute (RTI) using four, mid-r...

  6. Equality in the Workplace. An Equal Opportunities Handbook for Trainers. Human Resource Management in Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Helen

    This workbook, which is intended as a practical guide for human resource managers, trainers, and others concerned with developing and implementing equal opportunities training programs in British workplaces, examines issues in and methods for equal opportunities training. The introduction gives an overview of current training trends and issues.…

  7. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T.; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  8. Signal-to-noise issues in measuring nitrous oxide fluxes by the eddy covariance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicholas; Levy, Peter; Langford, Ben; Skiba, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Recently-developed fast-response gas analysers capable of measuring atmospheric N2O with high precision (< 50 ppt) at a rate of 10 Hz are becoming more widely available. These instruments are capable of measuring N2O fluxes using the eddy covariance method, with significantly less effort and uncertainty than previous instruments have allowed. However, there are still many issues to overcome in order to obtain accurate and reliable flux data. The signal-to-noise ratio of N2O measured using these instruments is still two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of CO2. The low signal-to-noise ratio can lead to systematic uncertainties, in the eddy covariance method, the most significant being in the calculation of the time lag between gas analyser and anemometer by maximisation of covariance (Langford et al., 2015). When signal-to-noise ratio is relatively low, as it is with many N2O measurements, the maximisation of covariance method can systematically overestimate fluxes. However, if constant time lags are assumed, then fluxes will be underestimated. This presents a major issue for N2O eddy covariance measurements. In this presentation we will focus on the signal to noise ratio for an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL). Eddy covariance flux measurements from multiple agricultural sites across the UK were investigated for potential uncertainties. Our presentation highlights some of these uncertainties when analysing eddy covariance data and offers suggestions as to how these issues may be minimised. Langford, B., Acton, W., Ammann, C., Valach, A. and Nemitz, E.: Eddy-covariance data with low signal-to-noise ratio: time-lag determination, uncertainties and limit of detection, Atmos Meas Tech, 8(10), 4197-4213, doi:10.5194/amt-8-4197-2015, 2015.

  9. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research. PMID:20003210

  10. Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified.

  11. Sociodrama: a teaching method for expanding the understanding of clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, C

    2001-01-01

    Sociodrama is a powerful teaching strategy that combines a case study approach with traditional role-play methodology to illustrate critical issues in end-of-life care. Building on principles of adult learning and communication skills, the sociodrama method enables the skilled facilitator to draw on the learner's past experiences as resources for teaching and reflective practice. This article describes the use of sociodrama in end-of-life education with illustrations from actual sessions including key discussion points, a typical instructional plan and staging tips.

  12. Minibodies and Multimodal Chromatography Methods: A Convergence of Challenge and Opportunity.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Pete; Cheung, Chia-Wei; Lepin, Eric J; Wu, Anna M; Sherman, Mark A; Raubitschek, Andrew A; Yazaki, Paul J

    2010-02-01

    This case study describes early phase purification process development for a recombinant anticancer minibody produced in mammalian cell culture. The minibody did not bind to protein A. Cation-exchange, anion-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, and hydroxyapatite (eluted by phosphate gradient) chromatographic methods were scouted, but the minibody coeluted with BSA to a substantial degree on each. Hydroxyapatite eluted with a sodium chloride gradient separated BSA and also removed a dimeric contaminant, but BSA consumed so much binding capacity that this proved impractical as a capture tool. Capto MMC media proved capable of supporting adequate capture and significant dimer removal, although both loading and elution selectivity varied dramatically with the amount of supernatant applied to the column. An anion-exchange step was included to fortify overall virus and DNA removal. These results illustrate the value of multimodal chromatography methods when affinity chromatography methods are lacking and conventional alternatives prove inadequate.

  13. A NEW LOG EVALUATION METHOD TO APPRAISE MESAVERDE RE-COMPLETION OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Greer

    2003-09-11

    Artificial intelligence tools, fuzzy logic and neural networks were used to evaluate the potential of the behind pipe Mesaverde formation in BMG's Mancos formation wells. A fractal geostatistical mapping algorithm was also used to predict Mesaverde production. Additionally, a conventional geological study was conducted. To date one Mesaverde completion has been performed. The Janet No.3 Mesaverde completion was non-economic. Both the AI method and the geostatistical methods predicted the failure of the Janet No.3. The Gavilan No.1 in the Mesaverde was completed during the course of the study and was an extremely good well. This well was not included in the statistical dataset. The AI method predicted very good production while the fractal map predicted a poor producer.

  14. Investigation of opportunities of the optical non-invasive diagnostics method for the blood sugar control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of noninvasive method for determining the blood sugar is caused by necessity of regular monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients blood. Traditional invasive method is painful, because it requires a finger pricking. Despite the active studies in the field of non-invasive medical diagnostics, to date the painless and inexpensive instrument for blood sugar control for personal use doesn't exist. It's possible to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood with help of spectrophotometry method. It consists of registering and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the radiation which missed, reflected or absorbed by the object. The authors proposed a measuring scheme for studying the spectral characteristics of the radiation, missed by earlobe. Ultra-violet, visible and near infrared spectral ranges are considered. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed special retaining clip and results of experiment with real patient.

  15. White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and Research Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TOR -2015-02548 White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and...082112, 2007. Approved Electronically by: Technical Peer Review Performed by: AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TOR -2015-02548 White Paper on Multicarrier

  16. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  17. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  18. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Nicholl, Jon; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2009-12-09

    Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  19. Inverse methods for assessing ship-of-opportunity networks and estimating circulation and winds from tropical expendable bathythermograph data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Andrew F.

    1990-01-01

    Inverse methods for estimating the surface ciculation of the equatorial Pacific by combining a linear reduced-gravity shallow-water model with the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere ship-of-opportunity expendable bathythermograph (TOGA SOP XBT) observing program are examined. It is demonstrated that a simple linear model of the upper circulation of the equatorial Pacific can be successfully used as a weak constraint when smoothing the TOGA SOP XBT data. A circulation is sought as the weighted least squares fit to the dynamics and the data. The solution method is an expansion in representer functions, and the generalized inverse problem is thereby reduced from a functional problem to an algebraic problem for the coefficients of the representer. A specific inverse calculation using synthetic forcing and data is presented.

  20. Opportunities for woman-initiated HIV prevention methods among female sex workers in southern China.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Abbott, Maryann; Liao, Susu; Yu, Wang; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Wei, Liu; Jiang, Jingmei

    2007-05-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women's knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China.

  1. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

  2. Special Issue: Book Reviews 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This special issue reviews 71 books on the following topics: career management; career opportunities for people with disabilities; federal government career information; college career development/counseling; job search strategies, tools, methods; coaching; retirement issues; strategies for managers; women and careers; general career books; and…

  3. Special Issue: Book Reviews 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This special issue reviews 71 books on the following topics: career management; career opportunities for people with disabilities; federal government career information; college career development/counseling; job search strategies, tools, methods; coaching; retirement issues; strategies for managers; women and careers; general career books; and…

  4. Learning opportunities for Australian prevocational hospital doctors: exposure, perceived quality and desired methods of learning.

    PubMed

    Dent, Andrew W; Crotty, Brendan; Cuddihy, Helen L; Duns, Glenn C; Benjamin, Joan; Jordon, Carol A; Satchell, Jacqueline F; Farish, Stephen; Weiland, Tracey J; Jolly, Brian C

    2006-05-01

    To survey prevocational doctors working in Australian hospitals on aspects of postgraduate learning. 470 prevocational doctors in 36 health services in Australia, August 2003 to October 2004. Cross-sectional cohort survey with a mix of ordinal multicategory questions and free text. Perceived preparedness for aspects of clinical practice; perceptions of the quantity and usefulness of current teaching and learning methods and desired future exposure to learning methods. 64% (299/467) of responding doctors felt generally prepared for their job, 91% (425/469) felt prepared for dealing with patients, and 70% (325/467) for dealing with relatives. A minority felt prepared for medicolegal problems (23%, 106/468), clinical emergencies (31%, 146/469), choosing a career (40%, 188/468), or performing procedures (45%, 213/469). Adequate contact with registrars was reported by 90% (418/465) and adequate contact with consultants by 56% (257/466); 20% (94/467) reported exposure to clinical skills training and 11% (38/356) to high-fidelity simulation. Informal registrar contact was described as useful or very useful by 94% (433/463), and high-fidelity simulation by 83% (179/216). Most prevocational doctors would prefer more formal instruction from their registrars (84%, 383/456) and consultants (81%, 362/447); 84% (265/316) want increased exposure to high-fidelity simulation and 81% (283/350) to professional college tutorials. Our findings should assist planning and development of training programs for prevocational doctors in Australian hospitals.

  5. Peculiarities of enhancing resistant starch in ruminants using chemical methods: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-06-04

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants.

  6. Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants. PMID:23736826

  7. Methods and opportunities in the recycling of rare earth based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.; Jones, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    Rare Earth based materials are increasingly being utilized in industrial and commercial practice. Large volume production of permanent magnet materials, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, SmCo{sub 5}, Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}, and rechargeable Ni/Metal Hydride batteries, LaNi{sub 5}, has increased the amount of rare earth based materials in the waste stream. Both for economic and environmental reasons, recycling and reuse of all materials is desirable. Unfortunately, the recycling methodology for these materials is in its infancy. In this paper the present {open_quotes}state of the art{close_quotes}, in recycling of rare earth based materials will be discussed. Additionally, new methods which alleviate many of the concerns of present aqueous based recycling technology will be presented.

  8. Afghanistan and Pakistan Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZs), H.R. 1318/H.R. 1886/H.R. 2410 and S. 496: Issues and Arguments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-09

    such they are self-contained islands of infrastructure necessary to support manufacturing , often located in relatively undeveloped geographic...President Obama in his March 27 announcement of a new U.S. strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan. Proponents of the legislation see it as a way of promoting...Figures Figure 1. Areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan Eligible for Designation of Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZs) as Provided for in H.R. 1318

  9. Thruster Placement Issues and Possible Mitigation Methods for the ST-7 Disturbance Reduction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, O.; Markley, L.; Houghton, M.; Maghami, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System is being designed to demonstrate the ability to shield a test mass from non-gravitational forces. In order to meet this goal, two advanced technologies will be employed: a highly sensitive Gravitational Reference Sensor and micro-Newton thrusters. ST-7 is limited to two clusters of four thrusters, which are sufficient to provide control for 6 degrees of freedom, but the overall effectiveness of the baseline configuration is limited by the noise on the measurement signals and the thrust outputs, the disturbance force caused by solar radiation pressure, and the performance of the individual thrusters. This paper presents and discusses these issues in greater detail along with possible mitigation methods.

  10. An experimental validation method for questioning techniques that assess sensitive issues.

    PubMed

    Moshagen, Morten; Hilbig, Benjamin E; Erdfelder, Edgar; Moritz, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Studies addressing sensitive issues often yield distorted prevalence estimates due to socially desirable responding. Several techniques have been proposed to reduce this bias, including indirect questioning, psychophysiological lie detection, and bogus pipeline procedures. However, the increase in resources required by these techniques is warranted only if there is a substantial increase in validity as compared to direct questions. Convincing demonstration of superior validity necessitates the availability of a criterion reflecting the "true" prevalence of a sensitive attribute. Unfortunately, such criteria are notoriously difficult to obtain, which is why validation studies often proceed indirectly by simply comparing estimates obtained with different methods. Comparative validation studies, however, provide weak evidence only since the exact increase in validity (if any) remains unknown. To remedy this problem, we propose a simple method that allows for measuring the "true" prevalence of a sensitive behavior experimentally. The basic idea is to elicit normatively problematic behavior in a way that ensures conclusive knowledge of the prevalence rate of this behavior. This prevalence measure can then serve as an external validation criterion in a second step. An empirical demonstration of this method is provided.

  11. Introduction to the Special Issue on Advancing Methods for Analyzing Dialect Variation.

    PubMed

    Clopper, Cynthia G

    2017-07-01

    Documenting and analyzing dialect variation is traditionally the domain of dialectology and sociolinguistics. However, modern approaches to acoustic analysis of dialect variation have their roots in Peterson and Barney's [(1952). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 24, 175-184] foundational work on the acoustic analysis of vowels that was published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (JASA) over 6 decades ago. Although Peterson and Barney (1952) were not primarily concerned with dialect variation, their methods laid the groundwork for the acoustic methods that are still used by scholars today to analyze vowel variation within and across languages. In more recent decades, a number of methodological advances in the study of vowel variation have been published in JASA, including work on acoustic vowel overlap and vowel normalization. The goal of this special issue was to honor that tradition by bringing together a set of papers describing the application of emerging acoustic, articulatory, and computational methods to the analysis of dialect variation in vowels and beyond.

  12. The detection and discovery of glycan motifs in biological samples using lectins and antibodies: new methods and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huiyuan; Hsueh, Peter; Kletter, Doron; Bern, Marshall; Haab, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has uncovered unexpected ways that glycans contribute to biology, as well as new strategies for combatting disease using approaches involving glycans. To make full use of glycans for clinical applications, we need more detailed information on the location, nature, and dynamics of glycan expression in vivo. Such studies require the use of specimens acquired directly from patients. Effective studies of clinical specimens require low-volume assays, high precision measurements, and the ability to process many samples. Assays using affinity reagents-lectins and glycan-binding antibodies-can meet these requirements, but further developments are needed to make the methods routine and effective. Recent advances in the use of glycan-binding proteins involve improved determination of specificity using glycan arrays; the availability of databases for mining and analyzing glycan array data; lectin engineering methods; and the ability to quantitatively interpret lectin measurements. Here, we describe many of the challenges and opportunities involved in the application of these new approaches to the study of biological samples. The new tools hold promise for developing methods to improve the outcomes of patients afflicted with diseases characterized by aberrant glycan expression. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The detection and discovery of glycan motifs in biological samples using lectins and antibodies: new methods and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huiyuan; Hsueh, Peter; Kletter, Doron; Bern, Marshall; Haab, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent research is uncovering unexpected ways that glycans contribute to biology, as well as new strategies for combatting disease using approaches involving glycans. To make full use of glycans for clinical applications, we need more detailed information on the location, nature, and dynamics of glycan expression in vivo. Such studies require the use of specimens acquired directly from patients. Effective studies of clinical specimens require low-volume assays, high precision measurements, and the ability to process many samples. Assays using affinity reagents—lectins and glycan-binding antibodies—can meet these requirements, but further developments are needed to make the methods routine and effective. Recent advances in the use of glycan-binding proteins could meet that need. The advances involve improved determination of specificity using glycan arrays; the availability of databases for mining and analyzing glycan array data; lectin engineering methods; and the ability to quantitatively interpret lectin measurements. Here we describe many of the challenges and opportunities involved in the application of these new approaches to the study of biological samples. The new tools hold promise for developing methods to improve the outcomes of patients afflicted with diseases characterized by aberrant glycan expression. PMID:25727148

  14. Forecasting landscape-scale, cumulative effects of forest management on vegetation and wildlife habitat: a case study of issues, limitations, and opportunities

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson; William D. Dijak; Zhaofei F. Fan

    2008-01-01

    Forest landscape disturbance and succession models have become practical tools for large-scale, long-term analyses of the cumulative effects of forest management on real landscapes. They can provide essential information in a spatial context to address management and policy issues related to forest planning, wildlife habitat quality, timber harvesting, fire effects,...

  15. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brick, S.

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Quantitative versus qualitative approaches: a comparison of two research methods applied to identification of key health issues for working horses in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, M M; Attwood, G A; Lerotholi, T; Pfeiffer, D U; Verheyen, K L P

    2013-03-01

    The relative merits and potential complementarity of participatory methods and classical epidemiological techniques in veterinary-related research is a current topic of discussion. Few reported studies have applied both methodologies within the same research framework to enable direct comparison. The aim of this study was to compare issues identified by a classical epidemiological study of horses and their owners with those identified by owner communities using participatory approaches. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken as part of an impact assessment study of farrier and saddler training programmes, and a small-scale nutrition trial, implemented in Lesotho by a UK-based equine charity. In total, 245 horses and their 237 owners participated in the survey which comprised a face-to-face structured questionnaire covering knowledge and practices relating to equine husbandry and primary healthcare, clinical examination and sampling of horses, and examination of tack used on those horses. In early 2010, 56 owners in three survey regions, some of whom participated in the survey, attended a participatory workshop. Each workshop group created a local resource map whilst discussing and identifying key issues associated with horse ownership and what might have an adverse impact on horse health and work. Following map completion, each group began by prioritising the identified issues, and then ranked them using a pairwise/ranking matrix to reflect how important issues were in relation to each other. Overall priority issues were: mouth problems, hunger and nutrition, diseases (including infectious diseases, parasites and colic), husbandry (including wound management), and feet and limb problems. Major health issues identified by cross-sectional study included sharp enamel points on teeth, endo- and ectoparasite infestation, suboptimal nutrition, tack-associated wounds, overgrown and poorly balanced feet and poor owner husbandry knowledge and practices. Whilst

  17. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    SciTech Connect

    Payer, Joe H.; Scully, John R.

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  18. Monitoring rationale, strategy, issues, and methods: UMRR-EMP LTRMP fish component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ickes, Brian S.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Rogala, James T.

    2014-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP), an element of the multiagency partnership Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program, has been monitoring fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) for over two decades, using scientific and highly standardized methods. Today, the LTRMP’s data assets represent one of the world’s largest and most extensive datasets on a great river. Methods and procedures used over the past two decades have been documented and have proven a key tool towards gaining data that are (a) scientifically valid, (b) comparable over time, and (c) comparable over space. These procedures manuals coordinate and standardize methods, procedures, and field behaviors in the execution of long-term monitoring, permitting the informed management and control of important sources of error actually under program control. As LTRMP databases have matured in scope and accumulated more years' worth of data, their utility in research and management in the UMRS basin has increased notably. To maximize their utility, data users need not only be aware of “how the data were collected,” as portrayed in the procedures manuals, but also “why the data were collected in the way they were, at the scales they were, and in the manner that they were.” Whereas the procedures manuals contribute information as to the “how” the data were gained, this document seeks to contribute information as to the “why.” As such, this document is intended to be a companion document to the procedures manuals. Herein, we present information on the rationale for monitoring nearly one-fifth of the entire North American freshwater fish fauna (representing the greatest freshwater fish diversity on the planet at temperate latitudes); strategies employed and their reasoning; and discussions on issues associated with the sampling design itself, data arising therefrom, and uses of those data in different contexts.

  19. Seizing Opportunity: "Opportunity as Transformation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael; Muller, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity creates conditions for achievement. We learn daily of the success of others that resulted from conditions they created through opportunity. Often these conditions of opportunity are the product of a compelling vision of a future steeped in possibility and rich in reward. These visions, however, must be operationalized in order to be…

  20. Fatigue life calculation of desuperheater for solving pipe cracking issue using finite element method (FEM) software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aravinda; Singh, Jeetendra Kumar; Mohan, K.

    2012-06-01

    Desuperheater assembly experiences thermal cycling in operation by design. During power plant's start up, load change and shut down, thermal gradient is highest. Desuperheater should be able to handle rapid ramp up or ramp down of temperature in these operations. With "hump style" two nozzle desuperheater, cracks were appearing in the pipe after only few cycles of operation. From the field data, it was clear that desuperheater is not able to handle disproportionate thermal expansion happening in the assembly during temperature ramp up and ramp down in operation and leading to cracks appearing in the piping. Growth of thermal fatigue crack is influenced by several factors including geometry, severity of thermal stress and applied mechanical load. This paper seeks to determine cause of failure of two nozzle "hump style" desuperheater using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation technique. Thermal stress simulation and fatigue life calculation were performed using commercial FEA software "ANSYS" [from Ansys Inc, USA]. Simulation result showed that very high thermal stress is developing in the region where cracks are seen in the field. From simulation results, it is also clear that variable thermal expansion of two nozzle studs is creating high stress at the water manifold junction. A simple and viable solution is suggested by increasing the length of the manifold which solved the cracking issues in the pipe.

  1. Summary of the workshop on issues in risk assessment: quantitative methods for developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Mattison, D R; Sandler, J D

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a conference on quantitative methods for assessing the risks of developmental toxicants. The conference was planned by a subcommittee of the National Research Council's Committee on Risk Assessment Methodology in conjunction with staff from several federal agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission, and Health and Welfare Canada. Issues discussed at the workshop included computerized techniques for hazard identification, use of human and animal data for defining risks in a clinical setting, relationships between end points in developmental toxicity testing, reference dose calculations for developmental toxicology, analysis of quantitative dose-response data, mechanisms of developmental toxicity, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, and structure-activity relationships. Although a formal consensus was not sought, many participants favored the evolution of quantitative techniques for developmental toxicology risk assessment, including the replacement of lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) and no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) with the benchmark dose methodology.

  2. Quality evaluation in medical visualization: some issues and a taxonomy of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Beatriz S.; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis

    2005-04-01

    Among the several medical imaging stages (acquisition, reconstruction, etc.), visualization is the latest stage on which decision is generally taken. Scientific visualization tools allow to process complex data into a graphical visible and understandable form, the goal being to provide new insight. If the evaluation of procedures is a crucial issue and a main concern in medicine, paradoxically visualization techniques, predominantly in tri-dimensional imaging, have not been the subject of many evaluation studies. This is perhaps due to the fact that the visualization process integrates the Human Visual and Cognitive Systems, which makes evaluation especially difficult. However, as in medical imaging, the question of quality evaluation of a specific visualization remains a main challenge. While a few studies concerning specific cases have already been published, there is still a great need for definition and systemization of evaluation methodologies. The goal of our study is to propose such a framework, which makes it possible to take into account all the parameters taking part in the evaluation of a visualization technique. Concerning the problem of quality evaluation in data visualization in general, and in medical data visualization in particular, three different concepts appear to be fundamental: the type and level of components used to convey to the user the information contained in the data, the type and level at which evaluation can be performed, and the methodologies used to perform such evaluation. We propose a taxonomy involving types of methods that can be used to perform evaluation at different levels.

  3. Rapid issue tracking: A method for taking the pulse of the public discussion of environmental policy

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Patrick Reed; Ashley. Goldhor-Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    Environmental communication professionals and other decision makers need to understand public sentiment toward environmental issues to effectively carry out their stewardship responsibilities. However, it is often difficult to obtain timely and reliable information about public discussion and debate regarding these issues. This paper describes an approach designed to...

  4. Ethical Issues of Ethnography Method: A Comparative Approach to Subaltern, Self, and the Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeyemi, Christo

    2013-01-01

    Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the…

  5. Methods and Materials for Infusing Aging Issues into the Rehabilitation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.; Harley, Debra A.; Wadsworth, John S.; Smith, S. Mae

    2007-01-01

    In order to better prepare rehabilitation counselors to meet the needs of older workers, Kampfe, Wadsworth, Smith, and Harley (2005) suggested that aging issues can be infused into the curriculum of rehabilitation education programs. This article is a follow-up to the earlier publication that called for infusion of aging issues into the…

  6. Ethical Issues of Ethnography Method: A Comparative Approach to Subaltern, Self, and the Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeyemi, Christo

    2013-01-01

    Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the…

  7. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  8. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues in dental education: a multipurpose method.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Paterson, Randy

    2011-10-01

    Discussion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues has fallen short in dental curricula. This article aims to describe the didactic approach used to present issues of sexuality in the D.M.D. curriculum at the University of British Columbia. This descriptive article discusses the main pedagogies employed to present and discuss LGBT issues: lecture-based seminars, guest panel discussion with members of the LGBT community, poster discussion, and student reflections on the topic of sexuality. The approach to sexual diversity presented here does not profess to make an otherwise homophobic student LGBT-friendly, but it exposes all students to alternative views of sexuality, challenges their values and beliefs, and celebrates diversity. The methodology presented has had a positive impact upon students as illustrated by their reflections, but further discussion is needed to better understand the implications of LGBT issues in both academic and professional settings.

  9. Issues and methods in incorporating environmental externalities into the integrated resource planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1994-11-01

    This report is a review of current practices and policies in considering environmental externalities in the integrated resource planning and performance based regulation (IRP/PBR) process. The following issues are presented and examined: What are the pros and cons of treating environmental externalities in the IRP process? How are potential future environmental regulations being treated? Are externalities being qualitatively or quantitatively considered, or monetized? Are offsets being allowed? How are externality policies being coordinated among different levels and branches of governments? Should environmental externalities be considered in dispatching a utility`s existing resources? What are the procedures for addressing uncertainty in incorporating environmental externalities into IRP? How are externalities valued? What are other approaches to addressing environmental externalities. This report describes seven major approaches for addressing environmental externalities in the IRP process: qualitative treatment, weighting and ranking, cost of control, damage function, percentage adders, monetization by emission, and multiattribute trade-off analysis. The discussion includes a taxonomy of the full range of alternative methods for addressing environmental externalities, a summary of state PUC actions, the role of state laws, the debate on environmental adders, and the choice of methodologies. In addition, this report characterizes the interests of stakeholders such as the electric industry, fuel suppliers, energy consumers, governmental agencies, public interest groups, consultants, and others. It appears that the views, positions, and interests of these stakeholders are affected by their perceptions of the potential impacts on their economic interests or the viability of their position on environmental policy, by the societal perspective they take, and by the orientation of the analysts toward market competition and their respective accumulated expertise.

  10. Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background International data on child maltreatment are largely derived from child protection agencies, and predominantly report only substantiated cases of child maltreatment. This approach underestimates the incidence of maltreatment and makes inter-jurisdictional comparisons difficult. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of health professionals in identifying, documenting and reporting suspected child maltreatment. This study aimed to describe the issues around case identification using coded morbidity data, outline methods for selecting and grouping relevant codes, and illustrate patterns of maltreatment identified. Methods A comprehensive review of the ICD-10-AM classification system was undertaken, including review of index terms, a free text search of tabular volumes, and a review of coding standards pertaining to child maltreatment coding. Identified codes were further categorised into maltreatment types including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Using these code groupings, one year of Australian hospitalisation data for children under 18 years of age was examined to quantify the proportion of patients identified and to explore the characteristics of cases assigned maltreatment-related codes. Results Less than 0.5% of children hospitalised in Australia between 2005 and 2006 had a maltreatment code assigned, almost 4% of children with a principal diagnosis of a mental and behavioural disorder and over 1% of children with an injury or poisoning as the principal diagnosis had a maltreatment code assigned. The patterns of children assigned with definitive T74 codes varied by sex and age group. For males selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, physical abuse was most commonly coded (62.6% of maltreatment cases) while for females selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, sexual abuse was the most commonly assigned form of maltreatment (52.9% of maltreatment cases

  11. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  12. Science, Technology, Society: Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Donald G., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the potential pitfalls resulting from a lack of human foresight lies at the heart of the science-technology-society (STS) movement. This issue of "Theory Into Practice" is the second part of a two-part series that examines the educational opportunities arising as educators attempt to develop student understanding of STS. In the first…

  13. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  14. Functional Independence Measures for Students with Disabilities: Review of Issues and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Bontrager, Terry; Ferguson, Tammi

    This review highlights issues in functional independence measurement and describes educationally-based functional independence measures applicable to students with disabilities. Increasing inclusion of students with disabilities in general education settings has resulted in a need for assessments to identify students' capabilities to meet the…

  15. Educational Methods for Addressing Diversity Issues: The Use of Sociodramatic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieco, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    A sociodrama workshop was used to address diversity issues on a residential college campus experiencing problems with prejudice and the acceptance of diversity. Fifteen members of the community participated and a survey was used to determine the problems. A sociodrama exercise helped members understand what it was like to be discriminated against.…

  16. Integrating Scientific Method and Critical Thinking in Classroom Debates on Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge and skills to deal with current environmental issues should be included in biology teaching, which involves classroom debate that is ideal to develop knowledge. Increasing students' participation, acquiring interpersonal and oral communication skills and developing better understanding are some of the advantages of debates in the…

  17. Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    The Water Power Program focuses on technological development, and deployment of innovative technologies capable of generating electricity from water. The program funds research and development activities through competitive solicitations. Financial opportunities are avaliable here.

  18. [Nurses and research: contents and methods. Premise and guide to the use of this issue. 1. Why a special issue for research].

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    For the first time in its history, this journal assumes the unusual form of a monograph: the issue is dedicated to the problems of research methodology, as it applies to the nursing context and activities. The purpose and the contents which are developed along the eight "chapters" can be summarised as follows: 1. It is widely recognised that health care systems are undergoing a profound and rapid transformation phase, which is obviously affecting the nursing profession and roles. To minimize the very real risk of being passive observers of the changes, a propositive strategy based on diffuse and intense research activities (aiming at describing, anticipating, assessing, experimenting changes and hypotheses) appears to be a priority choice (besides the more classical and needed institutional battles and arrangements). 2. Since its very beginning (back 15 years ago), this journal had adopted among its main objectives and distinctive features, the promotion of a research oriented mentality in a profession which (mainly, but not exclusively in Italy) has been characterised more in terms of executive and basically dependent tasks. The key thesis all over the years has been that, to be relevant for the whole profession, research should not be conceived as a separate or élite area of interest but it should be as close as possible (in its scope and methods), to the routine activities of the majority of the nurses. 3. The years long experience has produced (both through the materials which have been published, and the training initiatives which the Rdl has promoted) an important body of concepts and suggestions, which appear to be possibly useful to integrate the existing standard literature dedicated to research methods and designs. 4. The structure chosen for the overall organisation of the issue tries to comply to this "experimental" background: after a first part focused on the close articulation between the conceptual and historical specificities of nursing research

  19. Aeroelastic stability of wind turbines: the problem, the methods and the issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riziotis, V. A.; Voutsinas, S. G.; Politis, E. S.; Chaviaropoulos, P. K.

    2004-10-01

    Aeroelastic stability is a key issue in the design process of wind turbines towards both enchanced stability and increased fatigue life. The theory and models behind the state-of-the-art aeroelastic stability tools developed for the analysis of the complete wind turbine at the Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and the National Technical University of Athens are presented in this article. Application examples of stability calculations for a pitch, variable speed and a stall-regulated wind turbine are also presented. Copyright

  20. Opportunities, ethical challenges, and lessons learned from working with peer research assistants in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-10-01

    We discuss ethical challenges and opportunities experienced by peer research assistants (PRAs) in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada. We review lessons learned and best practices based on our experience conducting a qualitative investigation of research priorities with diverse women living with HIV (WLWH) and implementation of a cross-sectional survey with African, Caribbean, and Black WLWH. While some opportunities were similar across research phases for PRAs (e.g., skill building), distinct challenges emerged in qualitative and quantitative phases. For example, our training did not adequately prepare PRAs with focus group facilitation skills; at times, survey implementation became counseling sessions. Researchers should assess how best to support PRAs as part of multi-method research processes.

  1. Small-diameter utilization issues and opportunities

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm

    1999-01-01

    This presentation provides a thought-provoking look at options for utilizing small- diameter wood to help reduce the widespread risk of catastrophic wildfire throughout the West while providing economic recovery of timber-depressed communities and sustaining viable forest products industry. Potentially viable utilization and marketing options are explored and current...

  2. Counseling in General Practice: Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monach, Jim; Monro, Surya

    1995-01-01

    Reports survey results of general practice (GP) counselors and primary health care teams concerning role and contribution of counselors in primary care. Identified principal tasks of GP counselors, their relationship with the host team, and some organizational and professional dilemmas which need to be addressed. A great deal of variation was…

  3. Marketing Across Cultures: Issues, Problems and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdrabboh, Bob

    Now more than ever, a clear knowledge and understanding of languages, cultures, and customs is essential to successfully marketing products and services around the world. Barriers to competition may occur in differences in language, technology levels, conceptions of authority, environmental perceptions, contexting, and social organization. In…

  4. Marketing Across Cultures: Issues, Problems and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdrabboh, Bob

    Now more than ever, a clear knowledge and understanding of languages, cultures, and customs is essential to successfully marketing products and services around the world. Barriers to competition may occur in differences in language, technology levels, conceptions of authority, environmental perceptions, contexting, and social organization. In…

  5. Desktop Computing Power--Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Therese A.; Porter, James H.

    1991-01-01

    This article explores the thesis that colleges and universities can leverage desktop computing power to address campus administration needs. It describes a study of administrative computing needs at the University of Chicago; identifies roadblocks to effective use of desktop computing, such as inadequate computing knowledge; and gives…

  6. Focus issue: teaching tools and learning opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gough, Nancy R

    2010-04-27

    Science Signaling provides authoring experience for students and resources for educators. Students experience the writing and revision process involved in authoring short commentary articles that are published in the Journal Club section. By publishing peer-reviewed teaching materials, Science Signaling provides instructors with feedback that improves their materials and an outlet to share their tips and techniques and digital resources with other teachers.

  7. Nutrition for sports performance: issues and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    Diet can significantly influence athletic performance, but recent research developments have substantially changed our understanding of sport and exercise nutrition. Athletes adopt various nutritional strategies in training and competition in the pursuit of success. The aim of training is to promote changes in the structure and function of muscle and other tissues by selective modulation of protein synthesis and breakdown in response to the training stimulus. This process is affected by the availability of essential amino acids in the post-exercise period. Athletes have been encouraged to eat diets high in carbohydrate, but low-carbohydrate diets up-regulate the capacity of muscle for fat oxidation, potentially sparing the limited carbohydrate stores. Such diets, however, do not enhance endurance performance. It is not yet known whether the increased capacity for fat oxidation that results from training in a carbohydrate-deficient state can promote loss of body fat. Preventing excessive fluid deficits will maintain exercise capacity, and ensuring adequate hydration status can also reduce subjective perception of effort. This latter effect may be important in encouraging exercise participation and promoting adherence to exercise programmes. Dietary supplement use is popular in sport, and a few supplements may improve performance in specific exercise tasks. Athletes must be cautious, however, not to contravene the doping regulations. There is an increasing recognition of the role of the brain in determining exercise performance: various nutritional strategies have been proposed, but with limited success. Nutrition strategies developed for use by athletes can also be used to achieve functional benefits in other populations.

  8. Naval Structural Materials: Requirements, Issues, and Opportunities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-10

    between strength, crack tolerance and corrosion resistance for a precipitation hardened stainless steel ( 17 - 4PH ) is given in Fig. 5.5 This alloy has...STRENGTH,a-y (ksi) Fig. 5 Stress corrosion cracking data for high strength stainless steel ( 17 - 4PH ) of different yield strengths under four electrochemical... hardening has been related to the probable formation of carbides or nitrides or to the radiation induced damage effects. It is interesting to note that inert

  9. Quality assurance for in vitro alternative test methods: quality control issues in test kit production.

    PubMed

    Rispin, Amy; Harbell, John W; Klausner, Mitchell; Jordan, Foster T; Coecke, Sandra; Gupta, Kailash; Stitzel, Katherine

    2004-06-01

    In vitro toxicology methods are being adopted by regulatory agencies worldwide. Many of these methods have been validated by using proprietary materials, often in the form of test kits. Guidelines for the use of Good Laboratory Practice methods for in vitro methods have been proposed. However, users of the data from these methods also need to be reassured that the proprietary materials and the test kits will provide consistent, good quality data over time, not just during the validation process. This paper presents an overview of the methods currently used by representatives of kit manufacturers and contract testing laboratories to ensure that the results from methods that utilise test kits are reproducible over time and across different types of test materials. This information will be valuable as a basis for future discussion on the need for formalised oversight of the quality of these materials.

  10. Opportunity Rocks!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This high-resolution image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows in superb detail a portion of the puzzling rock outcropping that scientists are eagerly planning to investigate. Presently, Opportunity is on its lander facing northeast; the outcropping lies to the northwest. These layered rocks measure only 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall and are thought to be either volcanic ash deposits or sediments carried by water or wind. The small rock in the center is about the size of a golf ball.

  11. Opportunity's Travels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overview map made from Mars Orbiter camera images illustrates the path that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has taken from its first sol on the red planet through its 87th sol. After thoroughly examining its 'Eagle Crater' landing-site, the rover moved onto the plains of Meridiani Planum, stopping to examine a curious trough and a target within it called 'Anatolia.' Following that, Opportunity approached and remotely studied the rocky dish called 'Fram Crater.' As of its 91st sol (April 26, 2004), the rover sits 160 meters (about 525 feet) from the rim of 'Endurance Crater.'

  12. Considering Fees in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: Opportunities for Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stewart S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The topic of money is ubiquitous to psychodynamic therapy work, yet often neglected in residency training programs. Residency allows a unique opportunity to address issues pertaining to money and their impact on therapy. METHOD: Through the experience of the author, the need for a more explicit and systematic consideration within…

  13. THE ONTARIO HYDRO METHOD FOR SPECIATED MERCURY MEASUREMENTS: ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ontario Hydro (OH) method has been developed for the measurement of total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion sources. The OH method was initially developed to support EPA's information collection request to characterize and inventory mercury emissions ...

  14. Evidence-Based Methods for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Stakeholder Issues and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Richard L.; McKee, Michael; Teeter, Dixie; Beytien, Alyson

    2007-01-01

    Despite variable interpretations of the meaning and nature of specific effective practice methods and research-supported strategies, such approaches are generally considered essential for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Indeed, there is general consensus that only by qualified professionals using effective methods in an…

  15. THE ONTARIO HYDRO METHOD FOR SPECIATED MERCURY MEASUREMENTS: ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ontario Hydro (OH) method has been developed for the measurement of total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion sources. The OH method was initially developed to support EPA's information collection request to characterize and inventory mercury emissions ...

  16. Creating Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In this age of greater accountability, local school districts within the USA increasingly use summer school programs as an intervention service to provide students who have failed to meet classroom, district, or state performance requirements with the opportunity to "catch up." Although such programs attempt to provide varying types of…

  17. Statistical issues in the use of dynamic allocation methods for balancing baseline covariates

    PubMed Central

    Pond, G R

    2011-01-01

    Background: The procedure for allocating patients to a treatment arm in comparative clinical trials is frequently chosen with only minor deliberation. This decision may, however, ultimately impact the trial inference, credibility, and even validity of the trial analysis. Cancer researchers are increasingly using dynamic allocation (DA) procedures, which balance treatment arms across baseline prognostic factors for clinical trials in place of historical methods such as simple randomisation or allocation via the random permuted blocks. Methods: This article gives an overview of DA methods, the statistical controversy that surrounds these procedures, and the potential impact on a clinical trial results. Results: Simple examples are provided to illustrate the use of DA methods and the inferential mistakes, notably on the P-value, if incorrect analyses are performed. Interpretation: The decision about which method to use for allocating patients should be given as much consideration as other aspects of a clinical trial. Appropriately choosing between methods can affect the statistical tests required and what inferences are possible, while affecting the trial credibility. Knowledge of the different methods is key to appropriate decision-making. PMID:21540857

  18. [The issue of medico-legal assessment of noise induced hearing loss: comparison of methods].

    PubMed

    Bosio, D; Coggiola, M; Baracco, A; Andreis, P; Perrelli, F

    2011-01-01

    Audiogram classification is crucial for hearing protection of workers occupationally exposed to noise. The methods that have been proposed are based on two principles: the morphological evaluation of the audiometric curve (eg. Merluzzi-Pira-Bosio--MPB) or the average hearing loss on different frequencies (eg. Albera-Beatrice--AB). The purpose of this study was to classify audiograms compatible with chronic acoustic trauma performed at the Occupational Medicine Outpatient Clinic of CTO Hospital in Turin from 2004 to 2011 with the methods outlined in Guidelines published by SIMLII. A substantial agreement among the methods was observed. While MPB is the most appropriate method for secondary prevention, the AB would seem more appropriate for the verification of a permanent weakening that has to be reported to the competent legal authorities.

  19. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL DATA: METHODS EVALUATION WITH REGARD TO DATA ISSUES AND ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities at a regional scale. An initial effort within this research program has been to develop and evaluate methods to synthesize ...

  20. mHealth Research: Current Methods, Alternative Approaches, and Issues for Discussion | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    On December 3, 2015, the National Cancer Institute convened a group of 18 behavioral scientists for a day-long meeting to discuss scientific methods for evaluating technology-mediated behavior change interventions, with an emphasis on mobile smoking cessation interventions. This post contains excerpts from a document provided to participants in advance of the December 3 meeting. The document was used to set context for discussion by providing a high-level overview of the methods most commonly used in published

  1. Alternate scenarios for population control in Pakistan: the issue of contraceptive method mix.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T; Ali, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors review Pakistan's population program, with a focus on the ideal mix of contraceptive methods needed to slow population growth. "Our objective in this exercise is to estimate the extent of services required to achieve a certain level of the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) necessary to bring fertility down to a level desired by women." Comparison is made between single- and multiple-method approaches.

  2. Postsecondary Education Opportunity. The Mortenson Report on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a collection of 12 issues of a monthly publication on public policy and postsecondary education opportunity. Each issue contains one or two main articles providing an analysis of research on trends in postsecondary education. The major articles in these issues are: (1) "The Challenge of Educational Opportunity in Public…

  3. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  4. [Quality of health care services as perceived by the customers: issues of method or context?].

    PubMed

    Necozione, S; Masedu, F; Cofini, V; di Orio, F

    2002-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is considered an important indicator of the quality of care. Its definition as well as the identification of the variables which affect it, rise many cultural and methodological issues. In order to give a contribution to the debate on such topics, we compared the patients' satisfaction detected before and after the transferral of the San Salvatore Hospital of L'Aquila to new and functional structures. The comparison aimed at evaluating the methodological and cultural entailments involved in customers satisfaction surveys, which focus the improvements in terms of health care as well as variation of satisfaction. The presence of contradictory elements in the expression of the satisfaction referred to the technical and informative aspects, seems to indicate that patients can express an high satisfaction degree independently from the real professional and technical quality performed. Such evidences, that anyway must be interpreted according with the methodological cautions of a non validated questionnaire, should foster stronger efforts in promoting sanitary education of the customers, devoted to the specific rights involved, as well as in making use of rigorous methodologies to detect the phenomenon.

  5. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.

  6. Perceptions of the Willingness of Part-Time Instructors in Community Colleges in the U.S. to Engage in Professional Development Opportunities and the Best Method(s) of Delivering These Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Brian A.; Dainty, Julie D.; Belcher, Gregory G.; Frisbee, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of occupational education officers concerning the willingness of part-time instructors in community colleges in the United States to attend professional development opportunities and the best methods and times to deliver these activities. The findings indicate that community colleges should…

  7. High Sodium Intake: Review of Recent Issues on Its Association with Cardiovascular Events and Measurement Methods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long-known association between high dietary sodium intake and hypertension, as well as the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Reduction of sodium intake is a major challenge for public health. Recently, there have been several controversial large population-based studies regarding the current recommendation for dietary sodium intake. Although these studies were performed in a large population, they aroused controversies because they had a flaw in the study design and methods. In addition, knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of the methods is essential in order to obtain an accurate estimation of sodium intake. I have reviewed the current literatures on the association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, as well as the methods for the estimation of sodium intake. PMID:26023304

  8. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. II. Sampling method affects ectoparasite studies.

    PubMed

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-08-31

    In this study, we assessed the impact of sampling method on the results of fish ectoparasite studies. Common roach Rutilus rutilus were sampled from the same gravel pit in the River Dyje flood plain (Czech Republic) using 3 different sampling methods, i.e. electrofishing, beach seining and gill-netting, and were examined for ectoparasites. Not only did fish caught by electrofishing have more of the most abundant parasites (Trichodina spp., Gyrodactylus spp.) than those caught by beach seining or gill-netting, they also had relatively rich parasite infracommunities, resulting in a significantly different assemblage composition, presumably as parasites were lost through handling and 'manipulation' in the net. Based on this, we recommend electrofishing as the most suitable method to sample fish for parasite community studies, as data from fish caught with gill-nets and beach seines will provide a biased picture of the ectoparasite community, underestimating ectoparasite abundance and infracommunity species richness.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann method for relativistic hydrodynamics: Issues on conservation law of particle number and discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Luo, K. H.; Li, X. J.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we aim to address several important issues about the recently developed lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for relativistic hydrodynamics [M. Mendoza, B. Boghosian, H. Herrmann, and S. Succi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 014502 (2010)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.014502; Phys. Rev. D 82, 105008 (2010)PRVDAQ1550-799810.1103/PhysRevD.82.105008]. First, we study the conservation law of the particle number in the relativistic LB model. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that in the relativistic LB model the conservation equation of the particle number is a convection-diffusion equation rather than a continuity equation, which makes the evolution of the particle number dependent on the relaxation time. Furthermore, we investigate the origin of the discontinuities that appeared in the relativistic problems with high viscosities, which were reported in a recent study [D. Hupp, M. Mendoza, I. Bouras, S. Succi, and H. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. D 84, 125015 (2011)PRVDAQ1550-799810.1103/PhysRevD.84.125015]. A multiple-relaxation-time relativistic LB model is presented to examine the influences of different relaxation times on the discontinuities. Numerical experiments show the discontinuities can be eliminated by setting the relaxation time τe (related to the bulk viscosity) to be sufficiently smaller than the relaxation time τν (related to the shear viscosity). Meanwhile, it is found that the relaxation time τɛ, which has no effect on the conservation equations at the Navier-Stokes level, will affect the numerical accuracy of the relativistic LB model. Moreover, the accuracy of the relativistic LB model for simulating moderately relativistic problems is also investigated.

  10. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  11. Mathematical, Logical, and Formal Methods in Information Retrieval: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crestani, Fabio; Dominich, Sandor; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Cornelis Joost

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of research on the use of mathematical, logical, and formal methods in information retrieval to help enhance retrieval effectiveness and clarify underlying concepts of information retrieval. Highlights include logic; probability; spaces; and future research needs. (Author/LRW)

  12. Liberalism, Communitarianism and Discussion Method as a Means of Reconciling Controversial Moral Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Basil R.

    1997-01-01

    Sets out the positions of Liberal and Communitarian philosophers on the fundamental requirements for a democratic civil society. Argues that a cultural, pluralist, democratic society will be characterized by a diversity of controversial moral positions at a range of levels. Offers discussion as a method of reconciling controversial moral…

  13. The Enterococcus QPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Testing Background, Performance and Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently accepted culture-based monitoring methods for fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters take at least 24 hr to determine if unacceptable levels of fecal pollution have reached our recreational beaches. During this waiting period changing water conditions may result eit...

  14. Mathematical, Logical, and Formal Methods in Information Retrieval: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crestani, Fabio; Dominich, Sandor; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Cornelis Joost

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of research on the use of mathematical, logical, and formal methods in information retrieval to help enhance retrieval effectiveness and clarify underlying concepts of information retrieval. Highlights include logic; probability; spaces; and future research needs. (Author/LRW)

  15. Asking Difficult Questions: Exploring Research Methods with Children on Painful Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Assumptions about a child's competence to voice an opinion often inhibit efforts to find effective methods for participation. Answers to questions are sought from the significant adults who surround a child [Morris, J. 2003. "Including All Children: Finding Out about the Experiences of Children with Communication and/or Cognitive…

  16. The Enterococcus QPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Testing Background, Performance and Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently accepted culture-based monitoring methods for fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters take at least 24 hr to determine if unacceptable levels of fecal pollution have reached our recreational beaches. During this waiting period changing water conditions may result eit...

  17. Asking Difficult Questions: Exploring Research Methods with Children on Painful Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Assumptions about a child's competence to voice an opinion often inhibit efforts to find effective methods for participation. Answers to questions are sought from the significant adults who surround a child [Morris, J. 2003. "Including All Children: Finding Out about the Experiences of Children with Communication and/or Cognitive…

  18. Issues and Methods Concerning the Evaluation of Hypersingular and Near-Hypersingular Integrals in BEM Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, P. W.; Khayat, M. A.; Wilton, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that higher order modeling of the sources and the geometry in Boundary Element Modeling (BEM) formulations is essential to highly efficient computational electromagnetics. However, in order to achieve the benefits of hIgher order basis and geometry modeling, the singular and near-singular terms arising in BEM formulations must be integrated accurately. In particular, the accurate integration of near-singular terms, which occur when observation points are near but not on source regions of the scattering object, has been considered one of the remaining limitations on the computational efficiency of integral equation methods. The method of singularity subtraction has been used extensively for the evaluation of singular and near-singular terms. Piecewise integration of the source terms in this manner, while manageable for bases of constant and linear orders, becomes unwieldy and prone to error for bases of higher order. Furthermore, we find that the singularity subtraction method is not conducive to object-oriented programming practices, particularly in the context of multiple operators. To extend the capabilities, accuracy, and maintainability of general-purpose codes, the subtraction method is being replaced in favor of the purely numerical quadrature schemes. These schemes employ singularity cancellation methods in which a change of variables is chosen such that the Jacobian of the transformation cancels the singularity. An example of the sin,oularity cancellation approach is the Duffy method, which has two major drawbacks: 1) In the resulting integrand, it produces an angular variation about the singular point that becomes nearly-singular for observation points close to an edge of the parent element, and 2) it appears not to work well when applied to nearly-singular integrals. Recently, the authors have introduced the transformation u(x(prime))= sinh (exp -1) x(prime)/Square root of ((y prime (exp 2))+ z(exp 2) for integrating functions of the form I

  19. Environmental issues in China

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Application issues in the use of depth from (de)focus analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshpanah, M.; Abramovich, G.; Harding, K.; Vemury, A.

    2011-06-01

    Recovering 3D object information through analyzing image focus (or defocus) has been shown to be a potential tool in situations where only a single viewing point is possible. Precise modeling and manipulation of imaging system parameters, e.g. depth of field, modulation transfer function and sensor characteristics, as well as lighting condition and object surface characteristics are critical for effectiveness of such methods. Sub-optimal performance is achieved when one or more of these parameters are dictated by other factors. In this paper, we will discuss the implicit requirements imposed by most common depth from focus/defocus (DFF/DFD) analysis methods and offer related application considerations. We also describe how a priori information about the objects of interest can be used to improve performance in realistic applications of this technology.

  1. Computing the Effects of Strain on Electronic States: A Survey of Methods and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    are calculated using the empirical pseudopotential method ( EPM ) as formulated by Mäder and Zunger (47) and using a ⋅ formulation from Van de Walle...using the EPM as formulated by Kim et al. (50) and using a ⋅ formulation from Van de Walle (103...the energies of conduction and valence electrons for wave vector 0, where the electronic energies are calculated with the EPM as formulated by Kim

  2. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  3. Forestry sector analysis for developing countries: Issues and methods. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, R.W.

    1993-10-01

    A satellite meeting of the 10th Forestry World Congress focused on the methods used for forest sector analysis and their application in both developed and developing countries. The results of that meeting are summarized, and a general approach for forest sector modeling is proposed. The approach includes models derived from the existing literature and can be used as a structure for applying forest sector analysis in developing countries.

  4. Kinetic lattice Boltzmann method for microscale gas flows: issues on boundary condition, relaxation time, and regularization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Dong; Hyodo, Shi-Aki; Munekata, Toshihisa; Suga, Kazuhiko

    2007-09-01

    It is well known that the Navier-Stokes equations cannot adequately describe gas flows in the transition and free-molecular regimes. In these regimes, the Boltzmann equation (BE) of kinetic theory is invoked to govern the flows. However, this equation cannot be solved easily, either by analytical techniques or by numerical methods. Hence, in order to efficiently maneuver around this equation for modeling microscale gas flows, a kinetic lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been introduced in recent years. This method is regarded as a numerical approach for solving the BE in discrete velocity space with Gauss-Hermite quadrature. In this paper, a systematic description of the kinetic LBM, including the lattice Boltzmann equation, the diffuse-scattering boundary condition for gas-surface interactions, and definition of the relaxation time, is provided. To capture the nonlinear effects due to the high-order moments and wall boundaries, an effective relaxation time and a modified regularization procedure of the nonequilibrium part of the distribution function are further presented based on previous work [Guo et al., J. Appl. Phys. 99, 074903 (2006); Shan et al., J. Fluid Mech. 550, 413 (2006)]. The capability of the kinetic LBM of simulating microscale gas flows is illustrated based on the numerical investigations of micro Couette and force-driven Poiseuille flows.

  5. Avian Influenza Surveillance with FTA Cards: Field Methods, Biosafety, and Transportation Issues Solved

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Robert H.S.; van Hooft, Pim; Waldenström, Jonas; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans1. These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes2. Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs3. Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported. Lately, a new AIV related strain swept through the human population, causing the 'swine flu epidemic'4. Although human trading and transportation activity seems to be responsible for the spread of highly pathogenic strains5, dispersal can also partly be attributed to wild birds6, 7. However, the actual reservoir of all AIV strains is wild birds. In reaction to this and in face of severe commercial losses in the poultry industry, large surveillance programs have been implemented globally to collect information on the ecology of AIVs, and to install early warning systems to detect certain highly pathogenic strains8-12. Traditional virological methods require viruses to be intact and cultivated before analysis. This necessitates strict cold chains with deep freezers and heavy biosafety procedures to be in place during transport. Long-term surveillance is therefore usually restricted to a few field stations close to well equipped laboratories. Remote areas cannot be sampled unless logistically cumbersome procedures are implemented. These problems have been recognised13, 14 and the use of alternative storage and transport strategies investigated (alcohols or guanidine)15-17. Recently, Kraus et al.18 introduced a method to collect, store and transport AIV samples, based on a special filter paper. FTA cards19 preserve RNA on a dry storage basis20 and render pathogens inactive upon contact21. This study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect AIV RNA in reverse-transcription PCR and that the resulting cDNA could be sequenced and virus genes and determined. In the study of Kraus et al.18 a laboratory isolate of AIV was used, and samples were handled individually. In the extension

  6. Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Robert H S; van Hooft, Pim; Waldenström, Jonas; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2011-08-02

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans(1). These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes(2). Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs(3). Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported. Lately, a new AIV related strain swept through the human population, causing the 'swine flu epidemic'(4). Although human trading and transportation activity seems to be responsible for the spread of highly pathogenic strains(5), dispersal can also partly be attributed to wild birds(6, 7). However, the actual reservoir of all AIV strains is wild birds. In reaction to this and in face of severe commercial losses in the poultry industry, large surveillance programs have been implemented globally to collect information on the ecology of AIVs, and to install early warning systems to detect certain highly pathogenic strains(8-12). Traditional virological methods require viruses to be intact and cultivated before analysis. This necessitates strict cold chains with deep freezers and heavy biosafety procedures to be in place during transport. Long-term surveillance is therefore usually restricted to a few field stations close to well equipped laboratories. Remote areas cannot be sampled unless logistically cumbersome procedures are implemented. These problems have been recognised(13, 14) and the use of alternative storage and transport strategies investigated (alcohols or guanidine)(15-17). Recently, Kraus et al.(18) introduced a method to collect, store and transport AIV samples, based on a special filter paper. FTA cards(19) preserve RNA on a dry storage basis(20) and render pathogens inactive upon contact(21). This study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect AIV RNA in reverse-transcription PCR and that the resulting cDNA could be sequenced and virus genes and determined. In the study of Kraus et al.(18) a laboratory isolate of AIV was used, and samples were handled

  7. The copper intrauterine device for emergency contraception: an opportunity to provide the optimal emergency contraception method and transition to highly effective contraception.

    PubMed

    Dermish, Amna I; Turok, David K

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide, 40% of all pregnancies are unintended. Widespread, over-the-counter availability of oral emergency contraception (EC) has not reduced unintended pregnancy rates. The EC visit presents an opportunity to initiate a highly effective method of contraception in a population at high risk of unintended pregnancy who are actively seeking to avoid pregnancy. The copper intrauterine device (IUD), the most effective method of EC, continues to provide contraception as effective as sterilization for up to 12 years, and it should be offered as the first-line method of EC wherever possible. Increased demand for and supply of the copper IUD for EC may have an important role in reducing rates of unintended pregnancy. The EC visit should include access to the copper IUD as optimal care but should ideally include access to all highly effective methods of contraception.

  8. Opportunity's Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Long Term Planning graphic was created from a mosaic of navigation camera images overlain by a polar coordinate grid with the center point as Opportunity's original landing site. The blue dots represent the rover position at various locations.

    The red dots represent the center points of the target areas for the instruments on the rover mast (the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer). Opportunity visited Stone Mountain on Feb. 5. Stone Mountain was named after the southernmost point of the Appalachian Mountains outside of Atlanta, Ga. On Earth, Stone Mountain is the last big mountain before the Piedmont flatlands, and on Mars, Stone Mountain is at one end of Opportunity Ledge. El Capitan is a target of interest on Mars named after the second highest peak in Texas in Guadaloupe National Park, which is one of the most visited outcrops in the United States by geologists. It has been a training ground for students and professional geologists to understand what the layering means in relation to the formation of Earth, and scientists will study this prominent point of Opportunity Ledge to understand what the layering means on Mars.

    The yellow lines show the midpoint where the panoramic camera has swept and will sweep a 120-degree area from the three waypoints on the tour of the outcrop. Imagine a fan-shaped wedge from left to right of the yellow line.

    The white contour lines are one meter apart, and each drive has been roughly about 2-3 meters in length over the last few sols. The large white blocks are dropouts in the navigation camera data.

    Opportunity is driving along and taking a photographic panorama of the entire outcrop. Scientists will stitch together these images and use the new mosaic as a 'base map' to decide on geology targets of interest for a more detailed study of the outcrop using the instruments on the robotic arm. Once scientists choose their targets of interest, they plan to study the outcrop for roughly five to

  9. Opportunity's Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Long Term Planning graphic was created from a mosaic of navigation camera images overlain by a polar coordinate grid with the center point as Opportunity's original landing site. The blue dots represent the rover position at various locations.

    The red dots represent the center points of the target areas for the instruments on the rover mast (the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer). Opportunity visited Stone Mountain on Feb. 5. Stone Mountain was named after the southernmost point of the Appalachian Mountains outside of Atlanta, Ga. On Earth, Stone Mountain is the last big mountain before the Piedmont flatlands, and on Mars, Stone Mountain is at one end of Opportunity Ledge. El Capitan is a target of interest on Mars named after the second highest peak in Texas in Guadaloupe National Park, which is one of the most visited outcrops in the United States by geologists. It has been a training ground for students and professional geologists to understand what the layering means in relation to the formation of Earth, and scientists will study this prominent point of Opportunity Ledge to understand what the layering means on Mars.

    The yellow lines show the midpoint where the panoramic camera has swept and will sweep a 120-degree area from the three waypoints on the tour of the outcrop. Imagine a fan-shaped wedge from left to right of the yellow line.

    The white contour lines are one meter apart, and each drive has been roughly about 2-3 meters in length over the last few sols. The large white blocks are dropouts in the navigation camera data.

    Opportunity is driving along and taking a photographic panorama of the entire outcrop. Scientists will stitch together these images and use the new mosaic as a 'base map' to decide on geology targets of interest for a more detailed study of the outcrop using the instruments on the robotic arm. Once scientists choose their targets of interest, they plan to study the outcrop for roughly five to

  10. Examinee Issues in CAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    The perspective of the examinee during the administration of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) is discussed, focusing on issues of test development. Item review is the first issue discussed. Virtually no CATs provide the opportunity for the examinee to go back and review, and possibly change, answers. There are arguments on either side of the…

  11. Issues with, and suggested improvements to, Method 25C -- Determination of nonmethane organic compounds in MSW landfill gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.; Curro, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA issued a new sampling and test method for landfill gas with the promulgation, on March 12, 1996, of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfills (40 CFR 60 Subparts WWW and Cc). Method 25C was developed for collecting landfill gas samples through probes driven into the waste, and then having the gas sample analyzed in a laboratory by a gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for the concentration of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC). The NSPS require that the NMOC emission rate be calculated for landfills affected by the rule. The NMOC emission rate can be calculated with a formula in the rule, and either very conservative Tier 1 default values, or with actual site-specific NMOC concentration data collected and analyzed in accordance with Method 25C. The use of site-specific NMOC concentration data is referred to as Tier 2.

  12. Issues associated with Galilean invariance on a moving solid boundary in the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Geneva, Nicholas; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    In lattice Boltzmann simulations involving moving solid boundaries, the momentum exchange between the solid and fluid phases was recently found to be not fully consistent with the principle of local Galilean invariance (GI) when the bounce-back schemes (BBS) and the momentum exchange method (MEM) are used. In the past, this inconsistency was resolved by introducing modified MEM schemes so that the overall moving-boundary algorithm could be more consistent with GI. However, in this paper we argue that the true origin of this violation of Galilean invariance (VGI) in the presence of a moving solid-fluid interface is due to the BBS itself, as the VGI error not only exists in the hydrodynamic force acting on the solid phase, but also in the boundary force exerted on the fluid phase, according to Newton's Third Law. The latter, however, has so far gone unnoticed in previously proposed modified MEM schemes. Based on this argument, we conclude that the previous modifications to the momentum exchange method are incomplete solutions to the VGI error in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). An implicit remedy to the VGI error in the LBM and its limitation is then revealed. To address the VGI error for a case when this implicit remedy does not exist, a bounce-back scheme based on coordinate transformation is proposed. Numerical tests in both laminar and turbulent flows show that the proposed scheme can effectively eliminate the errors associated with the usual bounce-back implementations on a no-slip solid boundary, and it can maintain an accurate momentum exchange calculation with minimal computational overhead.

  13. Issues associated with Galilean invariance on a moving solid boundary in the lattice Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Geneva, Nicholas; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    In lattice Boltzmann simulations involving moving solid boundaries, the momentum exchange between the solid and fluid phases was recently found to be not fully consistent with the principle of local Galilean invariance (GI) when the bounce-back schemes (BBS) and the momentum exchange method (MEM) are used. In the past, this inconsistency was resolved by introducing modified MEM schemes so that the overall moving-boundary algorithm could be more consistent with GI. However, in this paper we argue that the true origin of this violation of Galilean invariance (VGI) in the presence of a moving solid-fluid interface is due to the BBS itself, as the VGI error not only exists in the hydrodynamic force acting on the solid phase, but also in the boundary force exerted on the fluid phase, according to Newton's Third Law. The latter, however, has so far gone unnoticed in previously proposed modified MEM schemes. Based on this argument, we conclude that the previous modifications to the momentum exchange method are incomplete solutions to the VGI error in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). An implicit remedy to the VGI error in the LBM and its limitation is then revealed. To address the VGI error for a case when this implicit remedy does not exist, a bounce-back scheme based on coordinate transformation is proposed. Numerical tests in both laminar and turbulent flows show that the proposed scheme can effectively eliminate the errors associated with the usual bounce-back implementations on a no-slip solid boundary, and it can maintain an accurate momentum exchange calculation with minimal computational overhead.

  14. Issues and progress in transforming a middle-division classical mechanics/math methods course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Steven J.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Marino, Alysia D.

    2012-02-01

    The physics department at the University of Colorado, Boulder has recently begun the transformation of its Classical Mechanics/Math Methods course, a middle-division course taken primarily by sophomore physics majors. We discuss the process of course transformation, including holding faculty meetings to create consensus learning goals and a conceptual diagnostic, and adopting, adapting and creating course materials and structures. We also report preliminary observations of student learning gains, student attitudes towards the transformation, and common student difficulties with the course material. We also discuss ongoing plans for the course transformation.

  15. Gulliver's Eggs: Why Methods are not an Issue of Qualitative Research in Cultural Psychology.

    PubMed

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The future of qualitative methods regards the kind of object cultural psychology is interested and the kind of questions it can ask. I propose that the object should be experiencing, understood as a complex whole, consisting of lived-by action and counter-action, that is contextual inter-action with the world in the form of an experiencing subject and otherness. The kind of questions cultural psychology can ask is instead related to the epistemological status attributed to both researcher and participant. Probably few scholars such as Vygotsky, Piaget and Lewin understood to what extent experiencing is always changing, because the relationship between mind, alterity and culture is co-generative. This also implies a relativization and a decentralization of the psychology's perspective. Finally, I provide some examples from the history of psychology and some suggestions to work at the level of such complexity by using methods that can work with complex objects such as products of human activity (e.g., art, literature, architecture, etc.).

  16. Quantification of immunohistochemistry--issues concerning methods, utility and semiquantitative assessment II.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C R; Levenson, R M

    2006-10-01

    Immunohistochemistry is entering its fourth decade of use on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Over this period the method has evolved to become a major part of the practice of diagnostic surgical pathology worldwide. From the beginning immunohistochemistry has been adapted to provide a range of markers of cell lineage and tissue type, with particular application to the diagnosis and classification of tumours. In this modality immunohistochemical methods were employed simply as 'special stains', the results of which were evaluated qualitatively by the pathologist, as for any other stain. More recently, attention has shifted to the demonstration of prognostic markers in tumour cells, driven by the advent of molecular biology and the discovery of numerous regulatory molecules, coupled with manufacture of the corresponding specific antibodies. Immunohistochemistry has rapidly adapted to this new use, but in so doing the demand for quantification has become paramount; it is no longer enough that the 'stain' is there; rather it is a question of 'How much is there?'. This review explores the limitations of immunohistochemistry when employed in a semiquantitative mode, and explores the possibility of fulfilling the full potential of immunohistochemistry, as a true quantitative immunoassay applied in a tissue section environment.

  17. Did I Tell You That? Ethical Issues Related to Using Computational Methods to Discover Non-Disclosed Patient Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cato, Kenrick D; Bockting, Walter; Larson, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Widespread availability of electronic health records coupled with sophisticated statistical methods offer great potential for a variety of applications for health and disease surveillance, developing predictive models and advancing decision support for clinicians. However, use of "big data" mining and discovery techniques has also raised ethical issues such as how to balance privacy and autonomy with the wider public benefits of data sharing. Furthermore, electronic data are being increasingly used to identify individual characteristics, which can be useful for clinical prediction and management, but were not previously disclosed to a clinician. This process in computer parlance is called electronic phenotyping, and has a number of ethical implications. Using the Belmont Report's principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as a framework, we examined the ethical issues posed by electronic phenotyping. Ethical issues identified include the ability of the patient to consent for the use of their information, the ability to suppress pediatric information, ensuring that the potential benefits justify the risks of harm to patients, and acknowledging that the clinician's biases or stereotypes, conscious or unintended, may become a factor in the therapeutic interaction. We illustrate these issues with two vignettes, using the person characteristic of gender minority status (i.e., transgender identity) and health history characteristic of substance abuse. Data mining has the potential to uncover patient characteristics previously obscured, which can provide clinicians with beneficial clinical information. Hence, ethical guidelines must be updated to ensure that electronic phenotyping supports the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Teaching the medical interview: methods and key learning issues in a faculty development course.

    PubMed

    Hatem, David S; Barrett, Susan V; Hewson, Mariana; Steele, David; Purwono, Urip; Smith, Robert

    2007-12-01

    To describe the American Academy on Communication in Healthcare's (AACH) Faculty Development Course on Teaching the Medical Interview and report a single year's outcomes. We delivered a Faculty Development course on Teaching the Medical Interview whose theme was relationship-centered care to a national and international audience in 1999. Participants completed a retrospective pre-post assessment of their perceived confidence in performing interview, clinical, teaching, and self-awareness skills. A total of 79 participants in the 17th annual AACH national faculty development course at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in June 1999. A 5-day course utilized the principles of learner-centered learning to teach a national and international cohort of medical school faculty about teaching the medical interview. The course fostered individualized, self-directed learning for participants, under the guidance of AACH faculty. Teaching methods included a plenary session, small groups, workshops, and project groups all designed to aid in the achievement of individual learning goals. Course outcomes of retrospective self-assessed confidence in interview, clinical, teaching, self-awareness, and control variables were measured using a 7-point Likert scale. Participants reported improved confidence in interview, clinical, teaching, and self-awareness variables. After controlling for desirability bias as measured by control variables, only teaching and self-awareness mean change scores were statistically significant (p < .001). The AACH Faculty Development course on Teaching the Medical Interview utilized learner-centered teaching methods important to insure learning with experienced course participants. Perceived teaching and self-awareness skills changed the most when compared to other skills.

  19. Gluten and gluten-free: issues and considerations of labeling regulations, detection methods, and assay validation.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Amigo, Carmen; Popping, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Gluten is a commonly used cereal derivative found in bakery products, among other items. In some susceptible individuals, however, it triggers immune responses of different kinds; there is, to a lesser extent, the wheat allergy that is immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and leads to histamine release and typical allergic symptoms. In this case, other water-soluble proteins, like albumins, are also involved. On the other hand, there is, more frequently, celiac disease (CD), where the gluten causes immune reactions in the intestines of certain individuals, leading to degeneration of villi, which typically leads to malabsorption of nutrients and, consequently, malnutrition. The only currently effective health strategy for affected consumers is avoidance of gluten-containing products, based on clear labeling rules. However, despite unanimously accepted Codex definitions by all member jurisdictions, the national implementation of equivalent laws shows significant differences. In the context of CD and in support of the gluten-free statement, regulatory enforcement, as well as manufacturers' quality controls are mostly based on analytical results. However, numerous methods are available, some of which have been validated better than others, and many provide different results on identical samples. Reasons include detection of different gluten components and variability in extraction efficiency due to different buffer compositions, especially from processed foods. Last but not least, the lack of reference materials is hindering the process of generating comparable data across different ELISA kits, as well as other methods. How can such data still be used to support a gluten-free claim? New methodologies, in particular mass spectrometric analysis of gluten derived peptides, are being introduced in numerous laboratories. This methodology is not only capable of detecting gluten derived peptides but can also differentiate between and quantitate wheat, barley, rye, and oat. This

  20. Using Dialogue between Researcher and Participants as a Method of Coping with Issues of Credibility in Translation of Hispanics' Professional Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Norma Landa

    This paper contrasts Edward Hall's microcultural analysis method of teaching members of different cultures how to interact with the others, with Norma Flores' macrocultural Intercultural Assessment of Communication Competency and English Speaking Skills (I ACCESS) method of giving members of different cultures an opportunity to collaborate with…

  1. The state of the art and future opportunities for using longitudinal n-of-1 methods in health behaviour research: a systematic literature overview.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Suzanne; Quinn, Francis; Vieira, Rute; O'Brien, Nicola; White, Martin; Johnston, Derek W; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-12-01

    n-of-1 studies test hypotheses within individuals based on repeated measurement of variables within the individual over time. Intra-individual effects may differ from those found in between-participant studies. Using examples from a systematic review of n-of-1 studies in health behaviour research, this article provides a state of the art overview of the use of n-of-1 methods, organised according to key methodological considerations related to n-of-1 design and analysis, and describes future challenges and opportunities. A comprehensive search strategy (PROSPERO:CRD42014007258) was used to identify articles published between 2000 and 2016, reporting observational or interventional n-of-1 studies with health behaviour outcomes. Thirty-nine articles were identified which reported on n-of-1 observational designs and a range of n-of-1 interventional designs, including AB, ABA, ABABA, alternating treatments, n-of-1 randomised controlled trial, multiple baseline and changing criterion designs. Behaviours measured included treatment adherence, physical activity, drug/alcohol use, sleep, smoking and eating behaviour. Descriptive, visual or statistical analyses were used. We identify scope and opportunities for using n-of-1 methods to answer key questions in health behaviour research. n-of-1 methods provide the tools needed to help advance theoretical knowledge and personalise/tailor health behaviour interventions to individuals.

  2. Missed Opportunities: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of CAM Discussions and Practices in the Management of Pain in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Leppin, Aaron L; Fernandez, Cara; Tilburt, Jon C

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of pain in cancer is a clinical priority. Many cancer patients seek and use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. The aim of this study was to describe the role CAM plays in oncology, clinicians' approaches to pain management and its alignment with patient preference and self-care. We used quantitative criteria to identify patients with high, self-reported pain and reduced quality of life. For these patients, we merged quantitative and qualitative data from encounter audio recordings, patient surveys, and the medical record. We identified 32 patients (72% women, average age 60) experiencing significantly symptomatic pain at enrollment. Merged themes were 1) Restricted and defined roles: Oncology clinicians suggested and documented cancer-specific approaches to pain management. Patients often (17, 53%) used CAM but rarely desired to discuss it in their encounters. 2) Proactive patients in setting of neutrality: Pain management strategies were considered in 22 instances. CAM was mentioned in 4 (18%) of these discussions but only after patient initiation. Clinicians took a neutral stance. 3) Missed opportunities for person-centered CAM discussions and management: Most (88%) patients were receiving conventional pain medications at enrollment or had them added or escalated during follow-up. Some patients in pain expressed preferences for avoiding opioids. One patient reported wishing CAM would have been discussed after an encounter in which it was not. Bringing CAM discussions into the oncology encounter may facilitate a stronger patient-clinician partnership and a more open and safe understanding of pain-related CAM use. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Automatic Calibration of Hydrological Models in the Newly Reconstructed Catchments: Issues, Methods and Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Alireza; Elshorbagy, Amin

    2010-05-01

    The use of optimisation methods has a long tradition in the calibration of conceptual hydrological models; nevertheless, most of the previous investigations have been made in the catchments with long period of data collection and only with respect to the runoff information. The present study focuses on the automatic calibration of hydrological models using the states (i.e. soil moisture) as well as the fluxes (i.e., AET) in a prototype catchment, in which intensive gauging network collects variety of catchment variables; yet only a short period of data is available. First, the characteristics of such a calibration attempt are highlighted and discussed and a number of research questions are proposed. Then, four different optimisation methods, i.e. Latin Hypercube Sampling, Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis, Multi-Objective Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis and Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm II, have been considered and applied for the automatic calibration of the GSDW model in a newly oil-sand reconstructed catchment in northern Alberta, Canada. It is worthwhile to mention that the original GSDW model had to be translated into MATLAB in order to enable the model to be automatically calibrated. Different conceptualisation scenarios are generated and calibrated. The calibration results have been analysed and compared in terms of the optimality and the quality of solutions. The concepts of multi-objectivity and lack of identifiability are addressed in the calibration solutions and the best calibration algorithm is selected based on the error of representing the soil moisture content in different layers. The current study also considers uncertainties, which might occur in the formulation of calibration process by considering different calibration scenarios using the same model and dataset. The interactions among accuracy, identifiability, and the model parsimony are addressed and discussed. The present investigation concludes that the calibration of

  4. Interconnected but underprotected? Parents' methods and motivations for information seeking on digital safety issues.

    PubMed

    Davis, Vauna

    2012-12-01

    Parents need information and skills to meet the demands of mediating connected technology in their homes. Parents' methods and motivations for learning to protect children from digital risks were reported through a survey. This study explores relationships between information seeking, parents' concerns, risks children have experienced, and access to connected devices, in addition to the use and satisfaction of various digital safety resources. Three types of information-seeking behavior were identified: (a) protective information seeking, to protect children from being confronted with harmful content; (b) problem-solving information seeking, to help children who have been negatively affected by connected technology; and (c) attentive learning, by attending to media resources passively encountered on this topic. Friends and family are the dominant source of digital safety information, followed by presentations and the Internet. Parents' top concerns for their children using connected technology were accidental exposure to pornography, and sexual content in Internet-based entertainment. Higher numbers of risks experienced by children were positively associated with parents' problem-solving information seeking and level of attentive learning. Parents who were more concerned exhibited more problem-solving information seeking; but despite the high level of concern for children's safety online, 65 percent of parents seek information on this subject less than twice per year. Children have access to a mean of five connected devices at home; a higher number of devices was correlated with increased risks experienced by children, but was not associated with increased concern or information seeking from parents.

  5. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    In the design of a new space suit it is necessary to have requirements that define what mobility space suit joints should be capable of achieving in both a system and at the component level. NASA elected to divide mobility into its constituent parts-range of motion (ROM) and torque- in an effort to develop clean design requirements that limit subject performance bias and are easily verified. Unfortunately, the measurement of mobility can be difficult to obtain. Current technologies, such as the Vicon motion capture system, allow for the relatively easy benchmarking of range of motion (ROM) for a wide array of space suit systems. The ROM evaluations require subjects in the suit to accurately evaluate the ranges humans can achieve in the suit. However, when it comes to torque, there are significant challenges for both benchmarking current performance and writing requirements for future suits. This is reflected in the fact that torque definitions have been applied to very few types of space suits and with limited success in defining all the joints accurately. This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages to historical joint torque evaluation methods, describes more recent efforts directed at benchmarking joint torques of prototype space suits, and provides an outline for how NASA intends to address joint torque in design requirements for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS).

  6. Decision making under uncertainty: An investigation into the application of formal decision-making methods to safety issue decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M P

    1992-12-01

    As part of the NRC-sponsored program to study the implications of Generic Issue 57, Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment,'' a subtask was performed to evaluate the applicability of formal decision analysis methods to generic issues cost/benefit-type decisions and to apply these methods to the GI-57 results. In this report, the numerical results obtained from the analysis of three plants (two PWRs and one BWR) as developed in the technical resolution program for GI-57 were studied. For each plant, these results included a calculation of the person-REM averted due to various accident scenarios and various proposed modifications to mitigate the accident scenarios identified. These results were recomputed to break out the benefit in terms of contributions due to random event scenarios, fire event scenarios, and seismic event scenarios. Furthermore, the benefits associated with risk (in terms of person-REM) averted from earthquakes at three different seismic ground motion levels were separately considered. Given this data, formal decision methodologies involving decision trees, value functions, and utility functions were applied to this basic data. It is shown that the formal decision methodology can be applied at several different levels. Examples are given in which the decision between several retrofits is changed from that resulting from a simple cost/benefit-ratio criterion by virtue of the decision-makinger's expressed (and assumed) preferences.

  7. Efficient optical probes for fast surface velocimetry: multiple frequency issues for Fabry and VISAR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosman, David R.; Avara, George R.; Perry, Stephen J.

    2001-04-01

    velocimeter. The Doppler-shifted light enters the collection fiber with angles between 0.11 and 0.2, with little light in the 0 to 0.11 NA region. However, the manybeam velocimeter uses just the light in the 0 to 0.11 NA range, except when we link two analyzer tables together. A slight amount of mode scrambling of the Doppler shifted light converts the light into a uniformly filled NA equals 0.2 angular range before entering the velocimeter analyzer table. We have expended seven hundred plastic nested lenses in various experiments. The most recent version of the fiber cable assembly will be shown. Six situations will be discussed where multiple reflected frequencies were observed in experiments, illustrating an advantage of the Fabry-Perot vs. the VISAR method.

  8. Applying quantitative benefit-risk analysis to aid regulatory decision making in diagnostic imaging: methods, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Agapova, Maria; Devine, Emily Beth; Bresnahan, Brian W; Higashi, Mitchell K; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-09-01

    Health agencies making regulatory marketing-authorization decisions use qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess expected benefits and expected risks associated with medical interventions. There is, however, no universal standard approach that regulatory agencies consistently use to conduct benefit-risk assessment (BRA) for pharmaceuticals or medical devices, including for imaging technologies. Economics, health services research, and health outcomes research use quantitative approaches to elicit preferences of stakeholders, identify priorities, and model health conditions and health intervention effects. Challenges to BRA in medical devices are outlined, highlighting additional barriers in radiology. Three quantitative methods--multi-criteria decision analysis, health outcomes modeling and stated-choice survey--are assessed using criteria that are important in balancing benefits and risks of medical devices and imaging technologies. To be useful in regulatory BRA, quantitative methods need to: aggregate multiple benefits and risks, incorporate qualitative considerations, account for uncertainty, and make clear whose preferences/priorities are being used. Each quantitative method performs differently across these criteria and little is known about how BRA estimates and conclusions vary by approach. While no specific quantitative method is likely to be the strongest in all of the important areas, quantitative methods may have a place in BRA of medical devices and radiology. Quantitative BRA approaches have been more widely applied in medicines, with fewer BRAs in devices. Despite substantial differences in characteristics of pharmaceuticals and devices, BRA methods may be as applicable to medical devices and imaging technologies as they are to pharmaceuticals. Further research to guide the development and selection of quantitative BRA methods for medical devices and imaging technologies is needed. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Exploring the opportunities for food and drink purchasing and consumption by teenagers during their journeys between home and school: a feasibility study using a novel method.

    PubMed

    Cowburn, Gill; Matthews, Anne; Doherty, Aiden; Hamilton, Alex; Kelly, Paul; Williams, Julianne; Foster, Charlie; Nelson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using wearable cameras as a method to capture the opportunities for food and drink purchasing/consumption that young people encounter on their regular journeys to and from school. A qualitative study using multiple data-collection methods including wearable cameras, global positioning system units, individual interviews, food and drink purchase and consumption diaries completed by participants over four days, and an audit of food outlets located within an 800 m Euclidean buffer zone around each school. A community setting. Twenty-two students (fourteen girls and eight boys) aged 13-15 years recruited from four secondary schools in two counties of England. Wearable cameras offered a feasible and acceptable method for collecting food purchase and consumption data when used alongside traditional methods of data collection in a small number of teenagers. We found evidence of participants making deliberate choices about whether or not to purchase/consume food and drink on their journeys. These choices were influenced by priorities over money, friends, journey length, travel mode and ease of access to opportunities for purchase/consumption. Most food and drink items were purchased/consumed within an 800 m Euclidean buffer around school, with items commonly selected being high in energy, fat and sugar. Wearable camera images combined with interviews helped identify unreported items and misreporting errors. Wearable camera images prompt detailed discussion and generate contextually specific information which could offer new insights and understanding around eating behaviour patterns. The feasibility of scaling up the use of these methods requires further empirical work.

  10. Effectiveness of public deliberation methods for gathering input on issues in healthcare: Results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Carman, Kristin L; Mallery, Coretta; Maurer, Maureen; Wang, Grace; Garfinkel, Steve; Yang, Manshu; Gilmore, Dierdre; Windham, Amy; Ginsburg, Marjorie; Sofaer, Shoshanna; Gold, Marthe; Pathak-Sen, Ela; Davies, Todd; Siegel, Joanna; Mangrum, Rikki; Fernandez, Jessica; Richmond, Jennifer; Fishkin, James; Siu Chao, Alice

    2015-05-01

    Public deliberation elicits informed perspectives on complex issues that are values-laden and lack technical solutions. This Deliberative Methods Demonstration examined the effectiveness of public deliberation for obtaining informed public input regarding the role of medical evidence in U.S. healthcare. We conducted a 5-arm randomized controlled trial, assigning participants to one of four deliberative methods or to a reading materials only (RMO) control group. The four deliberative methods reflected important differences in implementation, including length of the deliberative process and mode of interaction. The project convened 76 groups between August and November 2012 in four U.S. Chicago, IL; Sacramento, CA; Silver Spring, MD; and Durham, NC, capturing a sociodemographically diverse sample with specific attention to ensuring inclusion of Hispanic, African-American, and elderly participants. Of 1774 people recruited, 75% participated: 961 took part in a deliberative method and 377 participants comprised the RMO control group. To assess effectiveness of the deliberative methods overall and of individual methods, we evaluated whether mean pre-post changes on a knowledge and attitude survey were statistically different from the RMO control using ANCOVA. In addition, we calculated mean scores capturing participant views of the impact and value of deliberation. Participating in deliberation increased participants' knowledge of evidence and comparative effectiveness research and shifted participants' attitudes regarding the role of evidence in decision-making. When comparing each deliberative method to the RMO control group, all four deliberative methods resulted in statistically significant change on at least one knowledge or attitude measure. These findings were underscored by self-reports that the experience affected participants' opinions. Public deliberation offers unique potential for those seeking informed input on complex, values-laden topics affecting broad

  11. Methods of Selecting Industries for Depressed Areas--An Introduction to Feasibility Studies. Developing Job Opportunities 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaassen, Leo H.

    This report presents severl alternative methods which may be employed by local authorities in identifying likely prospects for local industrialization, and describes a specialized input-output technique to define inter-industry relations and inter-regional relations of industries. This technique is applied, for illustrative purposes, to three…

  12. Technology, Pedagogy, and Epistemology: Opportunities and Challenges of Using Computer Modeling and Simulation Tools in Elementary Science Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Christina V.; Meyer, Jason; Sharma, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    This study infused computer modeling and simulation tools in a 1-semester undergraduate elementary science methods course to advance preservice teachers' understandings of computer software use in science teaching and to help them learn important aspects of pedagogy and epistemology. Preservice teachers used computer modeling and simulation tools…

  13. Two Methods for Classifying Jobs into Equal Employment Opportunity Categories. Working Paper 83/84-4-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Penny F.; Graham-Moore, Brian E.

    Most organizations planning to assess adverse impact or perform a stock analysis for affirmative action planning must correctly classify their jobs into appropriate occupational categories. Two methods of job classification were assessed in a combination archival and field study. Classification results from expert judgment of functional job…

  14. Evaluation of a method for issuing warnings pre-epidemics and epidemics in Japan by infectious diseases surveillance.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hashimoto, Shuji; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Osaka, Ken; Fuchigami, Hiroshi; Nagai, Masaki

    2004-03-01

    Simple methods have been developed to warn of pre-epidemics and epidemics in small areas using data of infectious diseases surveillance. Epidemic warnings are made if the index of cases per week per sentinel medical institution is greater than a defined value. A pre-epidemic warning means that an epidemic warning will be given in the following four weeks. While the methods are used routinely for surveillance in Japan, they remain to be validated. Infectious diseases surveillance data of influenza-like illness and 12 pediatric diseases in the fiscal year between 1999 and 2001 were used in the analysis. We examined the frequency of warnings, temporal changes in the index before and after the onset of a warning, and the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of pre-epidemic warnings. For the majority of the diseases investigated, the proportion of weeks in which a warning was issued ranged between 0% and 10%. In several diseases including influenza-like illness, we observed a rapid increase and gradual decrease in the index before and after a warning. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of a pre-epidemic warning were 90.4%, 93.7% and 23.9% for influenza-like illness, and ranged between 25.1-54.2%, 86.1-99.2%, and 2.5-20.8% for the pediatric diseases (chickenpox, rubella, measles, and mumps), respectively. The study showed that the methods used for determining whether or not to issue an epidemic warning were satisfactory in some diseases, including influenza-like illness, and may need to be improved in several other diseases.

  15. 'Understanding' as a practical issue in sexual health education for people with intellectual disabilities: a study using two qualitative methods.

    PubMed

    Finlay, W M L; Rohleder, Poul; Taylor, Natalie; Culfear, Hollie

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health education is important in addressing the health and social inequalities faced by people with intellectual disabilities. However, provision of health-related advice and education to people with various types and degrees of linguistic and learning difficulties involves addressing complex issues of language and comprehension. This article reports an exploratory study using 2 qualitative methods to examine the delivery of sexual health education to people with intellectual disabilities. Four video-recordings of sexual health education sessions were collected. Conversation analysis was used to examine in detail how such education occurs as a series of interactions between educators and learners. Interviews with 4 educators were carried out and analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis shows how educators anticipate problems of comprehension and how they respond when there is evidence that a person does not understand the activity or the educational message. This occurs particularly when verbal prompts involve long sentences and abstract concepts. We show a characteristic pattern that arises in these situations, in which both educator and learner jointly produce a superficially correct response. Although interviews allows us some insight into contextual issues, strategy, and aspects of sexual health education that occur outside of the actual teaching sessions, analysis of actual interactions can show us patterns that occur in interactions between educators and learners when comprehension is in question. Addressing how sexual health education is delivered in practice and in detail provides valuable lessons about how such education can be improved. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Occupational fatigue and other health and safety issues for young Australian workers: an exploratory mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica Louise; Clarkson, Larissa; Rainbird, Sophia; Etherton, Hayley; Blewett, Verna

    2015-01-01

    Youth are vulnerable to sleep loss and fatigue due to biological, social and psychological factors. However, there are few studies addressing the risk that sleep loss and fatigue pose for youth in the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore work health and safety (WHS) issues for young workers and develop strategies and solutions for improved WHS outcomes, with a focus on issues related to fatigue, using a mixed-method, multi-stage approach. Participants either completed a survey (n=212) or took part in focus groups (n=115) addressing WHS for young workers, or attended a Future Inquiry Workshop (n=29) where strategies for improving youth WHS were developed. Fatigue was identified as a significant problem by the majority of young workers and was associated with unpredictable working time arrangements, precarious employment, high workload, working overtime and limited ability to self-advocate. Participants identified six key areas for action to improve WHS outcomes for young workers; 1) develop expertise, 2) give young workers a voice, 3) improve education and training, 4) build stakeholder engagement, 5) increase employer awareness of WHS responsibilities and, 6) improve processes for employers to manage and monitor WHS outcomes. The application of these directives to fatigue is discussed.

  17. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  18. Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data: Results of a NEA International Collaborative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.; Aliberti, G.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dupont, E.; Herman, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Ivanova, T.; Ivanov, E.; Kim, S.-J.; Kodeli, I.; Manturov, G.; McKnight, R.; Pelloni, S.; Perfetti, C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rearden, B. T.; Rochman, D.; Sugino, K.; Trkov, A.; Wang, W.; Wu, H.; Yang, W.-S.

    2014-04-01

    The Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) established a Subgroup (called "Subgroup 33") in 2009 on "Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data." The first stage was devoted to producing the description of different adjustment methodologies and assessing their merits. A detailed document related to this first stage has been issued. Nine leading organizations (often with a long and recognized expertise in the field) have contributed: ANL, CEA, INL, IPPE, JAEA, JSI, NRG, IRSN and ORNL. In the second stage a practical benchmark exercise was defined in order to test the reliability of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. A comparison of the results obtained by the participants and major lessons learned in the exercise are discussed in the present paper that summarizes individual contributions which often include several original developments not reported separately. The paper provides the analysis of the most important results of the adjustment of the main nuclear data of 11 major isotopes in a 33-group energy structure. This benchmark exercise was based on a set of 20 well defined integral parameters from 7 fast assembly experiments. The exercise showed that using a common shared set of integral experiments but different starting evaluated libraries and/or different covariance matrices, there is a good convergence of trends for adjustments. Moreover, a significant reduction of the original uncertainties is often observed. Using the a-posteriori covariance data, there is a strong reduction of the uncertainties of integral parameters for reference reactor designs, mainly due to the new correlations in the a-posteriori covariance matrix. Furthermore, criteria have been proposed and applied to verify the consistency of differential and integral data used in the adjustment. Finally, recommendations are given for an

  19. Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data: Results of a NEA International Collaborative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) established a Subgroup (called “Subgroup 33”) in 2009 on “Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data.” The first stage was devoted to producing the description of different adjustment methodologies and assessing their merits. A detailed document related to this first stage has been issued. Nine leading organizations (often with a long and recognized expertise in the field) have contributed: ANL, CEA, INL, IPPE, JAEA, JSI, NRG, IRSN and ORNL. In the second stage a practical benchmark exercise was defined in order to test the reliability of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. A comparison of the results obtained by the participants and major lessons learned in the exercise are discussed in the present paper that summarizes individual contributions which often include several original developments not reported separately. The paper provides the analysis of the most important results of the adjustment of the main nuclear data of 11 major isotopes in a 33-group energy structure. This benchmark exercise was based on a set of 20 well defined integral parameters from 7 fast assembly experiments. The exercise showed that using a common shared set of integral experiments but different starting evaluated libraries and/or different covariance matrices, there is a good convergence of trends for adjustments. Moreover, a significant reduction of the original uncertainties is often observed. Using the a–posteriori covariance data, there is a strong reduction of the uncertainties of integral parameters for reference reactor designs, mainly due to the new correlations in the a–posteriori covariance matrix. Furthermore, criteria have been proposed and applied to verify the consistency of differential and integral data used in the adjustment. Finally, recommendations are given

  20. The World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance: Methods, Challenges, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Guthold, Regina; Cowan, Melanie; Savin, Stefan; Bhatti, Lubna; Armstrong, Timothy; Bonita, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to outline the framework and methods used by the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to noncommunicable disease (NCD) surveillance (STEPS), describe the development and current status, and discuss strengths, limitations, and future directions of STEPS surveillance. Methods. STEPS is a WHO-developed, standardized but flexible framework for countries to monitor the main NCD risk factors through questionnaire assessment and physical and biochemical measurements. It is coordinated by national authorities of the implementing country. The STEPS surveys are generally household-based and interviewer-administered, with scientifically selected samples of around 5000 participants. Results. To date, 122 countries across all 6 WHO regions have completed data collection for STEPS or STEPS-aligned surveys. Conclusions. STEPS data are being used to inform NCD policies and track risk-factor trends. Future priorities include strengthening these linkages from data to action on NCDs at the country level, and continuing to develop STEPS’ capacities to enable a regular and continuous cycle of risk-factor surveillance worldwide. PMID:26696288

  1. How to engage occupational physicians in recruitment of research participants: a mixed-methods study of challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Arends, Iris; Bültmann, Ute; Shaw, William S; van Rhenen, Willem; Roelen, Corné; Nielsen, Karina; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2014-03-01

    To investigate barriers and facilitators for research participant recruitment by occupational physicians (OPs). A mixed-methods approach was used. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with OPs to explore perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment. Based on data of a cluster-randomised controlled trial (cluster-RCT), univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate associations between OPs' personal and work characteristics and the number of recruited participants for the cluster-RCT per OP. Perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment were categorised into: study characteristics (e.g. concise inclusion criteria); study population characteristics; OP's attention; OP's workload; context (e.g. working at different locations); and OP's characteristics (e.g. motivated to help). Important facilitators were encouragement by colleagues and reminders by information technology tools. Multivariate analyses showed that the number of OPs within the clinical unit who recruited participants was positively associated with the number of recruited participants per OP [rate ratio of 1.43, 95 % confidence interval 1.24-1.64]. When mobilising OPs for participant recruitment, researchers need to engage entire clinical units rather than approach OPs on an individual basis. OPs consider regular communication, especially face-to-face contact and information technology tools serving as reminders, as helpful.

  2. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E.; Baxter, Elizabeth; Saunders, Aoine; Pocock, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science. Methodology / Principal Findings The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups) visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp.) were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7–11 years old) from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant). However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high. Conclusions / Significance Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects) highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs) would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified

  3. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science.

    PubMed

    Roy, Helen E; Baxter, Elizabeth; Saunders, Aoine; Pocock, Michael J O

    2016-01-01

    Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science. The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups) visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp.) were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7-11 years old) from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant). However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high. Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects) highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs) would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified.

  4. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  5. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  6. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  7. Methodological Issues in Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL): What Methods, What to Measure and When to Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) methods utilized in mobile computer-supported collaborative learning (mCSCL) research which focuses on studying, learning and collaboration mediated by mobile devices; (2) whether these methods have examined mCSCL effectively; (3) when the methods are administered; and (4) what methodological issues exist in…

  8. Development of a national Flash flood warning system in France using the AIGA method: first results and main issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Demargne, Julie; de Saint-Aubin, Céline; Garandeau, Léa; Janet, Bruno; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Fouchier, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Developing a national flash flood (FF) warning system is an ambitious and difficult task. On one hand it rises huge expectations from exposed populations and authorities since induced damages are considerable (ie 20 casualties in the recent October 2015 flood at the French Riviera). But on the other hand, many practical and scientific issues have to be addressed and limitations should be clearly stated. The FF warning system to be implemented by 2016 in France by the SCHAPI (French national service in charge of flood forecasting) will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014). The AIGA method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr). It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km² resolution to reference flood quantiles of different return periods, at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France. Model calibration was based on ~700 hydrometric stations over the 2002-2015 period and then hourly discharges were computed at ~76 000 catchment outlets, with areas ranging from 10 to 3 500 km², over the last 19 years. This product makes it possible to calculate reference flood quantiles at each outlet. The on-going evaluation of the FF warnings is currently made at two levels: in a 'classical' way, using discharges available at the hydrometric stations, but also in a more 'exploratory' way, by comparing past flood reports and warnings issued by the system over the 76 000 catchment outlets. The interest of the last method is that it better fit the system objectives since it is designed to monitor small ungauged catchments. Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D, .Pansu, J, .Arnaud, P. (2014). Evaluating flash-flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system

  9. Telemedicine: legal and licensure issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael B.; Whelan, Leo J.

    1995-10-01

    The National Information Infrastructure program offers a great opportunity for the United States to capitalize on remarkable technological advancements over a broad range of applications benefiting society. One such application, telemedicine, has the potential to offer widespread access to sophisticated medical care, curtailed health care delivery costs, and homogeneous health and health-related educational opportunities. However, there are a variety of barriers to widespread application of telemedicine once the technical infrastructure of the information highway is well established and ubiquitous. These barriers include technical limitations, reimbursement issues, equipment and networking costs, and appropriate scientific studies to document efficacy and cost effectiveness. These issues may prove to be only transient disincentives which can be surmounted. Additional barriers exist, however, that may not be as readily resolved by traditional methods of analysis and more widespread practice applications. These political and regulatory obstacles will require clarification of the issues and solutions based on national consensus. It is the purpose of this discussion to amplify on these particular barriers which include licensure and tort jurisdiction.

  10. A correlation method to predict the surface pressure distribution on an infinite plate from which a jet is issuing. [effects of a lifting jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, S. C., Jr.; Menhall, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation method to predict pressures induced on an infinite plate by a jet issuing from the plate into a subsonic free stream was developed. The complete method consists of an analytical method which models the blockage and entrainment properties of the jet and a correlation which accounts for the effects of separation. The method was developed for jet velocity ratios up to ten and for radial distances up to five diameters from the jet. Correlation curves and data comparisons are presented for jets issuing normally from a flat plate with velocity ratios one to twelve. Also, a list of references which deal with jets in a crossflow is presented.

  11. EDITORIAL: Introduction to the special issue on electromagnetic inverse problems: emerging methods and novel applications Introduction to the special issue on electromagnetic inverse problems: emerging methods and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, O.; Lesselier, D.

    2010-07-01

    Inverse problems in electromagnetics have a long history and have stimulated exciting research over many decades. New applications and solution methods are still emerging, providing a rich source of challenging topics for further investigation. The purpose of this special issue is to combine descriptions of several such developments that are expected to have the potential to fundamentally fuel new research, and to provide an overview of novel methods and applications for electromagnetic inverse problems. There have been several special sections published in Inverse Problems over the last decade addressing fully, or partly, electromagnetic inverse problems. Examples are: Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and T Habashy) October 2000 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data (Guest Editors: K Belkebir and M Saillard) December 2001 Electromagnetic and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and J Bowler) December 2002 Electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and W C Chew) December 2004 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data: inhomogeneous targets (Guest Editors: K Belkebir and M Saillard) December 2005 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data: 3D targets (Guest Editors: A Litman and L Crocco) February 2009 In a certain sense, the current issue can be understood as a continuation of this series of special sections on electromagnetic inverse problems. On the other hand, its focus is intended to be more general than previous ones. Instead of trying to cover a well-defined, somewhat specialized research topic as completely as possible, this issue aims to show the broad range of techniques and applications that are relevant to electromagnetic imaging nowadays, which may serve as a source of inspiration and encouragement for all those entering this active and rapidly developing research area. Also, the

  12. Sustainability in health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 4: exploring opportunities and methods for consumer engagement in resource allocation in a local healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire; Ko, Henry; Waller, Cara; Sloss, Pamela; Williams, Pamela

    2017-05-05

    This is the fourth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Healthcare decision-makers have sought to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of services through removal or restriction of practices that are unsafe or of little benefit, often referred to as 'disinvestment'. A systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment was being established within a large Australian health service network. Consumer engagement was acknowledged as integral to this process. This paper reports the process of developing a model to integrate consumer views and preferences into an organisation-wide approach to resource allocation. A literature search was conducted and interviews and workshops were undertaken with health service consumers and staff. Findings were drafted into a model for consumer engagement in resource allocation which was workshopped and refined. Although consumer engagement is increasingly becoming a requirement of publicly-funded health services and documented in standards and policies, participation in organisational decision-making is not widespread. Several consistent messages for consumer engagement in this context emerged from the literature and consumer responses. Opportunities, settings and activities for consumer engagement through communication, consultation and participation were identified within the resource allocation process. Sources of information regarding consumer values and perspectives in publications and locally-collected data, and methods to use them in health service decision-making, were identified. A model bringing these elements together was developed. The proposed model presents potential opportunities and activities for consumer engagement in the context of resource allocation.

  13. Teaching design in the first years of a traditional mechanical engineering degree: methods, issues and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Arlindo; Fontul, Mihail; Henriques, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design is known as an answer to an ill-defined problem. As any answer to an ill-defined problem, it can never be completely right or absolutely wrong. The methods that universities use to teach engineering design, as a consequence of this, suffer from the same fate. However, the accumulated experience with the 'chalk and talk' teaching tradition has led to a reality in which the employers of fresh graduates are not happy with the engineers they are getting. Part of their complaints are related with the inability of recently graduate engineers to work in problems where the boundaries are not well defined, are interdisciplinary, require the use of effective communication and integrate non-technical issues. These skills are mostly absent from traditional engineering curricula. This paper demonstrates the implementation of engineering design perspectives enhancing some of the aforementioned skills in a traditional mechanical engineering curriculum. It emphasises in particular a design project that is tackled in a sequence of conventional courses with a focus that depends on the course objectives and disciplinary domain. This transdisciplinary design project conveys the idea (and effectively implements it concurrently) that design is multidisciplinary.

  14. Problems and Issues for the Classroom: What Works in Generating Class Discussions Using the Method of Shared Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Potential extinction of the human smallpox virus lies in the hands of a few scientists and policymakers. Whether this decision should be made can serve as an excellent issue for extended, focused classroom discussion. Outlines the history of smallpox, illustrates the debate, and describes preparation needed before discussing the issue. Also…

  15. Problems and Issues for the Classroom: What Works in Generating Class Discussions Using the Method of Shared Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Potential extinction of the human smallpox virus lies in the hands of a few scientists and policymakers. Whether this decision should be made can serve as an excellent issue for extended, focused classroom discussion. Outlines the history of smallpox, illustrates the debate, and describes preparation needed before discussing the issue. Also…

  16. Changing Homeland Security: An Opportunity for Competence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Homeland Security Affairs Volume I, Issue   Article  2005 Changing Homeland Security: An Opportunity for Competence Christopher Bellavita...DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Changing Homeland Security: An Opportunity for Competence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Opportunity for Competence Christopher Bellavita Abstract Hurricane Katrina shattered belief that the nation’s homeland security system was ready for a major

  17. Postsecondary Education Opportunity. The Mortenson Report on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education. 1992-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the first 18 issues of a newsletter on public policy and postsecondary education opportunity trends. Each monthly issue contains one or two main articles providing an analysis of research on trends in postsecondary education. The major articles in these issues are: (1) "Equity of Higher Education Opportunity:…

  18. Index of Economic Freedom: Unrealized Pedagogical Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Mark; Miller, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Although the Index of Economic Freedom appears in many economic textbooks, their coverage of the index misses opportunities to teach statistical and policy-related concepts important for the principles course. The standard textbook presentation passes up an opportunity to examine the statistical issues of weighting in composite index numbers and…

  19. Personnel Testing and Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty R., Ed.; Rogers, Martha P., Ed.

    Presented in this book is a series of papers on one of the most complex issues the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission has faced in the first 5 years of its operation. Employment testing represents a systemic problem in equal employment opportunity for minorities and women. Papers included in this document are "Testing of Minority Group…

  20. Understanding the Korean Peninsula in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part II, U.S. and Japanese Relations with the Korean Peninsula: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Cheng, Amy; Amar, Jasmine; Donahue, Dave; Fisher, Grace; Klein, Emily; Lee, Joanne

    This curriculum unit is part two of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to challenges and opportunities presented by policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with the Korean Peninsula at the turn of the…

  1. Understanding the Korean Peninsula in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part II, U.S. and Japanese Relations with the Korean Peninsula: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Cheng, Amy; Amar, Jasmine; Donahue, Dave; Fisher, Grace; Klein, Emily; Lee, Joanne

    This curriculum unit is part two of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to challenges and opportunities presented by policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with the Korean Peninsula at the turn of the…

  2. Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    To commemorate the 90th anniversary of the National Career Development Association and to anticipate its centennial, this special issue presents 9 analyses of the career counseling profession's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. (GCP)

  3. Employment. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue addresses current trends and new developments in ensuring that individuals with disabilities have meaningful employment opportunities, especially in the context of recent federal legislation. Stressed throughout is the importance of collaboration among professionals, individuals with disabilities, and family members in achieving…

  4. National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Demonstrating an appreciation for the perspectives of others is now recognized as one of the single most important learning outcomes of a college education. This skill, fundamental to democracy and civic engagement, is honed in college by institutions that provide opportunities for students to interact with their peers and others on issues that…

  5. National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Demonstrating an appreciation for the perspectives of others is now recognized as one of the single most important learning outcomes of a college education. This skill, fundamental to democracy and civic engagement, is honed in college by institutions that provide opportunities for students to interact with their peers and others on issues that…

  6. Assistive Technologies, Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wobschall, Rachel, Ed.; Lakin, Charlie, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This feature issue of a newsletter on community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities considers the role of assistive technologies. It describes efforts to utilize consumer direction, public policy, creativity, energy, and professional know-how in the pursuit of technology-based opportunities to enhance community inclusion,…

  7. To twist or poke? A method for identifying usability issues with the rotary controller and touch screen for control of in-vehicle information systems.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Catherine; Stanton, Neville A; Pickering, Carl A; McDonald, Mike; Zheng, Pengjun

    2011-07-01

    In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be controlled by the user via direct or indirect input devices. In order to develop the next generation of usable IVIS, designers need to be able to evaluate and understand the usability issues associated with these two input types. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a set of empirical usability evaluation methods for identifying important usability issues and distinguishing between the IVIS input devices. A number of usability issues were identified and their causal factors have been explored. These were related to the input type, the structure of the menu/tasks and hardware issues. In particular, the translation between inputs and on-screen actions and a lack of visual feedback for menu navigation resulted in lower levels of usability for the indirect device. This information will be useful in informing the design of new IVIS, with improved usability. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper examines the use of empirical methods for distinguishing between direct and indirect IVIS input devices and identifying usability issues. Results have shown that the characteristics of indirect input devices produce more serious usability issues, compared with direct devices and can have a negative effect on the driver-vehicle interaction.

  8. Making the case for STEM integration at the upper elementary level: A mixed methods exploration of opportunity to learn math and science, teachers' efficacy and students' attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brianna M.

    Student achievement in science and math has been linked to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth propagating the belief that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is an important factor in economic prosperity. However, The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), favors math over science, positioning the subjects as competitors rather than collaborators. Additionally, NCLB focuses almost exclusively on the cognitive outcome of students' achievement with the affective outcome of students' attitudes being nearly ignored. Positive attitudes toward science and math early on are essential for subsequent and cumulative decisions students make in taking courses, choosing majors, and pursuing careers. Positioning students' attitudes as a desirable educational outcome comparable to students' achievement is an emerging goal in the literature. Using the case of one school district in south-central Pennsylvania with three elementary schools, 15 upper elementary teachers, and 361 students, the purpose of this study was to better understand influences on upper elementary students' attitudes toward STEM (SA) subjects and careers. The study aimed to explore two influences on SA, opportunity to learn (OTL) and teacher's efficacy (TE), in the comparative contexts of math and science. The studied employed a mixed methods convergent design in which five data sets from four sources were collected over three phases to triangulate three constructs: OTL, TE, and SA. The goal of the study was to offer recommendations to the case school district for enhancing OTL, TE, and thus SA. Findings regarding OTL revealed that the opportunity to learn science was lower than math. Finding regarding TE revealed that outcome expectancy was lower than personal teaching efficacy in both science and math; and, teachers had low STEM career awareness, STEM integration, and technology use. Findings regarding SA revealed a lower perceived usefulness of science compared to math

  9. Quantitative Method To Determine Sporicidal Decontamination of Building Surfaces by Gaseous Fumigants, and Issues Related to Laboratory-Scale Studies▿

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vipin K.; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S.; Ryan, Shawn P.; Martin, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide gas and vaporous hydrogen peroxide sterilant have been used in the cleanup of building interiors contaminated with spores of Bacillus anthracis. A systematic study, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was jointly undertaken by the U.S. Army-Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to determine the sporicidal efficacies of these two fumigants on six building structural materials: carpet, ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted I-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. Critical issues related to high-throughput sample processing and spore recovery from porous and nonporous surfaces included (i) the extraction of spores from complex building materials, (ii) the effects of titer challenge levels on fumigant efficacy, and (iii) the impact of bioburden inclusion on spore recovery from surfaces and spore inactivation. Small pieces (1.3 by 1.3 cm of carpet, ceiling tile, wallboard, I-beam steel, and pinewood and 2.5 by 1.3 cm for cinder block) of the materials were inoculated with an aliquot of 50 μl containing the target number (1 × 106, 1 × 107, or 1 × 108) of avirulent spores of B. anthracis NNR1Δ1. The aliquot was dried overnight in a biosafety cabinet, and the spores were extracted by a combination of a 10-min sonication and a 2-min vortexing using 0.5% buffered peptone water as the recovery medium. No statistically significant drop in the kill efficacies of the fumigants was observed when the spore challenge level was increased from 6 log units to 8 log units, even though a general trend toward inhibition of fumigant efficacy was evident. The organic burden (0 to 5%) in the spore inoculum resulted in a statistically significant drop in spore recovery (at the 2 or 5% level). The effect on spore killing was a function of the organic bioburden amount and the material type. In summary, a high-throughput quantitative method was developed for determining the efficacies of fumigants, and the spore recoveries

  10. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study.

    PubMed

    Taljaard, Monica; Weijer, Charles; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Belle Brown, Judith; Binik, Ariella; Boruch, Robert; Brehaut, Jamie C; Chaudhry, Shazia H; Eccles, Martin P; McRae, Andrew; Saginur, Raphael; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Donner, Allan

    2009-07-28

    Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities--rather than individual themselves--are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1) identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2) understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK); (3) elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4) develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5) disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs), journal editors, and research funders. We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An Expert Panel of researchers, ethicists, health

  11. Brexit: potential opportunities, potential risks.

    PubMed

    2017-01-21

    ▪ Identifying opportunities and risks that might arise from the UK's exit from the European Union▪ Managing mental health issues and building resilient teams▪ Supporting efforts to eliminate rabiesThese were among matters discussed by the BVA Council at its meeting on December 7, 2016. The BVA President, Gudrun Ravetz, chaired the meeting, which was held at the BVA's headquarters in Mansfield Street, London.

  12. MORECare research methods guidance development: recommendations for ethical issues in palliative and end-of-life care research.

    PubMed

    Gysels, Marjolein; Evans, Catherine J; Lewis, Penney; Speck, Peter; Benalia, Hamid; Preston, Nancy J; Grande, Gunn E; Short, Vicky; Owen-Jones, Eleanor; Todd, Chris J; Higginson, Irene J

    2013-12-01

    There is little guidance on the particular ethical concerns that research raises with a palliative care population. To present the process and outcomes of a workshop and consensus exercise on agreed best practice to accommodate ethical issues in research on palliative care. Consultation workshop using the MORECare Transparent Expert Consultation approach. Prior to workshops, participants were sent overviews of ethical issues in palliative care. Following the workshop, nominal group techniques were used to produce candidate recommendations. These were rated online by participating experts. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse agreement and consensus. Narrative comments were collated. Experts in ethical issues and palliative care research were invited to the Cicely Saunders Institute in London. They included senior researchers, service providers, commissioners, researchers, members of ethics committees and policy makers. The workshop comprised 28 participants. A total of 16 recommendations were developed. There was high agreement on the issue of research participation and high to moderate agreement on applications to research ethics committees. The recommendations on obtaining and maintaining consent from patients and families were the most contentious. Nine recommendations were refined on the basis of the comments from the online consultation. The culture surrounding palliative care research needs to change by fostering collaborative approaches between all those involved in the research process. Changes to the legal framework governing the research process are required to enhance the ethical conduct of research in palliative care. The recommendations are relevant to all areas of research involving vulnerable adults.

  13. ERCMExpress. Volume 3, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Mary Frances; McDonald, Dale

    2007-01-01

    The Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" is a newsletter that provides comprehensive information on key issues in school emergency management. This issue, entitled "Emergency Management Opportunities and Challenges for Non-Public Schools," examines integrating non-public…

  14. Innovations: Issue 1, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Innovations, ETS's corporate magazine, provides information on educational assessment for educators, school leaders, researchers and policymakers around the world. This issue on how classroom assessments in five U.S. states and several foreign countries expand educational opportunities for all students. Articles in this issue include: (1) Keeping…

  15. Critical Issues--and Therefore Opportunities--for Community Colleges. Presentation to Congressman Major R. Owens, Congresswoman Carrie P. Meek, and to the Congressional Progressive Caucus and the Progressive Challenge (Washington, DC, July 27, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellander, Gustavo A.; Mellander, Nelly

    This document discusses the following critical issues in community college education: (1) computers and technology, (2) faculty retirements and the boomlets, (3) adjunct teachers, and (4) societal problems, including people being left behind. A digital divide has arisen in America and a national agenda is needed that will fully train all adults in…

  16. Women in the Work Force: Supreme Court Issues. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1986

    This U.S. Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative Matthew G. Martinez (California), focuses on women in the work force. Issues, such as equal participation, pay, and advancement, along with sex discrimination and sexual harassment, are addressed. Testimony and written statements were presented by representatives from District of Columbia…

  17. A randomised trial of two methods of issuing prenatal test results: the ARIA (Amniocentesis Results: Investigation of Anxiety) trial.

    PubMed

    Hewison, J; Nixon, J; Fountain, J; Hawkins, K; Jones, C R; Mason, G; Morley, S; Thornton, J G

    2007-04-01

    Many pregnant women experience anxiety while waiting for the results of diagnostic tests. Policies and practices intended to reduce this anxiety require evaluation. To test the following two hypotheses: * That giving amniocentesis results out on a fixed date alters maternal anxiety during the waiting period, compared with a policy of telling parents that the result will be issued "when available" (i.e. variable date). * That issuing early results from a rapid molecular test alters maternal anxiety during the waiting period, compared with not receiving any results prior to the karyotype. The effects of the two interventions on anxiety 1 month after receiving karyotype results were also examined. A multicentre, randomised, controlled, open fixed sample, 2 x 2 factorial design trial, with equal randomisation. The prenatal diagnosis clinics in 12 hospitals in England offering amniocentesis as a diagnostic test for Down's syndrome. Two hundred and twenty-six women who had had an amniocentesis were randomised between June 2002 and July 2004. Eight women with abnormal results or test failure were excluded post-randomisation. Issuing karyotype results on a prespecified fixed date, rather than issuing them as soon as they became available. Issuing karyotype results alone, or subsequent to issuing results from a rapid molecular test for the most common chromosomal abnormalities. Average anxiety during the waiting period, calculated using daily scores from the short version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Anxiety 1 month after receiving karyotype results, measured using the short form STAI. Issuing early results from a partial but rapid test reduced maternal anxiety by a clinically significant amount during the waiting period (mean daily score 12.5 versus 14.8; scale score difference -2.36, 95% CI -1.2, -3.6), compared with receiving only the full karyotype results. There was no evidence that giving out karyotype results on a fixed or on a variable

  18. 42 CFR 423.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 423.586 Section 423..., Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The Part D plan sponsor must... opportunity to present evidence and allegations of fact or law, related to the issue in dispute, in person as...

  19. Semi-automatic methods for landslide features and channel network extraction in a complex mountainous terrain: new opportunities but also challenges from high resolution topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia; Pirotti, Francesco; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, remotely sensed technologies such as airborne and terrestrial laser scanner have improved the detail of analysis providing high-resolution and high-quality topographic data over large areas better than other technologies. A new generation of high resolution (~ 1m) Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) are now available for different landscapes. These data call for the development of the new generation of methodologies for objective extraction of geomorphic features, such as channel heads, channel networks, bank geometry, landslide scars, service roads, etc. The most important benefit of a high resolution DTM is the detailed recognition of surface features. It is possible to recognize in detail divergent-convex landforms, associated with the dominance of hillslope processes, and convergent-concave landforms, associated with fluvial-dominated erosion. In this work, we test the performance of new methodologies for objective extraction of geomorphic features related to landsliding and channelized processes in order to provide a semi-automatic method for channel network and landslide features recognition in a complex mountainous terrain. The methodologies are based on the detection of thresholds derived by statistical analysis of variability of surface curvature. We considered a study area located in the eastern Italian Alps where a high-quality set of LiDAR data is available and where channel heads, related channel network, and landslides have been mapped in the field by DGPS. In the analysis we derived 1 m DTMs from bare ground LiDAR points, and we used different smoothing factors for the curvature calculation in order to set the more suitable curvature maps for the recognition of selected features. Our analyses suggest that: i) the scale for curvature calculations has to be a function of the scale of the features to be detected, (ii) rougher curvature maps are not optimal as they do not explore a sufficient range at which features occur, while smoother

  20. The Contribution of Qualitative Research Towards the Issues Affecting Female Undergraduate Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Louise Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of qualitative research methods towards our understanding of the issues affecting female undergraduate engineers. As outlined in this article female engineering students face many challenges during their undergraduate studies. Qualitative research methods provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the…

  1. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  2. An analysis of the symmetry issue in the ℓ-distribution method of gas radiation in non-uniform gaseous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    The recently proposed ℓ-distribution/ICE (Iterative Copula Evaluation) method of gas radiation suffers from symmetry issues when applied in highly non-isothermal and non-homogeneous gaseous media. This problem is studied in a detailed theoretical way. The objective of the present paper is: 1/to provide a mathematical analysis of this problem of symmetry and, 2/to suggest a decisive factor, defined in terms of the ratio between the narrow band Planck and Rosseland mean absorption coefficients, to handle this issue. Comparisons of model predictions with reference LBL calculations show that the proposed criterion improves the accuracy of the intuitive ICE method for applications in highly non-uniform gases at high temperatures.

  3. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  4. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  5. Issues in Selecting Methods of Evaluating Clinical Competence in the Health Professions: Implications for Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlemas, David A.; Hensal, Carleton

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine methods used to evaluate the clinical competence and proficiency of students in medicine and allied health professions. To identify factors that would be valuable to educators in athletic training and other medical and allied health professions in the development and use of clinical assessment methods. Data Sources: We…

  6. Issues in Selecting Methods of Evaluating Clinical Competence in the Health Professions: Implications for Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlemas, David A.; Hensal, Carleton

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine methods used to evaluate the clinical competence and proficiency of students in medicine and allied health professions. To identify factors that would be valuable to educators in athletic training and other medical and allied health professions in the development and use of clinical assessment methods. Data Sources: We…

  7. Methodological Issues in Analog Acceptability Research: Are Teachers' Acceptability Ratings of Assessment Methods Influenced by Experimental Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Shapiro, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relationship between experimental design method and teacher-rated acceptability of two analog approaches for assessing academic skills problems. Comparisons indicate that curriculum-based assessment was consistently rated as a more acceptable method of assessment than published, norm-referenced tests. Results are discussed in relation…

  8. SPECIAL ISSUE DEVOTED TO MULTIPLE RADIATION SCATTERING IN RANDOM MEDIA: Path method for reconstructing images in fluorescence optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsenyuk, Olga V.; Lyubimov, Vladimir V.; Kalintseva, Natalie A.

    2006-11-01

    A reconstruction method elaborated for the optical diffusion tomography of the internal structure of objects containing absorbing and scattering inhomogeneities is considered. The method is developed for studying objects with fluorescing inhomogeneities and can be used for imaging of distributions of artificial fluorophores whose aggregations indicate the presence of various diseases or pathological deviations.

  9. A Systematic Review on methods of evaluate sentence production deficits in agrammatic aphasia patients: Validity and Reliability issues

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Azar; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The grammar assessment in aphasia has been done by few standard tests, but today these tests cannot precise evaluate the sentence production in agrammatic patients. In this study, we review structures and contents of tests or tasks designed to find more frequent methods for sentence production ability in aphasia patients. Materials and Methods: We searched the Cochrane library, Medline by PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 1980 to October 1, 2013 and evaluated all of exist tests or tasks included in the articles and systematic reviews. The sentence production has been studied in three methods. It contains the use of sentence production in spontaneous speech, tasks designed and both methods. The quality of studies was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Results: The 160 articles were reviewed and 38 articles were studied according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were classified into three categories based on assessment methods of sentence production. In 39.5% studies, researchers have used tasks designed, 7.9% articles have applied spontaneous speech and 52.6% articles have used both methods for evaluation production. Inter-rater reliability was between 90% and 100% and intra-rater reliability was between 96% and 98% in studied. Conclusion: Agrammatic aphasia has syntax disorders, especially in sentence production. Most researchers and clinicians used both methods for evaluation production. PMID:25535505

  10. Opportunities in Training & Development Careers. VGM Opportunities Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edward E.; Petrini, Catherine M.; Campagna, Ann P.

    This volume is a resource for those who want to explore opportunities in training and development careers. Chapter 1 covers the evolution of training and the future of education at work. Chapter 2 considers trainers' roles; program design and development; needs assessment; development of program objectives; program content, training methods,…

  11. Opportunities in Training & Development Careers. VGM Opportunities Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edward E.; Petrini, Catherine M.; Campagna, Ann P.

    This volume is a resource for those who want to explore opportunities in training and development careers. Chapter 1 covers the evolution of training and the future of education at work. Chapter 2 considers trainers' roles; program design and development; needs assessment; development of program objectives; program content, training methods,…

  12. Introduction to the special focus issue on the impact of diet on gut microbiota composition and function and future opportunities for nutritional modulation of the gut microbiome to improve human health.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Sharon M

    2017-03-04

    Over the past decade, application of culture-independent, next generation DNA sequencing has dramatically enhanced our understanding of the composition of the gut microbiome and its association with human states of health and disease. Host genetics, age, and environmental factors such as where and who you live with, use of pre-, pro- and antibiotics, exercise and diet influence the short- and long-term composition of the microbiome. Dietary intake is a key determinant of microbiome composition and diversity and studies to date have linked long-term dietary patterns as well as short-term dietary interventions to the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome. The goal of this special focus issue was to review the role of diet in regulating the composition and function of the gut microbiota across the lifespan, from pregnancy to old age. Overall dietary patterns, as well as perturbations such as undernutrition and obesity, as well as the effects of dietary fiber/prebiotics and fat composition are explored.

  13. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  14. Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Maria; Magurran, Anne E.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Chao, Anne; Chazdon, Robin L.; Colwell, Robert K.; Curtis, Tom; Gaston, Kevin J.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Kosnik, Matthew A.; McGill, Brian; McCune, Jenny L.; Morlon, Hélène; Mumby, Peter J.; Øvreås, Lise; Studeny, Angelika; Vellend, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Growing concern about biodiversity loss underscores the need to quantify and understand temporal change. Here, we review the opportunities presented by biodiversity time series, and address three related issues: (i) recognizing the characteristics of temporal data; (ii) selecting appropriate statistical procedures for analysing temporal data; and (iii) inferring and forecasting biodiversity change. With regard to the first issue, we draw attention to defining characteristics of biodiversity time series—lack of physical boundaries, uni-dimensionality, autocorrelation and directionality—that inform the choice of analytic methods. Second, we explore methods of quantifying change in biodiversity at different timescales, noting that autocorrelation can be viewed as a feature that sheds light on the underlying structure of temporal change. Finally, we address the transition from inferring to forecasting biodiversity change, highlighting potential pitfalls associated with phase-shifts and novel conditions. PMID:23097514

  15. Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Dornelas, Maria; Magurran, Anne E; Buckland, Stephen T; Chao, Anne; Chazdon, Robin L; Colwell, Robert K; Curtis, Tom; Gaston, Kevin J; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Kosnik, Matthew A; McGill, Brian; McCune, Jenny L; Morlon, Hélène; Mumby, Peter J; Ovreås, Lise; Studeny, Angelika; Vellend, Mark

    2013-01-07

    Growing concern about biodiversity loss underscores the need to quantify and understand temporal change. Here, we review the opportunities presented by biodiversity time series, and address three related issues: (i) recognizing the characteristics of temporal data; (ii) selecting appropriate statistical procedures for analysing temporal data; and (iii) inferring and forecasting biodiversity change. With regard to the first issue, we draw attention to defining characteristics of biodiversity time series--lack of physical boundaries, uni-dimensionality, autocorrelation and directionality--that inform the choice of analytic methods. Second, we explore methods of quantifying change in biodiversity at different timescales, noting that autocorrelation can be viewed as a feature that sheds light on the underlying structure of temporal change. Finally, we address the transition from inferring to forecasting biodiversity change, highlighting potential pitfalls associated with phase-shifts and novel conditions.

  16. Teaching Design in the First Years of a Traditional Mechanical Engineering Degree: Methods, Issues and Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Arlindo; Fontul, Mihail; Henriques, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design is known as an answer to an ill-defined problem. As any answer to an ill-defined problem, it can never be completely right or absolutely wrong. The methods that universities use to teach engineering design, as a consequence of this, suffer from the same fate. However, the accumulated experience with the "chalk and…

  17. METHODS DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE LOW-LEVEL PERCHLORATE DETECTION IN DRINKING WATER BY CONDUCTIVITY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY - ISSUES AND IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research is to develop a USEPA method for the determination of sub-ppb concentrations of the perchlorate anion in ground and surface drinking waters. To date, ion chromatography using a KOH mobile phase, electrolytic conductivity suppression and electrospray ion...

  18. Teaching Design in the First Years of a Traditional Mechanical Engineering Degree: Methods, Issues and Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Arlindo; Fontul, Mihail; Henriques, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design is known as an answer to an ill-defined problem. As any answer to an ill-defined problem, it can never be completely right or absolutely wrong. The methods that universities use to teach engineering design, as a consequence of this, suffer from the same fate. However, the accumulated experience with the "chalk and…

  19. METHODS DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE LOW-LEVEL PERCHLORATE DETECTION IN DRINKING WATER BY CONDUCTIVITY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY - ISSUES AND IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research is to develop a USEPA method for the determination of sub-ppb concentrations of the perchlorate anion in ground and surface drinking waters. To date, ion chromatography using a KOH mobile phase, electrolytic conductivity suppression and electrospray ion...

  20. Item Parameter Drift as an Indication of Differential Opportunity to Learn: An Exploration of Item Flagging Methods & Accurate Classification of Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukin, Tia M.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of outlying anchor items is an issue faced by many testing agencies. The decision to retain or remove an item is a difficult one, especially when the content representation of the anchor set becomes questionable by item removal decisions. Additionally, the reason for the aberrancy is not always clear, and if the performance of the…

  1. Transonics and fighter aircraft: Challenges and opportunities for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Luis R.

    1989-01-01

    The application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to fighter aircraft design and development is discussed. Methodology requirements for the aerodynamic design of fighter aircraft are briefly reviewed. The state-of-the-art of computational methods for transonic flows in the light of these requirements is assessed and the techniques found most adequate for the subject application are identified. Highlights from some proof-of-feasibility Euler and Navier-Stokes computations about a complete fighter aircraft configuration are presented. Finally, critical issues and opportunities for design application of CFD are discussed.

  2. The Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boren, David L.

    Perspectives on issues in postsecondary education are presented with some reference to Oklahoma. Enrollment trends and the push toward cost effective educational programs are considered, and it is suggested that the important issue is often overlooked: the need to clarify the role of higher education institutions, or what society demands from the…

  3. Reduction of CO2 Emissions Due to Wind Energy - Methods and Issues in Estimating Operational Emission Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Millgan, Michael; Pineda, Ivan; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Orths, Antje; Wolfgang, Ove

    2015-10-05

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. Estimates based on historical data have more pitfalls in methodology than estimates based on dispatch simulations. Taking into account exchange of electricity with neighboring regions is challenging for all methods. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. Wind power will reduce emissions for about 0.3-0.4 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly gas and up to 0.7 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly coal powered generation. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions from power system operation phase, but long term impacts are shortly discussed.

  4. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  5. 40 CFR 57.808 - Opportunity for cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reduction Technology § 57.808 Opportunity for cross-examination. (a) Request for cross-examination. After... transcript of the hearing becomes available and shall specify: (1) The disputed issue(s) of material fact as... issue of material fact involved. (b) Order granting or denying request for cross-examination. As...

  6. 40 CFR 57.808 - Opportunity for cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reduction Technology § 57.808 Opportunity for cross-examination. (a) Request for cross-examination. After... transcript of the hearing becomes available and shall specify: (1) The disputed issue(s) of material fact as... issue of material fact involved. (b) Order granting or denying request for cross-examination. As...

  7. 40 CFR 57.808 - Opportunity for cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reduction Technology § 57.808 Opportunity for cross-examination. (a) Request for cross-examination. After... transcript of the hearing becomes available and shall specify: (1) The disputed issue(s) of material fact as... issue of material fact involved. (b) Order granting or denying request for cross-examination. As...

  8. Education for Whom? The Question of Equal Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesconi, Charles A., Jr.; Hurwitz, Emanuel, Jr.

    Basic research findings, concepts, ideas, and insights are explored in considering what is believed to be an old yet still crucial issue today--equality of educational opportunities. This document is said to serve seven purposes; introduction to the issue, analysis and illustration of major elements in the issue, illumination of the major role…

  9. Functional anatomy of the cardiovascular system: professional development for PreK-3 teachers using a "train and equip" method results in learning opportunities for students.

    PubMed

    Burns, E Robert

    2008-01-01

    Preadolescent students are interested in learning the structure and function of the human body. However, their teachers are not trained in this content. The purpose of this project was to expand a successful outreach effort in the health sciences for grade 7-12 teachers to include PreK-3 teachers. A "Healthy Hearts" workshop was offered to train the teachers in relevant content and also to give them a resource kit of supplies and equipment to facilitate the transference of the training into educational opportunities for their students. The workshop included many role-playing activities and use of all items in the resource kit. A total of 25 workshops were conducted in 14 different community locations with 716 PreK-3 teachers attending from 169 communities representing 59 (79%) of the state's 75 counties. African American (AA) teacher participation was 35%, twice the state AA population rate and 3.5x the AA public school teacher rate. Pre to Posttest scores increased an average of 15%. The results of the evaluation measures regarding the workshop and the transference of the training and use of resource kit items into learning opportunities for students were excellent. Universities have the capability, perhaps the responsibility, to provide the much-needed professional development training to PreK-12 teachers. Anatomists in medical and nonmedical school settings are well positioned to participate in this process and help close the gap between the interest young children have in learning about the human body and the lack of teacher training in this content.

  10. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  11. Opportunity to Learn: The Health Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley A.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the following health issues related to the opportunity to learn for poor African-American and other minority children: (1) inadequate prenatal care; (2) malnutrition; (3) childhood diseases and illnesses; (4) unsafe environments and violence; (5) teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and AIDS; (6) substance use and abuse; and (7) mental and…

  12. Pitfalls and opportunities for environmental marketers.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, R J

    1992-01-01

    Issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, insufficient landfill capacity, and excess packaging are foremost on the minds of consumers. Companies face a myriad of environmental challenges, but they also recognize the opportunities to be gained by implementing responsible marketing action plans.

  13. Opportunity to Learn: The Health Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley A.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the following health issues related to the opportunity to learn for poor African-American and other minority children: (1) inadequate prenatal care; (2) malnutrition; (3) childhood diseases and illnesses; (4) unsafe environments and violence; (5) teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and AIDS; (6) substance use and abuse; and (7) mental and…

  14. Disaster Research: A Nursing Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jane; Barcelona-deMendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W.

    2013-01-01

    Nurses working or living near a community disaster have the opportunity to study health-related consequences to disaster or disaster recovery. In such a situation, the researchers need to deal with the conceptual and methodological issues unique to post-disaster research and know what resources are available to guide them, even if they have no specialized training or previous experience in disaster research. The purpose of this article is to review issues and challenges associated with conducting post-disaster research and encourage nurses to seek resources and seize opportunities to conduct research should the situation arise. Current disaster studies and the authors’ personal experiences conducting maternal-child research in post-Katrina New Orleans (2005–2013) provide real-life examples of how health professionals and nurses faced the challenges of doing post-disaster research. After catastrophic events, nurses need to step forward to conduct disaster research that informs and improves future disaster planning and health care responses. PMID:23899191

  15. EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLEMAN, JAMES S.; AND OTHERS

    THE PRODUCT OF AN EXTENSIVE SURVEY REQUESTED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE AVAILABILITY OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS FOR MINORITY GROUP NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, MEXICAN-AMERICANS, ORIENTAL-AMERICANS, AND AMERICAN INDIANS, AS COMPARED WITH OPPORTUNITIES FOR MAJORITY GROUP WHITES. COMPARATIVE…

  16. Student Success: Challenges & Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Community colleges are a crucial source of educational opportunity for millions of Americans, making fundamental contributions to state and national economies. While community colleges should be proud of their role in providing access to higher education and the opportunity to obtain better quality jobs for their students, there is much more to…

  17. Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Denise

    1988-01-01

    Youth services programs and cholesterol in children's diets, two topics that may emerge as issues in schools and school districts in the near future, are addressed. Resources for further information are listed. (CB)

  18. The Pan Genera Detection immunoassay: a novel point-of-issue method for detection of bacterial contamination in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Hinse, Dennis; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2010-10-01

    Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) still represents an ongoing risk in transfusion-transmitted sepsis. Recently the Pan Genera Detection (PGD) system was developed and FDA licensed for screening of bacterial contamination of PCs directly prior to transfusion. The test principle is based on the immunological detection of lipopolysaccharide (for Gram-negative bacteria) or lipoteichoic acid (for Gram-positive bacteria). In the present study we analyzed the applicability of this method with regard to detection limit, practicability, implementation, and performance. PCs were spiked with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and five different Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, as well as eight different Escherichia coli strains. The presence of bacteria was assessed by the PGD immunoassay, and bacteria were enumerated by plating cultures. Application of the PGD immunoassay showed that it is a rapid test with a short hands-on time for sample processing and no demand for special technical equipment and instrument operation. The lower detection limits of the assay for Gram-positive bacteria showed a good agreement with the manufacturer's specifications (8.2 × 10(3) to 5.5 × 10(4) CFU/ml). For some strains of K. pneumoniae and E. coli, the PGD test showed analytical sensitivities (>10(6) CFU/ml) that were divergent from the designated values (K. pneumoniae, 2.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml; E. coli, 2.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml). Result interpretation is sometimes difficult due to very faint bands. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the PGD immunoassay is an easy-to-perform bedside test for the detection of bacterial contamination in PCs. However, to date there are some shortcomings in the interpretation of results and in the detection limits for some strains of Gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Lightweighting Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-27

    Lightweighting Issues "Need to be faster, more agile, less bureaucratic - Need to Fight this everyday" Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lightweighting Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas Mathes 5d...practices • Designed for force-on-force engagement • Cumbersome logistics tail • Basic situational awareness • Lightweight armor • Structure plus armor (A

  20. Higher Education Solar Development: Policy Issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation from a workshop session at the Smart and Sustainable Campuses Conference explores the policy issues and opportunities that influence a higher education institution’s approach to solar deployment.

  1. Fire performance issues

    Treesearch

    S. M. Cramer; R. H. White

    1997-01-01

    The worldwide movement toward performance-based building codes is prompting the need for new computational methods to predict fire endurance of wood assemblies. Progress in the past twenty years in understanding fire endurance of individual solid wood components has been achieved in many different countries. The greatest opportunity for major advance in fire research...

  2. ERCMExpress. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" promotes emergency exercises as an effective way to validate school safety plans. Simulations of emergency situations, or emergency exercises, are integral to a sound school safety plan. They offer opportunities for district and schools to…

  3. Disguising the Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Allen

    None of the current issues in education have much to do with education; they are politically, socially, or economically based, and opinions tend to be presented as facts. For example illiteracy statistics are inflated. Virtually all children have the opportunity to learn to read and write at school, and the majority of them do. Neither is the…

  4. Key Issues in Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Capstick; et. Al.

    2000-12-01

    A group of fifty physicists met in Duck, NC, Nov. 6-9 to discuss the current status and future goals of hadronic physics. The main purpose of the meeting was to define the field by identifying its key issues, challenges, and opportunities. The conclusions, incorporating considerable input from the community at large, are presented in this white paper.

  5. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  6. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  7. Fulbright Opportunities in the Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewindt, Katrin

    2013-03-01

    The Fulbright Scholar Program is sponsored by the United States Department of State and is principally funded by taxpayer contributions. Bi-national in nature, it includes academic year opportunities for both American and foreign scholars. More than 800 grants in 125 countries are available each year. The Program supports research, teaching and lecturing opportunities in all academic disciplines, numerous professional fields and the arts. American academics and administrators have multiple opportunities to internationalize their campuses and their discipline points of view. Further, Fulbright not only sends American scholars abroad but also brings scholars to the United States and should be considered a strategic internationalization opportunity both for individuals and for campuses. During the 2013-14 competition cycle there were 33 awards available in physics and astronomy and 175 all discipline awards. The presentation will guide attendees in identifying appropriate opportunities through the Fulbright Scholar Program and will make suggestions as to how to be successful in a proposal. Special attention will be given to opportunities available for specialists in physics. The workshop will also cover non-Core Fulbright Scholar opportunities for physicists and university administrators, including a number of short-term, innovative programs that send an additional 400 scholars from the United States to universities and research institutes abroad to offer expertise on issues of global interest from cutting-edge research to policy, to technical expertise in curriculum development, institutional planning, program assessment, and institutional capacity building.

  8. Issues in workforce composition analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, D.C.; Rogers, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    An issue of paramount interest to US industry is the supply and quality of human resources available for this country`s scientific and technological activities. The changing composition of the workforce and the responsibility that an organization has to assure equal opportunity, give rise to various issues. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with the scientific and technical workforce. Specifically, it explores some of the questions pertaining to workforce composition and measures of workforce composition. This paper should be useful to those responsible for personnel policies.

  9. Wind Power Across Native America: Opportunities, Challenges, and Status (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.; Gough, R.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.

    2009-05-01

    Wind projects on tribal lands are differennt, and this poster outlines the ways in which these projects differ, a summary of existing and pending Native American Wind Projects (50 kW and larger), and tribal wind opportunities and issues.

  10. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  11. Russian/CIS Space Capabilities: Issues and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Mapping Sensor TsAGI Central Aerodynamics Institute TsSKB Central Specialized Design Bureau TT&C Telemetry, Tracking, and Control VAB Vertical...Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Mongolia, Poland, Romania , and Vietnam, is the only ES-3 UNCLASSIFIED ;n " "" • •" "S UNCLASSIFIED operational...system to compensate for atmospheric drag. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania , and Germany were slated as additional contributors; however, as with most of these

  12. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35 years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures occur to Landsat-5 and -7.

  13. The Calculation of ROE: Pedagogical Issues and Integrative Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinfeldt, Jeff; Rindler, Denise

    2010-01-01

    One of the most widely used measures of firm profitability and stockholder return is return-on-equity (ROE). However, depending upon an individual firm's financial decisions (for example, dividend policy) and an analyst's assumptions used for the ROE calculation, the results can vary significantly. This variation can create confusion for students…

  14. Special Issue: Understanding Interdisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Karri A., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to provide an overview of interdisciplinarity and American higher education. It focuses on the impact of interdisciplinary work related to the functions of teaching, learning, and research. The landscape of higher education contains multiple areas where such a process might run afoul. For example, how does…

  15. Special Issue: Understanding Interdisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Karri A., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to provide an overview of interdisciplinarity and American higher education. It focuses on the impact of interdisciplinary work related to the functions of teaching, learning, and research. The landscape of higher education contains multiple areas where such a process might run afoul. For example, how does…

  16. Scope: Opportunities for International Study of Global Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defries, Ruth, S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the origin, function, and involvements of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE). Outlines SCOPE's governing principles and explains its operating procedures. Provides summaries of current projects, with a listing of available reports and publications. (ML)

  17. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Carolyn; Demuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians' expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies.

  18. GREAT LAKES BASIN LAND-COVER DATA: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a consistent land-cover (LC) data set for the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The acquisition of consistent LC data has proven difficult both within the US and across GLB political boundaries due to disparate...

  19. Issues and opportunities in accelerator mass spectrometry for stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has developed in the last 30 years many notable applications to the spectrometry of radioisotopes, particularly in radiocarbon dating. The instrumentation science of trace element AMS (TEAMS) that analyzes stable isotopes, also called Accelerator SIMS or MegaSIMS, while unique in many features, has also shared in many of these significant advances and has pushed TEAMS sensitivity to concentration levels surpassing many competing mass spectroscopic technologies. This review examines recent instrumentation developments, the capabilities of the new instrumentation and discernable trends for future development.

  20. Carbon Storage in Biologic and Oceanic Reservoirs: Issues and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Most discussion of carbon capture and storage have focused on geologic reservoirs because these are the reservoirs most likely to provide for long-term storage with a minimum of adverse environmental consequences. Nevertheless, there is interest in storage in other reservoirs such as the biosphere or the oceans. Storage in biological reservoirs such as forests or agricultural soils may in many cases be relatively inexpensive. Because this biological storage involves carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, it can potentially offset emissions from the transportation sector. Biological storage can be politically popular because it can be deployed with simple technologies, can be deployed in developing countries, and in many cases involves other environmental co-benefits. However, total capacity is limited. Furthermore, biological storage is temporary unless the store is actively maintained forever. Such temporary storage can be valuable, although it is clearly not as valuable as the quasi-permanent storage offered by good geologic storage reservoirs Ocean storage options fall into two main classes. The first involves conventional separation and compression of carbon dioxide from large point sources which would then be piped into the deep ocean and released either into the water or as a lake on the sea floor. In either case, the carbon dioxide would eventually interact with the atmosphere and contribute to ocean acidification. However, there is potential for the development of long-term engineered containment of carbon dioxide on or in the sea floor. The second main ocean storage option involves increasing ocean alkalinity, probably by dissolving carbonate minerals. This approach may offer safe, quasi- permanent, and cost-effective storage in settings where coastal carbon dioxide point sources are co-located with carbonate mineral deposits. Not every location or carbon dioxide source is suitable for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. At this early stage, it is important not to foreclose options that may, with further development, provide for long-term, safe, and cost- effective storage of carbon dioxide.

  1. Resilient Adolescents and Peer Counseling: Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Carol

    1994-01-01

    Notes that some children emerge from traumatic, abusive experience with a resilience that enables them to survive and to cope with the stress. Contends that these resilient adolescents provide an untapped resource for peer counseling programs. Describes peer counseling and discusses skill development, training, and personal growth associated with…

  2. Landsat continuity: issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Wulder; Joanne C. White; Samuel N. Goward; Jeffrey G. Masek; James R. Irons; Martin Herold; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas R. Loveland; Curtis E. Woodcock

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of Earth observation for 35 years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and...

  3. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carolyn; DeMuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians’ expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies. PMID:23104048

  4. English and Identity in Multicultural Contexts: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lie, Anita

    2017-01-01

    The increasing dominance of English has brought implications in language policy and the teaching of English in the multicultural Indonesia. A high power language such as English is taught in schools as a language of modern communication, while the national language is regarded as a force of unifying the nation and local languages as carriers of…

  5. GREAT LAKES BASIN LAND-COVER DATA: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a consistent land-cover (LC) data set for the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The acquisition of consistent LC data has proven difficult both within the US and across GLB political boundaries due to disparate...

  6. Student Spirituality and School Counseling: Issues, Opportunities, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.; Devlin, James M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the professional school counseling community is introduced to the value of addressing student spirituality as a way to foster personal and social growth. Prior to discussing the robust theoretical and research foundation for this endeavor, 3 workable definitional strands of spirituality are summarized and applied to educational…

  7. Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Rackstraw, John Palmisano

    2001-01-15

    OAK-B135 This paper focuses on credits that are derived from wind energy technology, but the same concepts apply to other renewable energy technologies as well. Credit trading can be applied to a wide variety of policies, programs and private market activities and represents a means of tapping into revenue streams that heretofore have largely excluded wind and other renewables. In addition, credit trading can help to ''create'' new revenue streams for wind and other renewables by helping to grow new markets.

  8. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, D.; Busch, J.; Starrs, T.

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  9. Reflections on the Opportunities and Challenges of Disaster Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juntunen, Cindy L.

    2011-01-01

    This reaction article applauds the authors of the Major Contribution for their thoughtful and thorough consideration of the myriad issues that accompany disaster mental health work. The reaction highlights three themes that emerged in the articles of the contribution: opportunities for collaboration, opportunities for the application of social…

  10. 42 CFR 423.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 423.586 Section 423.586 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... reasonable opportunity to present evidence and allegations of fact or law, related to the issue in...

  11. New Opportunities with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) ACTS program review; 2) Spot beam locations; 3) Key ACTS technologies; 4) ACTS accomplishments; 5) Experiments operations; 6) Inclined orbit opportunity, mission and impact; 7) Modifications summary; 8) Experiment opportunity, categories, processes; and 9) Recent and ongoing activity.

  12. Reflections on the Opportunities and Challenges of Disaster Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juntunen, Cindy L.

    2011-01-01

    This reaction article applauds the authors of the Major Contribution for their thoughtful and thorough consideration of the myriad issues that accompany disaster mental health work. The reaction highlights three themes that emerged in the articles of the contribution: opportunities for collaboration, opportunities for the application of social…

  13. Challenge, Change and Opportunity: Overview, Texts and Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runnymede Trust, London (England).

    "The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: Challenges, Changes, and Opportunities" was a conference organized by the Runnymede Trust in partnership with other organizations to consider changes in multiethnic Britain in recent years, principal challenges and opportunities for the future, and what to do about them. These issues were discussed in…

  14. Towards an Analytical Framework for Accountability Regarding Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Johan; Prinsloo, Justus

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue of accountability for equal educational opportunities against the background of the constitutional provision that elevates accountability above a management tool to a national goal and value. It asserts that the government is indeed accountable for equal educational opportunities. However, government reporting on…

  15. Career Opportunities in Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Physiologists offer their viewpoints on career opportunities in the pharmaceutical industries. A director's and an employee's views of what a director of pharmacology looks for in a physiologist are included. (JN)

  16. No Shortcut for Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was making its way back toward its original entry path into 'Endurance Crater,' scientists and engineers spotted what they hoped might be a shortcut for climbing out of the crater. The possible exit path, pictured on the far right of this image where the outcrop is punctuated, was eventually deemed too hazardous for the rover to attempt. Opportunity would have had to cross terrain with a slope of 28 degrees and face a tall rock outcropping very close to the exit chute opening which, itself, is too narrow for the rover to pass. This stereo view combines several frames taken by the rover's navigation camera during Opportunity's 297th sol on Mars (Nov. 24, 2004). It is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The location from which the image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 38, Position 97.

  17. Opportunity is Still Smiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-09

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter acquired this color image on March 9, 2011, of Santa Maria crater, showing NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity perched on the southeast rim. The rover is the bluish speck on the crater rim arrow.

  18. Broadening Transfer Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    Broadened opportunity for transfer offers a potential for bolstering sagging enrollments, and increases capacities for accomodating the educational needs of a broader spectrum of a democratic society. (Author/KE)

  19. Equal Educational Opportunity Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas H.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the literature on equal educational opportunity (EEO), analyzes data from a school attitude questionnaire and a specially-designed achievement test, and draws implications for funding of EEO programs. (WD)

  20. Management of US men, women, and children with hemophilia and methods and demographics of the Bridging Hemophilia B Experiences, Results and Opportunities into Solutions (B-HERO-S) study.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Tyler W; Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Frey, Mary Jane; Hunter, Susan; Peltier, Skye; Recht, Michael; Walsh, Christopher; Kessler, Craig M; Owens, Wendy; Clark, David B; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Iyer, Neeraj N; Holot, Natalia; Cooper, David L; Sidonio, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The Bridging Hemophilia B Experiences, Results and Opportunities Into Solutions (B-HERO-S) initiative was launched in an effort to address specific gaps in the understanding of the psychosocial impact of mild-moderate-severe hemophilia B. The original Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) qualitative study evaluated the needs of people with hemophilia A or B in multiple countries; however, a majority of participants had the more common moderate-severe hemophilia A. The B-HERO-S study was designed in collaboration with the hemophilia community to evaluate the needs of adults with hemophilia B and caregivers of children with hemophilia B, including affected women and caregivers of girls with hemophilia. The report presented here describes participant demographics and comorbidities, as well as treatment regimens and access to treatment. Bleeding symptoms were reported by 27% of mothers of children with hemophilia B who participated. Women were more likely than men to self-report arthritis and depression/anxiety as comorbidities associated with hemophilia B. More adults and children with hemophilia B were on routine treatment than on on-demand treatment, and a high percentage of adults with moderate hemophilia B received routine treatment (86%). Many adults with hemophilia B (78%) and caregivers (69%) expressed concern about access to factor in the next 5 years, and of adults with hemophilia B, women more commonly experienced issues with access to factor in the past than did men (72% vs 44%). The findings of the B-HERO-S study reveal potential unmet needs of some patients with mild-moderate hemophilia B, and the results may be leveraged to inform patient outreach by hemophilia treatment centers and education initiatives.

  1. Opportunity Spies Its Backshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    From its new location at the inner edge of the small crater surrounding it, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was able to look out to the plains where its backshell (left) and parachute (right) landed. Opportunity is currently investigating a rock outcropping with its suite of robotic geologic tools. This approximate true-color image was created by combining data from the panoramic camera's red, green and blue filters.

  2. Joint modeling of survival and longitudinal non-survival data: current methods and issues. Report of the DIA Bayesian joint modeling working group

    PubMed Central

    Gould, A. Lawrence; Boye, Mark Ernest; Crowther, Michael J.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Quartey, George; Micallef, Sandrine; Bois, Frederic Y.

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly modeling underlying relationships between a survival endpoint and processes that generate longitudinal measured or reported outcomes potentially could improve the efficiency of clinical trials and provide greater insight into the various dimensions of the clinical effect of interventions included in the trials. Various strategies have been proposed for using longitudinal findings to elucidate intervention effects on clinical outcomes such as survival. The application of specifically Bayesian approaches for constructing models that address longitudinal and survival outcomes explicitly has been recently addressed in the literature. We review currently available methods for carrying out joint analyses, including issues of implementation and interpretation, identify software tools that can be used to carry out the necessary calculations, and review applications of the methodology. PMID:24634327

  3. Workforce Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  4. Newspaper Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Thomas A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This special issue includes "The Microfilming of Newspapers: An Overview" (Thomas Bourke); "United States Newspaper Program: Progress and Propsects" (Larry Sullivan); "The Preservation of Canadian Newspapers" (Mary Jane Starr); "Current Filming of the New York Times at UMI" (Kenneth Tillman); and "The…

  5. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  6. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  7. Faculty Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for courses on faculty issues are discussed, and four sample syllabi are presented. Few doctoral programs in higher education administration were identified that devote an entire course to the subject of American college and university faculty. For four courses that did devote an entire course to the…

  8. Research opportunities to improve DSM impact estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Misuriello, H.; Hopkins, M.E.F. )

    1992-03-01

    This report was commissioned by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) as part of its research mission to advance the energy efficiency and productivity of all end-use sectors in California. Our specific goal in this effort has been to identify viable research and development (R D) opportunities that can improve capabilities to determine the energy-use and demand reductions achieved through demand-side management (DSM) programs and measures. We surveyed numerous practitioners in California and elsewhere to identify the major obstacles to effective impact evaluation, drawing on their collective experience. As a separate effort, we have also profiled the status of regulatory practices in leading states with respect to DSM impact evaluation. We have synthesized this information, adding our own perspective and experience to those of our survey-respondent colleagues, to characterize today's state of the art in impact-evaluation practices. This scoping study takes a comprehensive look at the problems and issues involved in DSM impact estimates at the customer-facility or site level. The major portion of our study investigates three broad topic areas of interest to CIEE: Data analysis issues, field-monitoring issues, issues in evaluating DSM measures. Across these three topic areas, we have identified 22 potential R D opportunities, to which we have assigned priority levels. These R D opportunities are listed by topic area and priority.

  9. Research opportunities to improve DSM impact estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Misuriello, H.; Hopkins, M.E.F.

    1992-03-01

    This report was commissioned by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) as part of its research mission to advance the energy efficiency and productivity of all end-use sectors in California. Our specific goal in this effort has been to identify viable research and development (R&D) opportunities that can improve capabilities to determine the energy-use and demand reductions achieved through demand-side management (DSM) programs and measures. We surveyed numerous practitioners in California and elsewhere to identify the major obstacles to effective impact evaluation, drawing on their collective experience. As a separate effort, we have also profiled the status of regulatory practices in leading states with respect to DSM impact evaluation. We have synthesized this information, adding our own perspective and experience to those of our survey-respondent colleagues, to characterize today`s state of the art in impact-evaluation practices. This scoping study takes a comprehensive look at the problems and issues involved in DSM impact estimates at the customer-facility or site level. The major portion of our study investigates three broad topic areas of interest to CIEE: Data analysis issues, field-monitoring issues, issues in evaluating DSM measures. Across these three topic areas, we have identified 22 potential R&D opportunities, to which we have assigned priority levels. These R&D opportunities are listed by topic area and priority.

  10. Open the door whenever opportunity knocks.

    PubMed

    Downs, Mallery H; Kaminsky, Alexis; Lewis, Johnnye

    2006-01-01

    The Community Environmental Health Program/Community Outreach and Education Program (CEHP/COEP) New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences has learned that listening and responding to opportunities that arise in local communities can be a more effective means of reaching health care providers, lay health workers, and community members than structured plans of action. While specific opportunities that have occurred in New Mexico may be unique, they are presented here with the hope that they might suggest new strategies to the reader and help to identify parallel opportunities in other communities. The paper is organized around three major opportunities to which CEHP/COEP has responded: (1) the need for more informed health care in communities with unique and complex environmental and occupational exposures due to their proximity to National Laboratories; (2) the need for resources on environmental health within local provider networks and issue-specific groups; and (3) the need for community environmental health projects within the College of Nursing. CEHP/COEP's responses, observations, and lessons learned through these experiences are discussed. In the end, the major lesson is that the ability to respond to opportunities requires flexibility and creativity; by sticking doggedly to plans, valuable-and sometimes more profitable and productive-opportunities may be missed.

  11. Physics opportunities with meson beams

    SciTech Connect

    Briscoe, William J.; Doring, Michael; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D. Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2015-10-20

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. Furthermore, the present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.

  12. Physics opportunities with meson beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, William J.; Döring, Michael; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D. Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electroproduction data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even non-existent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state-of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. The present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.

  13. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  14. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  15. Multiphysics simulations: challenges and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D.; McInnes, L. C.; Woodward, C.; Gropp, W.; Myra, E.; Pernice, M.

    2012-11-29

    This report is an outcome of the workshop Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the Institute of Computing in Science (ICiS). Additional information about the workshop, including relevant reading and presentations on multiphysics issues in applications, algorithms, and software, is available via https://sites.google.com/site/icismultiphysics2011/. We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where 'algorithmic' includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and 'architectural' includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.

  16. Education Statistics Quarterly. Volume 5, Issue 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This publication provides a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications, data product, and funding opportunities developed over a 3-month period. Each issue also contains a message…

  17. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.

  18. The Issue of Age Estimation in a Modern Skeletal Population: Are Even the More Modern Current Aging Methods Satisfactory for the Elderly?

    PubMed

    Cappella, Annalisa; Cummaudo, Marco; Arrigoni, Elena; Collini, Federica; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The main idea behind age assessment in adults is related to the analysis of the physiological degeneration of particular skeletal structures with age. The main issues with these procedures are due to the fact that they have not been tested on different modern populations and in different taphonomic contexts and that they tend to underestimate the age of older individuals. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability and the reliability of these methods on a contemporary population of skeletal remains of 145 elderly individuals of known sex and age. The results show that, due to taphonomic influences, some skeletal sites showed a lower survival. Therefore, the methods with the highest percentage of applicability were Lovejoy (89.6%) and Rougé-Maillart (81.3%), followed by Suchey-Brooks (59.3%), and those with the lowest percentage of applicability were Beauthier (26.2%) and Iscan (22.7%). In addition, this research has shown how for older adults the study of both acetabulum and auricular surface may be more reliable for aging. This is also in accordance with the fact that auricular surface and the acetabulum are the areas more frequently surviving taphonomic insult. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Equal Opportunity Handbook: A Resource on Equal Opportunities for Education and Employment in Oregon Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This handbook is an information source for Oregon public school districts developing policies to ensure equal opportunities in education, employment, and the provision of educational services required by Federal and state laws, regulations, and policies. Not addressed are issues and services for the handicapped or programs for migrants, the…

  20. Opportunity's Heat Shield Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity reveals the scene of the rover's heat shield impact. In this view, Opportunity is approximately 130 meters (427 feet) away from the device that protected it while hurtling through the martian atmosphere.

    The rover spent 36 sols investigating how the severe heating during entry through the atmosphere affected the heat shield. The most obvious is the fact that the heat shield inverted upon impact.

    This is the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true-color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. It was generated from a mathematical combination of six calibrated, left-eye panoramic camera images acquired around 1:50 p.m. local solar time on Opportunity's sol 322 (Dec. 19, 2004) using filters ranging in wavelengths from 430 to 750 nanometers.

  1. 48 CFR 15.205 - Issuing solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 15.205 Issuing solicitations. (a) The contracting officer shall issue solicitations to...

  2. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  3. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  4. Opportunity Rocks Again!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This high-resolution image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera highlights a portion of the puzzling rock outcropping that scientists eagerly wait to investigate. Presently, Opportunity is on its lander facing northeast; the outcropping lies to the northwest. These layered rocks measure only 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall and are thought to be either volcanic ash deposits or sediments carried by water or wind. Data from the panoramic camera's near-infrared, blue and green filters were combined to create this approximate true color image.

  5. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  6. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breece, G.A.; Ward, B.J.

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

  7. Partial-occupancy binders identified by the Pan-Dataset Density Analysis method offer new chemical opportunities and reveal cryptic binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Nicholas M.; Bradley, Anthony R.; Krojer, Tobias; Marsden, Brian D.; Deane, Charlotte M.; von Delft, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Crystallographic fragment screening uses low molecular weight compounds to probe the protein surface and although individual protein-fragment interactions are high quality, fragments commonly bind at low occupancy, historically making identification difficult. However, our new Pan-Dataset Density Analysis method readily identifies binders missed by conventional analysis: for fragment screening data of lysine-specific demethylase 4D (KDM4D), the hit rate increased from 0.9% to 10.6%. Previously unidentified fragments reveal multiple binding sites and demonstrate: the versatility of crystallographic fragment screening; that surprisingly large conformational changes are possible in crystals; and that low crystallographic occupancy does not by itself reflect a protein-ligand complex's significance. PMID:28345007

  8. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  9. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  10. Legal Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Salome

    2011-01-01

    For legal issues in the field of disability compliance, this is an exciting time in postsecondary education. The twentieth anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) signals a reawakening of the commitment to provide equal access to individuals with disabilities. This chapter explores three of the compliance issues that will be of…

  11. Green ergonomics: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the causes and consequences of environmental degradation presents significant challenges for humankind. This paper considers what ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) professionals can contribute to understanding and tackling some of the issues that arise through the movement towards a more environmentally sustainable economy. These issues are considered in relation to work in green industries (specifically, sustainable energy production, recycling and organic food production), and there is a need to ensure that these jobs are safe and healthy; the design of products and systems that are 'environmentally friendly' to facilitate their acceptability and use and how E/HF professionals can contribute to understanding and promoting behavioural change relating to environmental choices. The activities of some international organisations in this area are identified and the potential for E/HF involvement is considered. The implications for the E/HF profession are discussed. This paper considers how ergonomics/human factors professionals can contribute to the movement towards more sustainable and 'environmentally friendly' design and work. Potential challenges and opportunities are discussed in relation to jobs in green industries, products and systems and behaviour change.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities in the Advancement of Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Mehtala, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine-based approaches to cancer treatment face several challenges that differ from those encountered by conventional medicines during clinical development. A systematic exploration of these issues has led us to identify the following needs and opportunities for further development: (1) robust and general methods for the accurate characterization of nanoparticle size, shape, and composition; (2) scalable approaches for producing nanomedicines with optimized bioavailability and excretion profiles; (3) particle engineering for maintaining low levels of nonspecific cytotoxicity and sufficient stability during storage; (4) optimization of surface chemistries for maximum targeted delivery and minimum nonspecific adsorption; (5) practical methods for quantifying ligand density and distributions on multivalent nanocarriers; and (6) the design of multifunctional nanomedicines for novel combination therapies with supportable levels of bioaccumulation. PMID:23064314

  13. Solid dispersions, part I: recent evolutions and future opportunities in manufacturing methods for dissolution rate enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, the number of active pharmaceutical ingredients with high therapeutic impact, but very low water solubility, has increased significantly. Thus, a great challenge for pharmaceutical technology is to create new formulations and efficient drug-delivery systems to overcome these dissolution problems. Drug formulation in solid dispersions (SDs) is one of the most commonly used techniques for the dissolution rate enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs. Generally, SDs can be defined as a dispersion of active ingredients in molecular, amorphous and/or microcrystalline forms into an inert carrier. This review covers literature which states that the dissolution enhancement of SDs is based on the fact that drugs in the nanoscale range, or in amorphous phase, dissolve faster and to a greater extent than micronized drug particles. This is in accordance to the Noyes-Whitney equation, while the wetting properties of the used polymer may also play an important role. The main factors why SD-based pharmaceutical products on the market are steadily increasing over the last few years are: the recent progress in various methods used for the preparation of SDs, the effect of evolved interactions in physical state of the drug and formulation stability during storage, the characterization of the physical state of the drug and the mechanism of dissolution rate enhancement.

  14. Demographic Problems and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Frances P.

    A comparison of Monroe County projections of high school graduates and the March 1986 Rochester Labor Area Summary points to some excellent opportunities for marketing Monroe Community College (MCC). Projections of high school graduation rates show a 25% decrease in the number of graduates between 1989 and 1991, while the demand for entry-level…

  15. Opportunity Turns 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccio, Maria; Pierre-Vil, Samienta

    2016-01-01

    The New England Educational Opportunity Association (NEOA) drew more than 250 TRIO and college access professionals to its 40th annual conference in Massachusetts earlier this spring. NEOA's mission is to advocate for access to and success in postsecondary education for low-income individuals, "first-generation" college students, and…

  16. Opportunity Spies Its Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a forward-looking view of the Meridiani Planum plains that lie between the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and its primary drive target, 'Endurance Crater.' The images in this image mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 88.

  17. Opportunity Investigation Target Onaping

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-19

    This image from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover arm extended for examination of a target called Onaping at the base of an outcrop called Copper Cliff in the Matijevic Hill area of the west rim of Endeavour Crater.

  18. Summer Opportunities for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winds of Change, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Eleven summer internships, work experience programs, research opportunities, and courses are described. Some offer stipends. Some are specifically for American Indian, minority, disadvantaged, or disabled students in high school or college. Most are in science or engineering related fields. Each entry contains a brief program description,…

  19. Expanding College Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoxby, Caroline; Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    For this study, the authors designed an experiment to test whether some high-achieving, low-income students would change their behavior if they knew more about colleges and, more importantly, whether a cost-effective way to help such students realize their full array of college opportunities can be implemented. This was done by randomly assigning…

  20. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)