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Sample records for methyl iodide poisoning

  1. [Intravenous methyl iodide poisoning--detoxification using hemoperfusion].

    PubMed

    Robertz-Vaupel, G M; Bierl, R; von Unruh, G

    1991-02-01

    A 19-year-old patient intending to commit suicide gave himself an intravenous injection of about 14 g methyliodide. The patient was admitted to our hospital in a state of somnolence and agitation followed by a cerebral convulsion and severe hypotension. The serum concentration of methyl iodide was measured by mass spectroscopy. In addition to an antidote therapy with acetylcysteine, haemoperfusion was performed followed by a remarkable decrease of the methyliodide concentration. The patient survived this severe intoxication and was discharged from the hospital after a week.

  2. Methyl iodide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl iodide ; CASRN 74 - 88 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  3. Femtosecond dissociation dynamics of methyl iodide clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poth, L.; Zhong, Q.; Ford, J. V.; Castleman, A. W.

    1998-09-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of methyl iodide clusters using λ=270 nm as pump and λ=405 nm as probe are studied using a femtosecond two color pump-probe laser arrangement combined with a reflectron time-of-flight (RTOF) mass spectrometer. This enables the à state and 10s Rydberg state of methyl iodide to be accessed with the pump beam. Of particular interest is a comparison of the femtosecond dynamics of the methyl iodide monomer with the clustered species. Clocking of the monomer dissociation shows a transient which is indicative of a fast C-I bond breakage as is to be expected upon excitation of methyl iodide into the fast dissociating à state, or into the predissociative 10s Rydberg state. Clusters, however, show a very different pump-probe transient composed of a fast decay and a subsequent dip in ion signal followed by a rise for pump-probe delay times greater than 2 ps. The cluster ion signal shows an enhancement for pump probe delay times up to 70 ps. The results are interpreted in terms of the electronic state diagram of the methyl iodide monomer and effects resulting from clustering of these species, shifts of electronic energy levels and caging of excited species in the cluster.

  4. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  5. Photochemical versus biological production of methyl iodide during Meteor 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, U.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    The flux of methyl iodide from sea to air represents the largest flux of iodine from the ocean to the atmosphere. Surface water concentrations and hence fluxes are particularly high in tropical regions. This flux may be responsible for the enrichment of iodine in the marine aerosol and may contribute to important processes in the marine boundary layer, including particle formation. Methyl iodide is commonly referred to as a biogenic gas, with both macroalgae and phytoplankton identified as important sources. On the other hand experimental and field data have shown the importance of photochemical production that is not necessarily associated directly with biological activity. During the Meteor cruise 55 along 11°N in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the biological vs. photochemical production of methyl iodide. A total of eight separate experiments were conducted. Production of CH3I in quartz glass flasks during 24 hour incubations (dark and natural sunlight) was measured under three experimental treatments: untreated seawater, filtered seawater (0.1 um pore size filter to exclude most phytoplankton and bacteria), and seawater that was poisoned with mercuric chloride. There were two clear findings from these experiments: (1) methyl iodide production was significantly higher in all the incubations that were exposed to the light than in the dark incubations; (2) there was no significant difference between CH3I production under the three experimental treatments. These results argue very strongly for the primary importance of photochemical production of CH3I as opposed to biogenic production at least for the tropical open ocean surface waters. Further experiments are required to investigate the reactants involved, their sources, the wavelength and depth dependence of production, etc. as well as (possibly related) sink processes.

  6. Factors affecting the retention of methyl iodide by iodide-impregnated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.; Malstrom, R.A.

    1990-12-31

    Iodide-impregnated activated carbon that had been in use for up to 30 months was studied to characterize those factors that affect its interaction with and retention of methyl iodide. Humidity and competing organic sorbents were observed to decrease the residence time of the methyl iodide on the carbon bed. Additionally, changes in the effective surface area and the loss of iodide from the surface are both important in determining the effectiveness of the carbon for retaining radioactive iodine from methyl iodide. A simple model incorporating both factors gave a fairly good fit to the experimental data.

  7. Factors affecting the retention of methyl iodide by iodide-impregnated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.; Malstrom, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Iodide-impregnated activated carbon that had been in use for up to 30 months was studied to characterize those factors that affect its interaction with and retention of methyl iodide. Humidity and competing organic sorbents were observed to decrease the residence time of the methyl iodide on the carbon bed. Additionally, changes in the effective surface area and the loss of iodide from the surface are both important in determining the effectiveness of the carbon for retaining radioactive iodine from methyl iodide. A simple model incorporating both factors gave a fairly good fit to the experimental data.

  8. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  9. Reaction of N-sulfonyltellurimides with methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Naddaka, V.I.; Avanesyan, K.V.; Cherkinskaya, M.L.; Minkin, V.I.

    1987-09-20

    While developing researches into the reactivity of tellurimides, the authors studied the previously unknown reaction of N-sulonyltellurimides with methyl iodide. The authors established that bis(diphenyltellurium) oxide and N-methyl-p-toluenesulfonamide are formed when the tellurimide is boiled in methyl iodide. Such a direction is evidently due to the fact that the telluronium salt produced during the reaction is readily hydrolyzed at the Te-N bond on account of the presence of traces of moisture in the methyl iodide. However, the heating of the tellurimides with an excess of anhydrous methyl iodide in a sealed tube leads to diaryltellurium diiodides and N,N-dimethylsulfonamides. The PMR spectra of solutions of the substances in deuterochloroform were recorded on a Tesla-BS-487 spectrometer at 80 MHz with HMDS as internal standard. The IR spectra were obtained on a Specord 71-IR instrument in Vaseline oil.

  10. Laboratory measurements of parameters affecting wet deposition of methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Maeck, W.J.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    The transfer of gaseous methyl iodide (CH/sub 3/I) to raindrops and the initial retention by vegetation of CH/sub 3/I in raindrops have been studied in a laboratory experimental program. The measured air-to-drop transfer parameters and initial retention factors both affect the wet deposition of methyl iodide onto vegetation. No large effects on the air-to-drop transfer due to methyl iodide concentration, temperature, acidity, or rain type were observed. Differences between laboratory measurements and theoretical values of the mass transfer coefficient were found. Pasture grass, lettuce, and alfalfa were used to study the initial retention of methyl iodide by vegetation. Only a small fraction of the incident CH/sub 3/I in raindrops was held by any of the three vegetation types.

  11. Accelerated degradation of methyl iodide by agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R

    2003-01-29

    The fumigant methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane) is considered a promising alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for soil-borne pest control in high-cash-value crops. However, the high vapor pressure of MeI results in emissions of a significant proportion of the applied mass into the ambient air, and this may lead to pollution of the environment. Integrating the application of certain agrochemicals with soil fumigation provides a novel approach to reduce excessive fumigant emissions. This study investigated the potential for several agrochemicals that are commonly used in farming operations, including fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors, to transform MeI in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order hydrolysis half-life (t(1/2)) of MeI was approximately 108 d, while the transformation of MeI in aqueous solutions containing selected agrochemicals was more rapid, with t(1/2) < 100 d (t(1/2) < 0.5 d in some solutions containing nitrification inhibitors). The influence of these agrochemicals on the rate of MeI degradation in soil was also determined. Adsorption to soil apparently reduced the availability of some nitrification inhibitors in the soil aqueous phase and lowered the degradation rate in soil. In contrast, addition of the nitrification inhibitors thiourea and allylthiourea to soil significantly accelerated the degradation of MeI, possibly due to soil surface catalysis. The t(1/2) of MeI was <20 h in thiourea- and allylthiourea-amended soil, considerably less than that in unamended soil (t(1/2) > 300 h).

  12. Evidence for Terrestrial Sources of Methyl Iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, R. K.; Sive, B. C.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; White, M. L.; Csakai, A.; Beckman, P.; Ambrose, J.; Wingenter, O. W.; Mao, H.; Talbot, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    The major source of methyl iodide (MeI) to the atmosphere has been shown to be supersaturation of ocean surface waters through biological and/or photoproduction pathways. Minor contributions of MeI to the atmosphere are release by rice plants/paddies, salt marshes and fungi. To date, there has been no direct evidence of a significant terrestrial source of MeI. We present the first direct evidence of a significant plant and soil source of MeI. Canopy measurements of MeI were made in the loblolly pine plantation at Duke Forest, Chapel Hill, North Carolina during a three week field campaign from September 8 through 28, 2004. Approximately 700, 2-liter electropolished stainless steel canisters (University of California, Irvine) were filled hourly at both ambient CO2 (Ring 1) and elevated CO2 (Ring 2) of the FACTS-1 Research Facility. Canister samples were collected simultaneously in Rings 1 and 2 each hour for a total of 12 days from a 16 m inlet. Additionally on September 20 and 24, simultaneous samples from both 16 m and 20 m were collected in Rings 1 and 2 in order to determine the gradient of MeI. The measurements from the 16m height indicate a diurnal pattern of increasing MeI at night resulting from a decrease in boundary layer height coupled with a local source of MeI. Gradient fluxes were calculated using CO2 gradients and eddy covariance data from the site. The flux data indicate a positive flux of MeI out of the canopy. A second field campaign at Duke Forest from June 1 through 12, 2005 where we used Teflon bag branch enclosures to measure the flux of MeI from branches of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) over two 48-hour periods. Ambient and post-branch samples were collected at both Rings 1 and 2 approximately every 2 hours for each plant species. Canister analysis revealed significantly different concentrations of MeI from ambient to post-branch enclosure. Fluxes calculated based on emission of MeI per leaf area of the

  13. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-08-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that

  14. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  15. FY-2016 Methyl Iodide Higher NOx Adsorption Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2016-09-01

    Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2016 under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) Program Offgas Sigma Team to further research and advance the technical maturity of solid sorbents for capturing iodine-129 in off-gas streams during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Adsorption testing with higher levels of NO (approximately 3,300 ppm) and NO2 (up to about 10,000 ppm) indicate that high efficiency iodine capture by silver aerogel remains possible. Maximum iodine decontamination factors (DFs, or the ratio of iodine flowrate in the sorbent bed inlet gas compared to the iodine flowrate in the outlet gas) exceeded 3,000 until bed breakthrough rapidly decreased the DF levels to as low as about 2, when the adsorption capability was near depletion. After breakthrough, nearly all of the uncaptured iodine that remains in the bed outlet gas stream is no longer in the form of the original methyl iodide. The methyl iodide molecules are cleaved in the sorbent bed, even after iodine adsorption is no longer efficient, so that uncaptured iodine is in the form of iodine species soluble in caustic scrubber solutions, and detected and reported here as diatomic I2. The mass transfer zone depths were estimated at 8 inches, somewhat deeper than the 2-5 inch range estimated for both silver aerogels and silver zeolites in prior deep-bed tests, which had lower NOx levels. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity and silver utilization for these higher NOx tests, at about 5-15% of the original sorbent mass, and about 12-35% of the total silver, respectively, were lower than for trends from prior silver aerogel and silver zeolite tests with lower NOx levels. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to expand the database for organic iodide adsorption and increase the technical maturity if iodine adsorption processes.

  16. Laccase-catalysed iodide oxidation in presence of methyl syringate.

    PubMed

    Kulys, Juozas; Bratkovskaja, Irina; Vidziunaite, Regina

    2005-10-05

    The kinetics of potassium triiodide (KI(3)) formation during fungal laccase action was investigated in presence of methyl syringate (MS). The recombinant forms of Polyporus pinsitus (rPpL), Myceliophthora thermophila (rMtL), Coprinus cinereus (rCcL), and Rhizoctonia solani (rRsL) laccases were used. The triiodide formation rate reached 6.1, 5.5, 6.0, and 2.1 microM/min at saturated rPpL, rCcL, rRsL, and rMtL concentration, respectively, in acetate buffer solution pH 5.5 and in presence of 10 microM of MS and 1 mM of potassium iodide. The triiodide formation rate increased if pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.5. The scheme of laccase-catalysed iodide oxidation includes stadium of MS interaction with oxidized laccase with concomitant production of MS(ox). The reaction of MS(ox) with iodide produced triiodide. The turnover number of MS was 93 and 44 at pH 5.5 for rPpL and rMtL, respectively. The scheme also contained a stadium of reversible reduction of laccase active centre with the mediator explaining the different saturation rate of triiodide production. The fitting kinetic data revealed that the reversibility of the reaction increased for laccases containing lower redox potential of copper type I.

  17. Possible evidence for a connection between methyl iodide emissions and Saharan dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Gros, V.; Atlas, E.; Maciejczyk, K.; Batsaikhan, A.; SchöLer, H. F.; Forster, C.; Quack, B.; Yassaa, N.; Sander, R.; van Dingenen, R.

    2007-04-01

    Methyl iodide has been measured during two field campaigns in the Atlantic region in 2002. The first took place in July-August at 2300 m on the island of Tenerife, while the second was a shipborne, east-west crossing of the Tropical Atlantic at 10°N in October-November of the same year. Both campaigns were periodically impacted by dust, advected from Africa in trade winds. Unexpectedly, during these dust events, methyl iodide mixing ratios were observed to be high relative to other times. Backward calculations with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART show the origin of the dust storms as Mauritania and southern Algeria for the ground- and ship-based campaigns, respectively. The dust-laden air traveled from its source above the marine boundary layer to the measurement region. On the basis of the field data correlations and the simulations, we suggest that dust-stimulated emission of methyl iodide has occurred. To test this hypothesis, dust samples were collected from the identified source regions and added to filtered Atlantic seawater. This rapidly produced methyl iodide. Further tests established that the addition of iodide increased the yield and that iodide with H2O2 was greater still. This was found for both sterilized and nonsterilized samples. We conclude that there is an abiotic methyl iodide production mechanism that can occur via substitution, analogous to those in soil, rather than radical recombination. This may occur when dust contacts seawater containing iodide or when marine water vapor condenses on dust containing iodide. This hypothesis appears to be consistent with recent long-term methyl iodide data sets from Tasmania and may help resolve current uncertainties in the iodine cycle.

  18. Electron stimulated reactions of methyl iodide coadsorbed with amorphous solid water.

    PubMed

    Perry, C C; Faradzhev, N S; Madey, T E; Fairbrother, D H

    2007-05-28

    The electron stimulated reactions of methyl iodide (MeI) adsorbed on and suspended within amorphous solid water (ice) were studied using a combination of postirradiation temperature programmed desorption and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. For MeI adsorbed on top of amorphous solid water (ice), electron beam irradiation is responsible for both structural and chemical transformations within the overlayer. Electron stimulated reactions of MeI result principally in the formation of methyl radicals and solvated iodide anions. The cross section for electron stimulated decomposition of MeI is comparable to the gas phase value and is only weakly dependent upon the local environment. For both adsorbed MeI and suspended MeI, reactions of methyl radicals within MeI clusters lead to the formation of ethane, ethyl iodide, and diiodomethane. In contrast, reactions between the products of methyl iodide and water dissociation are responsible for the formation of methanol and carbon dioxide. Methane, formed as a result of reactions between methyl radicals and either parent MeI molecules or hydrogen atoms, is also observed. The product distribution is found to depend on the film's initial chemical composition as well as the electron fluence. Results from this study highlight the similarities in the carbon-containing products formed when monohalomethanes coadsorbed with amorphous solid water are irradiated by either electrons or photons.

  19. Isotopic localization of the partially deuterated methyl group in solid methanol and methyl iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hal; Inaba, Akira

    2017-05-01

    Heat capacity measurements were made down to 0.35 K for the isotopic modifications of methanol, CH3-nDnOH, and methyl iodide, CH3-nDnI, (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) to determine the orientation of the partially deuterated methyl group in the solid phase. The mono-deuterated modifications favor the symmetric conformation, whereas the di-deuterated ones favor the asymmetric conformation. Infrared spectroscopy demonstrates that some vibrational modes change in intensity depending on temperature, which supports the energy scheme obtained by calorimetry. Zero-point kinetic energies were obtained by single molecule density functional theory calculations. Although the favorable conformations of CH2DOH and CHD2OH were confirmed, the energy difference between symmetric and asymmetric conformations was twice as large as that determined experimentally, which indicates that intermolecular forces significantly decrease the energy difference. For CHD2OH, the conversion between the two asymmetric conformations becomes very slow at low temperature and results in a residual entropy of R ln 2.

  20. Solvatochromic effect and kinetics of methyl violet reduction with potassium iodide in water-isopropanol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashfaq, Maria; Saeed, Rehana; Khan, Sameera Razi; Masood, Summyia

    2016-12-01

    The solvent influence on the reduction kinetics of methyl violet with iodide in binary mixture of aqueous isopropanol was investigated spectrophotometrically. The absorption spectra of methyl violet were recorded in water, aqueous isopropanol and absolute isopropanol. In these solvents λmax was in the range from 580.5 to 582.5 nm. The CNIBS/R-K model was used to calculate the solvatochromic parameters in a binary mixture; polynomial equation was also applied to describe the experimental data. The transition energies ( E T) were calculated. They show bathochromic shift with the decrease in the polarity of the solvent. The temperature was varied from 298-318 K, while the pH of the reaction was maintained at 4.99 and 6.00. The reduction reaction was found to be first order by potassium iodide and zero order by methyl violet. The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated to support the kinetic data.

  1. Trapping radiodine, in the form of methyl iodide, on nuclear carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Nacapricha, D.; Taylor, C.

    1996-12-31

    Studies have been performed on potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoals of the type used in the nuclear industry for trapping radioiodine released during nuclear fission. The effects of various parameters on the trapping efficiency of methyl iodide have been investigated. A variation in particle size within a bulk charcoal caused poor precision in K value measurements because of differences in surface area, pore volume, and bed density, leading to differences in the deposition of the impregnant. Precision is improved by sieving the charcoal to a narrower size because smaller particles have a higher porosity. This finding is supported by surface area and pore measurements. Two methods of impregnation are compared by measuring K values and the deposition of potassium iodide. Charcoal impregnated by rotary evaporation exhibits both higher K values and higher potassium iodide contents than sprayed charcoal. Two designs of spraying drum are compared: a drum with helical vanes allows more efficient deposition and more uniform distribution of impregnant than a drum with axial vanes. A decrease in the K value with increasing humidity correlates with the available surface area. A similar correlation exists between water content and available pore volume. Aging of potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoal, caused by the formation of oxygen complexes on the surface, is associated with significant falls in K value. K values of charcoals also can be restored to at least their original values by heat treatment in the absence of air. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Studies on the Mechanisms of Methyl Iodide Adsorption and Iodine Retention on Silver-Mordenite

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Soelberg, Nick

    2014-09-01

    Silver-containing mordenite (MOR) is a longstanding benchmark for radioiodine capture, reacting with molecular iodine (I2) to form AgI. However the mechanisms for organoiodine capture are not well understood. Here we investigate the capture of methyl iodide from complex mixed gas streams by combining chemical analysis of the effluent gas stream with in depth characterization of the recovered sorbent.

  3. Predicting methyl iodide emission, soil concentration, and pest control in a two-dimensional chamber system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lifang; Yates, Scott R; Ashworth, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Due to ever-increasing state and federal regulations, the future use of fumigants is predicted on reducing negative environmental impacts while offering sufficient pestcontrol efficacy. To foster the development of a best management practice, an integrated tool is needed to simultaneously predict fumigant movement and pest control without having to conduct elaborate and costly experiments. The objective of this study was (i) to present a two-dimensional (2-D) mathematical model to describe both fumigant movement and pestcontrol and (ii) to evaluate the model by comparing the simulated and observed results. Both analytical and numerical methods were used to predict methyl iodide (MeI) transport and fate. To predict pest control efficacy, the concentration-time index (CT) was defined and a two-parameter logistic survival model was used. Dose-response curves were experimentally determined for MeI against three types of pests (barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli] seed, citrus nematode [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], and fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]). Methyl iodide transport and pest control measurements collected from a 2-D experiimental system (60 by 60 cm) were used to test the model. Methyl iodide volatilization rates and soil gas-phase concentrations over time were accurately simulated by the model. The mass balance analysis indicates that the fraction of MeI degrading in the soil was underestimated when determined by the appearance of iodide concentration. The experimental results showed that after 24 h of MeI fumigation in the 2-D soil chamber, fungal population was not suppressed; > 90% of citrus nematodes were killed; and barnyardgrass seeds within 20-cm distance from the center were affected. These experimental results were consistent with the predicted results. The model accurately estimated the MeI movement and control of various pests and is a powerful tool to evaluate pesticides in terms of their negative environmental impacts and pest control under various

  4. 76 FR 16770 - Petition To Suspend and Cancel All Registrations for the Soil Fumigant Iodomethane (Methyl Iodide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... AGENCY Petition To Suspend and Cancel All Registrations for the Soil Fumigant Iodomethane (Methyl Iodide... 31, 2010, EPA received a petition from Earthjustice requesting that all uses of iodomethane (methyl... comments to docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP- 2010-0541. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be...

  5. A velocity map imaging study of the photodissociation of the methyl iodide cation.

    PubMed

    Marggi Poullain, S; Chicharro, D V; González-Vázquez, J; Rubio-Lago, L; Bañares, L

    2017-03-06

    The photodissociation dynamics of the methyl iodide cation has been studied using the velocity map imaging technique. A first laser pulse is used to ionize methyl iodide via a (2 + 1) REMPI scheme through the 5pπ → 6p Rydberg state two-photon transition. The produced CH3I(+)(X[combining tilde](2)E3/2) ions are subsequently excited at several wavelengths between 242 and 260 nm. The reported translational energy distributions for the methyl and iodine ions present a Boltzmann-type unstructured distribution at low excitation energies as well as a recoiled narrow structure at higher excitation energies highlighting two different dissociation processes. High level ab initio calculations have been performed in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the photodissociation dynamics of the CH3I(+) ion. Direct dissociation on a repulsive state from the manifold of states representing the B[combining tilde] excited state leads to CH3(+)(X[combining tilde](1)A1') + I*((2)P1/2), while the CH3 + I(+)((3)P2) channel is populated through an avoided crossing outside the Franck-Condon region. In contrast, an indirect process involving the transfer of energy from highly excited electronic states to the ground state of the ion is responsible for the observed Boltzmann-type distributions.

  6. Continuous realtime radioiodine monitor employing on-line methyl iodide conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, S.J.; Motes, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    An integrated /sup 14/C, /sup 129/I, and /sup 85/Kr monitor was proposed by Fernandez, et al. that separates /sup 129/I from /sup 85/Kr by selective permeation across thin silicone rubber membranes. Subsequent studies of the permeation of CH/sub 3/I and I/sub 2/ through silicone rubber membranes demonstrated that I/sub 2/ transport across the membranes is too slow to be useful in a realtime monitor. Transport of methyl iodide, however, is rapid and gives a separation factor of greater than 100 from /sup 85/Kr.

  7. Rapid Room-Temperature 11C-Methylation of Arylamines with [11C]Methyl Iodide Promoted by Solid Inorganic Bases in DMF

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lisheng; Xu, Rong; Guo, Xuelei; Pike, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    11[C]Methyl iodide is the most widely used reagent for labeling radiotracers with carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min) for molecular imaging with positron emission tomography. However, some substrates for labeling, especially primary arylamines and pyrroles, are sluggishly reactive towards [11C]methyl iodide. We found that insoluble inorganic bases, especially Li3N or Li2O, are effective in promoting rapid reactions (≤ 10 min) of such substrates with no-carrier-added [11C]methyl iodide in DMF at room temperature to give 11C-methylated products in useful radiochemical yields. In particular, we discovered that some primary arylamines in Li3N-DMF were converted into their formanilides, and that these were readily N-methylated with [11C]methyl iodide, preceding easy basic hydrolysis to the desired [11C]N-methyl secondary arylamines. Use of a solid base permitted selective reaction at an arylamino group and in some cases also avoided undesirable side reaction, such as ester group hydrolysis. An ultrasound device proved useful to provide remote and constant agitation of the radioactive heterogeneous reaction mixtures, but imparted no ‘ultrasound-specific’ chemical effect. PMID:24659907

  8. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: Effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the p...

  9. Global Tranport of Radon and Methyl iodide in a Cloud-Resolving Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, D.; Collins, W.; Lamarque, J.

    2011-12-01

    The global transport of the surface-emitted short-lived passive tracers radon and methyl iodide is simulated in a cloud-resolving global climate model (GCM) and in a conventional GCM in which cloud processes are not resolved. Simulated vertical profiles of tracers concentrations from both models are compared to profiles observed in situ. The comparisons suggest that the cloud-resolving GCM is better than the conventional GCM in reproducing the vertical gradients and hence the convective entrainment and detrainment of passive tracers. Contrasting climatological maps of tracers concentrations from simulations we find consistent and appreciable relative differences between the cloud-resolving GCM and the conventional case that might have important implications for climate and atmospheric chemistry simulations but require further investigations.

  10. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for methyl iodide in rats, rabbits, and humans.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Gannon, Shawn A; Thrall, Karla D; Gargas, Michael L; Kinzell, John H

    2009-05-01

    Methyl iodide (MeI) has been proposed as an alternative to methyl bromide as a pre-plant soil fumigant that does not deplete stratospheric ozone. In inhalation toxicity studies performed in animals as part of the registration process, three effects have been identified that warrant consideration in developing toxicity reference values for human risk assessment: nasal lesions (rat), acute neurotoxicity (rat), and fetal loss (rabbit). Uncertainties in the risk assessment can be reduced by using an internal measure of target tissue dose that is linked to the likely mode of action (MOA) for the toxicity of MeI, rather than the external exposure concentration. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been developed for MeI and used to reduce uncertainties in the risk assessment extrapolations (e.g. interspecies, high to low dose, exposure scenario). PBPK model-derived human equivalent concentrations comparable to the animal study NOAELs (no observed adverse effect levels) for the endpoints of interest were developed for a 1-day, 24-hr exposure of bystanders or 8 hr/day exposure of workers. Variability analyses of the PBPK models support application of uncertainty factors (UF) of approximately 2 for intrahuman pharmacokinetic variability for the nasal effects and acute neurotoxicity.

  11. Mitigating 1,3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and methyl iodide emissions from fumigated soil with reactive film.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R; Ashworth, Daniel J; Luo, Lifang

    2012-06-05

    Implicated as a stratospheric ozone-depleting compound, methyl bromide (MeBr) is being phased out despite being considered to be the most effective soil fumigant. Its alternatives, i.e., 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, which includes cis and trans isomers), chloropicrin (CP), and methyl iodide (MeI), have been widely used. High emissions of MeI from fumigated soil likely put farm workers and other bystanders at risk of adverse health effects. In this study, two types of constructed reactive film were tested for their ability to mitigate emissions of 1,3-D, CP, and MeI using laboratory permeability cells. Before activation, these films act as a physical barrier to trap fumigants leaving soil. After activation of the reactive layer containing ammonium thiosulfate solution, the films also act as a sink for the fumigants. Over 97% of trans-1,3-D and 99% of the cis-1,3-D, CP and MeI were depleted when they passed into the reactive film. Half-lives (t(1/2)) of cis-, trans-1,3-D, CP and MeI under activated reactive film were 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.0 h respectively at 40 °C.

  12. Dipole Alignment at the Carbon Nanotube and Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Przepioski, Joshua

    2015-08-28

    This work correlates resonant peaks from first principles calculation on ammonia (NH3) Nitrogen 1s x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) within the methyl ammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3), and proposes a curve to determine the alignment of the methyl ammonium dipole if there exists angular dependence. The Nitrogen 1s XAS was performed at varying incident angles on the perovskite with and without a carbon nanotube (CNT) interface produced from an ultrasonic spray deposition. We investigated the peak contribution from PbI2 and the poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene- 2,7-diyl) with bipyridine (PFO-BPy) wrapped around the CNT, and used normalization techniques to better identify the dipole alignment. There was angular dependence on samples containing the CNT interface suggesting an existing dipole alignment, but there was no angular dependence on the perovskite samples alone; however, more normalization techniques and experimental work must be performed in order to ensure its validity and to better describe its alignment, and possible controlling factors.

  13. Diffusional analysis of the adsorption of methyl iodide on silver exchanged mordenite

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.; Counce, R.M.

    1997-08-01

    The removal of organic iodides from off-gas streams is an important step in controlling the release of radioactive iodine to the environment during the treatment of radioactive wastes or the processing of some irradiated materials. Nine-well accepted mass transfer models were evaluated for their ability to adequately explain the observed CH{sub 3}I uptake behavior onto the Ag{degrees}Z. Linear and multidimensional regression techniques were used to estimate the diffusion constants and other model parameters, which then permitted the selection of an appropriate mass transfer model. Although a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the loading of both elemental and methyl iodide on silver-exchanged mordenite, these studies focused primarily on the macro scale (deep bed) while evaluating the material under a broad range of process conditions and contaminants for total bed loading at the time of breakthrough. A few studies evaluated equilibrium or maximum loading. Thus, to date, only bulk loading data exist for the adsorption of CH{sub 3}I onto Ag{degrees}Z. Hence this is believed to be the first study to quantify the controlling mass transfer mechanisms of this process, It can be concluded from the analysis of the experimental data obtained by the {open_quotes}single-pellet{close_quotes} type experiments and for the process conditions used in this study that the overall mass transfer rate associated with the adsorption of CH{sub 3}I onto Ag{degrees}Z is affected by both micropore and macropore diffusion. The macropore diffusion rate was significantly faster than the micropore diffusion, resulting in a two-step adsorption behavior which was adequately modeled by a bimodal pore distribution model. The micropore diffusivity was determined to be on the order of 2 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/s. The system was also shown to be isothermal under all conditions of this study. 21 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lifang; Ashworth, Daniel J.; Šimunek, Jirka; Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R.

    2013-02-01

    The increasing registration of the fumigant methyl iodide within the USA has led to more concerns about its toxicity to workers and bystanders. Emission mitigation strategies are needed to protect the public and environmental health while providing effective pest control. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using a process-based mathematical model in this study. Firstly, comparisons between the simulated and laboratory measured emission fluxes and cumulative emissions were made for methyl iodide (MeI) under four emission reduction treatments: 1) control, 2) using soil with high organic matter content (HOM), 3) being covered by virtually impermeable film (VIF), and 4) irrigating soil surface following fumigation (Irrigation). Then the model was extended to simulate a broader range of emission reduction strategies for MeI, including 5) being covered by high density polyethylene (HDPE), 6) increasing injection depth from 30 cm to 46 cm (Deep), 7) HDPE + Deep, 8) adding a reagent at soil surface (Reagent), 9) Reagent + Irrigation, and 10) Reagent + HDPE. Furthermore, the survivability of three types of soil-borne pests (citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], barnyard seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli], fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]) was also estimated for each scenario. Overall, the trend of the measured emission fluxes as well as total emission were reasonably reproduced by the model for treatments 1 through 4. Based on the numerical simulation, the ranking of effectiveness in total emission reduction was VIF (82.4%) > Reagent + HDPE (73.2%) > Reagent + Irrigation (43.0%) > Reagent (23.5%) > Deep + HDPE (19.3%) > HOM (17.6%) > Deep (13.0%) > Irrigation (11.9%) > HDPE (5.8%). The order for pest control efficacy suggests, VIF had the highest pest control efficacy, followed by Deep + HDPE, Irrigation, Reagent + Irrigation, HDPE, Deep, Reagent + HDPE, Reagent, and HOM. Therefore, VIF is the optimal method disregarding

  15. Crystal structure of 1-[(1-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)meth-yl]pyridinium iodide.

    PubMed

    Belguedj, Roumaissa; Bouraiou, Abdelmalek; Merazig, Hocine; Belfaitah, Ali; Bouacida, Sofiane

    2015-02-01

    In the title salt, C10H11N4O2 (+)·I(-), the asymmetric unit consists of a pyridinium cation bearning a (1-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl group at the N position and an iodide anion. The imidazole ring is quasiplanar, with a maxiumum deviation of 0.0032 (16) Å, and forms a dihedral angle of 67.39 (6)° with the plane of the pyridinium ring. The crystal packing can be described as alternating zigzag layers of cations parallel to the (001) plane, which are sandwiched by the iodide ions. The structure features two types of hydrogen bonds (C-H⋯O and C-H⋯I), viz. cation-anion and cation-cation, which lead to the form ation of a three-dimensional network.

  16. Remediation of methyl iodide in aqueous solution and soils amended with thiourea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R

    2004-02-15

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is considered a very promising fumigant alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for controlling soil-borne pests. Because atmospheric emission of highly volatile fumigants contributes to air pollution, feasible strategies to reduce emissions are urgently needed. In this study, thiourea (a nitrification inhibitor) was shown to accelerate the degradation of MeI in soil and water. In aqueous solution, the reaction between MeI and thiourea was independent of pH, although the rate of MeI hydrolysis increased in alkaline solution. Substantial increases in the rate of MeI dissipation were observed in thiourea-amended soils. Transformation of MeI by thiourea in aqueous solution was by a single chemical reaction process, while MeI degradation in thiourea-amended soil apparently involved a catalytic mechanism. The electron delocalization between the thiourea molecule and the surfaces of soil particles is energetically favorable and would increase the nucleophilic reactivity of the thiono group toward MeI, resulting in an enhancement of the dissipation rate. The soil half-life for MeI was reduced from >300 h for unamended soils to only a few hours in soil or sand amended with thiourea at a 2:1 molar ratio (thiourea:MeI). The MeI transformation rate in thiourea-amended soil increased with increasing soil temperature and decreasing soil moisture. Therefore, spraying thiourea on the soil surface to form a "reactive surface barrier" may be an effective and innovative strategy for controlling fumigant emissions to the atmosphere and for improving environmental protection.

  17. Structures, Phase Transitions and Tricritical Behavior of the Hybrid Perovskite Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, P. S.; Herron, N.; Guise, W. E.; Page, K.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Milas, I.; Crawford, M. K.

    2016-10-21

    Here, we examine the crystal structures and structural phase transitions of the deuterated, partially deuterated and hydrogenous organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) using time-of-flight neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Near 330 K the high temperature cubic phases transformed to a body-centered tetragonal phase. The variation of the order parameter Q for this transition scaled with temperature T as Q (Tc-T) , where Tc is the critical temperature and the exponent was close to , as predicted for a tricritical phase transition. We also observed coexistence of the cubic and tetragonal phases over a range of temperature in all cases, demonstrating that the phase transition was in fact first-order, although still very close to tricritical. Upon cooling further, all the tetragonal phases transformed into a low temperature orthorhombic phase around 160 K, again via a first-order phase transition. Finally, based upon these results, we discuss the impact of the structural phase transitions upon photovoltaic performance of MAPbI3 based solar cells.

  18. Structures, Phase Transitions and Tricritical Behavior of the Hybrid Perovskite Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide

    DOE PAGES

    Whitfield, P. S.; Herron, N.; Guise, W. E.; ...

    2016-10-21

    Here, we examine the crystal structures and structural phase transitions of the deuterated, partially deuterated and hydrogenous organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) using time-of-flight neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Near 330 K the high temperature cubic phases transformed to a body-centered tetragonal phase. The variation of the order parameter Q for this transition scaled with temperature T as Q (Tc-T) , where Tc is the critical temperature and the exponent was close to , as predicted for a tricritical phase transition. We also observed coexistence of the cubic and tetragonal phases over a range of temperaturemore » in all cases, demonstrating that the phase transition was in fact first-order, although still very close to tricritical. Upon cooling further, all the tetragonal phases transformed into a low temperature orthorhombic phase around 160 K, again via a first-order phase transition. Finally, based upon these results, we discuss the impact of the structural phase transitions upon photovoltaic performance of MAPbI3 based solar cells.« less

  19. Structures, Phase Transitions and Tricritical Behavior of the Hybrid Perovskite Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, P. S.; Herron, N.; Guise, W. E.; Page, K.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Milas, I.; Crawford, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the crystal structures and structural phase transitions of the deuterated, partially deuterated and hydrogenous organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) using time-of-flight neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Near 330 K the high temperature cubic phases transformed to a body-centered tetragonal phase. The variation of the order parameter Q for this transition scaled with temperature T as Q ∼ (Tc−T)β, where Tc is the critical temperature and the exponent β was close to ¼, as predicted for a tricritical phase transition. However, we also observed coexistence of the cubic and tetragonal phases over a range of temperature in all cases, demonstrating that the phase transition was in fact first-order, although still very close to tricritical. Upon cooling further, all the tetragonal phases transformed into a low temperature orthorhombic phase around 160 K, again via a first-order phase transition. Based upon these results, we discuss the impact of the structural phase transitions upon photovoltaic performance of MAPbI3 based solar cells. PMID:27767049

  20. Structures, Phase Transitions and Tricritical Behavior of the Hybrid Perovskite Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, P. S.; Herron, N.; Guise, W. E.; Page, K.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Milas, I.; Crawford, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    We have examined the crystal structures and structural phase transitions of the deuterated, partially deuterated and hydrogenous organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) using time-of-flight neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Near 330 K the high temperature cubic phases transformed to a body-centered tetragonal phase. The variation of the order parameter Q for this transition scaled with temperature T as Q ˜ (Tc-T)β, where Tc is the critical temperature and the exponent β was close to ¼, as predicted for a tricritical phase transition. However, we also observed coexistence of the cubic and tetragonal phases over a range of temperature in all cases, demonstrating that the phase transition was in fact first-order, although still very close to tricritical. Upon cooling further, all the tetragonal phases transformed into a low temperature orthorhombic phase around 160 K, again via a first-order phase transition. Based upon these results, we discuss the impact of the structural phase transitions upon photovoltaic performance of MAPbI3 based solar cells.

  1. The mass transfer dynamics of gaseous methyl-iodide adsorption by silver-exchanged sodium mordenite

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.

    1994-12-01

    The adsorption of methyl iodide onto hydrogen-reduced silver-exchange mordenite was studied. The removal of organic iodides from off-gas streams is an important step in controlling the release of radioactive iodine to the environment during the treatment of radioactive wastes or the processing of some irradiated materials. Nine well accepted mass transfer models were evaluated for their ability to adequately explain the observed CH{sub 3}I uptake behavior onto the Ag-Z. Linear and multidimensional regression techniques were utilized in the estimation of the diffusion constants and other model parameters which then permitted the selection of an appropriate mass transfer model. To date, only bulk loading data exist for the adsorption of CH{sub 3}I onto Ag-Z. Hence this is believed to be the first study to quantify the controlling mass transfer mechanisms of this process. It can be concluded from the analysis of the experimental data obtained by the single-pellet type experiments and for the process conditions used in this study that the overall mass transfer rate associated with the adsorption of CH{sub 3}I onto Ag-Z is affected by both micropore and macropore diffusion. The macropore diffusion rate was significantly faster than the micropore diffusion, resulting in a two-step adsorption behavior which was adequately modeled by a bimodal pore distribution model. The micropore diffusivity was determined to be on the order of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup 2}/s. The system was also shown to be isothermal under all conditions of this study. Two other conclusions were also obtained. First, the gas film resistance to mass transfer for the 1/16 and 1/8-in.-diam Ag-Z pellets can be ignored under the conditions used in this study. Finally, it was shown that by decreasing the water vapor content of the feed gas, the chemical reaction rate appeared to become the initial rate-limiting factor for the mass transfer. 75 refs.

  2. Crystal structure of tris­(di­methyl­amido-κN)­bis­(di­methyl­amine-κN)­zirconium(IV) iodide

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Wesley D.; Akurathi, Gopalakrishna; Valle, Henry U.; Hollis, T. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium amides have become increasingly popular and useful due to their widespread use as precursors to other zirconium complexes and their use in the production of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Herein we report the mol­ecular structure of tris­(di­methyl­amido)­bis­(di­methyl­amine)­zirconium(IV) iodide, [Zr(C2H6N)3(C2H7N)2]I. The bond lengths and bond angles are consistent with a slightly distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometry around the metal atom. N⋯I contacts of 3.6153 (15) and 3.5922 (14) Å are consistent with the presence of N—H⋯I inter­actions. These N—H⋯I inter­actions link the complex cations and iodide anions into extended chains that propagate parallel to the a axis. PMID:26870590

  3. A mechanistic investigation of oxidative addition of methyl iodide to [Tp*Rh(CO)(L)].

    PubMed

    Chauby, Valérie; Daran, Jean-Claude; Serra-Le Berre, Carole; Malbosc, François; Kalck, Philippe; Delgado Gonzalez, Oscar; Haslam, Claire E; Haynes, Anthony

    2002-06-17

    Reaction of methyl iodide with square planar [kappa(2)-Tp*Rh(CO)(PMe(3))] 1a (Tp* = HB(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3)) at room temperature affords [kappa(3)-Tp*Rh(CO)(PMe(3))(Me)]I 2a, which was fully characterized by spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The pseudooctahedral geometry of cationic 2a, which contains a kappa(3)-coordinated Tp* ligand, indicates a reaction mechanism in which nucleophilic attack by Rh on MeI is accompanied by coordination of the pendant pyrazolyl group. In solution 2a transforms slowly into a neutral (acetyl)(iodo) rhodium complex [kappa(3)-Tp*Rh(PMe(3))(COMe)I] 3a, for which an X-ray crystal structure is also reported. Kinetic studies on the reactions of [kappa(2)-Tp*Rh(CO)(L)] (L = PMe(3), PMe(2)Ph, PMePh(2), PPh(3), CO)] with MeI show second-order behavior with large negative activation entropies, consistent with an S(N)2 mechanism. The second-order rate constants correlate well with phosphine basicity. For L = CO, reaction with MeI gives an acetyl complex, [kappa(3)-Tp*Rh(CO)(COMe)I]. The bis(pyrazolyl)borate complexes [kappa(2)-Bp*Rh(CO)(L)] (L = PPh(3), CO) are much less reactive toward MeI than the Tp* analogues, indicating the importance of the third pyrazolyl group and the accessibility of a kappa(3) coordination mode. The results strengthen the evidence in favor of an S(N)2 mechanism for oxidative addition of MeI to square planar d(8) transition metal complexes.

  4. Synthesis of [3-N-(11) C-methyl]temozolomide via in situ activation of 3-N-hydroxymethyl temozolomide and alkylation with [(11) C]methyl iodide.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jonas; Van Kooij, Rolph; Schuit, Robert C; Froklage, Femke E; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Hendrikse, N Harry; Windhorst, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Temozolomide is a chemotherapeutic drug that is mainly used in the treatment of primary glioblastoma multiforme and recurrent high-grade glioma. Here, we report an efficient good manufacturing practice compliant method for the synthesis of [3-N-(11) C-methyl]temozolomide from 3-N-hydroxymethyl temozolomide that cleaves off formaldehyde in situ and becomes activated towards alkylation with [(11) C]methyl iodide. The labelling method was developed for an on-going patient study in which the predictive value of [3-N-(11) C-methyl]temozolomide and positron emission tomography on the outcome of temozolomide treatment is being investigated. The precursor was reacted with [(11) C]methyl iodide in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene in acetonitrile, heated at stepwise increasing temperature. Purification by semipreparative HPLC with pharmaceutical grade eluent and filtration gave approximately 10 mL sterile product solution ready for injection containing 1.55 ± 0.38 GBq (n = 5), the specific activity was 88 ± 25 GBq/µmol and the radiochemical purity was 98.5 ± 1.9%. (13) C-NMR spectroscopy confirmed the labelled position after colabelling with (11) C and (13) C.

  5. Automated synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography: an apparatus for labelling with [11C] methyl iodide (MIASA)

    PubMed Central

    Cork, D. G.; Yamato, H.; Yajima, K.; Hayashi, N.; Sugawara, T.; Kato, S.

    1994-01-01

    A fully automated apparatus for the routine synthesis and formulation of short-lived 11C (t1/2 = 20 min) labelled radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) has been developed. [11C]Carbon dioxide is converted to [11C]methyl iodide, which can be used to label a wide variety of substrates by methylation at C, N, O, or S electron rich centres. The apparatus, MIASA (methyl iodide automated synthesis apparatus), was designed to operate as part of an automated labelling system in a shielded ‘hot’ laboratory. The apparatus was designed without the size constraints of typical instrumentation used in hot cells, although it is compact where necessary. Ample use of indicators and sensors, together with compact design of the reaction flasks for small dead space and efficient evaporation, led to good reliability and performance. The design of the hardware and software is described in this paper, together with a preparation of 3-N-[11C]methylspiperone as a sterile injectable solution in physiological saline. PMID:18924994

  6. Study on the Effect of Synthesis Temperature on the Structural, Surface Morphological and Optical Properties of Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benazeera Beegum, K. A.; Paulose, Maria; Peter, V. J.; Raphael, Rakhy; Sreeja, V. G.; Anila, E. I.

    2016-09-01

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted tremendous attention because of their excellent photovoltaic efficiency. The quality and stability of perovskite films are critical for solar cells. We report the synthesis of methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbKI3) nanoparticles from methyl amine, hydroiodic acid and lead iodide by sol-gel method. Three powder samples of Methyl ammonium Lead Iodide were prepared at 50 °C, 90 °C, and 100 °C. The powder samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Analysis of X- rays (EDAX) and Photoluminescence (PL). The presence of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen were examined through CHN studies. The surface morphology, band gap, and elemental contents changes with temperature. The XRD pattern exhibited major reflections from (110), (220), (310), (224) and (314) planes in agreement with JCPDS file No: 00-021-1276, revealing tetragonal structure.

  7. Chlorine dioxide-iodide-methyl acetoacetate oscillation reaction investigated by UV-vis and online FTIR spectrophotometric method.

    PubMed

    Shi, Laishun; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Na; Liu, Jie; Yan, Chunying

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the chemical oscillatory behavior and mechanism of a new chlorine dioxide-iodide ion-methyl acetoacetate reaction system, a series of experiments were done by using UV-Vis and online FTIR spectrophotometric method. The initial concentrations of methyl acetoacetate, chlorine dioxide, potassium iodide, and sulfuric acid and the pH value have great influence on the oscillation observed at wavelength of 289 nm. There is a preoscillatory or induction period, and the amplitude and the number of oscillations are associated with the initial concentration of reactants. The equations for the triiodide ion reaction rate changing with reaction time and the initial concentrations in the oscillation stage were obtained. Oscillation reaction can be accelerated by increasing temperature. The apparent activation energies in terms of the induction period and the oscillation period were 26.02 KJ/mol and 17.65 KJ/mol, respectively. The intermediates were detected by the online FTIR analysis. Based upon the experimental data in this work and in the literature, a plausible reaction mechanism was proposed for the oscillation reaction.

  8. Chlorine Dioxide-Iodide-Methyl Acetoacetate Oscillation Reaction Investigated by UV-Vis and Online FTIR Spectrophotometric Method

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Laishun; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Na; Liu, Jie; Yan, Chunying

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the chemical oscillatory behavior and mechanism of a new chlorine dioxide-iodide ion-methyl acetoacetate reaction system, a series of experiments were done by using UV-Vis and online FTIR spectrophotometric method. The initial concentrations of methyl acetoacetate, chlorine dioxide, potassium iodide, and sulfuric acid and the pH value have great influence on the oscillation observed at wavelength of 289 nm. There is a preoscillatory or induction period, and the amplitude and the number of oscillations are associated with the initial concentration of reactants. The equations for the triiodide ion reaction rate changing with reaction time and the initial concentrations in the oscillation stage were obtained. Oscillation reaction can be accelerated by increasing temperature. The apparent activation energies in terms of the induction period and the oscillation period were 26.02 KJ/mol and 17.65 KJ/mol, respectively. The intermediates were detected by the online FTIR analysis. Based upon the experimental data in this work and in the literature, a plausible reaction mechanism was proposed for the oscillation reaction. PMID:22454614

  9. Spatio-temporal distributions of chlorofluorocarbons and methyl iodide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Gui-Peng; He, Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), such as dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113), and methyl iodide (CH3I), in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area were measured during two cruises from 21 February to 10 March 2014 and from 10 to 21 July 2014. VHOC concentrations showed seasonal variation with higher values during winter. VHOC distributions evidently decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea and from inshore to offshore regions. VHOC distributions were obviously influenced by the Changjiang runoff, anthropogenic inputs, and biological release of phytoplankton. The study area was a net sink for CFC-12 and CFC-11, but a net source for atmospheric CH3I during the study periods.

  10. Cluster-assisted multiple-ionization of methyl iodide by a nanosecond laser: Wavelength dependence of multiple-charge ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiguo; Li, Haiyang; Niu, Dongmei; Wen, Lihua; Zhang, Nazhen

    2008-09-01

    As efforts continue to elucidate laser-cluster interactions, we investigated the influence of laser wavelength on ion products. In this study, a pulsed methyl iodide cluster was irradiated with a Nd-YAG nanosecond laser, and the ion products were analyzed using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Multiple-charge atomic ions of C q+ and I q+ ( q ⩾ 2) were observed using 532 and 1064 nm laser wavelengths; however, only single-charge atomic and molecular ions appeared at 266 and 355 nm. We show that the charge-state distribution for multiple-charge ions is almost independent of laser intensity. A three-stage model was developed to further understand these experimental results: the inverse electron bremsstrahlung heating rate is proportional to the square of laser wavelength, which seems to explain the dependence of multiple-charge ions on the wavelength.

  11. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Daniel J; Yates, Scott R; Luo, Lifang; Lee, Sang R; Xuan, Richeng

    2013-12-26

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the passive solarization + fumigation treatments, emissions from the nontarped furrow were very high (∼50%). Emissions from the bed top and sidewall of these treatments were relatively low but were increased in the latter due to the longer environmental exposure of the VIF covering with the coupled approach (increased tarp permeability). Overall, this approach offered no advantage over fumigation-only in terms of emission reduction. With active solarization + fumigation, the large application of hot water during solarization apparently led to severely limited diffusion causing very low total emissions (<1%). Although this suggests a benefit in terms of air quality, a lack of diffusion could limit the pesticidal efficacy of the treatment.

  12. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The container or bottle from the medicine or ...

  13. Minamata disease revisited: an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ekino, Shigeo; Susa, Mari; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2007-11-15

    The first well-documented outbreak of acute methyl mercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of contaminated fish occurred in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. The clinical picture was officially recognized and called Minamata disease (MD) in 1956. However, 50 years later there are still arguments about the definition of MD in terms of clinical symptoms and extent of lesions. We provide a historical review of this epidemic and an update of the problem of MeHg toxicity. Since MeHg dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea, residents living around the sea were exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). These patients with chronic MeHg poisoning continue to complain of distal paresthesias of the extremities and the lips even 30 years after cessation of exposure to MeHg. Based on findings in these patients the symptoms and lesions in MeHg poisoning are reappraised. The persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex, but not by damage to the peripheral nervous system, as previously believed.

  14. Chronic methyl mercury poisoning may trigger endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem".

    PubMed

    Robledo, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    In endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) or "fogo selvagem" the epidemiological evidence shows that all the described outbreaks occur on the banks of rivers where there is mercury contamination from alluvium gold mining and deforestation. Pathophysiological evidence shows a similarity to pemphigus induced by sulphydryl (SH-) drugs that act by denaturing cadherins at the desmosomal level, which are the pemphigus antigens. The sulfhydryl radical (SH-) call also thiol or mercaptans from the SH-drugs, act at the level of SH-groups of cystein as would the methyl mercury from the contaminated animals and fish in the diet of humans from endemic areas of pemphigus foliaceus. The methyl mercury would join the SH-groups from the cysteines amino acids from cadherin proteins in the skin. The autoimmune disease would only be triggered in genetically susceptible individuals with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB 1 haplotypes, just as Brown-Norway (BN) rats which are susceptible to develop Th2-dependent autoimmunity induced by metals. Immunological evidence from all the seroepidemiological studies could also be explained by binding mechanism of the methyl mercury to the SH-groups from the cysteines in the desmosomal cadherins proteins. The conclusion is that chronic methyl mercury poisoning is the most likely trigger of endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem". To reduce the contamination of methyl mercury in the animals of the polluted rivers is pertinent to the design of campaigns and education programs with the population. Implement reforestation and biological control measures like phytoremediation technologies using decontaminant plants to decrease the methylation, and the process of biomagnifications of the methyl mercury in the Latin-America EPF foci. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystallization of a perovskite film for higher performance solar cells by controlling water concentration in methyl ammonium iodide precursor solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Nirmal; Dubey, Ashish; Gaml, Eman A.; Vaagensmith, Bjorn; Reza, Khan Mamun; Mabrouk, Sally Adel Abdelsalam; Gu, Shaopeng; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-01-01

    An optimal small amount of water added into methyl ammonium iodide (MAI) solution in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) helps perovskite crystallization and leads to larger grain size from sequential deposition of perovskite films. The concentration of water was varied from 1% to 7% (vol% of IPA) in MAI solution and optical absorption, crystallization, morphology of perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance were studied in perovskite solar cells. 5% by volume was found to lead to preferential crystallization in the (110) plane with grain size about three times that of perovskite films prepared without adding water into the MAI solution. The optimal water concentration of 5% by volume in the MAI solution led to average perovskite grain size of ~600 nm and solar cell efficiency of 12.42% at forward scan with a rate of 0.5 V s-1. Device performance decreases after increasing water concentration beyond 5% in the MAI solution due to formation of the PbI2 phase. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements show the shortest charge transport time at 0.99 μs and the longest charge carrier life time at 13.6 μs for perovskite films prepared from 5% water in MAI solution, which improved perovskite solar cell efficiency from 9.04% to 12.42%.An optimal small amount of water added into methyl ammonium iodide (MAI) solution in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) helps perovskite crystallization and leads to larger grain size from sequential deposition of perovskite films. The concentration of water was varied from 1% to 7% (vol% of IPA) in MAI solution and optical absorption, crystallization, morphology of perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance were studied in perovskite solar cells. 5% by volume was found to lead to preferential crystallization in the (110) plane with grain size about three times that of perovskite films prepared without adding water into the MAI solution. The optimal water concentration of 5% by volume in the MAI solution led to average perovskite

  16. Crystal structure of 1-[(1-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)meth­yl]pyridinium iodide

    PubMed Central

    Belguedj, Roumaissa; Bouraiou, Abdelmalek; Merazig, Hocine; Belfaitah, Ali; Bouacida, Sofiane

    2015-01-01

    In the title salt, C10H11N4O2 +·I−, the asymmetric unit consists of a pyridinium cation bearning a (1-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl group at the N position and an iodide anion. The imidazole ring is quasiplanar, with a maxiumum deviation of 0.0032 (16) Å, and forms a dihedral angle of 67.39 (6)° with the plane of the pyridinium ring. The crystal packing can be described as alternating zigzag layers of cations parallel to the (001) plane, which are sandwiched by the iodide ions. The structure features two types of hydrogen bonds (C—H⋯O and C—H⋯I), viz. cation–anion and cation–cation, which lead to the form ation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:25878869

  17. Raman spectra and structures of 1-methyl-4-(4-diethylaminophenylazo)-pyridinium iodide in neutral and acidic aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Akitaka; Ueda, Atsushi; Kuwae, Akio; Hanai, Kazuhiko; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki

    2013-09-01

    Fourier transform (FT) and resonance Raman spectra of 1-methyl-4-(4-diethylaminophenylazo)-pyridinium iodide (MDP) and its four deuterated and three 15N stable isotopic compounds have been measured in neutral and acidic aqueous solutions, and the molecular structures have been discussed on the basis of detailed vibrational assignments using the isotope shifts. No Raman band due to the azo Ndbnd N group is observed in a neutral aqueous solution and also in the solid state of MDP; therefore, this finding suggests that double bond character of the azo group becomes weak and, consequently, the structures of both benzene and pyridinium rings are close to that of a quinoid. The Raman and the 15N NMR spectra indicate that the Nβ of the azo group is protonated in an acidic solution of MDP. Comparison of the spectra of the two solutions suggests that the benzene ring has more quinoid character in the acidic than in the neutral solution. The chromophore structures have been revealed in each of the neutral (purple) and the acidic (yellow) solution.

  18. Crystallization of a perovskite film for higher performance solar cells by controlling water concentration in methyl ammonium iodide precursor solution.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Nirmal; Dubey, Ashish; Gaml, Eman A; Vaagensmith, Bjorn; Reza, Khan Mamun; Mabrouk, Sally Adel Abdelsalam; Gu, Shaopeng; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-02-07

    An optimal small amount of water added into methyl ammonium iodide (MAI) solution in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) helps perovskite crystallization and leads to larger grain size from sequential deposition of perovskite films. The concentration of water was varied from 1% to 7% (vol% of IPA) in MAI solution and optical absorption, crystallization, morphology of perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance were studied in perovskite solar cells. 5% by volume was found to lead to preferential crystallization in the (110) plane with grain size about three times that of perovskite films prepared without adding water into the MAI solution. The optimal water concentration of 5% by volume in the MAI solution led to average perovskite grain size of ∼600 nm and solar cell efficiency of 12.42% at forward scan with a rate of 0.5 V s(-1). Device performance decreases after increasing water concentration beyond 5% in the MAI solution due to formation of the PbI2 phase. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements show the shortest charge transport time at 0.99 μs and the longest charge carrier life time at 13.6 μs for perovskite films prepared from 5% water in MAI solution, which improved perovskite solar cell efficiency from 9.04% to 12.42%.

  19. Microhydration Effects on the Intermediates of the SN2 Reacation of Iodide Anion with Methyl Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Keisuke; Togano, Eijiro; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Nakanishi, Ryuzo; Nagata, Takashi; Ebata, Takayuki; Inokuchi, Yoshiya

    2013-04-15

    Reactions of halide anions with methyl halides (X- + CH3Y → XCH3 + Y-) are bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions that have been well investigated in the last few decades.[1] Figure 1 shows typical potential energy surfaces (PESs) proposed for symmetric (X- + CH3X → XCH3 + X-) SN2 reactions along the reaction coordinate. In the gas phase, the PES has two minima corresponding to the stable X-(CH3X) complexes.[2] The PES is substantially distorted by the solvation. Since the negative charge is delocalized over the [X•••CH3•••X]- moiety at the transition state the stabilization energy gained by the solvation is smaller for the transition state than that for the (X- + CH3X) reactants or the X- (CH3X) complexes. In solution, a large potential barrier exists between the reactants and products. The rate constants of these reactions in protic solvents were reported to be a few orders of magnitude smaller than those in aprotic solvents; this trend was explained by the formation of solvation shells of protic molecules around the halide anions.[1,3] Morokuma has previously reported a theoretical study on the PES of the (Cl- + CH3Cl → ClCH3 + Cl-) SN2 reaction with a few H2O molecules. The attachment of H2O molecules to the Cl-(CH3Cl) reactive system produces metastable isomers, which affect the reaction mechanism.[4] Johnson and coworkers extensively investigated the structure and reactions of halide anion complexes in the gas phase using photodissociation spectroscopy.

  20. Laboratory production of bromoform, methylene bromide, and methyl iodide by macroalgae and distribution in nearshore southern California waters

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, S.L. ); Goodwin, K.; North, W.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Production rates of bromoform (CHBr[sub 3]), methylene bromide (CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2]), and methyl iodide (CH[sub 3]I) were measured in the laboratory for 11 species of marine macroalgae. Production rates of the volatile bromomethanes extrapolated to a global scale suggest that marine macroalgae produce 2 [times] 10[sup 11] g Br yr[sup [minus]1] (1 [times] 10[sup 9] mol Br yr[sup [minus]1]), 98% of which is bromoform. Laminarians (kelps) produce 61% of this organic Br. These calculations suggest that marine macroalgae are important in the biogeochemical cycling of Br. Seawater concentrations of CHBr[sub 3], CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2], and CH[sub 3]I were determined from various southern California coastal locales. High concentrations were measured in seawater from the canopy and the bottom of a dense bed of Macrocystis as compared to other sites. Surface seawater concentrations of these halomethanes showed a strong cross-shore gradient with the highest concentration in the kelp canopy and the lowest at 5 km offshore. Seawater adjacent to decaying macroalgae on the bottom of a submarine canyon was not enriched in halomethanes relative to surface water. Water exiting a productive estuary was enriched only with CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2], although two algal species that are abundant there (Ulva and Enteromorpha) showed high laboratory production rates of both CHBr[sub 3] and CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2]. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. New analysis of the ν6 and 2ν3 bands of methyl iodide (CH3I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Haykal, I.; KwabiaTchana, F.; Manceron, L.; Doizi, D.; Ducros, G.

    2016-06-01

    A new rovibrational study of the ν6 band of methyl iodide was conducted to obtain a rather complete line list. A new analysis of line positions was accomplished. The spectrum of this band has been first recorded using the Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL Synchrotron facility and later with the Bruker IFS125HR FTS located at the LISA facility in Créteil. Altogether, about 10,000 lines were assigned for the ν6 and 2ν3 bands up to high quantum numbers (J ⩽ 85 and K ⩽ 20). Because of the large value of the 127I nuclear quadrupole hyperfine constant, a significant portion of these assignments concerns clusters of hyperfine subcomponents, which are easily observable at 11 μm. These infrared data were combined in a least squares fit together with the existing microwave data on rotational transitions within the v6 = 1 and v3 = 2 vibrational states to get the upper state rotational constants and interacting parameters for the v6 = 1 and v3 = 2 states. Due to the high values of quantum numbers achieved during this infrared analysis, the final energy level calculation accounts for aCx (Δℓ = ± 1; ΔK = ± 1) and an α (Δℓ = ∓ 1; ΔK = ± 2) types of Coriolis interactions coupling the v6 = 1 energy levels with those from the v3 = 2 and v2 = 1 states, respectively. On the other hand, it proved unnecessary to update the existing hyperfine parameters for the v6 = 1 and v3 = 2 states.

  2. Acute and chronic methyl mercury poisoning impairs rat adrenal and testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.V.; Meikle, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    Animals poisoned with methyl mercury (CH/sub 3/Hg) exhibit stress intolerance and decreased sexual activity, which suggest both adrenal and testicular dysfunction. Adrenal and testicular function was studied in male rats after treatment with CH/sub 3/Hg. In animals treated chronically, the adrenal glands were markedly hyperplastic with enlargement of the zona fasciculata. The mean basal serum levels of corticosterone were similar in experimental (17.8 ..mu..g/dl) and control (16.8 ..mu..g/dl) groups. However, with ether stress, experimental animals had a subnormal response, and the mean serum levels of corticosterone increased to only 23.9 ..mu../dl compared to 40.6 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. Exogenous ACTH stimulation produced a mean level of 19.0 ..mu..g/dl in the CH/sub 3/Hg-treated animals and 49.7 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. In vitro studies demonstrated a defect in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. A profound impairment in swimming was partially reversed with glucocorticoid therapy. In animals treated with CH/sub 3/Hg, serum testosterone was lower than normal in the basal state. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation increased the mean serum concentration of testosterone to 23.4 ng/ml in controls, but it was only 4.50 ng/ml in experimental animals. The data indicate that CH/sub 3/Hg poisoning impairs adrenal and testicular steroid hormone secretion, which accounts in part for the diminished stress tolerance and decreased sexual activity observed in CH/sub 3/Hg-intoxicated animals.

  3. Interaction of thiamine with anions in the triclinic form of thiamine iodide: 3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium iodide 1.25-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu Qiang; Hu, Ning Hai

    2010-12-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(12)H(17)N(4)OS(+)·I(-)·1.25H(2)O, contains two crystallographically independent molecules. Both formula units assume the usual F conformation and have the hydroxyethyl group disordered over two sites, each with half occupation. Two thiamine cations are linked by hydrogen bonds into a cyclic dimer. These dimers are further connected by base-pairing hydrogen bonds into a chain along [010]. The stacked dimers form channels, which are occupied by iodide anions. The cations and anions are associated by N-H...I hydrogen bonds, C-H...I interactions and I...thiazolium ring close contacts. The interactions between thiamine and the iodide anions are similar to those observed in monoclinic thiamine iodide 1.5-hydrate [Hu & Zhang (1993). J. Inclusion Phenom. Mol. Recognit. Chem. 16, 273-281].

  4. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can kill a child, while ...

  5. Aberrant hypomethylated STAT3 was identified as a biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning through integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Wenlin; Niu, Piye; Tian, Lin; Gao, Ai

    2014-06-01

    Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies such as aplastic anemia and leukemia. The new biomarker and action mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning are still required to be explored. Aberrant DNA methylation, which may lead to genomic instability and the altered gene expression, is frequently observed in hematological cancers. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, DNA methylation profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four chronic benzene poisoning patients and four health controls that matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the high resolution Infinium 450K methylation array and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. By integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data, we identified 3 hypermethylated genes showing concurrent down-regulation (PRKG1, PARD3, EPHA8) and 2 hypomethylated genes showing increased expression (STAT3, IFNGR1). Signal net analysis of differential methylation genes associated with chronic benzene poisoning showed that two key hypomethylated STAT3 and hypermethylated GNAI1 were identified. Further GO analysis and pathway analysis indicated that hypomethylated STAT3 played central roles through regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, JAK-STAT cascade and adipocytokine signaling pathway, Acute myeloid leukemia, and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, the aberrant hypomethylated STAT3 might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning.

  6. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid

    PubMed Central

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10−3 S cm−1 is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm−2, 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively. PMID:26659087

  7. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10-3 S cm-1 is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm-2, 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively.

  8. Line positions in the v6=1 band of methyl iodide: Validation of the C3v TDS package based on the tensorial formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haykal, I.; Doizi, D.; Boudon, V.; El Hilali, A.; Manceron, L.; Ducros, G.

    2016-04-01

    A tensorial formalism adapted to the case of symmetric-top molecules has been recently developed in Dijon (El Hilali et al., J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2010;111, 1305-1315) [18]. It is based on the O(3) ⊃C∞v ⊃C3v group chain and allows a systematic expansion of the Hamiltonian and dipole moment operators, including all possible interactions for a given rovibrational polyad system. This suite of programs is used to analyze and simulate the mid-infrared spectrum of methyl iodide in order to test its performance. The v6 fundamental band has been recorded using the FTIR Bruker HR125 at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL Synchrotron facility with the Globar internal source. 3882 lines up to J=61 were assigned and fitted with only 16 tensorial parameters.

  9. Conductivity study and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) characterization of methyl cellulose solid polymer electrolyte with sodium iodide conducting ion

    SciTech Connect

    Abiddin, Jamal Farghali Bin Zainal; Ahmad, Azizah Hanom

    2015-08-28

    Sodium ion (Na{sup +}) based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has been prepared using solution cast technique with distilled water as solvent and Methylcellulose (MC) as a polymer host. Methylcellulose polymer was chosen as the polymer host due to the abundance of lone pair electrons in the carbonyl and C-O-C constituents, which in turn provide multiple hopping sites for the Na{sup +} conducting ions. Variable compositions of sodium iodide (NaI) salt were prepared to investigate the optimum MC-NaI weight ratio. Results from Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique show that pure methylcellulose has a low conductivity of 3.61 × 10{sup −11} S/cm.The conductivity increases as NaI content increases up to optimum NaIcomposition of 40 wt%, which yields an average conductivity of 2.70 × 10{sup −5} S/cm.

  10. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    ... radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. ... only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and public officials tell you that you ...

  11. Fatal ethyl and methyl alcohol-related poisoning in Ankara: A retrospective analysis of 10,720 cases between 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Celik, Safa; Karapirli, Mustafa; Kandemir, Eyup; Ucar, Fatma; Kantarcı, Muhammed Nabi; Gurler, Mukaddes; Akyol, Omer

    2013-04-01

    Methyl and ethyl alcohol poisoning are still responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine ethyl and methyl alcohol poisoning related deaths in Ankara and surrounding cities between 2001 and 2011 and compare them with previous studied conducted in Turkey and other countries. For this purpose, 10,720 medico-legal autopsy cases performed in Ankara Branch of the Council of Forensic Medicine were reviewed in terms of alcohol poisonings. The deaths due to methanol and ethanol poisoning were 74 (0.69% of all medico-legal autopsies performed) and the distribution among them was 35 (47.3%) for methanol poisoning and 39 (52.7%) for ethanol poisoning. Overwhelming majority of the cases were male (n = 67, 90.5%). The mean age of the victims was 44.9 ± 10.9 years and ranging from 21 to 92 years. The age group of 35-49 years was the mostly affected. Most of the cases were seen in 2004 (n = 12, 16.2%). The levels of postmortem blood alcohol levels were available for all cases and the mean alcohol levels were 322.8 ± 155.5 mg/dL ranging from 74 to 602 mg/dL for methanol and 396.8 ± 87.1 mg/dL and ranging from 136 to 608 mg/dL for ethanol. Early diagnosis is essential for successful treatment in methanol and ethanol poisoning. Besides increased awareness, more sensitive/specific diagnostic tools, and the prompt approach to the poisoned individual should be implemented in the hospitals.

  12. Photobehaviour of methyl-pyridinium and quinolinium iodide derivatives, free and complexed with DNA. A case of bisintercalation.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli, Alessandra; Carlotti, Benedetta; Consiglio, Giuseppe; Fortuna, Cosimo G; Miolo, Giorgia; Spalletti, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Excited state dynamics of four azinium salts were studied in buffered water and in the presence of salmon testes DNA. Complexation with DNA changes the photobehaviour of the free ligands lowering the photoreactivity and emission in favor of internal conversion. The interaction of these four dyes with DNA was studied with different techniques with the aim to establish the affinity and the type of binding between the ligands and DNA. The results from spectrophotometric and fluorimetric titrations provided evidence of a strong interaction between the azinium salts and the polynucleotide, with a binding constant of about 10(6) M(-1), making them interesting for therapeutical applications. Dichroic measurements allowed us to determine the possible modes of binding for each complex. Short living excited states of the free dyes were detected and characterized by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy. A further decrease of transient lifetimes was observed upon interaction with DNA. The bicationic pyridinium iodide was found to act as a bisintercalative agent, potentially increasing the cytotoxicity with low dose and less collateral effects.

  13. Growth and characterization of an organic single crystal: 2-[2-(4-diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide.

    PubMed

    Senthil, K; Kalainathan, S; Ruban Kumar, A

    2014-05-05

    Optically transparent crystal of the organic salt DEASI (2-[2-(4-Diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide) has been synthesized by using knoevenagel condensation reaction method. The synthesized material has been purified by successfully recrystallization process. Single crystals of DEASI have been grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The solubility of the title material has been determined at different temperature in acetonitrile/methanol mixture. The cell parameters and crystallinity of the title crystal were determined by single crystal XRD. The powder diffraction was carried out to study the reflection plane of the grown crystal and diffraction peaks were indexed. The presence of different functional groups in the crystal was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. (1)H NMR spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of hydrogen nuclei in the synthesized material. The optical property of the title crystal was studied by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis. The melting point and thermal property of DEASI were studied using TGA/DSC technique. The Vicker's hardness (Hv) was carried out to know the category. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the compound decreases with an increase in frequencies. Chemical etching studies showed that the DEASI grows in the two dimensional growth mechanisms. The Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test has done for title crystal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of pressure and solvents on the infrared absorption intensities of C-I stretching modes of methyl and ethyl iodides in solutions.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Hideto; Kato, Minoru; Taniguchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated effects of pressure and solvents on infrared intensities of methyl and ethyl iodides in solutions using a hydrostatic high-pressure cell with synthetic diamond windows. We focused on the absolute intensity of the C-I stretching mode, which was measured in carbon disulfide solvent up to 300MPa and at 293K, and in n-hexane solvent at 298K. For comparison, we investigated the effect of solvents on the absorption intensity. Effects of pressure and solvents on the infrared intensity were analyzed using two electrostatic models, which assume the shape of solute cavity as sphere or spheroid. The latter model is approximately in agreement with both effects on the intensity, particularly, for the pressure effect. This paper demonstrated that the electrostatic model taking the shape of the cavity into account is useful to explain the medium effect on the infrared intensity and also suggests that more improved models could provide information of the solvation structure from the medium effect on the infrared intensity.

  15. Growth and characterization of an organic single crystal: 2-[2-(4-Diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, K.; Kalainathan, S.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    Optically transparent crystal of the organic salt DEASI (2-[2-(4-Diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide) has been synthesized by using knoevenagel condensation reaction method. The synthesized material has been purified by successfully recrystallization process. Single crystals of DEASI have been grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The solubility of the title material has been determined at different temperature in acetonitrile/methanol mixture. The cell parameters and crystallinity of the title crystal were determined by single crystal XRD. The powder diffraction was carried out to study the reflection plane of the grown crystal and diffraction peaks were indexed. The presence of different functional groups in the crystal was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. 1H NMR spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of hydrogen nuclei in the synthesized material. The optical property of the title crystal was studied by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis. The melting point and thermal property of DEASI were studied using TGA/DSC technique. The Vicker’s hardness (Hv) was carried out to know the category. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the compound decreases with an increase in frequencies. Chemical etching studies showed that the DEASI grows in the two dimensional growth mechanisms. The Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test has done for title crystal.

  16. Clinical manifestations and arsenic methylation after a rare subacute arsenic poisoning accident.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Quanmei; Li, Bing; Li, Xin; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Qu, Guang; Sun, Guifan

    2008-06-01

    One hundred and four workers ingested excessive levels of arsenic in an accident caused by leakage of pipeline in a copper-smelting factory. Clinical examinations were performed by physicians in a local hospital. Excreted urinary arsenic species were determined by cold trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial toxic phase, gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant (83 people, 79.8%). Most patients showed leucopenia (72 people, 69.2%), and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (84 people, 80.8%) and aspartate aminotransferase (58 people, 55.8%). Thirty-five patients (33.6%) had elevated red blood cells in urine. After 17 days of admission, many subjects (45 people, 43.3%) developed peripheral neuropathy and 25 of these 45 patients (24.0%) showed a decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. In the comparison of urinary arsenic metabolites among subacute arsenic-poisoned, chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects, we found that subacute arsenic-poisoned patients had significantly elevated proportions of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylarsonic acid (MMA) but reduced proportion of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) compared with chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects. Chronic exposed subjects excreted higher proportions of iAs and MMA but lower proportions of DMA in urine compared with control subjects. These results suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and hepatic and urinary injury are predominant in the initial phase of subacute arsenic poisoning. Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent manifestation after the initial phase. The biomethylation of arsenic decreases in a dose rate-dependent manner.

  17. Behavior of liquid crystals confined to mesoporous materials as studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy of methyl iodide and methane as probe molecules.

    PubMed

    Tallavaara, Pekka; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2008-01-24

    The behavior of thermotropic nematic liquid crystals (LCs) Merck Phase 4 and ZLI 1115 confined to mesoporous controlled pore glass materials was investigated using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of probe molecules methyl iodide and methane. The average pore diameters of the materials varied from 81 to 375 A, and the temperature series measurements were performed on solid, nematic, and isotropic phases of bulk LCs. Chemical shift, intensity, and line shape of the resonance signals in the spectra contain lots of information about the effect of confinement on the state of the LCs. The line shape of the 13C resonances of the CH3I molecules in LCs confined into the pores was observed to be even more sensitive to the LC orientation distribution than, for example, that of 2H spectra of deuterated LCs or 129Xe spectra of dissolved xenon gas. The effect of the magnetic field on the orientation of LC molecules inside the pores was examined in four different magnetic fields varying from 4.70 to 11.74 T. The magnetic field was found to have significant effect on the orientation of LC molecules in the largest pores and close to the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature. The theoretical model of shielding of noble gases dissolved in LCs based on pairwise additivity approximation was utilized in the analysis of CH4 spectra. For the first time, a first-order nematic-isotropic phase transition was detected to take place inside such restrictive hosts. In the larger pores a few degrees below the nematic-isotropic phase transition of bulk LC the 13C quartet of CH3I changes as a powder pattern. Results are compared to those derived from 129Xe NMR measurements of xenon gas in similar environments.

  18. Delineation of G-Quadruplex Alkylation Sites Mediated by 3,6-Bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium iodide)carbazole-Aniline Mustard Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Han; Hu, Tsung-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Chiao; Chen, Ying-Lan; Chen, Yet-Ran; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chen, Chao-Tsen

    2015-11-23

    A new G-quadruplex (G-4)-directing alkylating agent BMVC-C3M was designed and synthesized to integrate 3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium iodide)carbazole (BMVC) with aniline mustard. Various telomeric G-4 structures (hybrid-2 type and antiparallel) and an oncogene promoter, c-MYC (parallel), were constructed to react with BMVC-C3M, yielding 35 % alkylation yield toward G-4 DNA over other DNA categories (<6 %) and high specificity under competition conditions. Analysis of the intact alkylation adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) revealed the stepwise DNA alkylation mechanism of aniline mustard for the first time. Furthermore, the monoalkylation sites and intrastrand cross-linking sites were determined and found to be dependent on G-4 topology based on the results of footprinting analysis in combination with mass spectroscopic techniques and in silico modeling. The results indicated that BMVC-C3M preferentially alkylated at A15 (H26), G12 (H24), and G2 (c-MYC), respectively, as monoalkylated adducts and formed A15-C3M-A21 (H26), G12-C3M-G4 (H24), and G2-C3M-G4/G17 (c-MYC), respectively, as cross-linked dialkylated adducts. Collectively, the stability and site-selective cross-linking capacity of BMVC-C3M provides a credible tool for the structural and functional characterization of G-4 DNAs in biological systems.

  19. Efficacy of Pro-PAM (N-methyl-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carbaldoxime Hydrochloride) as a Treatment for Organophosphate Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    described the synthesis , metabolism and disposition of N-methyl-l,6- dihydropyridine -2-carbaldoxime hydrochloride (Pro-PAM), a pro-drug 1 of PAM. The pKa of...Delivery Through Biological Membranes T. Synthesis and Properties of l-Methyl-l, 6- Dihydropyridine -2-Carbaldoxime, A Pro-Drug of N-Methylpyridinium- 2... DIHYDROPYRIDINE -2-CARBALDOXIME HYDROCHLORIDE AS A TREATMENT FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING (U) by J.G. Clement PROJECT NO. 13D16 ... "_ A February 1978 DEFINCI

  20. An unusual case of non-fatal poisoning due to herbicide 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid (MCPA).

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, D A S Sakunthala; Perera, K A P Bandumala; Hathurusinghe, L S

    2014-10-01

    MCPA (4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid) is a systemic hormone-type selective herbicide readily absorbed by leaves and roots. Use of MCPA for murder or attempted murder is very rare in Sri Lanka. However, a reported case of attempted murder by adding MCPA to water will be discussed in this paper. Three extraction methods were carried out with urine samples spiked with MCPA, namely liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform, solid phase extraction using C18 cartridges and vortex mixing with methanolic hydrochloric acid. Based on the recovery results, solid phase extraction was selected as the most suitable method and applied in the analysis of urine and water samples. Identification of MCPA in urine, water and the suspected poison bottle was carried out by HPLC and was confirmed by GC-MS. 4-chloro -2- methyl phenol metabolite was also identified and confirmed in the urine sample of the patient by GC-MS. Quantitative analysis of MCPA was carried out by HPLC using a validated method where Zorbax XDB-C18 column was used with photo diode array detector. In this case, presence of MCPA in one patient's urine sample collected four days after the incident was confirmed by GC-MS and found at a concentration of 0.83μg/ml. MCPA was not identified in the urine samples collected after 13 days in other three patients. The water sample taken from the suspected water storage tank found to contain 101μg/ml of MCPA. The results showed that HPLC combined with GC-MS is suitable for forensic analysis of MCPA in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rate constant for the reaction of OH with methyl iodide, a re-determination by flash photolysis of water vapour and time resolved resonance fluorescence of OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaoliang; Strekowski, Rafal; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2010-05-01

    Methyl iodide is a major source gas for atmospheric iodine, and it is mainly emitted from the ocean. Aqueous-phase reactions, such as hydrolysis and exchange reactions with chloride control its emissions to the atmosphere, where its lifetime is limited to less than a week, mainly by photolysis. A minor contribution to the loss processes in the troposphere is the gas-phase reaction with OH radicals, that has been investigated by several authors. On the other hand, this reaction turned out to be uncertain in spite of interest in nuclear safety after the International Phebus Fission Product programme, initiated in 1988. Some of the most important observed phenomena with regard to the chemistry of iodine were not predicted, clearly showing the need for carrying out rate constant determinations for the reactions of I2 and CH3I with OH, which is a major oxidant product from the air radiolysis under accident conditions. We have measured the rate constant for the reaction OH + CH3I - H2O + CH2I in He at 260 mbar in the temperature range from 298 to 362 K. OH radicals were produced by flash photolysis of H2O in the vacuum-UV at wavelengths > 115 nm using a Xe flash lamp with a MgF2 window. Time profiles of OH radicals are monitored by resonance fluorescence of the A2 Σ - X2 Π transition at 308 nm, induced by the emission from a microwave discharge of a flow of He and H2O, a few Torr each. The signal is monitored by photon counting and multichannel scaling, collecting the counts from 50 flashes each, obtaind by pulsed photolysis of various mixtures of H2O and CH3I under slow-flow conditions. Decays of OH in the presence of CH3I are observed to be exponential, and the decay rates are found to be linearly dependent on the concentration of CH3I. Rate constants, k ± 2σ (in units of 10-14 cm3 s-1) of 4.14±0.20, 6.33±0.68, 7.31±1.18 and 8.24±1.60 at 298, 326, 352 and 362 K, respectively, are obtained from linear regressions and lead to an Arrhenius expression of k = 1.5

  2. Induction of tolerance to poison ivy urushiol in the guinea pig by epicutaneous application of the structural analog 5-methyl-3-n-pentadecylcatechol.

    PubMed

    Stampf, J L; Benezra, C; Byers, V; Castagnoli, N

    1986-05-01

    Previous studies have established that epicutaneous application of 5-methyl-3-n-pentadecylcatechol (5-Me-PDC), a synthetic analog of a poison ivy urushiol component, leads to immune tolerance to 3-n-pentadecylcatechol (PDC) in mice. The induction of tolerance by 5-Me-PDC may be mediated by a protein conjugate formed via selective reaction of thiol nucleophiles present on the carrier macromolecule with the corresponding o-quinone derived from the parent catechol. In order to examine further the tolerogenic properties of 5-Me-PDC, we have extended our studies to the guinea pig, the generally accepted experimental species for the study of contact allergy. The results have established that specific immune tolerance to poison ivy urushiol is induced following 2 epicutaneous applications of the PDC analog. Furthermore, we were able to show that the treated animals remained tolerant for at least 6 weeks, a period of time comparable to that observed following the intravenous administration of the O,O-bis-acetyl derivative of PDC. The data point to the possibility of developing a therapeutically effective topical tolerogen for poison ivy contact dermatitis.

  3. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... the person will have a complete recovery. Sniffing Freon is extremely dangerous and can lead to long- ...

  4. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  5. [About the history chemistry and potassium iodide].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Josette

    2008-07-01

    Louis Melsen was born at Louvain, he spent four years in Paris, working in Dumas's laboratory. Four letters from Melsens to Chevreul, since 1951 to 1880, are commented on. Two letters relate to Van Helmont and common interest of the two scientists in history of sciences. The others recall Melsens's proposal that potassium iodide can cure and prevent lead and mercury poisoning, and Chevreul's researches about colours seeing.

  6. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... know what causes poison ivy rash? It’s the sap oil that’s made by poison ivy plants that’s ... poison ivy plant; stem, leaves, root, fruit, and sap can cause an allergic reaction or contact dermatitis ...

  7. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

  8. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Cologne poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Jimsonweed poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Deodorant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Philodendron poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Ammonia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Kerosene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  3. [Transferase activity of horse blood serum cholinesterase at hydrolysis of 1-methyl-8-acetoxychinolium iodide in the presence of aliphatic alcohols].

    PubMed

    Basova, N E; Kormilitsyn, B N; Perchenok, A Yu; Rozengart, E V; Saakov, V S; Suvorov, A A

    2014-01-01

    To check whether the horse blood serum butyrylcholinesterase expresses transferase activity at the complex ester hydrolysis in the presense of several low-molecular aliphatic alcohols, a study was performed with aid of the chromogenic substrate 1-methyl-8-acetoxychinolium whose phenolic hydrolysis product absorbs intensively at 445 nm, whereas the initial ester in this specter area practically does not absorb. This allowed measuring simultaneously the products of accumulation of both products of enzymatic hydrolysis: of acetic acid by the potentiometric, while of phenol--by the photometric method. Rates of formation of both products of enzymatic hydrolysis are practically equal in experiments with all studied alcohols. This indicates that horse blood serum butyrylcholinesterase under these experimental conditions does not catalize transfer of acetyl residue to the studied aliphatic alcohols, i. e. does not have transefase activity.

  4. Toxicokinetics, including saturable protein binding, of 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in patients with acute poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M.; Dawson, Andrew H.; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Cheng, Ron; Eaglesham, Geoffrey; Buckley, Nick A.

    2011-01-01

    Human data on protein binding and dose-dependent changes in toxicokinetics for MCPA are very limited. 128 blood samples were obtained in 49 patients with acute MCPA poisoning and total and unbound concentrations of MCPA were determined. The Scatchard plot was biphasic suggesting protein binding to two sites. The free MCPA concentration increased when the total concentration exceeded 239 mg/L (95% confidence interval 198–274 mg/L). Nonlinear regression using a two-site binding hyperbola model estimated saturation of the high affinity binding site at 115 mg/L (95%CI 0–304). Further analyses using global fitting of serial data and adjusting for the concentration of albumin predicted similar concentrations for saturable binding (184 mg/L and 167 mg/L, respectively) without narrowing the 95%CI. In 25 patients, the plasma concentration–time curves for both bound and unbound MCPA were approximately log-linear which may suggest first order elimination, although sampling was infrequent so zero order elimination cannot be excluded. Using a cut-off concentration of 200 mg/L, the half-life of MCPA at higher concentrations was 25.5 h (95%CI 15.0–83.0 h; n = 16 patients) compared to 16.8 h (95%CI 13.6–22.2 h; n = 10 patients) at lower concentrations. MCPA is subject to saturable protein binding but the influence on half-life appears marginal. PMID:21256202

  5. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  6. Varnish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a clear liquid that is used as coating on woodwork and other products. Varnish poisoning occurs ... NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to. ...

  7. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  8. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  9. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Poisoning Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  10. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of ... Where Found The poisonous substances are found in: Flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the foxglove plant ...

  11. Oleander poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Oleander poisoning occurs when someone eats the flowers or chews the leaves or stems of the ... found in all parts of the oleander plant: Flowers Leaves Stems Twigs Symptoms Oleander poisoning can affect ...

  12. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1265 Cuprous iodide. (a) Cuprous iodide (copper (I) iodide, CuI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-65-4) is a pure white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the reaction of copper sulfate with potassium iodide under...

  14. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given.

  15. [Poisonous plants].

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Mustonen, Harriet; Pohjalainen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Approximately ten species of dangerously poisonous plants are found in Finland. Severe plant poisonings are very rare. Edible plants eaten raw or wrongly processed may cause severe symptoms. As first aid, activated charcoal should be given to the person who has eaten a plant causing a risk of significant poisoning. In case of exposure to topically irritating plant fluids, the exposed person's eyes must be irrigated and mouth or skin washed with copious amounts of water. In combination with solar UV radiation, light-sensitizing plants cause local burns. The diagnosis of plant poisoning is usually based on incidental information; the plant should be identified in order to make the correct treatment decisions.

  16. Lead iodide nuclear spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.C.; Shah, K.S.; Squillante, M.R.; Sinclair, F.

    1988-02-01

    This paper discusses the preparation of radiation detectors from the semiconductor lead iodide, PbI/sub 2/, and evaluates the performance of these devices as x-ray and gamma ray spectrometers. It was found that lead iodide detectors prepared from melt grown crystals exhibited good energy resolution for low energy (<10 keV) x-rays. The energy resolution for higher energy photons was less, consistent with the measured values of the electron and hole mobility-lifetime products. The performance of the PbI/sub 2/ detectors at elevated temperatures was also measured and it was found that the detectors continued to operate well at temperatures over 100/sup 0/C.

  17. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  18. Methyl chloroform

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1994-04-01

    Methyl chloroform is identified as a Class 1 ozone-depleting substance under Title VI of the CAA Amendments. On Nov. 30, 1993, EPA ordered the phaseout of Class 1 ozone-depleting substances -- chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform -- by Jan. 1, 1996. Methyl chloroform and other Class 1 substances may be used after the dead-line if sources can be found through recycling or existing inventories. Methyl chloroform is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under CAA. It also is a SARA Title III, Sec. 313 compound with a reportable quantity of 1,000 pounds. OSHA and the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists have set 350 ppm as the time-weighted average airborne exposure level for methyl chloroform. NIOSH lists its immediately dangerous to life or health'' concentration as 1,000 parts per million. DOT identifies the substance as a hazardous material, Class 6.1 (poison).

  19. Interfield and intrafield variability of methyl halide emissions from rice paddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redeker, K. R.; Andrews, J.; Fisher, F.; Sass, R.; Cicerone, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    Methyl halide gases are important sources of atmospheric inorganic halogen radicals. We measured methyl halide emissions from three rice fields over two full growing seasons. Rice paddy emissions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and methyl iodide are insignificant until field flooding. Rice growth stage determines methyl bromide and methyl iodide emissions while methyl chloride emissions are comparable between planted and unplanted plots. Houston, Texas, and Maxwell, California, field integrated seasonal fluxes of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and methyl iodide are consistent (values range from 2.3 to 3.9, 0.8 to 1.1, and 28.1 to 62.0 mg m-2, respectively) despite differences in multiple field parameters. We also examined field emission variability using 12 chamber placements. Methyl bromide and methyl iodide emissions within homogenous rice paddies require at least three replicates to determine field mean fluxes within 20%, and for methyl chloride emissions, over 10 replications per field are necessary.

  20. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  1. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  2. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... a more serious illness. Complications, such as pneumonia, muscle damage from lying on a hard surface for a prolonged period of time, or brain damage from lack of oxygen, may cause permanent disability. Aftershave poisoning is not usually deadly.

  3. Candles poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... of wax. Candle poisoning occurs when someone swallows candle wax. This can happen by accident or on purpose. ... Candle wax is considered nonpoisonous, but it may cause a blockage in the intestines if a large amount ...

  4. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  5. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of lead in household dust. DRINKING WATER: Lead may get into drinking water when materials used in plumbing materials, such as ... and dishware. Lead may also be in contaminated water. Lead poisoning is harmful to human health and ...

  6. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  7. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  8. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... chance for recovery. Kidney dialysis (filtration) through a machine may be needed if the kidneys do not recover after acute mercury poisoning, Kidney failure and death can occur, even with small doses.

  9. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... color with the seasons. They may produce whitish flowers or berries. Symptoms of poison ivy The main ... symptoms. They will also examine your rash to make sure it’s not caused by an allergy or ...

  10. Sachet poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... Seek medical help right away. DO NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to.

  11. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little or ...

  12. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  13. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; Norman, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  14. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? What potassium iodide (KI) products are currently ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? The FDA guidance prioritizes groups based on ...

  15. Screening procedure for detection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their metabolites in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extractive methylation.

    PubMed

    Maurer, H H; Tauvel, F X; Kraemer, T

    2001-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used as analgesic and anti-rheumatic drugs, and they are often misused. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) screening procedure was developed for their detection in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons after extractive methylation. The compounds were separated by capillary GC and identified by computerized MS in the full-scan mode. Using mass chromatography with the ions m/z 119, 135, 139, 152, 165, 229, 244, 266, 272, and 326, the possible presence of NSAIDs and their metabolites could be indicated. The identity of positive signals in such mass chromatograms was confirmed by comparison of the peaks underlying full mass spectra with the reference spectra recorded during this study. This method allowed the detection of therapeutic concentrations of acemetacin, acetaminophen (paracetamol), acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diflunisal, etodolac, fenbufen, fenoprofen, flufenamic acid, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, indometacin, kebuzone, ketoprofen, lonazolac, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, mofebutazone, naproxen, niflumic acid, phenylbutazone, suxibuzone, tiaprofenic acid, tolfenamic acid, and tolmetin in urine samples. The overall recoveries of the different NSAIDs ranged between 50 and 80% with coefficients of variation of less than 15% (n = 5), and the limits of detection of the different NSAIDs were between 10 and 50 ng/mL (S/N = 3) in the full-scan mode. Extractive methylation has proved to be a versatile method for STA of various acidic drugs, poisons, and their metabolites in urine. It has also successfully been used for plasma analysis.

  16. Poison Ivy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Page Content Article Body Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac commonly cause skin rashes in ... swampy areas of the Mississippi River region. Poison oak grows as a shrub, and it is seen ...

  17. Anticoagulant rodenticides poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Rat killer poisoning; Rodenticide poisoning ... up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional. ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

  18. Pentachlorophenol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.; Rom, W.N.; White, G.L. Jr.; Logan, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide commonly used as a wood preservative. Although exposure has been well controlled in large chemical manufacturing plants, over-exposures have recently becomes a concern at smaller facilities. Five cases of PCP poisoning, including two fatalities, occurred in two small wood preservative plants. All cases presented with fever, including severe hyperpyrexia in two; an increased anion gap and renal insufficiency were noted in two others. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a poisoning syndrome characterized by hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, abdominal pain, nausea, and even death.

  19. [Amitraz poisoning].

    PubMed

    Caprotta, C Gustavo; Martínez, Marcelo; Tiszler, Martín; Guerra, Verónica

    2009-10-01

    Poisoning due to amitraz together with its solvent xilene, is an unusual condition although may be increasing in rural areas where it is used as insecticide-ectoparasiticide.1-3 At present, there is scare references to orient physicians concerning its handling in childhood. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy who suffered an accidental intake of amitraz and was admitted into our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit requiring mechanical ventilation. We consider the usefulness of informing the medical community about this case so as to be aware of this rare kind of poisoning in our community.

  20. Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, W L; White, D R

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  1. Scombroid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  2. Excited State Electronic Properties of Sodium Iodide and Cesium Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei

    2013-05-01

    We compute from first principles the dielectric function, loss function, lifetime and scattering rate of quasiparticles due to electronic losses, and secondary particle spectrum due to plasmon decay in two scintillating alkali halides, sodium iodide and cesium iodide. Particular emphasis is placed on quasiparticles within several multiples of the band gap from the band edges. A theory for the decay spectra of plasmons and other electronic excitations in crystals is presented. Applications to Monte Carlo radiation transport codes are discussed.

  3. Solvent-free synthesis of alkylbenzimidazolium iodides and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Mei; Shi, Chengwu; Sun, Renjie; Liu, Zhaokun; Cai, Molang

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, the synthesis of 1-hexyl-3-methylbenzimidazolium iodide (HMBI) and 1-hexyl-3-propylbenzimidazolium iodide (HPBI) was developed by quaternization reaction of 1-hexylbenzimidazole and alkyl iodide under solvent-free condition using Teflon-lined, stainless autoclaves. Their thermal properties were measured on the thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimeter. The influence of HMBI, HPBI and 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) on redox behavior of I{sub 3}{sup -} and I{sup -} was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the resulting HMBI and HPBI had high purity and the reaction time was shortened to 3 h. The thermal stability of HMBI and HPBI was better than that of alkylimidazolium iodides, and HMBI and HPBI were prone to exhibit the supercooling phenomena. The DSCs with HMBI, HPBI and MPII gave photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.49%, 5.34% and 5.54%, respectively. (author)

  4. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely...

  5. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely...

  6. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely...

  7. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and....375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely added to a food as a source of the...

  8. POISONOUS BITES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Prevention of snakebite. Poisonous Arachnida: Painful sensations after the sting of a scorpion ; Clinical phenomena after the bite of a karakurt; Is the bite...of a tarantula dangerous. Hymenoptera: Clinical phenomena after a sting by wasps or bees; Treatment of stings of scorpions , karakurts, wasps and bees.

  9. Chlorine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid. Both are extremely poisonous. ... chlorine) Throat swelling (may also cause breathing difficulty) ... Severe change in acid level of the blood (pH balance), which leads ...

  10. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  11. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  12. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  13. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  14. [Cyanide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Møller, Søren; Hemmingsen, Claus

    2003-06-16

    Cyanide is a toxic compound which inhibits the cellular utilization of oxygen. A number of substances can give rise to cyanide intoxication, which in some cases may have a delayed onset. The symptoms are non-specific and reflect cellular hypoxia. Several strategies may be employed in the treatment. Hydroxycobalamine is an effective and non-toxic antidote. On the basis of a case story, the toxicology, symptoms and treatment of cyanide poisoning are discussed.

  15. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  16. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eaten Amount swallowed The time it was swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  2. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Cuticle remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Poisoning: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... about possible poisoning, call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United States or your regional ... along with alcohol). Call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United States or your regional ...

  18. Poison Ivy Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... to poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from ... Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a ...

  19. The iodide space in rabbit brain

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nawal; Van Harreveld, A.

    1969-01-01

    1. The iodide space in rabbit brain varies greatly depending on the conditions under which it is determined. 2. When 131I- only is used the iodide space 4 hr after administration of the marker is of the order of 2%. The iodide content of the cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) is about 1% of that of the serum. 3. Depression of the active iodide transport by perchlorate increases the space to 8·2% and the iodide content of the c.s.f. to 26% of that of the serum. 4. The active iodide transport can also be depressed by saturation with unlabelled iodide. Up to a serum iodide concentration of 5 mM the space determined after 5 hr remained constant at 2·7%. The iodide space grew when the serum iodide content was enhanced from 5 to 20 mM, to become constant at a value of 10·6% on further increase of the serum iodide (up to 50 mM). The iodide content of the c.s.f. increased in a similar manner as the space with the iodide concentration of the serum to about 1/3 of the serum concentration. The iodide space of the muscle was independent of the plasma iodide content. 5. From 4 to 8 hr after administration of 131I- alone or with unlabelled iodide (to a serum concentration of 15 mM) the iodide space remained relatively constant. 6. When 131I- was administered in the fluid with which the ventricles were perfused an iodide space of about 7% was attained after about 5 hr. 7. In experiments in which 131I- was administered intravenously and the sink action of the c.s.f. was eliminated by perfusion of the ventricles with a perfusate containing as much 131I- as the plasma, the iodide space was 10·2%. When in addition active iodide transport was depressed by perchlorate the space increased to 16·8%. 8. Intravenous administration of labelled and unlabelled iodide (to a serum concentration of 20-40 mM) and ventricle perfusion with the same concentration of 131I- and unlabelled iodide as in the plasma yielded an iodide space of 20·8%. In similar experiments the iodide concentration of the

  20. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chelating agent poisoning; Mineral deposit remover poisoning ... harmful chemicals in steam iron cleaner are: Chelating agents Hydroxyacetic acid Phosphoric acid Sodium hydroxide (dilute) Sulfuric ...

  1. Perceived poisons.

    PubMed

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A

    2005-11-01

    Perceived poisoning may manifest in numerous ways; however, all cases share certain characteristics. All are fostered by the wide availability of unreliable information about chemical safety, poor understanding of scientific principles, and ineffective risk communication. Although this problem is still incompletely understood, some approaches have been demonstrated to be useful, such as education about risk, appropriate reassurance, and empathy on the part of the practitioner. Successful management may curtail the spread or exacerbation of symptoms, whereas unsuccessful treatment may cause the problems to escalate, with detrimental effects on both society and patient.

  2. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  3. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  4. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  5. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  6. Iodide-ion-induced oscillations of the ferroin-catalyzed Belousov—Zhabotinskii reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melicherčík, Milan; Treindl, Ľudovít

    1992-08-01

    Contrary to "classical" Belousov—Zhabotinskii (BZ) oscillatory systems, consisting of malonic acid, Ce(IV)—Ce(III) or Mn(III)—Mn(II) redox catalyst and KBrO 3 in solutions of H 2SO 4, where in an interval of added iodide initial concentrations 10 -4 mol dm -3 < [I -] 0 < 10 -3 mol dm -3 the oscillations have the same frequency and amplitude as in the absence of iodide, the effect of added iodide on the ferroin-catalyzed BZ system with methyl ester of 3-oxobutanoic acid leads to an increase in the number of oscillations and in the time of their duration. The dependence of this effect on substrate, bromate, iodide, sulfuric acid and ferroin concentrations has been studied. The observations may be explained by a mechanism involving direct reduction of ferroin by iodide, oxidation of iodide to iodate by bromate with a bromide production and eventual faster bromination and iodination of methyl ester of 3-oxobutanoic acid in relation to malonic acid.

  7. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1265 Cuprous iodide. (a) Cuprous iodide (copper (I) iodide, CuI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-65-4) is a pure white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the reaction of copper sulfate...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1265 Cuprous iodide. (a) Cuprous iodide (copper (I) iodide, CuI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-65-4) is a pure white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the reaction of copper sulfate...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1265 Cuprous iodide. (a) Cuprous iodide (copper (I) iodide, CuI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-65-4) is a pure white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the reaction of copper sulfate...

  20. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  1. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  2. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  3. Ciguatera poisoning.

    PubMed

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  4. A convenient iodination method for alcohols using cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid and its comparison using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zia-Ullah; Perveen, Shahnaz; Hayat, Safdar; Ali, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In situ generation of hydrogen iodide from cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid was found to be an attractive reagent combination for the conversion of alkyl, allyl, and benzyl alcohols to their corresponding iodides under mild conditions. The method is compared with that using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

  5. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  6. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas phase reactions of the met-cars Ti[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +], Nb[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +], and Ti[sub 7]NbC[sub 12][sup +] with acetone and methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, H.T.; Guo, B.C.; Kerns, K.P.; Castleman, A.W. Jr. )

    1994-12-15

    Gas phase reactions of the metallocarbohedrenes Ti[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +], Nb[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +], and Ti[sub 7]NbC[sub 12][sup +] with two different types of molecules, namely, acetone and methyl iodide, are investigated at near thermal energy by employing a laser-induced plasma source coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Two general types of reactions are observed: molecular associations and atom abstraction reactions. In agreement with earlier studies on the interaction of Ti[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +]/with polar molecules, association reactions are found to dominate in the case of acetone. But, the incorporation of even one Nb greatly affects the reactivity. For example, the extraction of one and two oxygen atoms from acetone is also observed for Nb[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +] and Ti[sub 7]NbC[sub 12][sup +]; these products are found to sequentially associate with acetone to form Nb[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +](O)[sub 1[minus]2](acetone)[sub n] and Ti[sub 7]NbC[sub 12][sup +](O)[sub 1[minus]2](acetone)[sub n]. The reaction involves breaking C=O bonds and forming M-O bonds, evidently due to the presence of the dipole-induced charge center of Nb[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +] and Ti[sub 7]NbC[sub 12][sup +]. Possible reaction mechanisms are proposed which take into account the electronic structures of Nb[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +], Ti[sub 7]NbC[sub 12][sup +], and Ti[sub 8]C[sub 12][sup +]. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Mitigating iodomethane emissions and iodide residues in fumigated soils.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Richeng; Ashworth, Daniel J; Wu, Laosheng; Yates, Scott R

    2013-11-19

    Although long-regarded as an excellent soil fumigant for killing plant pests, methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in 2005 in the USA, because it can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Iodomethane (MeI) has been identified as an effective alternative to MeBr and is used in a number of countries for preplant pest control. However, MeI is highly volatile and potentially carcinogenic to humans if inhaled. In addition, iodide anions, a breakdown product of MeI, can build up in fumigated soils and potentially cause plant toxicity and contaminate groundwater via leaching. In order to overcome the above two obstacles in MeI application, a method is proposed to place reactive bags containing ammonium hydroxide solution (NH4OH) on the soil surface underneath an impermeable plastic film covering the fumigated area. Our research showed that using this approach, over 99% of the applied MeI was quantitatively transferred to iodide. Of all the resulting iodide, only 2.7% remained in the fumigated soil, and 97.3% was contained in the reactive bag that can be easily removed after fumigation.

  9. Bracken fern poisoning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  10. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  11. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  12. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  13. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  14. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  15. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  16. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Shellfish Poisoning Causative organisms: Pseudo- ...

  17. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  18. [Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide].

    PubMed

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-07-07

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acneiform iododerma that responded dramatically to withdrawal of the potassium iodide and administration with corticosteroids. Awareness of these adverse reactions may prevent prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary tests and treatments.

  19. [Natural toxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan.

  20. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  1. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  2. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  3. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  4. The durability of iodide sodalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddrell, Ewan; Gandy, Amy; Stennett, Martin

    2014-06-01

    An iodide sodalite wasteform has been prepared by Hot Isostatic Pressing of powder produced by hydrothermal synthesis. The wasteform was free of leachable secondary phases which can mask leaching mechanisms. Leaching is by congruent dissolution and leach rates decrease as Si and Al accumulate in the leachate. Differential normalised leach rates are 0.005-0.01 g m-2 d-1 during the 7-14 day period. This indicates that sodalite dissolution in natural groundwater, already saturated in these elements, will be very low.

  5. Neutron Detection with Mercuric Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.A.

    2003-06-17

    Mercuric iodide is a high-density, high-Z semiconducting material useful for gamma ray detection. This makes it convertible to a thermal neutron detector by covering it with a boron rich material and detecting the 478 keV gamma rays resulting from the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li* reaction. However, the 374 barn thermal capture cross section of {sup nat}Hg, makes the detector itself an attractive absorber, and this has been exploited previously. Since previous work indicates that there are no low-energy gamma rays emitted in coincidence with the 368 keV capture gamma from the dominant {sup 199}Hg(n, {gamma}){sup 200}Hg reaction, only the 368 keV capture gamma is seen with any efficiency a relatively thin (few mm) detector. In this paper we report preliminary measurements of neutrons via capture reactions in a bare mercuric iodide crystal and a crystal covered in {sup 10}B-loaded epoxy. The covered detector is an improvement over the bare detector because the presence of both the 478 and 368 keV gamma rays removes the ambiguity associated with the observation of only one of them. Pulse height spectra, obtained with and without lead and cadmium absorbers, showed the expected gamma rays and demonstrated that they were caused by neutrons.

  6. Scombroid poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2010-08-15

    Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Histamine action levels are used in regulation until more is known about the mechanism of scombroid poisoning. Scombroid poisoning and histamine are correlated but complicated. Victims of scombroid poisoning respond well to antihistamines, and chemical analyses of fish implicated in scombroid poisoning generally reveal elevated levels of histamine. Scombroid poisoning is unique among the seafood toxins since it results from product mishandling rather than contamination from other trophic levels. Inadequate cooling following harvest promotes bacterial histamine production, and can result in outbreaks of scombroid poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Laboratory methods and screening methods for detecting histamine are available in abundance, but need to be compared and validated to harmonize testing. Successful field testing, including dockside or on-board testing needed to augment HACCP efforts will have to integrate rapid and simplified detection methods with simplified and rapid sampling and extraction. Otherwise, time-consuming sample preparation reduces the impact of gains in detection speed on the overall analysis time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J.; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick II, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B. Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  8. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  9. Iodide handling by the thyroid epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M

    2001-01-01

    Iodination of thyroglobulin, the key event in the synthesis of thyroid hormone, is an extracellular process that takes place inside the thyroid follicles at the apical membrane surface that faces the follicular lumen. The supply of iodide involves two steps of TSH-regulated transport, basolateral uptake and apical efflux, that imprint the polarized phenotype of the thyroid cell. Iodide uptake is generated by the sodium/iodide symporter present in the basolateral plasma membrane. A candidate for the apical iodide-permeating mechanism is pendrin, a chloride/iodide transporting protein recently identified in the apical membrane. In physiological conditions, transepithelial iodide transport occurs without intracellular iodination, despite the presence of large amounts of thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase inside the cells. The reason is that hydrogen peroxide, serving as electron acceptor in iodide-protein binding and normally produced at the apical cell surface, is rapidly degraded by cytosolic glutathione peroxidase once it enters the cells. Iodinated thyroglobulin in the lumen stores not only thyroid hormone but iodine incorporated in iodotyrosine residues as well. After endocytic uptake and degradation of thyroglobulin, intracellular deiodination provides a mechanism for recycling of iodide to participate in the synthesis of new thyroid hormone at the apical cell surface.

  10. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  12. Lasing in cuprous iodide microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Marcel; Krüger, Evgeny; Blaurock, Steffen; Zviagin, Vitaly; Deichsel, Rafael; Benndorf, Gabriele; Trefflich, Lukas; Gottschalch, Volker; Krautscheid, Harald; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2017-07-01

    We report on the observation of lasing in cuprous iodide (CuI) microwires. A vapor-phase transport growth procedure was used to synthesize CuI microwires with low defect concentration. The crystal structure of single microwires was determined to be of zincblende-type. The high optical quality of single microwires is indicated by the observed series of excitonic emission lines as well as by the formation of gain under optical excitation. Lasing of triangular whispering-gallery modes in single microwires is demonstrated for fs- and ns-excitation from cryogenic temperatures up to 200 K. Time-resolved micro-photoluminescence studies reveal the dynamics of the laser process on the time scale of several picoseconds.

  13. Large area mercuric iodide photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Dabrowski, A.J.; Markakis, J.M.; Ortale, C.; Schnepple, W.F.

    1984-02-01

    Results of an investigation of large area mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) photodetectors are reported. Different entrance contacts were studied, including semitransparent metallic films and conductive liquids. Theoretical calculations of electronic noise of these photodetectors were compared with experimental results. HgI/sub 2/ photodetectors with active area up to 4 cm/sup 2/ were matched with NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals and were evaluated as gamma-radiation spectrometers. Energy resolution of 9.3% for gamma radiation of 511 keV with a CsI(Tl) scintillator and energy resolution of 9.0% for gamma radiation of 622 keV with a NaI(Tl) scintillator have been obtained.

  14. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Baklanov, A. V.; Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P.

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup −1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  15. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  16. Mercuric iodide light detector and related method

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Barton, Jeff B.; Dabrowski, Andrzej J.; Schnepple, Wayne F.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting light involve applying a substantially uniform electrical potential difference between first and second spaced surfaces of a body of mercuric iodide, exposing the first surface to light and measuring an electrical current passed through the body in response to the light. The mercuric iodide may be substantially monocrystalline and the potential may be applied between a substantially transparent conductive layer at the first surface and a second conductive layer at the second surface. In a preferred embodiment, the detector is coupled to a scintillator for passage of light to the mercuric iodide in response to ionizing radiation incident on the scintillator.

  17. Iodide Protects Heart Tissue from Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Akiko; Morrison, Michael L.; Roth, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an elemental nutrient that is essential for mammals. Here we provide evidence for an acute therapeutic role for iodine in ischemia reperfusion injury. Infusion of the reduced form, iodide, but not the oxidized form iodate, reduces heart damage by as much as 75% when delivered intravenously following temporary loss of blood flow but prior to reperfusion of the heart in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. Normal thyroid function may be required because loss of thyroid activity abrogates the iodide benefit. Given the high degree of protection and the high degree of safety, iodide should be explored further as a therapy for reperfusion injury. PMID:25379708

  18. Lithium iodide cardiac pacemakers: initial clinical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Burr, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    A new long-life cardiac pacemaker pulse generator powered by a lithium iodide fuel cell was introduced in Canada in 1973. The compact, hermetically sealed unit is easily implanted and reliable, has excellent patient acceptance and has an anticipated battery life of almost 14 years. Among 105 patients who received a lithium iodide pacemaker, complications occurred in 18. The lithium iodide pacemaker represents a significant advance in pacemaker generator technology and is recommended for long-term cardiac pacing; the manufacturer guarantees the pulse generator for 6 years. Images FIG. 1 PMID:974965

  19. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].

    PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice.

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Fluorosulfonylvinylation of Organic Iodides.

    PubMed

    Zha, Gao-Feng; Zheng, Qinheng; Leng, Jing; Wu, Peng; Qin, Hua-Li; Sharpless, K Barry

    2017-03-29

    A palladium-catalyzed fluorosulfonylvinylation reaction of organic iodides is described. Catalytic Pd(OAc)2 with a stoichiometric amount of silver(I) trifluoroacetate enables the coupling process between either an (hetero)aryl or alkenyl iodide with ethenesulfonyl fluoride (ESF). The method is demonstrated in the successful syntheses of eighty-eight otherwise difficult to access compounds, in up to 99 % yields, including the unprecedented 2-heteroarylethenesulfonyl fluorides and 1,3-dienylsulfonyl fluorides.

  1. Recovery of anhydrous hydrogen iodide

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; McCorkle, Jr., Kenneth H.; de Graaf, Johannes D.

    1982-01-01

    Relatively dry hydrogen iodide can be recovered from a mixture of HI, I.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. After the composition of the mixture is adjusted so that the amounts of H.sub.2 O and I.sub.2 do not exceed certain maximum limits, subjection of the mixture to superatmospheric pressure in an amount equal to about the vapor pressure of HI at the temperature in question causes distinct liquid phases to appear. One of the liquid phases contains HI and not more than about 1 weight percent water. Often the adjustment in the composition will include the step of vaporization, and the distinct layers appear following the increase in pressure of the vapor mixture. Adjustment in the composition may also include the addition of an extraction agent, such as H.sub.3 PO.sub.4, and even though the adjusted composition mixture contains a significant amount of such an agent, the creation of the distinct liquid phases is not adversely affected.

  2. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Miele, A; Suarez, C; Hannigan, J; Hurley, R M

    1984-12-01

    In this case report of an accidental automobile carbon monoxide poisoning, we identify the following risk factors: freezing temperature, young passenger age, location in the rear of the auto, smaller patient mass, and auto disrepair. The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Emergency treatment and suggested criteria for hyperbaric oxygen use in pediatric patients are discussed.

  3. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  4. Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - العربية (Arabic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - नेपाली (Nepali) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Expand ...

  5. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  6. Sweet clover poisoning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  7. Deliberate self-poisoning.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R

    1986-12-01

    As a widespread expression of human suffering, deliberate self-poisoning makes heavy demands on health care services. There have been recent changes in self-poisoning rates and recommended assessment procedures, as well as advances in our knowledge about aetiology. These have important implications for the clinician.

  8. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  9. Preparation, X-ray structure and reactivity of a stable glycosyl iodide.

    PubMed

    Bickley, Jamie; Cottrell, Jennifer A; Ferguson, John R; Field, Robert A; Harding, John R; Hughes, David L; Kartha, K P Ravindanathan; Law, Jayne L; Scheinmann, Feodor; Stachulski, Andrew V

    2003-06-07

    Highly selective reaction of methyl tetra-O-pivaloyl-beta-D-glucopyranuronate 2 with iodotrimethylsilane or (Me3Si)2 and I2 affords, in excellent yield, the 'disarmed' glycosyl iodide 1 which has good stability at 20 degrees C and excellent stability at 0 degrees C; the X-ray crystal structure of 1 is described, along with a comparison of its utility as a glycosyl donor to that of the corresponding bromide.

  10. Iodide transport: implications for health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common conditions diagnosed and managed by pediatric endocrinologists. Thyroid hormone synthesis depends on normal iodide transport and knowledge of its regulation is fundamental to understand the etiology and management of congenital and acquired thyroid conditions such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The ability of the thyroid to concentrate iodine is also widely used as a tool for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and in the management and follow up of the most common type of endocrine cancers: papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. More recently, the regulation of iodide transport has also been the center of attention to improve the management of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. Iodine deficiency disorders (goiter, impaired mental development) due to insufficient nutritional intake remain a universal public health problem. Thyroid function can also be influenced by medications that contain iodide or interfere with iodide metabolism such as iodinated contrast agents, povidone, lithium and amiodarone. In addition, some environmental pollutants such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrates may affect iodide transport. Furthermore, nuclear accidents increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer and the therapy used to prevent exposure to these isotopes relies on the ability of the thyroid to concentrate iodine. The array of disorders involving iodide transport affect individuals during the whole life span and, if undiagnosed or improperly managed, they can have a profound impact on growth, metabolism, cognitive development and quality of life. PMID:25009573

  11. Adverse effects of iodides on thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Vagenakis, A G; Braverman, L E

    1975-09-01

    The administration of pharmacologic quantities of iodine such as iodides for the treatment of pulmonary disease, organic iodine present in medications and x-ray contrast dyes, and the ingestion of iodine-rich natural foods, may result in goiter, hypothyroidism, or hyperthyroidism, especially in patients with underlying thyroid disease. Medications containing iodide may induce hypothroidism in euthyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 131I or surgically treated Graves' disease, or following hemithyroidectomy for nodules; and they may induce hyperthyroidism in patients with endemic iodine-deficient goiter, autonomous nodules or nontoxic nodular goiter, or in patients recently treated with antithyroid drugs for Graves' disease. Rarely, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may develop in patients with completely normal thyroid function during administration of iodide. The etiology of iodide-induced goiter and hypothyroidism in patients with cystic fibrosis remains obscure. Iodide-induced myxedema may also occur in patients receiving drugs which alter thyroid function, such as lithium, phenazone, and sulfisoxazole. Finally, iodides do have a role in the treatment of hyperthyroidism but their use should probably be restricted to thyroid storm, preoperative preparation of the hyperthyroid patient, and following 131I treatment.

  12. Sodium-iodide symporter mediates iodide secretion in rat gastric mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Malin; Evilevitch, Lena; Weström, Björn; Grunditz, Torsten; Ekblad, Eva

    2006-03-01

    In vivo studies on rats have demonstrated that considerable amounts of iodide are transported from the bloodstream into the gastric lumen. The mechanisms for and functional significance of this transport are poorly understood. Active (driven by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) iodide transport into thyroid follicular cells is mediated by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which is also abundantly expressed in gastric mucosa. We aimed to further investigate the iodide transport in gastric mucosa and the possible role of NIS in this transport process. Iodide transport in rat gastric mucosa was studied in vitro in an Ussing chamber system using (125)I as a marker. The system allows measurements in both directions over a mucosal specimen. A considerable transport of iodide (from the serosal to the mucosal side) was established across the gastric mucosa, whereas in the opposite direction (mucosa to serosa), iodide transport was negligible. Sodium perchlorate (NaClO(4)), a competitive inhibitor of NIS, and ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, both attenuated gastric iodide transport from the serosal to the mucosal side. To investigate a possible neuroendocrine regulation of the iodide transport identified to occur from the serosal to the mucosal side of the stomach, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), histamine, or nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) was added. None of these substances influenced the iodide transport. We conclude that iodide is actively transported into the gastric lumen and that this transport is at least partly mediated by NIS. Additional investigations are needed to understand the regulation and significance of this transport.

  13. Bacteria Mediate Methylation of Iodine in Marine and Terrestrial Environments

    PubMed Central

    Amachi, Seigo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2001-01-01

    Methyl iodide (CH3I) plays an important role in the natural iodine cycle and participates in atmospheric ozone destruction. However, the main source of this compound in nature is still unclear. Here we report that a wide variety of bacteria including terrestrial and marine bacteria are capable of methylating the environmental level of iodide (0.1 μM). Of the strains tested, Rhizobium sp. strain MRCD 19 was chosen for further analysis, and it was found that the cell extract catalyzed the methylation of iodide with S-adenosyl-l-methionine as the methyl donor. These results strongly indicate that bacteria contribute to iodine transfer from the terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere. PMID:11375186

  14. Plasma etching of cesium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Hopwood, J.; Tipnis, S.; Nagarkar, V.; Gaysinskiy, V.

    2002-01-01

    Thick films of cesium iodide (CsI) are often used to convert x-ray images into visible light. Spreading of the visible light within CsI, however, reduces the resolution of the resulting image. Anisotropic etching of the CsI film into an array of micropixels can improve the image resolution by confining light within each pixel. The etching process uses a high-density inductively coupled plasma to pattern CsI samples held by a heated, rf-biased chuck. Fluorine-containing gases such as CF4 are found to enhance the etch rate by an order of magnitude compared to Ar+ sputtering alone. Without inert-gas ion bombardment, however, the CF4 etch becomes self-limited within a few microns of depth due to the blanket deposition of a passivation layer. Using CF4+Ar continuously removes this layer from the lateral surfaces, but the formation of a thick passivation layer on the unbombarded sidewalls of etched features is observed by scanning electron microscopy. At a substrate temperature of 220 °C, the minimum ion-bombardment energy for etching is Ei~50 eV, and the rate depends on Ei1/2 above 65 eV. In dilute mixtures of CF4 and Ar, the etch rate is proportional to the gas-phase density of atomic fluorine. Above 50% CF4, however, the rate decreases, indicating the onset of net surface polymer deposition. These observations suggest that anisotropy is obtained through the ion-enhanced inhibitor etching mechanism. Etching exhibits an Arrhenius-type behavior in which the etch rate increases from ~40 nm/min at 40 °C to 380 nm/min at 330 °C. The temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of 0.13+/-0.01 eV. This activation energy is consistent with the electronic sputtering mechanism for alkali halides.

  15. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  16. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  17. MTOR downregulates iodide uptake in thyrocytes.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Elaine Cristina Lima; Padrón, Alvaro Souto; Braga, William Miranda Oliveira; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; Vaisman, Mário; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2010-07-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition increases functional sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression in both FRTL-5 rat thyroid cell line and papillary thyroid cancer lineages. In several cell types, the stimulation of PI3K results in downstream activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), a serine-threonine protein kinase that is a critical regulator of cellular metabolism, growth, and proliferation. MTOR activation is involved in the regulation of thyrocyte proliferation by TSH. Here, we show that MTOR inhibition by rapamycin increases iodide uptake in TSH-stimulated PCCL3 thyroid cell line, although the effect of rapamycin was less pronounced than PI3K inhibition. Thus, NIS inhibitory pathways stimulated by PI3K might also involve the activation of proteins other than MTOR. Insulin downregulates iodide uptake and NIS protein expression even in the presence of TSH, and both effects are counterbalanced by MTOR inhibition. NIS protein expression levels were correlated with iodide uptake ability, except in cells treated with TSH in the absence of insulin, in which rapamycin significantly increased iodide uptake, while NIS protein levels remained unchanged. Rapamycin avoids the activation of both p70 S6 and AKT kinases by TSH, suggesting the involvement of MTORC1 and MTORC2 in TSH effect. A synthetic analog of rapamycin (everolimus), which is clinically used as an anticancer agent, was able to increase rat thyroid iodide uptake in vivo. In conclusion, we show that MTOR kinase participates in the control of thyroid iodide uptake, demonstrating that MTOR not only regulates cell survival, but also normal thyroid cell function both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Congenital hypothyroidism from complete iodide transport defect: long-term evolution with iodide treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Albero, R.; Cerdan, A.; Sanchez Franco, F.

    1987-01-01

    Hypothyroidism from iodide transport deficiency is a rare disease, especially when found in two affected siblings. Treatment with high doses of iodide has been recommended, but no long term results have been reported. Two siblings with congenital hypothyroidism due to total failure to transport iodide have been followed up during twelve and a half years of treatment with oral potassium iodide. Iodine doses varied between 10.3 and 22 mg/day, and serum total iodine concentrations between 100 and 210 micrograms/dl. Total triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and free T4 were in the normal range during the time of study. Basal thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH) and maximum TSH response to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) were also in the range of normal values. These data along with clinical findings confirmed the potential usefulness of iodine in hypothyroidism due to complete iodide transport defect. PMID:3451231

  19. [Effects of controlling specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Jiang-xia; Chang, Xiu-li; Zhou, Zhi-jun

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effects of controlling the specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area. The data of reported cases of pesticide poisoning were analyzed to find out the specific dangerous pesticide in acute pesticide poisoning. Then the occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning were estimated under the hypothesis of removing the specific dangerous pesticides. The data indicated that parathion (including methyl parathion) was the specific dangerous pesticide inducing occupational pesticide poisoning. After removing the use of parathion, the hazard of pesticides which caused occupational pesticide poisoning would be significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Parathion was also the most dangerous pesticide which caused non-occupational pesticide poisoning, with its fatality up to 15.8%. If parathion was well controlled, the fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning would be declined from 9.4% to 7.4%. The analyses of related literatures also revealed the similar results. The occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning may decrease if the most dangerous pesticides are well supervised.

  20. Bracken fern poisoning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  1. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  2. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic fixatives are chemicals used to develop photographs. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing such chemicals. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an ...

  3. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from ... Potassium carbonate is found in: Glass Some dishwasher soaps Some ... that is used in fertilizers) Some home permanent-wave solutions ...

  4. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  5. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning include: Carbon monoxide gas (from furnaces, gas engines, fires, space heaters) Certain foods Chemicals in the ... Center or a doctor. Use any "cure-all" type antidote. Wait for symptoms to develop if you ...

  6. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  7. Pine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  8. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called " ...

  9. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  10. Asphalt cement poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  11. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  12. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... except Maricopa County Mail donation to: College of Pharmacy, Development Office PO Box 210202, Tucson, AZ 85721 ... gl/xomtXD Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison/ Email: boesen at pharmacy ...

  13. Overview of Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... products (see Caustic Substances Poisoning ), agricultural products, plants , heavy metals (for example, iron and lead ), vitamins, animal venom, ... digoxin ) and plants (oleander, foxglove) Digoxin -specific antibodies Heavy metals (such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and zinc) ...

  14. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Resources STEADI Initiative for Health Care Providers Water-Related Injuries Get the Facts Publications Poisoning Tips ... containers. Do not use food containers such as cups, bottles, or jars to store chemical products such ...

  15. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wart removers are medicines used to get rid of warts. Warts are small growths on the skin that are caused by a virus. They are usually painless. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows or uses ...

  16. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The outcome depends on the extent of this damage. Poisoning from dye containing an alkali may result in continuing injury to these tissues for weeks or months. If the person swallowed a nonpoisonous household dye, recovery is likely.

  17. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  18. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  19. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  20. Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... For swallowed poison, the person may receive: Endoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ... the nose or mouth into the lungs Bronchoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ...

  1. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  2. Acute poisoning with emamectin benzoate.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2004-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate is the 4'-deoxy-4'-epi-methyl-amino benzoate salt of avermectin B1 (abamectin), which is similar structurally to natural fermentation products of Streptomyces avermitilis. Emamectin benzoate is being developed as a newer broad-spectrum insecticide for vegetables and has a very low application rate. The mechanism of action involves stimulation of high-affinity GABA receptors and a consequent increase in membrane chloride ion permeability. Animal studies indicate a wide margin of safety because mammalian species are much less sensitive due to lower GABA receptor affinities and relative impermeability of the blood-brain barrier. Notably, the literature has not reported human exposure resulting in toxicity. This paper describes a case of acute poisoning with Proclaim insecticide (Syngenta, Taiwan), consisting of 2.15% w/w emamectin benzoate in 2, 6-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-phenol and 1-hexanol. The clinical manifestation was transient gastrointestinal upset with endoscopy-proven gastric erosion and superficial gastritis, mild central nervous system depression, and aspiration pneumonia. No specific antidote exists for emamectin benzoate intoxication; this patient was treated successfully with gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, and empiric antibiotics. Drugs that enhance GABA activity such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines were avoided.

  3. Barium iodide single-crystal scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Hull, Giulia; Niedermayr, Thomas R.; Drobshoff, Alexander; Payne, Stephen A.; Roy, Utpal N.; Cui, Yunlong; Bhattacharaya, Ajanta; Harrison, Melissa; Guo, Mingsheng; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We find that the high-Z crystal Barium Iodide is readily growable by the Bridgman growth technique and is less prone to crack compared to Lanthanum Halides. We have grown Barium Iodide crystals: undoped, doped with Ce 3+, and doped with Eu 2+. Radioluminescence spectra and time-resolved decay were measured. BaI II(Eu) exhibits luminescence from both Eu 2+ at 420 nm (~450 ns decay), and a broad band at 550 nm (~3 μs decay) that we assign to a trapped exciton. The 550 nm luminescence decreases relative to the Eu 2+ luminescence when the Barium Iodide is zone refined prior to crystal growth. We also describe the performance of BaI II(Eu) crystals in experimental scintillator detectors.

  4. Pyopneumothorax following kerosene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

  5. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  6. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Patrick; Murray, Peter; Nesdale, Annette; Peckler, Brad

    2016-10-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common cause of seafood-toxin poisoning in the world and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. It causes gastroenteritis but also myriad neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We present a cluster of CFP that occurred in Wellington Hospital, New Zealand. It resulted in three patients with life threatening cardiotoxicity and a fourth case with severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and public health issues are discussed.

  7. A portable multi-syringe flow system for spectrofluorimetric determination of iodide in seawater.

    PubMed

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Aguado, Enrique; Portugal, Lindomar A; Moreno, Daniel; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2015-11-01

    A miniaturized analyzer encompassing a poly(methyl methacrylate) chip with integrated spectrofluorimetric detection and solutions propelling by a multi-syringe module is proposed. Iodide was determined through its catalytic effect on the reaction between Ce(IV) and As(III). Matrix isopotential synchronous fluorescence was explored to set the excitation and emission wavelengths. A two-level full factorial design allowed to evaluate the significance of variables (Ce(IV), As(III) and H2SO4 concentrations) and their interaction effects in the experimental domain. A Doehlert Matrix was applied to identify the critical values. The optimized procedure showed a linear response from 1 to 100 μg L(-1) (S=53.7+2.61C, in which S is the net fluorescence and C is iodide concentration in μg L(-1)). Detection limit, coefficient of variation (n=6) and sampling rate were estimated at 0.3 μg L(-1), 0.8% and 20 h(-1), respectively. Recoveries within 90-117% were estimated for iodide spiked to seawater samples. The proposed procedure stands out because of the portability, robustness, and simplicity for in-field analysis of iodide in seawater.

  8. Rapid regulation of thyroid sodium-iodide symporter activity by thyrotrophin and iodine.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Andrea C F; Lima, Lívia P; Araújo, Renata L; Müller, Glaucia; Rocha, Renata P; Rosenthal, Doris; Carvalho, Denise P

    2005-01-01

    Transport of iodide into thyrocytes, a fundamental step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, depends on the presence of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). The importance of the NIS for diagnosis and treatment of diseases has raised several questions about its physiological control. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of thyroid iodine content on NIS regulation by thyrotrophin (TSH) in vivo. We showed that 15-min thyroid radioiodine uptake can be a reliable measurement of NIS activity in vivo. The effect of TSH on the NIS was evaluated in rats treated with 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI; hypothyroid with high serum TSH concentrations) for 21 days, and after 1 (R1d), 2 (R2d), or 5 (R5d) days of withdrawal of MMI. NIS activity was significantly greater in both MMI and R1d rats. In R2d and R5d groups, thyroid iodide uptake returned to normal values, despite continuing high serum TSH, possibly as a result of the re-establishment of iodine organification after withdrawal of MMI. Excess iodine (0.05% NaI for 6 days) promoted a significant reduction in thyroid radioiodide uptake, an effect that was blocked by concomitant administration of MMI, confirming previous findings that iodine organification is essential for the iodide transport blockade seen during iodine overload. Therefore, our data show that modulation of the thyroid NIS by TSH depends primarily on thyroid iodine content and, further, that the regulation of NIS activity is rapid.

  9. Energy resolution enhancement of mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.; Padgett, L.; Prickett, B.; Schnepple, W.

    1984-01-01

    A pulse processing technique has been developed which improves the gamma-ray energy resolution of mercuric iodide detectors. The technique employs a fast (100 ns) and a slow (6.4 microsec) pulse height analysis to correct for signal variations due to variations in charge trapping. The capabilities of the technique for energy resolution enhancement are discussed as well as the utility of the technique for examining the trapping characteristics of individual detectors. An energy resolution of 2.6 percent FWHM at 662 keV was achieved with an acceptance efficiency of 100 percent from a mercuric iodide detector which gives 8.3 percent FWHM using standard techniques.

  10. Evaluation of potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) to ameliorate 131I- exposure in the rat.

    PubMed

    Harris, C A; Fisher, J W; Rollor, E A; Ferguson, D C; Blount, B C; Valentin-Blasini, L; Taylor, M A; Dallas, C E

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents and the threat of nuclear terrorism have heightened the concern for adverse health risks associated with radiation poisoning. Potassium iodide (KI) is the only pharmaceutical intervention that is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating (131)I(-) exposure, a common radioactive fission product. Though effective, KI administration needs to occur prior to or as soon as possible (within a few hours) after radioactive exposure to maximize the radioprotective benefits of KI. During the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, KI was not administered soon enough after radiation poisoning occurred to thousands of people. The delay in administration of KI resulted in an increased incidence of childhood thyroid cancer. Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) was suggested as another pharmaceutical radioprotectant for 131I- poisoning because of its ability to block thyroidal uptake of iodide and discharge free iodide from the thyroid gland. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of KI and ammonium perchlorate to reduce thyroid gland exposure to radioactive iodide (131I-). Rats were dosed with 131I- tracer and 0.5 and 3 h later dosed orally with 30 mg/kg of either ammonium perchlorate or KI. Compared to controls, both anion treatments reduced thyroid gland exposure to 131I- equally, with a reduction ranging from 65 to 77%. Ammonium perchlorate was more effective than stable iodide for whole-body radioprotectant effectiveness. KI-treated animals excreted only 30% of the (131)I(-) in urine after 15 h, compared to 47% in ammonium perchlorate-treated rats. Taken together, data suggest that KI and ammonium perchlorate are both able to reduce thyroid gland exposure to 131I- up to 3 h after exposure to 131I-. Ammonium perchlorate may offer an advantage over KI because of its ability to clear 131I- from the body.

  11. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of ... Centers Celebrates the 55th Annual National Poison Prevention Week › View more Find Your Local Poison Center Poison ...

  12. 1,2-Bis[bis­(methyl­sulfan­yl)methyl­ene]hydrazine

    PubMed Central

    Driss, Mohamed; Toumi, Meriem; Ben Amor, Fatma; Driss, Ahmed; Boujlel, Khaled

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C6H12N2S4, was obtained as a by-product (8%) during the reaction of the electrogenerated cyano­methyl anion with phenyl­amine, carbon disulfide and methyl iodide. The mol­ecule, with the exception of 8 H atoms, lies on a crystallographic mirror plane and is arranged around an inversion centre located at the mid-point of the N—N bond. PMID:21202642

  13. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  14. Simplest Formula of Copper Iodide: A Stoichiometry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment presented to students as a problem in determining the stoichiometry of "copper iodide" to decide whether it is cuprous iodide or cupric iodide. The experiment illustrates stoichiometry principles, providing experiences with laboratory techniques and numerical computation. Detailed outline (written for student use) is…

  15. Poisoning in children: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A K; Seth, A; Goyal, P K; Aggarwal, V; Mittal, S K; Sharma, R; Bahl, L; Thakur, J S; Verma, M; Chhatwal, J; Chacko, B; Saini, V; Singhal, A; Sharma, P; Sharma, U; Chaturvedi, P; Kumar, S; Prajapati, N C; Vaidya, J; Garg, N; Basu, S N; Lahiri, M; Das, C K; Pal, D K; Lall, S B

    1998-01-01

    The retrospective data on childhood poisoning from eight regional hospitals in India has been reviewed. The demographic features and types of poisonings encountered have been compared. The analysis of the data indicated that pediatric poisonings constituted 0.23-3.3% of the total poisoning. The mortality ranged from 0.64-11.6% with highest being from Shimla. Accidental poisoning was common involving 50-90% of children below 5 years of age and males outnumbered the females. Suicidal poisoning was seen after 13 years of age and was due to drugs and household chemicals. One of the hospitals in Delhi recorded a very high incidence (66.6%) of drug poisoning in children. The drugs consumed belonged to phenothiazines, antiepileptics and antipyretics. Iron poisoning was seen in younger children. Kerosene was one of the causes of accidental poisoning at all hospitals except Shimla and rural Maharashtra were probably wood charcoal is widely used. Pesticide poisoning was more prevalent in Punjab and West Bengal whereas plant poisoning was very common in Shimla. Significant number of snake envenomation has been recorded from rural Maharashtra. Other less common accidental poisonings in children included alcohol, corrosives, heavy metals, rodenticides, detergents and disinfectants. Thus various regions in the country showed some variation in types and frequency of childhood poisoning which could be attributed to different geographical and socio-economic background.

  16. Scintillator handbook with emphasis on cesium iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidd, J. L.; Dabbs, J. R.; Levine, N.

    1973-01-01

    This report provides a background of reasonable depth and reference material on scintillators in general. Particular attention is paid to the cesium iodide scintillators as used in the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) experiments. It is intended especially for use by persons such as laboratory test personnel who need to obtain a working knowledge of these materials and their characteristics in a short time.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum treatment level in food Functional use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cuprous iodide. 184.1265 Section 184.1265 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  18. Iodide effects in transition metal catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Maitlis, Peter M; Haynes, Anthony; James, Brian R; Catellani, Marta; Chiusoli, Gian Paolo

    2004-11-07

    The unique properties of I(-) allow it to be involved in several different ways in reactions catalyzed by the late transition metals: in the oxidative addition, the migration, and the coupling/reductive elimination steps, as well as in substrate activation. Most steps are accelerated by I(-)(for example through an increased nucleophilicity of the metal center), but some are retarded, because a coordination site is blocked. The "soft" iodide ligand binds more strongly to soft metals (low oxidation state, electron rich, and polarizable) such as the later and heavier transition metals, than do the other halides, or N- and O-centered ligands. Hence in a catalytic cycle that includes the metal in a formally low oxidation state there will be less tendency for the metal to precipitate (and be removed from the cycle) in the presence of I(-) than most other ligands. Iodide is a good nucleophile and is also easily and reversibly oxidized to I(2). In addition, I(-) can play key roles in purely organic reactions that occur as part of a catalytic cycle. Thus to understand the function of iodide requires careful analysis, since two or sometimes more effects occur in different steps of one single cycle. Each of these topics is illustrated with examples of the influence of iodide from homogeneous catalytic reactions in the literature: methanol carbonylation to acetic acid and related reactions; CO hydrogenation; imine hydrogenation; and C-C and C-N coupling reactions. General features are summarised in the Conclusions.

  19. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as...

  1. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals andd scintillators implementing the same

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A; Cherepy, Nerine J; Hull, Giulia E; Drobshoff, Alexander D; Burger, Arnold

    2013-11-12

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector according to another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, wherein a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 A method for manufacturing a crystal suitable for use in a scintillator includes mixing strontium iodide-containing crystals with a source of Eu.sup.2+, heating the mixture above a melting point of the strontium iodide-containing crystals, and cooling the heated mixture near the seed crystal for growing a crystal. Additional materials, systems, and methods are presented.

  2. Isolation of iodide-oxidizing bacteria from iodide-rich natural gas brines and seawaters.

    PubMed

    Amachi, Seigo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Akiyama, Yukako; Miyazaki, Kazumi; Yoshiki, Sayaka; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Shinoyama, Hirofumi; Fujii, Takaaki

    2005-05-01

    Iodide-oxidizing bacteria (IOB), which oxidize iodide (I-) to molecular iodine (I2), were isolated from iodide-rich (63 microM to 1.2 mM) natural gas brine waters collected from several locations. Agar media containing iodide and starch were prepared, and brine waters were spread directly on the media. The IOB, which appeared as purple colonies, were obtained from 28 of the 44 brine waters. The population sizes of IOB in the brines were 10(2) to 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) mL(-1). However, IOB were not detected in natural seawaters and terrestrial soils (fewer than 10 CFU mL(-1) and 10(2) CFU g wet weight of soils(-1), respectively). Interestingly, after the enrichment with 1 mM iodide, IOB were found in 6 of the 8 seawaters with population sizes of 10(3) to 10(5) CFU mL(-1). 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses showed that the IOB strains are divided into two groups within the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria. One of the groups was phylogenetically most closely related to Roseovarius tolerans with sequence similarities between 94% and 98%. The other group was most closely related to Rhodothalassium salexigens, although the sequence similarities were relatively low (89% to 91%). The iodide-oxidizing reaction by IOB was mediated by an extracellular enzyme protein that requires oxygen. Radiotracer experiments showed that IOB produce not only I2 but also volatile organic iodine, which were identified as diiodomethane (CH2I2) and chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI). These results indicate that at least two types of IOB are distributed in the environment, and that they are preferentially isolated in environments in which iodide levels are very high. It is possible that IOB oxidize iodide in the natural environment, and they could significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of iodine.

  3. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    PubMed

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  4. Synthesis of deuterium labeled 17-methyl-testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Y.; Baba, S.; Kasuya, Y.

    1984-09-01

    The synthesis of two forms of selectively deuterated 17-methyl-testosterone is described. 17-Methyl-d3-testosterone was prepared by the Grignard reaction of dehydroepiandrosterone with deuterium labeled methyl magnesium iodide followed by an Oppenauer oxidation. 17-Methyl-d3-testosterone-19,19,19-d3 was prepared by treating 3,3-ethylenedioxy-5,10-epoxy-5 alpha, 10 alpha-estran-17-one with deuterium labeled methyl magnesium bromide followed by hydrolysis and dehydration of the 5 alpha-hydroxyandrostane derivative.

  5. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  6. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  7. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  8. [Acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still complicated by a high mortality and morbidity rate. Diagnosis can be obvious but is most of time difficult and sometimes remained unknown. It is usually based on clinical signs and must be confirmed by assessment of CO level in room air or in patient's expired breathing or blood and detection of a source. Mild neurological sequelae are very common. Normobaric oxygen is the first line treatment. Comatose and pregnant patients must undergo hyperbaric oxygen. All CO poisoning has to be declared to sanitary authority, which will in turn conduct a technical inspection to remove the source. The patient must be informed that he is at risk of new poisoning and of neurological complications. Progress in prevention and research in therapeutics are needed in order to reduce CO related morbidity.

  9. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  10. Paralytic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Acres, J.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning after ingestion of mussels occurred in October 1977 in Nova Scotia. The incidence of this type of poisoning is relatively high among persons living on the coast of the Bay of Fundy and the estuary of the St. Lawrence River. The causative organism, Gonyaulax tamarensis, elaborates an endotoxin, saxitoxin, that blocks neuromuscular transmission in the motor axon and muscle membrane while leaving the end-plate unaffected; it also suppresses conduction in the atrioventricular node and inhibits the respiratory centre. The clinical manifestations are unique and include numbness of the lips, tongue and fingertips within minutes of ingestion of the poisoned shellfish, then numbness of the legs, arms and neck, with general muscular incoordination, and finally respiratory distress and muscular paralysis. Treatment is symptomatic and prevention can only occur by public education. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:570450

  11. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings.

  12. [Acute pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Durán-Nah, J J; Collí-Quintal, J

    2000-01-01

    To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. Males were frequently affected (82%), specially those coming from rural areas (60%). The mean age of the group was 34 +/- 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  13. Atomic force microscopy of lead iodide crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Jayatirtha, H. N.; Biao, Y.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Silberman, E.

    1994-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the surface of lead iodide crystals. The high vapor pressure of lead iodide prohibits the use of traditional high resolution surface study techniques that require high vacuum conditions. AFM was used to image numerous insulating surface in various ambients, with very little sample preparation techniques needed. Freshly cleaved and modified surfaces, including, chemical and vacuum etched, and air aged surfaces, were examined. Both intrinsic and induced defects were imaged with high resolution. The results were compared to a similar AFM study of mercuric iodide surfaces and it was found that, at ambient conditions, lead iodide is significantly more stable than mercuric iodide.

  14. Black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  15. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  16. Mushrooms and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varma, Amit; Gaur, K J B S; Bhatia, Payal

    2011-11-01

    The mushrooms are probably one of the oldest consumption of mankind having mythological and spiritual significance apart from being a great delicacy. Its poisoning is a common yet poorly recognised. There are more than 2000 varieties which are edible, and nearly 80 varieties are non-edible (or poisonous) type. Not only they resemble some of the edible types, they even grow long with them. Most of the toxic events go unnoticed, yet, sometimes it may be life threatening as some mushrooms are one of the most toxic fungi known to manking. Awareness is pobably the only prevention.

  17. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jorge A

    2012-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of death as a result of unintentional poisoning in the United States. CO toxicity is the result of a combination of tissue hypoxia-ischemia secondary to carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct CO-mediated damage at a cellular level. Presenting symptoms are mostly nonspecific and depend on the duration of exposure and levels of CO. Diagnosis is made by prompt measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels. Treatment consists of the patient's removal from the source of exposure and the immediate administration of 100% supplemental oxygen in addition to aggressive supportive measures. The use of hyperbaric oxygen is controversial.

  19. Metoclopramide poisoning in children.

    PubMed Central

    Low, L C; Goel, K M

    1980-01-01

    15 children with metoclopramide (Maxolon) poisoning are reported. One of the 5 children accidentally poisoned developed slight extrapyramidal signs. All 10 children who experienced extrapyramidal side effects while being treated with metoclopramide had received a dose greater than that recommended by the manufacturer of 0.5 mg/kg per day. Dystonic reactions are likely to occur if the recommended dose is exceeded, but individual susceptibility to metoclopramide and the cumulative effect of repeated doses of the drug may also be important. PMID:7416782

  20. Thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic anisotropy examination.

    PubMed

    Mantsevich, S N

    2017-03-01

    Thallium bromide iodide crystal also known as KRS-5 is the well known material used in far infrared radiation applications for optical windows and lenses fabrication. The main advantage of this material is the transparency in wide band of wavelengths from 0.53 to 50μm. Despite such advantages as transparency and large acousto-optic figure of merit values, KRS-5 is rarely used in acousto-optics. Nevertheless this material seems to be promising for far infrared acousto-optic applications. The acoustic and acousto-optic properties of KRS-5 needed for the full use in optoelectronics are not well understood to date. In this paper the detailed examination of thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic properties is presented.

  1. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  2. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  3. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  4. Kerosene poisoning in children

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.

    1970-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507

  5. [Household gas poisonings].

    PubMed

    Maloca, Ivana; Macan, Jelena; Varnai, Veda Marija; Turk, Rajka

    2006-12-01

    Exposure to toxic gases which can induce serious health effects, can occur in the working as well as in general environment, including home. The severity of gas poisoning is determined by its physical and chemical characteristics, intensity and duration of exposure, and concomitant diseases and injuries in the poisoned person. Manifestations of gas toxic action involve simple asphyxia, local irritation of respiratory mucosa, systemic toxicity, and a combination of these mechanisms. This article describes the characteristics, modes of exposure and health effects of most common gases causing poisoning at home. These include gas fuels, carbon monoxide, ammonia, chlorine, and fire gases such as nitrogen and sulphur oxides, hydrogen cyanide and phosgene. First aid as well as preventive measures to avoid exposure to toxic gases and prevent fire at home are also given. The Croatian Poison Control Centre gathered data on toxic gas exposures in households between November 2005 and July 2006. During this period 30 persons (3 % of the total number of cases) were exposed to toxic gases at home, including carbon monoxide, irritating vapours from cleaning agents and disinfectants, gas fuels, septic tank gases, tear-gas, and chlorofluorocarbons from refrigerators.

  6. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  7. Metal polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  8. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  9. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  10. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  11. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  12. Mercuric iodide X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; del Duca, A.; Dolin, R.; Ortale, C.

    1986-02-01

    A prototype X-ray camera utilizing a 1.5- by 1.5-in., 1024-element, thin mercuric iodide detector array has been tested and evaluated. The microprocessor-based camera is portable and operates at room temperature. Events can be localized within 1-2 mm at energies below 60 keV and within 5-6 mm at energies on the order of 600 keV.

  13. 2005 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' national poisoning and exposure database.

    PubMed

    Lai, Melisa W; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Rodgers, George C; Abrams, Joseph Y; Haber, Deborah A; Bronstein, Alvin C; Wruk, Kathleen M

    2006-01-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC; http://www.aapcc.org) maintains the national database of information logged by the country's 61 Poison Control Centers (PCCs). Case records in this database are from self-reported calls: they reflect only information provided when the public or healthcare professionals report an actual or potential exposure to a substance (e.g., an ingestion, inhalation, or topical exposure.), or request information/educational materials. Exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning or overdose. The AAPCC is not able to completely verify the accuracy of every report made to member centers. Additional exposures may go unreported to PCCs, and data referenced from the AAPCC should not be construed to represent the complete incidence of national exposures to any substance(s). U.S. Poison Centers make possible the compilation and reporting of this report through their staffs' meticulous documentation of each case using standardized definitions and compatible computer systems. The 61 participating poison centers in 2005 are: Regional Poison Control Center, Birmingham, AL; Alabama Poison Center, Tuscaloosa, AL; Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center, Tucson, AZ; Banner Poison Control Center, Phoenix, AZ; Arkansas Poison and Drug Information Center, Little Rock, AK; California Poison Control System-Fresno/Madera Division, CA; California Poison Control System-Sacramento Division, CA; California Poison Control System-San Diego Division, CA; California Poison Control System-San Francisco Division, CA; Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver, CO; Connecticut Poison Control Center, Farmington, CT; National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC; Florida Poison Information Center, Tampa, FL; Florida Poison Information Center, Jacksonville, FL; Florida Poison Information Center, Miami, FL; Georgia Poison Center, Atlanta, GA; Illinois Poison Center, Chicago, IL; Indiana

  14. Methyl Halide Production by Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, G. D.; Varner, R. K.; Blanchard, R. O.; Sive, B. C.; Crill, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl iodide (CH3I) are methyl halide gases that contribute significant amounts of halogen radicals to the atmosphere. In an effort to better understand the global budget of methyl halides and their impact on the atmosphere, we need to identify the natural sources in addition to the known anthropogenic sources of these compounds. We are investigating the role of fungi in the production of methyl halides in the soils and wetlands in southern New Hampshire, USA. Previous research has shown that wood decay fungi and ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are within a group of fungi called basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. In our study, measurements of headspace gas extracted from flasks containing fungi grown in culture demonstrate that a variety of fungi, including basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. Our research sites include four ecosystems: an agricultural field, a temperate forest, a fresh water wetland, and coastal salt marshes. We have collected and isolated fungi at each site by culturing tissue samples of fruiting bodies and plant material, by using wood baits, and from the direct culture of soil. We compared the rates of methyl halide emissions from the fungi in the four ecosystems. In addition, we measured emissions from previously assayed fungal isolates after reintroducing them to sterilized soils that were collected from their original environments. Fungal biomass was determined by substrate-induced respiration (SIR). The emission rate by the fungus was determined by a linear regression of the concentration of methyl halide in the sample headspace over time divided by the fungal biomass.

  15. Composition and properties of thallium mercury iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.H.; Schaupp, C.; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhengming ); Novinson, T.; Hoffard, T. )

    1990-10-01

    Conflicting reports exist in the literature concerning the composition of thallium mercury iodide. Solid state synthesis with HgI{sub 2} and TlI has been reported to give Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} while synthesis from solution has been reported to give Tl{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}. In this report the authors show that the orange compound precipitating from solution is actually a 1:1 mole ratio mixture of Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} and HgI{sub 2}. Pure Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6}, which is yellow, can be produced by heating the mixture at 100{degree}C for several days to volatilize HgI{sub 2} or more simply, by adding Tl(I) to a solution containing 2:1 KI:K{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} to provide the additional iodide ions needed for Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6}. Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6}, unlike Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}, has no sharp thermochromic changes and has no measurable ionic conductivity. This provides another example of the significant role the metal ion plans in determining structure and properties of metal mercury iodide compounds.

  16. Formation of cyanogen iodide by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Schlorke, Denise; Flemmig, Jörg; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The haem protein lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an important component of the anti-microbial immune defence in external secretions and is also applied as preservative in food, oral care and cosmetic products. Upon oxidation of SCN(-) and I(-) by the LPO-hydrogen peroxide system, oxidised species are formed with bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal activity. Here we describe the formation of the inter(pseudo)halogen cyanogen iodide (ICN) by LPO. This product is formed when both, thiocyanate and iodide, are present together in the reaction mixture. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we could identify this inter(pseudo)halogen after applying iodide in slight excess over thiocyanate. The formation of ICN is based on the reaction of oxidised iodine species with thiocyanate. Further, we could demonstrate that ICN is also formed by the related haem enzyme myeloperoxidase and, in lower amounts, in the enzyme-free system. As I(-) is not competitive for SCN(-) under physiologically relevant conditions, the formation of ICN is not expected in secretions but may be relevant for LPO-containing products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light.

  18. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  19. Decarboxylative Cross-Electrophile Coupling of N-Hydroxyphthalimide Esters with Aryl Iodides.

    PubMed

    Huihui, Kierra M M; Caputo, Jill A; Melchor, Zulema; Olivares, Astrid M; Spiewak, Amanda M; Johnson, Keywan A; DiBenedetto, Tarah A; Kim, Seoyoung; Ackerman, Laura K G; Weix, Daniel J

    2016-04-20

    A new method for the decarboxylative coupling of alkyl N-hydroxyphthalimide esters (NHP esters) with aryl iodides is presented. In contrast to previous studies that form alkyl radicals from carboxylic acid derivatives, no photocatalyst, light, or arylmetal reagent is needed, only nickel and a reducing agent (Zn). Methyl, primary, and secondary alkyl groups can all be coupled in good yield (77% ave yield). One coupling with an acid chloride is also presented. Stoichiometric reactions of (dtbbpy)Ni(2-tolyl)I with an NHP ester show for the first time that arylnickel(II) complexes can directly react with NHP esters to form alkylated arenes.

  20. Decarboxylative Cross-Electrophile Coupling of N-Hydroxyphthalimide Esters with Aryl Iodides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the decarboxylative coupling of alkyl N-hydroxyphthalimide esters (NHP esters) with aryl iodides is presented. In contrast to previous studies that form alkyl radicals from carboxylic acid derivatives, no photocatalyst, light, or arylmetal reagent is needed, only nickel and a reducing agent (Zn). Methyl, primary, and secondary alkyl groups can all be coupled in good yield (77% ave yield). One coupling with an acid chloride is also presented. Stoichiometric reactions of (dtbbpy)Ni(2-tolyl)I with an NHP ester show for the first time that arylnickel(II) complexes can directly react with NHP esters to form alkylated arenes. PMID:27029833

  1. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Alex T; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister

    2006-01-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is licensed in the US for use against coyotes, which prey on sheep and goats, and in Australia and New Zealand to kill unwanted introduced species. The extreme toxicity of fluoroacetate to mammals and insects stems from its similarity to acetate, which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate combines with coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which can substitute for acetyl CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reacts with citrate synthase to produce fluorocitrate, a metabolite of which then binds very tightly to aconitase, thereby halting the cycle. Many of the features of fluoroacetate poisoning are, therefore, largely direct and indirect consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism. Energy production is reduced and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle subsequent to citrate are depleted. Among these is oxoglutarate, a precursor of glutamate, which is not only an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also required for efficient removal of ammonia via the urea cycle. Increased ammonia concentrations may contribute to the incidence of seizures. Glutamate is also required for glutamine synthesis and glutamine depletion has been observed in the brain of fluoroacetate-poisoned rodents. Reduced cellular oxidative metabolism contributes to a lactic acidosis. Inability to oxidise fatty acids via the tricarboxylic acid cycle leads to ketone body accumulation and worsening acidosis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion results in inhibition of high energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis. Fluoroacetate poisoning is associated with citrate accumulation in several tissues, including the brain. Fluoride

  2. Xuebijing for paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin; Huo, Dongmei; Wu, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Lin; Liao, Yunhua

    2013-07-29

    At present, there is a lack of effective treatments for paraquat poisoning. Xuebijing injection is a complex traditional Chinese prescription consisting of Flos Carthami, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae and Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Although clinical experience suggests that Xuebijing injection might have potential in the management of paraquat poisoning, there is no conclusion on the effectiveness of this treatment. To assess the effects of Xuebijing injection in patients with paraquat poisoning. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, Chinese bio-medical literature and retrieval system (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database. The search was run on the 29th May 2013. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Xuebijing injection combined with conventional care against conventional care alone. Two or three authors independently selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted data. We calculated the mortality risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Data on all-cause mortality at the end of follow-up were summarised in a meta-analysis. We identified two trials including 84 people. Although there were fewer deaths in people treated with Xuebijing injection, meta-analysis showed that it did not provide a statistically significant benefit in reducing all-cause mortality in people with paraquat poisoning as compared to control (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.04; P = 0.08). Based on the findings of two small RCTs, Xuebijing injection did not have a statistically significant benefit on reducing all-cause mortality in people with paraquat poisoning. However, both

  3. Copper-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Aryl Iodides with Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Vu, Hung; Daugulis, Olafs

    2013-01-01

    A method for carboxylation of aryl iodides with carbon dioxide has been developed. The reaction employs low loadings of copper iodide/TMEDA or DMEDA catalyst, 1 atm of CO2, DMSO or DMA solvent, and proceeds at 25–70 °C. Good functional group tolerance is observed, with ester, bromide, chloride, fluoride, ether, hydroxy, amino, and ketone functionalities tolerated. Additionally, hindered aryl iodides such as iodomesitylene can also be carboxylated PMID:24288654

  4. Acute poisoning: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Treatment of the patient who has taken an overdose of a harmful substance includes support of vital functions and toxicologic analysis. Early recognition of signs and symptoms indicating poisoning by a specific agent or group of related chemicals is essential since specific antidotes may be lifesaving. Activated charcoal is an effective gastrointestinal decontaminant that adsorbs many common drugs. Administration of weak acids as an antidote to alkali ingestion is to be condemned; the only treatment should be dilution with water. The use of physostigmine as a specific antidote for the anticholinergic syndrome has been very successful; the incidence of this syndrome as a result of poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants is increasing. Effective therapy for acetaminophen overdose is still being investigated, but activated charcoal and methionine, if given early enough, seem to be effective. PMID:890634

  5. Small dose... big poison.

    PubMed

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  6. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  7. [Jimson weed poisoning].

    PubMed

    Berger, Ehud; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2003-05-01

    Datura stramonium abuse causes a potentially lethal anticholinergic intoxication. Today, with the internet widely available, our youth are potentially exposed to partial and quite often dangerous information that systematically disregards the danger of Datura use. The authors suspect that without educational efforts regarding the dark side of Datura use, we shall see a rise in poisoning by this dangerous substance. This review outlines the general management of the intoxication.

  8. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  9. [Familial lead poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

    1989-06-01

    A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl.

  10. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-04-02

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  11. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  12. Poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Baer, R L

    1986-06-01

    Eruptions caused by poison ivy (see Cover) and related plants are almost always a form of allergic contact dermatitis. Usually they can be readily recognized because of their characteristic streak- or line-like appearance. They usually clear within one to three weeks unless there is continued exposure to the allergen. Local treatment suffices in mild to moderate cases, but in more severe cases systemic corticosteroids can be added.

  13. Childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Linakis, J G

    1995-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been referred to as the most important environmental health hazard for children in New England. Medical professionals are in a unique position to perform a number of interventions that could make a lasting impact. First, physicians and nurses, particularly in the areas of pediatrics and family medicine, can provide anticipatory guidance to all families with young children. Lead poisoning, in contrast to long held beliefs, is an affliction that affects all socioeconomic groups. Parents should thus be informed regarding sources of lead, including occupational and hobby sources, and basic nutritional and abatement information should be provided. Second, health care workers should encourage lead screening in appropriately aged children at recommended intervals based on known risk factors. Once a blood lead concentration greater than 20[symbol: see text]g/dl has been obtained in a child, treatment or referral to an established lead clinic should be undertaken in a timely fashion. For children with low or moderate lead levels, many pediatricians or family physicians prefer to supervise their patients' treatment, including chelation therapy. For children with higher levels or in instances when the health care professional elects to refer, there are several lead clinics throughout New England whose clinicians are experienced in the treatment of childhood lead poisoning. Finally the medical profession needs to publicly recognize, as child advocates, that lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States and that it is entirely preventable. Fortunately, after many years and much hard work, Rhode Island finally has laws that start to deal with the lead problem in an appropriately aggressive fashion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. [Acute phostoxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Idali, B; Miguil, M; Moutawakkil, S; Bouaggad, A; Guartit, A; Abassi, O; Ben Aguida, M

    1995-04-01

    Phostoxin is a mixture of aluminium phosphide and ammonium carbonate. When exposed to water, it releases phosphorus hydrogen (PH3), a highly-poisonous gas. In Morocco, death rate from suicide due to self-administration of phostoxin pills is high. Clinical signs include abrupt digestive and nervous disorders. Pulmonary oedema or cardiogenic shock dominate early prognosis. Liver and renal damage is secondary. Prevention requires both legal constraints and regulation of sales.

  15. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    challenging position as professor ordinarius at the Depart- ment of Anaesthesiology . I pioneered from scratch in this position until 2009. My academic... experience in the Paris Fire Brigade. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006; 44 (Suppl 1):37 44. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Kurt Anseeuwa*, Nicolas Delvaub...hydro- xocobalamin higher than 150 mg/kg. Given the theoretically synergistic action and given the experience in the treatment of the toxicity of

  16. [Acute zincteral oral poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kamenczak, A; Pokorska, M; Wołek, E; Kobyłecka, K

    Zinc vapour poisoning by inhalation in the form of zinc fever is more frequent than oral zinc product poisoning, the product used in therapy. The main aim of the study was the evaluation of clinical manifestation present after Zincteral ingestion as well as attempt to find the relationship between the presence and aggravation of the clinical manifestation and zinc level in the blood. The course of acute clinical suicidal poisoning by ingestion of Zincteral 50 tablets (10.0 g) and 100 tablets (20.0 g) is presented. The clinical picture revealed the following symptoms and signs: tachycardia, changes of arterial BP, vascular shock; dyspeptic nausea, vomiting cramps in abdominal region, diarrhoea. Damage of the parenchymatous organs, mainly liver was evident. In pregnant woman (9-week-pregnancy) on the 12-th day of her stay in the Clinic complete miscarriage took place accompanied by haemorrhage from reproductive organs. The kind and exacerbation of the clinical manifestations in relation to the zinc level in body fluid were analysed.

  17. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management.

  18. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  19. Iodide transport and its regulation in the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide induced suppression of subsequently determined iodide transport activity in the thyroid gland. Two model systems were developed to identify the putative, transport-related, iodine-containing, inhibitory factor responsible for autoregulation. The first system was a maternal and fetal rabbit thyroid tissue slice preparation in which iodide pretreatment inhibited the maternal /sup 125/I-T/M ratio by 30% and had no significant effect on fetal iodide transport. In the second system, the role of protein synthesis in the autoregulatory phenomenon was studied. Cat thyroid slices pretreated with0.1 mM cycloheximide for 60 min prior to preexposure to excess iodide demonstrated a significant reduction in the degree of iodide included autoregulation. In both of these systems iodide induced suppression of cAMP accumulation remained intact. These findings suggest (1) fetal rabbit thyroid lacks the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide transport and (2) protein synthesis is involved in the mechanism of thyroid autoregulation of iodide transport.

  20. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  1. Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2009-10-21

    Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  2. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  3. Iodide Mumps Complicating Coronary and Carotid Angiography.

    PubMed

    Elder, Alexander M M; Ng, Martin K C

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of asceptic sialadenitis that occurred in a patient with end-stage renal failure following administration of iodinated contrast for coronary and carotid angiography. This is a rare but important complication of iodinated contrast. Early diagnosis of iodide mumps following angiography avoids unnecessary investigations and treatment. In this case the patient underwent haemodialysis with subsequent complete resolution of the sialadenitis, a treatment that has previously not been reported for this condition. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Guidelines Accessibility of NCHS Materials NCHS NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths Format: Select One PDF [ ... on health, and health outcomes. NCHS Drug-poisoning Data Poisoning is the leading cause of injury death ...

  5. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Paraquat Poisoning: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Veer Bahadur; Meena, Babu Lal; Gaur, Subhash; Singla, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is commonly used herbicide by farmers in North West Rajasthan. Despite its easy availability, poisoning of its not common. Fatal dose of paraquat is so small that >10 ml poison can damage lungs permanently. Diagnosis is often difficult without proper history, absence of specific clinical feature and lack of diagnostic test. Inhalation exposures represent one of the most important routes of poisoning. We are reporting a case of inhaled paraquat poisoning with complication of irreversible acute kidney, liver and lung injury. PMID:27042505

  8. Was it poisoning?

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R J

    The aim of post-mortem toxicology is to help establish the role that drugs or other poisons played in a death, or in events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected then the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that may be required is confirmation of the agents involved. If the cause of death is not immediately obvious, however, then suspicion of possible poisoning is of course crucial. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, e.g. femoral, ideally after proximal ligation) before opening the body, minimises the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. The site of blood sampling should always be recorded. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor) may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The availability of ante-mortem specimens should not preclude post-mortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of post-mortem toxicology must take into account what is known of the clinical pharmacology, including pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the agent(s) in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the possible mechanism(s) of exposure, and other factors such as the sample(s) analysed and the analytical methods used. It was thought that concentrations of poisons measured in blood obtained at autopsy reflected the situation peri-mortem. However, we now know that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater with centrally-acting drugs such as clozapine with large volumes of distribution, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly. Better training in analytical toxicology is needed for pathologists and others who may be called upon to interpret toxicological data for the Courts. Undue reliance on

  9. A genetic sensor for strong methylating compounds

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Felix; Horwitz, Andrew; Chen, Jacinto; Lim, Wendell A.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Methylating chemicals are common in industry and agriculture and are often toxic, partly due to their propensity to methylate DNA. The Escherichia coli Ada protein detects methylating compounds by sensing aberrant methyl adducts on the phosphoester backbone of DNA. We characterize this system as a genetic sensor and engineer it to lower the detection threshold. By overexpressing Ada from a plasmid, we improve the sensor’s dynamic range to 350-fold induction and lower its detection threshold to 40 µM for methyl iodide. In eukaryotes, there is no known sensor of methyl adducts on the phosphoester backbone of DNA. By fusing the N-terminal domain of Ada to the Gal4 transcriptional activation domain, we built a functional sensor for methyl phosphotriester adducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This sensor can be tuned to variable specifications by altering the expression level of the chimeric sensor and changing the number of Ada operators upstream of the Gal4-sensitive reporter promoter. These changes result in a detection threshold of 28 µM and 5.2-fold induction in response to methyl iodide. When the yeast sensor is exposed to different SN1 and SN2 alkylating compounds, its response profile is similar to that observed for the native Ada protein in E. coli, indicating that its native function is retained in yeast. Finally, we demonstrate that the specifications achieved for the yeast sensor are suitable for detecting methylating compounds at relevant concentrations in environmental samples. This work demonstrates the movement of a sensor from a prokaryotic to eukaryotic system and its rational tuning to achieve desired specifications. PMID:24032656

  10. Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

    1980-09-01

    Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

  11. Taming the Reactivity of Glycosyl Iodides To Achieve Stereoselective Glycosidation.

    PubMed

    Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-19

    Although glycosyl iodides have been known for more than 100 years, it was not until the 21st century that their full potential began to be harnessed for complex glycoconjugate synthesis. Mechanistic studies in the late 1990s probed glycosyl iodide formation by NMR spectroscopy and revealed important reactivity features embedded in protecting-group stereoelectronics. Differentially protected sugars having an anomeric acetate were reacted with trimethylsilyl iodide (TMSI) to generate the glycosyl iodides. In the absence of C-2 participation, generation of the glycosyl iodide proceeded by inversion of the starting anomeric acetate stereochemistry. Once formed, the glycosyl iodide readily underwent in situ anomerization, and in the presence of excess iodide, equilibrium concentrations of α- and β-iodides were established. Reactivity profiles depended upon the identity of the sugar and the protecting groups adorning it. Consistent with the modern idea of disarmed versus armed sugars, ester protecting groups diminished the reactivity of glycosyl iodides and ether protecting groups enhanced the reactivity. Thus, acetylated sugars were slower to form the iodide and anomerize than their benzylated analogues, and these disarmed glycosyl iodides could be isolated and purified, whereas armed ether-protected iodides could only be generated and reacted in situ. All other things being equal, the β-iodide was orders of magnitude more reactive than the thermodynamically more stable α-iodide, consistent with the idea of in situ anomerization introduced by Lemieux in the mid-20th century. Glycosyl iodides are far more reactive than the corresponding bromides, and with the increased reactivity comes increased stereocontrol, particularly when forming α-linked linear and branched oligosaccharides. Reactions with per-O-silylated glycosyl iodides are especially useful for the synthesis of α-linked glycoconjugates. Silyl ether protecting groups make the glycosyl iodide so reactive

  12. Production of Molecular Iodine and Tri-iodide in the Frozen Solution of Iodide: Implication for Polar Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kitae; Yabushita, Akihiro; Okumura, Masanori; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher S; Min, Dae Wi; Yoon, Ho-Il; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-02-02

    The chemistry of reactive halogens in the polar atmosphere plays important roles in ozone and mercury depletion events, oxidizing capacity, and dimethylsulfide oxidation to form cloud-condensation nuclei. Among halogen species, the sources and emission mechanisms of inorganic iodine compounds in the polar boundary layer remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the production of tri-iodide (I3(-)) via iodide oxidation, which is negligible in aqueous solution, is significantly accelerated in frozen solution, both in the presence and the absence of solar irradiation. Field experiments carried out in the Antarctic region (King George Island, 62°13'S, 58°47'W) also showed that the generation of tri-iodide via solar photo-oxidation was enhanced when iodide was added to various ice media. The emission of gaseous I2 from the irradiated frozen solution of iodide to the gas phase was detected by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which was observed both in the frozen state at 253 K and after thawing the ice at 298 K. The accelerated (photo-)oxidation of iodide and the subsequent formation of tri-iodide and I2 in ice appear to be related with the freeze concentration of iodide and dissolved O2 trapped in the ice crystal grain boundaries. We propose that an accelerated abiotic transformation of iodide to gaseous I2 in ice media provides a previously unrecognized formation pathway of active iodine species in the polar atmosphere.

  13. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    PubMed

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  15. Dialkylmethyl-2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamidoammonium iodide as a ruthenium selective ligand from nitric acid medium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Ghosh, Sunil K; Sharma, Joti N

    2015-09-15

    A new class of quaternary ammonium iodide based ligands with 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamide as an alkyl appendage have been designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to extract ruthenium selectively from nitric acid medium. The 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamido ammonium iodide with two propyl and a methyl substituents showed best results for the recovery of ruthenium. The optimized concentration of the solvent was found to be 0.2M in 30% isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane. The stoichiometry of the complex was ascertained by slope analysis method and was found to be 1:1 with respect to ligand L(+)I(-) and Ru(NO)(NO3)3. Ruthenium formed an adduct of structure LRu(NO)(NO3)3 I in the extraction medium. Iodide ion played an important role in the formation of the stable and extractable complex of ruthenium. No extraction was observed when iodide was replaced by nitrate anion in the ligand. The ligand also showed good selectivity for ruthenium in the presence of other metal ions commonly found in nitric acid solutions of nuclear waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  17. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  18. Methylation matters

    PubMed Central

    Costello, J.; Plass, C.

    2001-01-01

    DNA methylation is not just for basic scientists any more. There is a growing awareness in the medical field that having the correct pattern of genomic methylation is essential for healthy cells and organs. If methylation patterns are not properly established or maintained, disorders as diverse as mental retardation, immune deficiency, and sporadic or inherited cancers may follow. Through inappropriate silencing of growth regulating genes and simultaneous destabilisation of whole chromosomes, methylation defects help create a chaotic state from which cancer cells evolve. Methylation defects are present in cells before the onset of obvious malignancy and therefore cannot be explained simply as a consequence of a deregulated cancer cell. Researchers are now able to detect with exquisite sensitivity the cells harbouring methylation defects, sometimes months or years before the time when cancer is clinically detectable. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of specific genes has been directly linked with the tumour response to chemotherapy and patient survival. Advances in our ability to observe the methylation status of the entire cancer cell genome have led us to the unmistakable conclusion that methylation abnormalities are far more prevalent than expected. This methylomics approach permits the integration of an ever growing repertoire of methylation defects with the genetic alterations catalogued from tumours over the past two decades. Here we discuss the current knowledge of DNA methylation in normal cells and disease states, and how this relates directly to our current understanding of the mechanisms by which tumours arise.


Keywords: methylation; cancer PMID:11333864

  19. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

  20. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  1. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  2. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  3. Juniper tar poisoning.

    PubMed

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  4. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Four children with colchicine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ataş, Bülent; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, Oğuz; Kirimi, Ercan; Akgün, Cihangir; Odabaş, Dursun

    2004-07-01

    Colchicine poisoning is a rare event. It is characterized by multiorgan involvement and by poor prognosis associated with overdose. In this article we present four children with colchicine poisoning to emphasize that colchicine poisoning has a large spectrum in childhood. The children's ages ranged between 1 year and 3.5 years. The ingested dosage of colchicine was between 0.37 and 1.72 mg/kg. Most of the findings of colchicine poisoning such as gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hypocalcaemia and hair loss were diagnosed in our patients. Two children receiving 0.37 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg colchicine and admitted 13 and 19 hours after poisoning, respectively, died. Our findings suggest that in addition to amounts of the drug, mortality was also related to the duration between drug ingestion and admission to hospital.

  6. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  8. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons".

  9. Fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Anger, F; Paysant, F; Brousse, F; Le Normand, I; Develay, P; Gaillard, Y; Baert, A; Le Gueut, M A; Pepin, G; Anger, J P

    2000-03-01

    A 39-year-old man committed suicide by ingestion of aluminum phosphide, a potent mole pesticide, which was available at the victim's workplace. The judicial authority ordered an autopsy, which ruled out any other cause of death. The victim was discovered 10 days after the ingestion of the pesticide. When aluminum phosphide comes into contact with humidity, it releases large quantities of hydrogen phosphine (PH3), a very toxic gas. Macroscopic examination during the autopsy revealed a very important asphyxia syndrome with major visceral congestion. Blood, urine, liver, kidney, adrenal, and heart samples were analyzed. Phosphine gas was absent in the blood and urine but present in the brain (94 mL/g), the liver (24 mL/g), and the kidneys (41 mL/g). High levels of phosphorus were found in the blood (76.3 mg/L) and liver (8.22 mg/g). Aluminum concentrations were very high in the blood (1.54 mg/L), brain (36 microg/g), and liver (75 microg/g) compared to the usual published values. Microscopic examination revealed congestion of all the organs studied and obvious asphyxia lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma. All these results confirmed a diagnosis of poisoning by aluminum phosphide. This report points out that this type of poisoning is rare and that hydrogen phosphine is very toxic. The phosphorus and aluminum concentrations observed and their distribution in the different viscera are discussed in relation to data in the literature.

  10. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Silver iodide sodalite for 129I immobilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, E. R.; Gregg, D. J.; Grant, C.; Stopic, A.; Maddrell, E. R.

    2016-11-01

    Silver iodide sodalite was initially synthesised as a fine-grained major phase in a nominally stoichiometric composition following hot isostatic pressing at 850 °C with 100 MPa and its composition, Ag4Al3Si3O12I, was approximately verified by scanning electron microscopy. An alternative preparative method yielded a more dense and stoichiometric AgI sodalite on sintering and HIPing. As found for AgI, the I is released from AgI sodalite much more readily in reducing water than in ordinary water. Thus in normal PCT-B tests, the I release was <0.3 g/L in water, but it was ∼70 g/L under highly reducing conditions. This is an important point with regard to can material if HIPing is used for consolidation.

  12. p16 promoter methylation in Pb2+ -exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Kovatsi, Leda; Leda, Kovatsi; Georgiou, Elisavet; Elisavet, Georgiou; Ioannou, Antrea; Antrea, Ioannou; Haitoglou, Costas; Costas, Haitoglou; Tzimagiorgis, George; George, Tzimagiorgis; Tsoukali, Helen; Helen, Tsoukali; Kouidou, Sofia; Sofia, Kouidou

    2010-02-01

    One of the principle symptoms of lead poisoning is the development of neurological disorders. Neuronal response is closely related to DNA methylation changes. Aim. In this study, we estimated p16 methylation in nine individuals exposed to lead using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction followed by analysis of the methylated cytosine content of the product by thermal denaturation. We found that, based on lead blood concentration, lead-exposed individuals were divided into two groups. Among highly exposed individuals (blood Pb(2+) concentration = 51-100 microg/dL), we observed complete CpG methylation, whereas for low Pb(2+) concentrations (blood Pb(2+) concentration = 6-11 microg/dL), we observed partial methylation. Our results show that among lead-overexposed individuals, p16 methylation is frequent and extensive, and suggest that DNA methylation could be involved in the mechanism by which lead induces neurotoxicity.

  13. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals and scintillators implementing the same

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Hull, Giulia E.; Drobshoff, Alexander D.; Burger, Arnold

    2016-11-29

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV, where the strontium iodide material is characterized by a volume not less than 1 cm.sup.3. In another embodiment, a scintillator optic includes europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV, where the europium in the crystal is primarily Eu.sup.2+, and the europium is present in an amount greater than about 1.6%. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, where a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 and 1.0, the scintillator optic is a crystal that provides at least 50,000 scintillation photons per MeV and energy resolution of less than about 5% at 662 keV, and the crystal has a volume of 1 cm.sup.3 or more; the scintillator optic contains more than about 2% europium.

  14. Vapor growth of mercuric iodide tetragonal prismatic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariesanti, Elsa

    The effect of polyethylene addition on the growth of mercuric iodide (HgI2) tetragonal prismatic crystals is examined. Three types of polyethylene powder are utilized: low molecular weight (Mw ˜ 4 x 103), ultra high molecular weight (Mw ˜ 3-6 x 1066), and spectrophotometric grade polyethylenes. Among these types of polyethylene, the low molecular weight polyethylene produces the most significant change in HgI2 morphology, with {110} being the most prominent crystal faces. Thermal desorption - gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy (TD-GC/MS) studies show that thermal desorption of the low molecular weight polyethylene at 100°C and 150°C produce isomers of alkynes, odd nalkanes, and methyl (even-n) alkyl ketones. HgI2 growth runs with n-alkanes, with either neicosane, n-tetracosane, or n-hexatriacontane, cannot replicate the crystal shapes produced during growth with the low molecular weight polyethylene, whereas HgI2 growth runs with ketones, with either 3-hexadecanone or 14-heptacosanone, produce HgI2 tetragonal prismatic crystals, similar to the crystals grown with the low molecular weight polyethylene. C-O double bond contained in any ketone is a polar bond and this polar bond may be attracted to the mercury atoms on the top-most layer of the {110} faces through dipoledipole interaction. As a result, the growth of the {110} faces is impeded, with the crystals elongated in the [001] direction and bounded by the {001} faces along with large, prismatic {110} faces.

  15. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.

  16. Glycemic Status in Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.

  17. Acute Submandibular Swelling Complicating Arteriography With Iodide Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guilian; Li, Yaqi; Zhang, Ru; Guo, Yingying; Ma, Zhulin; Wang, Huqing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Iodide mumps is an uncommon condition induced by iodide-containing contrast. We present the first reported case of iodide mumps in mainland China, which occurred after carotid artery intervention. The patient, a 65-year-old Chinese male, had a history of dizziness, hypertension, diabetes, and right arm weakness. He had no history of allergies and had never previously received iodide-containing contrast. The patient's kidney function and other laboratory findings were normal. He underwent stenting of the left internal carotid artery (LICA) opening and received approximately 250 mL of a nonionic contrast agent (ioversol). Approximately 5 hours after angioplasty, bilateral local swellings were noted near the mandible; the masses were moderately firm and nontender. Iodide mumps was diagnosed in the patient. Intravenous dexamethasone (10 mg) was administered. The submandibular glands had shrunk by 11 hours after angioplasty, and they gradually became softer. The mandibular salivary glands had completely recovered by 5 days after surgery. Iodide mumps represents a rare late reaction to iodine-containing contrast media. This condition can occur in any patient receiving any iodinated contrast agent and may recur upon repeated exposure, but self-resolution can be expected within 2 weeks. All clinicians who use contrast media or iodide should be aware of this condition. PMID:26287428

  18. The distribution of iodide at the sea surface.

    PubMed

    Chance, Rosie; Baker, Alex R; Carpenter, Lucy; Jickells, Tim D

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the impact of sea surface iodide concentrations on the deposition of ozone to the sea surface and the sea to air flux of reactive iodine. The use of models to predict this flux demands accurate, spatially distributed sea surface iodide concentrations, but to date, the observational data required to support this is sparse and mostly arises from independent studies conducted on small geographical and temporal scales. We have compiled the available measurements of sea surface iodide to produce a data set spanning latitudes from 69°S to 66°N, which reveals a coherent, large scale distribution pattern, with highest concentrations observed in tropical waters. Relationships between iodide concentration and more readily available parameters (chlorophyll, nitrate, sea surface temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth) are evaluated as tools to predict iodide concentration. Of the variables tested, sea surface temperature is the strongest predictor of iodide concentration. Nitrate was also strongly inversely associated with iodide concentration, but chlorophyll-a was not.

  19. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  20. Flavonoid Rutin Increases Thyroid Iodide Uptake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lima Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Ginabreda, Maria Gloria; Soares Fortunato, Rodrigo; Pires de Carvalho, Denise; Freitas Ferreira, Andrea Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH), and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function. PMID:24023911

  1. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico Lima; Lima Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico; Santos, Maria Carolina de Souza dos; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Ginabreda, Maria Gloria; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares; Soares Fortunato, Rodrigo; Carvalho, Denise Pires de; Pires de Carvalho, Denise; Freitas Ferreira, Andrea Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH), and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  2. Evaluation of poisoning deaths in the Cukurova Region, Turkey, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Battal, Dilek; Aktas, Ayca; Sungur, Mehmet Ali; Bilgin, Nursel Gamsiz; Cekin, Necmi

    2016-03-01

    Complications of substances detected in poisoning deaths are important in order to observe changes in poisoning patterns and to monitor effects of preventive work. The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics of substances investigated and detected in poisoning deaths by Adana Group Authority of the Council of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Chemistry, Cukurova, Turkey, between 2007 and 2011 retrospectively. A total of 7681 examinations were performed, of which, 7% (n = 564) determined positive for at least one compound investigated. Ages of the cases ranged from 1 to 97 years (mean ± SD: 36.10 ±19.16). Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings were found most frequently with an incidence of 27.0%, followed by prescription medications with 25.0%. Illegal drug poisonings were present in 20.0% of blood and urine samples analyzed. Pesticides, mostly endosulfan, were found in 13.0% of the 564 cases investigated. In the blood samples analyzed, methyl and ethyl alcohol were detected in 14.0% and volatile substances in 1.0%. Overall, this study has managed to contribute substantial additional information regarding the epidemiology of poisoning in Cukurova region, Southern Turkey. The results confirm other epidemiological data that indicate CO as the major cause of poisoning deaths in Turkey.

  3. Antidotal treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Delahaye, Arnaud; Goldgran-Tolédano, Dany; Baud, Frédéric J

    2003-04-01

    Cyanide poisoning may result from different exposures: residential fires, industrial accidents, drug and plant intoxication. Clinical features include coma, respiratory arrest and cardiovascular collapse. The biological hallmark is lactic acidosis. A plasma lactate concentration > or = 10 mmol/L in fire victims without severe burns and > or = 8 mmol/L in pure cyanide poisoned patients is a sensitive and specific indicator of cyanide intoxication. Many antidotes are available and efficient. However, therapeutic strategies are still debated. Our objective was to compare conventional treatments to hydroxocobalamin. This article reviews the literature on cyanide poisoning treatment. Conventional treatment of cyanide poisoning includes decontamination, supportive and specific treatment. Decontamination should be adapted to the route of poisoning and never postpone supportive treatment. Basic life support includes immediate administration of high flow of oxygen, airway protection and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Advanced life support includes mechanical ventilation, catecholamine and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Supportive treatment is efficient but does not modify the time course or the body burden of cyanide. Numerous antidotes are available. Oxygen counteracts efficiently cyanide action at the mitochondrial level. Sodium thiosulfate, methemoglobin forming agents and cobalt compounds act efficiently by complexing or transforming cyanide into non-toxic stable derivatives. However, regarding the main clinical condition of cyanide poisoning, i.e. smoke inhalation, we should take into account not only the efficiency of antidotes but also their safety. Sodium thiosulfate is both efficient and safe, but acts with delay. Methemoglobin-forming agents are potent, but due to the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, they impair tissue delivery of oxygen. Experimental data showed increased mortality in carbon monoxide- and cyanide-poisoned rats treated with these

  4. Piperideine Alkaloids from the Poison Gland of the Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is well known that the major chemical components in the venom of the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are 2-methyl-6-alkyl or alkenyl piperidines. After isolating the extracts of poison glands and whole worker bodies with a column chromatography, we have obtained fractions conta...

  5. [Accidental poisoning and test for it].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

    2008-11-30

    There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems.

  6. The general approach to the poisoned patient.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevonne M; Theobald, Jillian; Lu, Jenny; Erickson, Timothy B

    2014-11-01

    The poisoned patient can present many challenges to the healthcare practitioner. An organized and thoughtful approach to the poisoned patient is necessary. Understanding the nuances of a toxicological history and physical examination can aid in the management of these patients. Supportive care with attention to the body systems at risk from the poisoning is the mainstay of therapy. Consultation with a medical toxicologist or regional poison control center can positively impact diagnosis, management, and disposition of poisoned patients.

  7. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  8. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  9. The Effect on Sodium/Iodide Symporter and Pendrin in Thyroid Colloid Retention Developed by Excess Iodide Intake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yi; Lin, Chu-Hui; Yang, Li-Hua; Li, Wang-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Zheng, Wen-Wei; Wang, Xiang; Qian, Jiang; Huang, Jia-Luan; Lei, Yi-Xiong

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that excess iodide can lead to thyroid colloid retention, a classic characteristic of iodide-induced goiter. However, the mechanism has not been fully unrevealed. Iodide plays an important role in thyroid function at multiple steps of thyroid colloid synthesis and transport among which sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and pendrin are essential. In our study, we fed female BALB/c mice with different concentrations of high-iodine water including group A (control group, 0 μg/L), group B (1500 μg/L), group C (3000 μg/L), group D (6000 μg/L), and group E (12,000 μg/L). After 7 months of feeding, we found that excess iodide could lead to different degrees of thyroid colloid retention. Besides, NIS and pendrin expression were downregulated in the highest dose group. The thyroid iodide intake function detected by urine iodine assay and thyroidal (125)I experiments showed that the urine level of iodine increased, while the iodine intake rate decreased when the concentration of iodide used in feeding water increased (all p < 0.05 vs. control group). In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated a reduction in the number of intracellular mitochondria of thyroid cells. Based on these findings, we concluded that the occurrence of thyroid colloid retention exacerbated by excess iodide was associated with the suppression of NIS and pendrin expression, providing an additional insight of the potential mechanism of action of excess iodide on thyroid gland.

  10. Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

    2013-05-10

    A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing.

  11. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  12. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  13. Piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borron, SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. The treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T F

    2004-03-01

    Cyanide has gained historical notoriety as a poison used with intent to cause fatality. Its occurrence in industry is confined to a small number of uses in a relatively narrow range of industries, including the manufacture of Perspex and nylon and in electroplating. With proper controls in these settings, episodes of poisoning are extremely rare. However, because of the potential for a fatal outcome, procedures for the treatment of acute poisoning are essential. Antidotes include methaemoglobin generators, direct binding agents and sulphur donors, but there is a lack of international consensus about the treatment of choice. This article reviews the mechanisms and treatment of cyanide intoxication and emphasizes the importance of having agreed local procedures for the emergency treatment of poisoning.

  15. Strain IMB-1, a novel bacterium for the removal of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, Hancock T.L.; Costello, A.M.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    A facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, that has been isolated from agricultural soil grows on methyl bromide (MeBr), methyl iodide, methyl chloride, and methylated amines, as well as on glucose, pyruvate, or acetate. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicates that strain IMB-1 classes in the alpha subgroup of the class Proteobacteria and is closely related to members of the genus Rhizobium. The ability of strain IMB-1 to oxidize MeBr to CO2 is constitutive in cells regardless of the growth substrate. Addition of cell suspensions of strain IMB-1 to soils greatly accelerates the oxidation of MeBr, as does pretreatment of soils with low concentrations of methyl iodide. These results suggest that soil treatment strategies can be devised whereby bacteria can effectively consume MeBr during field fumigations, which would diminish or eliminate the outward flux of MeBr to the atmosphere.

  16. National surveillance for radiological exposures and intentional potassium iodide and iodine product ingestions in the United States associated with the 2011 Japan radiological incident.

    PubMed

    Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Martin, Colleen A; Olivares, Dagny E; Thomas, Richard G; Bronstein, Alvin C; Chang, Arthur S

    2013-01-01

    In March of 2011, an earthquake struck Japan causing a tsunami that resulted in a radiological release from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Surveillance for potential radiological and any iodine/iodide product exposures was initiated on the National Poison Data System (NPDS) to target public health messaging needs within the United States (US). Our objectives are to describe self-reported exposures to radiation, potassium iodide (KI) and other iodine/iodide products which occurred during the US federal response and discuss its public health impact. All calls to poison centers associated with the Japan incident were identified from March 11, 2011 to April 18, 2011 in NPDS. Exposure, demographic and health outcome information were collected. Calls about reported radiation exposures and KI or other iodine/iodide product ingestions were then categorized with regard to exposure likelihood based on follow-up information obtained from the PC where each call originated. Reported exposures were subsequently classified as probable exposures (high likelihood of exposure), probable non-exposures (low likelihood of exposure), and suspect exposure (unknown likelihood of exposure). We identified 400 calls to PCs associated with the incident, with 340 information requests (no exposure reported) and 60 reported exposures. The majority (n = 194; 57%) of the information requests mentioned one or more substances. Radiation was inquired about most frequently (n = 88; 45%), followed by KI (n = 86; 44%) and other iodine/iodide products (n = 47; 24%). Of the 60 reported exposures, KI was reported most frequently (n = 25; 42%), followed by radiation (n = 22; 37%) and other iodine/iodide products (n = 13; 22%). Among reported KI exposures, most were classified as probable exposures (n = 24; 96%); one was a probable non-exposure. Among reported other iodine/iodide product exposures, most were probable exposures (n = 10, 77%) and the rest were suspect exposures (n = 3; 23

  17. National surveillance for radiological exposures and intentional potassium iodide and iodine product ingestions in the United States associated with the 2011 Japan radiological incident

    PubMed Central

    LAW, ROYAL K.; SCHIER, JOSH G.; MARTIN, COLLEEN A.; OLIVARES, DAGNY E.; THOMAS, RICHARD G.; BRONSTEIN, ALVIN C.; CHANG, ARTHUR S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In March of 2011, an earthquake struck Japan causing a tsunami that resulted in a radiological release from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Surveillance for potential radiological and any iodine/iodide product exposures was initiated on the National Poison Data System (NPDS) to target public health messaging needs within the United States (US). Our objectives are to describe self-reported exposures to radiation, potassium iodide (KI) and other iodine/iodide products which occurred during the US federal response and discuss its public health impact. Methods All calls to poison centers associated with the Japan incident were identified from March 11, 2011 to April 18, 2011 in NPDS. Exposure, demographic and health outcome information were collected. Calls about reported radiation exposures and KI or other iodine/iodide product ingestions were then categorized with regard to exposure likelihood based on follow-up information obtained from the PC where each call originated. Reported exposures were subsequently classified as probable exposures (high likelihood of exposure), probable non-exposures (low likelihood of exposure), and suspect exposure (unknown likelihood of exposure). Results We identified 400 calls to PCs associated with the incident, with 340 information requests (no exposure reported) and 60 reported exposures. The majority (n = 194; 57%) of the information requests mentioned one or more substances. Radiation was inquired about most frequently (n = 88; 45%), followed by KI (n = 86; 44%) and other iodine/iodide products (n = 47; 24%). Of the 60 reported exposures, KI was reported most frequently (n = 25; 42%), followed by radiation (n = 22; 37%) and other iodine/iodide products (n = 13; 22%). Among reported KI exposures, most were classified as probable exposures (n = 24; 96%); one was a probable non-exposure. Among reported other iodine/iodide product exposures, most were probable exposures (n = 10, 77%) and the rest were

  18. The Strain-Potential Effect of Silver Iodide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SILVER COMPOUNDS, SEEBECK EFFECT ), IODIDES, IMPURITIES, CONCENTRATION(CHEMISTRY), IONS, IONIZATION, IONIZATION POTENTIALS, ELECTRODES, ELECTROLYTES, INTERFACES, MOBILE, DISLOCATIONS, DEFORMATION, CRYSTAL DEFECTS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, SENSITIVITY, STRAIN GAGES, STRAIN(MECHANICS).

  19. PH Dependent Interactions between Aqueous Iodide Ion and Selected Oxidizers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-06

    between the oxidizers oeroxydisultte, peroxide. percarbonate, and perborate ions and aqueous iodide have been measured at pH 1. 4. 7, 9. Reactions were... Perborate and percarbonate are salts with "hydrogen peroxide of crystallization" (see formulae listed in Table i). These salts appear to release this...between hydrogen peroxide and iodide are highly pH dependent. These materials react very slowly, or not at all, at pH 49. 2). Perborate and percarbonate are

  20. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    DOEpatents

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  1. Thyroid iodide efflux: a team effort?

    PubMed

    Fong, Peying

    2011-12-15

    The thyroid hormones thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) play key roles in regulating development, growth and metabolism in pre- and postnatal life. Iodide (I(-)) is an essential component of the thyroid hormones and is accumulated avidly by the thyroid gland. The rarity of elemental iodine and I(-) in the environment challenges the thyroid to orchestrate a remarkable series of transport processes that ultimately ensure sufficient levels for hormone synthesis. In addition to actively extracting circulating I(-), thyroid follicular epithelial cells must also translocate I(-) into a central intrafollicular compartment, where thyroglobulin is iodinated to form the protein precursor to T(4) and T(3). In the last decade, several bodies of evidence render questionable the notion that I(-) exits thyrocytes solely via the Cl(-)/I(-) exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4), therefore necessitating reconsideration of several other candidate I(-) conduits: the Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, CLC-5, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the sodium monocarboxylic acid transporter (SMCT1).

  2. Mercuric iodide photodetectors for scintillation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Markakis, J.; Dabrowski, A.; Iwanczyk, J.; Ortale, C.; Schnepple, W.

    1985-02-01

    We have measured the responses to /sup 137/Cs (662 keV) of both a 1-inch-diam by 2-inch-thick NaI(Tl) scintillator optically coupled to a 1-inch-diam by 800-..mu..mthick mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) photodetector, and a 1-cmdiam by 1-cm-thick CaWO/sub 4/ scintillator coupled to a 1.3-cm-diam by 600-..mu..m-thick HgI/sub 2/ photodetector. Best spectral resolution to /sup 137/Cs was 7.8% FWHM for the NaI(Tl)-HgI/sub 2/ and 12.5% FWHM for the CaWO/sub 4/-HgI/sub 2/ detectors; peak-to-valley ratios were 26:1 and 16:1, respectively. HgI/sub 2/ detectors operate at room temperature and their use in scintillation spectroscopy presents the ultimate miniaturization of scintillation detectors, limited mainly by the size of the scintillation crystal.

  3. Mercuric iodide photodetectors for scintillation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Markakis, J.; Ortale, C.; Schnepple, W.; Iwanczyk, J.; Dabrowski, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the responses to /sup 137/Cs (662 keV) of both a 1-inch-diam by 2-inch-thick NaI(Tl) scintillator optically coupled to a 1-inch-diam by 800-..mu..m-thick mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) photodetector, and a 1-cm-diam by 1-cm-thick CaWO/sub 4/ scintillator coupled to a 1.3-cm-diam by 600-..mu..m-thick HgI/sub 2/ photodetector. Best spectral resolution to /sup 137/Cs was 7.8% FWHM for the NaI(Tl)-HgI/sub 2/ and 12.5% FWHM for the CaWO/sub 4/-HgI/sub 2/ detectors; peak-to-valley ratios were 26:1 and 16:1, respectively. HgI/sub 2/ detectors operate at room temperature and their use in scintillation spectroscopy presents the ultimate miniaturization of scintillation detectors, limited mainly by the size of the scintillation crystal.

  4. Trap states in lead iodide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoxi; Trinh, M Tuan; Niesner, Daniel; Zhu, Haiming; Norman, Zachariah; Owen, Jonathan S; Yaffe, Omer; Kudisch, Bryan J; Zhu, X-Y

    2015-02-11

    Recent discoveries of highly efficient solar cells based on lead iodide perovskites have led to a surge in research activity on understanding photo carrier generation in these materials, but little is known about trap states that may be detrimental to solar cell performance. Here we provide direct evidence for hole traps on the surfaces of three-dimensional (3D) CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films and excitonic traps below the optical gaps in these materials. The excitonic traps possess weak optical transition strengths, can be populated from the relaxation of above gap excitations, and become more significant as dimensionality decreases from 3D CH3NH3PbI3 to two-dimensional (2D) (C4H9NH3I)2(CH3NH3I)(n-1)(PbI2)(n) (n = 1, 2, 3) perovskites and, within the 2D family, as n decreases from 3 to 1. We also show that the density of excitonic traps in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films grown in the presence of chloride is at least one-order of magnitude lower than that grown in the absence of chloride, thus explaining a widely known mystery on the much better solar cell performance of the former. The trap states are likely caused by electron-phonon coupling and are enhanced at surfaces/interfaces where the perovskite crystal structure is most susceptible to deformation.

  5. Iodide transport in rat small intestine: dependence on calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Ilundain, A; Larralde, J; Toval, M

    1987-01-01

    1. The involvement of calcium in the regulation of iodide secretion was investigated in stripped sheets of rat small intestine. 2. In the absence of exogenous modifiers a net iodide absorption was observed in the rat proximal intestine, whereas the mid-intestine secreted iodide. 3. Removal of Ca2+ from the bathing solutions abolished net I- secretion in the mid-intestine. The calcium channel blocker verapamil produced similar effects on net I- secretion. 4. Theophylline increased net I- secretion both in the absence and in the presence of verapamil, but the effects of theophylline were less in the presence of verapamil or in Ca2+-free media. 5. Trifluoperazine inhibited basal iodide secretion and attenuated theophylline-induced I- secretion. 6. All the modifiers which prevented net I- secretion reduced iodide fluxes across the mucosal border and increased serosal iodide exit. The opposite was observed with theophylline. 7. It is suggested that I- secretion might result from changes in both mucosal and serosal I- permeabilities, and that both processes appear to be regulated by calmodulin. PMID:3446797

  6. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carlos F. L.; de Freitas, Mariana L.; Ferreira, Andrea C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer. PMID:28604619

  7. Propidium iodide as an indicator of Giardia cyst viability.

    PubMed Central

    Sauch, J F; Flanigan, D; Galvin, M L; Berman, D; Jakubowski, W

    1991-01-01

    The use of propidium iodide, whose uptake indicates cell death or damage, was investigated to assess the viability of heat-inactivated and chemically inactivated Giardia muris cysts. This was done by comparing propidium iodide staining with excystation. We first determined that propidium iodide could be used with an immunofluorescence detection procedure by showing that the percentages of Giardia lamblia cysts stained with this dye before and after subjecting them to a fluorescence detection method were similar. G. muris cysts were then exposed to heat (56 degrees C), 0.5 to 4 mg of chlorine per liter (pH 7.0, 5 degrees C), 0.1 to 10 mg of a quaternary ammonium compound per liter, or 2 mg of preformed and forming monochloramine per liter (pH 7.2, 18 to 20 degrees C). A good positive correlation between percent propidium iodide-stained cysts and lack of excystation was demonstrated for G. muris cysts exposed either to heat or to the quaternary ammonium compound. However, no significant correlation between absence of excystation and propidium iodide staining was found for cysts exposed to chlorine or monochloramines. These results demonstrate that the propidium iodide staining procedure is not satisfactory for determining the viability of G. muris cysts exposed to these two commonly used drinking water disinfectants. PMID:1723585

  8. Immobilization of iodide on copper(I) sulfide minerals.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Grégory; Bessière, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Walcarius, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In the goal of finding efficient scavengers for radioiodide in conditions (pH, pE) close to those encountered in deep geological sites, sorption of iodide ions on cuprous sulfide minerals (especially roxbyite, Cu(1.75)S) has been studied. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that commercial cuprous sulfides are covered by an oxidized overlayer (mainly in the form of CuSO(4)). Therefore, a synthetic procedure to get roxbyite (typically by mixing Na(2)S with an aqueous suspension of commercial Cu(2)O) was applied to produce pure samples with clean surfaces. Batch equilibration of cuprous sulfide particles suspended in aqueous solutions containing iodide species has revealed significant consumption of iodide. The sorption mechanism involves the formation of a surface complex via the exchange of surface hydroxyl groups by iodide anions, as highlighted by a transient pH increase during the immobilization process. Other copper and mixed copper-iron sulfides (e.g. CuS, CuFeS(2)), which are stable over wide pH and potential ranges are also likely to accumulate iodide species. Because of the specific interaction between iodide and copper(I) centers on the minerals, high distribution coefficients (>1000 ml/g) were observed.

  9. Computational Study of Structural and Electrical Properties of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boinapally, Vamshidhar Rao

    Methyl ammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI 3) plays an important role in light absorption in perovskite solar cells. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the structural and electrical properties of cubic and tetragonal phases of CH3NH3PbI 3. The optimized structure and minimum energy lattice constants of relaxed cubic unit cells were initially computed. The most stable orientation of methylammonium cation was found to be in the [1 1 -1] direction. This directional preference is described by bonding analysis of the atomic cage of PbI3 with the C≡N dimer. The variation of c/a ratio with the distortion angle of PbI6 underlies the understanding of the transition from the cubic to the tetragonal phase. For the equilibrium structures band structures and effective masses were computed. The computed effective masses of both holes and electrons of CH 3NH3PbI3 are comparable to the widely used silicon in commercial inorganic solar cells. These results describe the light absorption nature of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite and its importance in future solar cell technology.

  10. Potassium Iodide ("KI"): Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Preparation and Dosing Instructions for Use During a Nuclear Emergency To Make KI Solution (Liquid Form), using ...

  11. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  12. Engineering and design properties of thallium-doped sodium iodide and selected properties of sodium-doped cesium iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, K.; Haehner, C.; Heslin, T.; Magida, M.; Uber, J.; Freiman, S.; Hicho, G.; Polvani, R.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical and thermal properties, not available in the literature but necessary to structural design, using thallium doped sodium iodide and sodium doped cesium iodide were determined to be coefficient of linear thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, heat capacity, elastic constants, ultimate strengths, creep, hardness, susceptibility to subcritical crack growth, and ingot variation of strength. These properties were measured for single and polycrystalline materials at room temperature.

  13. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  14. Acetylcysteine for Acetaminophen Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Heard, Kennon J.

    2009-01-01

    A 25-year-old man presents to the emergency department with a toothache. During the evaluation, the physician determines that the patient has been taking large doses of over-the-counter acetaminophen along with an acetaminophen–hydrocodone product for the past 5 days. His daily dose of acetaminophen has been 12 g per day (maximum recommended dose, 4 g per day). He has no other medical problems and typically consumes two beers a day. The patient has no symptoms beyond his toothache, is not icteric, and has no hepatomegaly or right-upper-quadrant tenderness. His serum acetaminophen concentration 8 hours after the most recent dose is undetectable. His serum alanine aminotransferase concentration is 75 IU per liter, his serum bilirubin concentration is 1.2 mg per deciliter (20.5 μmol per liter), and his international normalized ratio (INR) is 1.1. The emergency department physician contacts the regional poison-control center, which recommends treatment with acetylcysteine. PMID:18635433

  15. Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

    1965-01-01

    Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice. PMID:5831217

  16. Carbon dioxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Langford, Nigel J

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases.

  17. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  18. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J

    2015-10-19

    Paracetamol directly causes around 150 deaths per year in UK. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute paracetamol poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 127 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 64 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 46 studies and the further review of 18 full publications. Of the 18 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was updated and one RCT was added at this update. In addition, two systematic reviews and three RCTs not meeting our inclusion criteria were added to the Comment sections. We performed a GRADE evaluation for three PICO combinations. In this systematic overview we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of activated charcoal (single or multiple dose), gastric lavage, haemodialysis, liver transplant, methionine, and acetylcysteine.

  19. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite for Carrier Specific Photophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkamp, Max A.; Lin, Ming-Fu; Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Benke, Kristin; Vura-Weis, Josh

    2017-06-01

    Methyl ammonium lead iodide (perovskite) is a leading candidate for next-generation solar cell devices. However, the fundamental photophysics responsible for its strong photovoltaic qualities are not fully understood. Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy was used to investigate relaxation dynamics in perovskite with carrier specific signals arising from transitions from the common inner-shell level (I 4d) to the valence and conduction bands. Ultrashort (30 fs) pulses of XUV radiation in a broad spectrum (40-70 eV) were obtained using high-harmonic generation in a tabletop instrument. Transient absorption measurements with visible pump and XUV probe directly observed the dynamics of charge carriers after above-band and band-edge excitation.

  20. Optical response of mixed methylammonium lead iodide and formamidinium tin iodide perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Kiran; Zhao, Dewei; Yan, Yanfa; Podraza, Nikolas J.

    2017-07-01

    Mixed tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) based perovskite thin films have been prepared by solution processing combining methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) and formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3) precursors. Optical response in the form of complex dielectric function (ɛ = ɛ1 + iɛ2) spectra and absorption coefficient (α) spectra of (FASnI3)1-x(MAPbI3)x based perovskite films have been extracted over a spectral range 0.74 to 5.89 eV using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Absorption band edge energy changes as a function of composition for films including FASnI3, MAPbI3, and mixed x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.6 (FASnI3)1-x(MAPbI3)x perovskites. (FASnI3)0.60(MAPbI3)0.4 is found to have the minimum absorption band edge energy near ˜1.2 eV.

  1. Optical response of mixed methylammonium lead iodide and formamidinium tin iodide perovskite thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Ghimire, Kiran; Zhao, Dewei; Yan, Yanfa; ...

    2017-07-13

    Here, mixed tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) based perovskite thin films have been prepared by solution processing combining methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) and formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3) precursors. Optical response in the form of complex dielectric function (ε = ε1 + iε2) spectra and absorption coefficient (α) spectra of (FASnI3)1-x(MAPbI3)x based perovskite films have been extracted over a spectral range 0.74 to 5.89 eV using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Absorption band edge energy changes as a function of composition for films including FASnI3, MAPbI3, and mixed x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.6 (FASnI3)1-x(MAPbI3)x perovskites. (FASnI3)0.60(MAPbI3)0.4 is found to have the minimummore » absorption band edge energy near ~1.2 eV.« less

  2. Formamidinium iodide: crystal structure and phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Goodilin, Eugene A.; Tarasov, Alexey B.; Dorovatovskii, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    At a temperature of 100 K, CH5N2 +·I− (I), crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c. The formamidinium cation adopts a planar symmetrical structure [the r.m.s. deviation is 0.002 Å, and the C—N bond lengths are 1.301 (7) and 1.309 (8) Å]. The iodide anion does not lie within the cation plane, but deviates from it by 0.643 (10) Å. The cation and anion of I form a tight ionic pair by a strong N—H⋯I hydrogen bond. In the crystal of I, the tight ionic pairs form hydrogen-bonded zigzag-like chains propagating toward [20-1] via strong N—H⋯I hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonded chains are further packed in stacks along [100]. The thermal behaviour of I was studied by different physicochemical methods (thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and powder diffraction). Differential scanning calorimetry revealed three narrow endothermic peaks at 346, 387 and 525 K, and one broad endothermic peak at ∼605 K. The first and second peaks are related to solid–solid phase transitions, while the third and fourth peaks are attributed to the melting and decomposition of I. The enthalpies of the phase transitions at 346 and 387 K are estimated as 2.60 and 2.75 kJ mol−1, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction data collected at different temperatures indicate the existence of I as the monoclinic (100–346 K), ortho­rhom­bic (346–387 K) and cubic (387–525 K) polymorphic modifications. PMID:28435723

  3. [Poisoning with aluminum phospholipide used as a poison against moles].

    PubMed

    Andersen, T S; Holm, J W; Andersen, T S

    1996-09-16

    Aluminium phosphide (AIP) is a poison used in Denmark to combat moles and vermines e.g. in granaries. On contact with water AIP releases phosphine gas, which has a strong cytotoxic action. We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy 83 year old man, caused by ingestion of pellets containing AIP. After ingestion the primary symptoms were burning retrosternal pain, severe vomiting and diarrhoea which progressed to cardiac failure, arrhythmias and severe metabolic acidosis. The patient and his excreta smelled of garlic, ammonium carbide and decaying fish, which is characteristic of this poisoning. In spite of intensive care support the patient died in cardiac and respiratory failure 17 hours after ingestion of the pellets. Treatment is supportive. Knowledge about the toxicity of AIP is described and discussed.

  4. [Accidental poisoning in the home].

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J

    1989-09-25

    During a period of one year, a total of 79 cases of accidental poisoning were registered prospectively in the County Hospital in Aarhus and the City Hospital in Randers. The female/male ratio was 1/1.5. The incidence in children aged 0-14 years of age was 13 per 10,000. In Denmark as a whole, a total of 1,300 cases of accidental poisoning were estimated to occur during a period of one year. Sixty-four (81%) of the accidents occurred in small children aged 0-4 years. Twenty-five patients (32%) were hospitalized. The average duration of hospitalization was 2.4 days (1-4 days) and 84% of the inpatients were aged 0-4 years. The survey revealed that 27 case of accidental poisoning were due to medicine, 20 to organic solvents, eight to chemicals, 22 to poison and two to asphyxiation. It is concluded that the special legal regulations about packing and labelling are not sufficient when storage of the potential poison is not safe enough.

  5. Methyl methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW of METHYL METHACRYLATE ( CAS No . 80 - 62 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) January 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. CG methylation.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Charles; Chatterjee, Raghunath

    2012-12-01

    A striking feature of mammalian genomes is the paucity of the CG dinucleotide. There are approximately 20,000 regions termed CpG islands where CGs cluster. This represents 5% of all CGs and 1% of the genome. CpG islands are typically unmethylated and are often promoters for housekeeping genes. The remaining 95% of CG dinucleotides are disposed throughout 99% of the genome and are typically methylated and found in half of all promoters. CG methylation facilitates binding of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, proteins critical for differentiation of many tissues. This allows these proteins to localize in the methylated CG poor regions of the genome where they may produce advantageous changes in gene expression at nearby or more distant regions of the genome. In this review, our growing understanding of the consequences of CG methylation will be surveyed.

  7. Flash pyrolysis of ethyl, n-propyl, and isopropyl iodides as monitored by supersonic expansion vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kevin H; Lemieux, Jessy M; Zhang, Jingsong

    2009-01-22

    The thermal decomposition of ethyl and propyl iodides, along with select isotopomers, up to 1300 K was performed by flash pyrolysis with a 20-100 mus time scale. The pyrolysis was followed by supersonic expansion to isolate the reactive intermediates and initial products, and detection was accomplished by vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). The products monitored, such as CH(3), CH(3)I, C(2)H(5), C(2)H(4), HI, I, C(3)H(7), C(3)H(6), and I(2), provide for the simultaneous and direct observation of molecular elimination and bond fission pathways in ethyl and propyl iodides. In the pyrolysis of ethyl iodide, both C-I bond fission and HI molecular elimination pathways are competitive at the elevated temperatures, with C-I bond fission being preferred; at temperatures >or=1000 K, the ethyl radical products further dissociate to ethene + H atoms. In the pyrolysis of isopropyl iodide, both HI molecular elimination and C-I bond fission are observed and the molecular elimination channel is more important at all the elevated temperatures; the isopropyl radicals produced in the C-I fission channel undergo further decomposition to propene + H at temperatures >or=850 K. In contrast, bond fission is found to dominate the n-propyl iodide pyrolysis; at temperatures >or=950 K the n-propyl radicals produced decompose into methyl radical + ethene and propene + H atom. Isotopomer experiments characterize the extent of surface reactions and verify that the HI molecular eliminations in ethyl and propyl iodides proceed by a C1, C2 elimination mechanism (the 1,2 intramolecular elimination).

  8. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  10. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  11. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  12. Association between GSTP1 CpG methylation and the early phase of lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunping; Yang, Xiaolin; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Jinlong; Sun, Na

    2014-02-01

    GSTP1 is induced by lead, and thus serves as a biomarker of lead exposure. Lead exposure changes DNA methylation status. We attempted to prove that the methylation of the GSTP1 promoter plays an important role in lead toxicity. We conducted a case-control study of 53 workers from a battery plant and 53 age and sex matched healthy volunteers to determine whether the methylation level of the GSTP1 promoter is associated with the risk of lead poisoning. We employed methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in cell models to determine the relationship between the GSTP1 methylation level and lead exposure. We found no association between GSTP1 methylation and lead exposure. The difference in methylation frequencies between the exposure group and the controls was not statistically significant (p = 0.401), and individuals with the methylated GSTP1 gene was not associated with the risk of lead poisoning (adjusted OR = 1.36, 95% CI, 0.22-8.24). This study suggests that GSTP1 methylation is not involved in the early phase of lead toxicity. Further studies should be performed to detect the association between GSTP1 methylation and the risk of lead poisoning in later phases.

  13. Fatal 'Bhang' poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jani, C B; Shah, P H

    2001-10-01

    A young adult male of about 25 years of age consumed a glass (about 300 ml) of Bhang on the holy occasion of ShivRatri. The deceased died within 24 hours of consuming the Bhang. The deceased had suffered from rheumatic heart disease with multiple valvular involvements. He had also undergone open-heart surgery in the past. Fatality due to Bhang is extremely rare and therefore the case is presented. An attempt is made to review the literature. Bhang is one of the Indian preparations of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa). It is prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant. The bolus is then consumed in various ways. Water is used as a vehicle. In the present case a bolus of about 1 to 2 gm was mixed in a glass of water. ShivRatri is a Hindu festival. On this day prayers are offered to Lord Shiva, who is the god of all evils and poisons. Bhang is a special article, which is offered to Lord Shiva on this auspicious day. Then, the devotees consume it as the God. Gujrat is a dry state (possession, consumption, sale, etc. of alcohol, Bhang, opium and other psychotropic substance, etc. is governed by particular laws), but on the holy occasion of ShivRati, for a day, the law is relaxed for the use of Bhang. In most other parts of the country, particularly, in northern India, it is a common practice to consume various preparations of Indian hemp like Bhang, Charas, Ganja, sweetmeat, etc. The bolus mentioned above is probably the minimum single dose.

  14. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  15. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  16. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  17. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  18. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  19. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  20. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  1. Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    deCastro, F.J.

    1990-04-01

    Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  2. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

    Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

  3. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  4. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  5. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  6. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

  7. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  8. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  9. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  10. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  11. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  12. Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

  13. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  14. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  15. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  16. Neuropsychic Disorders in Trichlorfon Poisoning,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-21

    timidity and obsessive fears. Attention was drawn to the persistence of autonomic disorders in these patients. Complaints of impotence were not...I ADAO~g939 OREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSDN AFS 0DH F/G 6/20 E NUR OPSY(CHIC DISORDERS IN TRICHL ORFON POISONING,(U) IAUG 7 9 V I BAR A 3AS...SHEET DTIC OCT79 70A oc’r 7, ’K FTD-ID (RS)T-1179-79 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION NEUROPSYCHIC DISORDERS IN TRICHLORFON POISONING by 7,- I. Barabash

  17. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  19. [Phosgene poisoning: analysis of cases].

    PubMed

    Solińska-Lewna, Beata; Hermelin, Aleksander

    2010-01-01

    On April 9, 1998, there was a break-down in the Chemical Plant ZACHEM S.A. in Bydgoszcz, which resulted in two cases of lethal phosgene poisoning. Over ten years have passed since that accident. During that period there were new cases of exposure to phosgene, however, all of the victims recovered completely. The aim of this paper was to present stages and symptoms of phosgene poisoning and discuss the undertaken procedures, which led to the recovery of people exposed to toxic effect of phosgene.

  20. [Phosphine poisoning in healthcare workers].

    PubMed

    Arredondo Trujillo, Francisco; Hurtado Pérez, Martha Patricia; Castañeda Borrayo, Yaocihuatl

    2011-01-01

    Phosphine gas constitutes a potential and serious little-known cause of poisoning of professional nature of the medical staff and nursing care of patients who voluntarily swallow phosphides rodenticides purposes suicide. The objective of this paper is to inform to healthcare workers from urgencies, forensic and occupational health services on this occupational hazard. We present the case of a nurse who suffered from poisoning by gas phosphine confirmed through an environmental monitoring of gases in an emergency department carried out by the government service of civil protection of the State of Jalisco.

  1. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies.

  2. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    PubMed

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  3. Treatment of the Poisoned Child

    PubMed Central

    Reid, David H. S.

    1970-01-01

    Syrup of ipecac has measurable advantages over gastric lavage in evacuating the stomach of children with accidental poisoning, in terms of safety, effectiveness, and rapidity of action. The average period for action with ipecac is likely to be about 17 minutes, or 82 minutes, depending on whether the child is treated at home or in hospital. In contrast, the mean delay to completion of gastric lavage is estimated at 126 minutes, and this procedure has little place in the treatment of the child with poisoning. PMID:4393311

  4. Parathion Poisoning from Flannelette Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L. S.; Warner, D. L.; Parker, J. E.; Bluman, N.; Page, B. D.

    1965-01-01

    Two small boys were admitted to the Lions Gate Hospital in coma and acute respiratory distress. They improved and the first boy was sent home; after two nights he was back in hospital in a worsened state. Poisoning with organic phosphate was suspected, and after investigation some flannelette sheets were taken from his home for testing. They proved to have been contaminated with parathion (“nerve gas”) in the hold of a ship sailing from Antwerp to Vancouver; the parathion had been offloaded in California. The remainder of the sheets were traced. The symptomatology and treatment of organic phosphate ester poisoning and the chemical testing of parathion are discussed. PMID:14272498

  5. [Analysis of characteristics of acute poisoning caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Hu, De-hong; Zhang, Zhen-ming; Liu, Qing-hua; Jiang, Dong-fang

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China. A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities, as well as 531 types of poisons involved. The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings, frequency of poisoning, and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios. Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types). Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n = 2547) and chemicals (n = 1064). Pesticides, poisons of plant origins, and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%, 79.10%, and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings. Chemicals, drugs, and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%, 61.74%, and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings. The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons, accounting for 85.24%, 88.57%, 55.16%, 70.79%, 68.36%, and 66.44%of cases of respective categories. Most cases of poisonings by chemicals, poisons of animal origin, and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%, 72.66%, and 46.71%of the poison categories). Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suicide-related (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories). Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category). Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents, accidental ingestion, and suicide. There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.

  6. Oral hyposensitization to poison ivy and poison oak.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G; Trautlein, J J; Epstein, W L; Laws, D M; Sicard, G R

    1987-04-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a 1:1 mixture of pentadecylcatechol (PDC) and heptadecylcatechol (HDC) diacetate in reducing hypersensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak. The study was double-blind, parallel, randomized, and placebo controlled. The 44 subjects receiving the active drug ingested a cumulative dose of 306.5 mg over a five-week period. Subsequently, 14 patients were continued on a maintenance phase, ingesting an additional 960 mg of drug. The PDC-HDC diacetate was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Evaluation of efficacy compared poststudy and prestudy reactions to patch tests using urushiol in doses of 0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 micrograms applied to the forearm. The results indicated that the induction phase as well as the maintenance phase did not induce a statistically significant hyposensitivity to urushiol, and we were thus unable to decrease sensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak in humans using orally ingested PDC-HDC diacetate.

  7. Standard free energy of formation of iron iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandkar, A.; Tare, V. B.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is reported where silver iodide is used to determine the standard free energy of formation of iron iodide. By using silver iodide as a solid electrolyte, a galvanic cell, Ag/AgI/Fe-FeI2, is formulated. The standard free energy of formation of AgI is known, and hence it is possible to estimate the standard free energy of formation of FeI2 by measuring the open-circuit emf of the above cell as a function of temperature. The free standard energy of formation of FeI2 determined by this method is -38784 + 24.165T cal/mol. It is estimated that the maximum error associated with this method is plus or minus 2500 cal/mol.

  8. Thyroid effects of iodine and iodide in potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Richard J.; Thrall, Karla D.; Sherer, Todd T.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments are reviewed which examine the comparative toxicological effects of iodide (I) and iodine (I2) when used to disinfect drinking water. References are made to a subchronic study in rats, a comparison of the distribution of radiolabeled I and I2, and a demonstration of thyroxine formation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results of the study of the rats are examined in detail; the findings show that I and I2 have opposite effects on the concentrations of thyroid hormones in blood. Iodide slightly decreases circulating thyroxine, while I2 significantly increases the thyroxine concentrations, decreases triiodothyronine levels, and does not change the weight of the thyroid gland. The related effects of I2 ingestion are set forth in detail and are shown to be unique to I2 contamination. Iodine can counteract the effects of iodide and should therefore be used as a disinfectant in drinking water.

  9. Removal of iodide ion from simulated radioactive liquid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, H.

    1999-01-01

    The previous study reported that BiPbO2(NO3) is one of the most promising candidate materials for removing and immobilizing radioactive iodide. In that case, the solution contained only dissolved NaI and did not contain competing anions. This paper reports the reactivity of BiPbO2(NO3) with iodide ions in simulated radioactive liquid waste. This liquid contains many components, especially highly concentrated NaNO2, Na2CO3 and NaNO3. The obtained results show that BiPbO2(NO3) is useful for removing iodide ion from the simulated radioactive liquid waste but that there is a problem which should be resolved in the future. The problem is that a competing anion, HCO3 -, interferes with the exchange reaction, and only the surfaces of the BiPbO2(NO3) crystals are used for the reaction.

  10. Standard free energy of formation of iron iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandkar, A.; Tare, V. B.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is reported where silver iodide is used to determine the standard free energy of formation of iron iodide. By using silver iodide as a solid electrolyte, a galvanic cell, Ag/AgI/Fe-FeI2, is formulated. The standard free energy of formation of AgI is known, and hence it is possible to estimate the standard free energy of formation of FeI2 by measuring the open-circuit emf of the above cell as a function of temperature. The free standard energy of formation of FeI2 determined by this method is -38784 + 24.165T cal/mol. It is estimated that the maximum error associated with this method is plus or minus 2500 cal/mol.

  11. The BaBar cesium iodide electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.

    1994-12-01

    The BABAR Cesium Iodide Electromagnetic Calorimeter is currently in the technical design stage. The calorimeter consists of approximately 10,000 individual thallium-doped cesium iodide crystals arranged in a near-hermetic barrel and endcap structure. Taking previous cesium iodide calorimeters as a benchmark, we hope to build a system with roughly two times better energy resolution. This will be achieved by a combination of high quality crystal growing, precision mechanical processing of crystals and support structure, highly efficient light collection and low noise readout electronics. The calorimeter described here represents the current state of the design and we are undertaking an active period of optimization before this design is finalized. We discuss here the physics motivation, the current design and options for optimization.

  12. Thyroid effects of iodine and iodide in potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Richard J.; Thrall, Karla D.; Sherer, Todd T.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments are reviewed which examine the comparative toxicological effects of iodide (I) and iodine (I2) when used to disinfect drinking water. References are made to a subchronic study in rats, a comparison of the distribution of radiolabeled I and I2, and a demonstration of thyroxine formation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results of the study of the rats are examined in detail; the findings show that I and I2 have opposite effects on the concentrations of thyroid hormones in blood. Iodide slightly decreases circulating thyroxine, while I2 significantly increases the thyroxine concentrations, decreases triiodothyronine levels, and does not change the weight of the thyroid gland. The related effects of I2 ingestion are set forth in detail and are shown to be unique to I2 contamination. Iodine can counteract the effects of iodide and should therefore be used as a disinfectant in drinking water.

  13. Introduction of extrinsic defects into mercuric iodide during processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C.; Bao, X.J.; Schlesinger, T.E. ); James, R.B. ); Cheng, A.Y.; Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L. )

    1993-05-01

    Low temperature (4.2 K) photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) measurements were performed on mercuric iodide (HgI[sub 2]) crystals which were intentionally doped with copper or silver during KI etching. PL spectra obtained after these doping experiments show specific Cu and Ag features similar to those previously observed after deposition of Cu or Ag contacts on mercuric iodide crystals. The in-diffusion of Cu or Ag into bulk HgI[sub 2] has also been confirmed a few days after doping. This diffusion introduces new recombination centers in the material. This work suggests that the processing steps used to fabricate mercuric iodide nuclear detectors can lead to the introduction of new defects which are detrimental to detector performance.

  14. Neurological manifestation of methyl bromide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Suwanlaong, Kanokrat; Phanthumchinda, Kammant

    2008-03-01

    Methyl bromide is a highly toxic gas with poor olfactory warning properties. It is widely used as insecticidal fumigant for dry foodstuffs and can be toxic to central and peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological manifestations of methyl bromide intoxication occur from inhalation. Acute toxicity characterized by headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances. Tremor, convulsion, unconsciousness and permanent brain damage may occur in severe poisoning. Chronic exposure can cause neuropathy, pyramidal and cerebellar dysfunction, as well as neuropsychiatric disturbances. The first case of methyl bromide intoxication in Thailand has been described. The patient was a 24-year-old man who worked in a warehouse of imported vegetables fumigated with methyl bromide. He presented with unstable gait, vertigo and paresthesia of both feet, for two weeks. He had a history of chronic exposure to methyl bromide for three years. His fourteen co-workers also developed the same symptoms but less in severity. Neurological examination revealed ataxic gait, decreased pain and vibratory sense on both feet, impaired cerebellar signs and hyperactive reflex in all extremities. The serum concentration of methyl bromide was 8.18 mg/dl. Electrophysilogical study was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) revealed bilateral symmetrical lesion of abnormal hypersignal intensity on T2 and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at bilateral dentate nuclei of cerebellum and periventricular area of the fourth ventricle. This incident stresses the need for improvement of worker education and safety precautions during all stages of methyl bromide fumigation.

  15. DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marinus, M.G.; Løbner-Olesen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication errors, controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication at oriC, and regulation of transcription initiation at promoters containing GATC sequences. In contrast, there is no known function for Dcm methylation although Dcm recognition sites constitute sequence motifs for Very Short Patch repair of T/G base mismatches. In certain bacteria (e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Caulobacter crescentus) adenine methylation is essential and in C. crescentus, it is important for temporal gene expression which, in turn, is required for coordinating chromosome initiation, replication and division. In practical terms, Dam and Dcm methylation can inhibit restriction enzyme cleavage; decrease transformation frequency in certain bacteria; decrease the stability of short direct repeats; are necessary for site-directed mutagenesis; and to probe eukaryotic structure and function. PMID:26442938

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial polyurethane coatings made from soybean oil functionalized with dimethylphenylammonium iodide and hydroxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Hadi; Yeganeh, Hamid; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram

    2013-06-01

    Preparation of antibacterial polyurethane coatings from novel functional soybean oil was considered in this work. First, epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) as a low price and widely available renewable resource raw material was subjected to the reaction with aniline using an ionic liquid as a green catalyst. The intermediate phenylamine containing polyol (SAP) was then methylated by reaction with methyl iodide to produce a polyol (QAP) with pendant dimethylphenylammonium iodide groups. To regulate the physical and mechanical properties as well as biological characteristics of final coatings, QAP was mixed with different portions of a similar soybean oil-based polyol (MSP) without quaternary ammonium groups. The mixtures were reacted with isophorone diisocyanate to produce crosslinked polyurethane coatings. Evaluation of viscoelastic properties by DMA method revealed single phase structure with Tg in the range of 50-82°C. Stress-strain analysis of the prepared polyurethanes showed initial modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break in the ranges of 13-299 MPa, 4.5-13.8 MPa, and 16-109%, respectively. Additionally, the coatings showed good adherence to aluminum and PVC substrates. The solvent extracted samples showed excellent biocompatibility as determined by monitoring L929 fibroblast cells morphology and MTT assay. Meanwhile, very promising antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria with bacterial reduction in the range of 83-100% was observed.

  17. Clinical approach and management of food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Syam, Ari Fahrial

    2006-01-01

    Food poisoning may occur in a group of people or a single person. The symptoms caused by food poisoning are varied from mild to severe or even fatal one such as death. Immunocompromised patients and others such as elderly and children are susceptible for food poisoning. Re-hydration is the main key in the management of food poisoning. Empirical therapy using antibiotics may be considered in high risk patients such as elderly, immunocompromised, diabetes, liver cirrhosis or intestinal hypomotility. Prevention is an important measure in management of food poisoning by keeping the food from contamination, always fresh and maintaining good hygiene.

  18. Iodide-mediated photooxidation of arsenite under 254 nm irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jiman; Choi, Wonyong

    2009-05-15

    The preoxidation of As(III) to As(V) is a desirable process to increase the removal efficiency of arsenic in water treatment In this work, the photooxidation of As(III) under 254 nm irradiation was investigated in the concentration range of 1-1000 microM in the presence of potassium iodide (typically 100 microM). Although the direct photooxidation of As(III) in water was negligible, the presence of iodide dramatically enhanced the oxidation rate. The quantitative conversion of As(III) to As(V) was achieved. The quantum yields of As(III) photooxidation ranged from 0.08 to 0.6, depending on the concentration of iodide and As(III). The excitation of iodides under 254 nm irradiation led to the generation of iodine atoms and triiodides, which seem to be involved in the oxidation process of As(III). Because the efficiency of iodine atom generation is highly dependent on the presence of suitable electron acceptors,the photooxidation of As(III) was efficient in an air- or N2O-saturated solution but markedly reduced in the N2-saturated solution. The production of H2O2 was also accompanied by the generation of As(V). The addition of excess methanol (OH radical scavenger) did not reduce the photooxidation rate at all, which ruled out the possibility of hydroxyl radical involvement. It was found that the in situ photogenerated triiodides oxidize As(III) with regenerating iodides by completing a cycle. The proposed UV254/KI/As(III) process is essentially an iodide-mediated photocatalysis.

  19. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: On-farm trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three fumigant alternatives, methyl iodide plus chloropicirn (MIDAS), dimethyl disulfide plus chloropicrin (DMDS), and Telone II plus chloropicrin plus Vapam (3-Way) have exhibited promising results in small plot trials for the control of pests (weeds, pathogens, nematodes) in plasticulture producti...

  20. Enhanced Olefin Cross Metathesis Reactions: The Copper Iodide Effect

    PubMed Central

    Voigtritter, Karl; Ghorai, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Copper iodide has been shown to be an effective co-catalyst for the olefin cross metathesis reaction. In particular, it has both a catalyst stabilizing effect due to iodide ion, as well as copper(I)-based phosphine-scavenging properties that apply to use of the Grubbs-2 catalyst. A variety of Michael acceptors and olefinic partners can be cross-coupled under mild conditions in refluxing diethyl ether that avoid chlorinated solvents. This effect has also been applied to chemistry in water at room temperature using the new surfactant TPGS-750-M. PMID:21528868