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Sample records for methylated arsenical-induced phosphatidylserine

  1. Trivalent methylated arsenical-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and apoptosis in platelets may lead to increased thrombus formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2009-09-01

    Trivalent methylated metabolites of arsenic, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), have been found highly reactive and toxic in various cells and in vivo animal models, suggesting their roles in the arsenic-associated toxicity. However, their effects on cardiovascular system including blood cells, one of the most important targets for arsenic toxicity, remain poorly understood. Here we found that MMA{sup III} and DMA{sup III} could induce procoagulant activity and apoptosis in platelets, which play key roles in the development of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through excessive thrombus formation. In freshly isolated human platelets, treatment of MMA{sup III} resulted in phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, a hallmark of procoagulant activation, accompanied by distinctive apoptotic features including mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. These procoagulant activation and apoptotic features were found to be mediated by the depletion of protein thiol and intracellular ATP, and flippase inhibition by MMA{sup III}, while the intracellular calcium increase or reactive oxygen species generation was not involved. Importantly, increased platelet procoagulant activity by MMA{sup III} resulted in enhanced blood coagulation and excessive thrombus formation in a rat in vivo venous thrombosis model. DMA{sup III} also induced PS-exposure with apoptotic features mediated by protein thiol depletion, which resulted in enhanced thrombin generation. In summary, we believe that this study provides an important evidence for the role of trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites in arsenic-associated CVDs, giving a novel insight into the role of platelet apoptosis in toxicant-induced cardiovascular toxicity.

  2. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation changes with development of arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladesh: a case-control follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Kile, Molly L.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Pan, Wen-Chi; Byun, Hyang-Min; Mostofa, Golam; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have found an association between aberrant DNA methylation and arsenic-induced skin lesions. Yet, little is known about DNA methylation changes over time in people who develop arsenic-induced skin lesions. We sought to investigate epigenome-wide changes of DNA methylation in people who developed arsenic-induced skin lesions in a ten year period. In 2009–2011, we conducted a follow-up study of 900 skin lesion cases and 900 controls and identified 10 people who developed skin lesions since a baseline survey in 2001–2003. The 10 cases (“New Cases”) were matched with 10 controls who did not have skin lesions at baseline or follow-up (“Persistent Controls”). Drinking water and blood samples were collected and skin lesion was diagnosed by the same physician at both time points. We measured DNA methylation in blood using Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip, followed by quantitative validation using pyrosequencing. Two-sample t-tests were used to compare changes in percent methylation between New Cases and Persistent Controls. Six CpG sites with greatest changes of DNA methylation over time among New Cases were further validated with a correlation of 93% using pyrosequencing. One of the validated CpG site (cg03333116; change of %methylation was 13.2 in New Cases versus −0.09 in Persistent Controls; P <0.001) belonged to the RHBDF1 gene, which was previously reported to be hypermethylated in arsenic-exposed cases. We examined DNA methylation changes with the development of arsenic-induced skin lesions over time but nothing was statistically significant given the small sample size of this exploratory study and the high dimensionality of data. PMID:24677489

  3. Curcumin attenuates arsenic-induced hepatic injuries and oxidative stress in experimental mice through activation of Nrf2 pathway, promotion of arsenic methylation and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xin; Dong, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Li, Xin; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound with impressive antioxidant properties. What's more, curcumin is recently proved to exert its chemopreventive effects partly through the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2 related) factor 2 (Nrf2) and its antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. In vivo, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that arsenic-induced elevation of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, augmentation of hepatic malonaldehyde (MDA), as well as the reduction of blood and hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, were all consistently relieved by curcumin. We also observed the involvement of curcumin in promoting arsenic methylation and urinary elimination in vivo. Furthermore, both the hepatic Nrf2 protein and two typically recognized Nrf2 downstream genes, NADP(H) quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were consistently up-regulated in curcumin-treated mice. Our study confirmed the antagonistic roles of curcumin to counteract inorganic arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in vivo, and suggested that the potent Nrf2 activation capability might be valuable for the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic intoxication. This provides a potential useful chemopreventive dietary component for human populations. PMID:23871787

  4. Curcumin attenuates arsenic-induced hepatic injuries and oxidative stress in experimental mice through activation of Nrf2 pathway, promotion of arsenic methylation and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xin; Dong, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Li, Xin; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound with impressive antioxidant properties. What's more, curcumin is recently proved to exert its chemopreventive effects partly through the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2 related) factor 2 (Nrf2) and its antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. In vivo, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that arsenic-induced elevation of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, augmentation of hepatic malonaldehyde (MDA), as well as the reduction of blood and hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, were all consistently relieved by curcumin. We also observed the involvement of curcumin in promoting arsenic methylation and urinary elimination in vivo. Furthermore, both the hepatic Nrf2 protein and two typically recognized Nrf2 downstream genes, NADP(H) quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were consistently up-regulated in curcumin-treated mice. Our study confirmed the antagonistic roles of curcumin to counteract inorganic arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in vivo, and suggested that the potent Nrf2 activation capability might be valuable for the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic intoxication. This provides a potential useful chemopreventive dietary component for human populations.

  5. Tert-butylhydroquinone as a phenolic activator of Nrf2 antagonizes arsenic-induced oxidative cytotoxicity but promotes arsenic methylation and detoxication in human hepatocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxu; Liu, Dan; Xing, Xiaoyue; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Nie, Huifang; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Oxidative stress plays crucial roles in exerting a variety of damages upon arsenic exposure. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcriptional regulator protecting cells and tissues from oxidative injuries. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a well-known synthetic Nrf2 inducer, could protect human hepatocytes against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that 5 and 25 μmol/l tBHQ pretreatment suppressed the arsenic-induced hepatocellular cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, and hepatic lipid peroxidation, while relieved the arsenic-induced disturbances of intracellular glutathione balance. In addition, we also observed that tBHQ treatment promoted the arsenic biomethylation process and upregulated Nrf2-regulated downstream heme oxygenase-1 and NADPH: quinine oxidoreductase 1 mRNA expressions. Collectively, we suspected that Nrf2 signaling pathway may be involved in the protective effects of tBHQ against arsenic invasion in hepatocytes. These data suggest that phenolic Nrf2 inducers, such as tBHQ, represent novel therapeutic or dietary candidates for the population at high risk of arsenic poisoning. PMID:24970285

  6. Tert-butylhydroquinone as a phenolic activator of Nrf2 antagonizes arsenic-induced oxidative cytotoxicity but promotes arsenic methylation and detoxication in human hepatocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxu; Liu, Dan; Xing, Xiaoyue; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Nie, Huifang; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Oxidative stress plays crucial roles in exerting a variety of damages upon arsenic exposure. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcriptional regulator protecting cells and tissues from oxidative injuries. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a well-known synthetic Nrf2 inducer, could protect human hepatocytes against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that 5 and 25 μmol/l tBHQ pretreatment suppressed the arsenic-induced hepatocellular cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, and hepatic lipid peroxidation, while relieved the arsenic-induced disturbances of intracellular glutathione balance. In addition, we also observed that tBHQ treatment promoted the arsenic biomethylation process and upregulated Nrf2-regulated downstream heme oxygenase-1 and NADPH: quinine oxidoreductase 1 mRNA expressions. Collectively, we suspected that Nrf2 signaling pathway may be involved in the protective effects of tBHQ against arsenic invasion in hepatocytes. These data suggest that phenolic Nrf2 inducers, such as tBHQ, represent novel therapeutic or dietary candidates for the population at high risk of arsenic poisoning.

  7. Epimutagenesis: A prospective mechanism to remediate arsenic-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Somnath; Giri, Ashok K

    2015-08-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global issue, addressed by the World Health Organization as one of the major natural calamities faced by humans. More than 137 million individuals in 70 nations are affected by arsenic mainly through drinking water and also through diet. Chronic arsenic exposure leads to various types of patho-physiological end points in humans including cancers. Arsenic, a xenobiotic substance, is biotransformed in the body to its methylated species by using the physiological S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). SAM dictates methylation status of the genome and arsenic metabolism leads to depletion of SAM leading to an epigenetic disequilibrium. Since epigenetics is one of the major phenomenon at the interface between the environment and human health impact, its disequilibrium by arsenic inflicts upon the chromatin compaction, gene expression, genomic stability and a host of biomolecular interactions, the interactome within the cell. Since arsenic is not mutagenic but is carcinogenic in nature, arsenic induced epimutagenesis has come to the forefront since it determines the transcriptional and genomic integrity of the cell. Arsenic toxicity brings forth several pathophysiological manifestations like dermatological non-cancerous, pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, peripheral neuropathy, DNA damage, respiratory disorders and cancers of several internal organs. Recently, several diseases of similar manifestations have been explained with the relevant epigenetic perspectives regarding the possible molecular mechanism for their onset. Hence, in the current review, we comprehensively try to intercalate the information on arsenic-induced epigenetic alterations of DNA, histones and microRNA so as to understand whether the arsenic-induced toxic manifestations are brought about by the epigenetic changes. We highlight the need to understand the aspect of epimutagenesis and subsequent alterations in the cellular interactome due to arsenic-induced molecular changes, which may

  8. Epimutagenesis: A prospective mechanism to remediate arsenic-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Somnath; Giri, Ashok K

    2015-08-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global issue, addressed by the World Health Organization as one of the major natural calamities faced by humans. More than 137 million individuals in 70 nations are affected by arsenic mainly through drinking water and also through diet. Chronic arsenic exposure leads to various types of patho-physiological end points in humans including cancers. Arsenic, a xenobiotic substance, is biotransformed in the body to its methylated species by using the physiological S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). SAM dictates methylation status of the genome and arsenic metabolism leads to depletion of SAM leading to an epigenetic disequilibrium. Since epigenetics is one of the major phenomenon at the interface between the environment and human health impact, its disequilibrium by arsenic inflicts upon the chromatin compaction, gene expression, genomic stability and a host of biomolecular interactions, the interactome within the cell. Since arsenic is not mutagenic but is carcinogenic in nature, arsenic induced epimutagenesis has come to the forefront since it determines the transcriptional and genomic integrity of the cell. Arsenic toxicity brings forth several pathophysiological manifestations like dermatological non-cancerous, pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, peripheral neuropathy, DNA damage, respiratory disorders and cancers of several internal organs. Recently, several diseases of similar manifestations have been explained with the relevant epigenetic perspectives regarding the possible molecular mechanism for their onset. Hence, in the current review, we comprehensively try to intercalate the information on arsenic-induced epigenetic alterations of DNA, histones and microRNA so as to understand whether the arsenic-induced toxic manifestations are brought about by the epigenetic changes. We highlight the need to understand the aspect of epimutagenesis and subsequent alterations in the cellular interactome due to arsenic-induced molecular changes, which may

  9. Arsenic-induced keratoses and Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Watson, K; Creamer, D

    2004-01-01

    We report a patient with arsenic-induced keratoses and Bowen's disease. Chronic arsenicism may lead to both cutaneous and systemic neoplasms and patients should undergo regular long-term examination. Our patient had widespread cutaneous disease, which responded well to acitretin.

  10. Natural Antioxidants Against Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Munesh; Lalit, Minakshi; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic is present in water, soil, and air in organic as well as in inorganic forms. However, inorganic arsenic is more toxic than organic and can cause many diseases including cancers in humans. Its genotoxic effect is considered as one of its carcinogenic actions. Arsenic can cause DNA strand breaks, deletion mutations, micronuclei formation, DNA-protein cross-linking, sister chromatid exchange, and DNA repair inhibition. Evidences indicate that arsenic causes DNA damage by generation of reactive free radicals. Nutritional supplementation of antioxidants has been proven highly beneficial against arsenic genotoxicity in experimental animals. Recent studies suggest that antioxidants protect mainly by reducing excess free radicals via restoring the activities of cellular enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants and decreasing the oxidation processes such as lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature on arsenic-induced genotoxicity and its mitigation by naturally derived antioxidants in various biological systems.

  11. The potential biological mechanisms of arsenic-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2004-06-01

    Although epidemiologic studies carried out in Taiwan, Bangladesh, and Sweden have demonstrated a diabetogenic effect of arsenic, the mechanisms remain unclear and require further investigation. This paper reviewed the potential biological mechanisms of arsenic-induced diabetes mellitus based on the current knowledge of the biochemical properties of arsenic. Arsenate can substitute phosphate in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other phosphate intermediates involved in glucose metabolism, which could theoretically slow down the normal metabolism of glucose, interrupt the production of energy, and interfere with the ATP-dependent insulin secretion. However, the concentration of arsenate required for such reaction is high and not physiologically relevant, and these effects may only happen in acute intoxication and may not be effective in subjects chronically exposed to low-dose arsenic. On the other hand, arsenite has high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and thus can form covalent bonds with the disulfide bridges in the molecules of insulin, insulin receptors, glucose transporters (GLUTs), and enzymes involved in glucose metabolism (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase). As a result, the normal functions of these molecules can be hampered. However, a direct effect on these molecules caused by arsenite at physiologically relevant concentrations seems unlikely. Recent evidence has shown that treatment of arsenite at lower and physiologically relevant concentrations can stimulate glucose transport, in contrary to an inhibitory effect exerted by phenylarsine oxide (PAO) or by higher doses of arsenite. Induction of oxidative stress and interferences in signal transduction or gene expression by arsenic or by its methylated metabolites are the most possible causes to arsenic-induced diabetes mellitus through mechanisms of induction of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that, in subjects with

  12. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.

    Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  13. Arsenic-induced Histological Alterations in Various Organs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Abu Shadat Mohammod; Dilruba, Sayada; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Rahman, Lutfur; Khatun, Zohora; Riad, Wahiduzzaman; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Srikanta; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Rahman, Zillur; Hossain, Khaled; Haque, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of arsenic in mice through groundwater is well documented but little is known about the histological changes of organs by the metalloid. Present study was designed to evaluate arsenic-induced histological alterations in kidney, liver, thoracic artery and brain of mice which are not well documented yet. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 2 groups and treated as follows: Group 1: control, 2: arsenic (sodium arsenite at 10 mg/kg b.w. orally for 8 wks). Group 2 showed marked degenerative changes in kidney, liver, thoracic artery, and brain whereas Group 1 did not reveal any abnormalities on histopathology. We therefore concluded that arsenic induces histological alterations in the tested organs. PMID:26740907

  14. Arsenic-induced Aurora-A activation contributes to chromosome instability and tumorigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Han; Tseng, Ya-Shih; Yang, Chao-Chun; Kao, Yu-Ting; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic may cause serious environmental pollution and is a serious industrial problem. Depending on the dosage, arsenic may trigger the cells undergoing either proliferation or apoptosis-related cell death. Because of lack of the proper animal model to study arsenic induced tumorigenesis, the accurate risk level of arsenic exposure has not been determined. Arsenic shows genotoxic effect on human beings who uptake water contaminated by arsenic. Chromosome aberration is frequently detected in arsenic exposure-related diseases and is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased DNA repairing activity, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase, over-expression of Aurora-A leads to centrosome amplification, chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We revealed that Aurora-A is over-expressed in the skin and bladder cancer patients from blackfoot-disease endemic areas. Our cell line studies reveal that arsenic exposure between 0.5 μM and 1 μM for 2-7 days are able to induce Aurora-A expression and activation based on promoter activity, RNA and protein analysis. Aurora-A overexpression further increases the frequency of unsymmetrical chromosome segregation through centrosome amplification followed by cell population accumulated at S phase in immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) and uroepithelial cells (E7). Furthermore, Aurora-A over-expression was sustained for 1-4 weeks by chronic treatment of immortalized bladder and skin cells with NaAsO2. Aurora-A promoter methylation and gene amplification was not detected in the long-term arsenic treated E7 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of E2F1 transcription factor (E2F1) is increased in the presence of arsenic, and arsenic-related Aurora-A over-expression is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1. We further demonstrated that overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ha-ras or Aurora-A and mutant p53 may act additively to trigger arsenic-related bladder and skin cancer

  15. [An overview on biomarkers of arsenic-induced health hazardsan].

    PubMed

    An, Yan; Yin, Lijuan; Wang, Sanxiang; Wang, Zhenghui; et al

    2008-03-01

    A series of molecular environmental epidemiological studies have been carried out to elucidate biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility for arsenic-related health hazards in Taiwan area in China. Arsenic levels in urine, hair, and nail could be biomarkers for short-term internal dose, skin hyperpigmentation and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis could be biomarkers for long-term (many years) internal dose, and percentage of monomethylarsonic acid in total metabolites of inorganic arsenic in urine could be considered as an exposure marker for biologically effective dose. The biomarkers of early biological effects of ingested inorganic arsenic could include blood levels of reactive oxidants and antioxidant capacity, genetic expression of inflammatory molecules, as well as cytogenetic changes including sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei, and chromosome aberrations of peripheral lymphocytes. Biomarkers of susceptibility to arsenic-induced health hazards could include genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, and oxidative stress, as well as serum level of carotenoids. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions could be involved in arsenic-induced health hazards through toxicological mechanisms including genomic instability and oxidative stress.

  16. Protection of arsenic-induced hepatic disorder by arjunolic acid.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2007-11-01

    Arsenic is one of the ubiquitous environmental pollutants, which affects nearly all organ systems. The present study has been carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective role of arjunolic acid, a triterpenoid saponin, against arsenic-induced oxidative damages in murine livers. Administration of sodium arsenite at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days significantly reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase as well as depleted the level of reduced glutathione and total thiols. In addition, sodium arsenite also increased the activities of serum marker enzymes, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, enhanced DNA fragmentation, protein carbonyl content, lipid peroxidation end-products and the level of oxidized glutathione. Studies with arjunolic acid show that in vitro it possesses free radical-scavenging and in vivo antioxidant activities. Treatment with arjunolic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to arsenic administration prevents the alterations of the activities of all antioxidant indices and levels of the other parameters studied. Histological studies revealed less centrilobular necrosis in the liver treated with arjunolic acid prior to arsenic intoxication compared to the liver treated with the toxin alone. Effects of a known antioxidant, vitamin C, have been included in the study as a positive control. In conclusion, the results suggest that arjunolic acid possesses the ability to attenuate arsenic-induced oxidative stress in murine liver probably via its antioxidant activity.

  17. THE ROLE OF VALENCE AND METHYLATION STATE ON THE ACTIVITY OF ARSENIC DURING MITOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trivalent methylated arsenicals are much more potent DNA damaging agents, clastogens, and large deletion mutagens than are their inorganic and pentavalent counterparts. Previously we had noticed that many of the arsenicals induced "c-type" anaphases characteristic of spindle pois...

  18. Molecular features in arsenic-induced lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen, which potentially affects ~160 million people worldwide via exposure to unsafe levels in drinking water. Lungs are one of the main target organs for arsenic-related carcinogenesis. These tumors exhibit particular features, such as squamous cell-type specificity and high incidence among never smokers. Arsenic-induced malignant transformation is mainly related to the biotransformation process intended for the metabolic clearing of the carcinogen, which results in specific genetic and epigenetic alterations that ultimately affect key pathways in lung carcinogenesis. Based on this, lung tumors induced by arsenic exposure could be considered an additional subtype of lung cancer, especially in the case of never-smokers, where arsenic is a known etiological agent. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the various mechanisms of arsenic carcinogenicity and the specific roles of this metalloid in signaling pathways leading to lung cancer. PMID:23510327

  19. Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a grade I human carcinogen. It acts by disrupting one-carbon (1C) metabolism and cellular methyl (-CH3) pool. The -CH3 group helps in arsenic disposition and detoxification of the biological systems. Vitamin B12 and folate, the key promoters of 1C metabolism were tested recently (daily 0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w. of rat for 28 days) to evaluate their combined efficacy in the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakage and tissue damages. The selected tissues like intestine (first-pass site), liver (major xenobiotic metabolizer) and lung (major arsenic accumulator) were collected from arsenic-ingested (0.6 ppm/same schedule) female rats. The hemo-toxicity and liver and kidney functions were monitored. Our earlier studies on arsenic-exposed humans can correlate carcinogenesis with DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of physiological/therapeutic dose of vitamin B12 and folate protected the rodents significantly from arsenic-induced DNA damage (DNA fragmentation and comet assay) and hepatic and renal tissue degeneration (histo-architecture, HE staining). The level of arsenic-induced free-radical products (TBARS and conjugated diene) was significantly declined by the restored actions of several antioxidants viz. urate, thiol, catalase, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the tissues of vitamin-supplemented group. The alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea and creatinine (hepatic and kidney toxicity marker), and lactate dehydrogenase (tissue degeneration marker) were significantly impaired in the arsenic-fed group. But a significant protection was evident in the vitamin-supplemented group. In conclusion, the combined action of folate and B12 results in the restitution in the 1C metabolic pathway and cellular methyl pool. The cumulative outcome from the enhanced arsenic methylation and antioxidative capacity was protective against arsenic induced mutagenic DNA breakages and tissue damages.

  20. Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a grade I human carcinogen. It acts by disrupting one-carbon (1C) metabolism and cellular methyl (-CH3) pool. The -CH3 group helps in arsenic disposition and detoxification of the biological systems. Vitamin B12 and folate, the key promoters of 1C metabolism were tested recently (daily 0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w. of rat for 28 days) to evaluate their combined efficacy in the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakage and tissue damages. The selected tissues like intestine (first-pass site), liver (major xenobiotic metabolizer) and lung (major arsenic accumulator) were collected from arsenic-ingested (0.6 ppm/same schedule) female rats. The hemo-toxicity and liver and kidney functions were monitored. Our earlier studies on arsenic-exposed humans can correlate carcinogenesis with DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of physiological/therapeutic dose of vitamin B12 and folate protected the rodents significantly from arsenic-induced DNA damage (DNA fragmentation and comet assay) and hepatic and renal tissue degeneration (histo-architecture, HE staining). The level of arsenic-induced free-radical products (TBARS and conjugated diene) was significantly declined by the restored actions of several antioxidants viz. urate, thiol, catalase, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the tissues of vitamin-supplemented group. The alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea and creatinine (hepatic and kidney toxicity marker), and lactate dehydrogenase (tissue degeneration marker) were significantly impaired in the arsenic-fed group. But a significant protection was evident in the vitamin-supplemented group. In conclusion, the combined action of folate and B12 results in the restitution in the 1C metabolic pathway and cellular methyl pool. The cumulative outcome from the enhanced arsenic methylation and antioxidative capacity was protective against arsenic induced mutagenic DNA breakages and tissue damages. PMID

  1. Telmisartan treatment attenuates arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2012-10-28

    The protective effect of telmisartan, the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, against liver toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 30 days) was investigated in mice. Telmisartan treatment (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was applied for 30 days, starting on the same day of arsenic administration. Telmisartan significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase level which was increased by sodium arsenite. Telmisartan significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, and prevented the reduced glutathione depletion and nitric oxide elevation in the liver tissue resulted from arsenic administration. Also, the increase of arsenic ion, and the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in liver tissue were attenuated by telmisartan. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue injury mediated by arsenic was ameliorated by telmisartan treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that telmisartan significantly decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB and caspase-3 in liver tissue. It was concluded that telmisartan may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of arsenic toxicity. PMID:22750630

  2. Telmisartan treatment attenuates arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2012-10-28

    The protective effect of telmisartan, the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, against liver toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 30 days) was investigated in mice. Telmisartan treatment (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was applied for 30 days, starting on the same day of arsenic administration. Telmisartan significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase level which was increased by sodium arsenite. Telmisartan significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, and prevented the reduced glutathione depletion and nitric oxide elevation in the liver tissue resulted from arsenic administration. Also, the increase of arsenic ion, and the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in liver tissue were attenuated by telmisartan. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue injury mediated by arsenic was ameliorated by telmisartan treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that telmisartan significantly decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB and caspase-3 in liver tissue. It was concluded that telmisartan may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of arsenic toxicity.

  3. Mushroom lectin protects arsenic induced apoptosis in hepatocytes of rodents.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish; De, Sumanta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Acute and chronic arsenic exposure result in toxicity both in human and animal beings and cause many hepatic and renal manifestations. The present study stated that mushroom lectin prevents arsenic-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was measured by morphological alterations, cell proliferation index (CPI), phagocytic activity (nitro blue tetrazolium index; NBT), nitric oxide (NO) production, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. Arsenic exposure at 5 μM in the form of sodium arsenite resulted in significant elevation of deformed cells, NO production, TUNEL stained nuclei of hepatocytes, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. But the CPI and NBT index were significantly declined in arsenic-treated hepatocytes. The beneficial effect of mushroom lectin at 10 μg/mL, 20 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL) showed increased CPI and phagocytic activity. Mushroom lectin at those concentrations reduced deformed cells, NO production, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity of hepatocytes. But significant better protection was observed in 50 μg/mL mushroom lectin-treated hepatocytes. This finding may be of therapeutic benefit in people suffering from chronic arsenic exposure.

  4. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S.; Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S.; Dwivedi, Hari N.; Pant, Aditiya B.; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected

  5. Antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ against arsenic-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sangita; Maiti, Anasuya; Karmakar, Subhra; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Mukherjee, Sandip; Das, Dolan; Mitra, Chandan

    2012-05-01

    Earlier, we proposed that the ability of folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ to preserve systemic and mitochondrial function after short-term exposure to arsenic may prevent further progression to more permanent injury and pathological changes leading to cell death. To elucidate its mechanism, the present study examined the antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ against short-term arsenic exposure-induced hepatic mitochondria oxidative stress and dysfunction. Sixteen to eighteen weeks old male albino rats weighing 140-150 × g were divided into five groups: Control (A), Arsenic-treated (B), Arsenic + folic acid (C), Arsenic +vitamin B₁₂ (D), and Arsenic + folic acid + vitamin B₁₂ (E). Data generated indicated that folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ separately or in combination can give significant protection against alterations in oxidative stress and apoptotic marker parameters and downstream changes in mitochondria, namely pro-oxidative (NO, TBARS, OH⁻) and antioxidative defense (SOD, CAT, GSH) markers, iNOS protein expression, mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c oxidase and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity, Ca²⁺ content, caspase-3 activity. Additionally, results of hepatic cell DNA fragmentation, arsenic load of blood, hepatic tissue and urine, and histological observations, all strongly support that both these supplements have efficacy in preventing apoptotic changes and cellular damage. As the mechanisms of actions of both of these supplements are methylation related, a combined application was more effective. Results further reveal new molecular targets through which folic acid and vitamin B₁₂ separately or in combination work to alleviate one critical component of arsenic-induced liver injury: mitochondria dysfunction.

  6. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  7. Possible mechanisms for arsenic-induced proliferative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Wetterhahn, K.E.; Dudek, E.J.; Shumilla, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Possible mechanisms for cardiovascular diseases and cancers which have been observed on chronic exposure to arsenic have been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that nonlethal levels of arsenic are mitogenic, cause oxidative stress, increase nuclear translocation of trans-acting factors, and increase expression of genes involved in proliferation. Cultured porcine vascular (from aorta) endothelial cells were used as a model cell system to study the effects of arsenic on the target cells for cardiovascular diseases. Treatment of postconfluent cell cultures with nonovertly toxic concentrations of arsenite increased DNA synthesis, similar to the mitogenic response observed with hydrogen peroxide. Within 1 hour of adding noncytotoxic concentrations of arsenite, cellular levels of oxidants increased relative to control levels, indicating that arsenite promotes cellular oxidations. Arsenite treatment increased nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, in a manner similar to that observed with hydrogen peroxide. Pretreatment of intact cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dimethylfumarate prevented the arsenite-induced increases in cellular oxidant formation and NF-KB translocation. Arsenite had little or no effect on binding of NF-KB to its DNA recognition sequence in vitro, indicating that it is unlikely that arsenite directly affects NF-KB. The steady-state mRNA levels of intracellular adhesion molecule and urokinase-like plasminogen activator, genes associated with the active endothelial phenotype in arteriosclerosis and cancer metastasis, were increased by nontoxic concentrations of arsenite. These data suggest that arsenite promotes proliferative diseases like heart disease and cancer by activating oxidant-sensitive endothelial cell signaling and gene expression. It is possible that antioxidant therapy would be useful in preventing arsenic-induced cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  8. Phosphatidylserine in the brain: metabolism and function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Yong; Huang, Bill X; Spector, Arthur A

    2014-10-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is the major anionic phospholipid class particularly enriched in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in neural tissues. PS is synthesized from phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine by exchanging the base head group with serine, and this reaction is catalyzed by phosphatidylserine synthase 1 and phosphatidylserine synthase 2 located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of Akt, Raf-1 and protein kinase C signaling, which supports neuronal survival and differentiation, requires interaction of these proteins with PS localized in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Furthermore, neurotransmitter release by exocytosis and a number of synaptic receptors and proteins are modulated by PS present in the neuronal membranes. Brain is highly enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and brain PS has a high DHA content. By promoting PS synthesis, DHA can uniquely expand the PS pool in neuronal membranes and thereby influence PS-dependent signaling and protein function. Ethanol decreases DHA-promoted PS synthesis and accumulation in neurons, which may contribute to the deleterious effects of ethanol intake. Improvement of some memory functions has been observed in cognitively impaired subjects as a result of PS supplementation, but the mechanism is unclear.

  9. Arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in rats: alleviative effect of Trichosanthes dioica fruit.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Das, Sanjit Kumar; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the alleviative effect of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruit (AQTD) against arsenic induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. AQTD (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile; myocardial antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with AQTD markedly and significantly normalized body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the myocardial antioxidative parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. Therefore, T. dioica fruit possessed remarkable alleviative effects against arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in Wistar albino rats mediated by amelioration of arsenic induced myocardial oxidative stress by several mechanisms.

  10. Arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in rats: alleviative effect of Trichosanthes dioica fruit.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Das, Sanjit Kumar; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the alleviative effect of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruit (AQTD) against arsenic induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. AQTD (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile; myocardial antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with AQTD markedly and significantly normalized body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the myocardial antioxidative parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. Therefore, T. dioica fruit possessed remarkable alleviative effects against arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in Wistar albino rats mediated by amelioration of arsenic induced myocardial oxidative stress by several mechanisms. PMID:25057964

  11. Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIANGONG; PAN, XINJUAN; LI, NING; LI, XING; WANG, YONGCHAO; LIU, XIAOZHUAN; YIN, XINJUAN; YU, ZENGLI

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β and the mRNA levels of TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-β/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-β1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling

  12. EFFECTS OF DIETARY FOLATE ON ARSENIC-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Dietary Folate on Arsenic-induced Gene Expression in Mice

    Arsenic, a drinking water contaminant, is a known carcinogen. Human exposure to inorganic arsenic has been linked to tumors of skin, bladder, lung, and to a lesser extent, kidney and liver. Dietary fola...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF INTERSPECIES CONCORDANCE OF MECHANISMS OF ARSENIC INDUCED BLADDER CANCER BY GENE EXPRESSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that induces urinary bladder cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed for arsenic-induced cancer. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) does not induce tumors in adult rodents, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), a major metabolite of iAs, is a rat bladder c...

  14. p38α MAPK is required for arsenic-induced cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Gyum; Shi, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure has been reported to cause neoplastic transformation through the activation of PcG proteins. In the present study, we show that activation of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is required for arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation. Exposure of cells to 0.5 μM arsenic increased CRE and c-Fos promoter activities that were accompanied by increases in p38α MAPK and CREB phosphorylation and expression levels concurrently with AP-1 activation. Introduction of short hairpin (sh) RNA-p38α into BALB/c 3T3 cells markedly suppressed arsenic-induced colony formation compared with wildtype cells. CREB phosphorylation and AP-1 activation were decreased in p38α knockdown cells after arsenic treatment. Arsenic-induced AP-1 activation, measured as c-Fos and CRE promoter activities, and CREB phosphorylation were attenuated by p38 inhibition in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Thus, p38α MAPK activation is required for arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation mediated through CREB phosphorylation and AP-1 activation.

  15. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES ARSENIC-INDUCED MICRONUCLEUS FORMATION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Dietary folate deficiency enhances arsenic-induced micronucleus formation in mice.

    Folate deficiency increases background levels ofDNA damage and can enhance the mutagenicity of chemical agents. Duplicate experiments were performed to investigate the effect of dietary...

  16. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S; Chandravanshi, Lalit P; Shukla, Rajendra K; Dhuriya, Yogesh K; Chauhan, Lalit K S; Dwivedi, Hari N; Pant, Aditiya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. PMID:24952339

  17. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S; Chandravanshi, Lalit P; Shukla, Rajendra K; Dhuriya, Yogesh K; Chauhan, Lalit K S; Dwivedi, Hari N; Pant, Aditiya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin.

  18. The Effects of Boron on Arsenic-Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Ismail; Ince, Sinan; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Turkmen, Ruhi; Akbel, Erten; Celik, Yasemin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effects of boron, an antioxidant agent, against arsenic-induced oxidative stress in male and female rats. In total, 42 Wistar albino male and female rats were divided into three equal groups: The animals in the control group were given normal drinking water, the second group was given drinking water with 100 mg/L arsenic, and the third group was orally administered drinking water with 100 mg/kg boron together with arsenic. At the end of the 28-day experiment, arsenic increased lipid peroxidation and damage in the tissues of rats. However, boron treatment reversed this arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in rats. Moreover, boron exhibited a protective action against arsenic-induced histopathological changes in the tissues of rats. In conclusion, boron was found to be effective in protecting rats against arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation by enhancing antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  19. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against arsenic-induced depletion in vivo of carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Ajay Kumar

    2004-05-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a synthetic aminothiol, possesses antioxidative and cytoprotective properties. The present study evaluates the effect of NAC supplementation on arsenic-induced depletion in vivo of carbohydrates. Arsenic (as sodium arsenite) treatment (i.p.) of male Wistar rats (120-140 g b.w.) at a dose of 5.55 mg/kg body weight (35% of LD50) per day for a period of 30 days produced a significant decrease in blood glucose level (hypoglycemia) and a fall in liver glycogen and pyruvic acid contents. The free amino acid nitrogen content of liver increased while that of kidney decreased after arsenic treatment. Arsenic also enhanced the liver lactate dehydrogenase activity whereas glucose 6-phosphatase activity in both liver and kidney decreased significantly following arsenic treatment. Transaminase activities in liver and kidney were not significantly altered except the glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activity that was reduced in kidney after arsenic treatment. Oral administration of NAC (163.2 mg/kg/day) for last 7 days of treatment prevented the arsenic-induced hypoglycemia and glycogenolytic effects to an appreciable extent. There was also recovery of liver pyruvic acid as well as liver and kidney free amino acid nitrogen content after NAC supplementation. Arsenic-induced alteration of glucose 6-phosphatase activity in both liver and kidney was also counteracted by NAC. It is suggested that carbohydrate depletion in vivo due to exposure to arsenic can be counteracted by NAC supplementation.

  20. Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, ameliorates arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mahua; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C

    2007-12-01

    Arsenic is a potent environmental toxin. Present study has been designed to evaluate the protective role of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) against arsenic induced cytotoxicity in murine hepatocytes. Sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)) was chosen as the source of arsenic. Incubation of hepatocytes with the toxin (1 mM) for 2 h reduced the cell viability as well as intra-cellular antioxidant power. Increased activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) due to toxin exposure confirmed membrane damage. Toxin treatment caused reduction in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In addition, the same treatment reduced the level of glutathione (GSH), elevated the level of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and increased the extent of lipid peroxidation. Incubation of hepatocytes with taurine, both prior to and in combination with NaAsO(2), attenuated the extent of lipid peroxidation and enhanced the activities of enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants. Besides, taurine administration normalized the arsenic-induced enhanced levels of the marker enzymes ALT and ALP in hepatocytes. The cytoprotective activity of taurine against arsenic poisoning was found to be comparable to that of a known antioxidant, vitamin C. Combining all, the results suggest that taurine protects mouse hepatocytes against arsenic induced cytotoxicity.

  1. Blood concentrations of methionine, selenium, beta-carotene, and other micronutrients in a case-control study of arsenic-induced skin lesions in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joyce S; Haque, Reina; Guha Mazumder, D N; Moore, Lee E; Ghosh, Nilima; Samanta, Sambit; Mitra, Soma; Hira-Smith, Meera M; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Basu, Arindam; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that susceptibility to arsenic toxicity could be influenced by micronutrients, in particular selenium, methionine, and beta-carotene. A case-control study was conducted in West Bengal, India, in a region known to have groundwater arsenic contamination, to determine whether differences in micronutrient status contribute to susceptibility to arsenic-induced skin lesions. Micronutrient status was assessed by blood levels of specific micronutrients and metabolic indicators. Blood was obtained from 180 cases with skin lesions and 192 controls. Blood assays measured micronutrients and carotenoids (folate, selenium, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolic indicators such as glucose, cholesterol, transthyretin, amino acids, and proteins potentially associated with methylation (cysteine, homocysteine, methionine, glutathione). The distributions of nutrient concentrations were similar in cases and controls. The median selenium concentrations in cases and controls were both 1.15 micromol/L, and there was little evidence of differences in other micronutrients. Odds ratios (ORs) for arsenic-induced skin lesions were estimated for each quartile of nutrient concentrations, using the quartile with the highest nutrient level as the referent group. There were no clear trends associated with deficiencies of any micronutrient or metabolic indicator. For decreasing quartiles of selenium, the OR estimates were 1.00, 0.67, 0.99, 0.80; P=0.81; for methionine, the OR estimates were 1.00, 0.83, 0.78, 0.72; P=0.29. For beta-carotene, the ORs were 1.00, 0.53, 0.51, 0.96, demonstrating no increased risk at the lower quartiles. The measured micronutrients and metabolic indicators investigated do not appear to modify the risk of developing arsenic-induced skin lesions. The lack of any trend of increasing risk with lower selenium, vitamin E, and beta-carotene concentrations

  2. Phosphatidylserine: an antidepressive or a cognitive enhancer?

    PubMed

    Castilho, João C; Perry, Juliana C; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the putative antidepressive and cognitive enhancer effects of phosphatidylserine (BC-PS). The antidepressive effect of BC-PS (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg), compared to saline or imipramine (IMI; 25 mg/kg), was studied in the forced swimming test in rats. These drugs were administered 1 and 8 h after training and 1 h before the test. BC-PS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg)-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in immobility time (IT) in the test session (performed 24 h after training) when compared to control rats. Moreover, the IMI-treated group showed a significant reduction in IT in comparison to control rats. The cognitive enhancer effect of BC-PS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was studied in the three versions of the water maze task: spatial working memory version, spatial reference memory version, and cued version. There was no significant difference between the BC-PS-treated groups and control animals in these memory tasks. Taken together, the present results are suggestive of an antidepressive effect of BC-PS in the forced swimming test in rats but not of a cognitive enhancer effect of the drug in the water maze test.

  3. Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Goswami, Ramansu; Datta, Soma; Rajagopal, R.; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-10-01

    We had earlier shown that exposure to arsenic (0.50 {mu}M) caused caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis involving the p38-JNK pathway in Clarias batrachus. Here we examined the roles of calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) and extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), the other member of MAPK-pathway on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved increased expression of ERK and calpain-2. Nifedipine, verapamil and EGTA pre-treatment inhibited the activation of calpain-2, ERK and reduced arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis as evidenced from reduced caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Pre-incubation with ERK inhibitor U 0126 inhibited the activation of calpain-2 and interfered with arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Additionally, pre-incubation with calpain-2 inhibitor also interfered with the activation of ERK and inhibited arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride also inhibited ERK activation indicating activation of ERK in arsenic-exposed HKM also depends on signals from NADPH oxidase pathway. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. We suggest that arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels initiates pro-apoptotic ERK and calpain-2; the two pathways influence each other positively and induce caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. Besides, our study also indicates the role of ROS in the activation of ERK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus. - Highlights: > Altered Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis leads to arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. > Calpain-2 plays a critical role in the process. > ERK is pro-apoptotic in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. > Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involves cross talk between calpain-2 and ERK.

  4. Erythrocyte membrane phosphatidylserine exposure in obesity.

    PubMed

    Solá, Eva; Vayá, Amparo; Martínez, Marcial; Moscardó, Antonio; Corella, Dolores; Santaolaria, Maria-Luisa; España, Francisco; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    It has been suggested that increased erythrocyte membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure could contribute to hypercoagulability and hemorheological disturbances in obesity. The aim of our study was to evaluate PS exposure in obese patients and in a control group and to correlate this with hemorheological properties, i.e., erythrocyte aggregability (EA) and deformability, and to evaluate the effect of weight loss on these parameters. An anthropometric and analytical evaluation was performed at baseline and after 3 months on a diet (very low-calorie diet for 4 weeks and low-calorie diet for 2 months) on 49 severe or morbid obese patients (37 women, 12 men) and 55 healthy volunteers (39 women, 16 men). PS exposure on erythrocyte membrane was performed by flow cytometry. Erythrocyte aggregation was measured using the Myrenne MA(1) and the Sefam aggregometer. Erythrocyte deformability was determined in a stress diffractometer. Prothrombin fragment F1+2 (F1+2) was determined as a marker of the hypercoagulable state, and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of oxidative stress. Obese patients had a higher EA index, higher PS exposure on erythrocyte membranes and higher levels of MDA and F1+2. The differences in erythrocyte aggregation and F1+2 between obese patients and the control group were maintained after adjusting for PS exposure. After 3 months of diet, a significant reduction in PS exposure on erythrocyte membrane was observed. Obese patients show increased PS exposure on erythrocyte membrane, with no effect on rheological properties. Increased PS exposure could contribute to hypercoagulability in these patients. Weight loss obtained with diet treatment reduces PS exposure on erythrocyte membrane.

  5. DNA repair gene XPD and susceptibility to arsenic-induced hyperkeratosis.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Santella, Regina M

    2003-07-20

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is known to cause non-melanocytic skin and internal cancers in humans. An estimated 50-70 million people in Bangladesh have been chronically exposed to arsenic from drinking water and are at risk of skin and other cancers. We undertook the first study to examine whether genetic susceptibility, as determined by the codon 751 SNP (A-->C) of the DNA repair gene XPD, influences the risk of arsenic-induced hyperkeratotic skin lesions, precursors of skin cancer, in a case-control study of 29 hyperkeratosis cases and 105 healthy controls from the same community in an area of Bangladesh. As expected, there was a monotonic increase in risk of hyperkeratosis in relation to urinary arsenic measures but the XPD genotype was not independently associated with the risk. However, the increase in hyperkeratosis risk in relation to urinary arsenic measures genotype was borderline significant for urinary total arsenic (P for trend=0.06) and statistically significant for urinary creatinine adjusted arsenic (P for trend=0.01) among subjects with the XPD A allele (AA) but not among subjects with the other XPD genotypes. Among AA carriers, the risk for the highest arsenic exposed group compared with the lowest was more than 7-fold for urinary total arsenic and about 11-fold for urinary creatinine adjusted arsenic. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the DNA repair gene XPD may influence the risk of arsenic-induced premalignant hyperkeratotic skin lesions. Future larger studies are needed to confirm this novel finding and investigate how combinations of different candidate genes and/or other host and environmental factors may influence the risk of arsenic induced skin and other cancers.

  6. Enhanced protective activity of nano formulated andrographolide against arsenic induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata; Pradhan, Goutam Kumar; Das, Subhadip; Nath, Debjani; Das Saha, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic over a period of time induces toxicity, primarily in liver but gradually in all systems of the body. Andrographolide (AG), a major diterpene lactone of Andrographis paniculata, shows a wide array of physiological functions including hepatoprotection. Therapeutic applications of AG are however seriously constrained because of its insolubility, poor bioavailability, and short plasma half-life. Nanoparticulation of AG is a possible solution to these problems. In the present study we investigated the effectiveness of polylactide co-glycolide (PLGA) nanocapsulated andrographolide (NA) against arsenic induced liver damage in mice. NA of average diameter 65.8 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 64% were prepared. Sodium arsenite at a dose of 40 mg/L supplied via drinking water in mice significantly raised the serum level of liver function markers such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and caused arsenic deposition in liver and ROS generation, though it did not show any lethality up to 30 days of exposure. However, even liver toxicity was not observed when mice were given AG and NA orally at doses up to 100 mg/kg bwt and 20 mg/kg bwt respectively on alternate days for one month. Treatment of non-toxic doses of AG or NA on alternate days along with arsenic significantly decreased the arsenic induced elevation of the serum level of ALT, AST and ALP, and arsenic deposition in liver. AG and NA increased the level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Also, the ROS level was lowered in mice exposed to arsenic but treated with AG or NA. Protective efficiency of NA is about five times more than that of AG. Administration of NA to arsenic-treated mice caused signs of improvement in liver tissue architecture. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that NA could be beneficial against arsenic-induced liver toxicity.

  7. Neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Chandravanshi, Lalit P; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu L; Ansari, Reyaz W; Shukla, Pradeep K; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2011-12-01

    Our recent studies have shown that curcumin protects arsenic induced neurotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress, neurotransmitter levels and dopaminergic system in rats. As chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans, the present study has been carried out to implore the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats. Rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) exhibited a significant decrease in the learning activity, assessed by passive avoidance response associated with decreased binding of (3)H-QNB, known to label muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in hippocampus (54%) and frontal cortex (27%) as compared to controls. Decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (46%) and frontal cortex (33%), staining of Nissl body, immunoreactivity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and expression of ChAT protein in hippocampal region was also observed in arsenic treated rats as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic and curcumin (100mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) increased learning and memory performance associated with increased binding of (3)H-QNB in hippocampus (54%), frontal cortex (25%) and activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (41%) and frontal cortex (29%) as compared to arsenic treated rats. Increase in the expression of ChAT protein, immunoreactivity of ChAT and staining of Nissl body in hippocampal region was also observed in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin significantly modulates arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in brain and also exhibits neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin. PMID:21839772

  8. Arsenic-induced oxidative myocardial injury: protective role of arjunolic acid.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-03-01

    Arsenic, one of the most harmful metalloids, is ubiquitous in the environment. The present study has been carried out to investigate the protective role of a triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid (AA) against arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage. In the study, NaAsO2 was chosen as the source of arsenic. The free radical scavenging activity and the effect of AA on the intracellular antioxidant power were determined from its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, respectively. Oral administration of NaAsO2 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days caused significant accumulation of arsenic in cardiac tissues of the experimental mice in association with the reduction in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Arsenic intoxication also decreased the cardiac glutathione (GSH) and total thiol contents and increased the levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation end products and protein carbonyl content. Treatment with AA at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to NaAsO2 intoxication protected the cardiac tissue from arsenic-induced oxidative impairment. In addition to oxidative stress, arsenic administration increased total cholesterol level as well as the reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in the sera of the experimental mice. AA pretreatment, however, could prevent this hyperlipidemia. Histological studies on the ultrastructural changes in cardiac tissue supported the protective activity of AA also. Combining all, results suggest that AA could protect cardiac tissues against arsenic-induced oxidative stress probably due to its antioxidant property. PMID:18197399

  9. Arsenic-induced oxidative myocardial injury: protective role of arjunolic acid.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-03-01

    Arsenic, one of the most harmful metalloids, is ubiquitous in the environment. The present study has been carried out to investigate the protective role of a triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid (AA) against arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage. In the study, NaAsO2 was chosen as the source of arsenic. The free radical scavenging activity and the effect of AA on the intracellular antioxidant power were determined from its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, respectively. Oral administration of NaAsO2 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days caused significant accumulation of arsenic in cardiac tissues of the experimental mice in association with the reduction in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Arsenic intoxication also decreased the cardiac glutathione (GSH) and total thiol contents and increased the levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation end products and protein carbonyl content. Treatment with AA at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to NaAsO2 intoxication protected the cardiac tissue from arsenic-induced oxidative impairment. In addition to oxidative stress, arsenic administration increased total cholesterol level as well as the reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in the sera of the experimental mice. AA pretreatment, however, could prevent this hyperlipidemia. Histological studies on the ultrastructural changes in cardiac tissue supported the protective activity of AA also. Combining all, results suggest that AA could protect cardiac tissues against arsenic-induced oxidative stress probably due to its antioxidant property.

  10. Neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Chandravanshi, Lalit P; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu L; Ansari, Reyaz W; Shukla, Pradeep K; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2011-12-01

    Our recent studies have shown that curcumin protects arsenic induced neurotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress, neurotransmitter levels and dopaminergic system in rats. As chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans, the present study has been carried out to implore the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats. Rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) exhibited a significant decrease in the learning activity, assessed by passive avoidance response associated with decreased binding of (3)H-QNB, known to label muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in hippocampus (54%) and frontal cortex (27%) as compared to controls. Decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (46%) and frontal cortex (33%), staining of Nissl body, immunoreactivity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and expression of ChAT protein in hippocampal region was also observed in arsenic treated rats as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic and curcumin (100mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) increased learning and memory performance associated with increased binding of (3)H-QNB in hippocampus (54%), frontal cortex (25%) and activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (41%) and frontal cortex (29%) as compared to arsenic treated rats. Increase in the expression of ChAT protein, immunoreactivity of ChAT and staining of Nissl body in hippocampal region was also observed in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin significantly modulates arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in brain and also exhibits neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  11. Enhanced protective activity of nano formulated andrographolide against arsenic induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata; Pradhan, Goutam Kumar; Das, Subhadip; Nath, Debjani; Das Saha, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic over a period of time induces toxicity, primarily in liver but gradually in all systems of the body. Andrographolide (AG), a major diterpene lactone of Andrographis paniculata, shows a wide array of physiological functions including hepatoprotection. Therapeutic applications of AG are however seriously constrained because of its insolubility, poor bioavailability, and short plasma half-life. Nanoparticulation of AG is a possible solution to these problems. In the present study we investigated the effectiveness of polylactide co-glycolide (PLGA) nanocapsulated andrographolide (NA) against arsenic induced liver damage in mice. NA of average diameter 65.8 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 64% were prepared. Sodium arsenite at a dose of 40 mg/L supplied via drinking water in mice significantly raised the serum level of liver function markers such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and caused arsenic deposition in liver and ROS generation, though it did not show any lethality up to 30 days of exposure. However, even liver toxicity was not observed when mice were given AG and NA orally at doses up to 100 mg/kg bwt and 20 mg/kg bwt respectively on alternate days for one month. Treatment of non-toxic doses of AG or NA on alternate days along with arsenic significantly decreased the arsenic induced elevation of the serum level of ALT, AST and ALP, and arsenic deposition in liver. AG and NA increased the level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Also, the ROS level was lowered in mice exposed to arsenic but treated with AG or NA. Protective efficiency of NA is about five times more than that of AG. Administration of NA to arsenic-treated mice caused signs of improvement in liver tissue architecture. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that NA could be beneficial against arsenic-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26485141

  12. Association of NALP2 polymorphism with arsenic induced skin lesions and other health effects.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Pritha; Das, Nandana; Chatterjee, Debmita; Banerjee, Anirban; Das, Jayanta K; Basu, Santanu; Banerjee, Saptarshi; Majumder, Papia; Goswami, Prashant; Giri, Ashok K

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of arsenic-laden water above the threshold limit of 10μg/L causes a plethora of dermatological and non-dermatological multi-organ health problems, including cancer and death. Among several mechanisms of arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity studied so far, role of arsenic in impairment of immune system is less understood. Epidemiological data, animal model as well as cell line based studies have indicated that arsenic targets immune system and is associated with characteristic immunosupression, which may further adversely affect respiratory function. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study with respect to arsenic susceptibility investigating the role of genetic variation having immunological function. Hence, we have recruited a total of 432 arsenic-exposed individuals, of which 219 individuals with characteristic arsenic-induced skin lesions (cases) and 213 individuals without arsenic-induced skin lesion(controls), from arsenic-exposed districts of West Bengal, India. To find any probable association between arsenicism and the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NALP2 gene, an important component of inflammasome complex, we screened the entire coding region (exon) in all the study participants. Among 9 SNPs found in NALP2 gene, the A1052E polymorphism (at least with one minor allele), was significantly overrepresented in controls and hence implies decreased risk toward the development of skin lesions [OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.97]. Since, development of non-dermatological health effects are also important factor to properly look into, we have attempted to correlate the genetic variation of NALP2 with the extent of cytogenetic damage as measured by chromosomal aberration assay and adverse health effects including peripheral neuropathy, eye problem and respiratory diseases in the study population. We observed individuals with the protective genotype had less chromosomal aberration (p<0.05), and were also less

  13. Association of NALP2 polymorphism with arsenic induced skin lesions and other health effects.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Pritha; Das, Nandana; Chatterjee, Debmita; Banerjee, Anirban; Das, Jayanta K; Basu, Santanu; Banerjee, Saptarshi; Majumder, Papia; Goswami, Prashant; Giri, Ashok K

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of arsenic-laden water above the threshold limit of 10μg/L causes a plethora of dermatological and non-dermatological multi-organ health problems, including cancer and death. Among several mechanisms of arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity studied so far, role of arsenic in impairment of immune system is less understood. Epidemiological data, animal model as well as cell line based studies have indicated that arsenic targets immune system and is associated with characteristic immunosupression, which may further adversely affect respiratory function. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study with respect to arsenic susceptibility investigating the role of genetic variation having immunological function. Hence, we have recruited a total of 432 arsenic-exposed individuals, of which 219 individuals with characteristic arsenic-induced skin lesions (cases) and 213 individuals without arsenic-induced skin lesion(controls), from arsenic-exposed districts of West Bengal, India. To find any probable association between arsenicism and the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NALP2 gene, an important component of inflammasome complex, we screened the entire coding region (exon) in all the study participants. Among 9 SNPs found in NALP2 gene, the A1052E polymorphism (at least with one minor allele), was significantly overrepresented in controls and hence implies decreased risk toward the development of skin lesions [OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.97]. Since, development of non-dermatological health effects are also important factor to properly look into, we have attempted to correlate the genetic variation of NALP2 with the extent of cytogenetic damage as measured by chromosomal aberration assay and adverse health effects including peripheral neuropathy, eye problem and respiratory diseases in the study population. We observed individuals with the protective genotype had less chromosomal aberration (p<0.05), and were also less

  14. Susceptibility to arsenic-induced hyperkeratosis and oxidative stress genes myeloperoxidase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Islam, Mohammad N; Slavkovich, Vesna N; Graziano, Joseph H; Santella, Regina M

    2003-11-10

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is known to cause non-melanocytic skin and internal cancers in humans. We examined whether genetic susceptibility, as determined by single nucleotide polymorphisms -463G-->A and -262C-->T in the oxidative stress genes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and catalase (CAT), respectively, are associated with the risk of arsenic-induced hyperkeratotic skin lesions-precursors of skin cancer-in a case-control study in Bangladesh. Carriers of the susceptible MPO and CAT genotypes were at elevated risk (OR 2.1 and 95% CI 0.7-6.2 for MPO; OR 1.9 and 95% CI 0.8-4.7 for CAT) of hyperkeratosis after adjustment for arsenic exposure and other covariates. Subjects carrying the high-risk MPO genotype and with high arsenic exposure were at almost six times (OR 5.8; 95% CI 1.1-30.1) elevated risk of developing hyperkeratosis as compared to those carrying the low-risk genotype and with low arsenic exposure. Similarly, highly exposed subjects carrying the high-risk CAT genotype were at more than four times (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.4-15.6) elevated risk of developing hyperkeratosis as compared to those carrying the low-risk genotype and with low arsenic exposure. Our findings, although based on small numbers, suggest that the oxidative stress genes MPO and CAT may influence the risk of arsenic-induced premalignant hyperkeratotic skin lesions.

  15. Arsenic-induced bone marrow toxicity: ultrastructural and electron-probe analysis.

    PubMed

    Feussner, J R; Shelburne, J D; Bredehoeft, S; Cohen, H J

    1979-05-01

    A patient with severe arsenic poisoning that resulted in marked peripheral blood and bone marrow abnormalities, including megaloblastic erythropoiesis experienced many of the previously reported hematologic complications of arsenic poisoning: leukopenia, granulocytopenia, absolute eosinophilia, and profound anemia. In this study we report an ultrastructural and electron-probe analysis of the bone marrow. Although megaloblastic anemia associated with arsenic poisoning has been described rarely, the presence of arsenic in the local bone marrow milieu has not been demonstrated previously. The ultrastructural features of arsenic-induced bone marrow toxicity are similar to those described in other dyserythropoietic states and include marked nuclear aberrations involving shape, chromatin distribution, and nuclear envelope. Using the technique of energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (electron probe) we demonstrated arsenic in bone marrow spicules; this supports the contention that arsenic can cause megaloblastic anemia. We suggest that this technique may be a useful tool in further studies that attempt to explore the mechanism of arsenic-induced hematologic toxicity. Finally, we suggest that arsenic has a direct toxic effect on DNA synthesis that results in marked disturbances of nuclear division. We recommend that the most appropriate screening procedure to evaluate possible arsenic poisoning is tissue arsenic measurements (hair and nails) rather than 24-hr urinary measurements.

  16. Arsenic-induced mitochondrial instability leading to programmed cell death in the exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Nilanjana; Banerjee, Mayukh; Ganguly, Sudipto; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Das, Jayanta K; Bandyopadhay, Apurba; Chatterjee, Mitali; Giri, Ashok K

    2008-04-18

    In West Bengal, India, more than 6 million people in nine districts are exposed to arsenic through drinking water. It is regarded as the greatest arsenic calamity in the world. Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen, which does not induce cancer in any other animal model. Interestingly, at lower concentrations, arsenic is known to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines in vitro. We have studied apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 30 arsenic exposed skin lesion individuals by annexin V-FITC staining and compared with 28 unexposed individuals. The percentage of apoptotic cells in individuals with skin lesions was significantly higher (p<0.001) in comparison to unexposed individuals. In the exposed individuals with skin lesions, there were elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased cytochrome c release, leading to increased downstream caspase activity. Arsenic-induced DNA damage was confirmed by DNA ladder formation and confocal microscopy. We also observed that chronic arsenic exposure reduced Bcl-2/Bax ratio and also resulted in cell cycle arrest of PBMC in G0/G1 phase. All these observations indicate that mitochondria-mediated pathway may be responsible for arsenic-induced apoptosis.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Patel, Devendra K; Ansari, Reyaz W; Pant, Aditya B; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K

    2010-09-01

    Our recent studies have shown that arsenic-induced neurobehavioral toxicity is protected by curcumin by modulating oxidative stress and dopaminergic functions in rats. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of curcumin has been investigated on arsenic-induced alterations in biogenic amines, their metabolites and nitric oxide (NO), which play an important role in neurotransmission process. Decrease in the levels of dopamine (DA, 28%), norepinephrine (NE, 54%), epinephrine (EPN, 46%), serotonin (5-HT, 44%), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, 20%) and homovanillic acid (HVA, 31%) in corpus striatum; DA (51%), NE (22%), EPN (47%), 5-HT (25%), DOPAC (34%) and HVA (41%) in frontal cortex and DA (35%), NE (35%), EPN (29%), 5-HT (54%), DOPAC (37%) and HVA (46%) in hippocampus, observed in arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) treated rats exhibited a trend of recovery in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days). Increased levels of NO in corpus striatum (2.4-fold), frontal cortex (6.1-fold) and hippocampus (6.2-fold) in arsenic-treated rats were found decreased in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. It is evident that curcumin modulates levels of brain biogenic amines and NO in arsenic-exposed rats and these results further strengthen its neuroprotective efficacy.

  18. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.

  19. Antioxidant and modulatory role of Chlorophytum borivilianum against arsenic induced testicular impairment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Kumar, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic has a suppressive influence on spermatogenesis and induces impairment in male reproductive system due to oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to test the arsenic induced toxicity and protection by Chlorophytum borivilianum. The effect of sodium arsenite (4 mg/(kg body weight (bw) x day)) via double distilled water without or with C. borivilianum (800 mg/(kg bw x day)) was evaluated in Swiss albino mice for 30 days. The radical scavenging activity of the aqueous C. borivilianum root extract was measured using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrayzyl) radical. Qualitative assessment of various cell types in the testis, sperm count and motility, testicular activity of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), acid and alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and serum testosterone were monitored. Arsenic treatment showed a significant increase in LPO, acid and alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, GSH and serum testosterone. Combined treatment showed significant decrease in LPO, acid and alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and elevation in sperm count, sperm motility, GSH and serum testosterone. Testicular histopathology showed that C. borivilianum had reduced degeneration of germ cell in the seminiferous tubules and loss of sperms induced by arsenic intoxication. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. borivilianum root extract is found to be protective against arsenic induced toxicity.

  20. Arsenic induces apoptosis in mouse liver is mitochondria dependent and is abrogated by N-acetylcysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Santra, Amal . E-mail: asantra2000@yahoo.co.in; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ghatak, Subhadip; Biswas, Ayan; Dhali, Gopal Krishna

    2007-04-15

    Arsenicosis, caused by arsenic contamination of drinking water supplies, is a major public health problem in India and Bangladesh. Chronic liver disease, often with portal hypertension occurs in chronic arsenicosis, contributes to the morbidity and mortality. The early cellular events that initiate liver cell injury due to arsenicosis have not been studied. Our aim was to identify the possible mechanisms related to arsenic-induced liver injury in mice. Liver injury was induced in mice by arsenic treatment. The liver was used for mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Evidence of apoptosis was sought by TUNEL test, caspase assay and histology. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was done to modulate hepatic GSH level. Arsenic treatment in mice caused liver injury associated with increased oxidative stress in liver mitochondria and alteration of MPT. Altered MPT facilitated cytochrome c release in the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment of NAC to arsenic-treated mice abrogated all these alteration suggesting a glutathione (GSH)-dependent mechanism. Oxidative stress in mitochondria and inappropriate MPT are important in the pathogenesis of arsenic induced apoptotic liver cell injury. The phenomenon is GSH dependent and supplementation of NAC might have beneficial effects.

  1. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered. PMID:27585557

  2. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-09-02

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.

  3. Phytoremedial effect of Withania somnifera against arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in Charles Foster rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Ranjit; Rahman, Mohammad Samuir; Iqubal, Mohammad Asif; Anand, Gautam; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Ali, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of the current study was to observe the ameliorative effect of Withania somnifera on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity by exploring the crucial parameters such as sperm counts, sperm motility, hormonal assay and lipid peroxidation including histopathology. Materials and Methods: In the present study, arsenic in the form of sodium arsenite was administered orally to male Charles Foster rats for 45 days. Thereafter, ethanolic root extract of Withania somnifera was administered for 30 days to observe its ameliorative effect on male reproductive system. Results: The study revealed that after administration of sodium arsenite, there was a decrease in the sperm counts and sperm motility accompanied by an increased incidence of sperm abnormalities and hormonal imbalance leading to infertility. However, after administration of Withania somnifera, there was significant reversal in the parameters denoting that it not only possesses antioxidant and rejuvenating property but also maintains the cellular integrity of testicular cells leading to normal functioning of it. Conclusion: The study concludes that Withania somnifera possesses phytoremedial effect. It is one of the best antidotes against arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26445714

  4. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered. PMID:27585557

  5. Arsenic-induced myocardial injury: protective role of Corchorus olitorius leaves.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup K; Sahu, Ranabir; Dua, Tarun K; Bag, Sujit; Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Sinha, Mohit K; Dewanjee, Saikat

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and its adjoining part of West Bengal (India) is reported to be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world in terms of the affected population. Tossa jute, Corchorus olitorius is a popular crop of this arsenic prone population. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of C. olitorius leaves (AECO) against sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)) induced cardiotoxicity in experimental rats. The animals exposed to NaAsO(2) (10mg/kg, p.o.) for 10days exhibited a significant inhibition (p<0.01) of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione level in myocardial tissues of rats. In addition, it significantly increased (p<0.01) oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content in myocardial tissue. Treatment with AECO (50 and 100mg/kg, p.o.) for 15days prior to NaAsO(2)-intoxication significantly protected cardiac tissue against arsenic-induced oxidative impairment. In addition, AECO pretreatment significantly prevented NaAsO(2) induced hyperlipidemia, cardiac arsenic content and DNA fragmentation in experimental rats. Histological studies of myocardial tissue supported the protective activity of the AECO. The results concluded that the treatment with AECO prior to arsenic intoxication has significant protecting effect against arsenic-induced myocardial injury. PMID:20156518

  6. Arsenic-induced myocardial injury: protective role of Corchorus olitorius leaves.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup K; Sahu, Ranabir; Dua, Tarun K; Bag, Sujit; Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Sinha, Mohit K; Dewanjee, Saikat

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and its adjoining part of West Bengal (India) is reported to be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world in terms of the affected population. Tossa jute, Corchorus olitorius is a popular crop of this arsenic prone population. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of C. olitorius leaves (AECO) against sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)) induced cardiotoxicity in experimental rats. The animals exposed to NaAsO(2) (10mg/kg, p.o.) for 10days exhibited a significant inhibition (p<0.01) of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione level in myocardial tissues of rats. In addition, it significantly increased (p<0.01) oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content in myocardial tissue. Treatment with AECO (50 and 100mg/kg, p.o.) for 15days prior to NaAsO(2)-intoxication significantly protected cardiac tissue against arsenic-induced oxidative impairment. In addition, AECO pretreatment significantly prevented NaAsO(2) induced hyperlipidemia, cardiac arsenic content and DNA fragmentation in experimental rats. Histological studies of myocardial tissue supported the protective activity of the AECO. The results concluded that the treatment with AECO prior to arsenic intoxication has significant protecting effect against arsenic-induced myocardial injury.

  7. Ameliorative Effect of Tephrosia Purpurea in Arsenic-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Ravuri Halley; Kerketta, Priscilla; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Toppo, Reetu; Prasad, Raju; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Roy, Birendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TPE) against arsenic-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: Twenty four number of wistar rats were equally divided into three groups. Sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) was orally given to group I for 28 days, additionally group II was orally treated with TPE (500 mg/kg), while the control group was kept untreated with neither arsenic nor TPE. Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress indices and arsenic concentration in kidney were estimated. Histopathology of kidney was also conducted. Results: Group II animals show significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine, and increased serum albumin level compared to group I. The higher lipid peroxidation with exhausted superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione level were noticed in group I compared to group II. There was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation in kidneys between the two arsenic treated groups, but the histopathology of kidney of group II rats revealed reduced necrosis and intact tubular architecture as compared to group I. Conclusions: Tephrosia Purpurea extract has a significant role in protecting the animals from arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24748739

  8. Arsenic induces apoptosis in mouse liver is mitochondria dependent and is abrogated by N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Santra, Amal; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ghatak, Subhadip; Biswas, Ayan; Dhali, Gopal Krishna

    2007-04-15

    Arsenicosis, caused by arsenic contamination of drinking water supplies, is a major public health problem in India and Bangladesh. Chronic liver disease, often with portal hypertension occurs in chronic arsenicosis, contributes to the morbidity and mortality. The early cellular events that initiate liver cell injury due to arsenicosis have not been studied. Our aim was to identify the possible mechanisms related to arsenic-induced liver injury in mice. Liver injury was induced in mice by arsenic treatment. The liver was used for mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Evidence of apoptosis was sought by TUNEL test, caspase assay and histology. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was done to modulate hepatic GSH level. Arsenic treatment in mice caused liver injury associated with increased oxidative stress in liver mitochondria and alteration of MPT. Altered MPT facilitated cytochrome c release in the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment of NAC to arsenic-treated mice abrogated all these alteration suggesting a glutathione (GSH)-dependent mechanism. Oxidative stress in mitochondria and inappropriate MPT are important in the pathogenesis of arsenic induced apoptotic liver cell injury. The phenomenon is GSH dependent and supplementation of NAC might have beneficial effects.

  9. AIM2 inflammasome mediates Arsenic-induced secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingfang; Qi, Yuanlin; Li, Hui; Cui, Jiajun; Dai, Lu; Frank, Jacqueline A; Chen, Jian; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Chronic sterile inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including skin cancer. Chronic arsenic exposure is closely associated with the development of skin cancer. However, there is a lack of understanding how arsenic induces chronic inflammation in the skin. Interleukin-1 family cytokines play a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory response. IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-18 are three pro-inflammatory cytokines in IL-1 family. Their secretion, especially the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, is regulated by inflammasomes which are multi-protein complexes containing sensor proteins, adaptor protein and caspase-1. The data from current study show sub-chronic arsenic exposure activates AIM2 inflammasome which in turn activates caspase-1 and enhances the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in HaCaT cells and the skin of BALB/c mice. In addition, arsenic-promoted activation of AIM2 inflammasome and increase of IL-1β/IL-18 production are inhibited by PKR inhibitor in HaCaT cells or in the skin of PKR mutant mice, indicating a potential role of PKR in arsenic-induced sterile inflammation. PMID:27471628

  10. Antioxidant and modulatory role of Chlorophytum borivilianum against arsenic induced testicular impairment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Kumar, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic has a suppressive influence on spermatogenesis and induces impairment in male reproductive system due to oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to test the arsenic induced toxicity and protection by Chlorophytum borivilianum. The effect of sodium arsenite (4 mg/(kg body weight (bw) x day)) via double distilled water without or with C. borivilianum (800 mg/(kg bw x day)) was evaluated in Swiss albino mice for 30 days. The radical scavenging activity of the aqueous C. borivilianum root extract was measured using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrayzyl) radical. Qualitative assessment of various cell types in the testis, sperm count and motility, testicular activity of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), acid and alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and serum testosterone were monitored. Arsenic treatment showed a significant increase in LPO, acid and alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, GSH and serum testosterone. Combined treatment showed significant decrease in LPO, acid and alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and elevation in sperm count, sperm motility, GSH and serum testosterone. Testicular histopathology showed that C. borivilianum had reduced degeneration of germ cell in the seminiferous tubules and loss of sperms induced by arsenic intoxication. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. borivilianum root extract is found to be protective against arsenic induced toxicity. PMID:23534213

  11. Arsenic-induced hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats and its amelioration by dietary phosphate.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sangita; Karmakar, Subhra; Maiti, Anasuya; Choudhury, Monalisa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Mitra, Chandan

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that inorganic phosphate may reduce arsenic toxicity by decreasing its intestinal transference. Co-administration of inorganic phosphate (6.56 M) and arsenic (6.07 mM) in the intestinal loops of rats, in situ, caused significant reduction of arsenic transference. Short-term arsenic exposure (3mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) caused liver damage evidenced by activities of liver enzymes and necroinflammatory changes. These effects of arsenic were coupled with enhanced mitochondrial swelling, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, a decrease in mitochondrial calcium content, changes in indices of hepatic mitochondrial oxidative stress and iNOS expression. Arsenic also increased hepatic caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation. All these apoptosis-related molecular changes caused by arsenic could be alleviated by supplementation with inorganic phosphate, which likely suggests a protective role of phosphate against arsenic-induced hepatotoxic changes.

  12. Arsenic-induced hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats and its amelioration by dietary phosphate.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sangita; Karmakar, Subhra; Maiti, Anasuya; Choudhury, Monalisa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Mitra, Chandan

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that inorganic phosphate may reduce arsenic toxicity by decreasing its intestinal transference. Co-administration of inorganic phosphate (6.56 M) and arsenic (6.07 mM) in the intestinal loops of rats, in situ, caused significant reduction of arsenic transference. Short-term arsenic exposure (3mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) caused liver damage evidenced by activities of liver enzymes and necroinflammatory changes. These effects of arsenic were coupled with enhanced mitochondrial swelling, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, a decrease in mitochondrial calcium content, changes in indices of hepatic mitochondrial oxidative stress and iNOS expression. Arsenic also increased hepatic caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation. All these apoptosis-related molecular changes caused by arsenic could be alleviated by supplementation with inorganic phosphate, which likely suggests a protective role of phosphate against arsenic-induced hepatotoxic changes. PMID:21787675

  13. Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Faita, Francesca; Cori, Liliana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    The arsenic (As) exposure represents an important problem in many parts of the World. Indeed, it is estimated that over 100 million individuals are exposed to arsenic, mainly through a contamination of groundwaters. Chronic exposure to As is associated with adverse effects on human health such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases and the rate of morbidity and mortality in populations exposed is alarming. The purpose of this review is to summarize the genotoxic effects of As in the cells as well as to discuss the importance of signaling and repair of arsenic-induced DNA damage. The current knowledge of specific polymorphisms in candidate genes that confer susceptibility to arsenic exposure is also reviewed. We also discuss the perspectives offered by the determination of biological markers of early effect on health, incorporating genetic polymorphisms, with biomarkers for exposure to better evaluate exposure-response clinical relationships as well as to develop novel preventative strategies for arsenic- health effects. PMID:23583964

  14. Role of Calcium in Phosphatidylserine Externalisation in Red Blood Cells from Sickle Cell Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Erwin; Rees, David Charles; Gibson, John Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine exposure occurs in red blood cells (RBCs) from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and is increased by deoxygenation. The mechanisms responsible remain unclear. RBCs from SCD patients also have elevated cation permeability, and, in particular, a deoxygenation-induced cation conductance which mediates Ca2+ entry, providing an obvious link with phosphatidylserine exposure. The role of Ca2+ was investigated using FITC-labelled annexin. Results confirmed high phosphatidylserine exposure in RBCs from SCD patients increasing upon deoxygenation. When deoxygenated, phosphatidylserine exposure was further elevated as extracellular [Ca2+] was increased. This effect was inhibited by dipyridamole, intracellular Ca2+ chelation, and Gardos channel inhibition. Phosphatidylserine exposure was reduced in high K+ saline. Ca2+ levels required to elicit phosphatidylserine exposure were in the low micromolar range. Findings are consistent with Ca2+ entry through the deoxygenation-induced pathway (Psickle), activating the Gardos channel. [Ca2+] required for phosphatidylserine scrambling are in the range achievable in vivo. PMID:21490763

  15. Gender-specific protective effect of hemoglobin on arsenic-induced skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Breton, Carrie V; Houseman, E Andres; Kile, Molly L; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C

    2006-05-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning remains a public health crisis in Bangladesh. As arsenic has been shown to bind to human hemoglobin (Hb), hematologic mechanisms may play a role in the pathway through which arsenic exerts its toxicity. Two separate studies, a case-control and a cohort, were conducted to investigate the role of Hb in the development of arsenic-induced skin lesions. In the first, conditional logistic regression was used to investigate the effect of Hb on skin lesions among 900 case-control pairs from Pabna, Bangladesh, in which individuals were matched on gender, age, and location. In the second, mixed linear regression models were used to examine the association between toenail arsenic, urinary arsenic, and Hb within a cohort of 184 individuals from 50 families in the same region who did not have arsenic-induced skin lesions. Hb was significantly associated with skin lesions but this association was gender specific. In males, a 40% reduction in the odds of skin lesions occurred for every 1 g/dL increase in Hb (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.73). No effect was observed for females (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.46). In the cohort of 184 individuals, no associations between toenail arsenic or urinary arsenic species and Hb levels were observed. Low Hb levels may exacerbate the detrimental health effects of chronic arsenic poisoning. Whereas providing clean water remains the optimal solution to Bangladesh's problem of arsenic poisoning, improving nutrition and reducing iron-deficiency anemia may ameliorate negative health effects, such as skin lesions in individuals who have been exposed.

  16. Protective effect of Mentha piperita against arsenic-induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ambika; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Madhu

    2007-04-01

    The protective role of leaves of Mentha piperita Linn (Mint) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic-induced hepatopathy. The animals were divided into four groups. Group I: only vehicle (0.9% NaCl) was administered. Group II: the animals received Mentha leaf extract (1 g/kg body weight per day) orally for 30 days. Group III: animals were treated with sodium arsenite (4 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally in 0.9% NaCl. Group IV: animals were given Mentha extract for 10 consecutive days prior to sodium arsenite treatment and continuously for 30 days after sodium arsenite treatment. The animals from the above groups were killed at various time-points, and body weight and liver weight were measured. The biochemical estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in liver and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in serum were done. In the arsenic-treated group there was a significant increase in ACP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and LPO content, whereas a significant decrease was recorded in body weight, liver weight, GSH and LDH activity in liver. Pre- and post-treatment of Mentha with arsenic significantly alters the biochemical parameters in liver. A significant decline in ACP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and LPO content was observed. However, a significant increase in body weight, liver weight, GSH content and LDH activity in liver was estimated. The results indicate that the Mentha extract may be useful in reducing the side effects of arsenic-induced hepatopathy. PMID:17371529

  17. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy; Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna; Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  18. Protective effect of Mentha piperita against arsenic-induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ambika; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Madhu

    2007-04-01

    The protective role of leaves of Mentha piperita Linn (Mint) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic-induced hepatopathy. The animals were divided into four groups. Group I: only vehicle (0.9% NaCl) was administered. Group II: the animals received Mentha leaf extract (1 g/kg body weight per day) orally for 30 days. Group III: animals were treated with sodium arsenite (4 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally in 0.9% NaCl. Group IV: animals were given Mentha extract for 10 consecutive days prior to sodium arsenite treatment and continuously for 30 days after sodium arsenite treatment. The animals from the above groups were killed at various time-points, and body weight and liver weight were measured. The biochemical estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in liver and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in serum were done. In the arsenic-treated group there was a significant increase in ACP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and LPO content, whereas a significant decrease was recorded in body weight, liver weight, GSH and LDH activity in liver. Pre- and post-treatment of Mentha with arsenic significantly alters the biochemical parameters in liver. A significant decline in ACP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and LPO content was observed. However, a significant increase in body weight, liver weight, GSH content and LDH activity in liver was estimated. The results indicate that the Mentha extract may be useful in reducing the side effects of arsenic-induced hepatopathy.

  19. Protective effect of arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mahua; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C

    2008-02-01

    Arsenic, a notoriously poisonous metalloid, is ubiquitous in the environment, and it affects nearly all organ systems of animals including humans. The present study was designed to investigate the preventive role of a triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced oxidative damage in murine brain. Sodium arsenite was selected as a source of arsenic for this study. The free-radical-scavenging activity and the in vivo antioxidant power of arjunolic acid were determined from its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, respectively. Oral administration of sodium arsenite at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days significantly decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, the level of cellular metabolites, reduced glutathione, total thiols and increased the level of oxidized glutathione. In addition, it enhanced the levels of lipid peroxidation end products and protein carbonyl content. Treatment with arjunolic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to arsenic administration almost normalized above indices. Histological findings due to arsenic intoxication and arjunolic acid treatment supported the other biochemical changes in murine brains. Results of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays clearly showed the in vitro radical scavenging as well as the in vivo antioxidant power of arjunolic acid, respectively. The effect of a well-established antioxidant, vitamin C, has been included in the study as a positive control. Combining all, results suggest that arjunolic acid possessed the ability to ameliorate arsenic-induced oxidative insult in murine brain and is probably due to its antioxidant activity.

  20. Arsenic induces structural and compositional colonic microbiome change and promotes host nitrogen and amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dheer, Rishu; Patterson, Jena; Dudash, Mark; Stachler, Elyse N; Bibby, Kyle J; Stolz, Donna B; Shiva, Sruti; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L; Barchowsky, Aaron; Stolz, John F

    2015-12-15

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, mechanisms for chronic arsenic-induced pathogenesis, especially in response to lower exposure levels, are unclear. In addition, the importance of health impacts from xeniobiotic-promoted microbiome changes is just being realized and effects of arsenic on the microbiome with relation to disease promotion are unknown. To investigate impact of arsenic exposure on both microbiome and host metabolism, the stucture and composition of colonic microbiota, their metabolic phenotype, and host tissue and plasma metabolite levels were compared in mice exposed for 2, 5, or 10weeks to 0, 10 (low) or 250 (high) ppb arsenite (As(III)). Genotyping of colonic bacteria revealed time and arsenic concentration dependent shifts in community composition, particularly the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, relative to those seen in the time-matched controls. Arsenic-induced erosion of bacterial biofilms adjacent to the mucosal lining and changes in the diversity and abundance of morphologically distinct species indicated changes in microbial community structure. Bacterical spores increased in abundance and intracellular inclusions decreased with high dose arsenic. Interestingly, expression of arsenate reductase (arsA) and the As(III) exporter arsB, remained unchanged, while the dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nrfA) gene expression increased. In keeping with the change in nitrogen metabolism, colonic and liver nitrite and nitrate levels and ratios changed with time. In addition, there was a concomitant increase in pathogenic arginine metabolites in the mouse circulation. These data suggest that arsenic exposure impacts the microbiome and microbiome/host nitrogen metabolism to support disease enhancing pathogenic phenotypes.

  1. Ameliorative efficacy of tetrahydrocurcumin against arsenic induced oxidative damage, dyslipidemia and hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Muthumani, M; Miltonprabu, S

    2015-06-25

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent hepatotoxin. Environmental exposure to arsenic imposes a serious health hazard to humans and other animals worldwide. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the major metabolites of curcumin, exhibits many of the same physiological and pharmacological activities as curcumin and in some systems may exert greater antioxidant activity than the curcumin. It has been reported that THC has antioxidant efficacy attributable to the presence of identical β-diketone of 3rd and 5th substitution in heptane moiety. In the present study, rats were orally treated with arsenic alone (5 mg kg(-1) bw/day) with THC (80 mg kg(-1) bw/day) for 28 days. Hepatotoxicity was measured by the increased activities of serum hepatospecific enzymes, namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin along with increased elevation of lipid peroxidative markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. And also elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids were observed in arsenic intoxicated rats. These effects of arsenic were coupled with enhanced mitochondrial swelling, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, Ca(2+)ATPase and a decrease in mitochondrial calcium content. The toxic effect of arsenic was also indicated by significantly decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase along with non-enzymatic antioxidant such as reduced glutathione. Administration of THC exhibited significant reversal of arsenic induced toxicity in hepatic tissue. All these changes were supported by the reduction of arsenic concentration and histopathological observations of the liver. These results suggest that THC has a protective effect over arsenic induced toxicity in rat.

  2. Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Methods Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. Results Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential. PMID:23889914

  3. Effect of Centella asiatica on arsenic induced oxidative stress and metal distribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Flora, S J S

    2006-01-01

    Concomitant oral supplementation of Centella asiatica (100, 200 or 300 mg kg(-1), orally once daily) during arsenic exposure (20 ppm in drinking water for 4 weeks) was investigated in rats for its protective value. The animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a marginal decrease in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood. Hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) decreased, while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels increased significantly in the liver, kidney and brain. The activities of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased marginally on arsenic exposure. Concomitant administration of Centella asiatica showed a significant protective action on inhibited blood ALAD activity and restored the blood GSH level, whereas most of the other blood biochemical parameters remained unchanged on Centella asiatica supplementation. Interestingly, most of the hepatic biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress showed protection. There was, however, a significant protection observed in the altered kidney GSSG level and hepatic and brain TBARS. Only a marginal beneficial effect of Centella asiatica on blood and liver arsenic concentration was noted, particularly at the highest dose studies (300 mg kg(-1)). No effect of Centella asiatica on most of the altered renal biochemical parameters was noted. The results thus lead to the conclusion that simultaneous supplementation of Centella asiatica significantly protects against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but does not influence the arsenic concentration in these organs. It can thus be suggested that co-administration of Centella asiatica protects animals from arsenic-induced oxidative stress but exhibits no chelating property. Further studies are recommended for determining the effect of co-administration of Centella asiatica during chelation

  4. Ameliorative efficacy of tetrahydrocurcumin against arsenic induced oxidative damage, dyslipidemia and hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Muthumani, M; Miltonprabu, S

    2015-06-25

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent hepatotoxin. Environmental exposure to arsenic imposes a serious health hazard to humans and other animals worldwide. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the major metabolites of curcumin, exhibits many of the same physiological and pharmacological activities as curcumin and in some systems may exert greater antioxidant activity than the curcumin. It has been reported that THC has antioxidant efficacy attributable to the presence of identical β-diketone of 3rd and 5th substitution in heptane moiety. In the present study, rats were orally treated with arsenic alone (5 mg kg(-1) bw/day) with THC (80 mg kg(-1) bw/day) for 28 days. Hepatotoxicity was measured by the increased activities of serum hepatospecific enzymes, namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin along with increased elevation of lipid peroxidative markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. And also elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids were observed in arsenic intoxicated rats. These effects of arsenic were coupled with enhanced mitochondrial swelling, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, Ca(2+)ATPase and a decrease in mitochondrial calcium content. The toxic effect of arsenic was also indicated by significantly decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase along with non-enzymatic antioxidant such as reduced glutathione. Administration of THC exhibited significant reversal of arsenic induced toxicity in hepatic tissue. All these changes were supported by the reduction of arsenic concentration and histopathological observations of the liver. These results suggest that THC has a protective effect over arsenic induced toxicity in rat. PMID:25869292

  5. The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2008-07-01

    It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero.

  6. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H2O2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O2(-)) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The present study has also shown that the arsenic-transformed cells acquired apoptosis resistance. The inhibition of catalase to increase ROS level restored apoptosis capability of arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells, further showing that ROS levels are low in these cells. The apoptosis resistance due to the low ROS levels may increase cells proliferation, providing a favorable environment for tumorigenesis

  7. Assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals susceptible to arsenic induced toxicity in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anamika; Som, Arundhati; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mondal, Lakshmikanta; Chaubey, Ramesh C; Bhilwade, Hari N; Rahman, Mohammad M; Giri, Ashok K

    2005-10-15

    Assessment of DNA damage was carried out using alkaline comet assay in lymphocytes of 30 individuals exposed to high levels of arsenic (247.12+/-18.93 microg/l) through contaminated groundwater in North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India. All of them exhibited high arsenic contents in nail (4.20+/-0.67 microg/g), hair (2.06+/-0.20 microg/g) and urine (259.75+/-33.89 microg/l) samples and manifested various arsenical skin lesions. Unexposed samples were collected from 30 residents of the unaffected East Midnapur district with very little or no exposure to arsenic (7.69+/-0.49 microg/l) in drinking water. The results were evaluated principally by manual analysis of comets and partly by computerized image analysis. Both the analytical methods exhibited a high degree of agreement in results. The exposed participants expressed significantly higher DNA damage (p < 0.01) in their lymphocytes than the unexposed participants. Alkaline comet assay was also combined with formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase enzyme digestion to confirm that arsenic induced oxidative base damage in the lymphocytes. Significant positive trend effects of comet lengths in relation to arsenic levels in water prove that DNA damage can be used as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic exposure. This study demonstrates that arsenic induced significant DNA damage in the exposed participants, which could correspond to a higher susceptibility to arsenic induced toxicity and carcinogenicity.

  8. Immunological profile of arsenic toxicity: a hint towards arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sagar; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Kumar, Pankaj; Begum, Zarina; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Flora, S J S; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (a Group I carcinogen in humans) contamination and poisoning of human populations in different parts of Southeast and Eastern Asia, including West Bengal and Bangladesh, has become a major environmental concern. Arsenic intoxication affects diverse human organs including the lungs, liver, skin, bladder and kidney. This metalloid acts as a promoter of carcinogenesis, exerting toxic effects on the immune system. The present study was aimed at investigating arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and effects on the immune system in an animal model. Tumors were induced using ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and arsenic was used as a promoter. To investigate specific effects on the immune system, cytokine (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL12) production of lymphocytes was evaluated by FACS. The damaging consequences of treatment were assessed by evaluating the specific programmed cell death cascade in lymphocytes, assessed by FACS readings. The results revealed that under arsenic influence, and more so with arsenic+ENU, marked neoplastic changes were noted, which were corroborated with histological changes, cytokine modulation and apoptosis hinted at marked neoplastic changes.

  9. Defective adrenergic responses in patients with arsenic-induced peripheral vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Chang, Huoy-Rou; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2007-01-01

    Blackfoot disease is an endemic arsenic-induced peripheral vascular disease in southern Taiwan. The main pathologic feature is atherosclerosis, which may relate to imbalances of the adrenergic system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the peripheral adrenergic responses of patients with blackfoot disease. Eight patients with blackfoot disease and four age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Baseline cutaneous perfusion was measured with a laser Doppler flowmeter. The response of alpha-adrenoceptors in the cutaneous microcirculation was assessed with laser Doppler flowmetry with iontophoresis of phenylephrine into the nailfold. In vitro binding with (125)I-cyanopindolol determined beta-adrenoceptor density in lymphocytes. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level at baseline and after isoproterenol stimulation reflects lymphocyte beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Results revealed persistently decreased skin perfusion in patients with blackfoot disease. In contrast, there was a transient decrease in skin perfusion in healthy controls after iontophoresis of phenylephrine. Both beta-2 receptor density and isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes decreased. Increased peripheral alpha-adrenergic response and decreased beta-2-adrenergic response are related to increased vascular tone and result in atherosclerosis. Our findings of accentuated alpha-adrenergic response in microcirculation and decreased lymphocyte beta-2-adrenoceptor response play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in blackfoot disease.

  10. Effect of aqueous extracts of black and green teas in arsenic-induced toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Raihan, S Zahir; Chowdhury, A K Azad; Rabbani, Golam H; Marni, Farzana; Ali, M Shawkat; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2009-11-01

    Arsenic causes oxidative stress in the body. Its administration (3 mg/kg/day) for 14 days in rabbits resulted in a significant reduction of whole blood glutathione (GSH), and elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the index of nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. These are the markers of oxidative stress. Both black tea (BT) and green tea (GT) (Camellia sinensis), when administered to the arsenic-treated rabbits for 14 days, caused a significant elevation of the depleted GSH level to 53.12% and 57.47%, respectively. On the contrary, in the placebo group the level was 26.59%. The BT and GT reduced the elevated TBARS level to 43.27% and 62.28%, respectively, whereas the corresponding level in the placebo groups was 21.24%. The NOx levels were also reduced to 63.62%, 67.67% and 58.94% in BT, GT and the placebo groups, respectively. When arsenic and black tea were given concurrently to another group the results were even more pronounced. The polyphenol components of black and green tea were 27.69% and 29.71% of the dry weight of the total extracts, respectively. These results indicated that arsenic-induced toxicities in rabbits were significantly reversed by the black and green tea polyphenols. The greater activity of green tea than that of black tea correlates with the slightly higher content of polyphenols in green tea.

  11. Arsenic-induced morphogenic response in roots of arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    Forino, Laura Maria Costantina; Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Bartoli, Giacomo; Balestri, Mirko; Andreucci, Andrea; Tagliasacchi, Anna Maria

    2012-10-15

    On the assumption that arsenic induces stress morphogenetic responses involved in As tolerance and hyperaccumulation in the Pteris vittata fern, we analyzed the root system of young sporophytes grown in 250, 334, and 500 μM As for five days and for 14 days. Anatomical and histological analyses were performed in plants grown for five days to evaluate the number, position, length and differentiation pattern of root hairs. AgNOR staining, employed to study nucleolus behavior in root apices, showed that arsenic influences nucleolar activity (evaluated by nucleolus size, number and absorbance) in the root meristem. In plants treated with 250 and 334 μM As an acropetal shift of root hair development and an increase in hair length and density were observed, linked to an ectopic pattern of differentiation. The opposite trend was recorded in plants treated with 500 μM As. It is worth noting the presence of living border-like cells, not yet observed in ferns, and their increase following As treatments. Analysis and vitality of border-like cells were surveyed after 14 days of treatments. In conclusion As treatments elicited a stress-induced morphogenic response which, by modifying the differentiation pattern, number and length of root hairs, modulating nucleolar activity and interacting with the rhizosphere by inducing border-like cell production, may adjust the rate of root uptake and its metabolic activity.

  12. Arsenic-induced genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus); the role of Spirulina platensis extract.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M; Zahran, Eman

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most relevant environmental global single substance toxicants that have long been regarded as a carcinogenic and genotoxic potential. In this respect, we evaluated the cytogenetic effect of arsenic exposure in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in terms of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phytoantioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties supplementation. The protective role of Spirulina as supplementary feeds was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic-induced cytogenotoxicity. Four groups were assigned as control group (no SP or As), As group (exposed to water-born As in the form of NaAsO2 at 7 ppm), SP1 (SP at 7.5% + As at the same level of exposure), and SP2 (SP at 10% + As at the same level of exposure). As-treated group had a significant increase in all cytogenetic analyses including erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei after 2 weeks with continuous increase in response after 3 weeks. The combined treatment of Spirulina at two different concentrations of 7.5 and 10% had significantly declined the induction of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and micronuclei formation induced by arsenic intoxication. PMID:26573688

  13. Biochanin A Ameliorates Arsenic-Induced Hepato- and Hematotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jalaludeen, Abdulkadhar Mohamed; Ha, Woo Tae; Lee, Ran; Kim, Jin Hoi; Do, Jeong Tae; Park, Chankyu; Heo, Young Tae; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-09

    Biochanin A (BCA) is a natural organic compound of the phytoestrogenic isoflavone class that has antioxidant and metal chelator properties in the presence of transition metal ions, however, its efficacy in animal models is still obscure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of BCA against arsenic-induced hepatic injury and hematotoxicity in rats. The results suggest that arsenic intoxicated rats showed significantly higher levels of plasma hepatic markers than normal control rats. Furthermore, an increase in lipid peroxidation with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) occurred in the livers of rats exposed to arsenic. Administration of BCA (20 mg/kg·bw/day) and selenium (3 mg/kg·bw/day) resulted in a significant reversal of hepatic and oxidative stress markers in arsenic-intoxicated rats. A low dose of BCA (10 mg/kg·bw/day) did not show any preventive effect, while a high dose of BCA (40 mg/kg·bw/day) partially prevented all hepatotoxicity events. These biochemical perturbations were supported by histopathological observations of the liver. Our results suggest that administration of BCA (20 mg/kg·bw/day) attenuated the arsenic hepatotoxicity, a property that could contribute to the therapeutic approaches for chronic liver diseases.

  14. Arsenic-induced genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus); the role of Spirulina platensis extract.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M; Zahran, Eman

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most relevant environmental global single substance toxicants that have long been regarded as a carcinogenic and genotoxic potential. In this respect, we evaluated the cytogenetic effect of arsenic exposure in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in terms of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phytoantioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties supplementation. The protective role of Spirulina as supplementary feeds was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic-induced cytogenotoxicity. Four groups were assigned as control group (no SP or As), As group (exposed to water-born As in the form of NaAsO2 at 7 ppm), SP1 (SP at 7.5% + As at the same level of exposure), and SP2 (SP at 10% + As at the same level of exposure). As-treated group had a significant increase in all cytogenetic analyses including erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei after 2 weeks with continuous increase in response after 3 weeks. The combined treatment of Spirulina at two different concentrations of 7.5 and 10% had significantly declined the induction of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and micronuclei formation induced by arsenic intoxication.

  15. Arsenic-induced toxicity and the protective role of ascorbic acid in mouse testis

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Soo Im; Jin, Bohwan; Youn, Pilju; Park, Changbo; Park, Jung-Duck; Ryu, Doug-Young . E-mail: dyryu@snu.ac.kr

    2007-01-15

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a major cause of male reproductive failure. Here, we investigated whether arsenic, which impairs male reproductive functions in rodent models, acts by inducing oxidative stress. Male 8-week-old ICR mice were given drinking water containing 20 or 40 mg/l sodium arsenite with or without 0.75 or 1.5 g/l of the antioxidant ascorbic acid for 5 weeks. The arsenic-treated mice showed decreased epididymidal sperm counts and testicular weights compared to untreated mice. These effects were reversed in mice that were co-treated with ascorbic acid. Similarly, arsenic treatment lowered the activities of testicular 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17{beta}-HSD, which play important roles in steroidogenesis, and this was reversed by co-treatment with ascorbic acid. The testicles of arsenic-treated mice had decreased glutathione (GSH) levels (which correlate inversely with the degree of cellular oxidative stress) and elevated levels of protein carbonyl (a marker of oxidative damage to tissue proteins). Ascorbic acid co-treatment reversed both of these effects. Thus, ascorbic acid blocks both the adverse effects of arsenic on male reproductive functions and the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative changes. These observations support the notion that arsenic impairs male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress.

  16. ARSENIC INDUCES SUSTAINED IMPAIRMENT OF SKELETAL MUSCLE AND MUSCLE PROGENITOR CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE AND BIOENERGETICS

    PubMed Central

    Fabrisia, Ambrosio; Elke, Brown; Donna, Stolz; Ricardo, Ferrari; Bret, Goodpaster; Bridget, Deasy; Giovanna, Distefano; Alexandra, Roperti; Amin, Cheikhi; Yesica, Garciafigueroa; Aaron, Barchowsky

    2014-01-01

    Over 4 million individuals in the US, and over 140 million individuals worldwide, are exposed daily to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Human exposures can range from below the current limit of 10 µg/L to over 1 mg/L, with 100 µg/L promoting disease in a large portion of those exposed. Although increased attention has recently been paid to myopathy following arsenic exposure, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying clinical symptoms remain poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that arsenic induces lasting muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and impairs metabolism. When compared to non-exposed controls, mice exposed to drinking water containing 100µg/L arsenite for 5 weeks demonstrated impaired muscle function, mitochondrial myopathy, and altered oxygen consumption that were concomitant with increased mitochondrial fusion gene transcription. There was no difference in levels of inorganic arsenic or its mononomethyl- and dimethyl- metabolites between controls and exposed muscles, confirming that arsenic does not accumulate in muscle. Nevertheless, muscle progenitor cells isolated from exposed mice recapitulated the aberrant myofiber phenotype and were more resistant to oxidative stress, generated more reactive oxygen species, and displayed autophagic mitochondrial morphology, as compared to cells isolated from non-exposed mice. These pathological changes from a possible maladaptive oxidative stress response provide insight into declines in muscle functioning caused by exposure to this common environmental contaminant. PMID:24960579

  17. Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex and the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, S; Bertolaccini, M L

    2014-10-01

    Antibodies to prothrombin can be detected by ELISA using prothrombin coated onto irradiated plates (aPT) or the phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex as antigen (aPS/PT) and they have been both related with the clinical manifestation of APS. Current evidence supports the concept that they belong to distinct populations of autoantibodies. Nevertheless, they can both be detected simultaneously in one patient. This mini-review will focus on data available on aPS/PT antibodies and their clinical utility in the diagnosis of APS. PMID:25228735

  18. Ethanol increases affinity of protein kinase C for phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    Protein kinase C is a calcium-dependent enzyme that requires phospholipid for its activation. It is present in relatively high concentration in the brain and may be involved in neuronal function. The present experiments test whether the membrane disorder induced by ethanol affects the activity of kinase C by changing its interaction with membrane lipid. Fractions rich in kinase C were purified from rat brain cytosol by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Enzyme activity was assayed by measuring the phosphorylation of histone H1. As expected, phosphatidylserine activated the enzyme, and the stimulation was further increased by the addition of calcium and/or diacylglycerol. At low concentration of free calcium (0.5-1..mu..M), ethanol (800 mM0 enhanced kinase C activity if the presence of phospholipid. similar results were observed in the absence of calcium. Double reciprocal plots of the data showed that ethanol increased the affinity of the enzyme for phosphatidylserine without affecting the V/sub max. The stimulation of kinase C activity by ethanol was not observed at high calcium concentrations. These experiments suggest that ethanol may activated protein kinase C at physiological levels of calcium by facilitating its transfer into the hydrophobic membrane environment.

  19. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji; Kang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Wen; Lei, Wan; Feng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions. PMID:27331813

  20. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol prevents arsenic-induced protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by arsenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadirvel, R; Sundaram, K; Mani, S; Samuel, S; Elango, N; Panneerselvam, C

    2007-12-01

    Contamination of arsenic in drinking water is associated with several human diseases including cancer. It has been reported that oxidative stress plays a vital role in arsenic-induced biochemical and molecular alterations. The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of arsenic-induced oxidative damage to proteins and to DNA and the role of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol in alleviating arsenic-induced damages in experimental rats. A significant increase in the levels of protein oxidation, DNA strand breaks, and DNA-protein cross-links was observed in blood, liver, and kidney of rats exposed to arsenic (100 ppm in drinking water) for 30 days. Co-administration of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol to arsenic-exposed rats showed a substantial reduction in the levels of arsenic-induced oxidative products of protein and DNA. The results of this study support that free radical-mediated toxic manifestations of arsenic and also suggest that ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation can improve the arsenic-induced molecular alterations.

  1. Arsenic induces apoptosis by the lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway in INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Jiang, Liping; Zhong, Laifu; Geng, Chengyan; Jia, Li; Liu, Shuang; Guan, Huai; Yang, Guang; Yao, Xiaofeng; Piao, Fengyuan; Sun, Xiance

    2016-02-01

    Recently, long term arsenic exposure was considered to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. While a relation of cause-and-effect between apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and arsenic exposure, the precise mechanisms of these events remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore arsenic-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and the mechanisms of through the possible link between lysosomal and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. After exposure to 10 μM of arsenic, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was significantly increased at 12 h, while the mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced at 24 h and the lysosomal membrane integrity was disrupted at 48 h. A significant increase in protein expression for cytochrome c was also observed using Western blot analysis after exposure to arsenic for 48 h. To further demonstrate that arsenic reduced the lysosomal membrane integrity, cells pretreated with NH4 Cl and exposed to arsenic harbored a lower fluorescence increase than cells that were only exposed to arsenic. In addition, apoptosis was mesured using Hoechst 33342/PI dual staining by microscopy and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide dual staining by flow cytometry. The results show an increased uptake of the arsenic dose and the cells changed from dark blue to light blue, karyopyknosis, nuclear chromatin condensation, side set or fracture, and a correlation was found between the number of apoptotic cells and arsenic dose. The result of present study suggest that arsenic may induce pancreatic β-cell apoptosis through activation of the lysosome-mitochondrial pathway.

  2. Lutein alleviates arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice via Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, S G; Xu, S Z; Niu, Q; Ding, Y S; Pang, L J; Ma, R L; Jing, M X; Wang, K; Ma, X M; Feng, G L; Liu, J M; Zhang, X F; Xiang, H L; Li, F

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in the action of lutein (LU) alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity using mice model. Forty male Kunming mice were received following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control), arsenic trioxide (ATO; 5 mg/kg/day), LU (40 mg/kg/day), and ATO + LU (5 mg/kg/day + 40 mg/kg/day). At the end, the mice were killed by cervical dislocation and weighed. Pathological examination was done on the testis. The biomedical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) in testis were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We found that there was a decrease in sperm count; testis somatic index; the activities of SOD, GSH, total antioxidative capacity (p < 0.01, respectively) in ATO-treated mice, while there was an increase in the levels of sperm abnormalities, MDA, and 8-OHdG than control (p < 0.01, respectively). The groups treated with ATO + LU showed recovery of the measured parameters between those of ATO or saline-treated group. The antagonized interaction between ATO and LU was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Mice treated with ATO + LU also showed greater mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GST than ATO or saline-treated groups. These findings suggest that LU alleviates reproductive toxicity induced by arsenic in male mice via Nrf2 signaling, which implicates a possible mechanism of LU in preventing the reproductive injury, and elucidates that consuming the rich plant sources of LU will alleviate the reproductive toxicity induced by chemicals.

  3. Hepatoprotective role and antioxidant capacity of selenium on arsenic-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Messarah, Mahfoud; Klibet, Fahima; Boumendjel, Amel; Abdennour, Cherif; Bouzerna, Noureddine; Boulakoud, Mohamed Salah; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2012-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of selenium against arsenic-induced oxidative damage in experimental rats. Males were randomly divided into four groups where the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups were respectively treated with sodium selenite (3 mg/kg b.w.), sodium arsenite (5.55 mg/kg b.w.) and a combination of sodium arsenite and sodium selenite. Changes in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were determined after 3 weeks experimental period. Exposure of rats to As caused a significant increase in liver TBARS compared to control, but the co-administration of Se was effective in reducing its level. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) of As-treated group were found lower compared to the control and the Se-treated group. The co-administration of Se had an additive protective effect on liver enzyme activities compared to As-treated animals. On the other hand, a significant increase in plasmatic activities of AST, ALT and ALP was observed in As-treated group. The latter was also exhibited a decrease in body weight and an increase in liver weight compared to the control. The co-administration of Se has decreased the activities of AST, AST and ALP and improved the antioxidant status as well. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of Se. To conclude, results suggest that As exposure enhanced an oxidative stress by disturbing the tissue antioxidant defense system, but the Se co-administration protected liver tissues against As intoxication probably owing to its antioxidant properties.

  4. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on arsenic induced oxidative stress in goats.

    PubMed

    Das, T K; Mani, V; Kaur, H; Kewalramani, N; De, S; Hossain, A; Banerjee, D; Datta, B K

    2012-07-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether supplementation of different levels of vitamin E to long-term arsenic exposed goats affords protection against the oxidative stress caused by the metalloid. Twenty-four crossbred lactating goats were distributed randomly into four groups (control, T(1), T(2) and T(3)) of six in each. The animals in T(1), T(2) and T(3) were given 50 mg/kg DM arsenic daily, while in T(2) and T(3), vitamin E @100 IU and 150 IU/kg DM, respectively, was also supplemented additionally for the period of 12 months. Compared to control, significant (p < 0.05) decline in SOD (45 %), CAT activities of erythrocytes (63 %), plasma total Ig (22 %) and total antioxidant activity (24 %) was observed in only arsenic treated groups and vitamin E supplementation in both doses produced partial mitigation effect against SOD (23 %, 20 %) and CAT (39 %, 48 %) while complete mitigation against total Ig (16 %, 7 %) and antioxidant activity (10 %, 8 %) was found. Average lymphocyte stimulation index at the end of experiment was (p < 0.05) lower in arsenic exposed groups (1.003 ± 0.01) and significant (p < 0.05) recovery was observed in response of vitamin E supplementation at higher doses (1.138 ± 0.03). So, vitamin E is helpful in reducing the burden of arsenic induced oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in goats.

  5. Arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects and distribution in tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Todorov, Todor I.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; van der Voet, Gijsbert; Centeno, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well documented human carcinogen. However, its mechanisms of toxic action and carcinogenic potential in animals have not been conclusive. In this research, we investigated the biochemical and genotoxic effects of As and studied its distribution in selected tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of six male rats, each weighing approximately 60 ± 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once a day for 5 days with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg bw of arsenic trioxide. A control group was also made of 6 animals injected with distilled water. Following anaesthetization, blood was collected and enzyme analysis was performed by spectrophotometry following standard protocols. At the end of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and the lung, liver, brain and kidney were collected 24 h after the fifth day treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells. Arsenic exposure significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of plasma alanine aminotransferase-glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT/GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase-glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST/GOT), as well as the number of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and frequency of micronuclei (MN) in the bone marrow cells. In contrast, the mitotic index in these cells was significantly reduced (p<0.05). These findings indicate that aminotransferases are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results also demonstrate that As has a strong genotoxic potential, as measured by the bone marrow SCA and MN tests in Sprague-Dawley rats. Total arsenic concentrations in tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with hydrogen gas was used to eliminate the ArCl interference at mass 75, in the measurement of total As. Total As doses in tissues tended to correlate with specific exposure levels. PMID:23175155

  6. Serum acetyl cholinesterase as a biomarker of arsenic induced neurotoxicity in sprague-dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Anita K; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2005-04-01

    cholinesterase is a candidate biomarker for arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:16705804

  7. Reactive oxygen species contribute to arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation in human bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lingzhi; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Lu, Yongju; Wu, Kai; Thakur, Chitra; Chang, Qingshan; Sun, Jiaying; Chen, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that arsenic is able to induce serine 21 phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein through activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt signaling pathways in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. In the present report, we further demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the arsenic-induced protein kinase activation that leads to EZH2 phosphorylation. Several lines of evidence supported this notion. First, the pretreatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, abolishes arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation along with the inhibition of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. Second, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the most important form of ROS in the cells in response to extracellular stress signals, can induce phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein and the activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. By ectopic expression of the myc-tagged EZH2, we additionally identified direct interaction and phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein by Akt in response to arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, both arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were able to induce the translocation of ectopically expressed or endogenous EZH2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. In summary, the data presented in this report indicate that oxidative stress due to ROS generation plays an important role in the arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. - Highlights:: • Arsenic (As{sup 3+}) induces EZH phosphorylation. • JNK, STAT3, and Akt contribute to EZH2 phosphorylation. • Oxidative stress is involved in As{sup 3+}-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. • As{sup 3+} induces direct interaction of Akt and EZH2. • Phosphorylated EZH2 localized in cytoplasm.

  8. Cytogenetic damage and genetic variants in the individuals susceptible to arsenic-induced cancer through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Basu, Anamika; Mahata, Julie; Basu, Sreemanti; Sengupta, Mainak; Das, Jayanta K; Mukherjee, Angshuman; Sarkar, Ajoy K; Mondal, Lakshmikanta; Ray, Kunal; Giri, Ashok K

    2006-05-15

    In West Bengal, India, more than 300,000 arsenic-exposed people are showing symptoms of arsenic toxicity, which include cancers of skin and different internal organs. Since only 15-20% of the exposed population manifest arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is thought that genetic variation might play an important role in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. A total of 422 unrelated arsenic-exposed subjects (244 skin-symptomatic and 178 asymptomatic) were recruited for this study. Cytogenetic damage, as measured by chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes and micronuclei formation in oral mucosa cells, urothelial cells and binucleated lymphocytes, was studied in unexposed, skin-symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals with similar socioeconomic status. Identification of null mutations in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes were carried out by PCR amplification. GSTP1 SNPs, implicated in susceptibility to various cancers, were assessed by PCR-RFLP method. Symptomatic individuals had higher level of cytogenetic damage compared to asymptomatic individuals and asymptomatic individuals had significantly higher genotoxicity than unexposed individuals. No difference in allelic variants in GSTT1 and GSTP1 was observed between these 2 groups. Incidence of GSTM1 null gene frequencies was significantly higher in the asymptomatic group. Individuals with GSTM1-positive (at least one allele) had significantly higher risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.22). These results show a protective role of GSTM1 null in arsenic toxicity. This study also indicates that asymptomatic individuals are sub clinically affected and are also significantly susceptible to arsenic-induced genotoxicity.

  9. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  10. Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Kesavan, Manickam; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kannan, Kandasamy; Suresh, Subramaniyam; Gupta, Priyanka; Vijayakaran, Karunakaran; Sankar, Palanisamy; Kurade, Nitin Pandurang; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated whether atorvastatin, an extensively prescribed statin for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, can reduce the risk of arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation in rats and whether the modulation could be linked to improvement in vascular NO signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91{sup st} day, blood was collected for measuring serum C-reactive protein. Thoracic aorta was isolated for assessing reactivity to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine; evaluating eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression and measuring NO production, while abdominal aorta was used for ELISA of cytokines, chemokine and vascular cell adhesion molecules. Histopathology was done in aortic arches. Arsenic did not alter phenylephrine-elicited contraction. Atorvastatin inhibited E{sub max} of phenylephrine, but it augmented the contractile response in aortic rings from arsenic-exposed animals. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was not altered with any treatment. However, arsenic reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and affected aortic eNOS at the levels of mRNA expression, protein concentration, phosphorylation and NO production. Further, it increased aortic iNOS mRNA expression, iNOS-derived NO synthesis, production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, VCAM, sICAM) and serum C-reactive protein and aortic vasculopathic lesions. Atorvastatin attenuated these arsenic-mediated functional, biochemical and structural alterations. Results show that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation by restoring endothelial function with improvement in NO signaling and attenuating production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules. - Highlights: • We evaluated if atorvastatin reduce arsenic-induced

  11. Inhibition of arsenic-induced rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β/Smad activation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinjuan; Dai, Yujie; Li, Xing; Niu, Nannan; Li, Wenjie; Liu, Fangli; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Zengli

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30ppm) with or without GSE (100mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-β1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-β1-induced transactivation of the TGF-β-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-β1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and α-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β/Smad activation. PMID:21605584

  12. Inhibition of arsenic-induced rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β/Smad activation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinjuan; Dai, Yujie; Li, Xing; Niu, Nannan; Li, Wenjie; Liu, Fangli; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Zengli

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30ppm) with or without GSE (100mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-β1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-β1-induced transactivation of the TGF-β-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-β1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and α-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β/Smad activation.

  13. Stimulation of erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure by mercury ions

    SciTech Connect

    Eisele, Kerstin; Lang, Philipp A.; Kempe, Daniela S.; Klarl, Barbara A.; Niemoeller, Olivier; Wieder, Thomas; Huber, Stephan M.; Duranton, Christophe; Lang, Florian . E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de

    2006-01-15

    The sequelae of mercury intoxication include induction of apoptosis. In nucleated cells, Hg{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis involves mitochondrial damage. The present study has been performed to elucidate effects of Hg{sup 2+} in erythrocytes which lack mitochondria but are able to undergo apoptosis-like alterations of the cell membrane. Previous studies have documented that activation of a Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive erythrocyte scramblase leads to exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface, a typical feature of apoptotic cells. The erythrocyte scramblase is activated by osmotic shock, oxidative stress and/or energy depletion which increase cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} activity and/or activate a sphingomyelinase leading to formation of ceramide. Ceramide sensitizes the scramblase to Ca{sup 2+}. The present experiments explored the effect of Hg{sup 2+} ions on erythrocytes. Phosphatidylserine exposure after mercury treatment was estimated from annexin binding as determined in FACS analysis. Exposure to Hg{sup 2+} (1 {mu}M) indeed significantly increased annexin binding from 2.3 {+-} 0.5% (control condition) to 23 {+-} 6% (n = 6). This effect was paralleled by activation of a clotrimazole-sensitive K{sup +}-selective conductance as measured by patch-clamp recordings and by transient cell shrinkage. Further experiments revealed also an increase of ceramide formation by {approx}66% (n = 7) after challenge with mercury (1 {mu}M). In conclusion, mercury ions activate a clotrimazole-sensitive K{sup +}-selective conductance leading to transient cell shrinkage. Moreover, Hg{sup 2+} increases ceramide formation. The observed mechanisms could similarly participate in the triggering of apoptosis in nucleated cells by Hg{sup 2+}.

  14. Therapeutic effects of Moringa oleifera on arsenic-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Sharma, Mamta; S Flora, Swaran J

    2005-11-01

    the seed powder of M. oleifera has significant role in protecting animals from arsenic-induced oxidative stress and in the depletion of arsenic concentration. Further studies thus can be recommended for determining the effect of co-administrating seed powder of M. oleifera during chelation therapy with a thiol chelator. PMID:21783626

  15. Phosphatidylserine-binding protein lactadherin inhibits protein translocation across the ER membrane.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2013-05-10

    Secretory and membrane proteins are translocated across and inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane via translocon channels. To investigate the effect of the negatively-charged phospholipid phosphatidylserine on the translocation of nascent polypeptide chains through the translocon, we used the phosphatidylserine-binding protein lactadherin C2-domain. Lactadherin inhibited targeting of nascent chain to the translocon by signal sequence and the initiation of translocation. Moreover, lactadherin inhibited the movement of the translocating polypeptide chain regardless of the presence or absence of positively-charged residues. Phosphatidylserine might be critically involved in translocon function, but it is not a major determinant for translocation arrest of positively-charged residues. PMID:23583395

  16. Beyond apoptosis: The mechanism and function of phosphatidylserine asymmetry in the membrane of activating mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Shimoda, Lori M. N.; Dixon, Alyssa M.; Speck, Mark; Stokes, Alexander J.; Turner, Helen; Umemoto, Eric Y.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plasma membrane asymmetry is a hallmark of apoptosis, but lipid bilayer asymmetry and loss of asymmetry can contribute to numerous cellular functions and responses that are independent of programmed cell death. Exofacial exposure of phosphatidylserine occurs in lymphocytes and mast cells after antigenic stimulation and in the absence of apoptosis, suggesting that there is a functional requirement for phosphatidylserine exposure in immunocytes. In this review we examine current ideas as to the nature of this functional role in mast cell activation. Mechanistically, there is controversy as to the candidate proteins responsible for phosphatidylserine translocation from the internal to external leaflet, and here we review the candidacies of mast cell PLSCR1 and TMEM16F. Finally we examine the potential relationship between functionally important mast cell membrane perturbations and phosphatidylserine exposure during activation. PMID:25759911

  17. Characterization of a membrane-associated cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol-dependent phosphatidylserine synthase in bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, A; Dowhan, W

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of phosphatidylserine in two gram-positive aerobic bacteria has been partially characterized. We have located a cytidine 5'-diphospho-diacylglycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase (phosphatidylserine synthase) activity in the membrane fraction of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. The activity was demonstrated to be membrane associated by differential centrifugation, sucrose gradient centrifugation, and detergent solubilization. The direct involvement of cytidine 5'-diphospho-diacylglycerol in the reaction was demonstrated by the conversion of the liponucleotide phosphatidyl moiety to phosphatidylserine. This activity is dependent on divalent metal ion (manganese being optimal) and is stimulated by nonionic detergent and its product phosphatidylserine. Based on studies with various combinations of products and substrates, the reaction appears to follow a sequential BiBi kinetic mechanism. PMID:6267011

  18. Anti-Self Phosphatidylserine Antibodies Recognize Uninfected Erythrocytes Promoting Malarial Anemia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Arias, Cristina; Rivera-Correa, Juan; Gallego-Delgado, Julio; Rudlaff, Rachel; Fernandez, Clemente; Roussel, Camille; Götz, Anton; Gonzalez, Sandra; Mohanty, Akshaya; Mohanty, Sanjib; Wassmer, Samuel; Buffet, Pierre; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Rodriguez, Ana

    2016-02-10

    Plasmodium species, the parasitic agents of malaria, invade erythrocytes to reproduce, resulting in erythrocyte loss. However, a greater loss is caused by the elimination of uninfected erythrocytes, sometimes long after infection has been cleared. Using a mouse model, we found that Plasmodium infection induces the generation of anti-self antibodies that bind to the surface of uninfected erythrocytes from infected, but not uninfected, mice. These antibodies recognize phosphatidylserine, which is exposed on the surface of a fraction of uninfected erythrocytes during malaria. We find that phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes are reticulocytes expressing high levels of CD47, a "do-not-eat-me" signal, but the binding of anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies mediates their phagocytosis, contributing to anemia. In human patients with late postmalarial anemia, we found a strong inverse correlation between the levels of anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies and plasma hemoglobin, suggesting a similar role in humans. Inhibition of this pathway may be exploited for treating malarial anemia.

  19. Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing; Niu Nannan; Li Wenjie; Liu Fangli; Zhao Yang; Yu Zengli

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and

  20. Use of Autoantigen-Loaded Phosphatidylserine-Liposomes to Arrest Autoimmunity in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pujol-Autonell, Irma; Serracant-Prat, Arnau; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Silvia; Sanchez, Alex; Izquierdo, Cristina; Stratmann, Thomas; Puig-Domingo, Manuel; Maspoch, Daniel; Verdaguer, Joan; Vives-Pi, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of new therapies to induce self-tolerance has been an important medical health challenge in type 1 diabetes. An ideal immunotherapy should inhibit the autoimmune attack, avoid systemic side effects and allow β-cell regeneration. Based on the immunomodulatory effects of apoptosis, we hypothesized that apoptotic mimicry can help to restore tolerance lost in autoimmune diabetes. Objective To generate a synthetic antigen-specific immunotherapy based on apoptosis features to specifically reestablish tolerance to β-cells in type 1 diabetes. Methods A central event on the surface of apoptotic cells is the exposure of phosphatidylserine, which provides the main signal for efferocytosis. Therefore, phosphatidylserine-liposomes loaded with insulin peptides were generated to simulate apoptotic cells recognition by antigen presenting cells. The effect of antigen-specific phosphatidylserine-liposomes in the reestablishment of peripheral tolerance was assessed in NOD mice, the spontaneous model of autoimmune diabetes. MHC class II-peptide tetramers were used to analyze the T cell specific response after treatment with phosphatidylserine-liposomes loaded with peptides. Results We have shown that phosphatidylserine-liposomes loaded with insulin peptides induce tolerogenic dendritic cells and impair autoreactive T cell proliferation. When administered to NOD mice, liposome signal was detected in the pancreas and draining lymph nodes. This immunotherapy arrests the autoimmune aggression, reduces the severity of insulitis and prevents type 1 diabetes by apoptotic mimicry. MHC class II tetramer analysis showed that peptide-loaded phosphatidylserine-liposomes expand antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo. The administration of phosphatidylserine-free liposomes emphasizes the importance of phosphatidylserine in the modulation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell expansion. Conclusions We conclude that this innovative immunotherapy based on the use of liposomes

  1. Effective Binding of a Phosphatidylserine-Targeting Antibody to Ebola Virus Infected Cells and Purified Virions

    PubMed Central

    Dowall, S. D.; Graham, V. A.; Corbin-Lickfett, K.; Empig, C.; Schlunegger, K.; Bruce, C. B.; Easterbrook, L.; Hewson, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is responsible for causing severe hemorrhagic fevers, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, no antiviral or vaccine is licensed against Ebola virus. A phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody (PGN401, bavituximab) has previously been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Here, we demonstrate that PGN401 specifically binds to Ebola virus and recognizes infected cells. Our study provides the first evidence of phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody reactivity against Ebola virus. PMID:25815346

  2. Interaction of dicaproyl phosphatidylserine with recombinant factor VIII and its impact on immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vivek S; Balasubramanian, Sathyamangalam V

    2006-01-01

    Replacement therapy with exogenous recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) to control bleeding episodes results in the development of inhibitory antibodies in 15% to 30% of hemophilia A patients. The inhibitory antibodies are mainly directed against specific and universal immunodominant epitopes located in the C2 domain. Previously we have shown that complexation of O-phospho-L-serine (phosphatidylserine head group) with the phospholipid binding region of the C2 domain can lead to an overall reduction in the immunogenicity of rFVIII. Here, we have investigated the hypothesis that dicaproyl phosphatidylserine, a short-chain water-soluble phospholipid, can reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies suggest that dicaproyl phosphatidylserine interacts with rFVIII, causing subtle changes in the tertiary and secondary structure of the protein. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies indicate that dicaproyl phosphatidylserine probably interacts with the phospholipid binding region of the C2 domain. The immunogenicity of FVIII-dicaproyl phosphatidylserine complexes prepared at concentrations above and below the critical micellar concentrations of the lipid were evaluated in hemophilia A mice. Our results suggest that micellar dicaproyl phosphatidylserine may be useful to reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII preparations.

  3. Reactive oxygen species mediate arsenic induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhuo; Wang Xin; Cheng Senping; Sun Lijuan; Son, Young-Ok; Yao Hua; Li Wenqi; Budhraja, Amit; Li Li; Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas; Arnold, Susanne M.; Shi Xianglin

    2011-10-15

    Long term exposure to arsenic can increase incidence of human cancers, such as skin, lung, and colon rectum. The mechanism of arsenic induced carcinogenesis is still unclear. It is generally believed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role in this process. In the present study, we investigate the possible linkage between ROS, {beta}-catenin and arsenic induced transformation and tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, DLD1 cells. Our results show that arsenic was able to activate p47{sup phox} and p67{sup phox}, two key proteins for activation of NADPH oxidase. Arsenic was also able to generate ROS in DLD1 cells. Arsenic increased {beta}-catenin expression level and its promoter activity. ROS played a major role in arsenic-induced {beta}-catenin activation. Treatment of DLD1 cells by arsenic enhanced both transformation and tumorigenesis of these cells. The tumor volumes of arsenic treated group were much larger than those without arsenic treatment. Addition of either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase reduced arsenic induced cell transformation and tumor formation. The results indicate that ROS are involved in arsenic induced cell transformation and tumor formation possible through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD1 cells. - Highlights: > Arsenic activates NADPH oxidase and increases reactive oxygen species generation in DLD1 cells. > Arsenic increases {beta}-catenin expression. > Inhibition of ROS induced by arsenic reduce {beta}-catenin expression. > Arsenic increases cell transformation in DLD1 cells and tumorigenesis in nude mice. > Blockage of ROS decrease cell transformation and tumorigenesis induced by arsenic.

  4. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-{kappa}B, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Das, Joydeep; Manna, Prasenjit

    2009-10-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-{kappa}B (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-{kappa}B and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved in arsenic-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-{kappa}B activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection

  5. Phosphatidylserine Reversibly Binds Cu2+ with Extremely High Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Christopher F.; Cong, Xiao; Robison, Aaron; Pace, Hudson P.; Liu, Chunming; Poyton, Matthew F.; Cremer, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) embedded within supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) was found to bind Cu2+ from solution with extraordinarily high affinity. In fact, the equilibrium dissociation constant was in the femtomolar range. The resulting complex formed in a 1:2 Cu2+ to PS ratio and quenches a broad spectrum of lipid-bound fluorophores in a reversible and pH-dependent fashion. At acidic pH values, the fluorophores were almost completely unquenched, while at basic pH values significant quenching (85–90%) was observed. The pH at which the transition occurred was dependent on the PS concentration and ranged from approximately pH 5 to 8. The quenching kinetics was slow at low Cu2+ concentrations and basic values pH (up to several hours), while the unquenching reaction was orders of magnitude more rapid upon lowering the pH. This was consistent with diffusion limited complex formation at basic pH, but rapid dissociation under acidic conditions. The tight binding of Cu2+ to PS may have physiological consequences under certain circumstances. PMID:22548290

  6. Imaging of Brain Tumors With Paramagnetic Vesicles Targeted to Phosphatidylserine

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Patrick M.; Pearce, John; Chu, Zhengtao; McPherson, Christopher M.; Takigiku, Ray; Lee, Jing-Huei; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate paramagnetic saposin C and dioleylphosphatidylserine (SapC-DOPS) vesicles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging phosphatidylserine (PS) expressed by glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. Materials and Methods Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles were formulated, and the vesicle diameter and relaxivity were measured. Targeting of Gd-DTPA-BSA/ SapC-DOPS vesicles to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo was compared with nontargeted paramagnetic vesicles (lacking SapC). Mice with GBM brain tumors were imaged at 3, 10, 20, and 24 h postinjection to measure the relaxation rate (R1) in the tumor and the normal brain. Results The mean diameter of vesicles was 175 nm, and the relaxivity at 7 Tesla was 3.32 (s*mM)−1 relative to the gadolinium concentration. Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles targeted cultured cancer cells, leading to an increased R1 and gadolinium level in the cells. In vivo, Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles produced a 9% increase in the R1 of GBM brain tumors in mice 10 h postinjection, but only minimal changes (1.2% increase) in the normal brain. Nontargeted paramagnetic vesicles yielded minimal change in the tumor R1 at 10 h postinjection (1.3%). Conclusion These experiments demonstrate that Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles can selectively target implanted brain tumors in vivo, providing noninvasive mapping of the cancer biomarker PS. PMID:24797437

  7. Dysferlin-mediated phosphatidylserine sorting engages macrophages in sarcolemma repair.

    PubMed

    Middel, Volker; Zhou, Lu; Takamiya, Masanari; Beil, Tanja; Shahid, Maryam; Roostalu, Urmas; Grabher, Clemens; Rastegar, Sepand; Reischl, Markus; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Failure to repair the sarcolemma leads to muscle cell death, depletion of stem cells and myopathy. Hence, membrane lesions are instantly sealed by a repair patch consisting of lipids and proteins. It has remained elusive how this patch is removed to restore cell membrane integrity. Here we examine sarcolemmal repair in live zebrafish embryos by real-time imaging. Macrophages remove the patch. Phosphatidylserine (PS), an 'eat-me' signal for macrophages, is rapidly sorted from adjacent sarcolemma to the repair patch in a Dysferlin (Dysf) dependent process in zebrafish and human cells. A previously unrecognized arginine-rich motif in Dysf is crucial for PS accumulation. It carries mutations in patients presenting with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. This underscores the relevance of this sequence and uncovers a novel pathophysiological mechanism underlying this class of myopathies. Our data show that membrane repair is a multi-tiered process involving immediate, cell-intrinsic mechanisms as well as myofiber/macrophage interactions. PMID:27641898

  8. Identification of N-Acyl Phosphatidylserine Molecules in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ziqiang; Li, Shengrong; Smith, Dale C.; Shaw, Walter A.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2008-01-01

    While profiling the lipidome of the mouse brain by mass spectrometry, we discovered a novel family of N-acyl phosphatidylserine (N-acyl-PS) molecules. These N-acyl-PS species were enriched by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and they were then characterized by accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and comparison to an authentic standard. Mouse brain N-acyl-PS molecules are heterogeneous and constitute about 0.1 % of the total lipid. In addition to various ester-linked fatty acyl chains on their glycerol backbones, the complexity of the N-acyl-PS series is further increased by the presence of diverse amide-linked N-acyl chains, which include saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated species. N-acyl-PS molecular species were also detected in the lipids of pig brain, mouse RAW264.7 macrophage tumor cells and yeast, but not E. coli. N-acyl-PSs may be biosynthetic precursors of N-acyl serine molecules, such as the recently reported signaling lipid N-arachidonoyl serine from bovine brain. We suggest that a phospholipase D might cleave N-acyl-PS to generate N-acyl serine, in analogy to the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anadamide) from N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine. PMID:18031065

  9. Dysferlin-mediated phosphatidylserine sorting engages macrophages in sarcolemma repair.

    PubMed

    Middel, Volker; Zhou, Lu; Takamiya, Masanari; Beil, Tanja; Shahid, Maryam; Roostalu, Urmas; Grabher, Clemens; Rastegar, Sepand; Reischl, Markus; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-09-19

    Failure to repair the sarcolemma leads to muscle cell death, depletion of stem cells and myopathy. Hence, membrane lesions are instantly sealed by a repair patch consisting of lipids and proteins. It has remained elusive how this patch is removed to restore cell membrane integrity. Here we examine sarcolemmal repair in live zebrafish embryos by real-time imaging. Macrophages remove the patch. Phosphatidylserine (PS), an 'eat-me' signal for macrophages, is rapidly sorted from adjacent sarcolemma to the repair patch in a Dysferlin (Dysf) dependent process in zebrafish and human cells. A previously unrecognized arginine-rich motif in Dysf is crucial for PS accumulation. It carries mutations in patients presenting with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. This underscores the relevance of this sequence and uncovers a novel pathophysiological mechanism underlying this class of myopathies. Our data show that membrane repair is a multi-tiered process involving immediate, cell-intrinsic mechanisms as well as myofiber/macrophage interactions.

  10. Phosphatidylserine exposure is required for ADAM17 sheddase function

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Anselm; Kordowski, Felix; Büch, Joscha; Maretzky, Thorsten; Evers, Astrid; Andrä, Jörg; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Michalek, Matthias; Lorenzen, Inken; Somasundaram, Prasath; Tholey, Andreas; Sönnichsen, Frank D.; Kunzelmann, Karl; Heinbockel, Lena; Nehls, Christian; Gutsmann, Thomas; Grötzinger, Joachim; Bhakdi, Sucharit; Reiss, Karina

    2016-01-01

    ADAM17, a prominent member of the ‘Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase' (ADAM) family, controls vital cellular functions through cleavage of transmembrane substrates. Here we present evidence that surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) is pivotal for ADAM17 to exert sheddase activity. PS exposure is tightly coupled to substrate shedding provoked by diverse ADAM17 activators. PS dependency is demonstrated in the following: (a) in Raji cells undergoing apoptosis; (b) in mutant PSA-3 cells with manipulatable PS content; and (c) in Scott syndrome lymphocytes genetically defunct in their capacity to externalize PS in response to intracellular Ca2+ elevation. Soluble phosphorylserine but not phosphorylcholine inhibits substrate cleavage. The isolated membrane proximal domain (MPD) of ADAM17 binds to PS but not to phosphatidylcholine liposomes. A cationic PS-binding motif is identified in this domain, replacement of which abrogates liposome-binding and renders the protease incapable of cleaving its substrates in cells. We speculate that surface-exposed PS directs the protease to its targets where it then executes its shedding function. PMID:27161080

  11. Phosphatidylserine receptors: enhancers of enveloped virus entry and infection

    PubMed Central

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Maury, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    A variety of both RNA and DNA viruses envelop their capsids in a lipid bilayer. One of the more recently appreciated benefits this envelope is incorporation of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Surface exposure of PtdSer disguises viruses as apoptotic bodies; tricking cells into engulfing virions. This mechanism is termed apoptotic mimicry. Several PtdSer receptors have been identified to enhance virus entry and we have termed this group of proteins PtdSer-mediated virus entry enhancing receptors or PVEERs. These receptors enhance entry of a broad range of enveloped viruses. Internalization of virions by PVEERs provides a broad mechanism of entry with little investment by the virus itself and may allow some viruses to attach to cells, thereby making viral glycoprotein/cellular receptor interactions more probable. Alternatively, other viruses may rely entirely on PVEERs for internalization into endosomes. This review provides an overview of PtdSer receptors that serve as PVEERs and the biology behind virion/PVEER interaction. PMID:25277499

  12. Dysferlin-mediated phosphatidylserine sorting engages macrophages in sarcolemma repair

    PubMed Central

    Middel, Volker; Zhou, Lu; Takamiya, Masanari; Beil, Tanja; Shahid, Maryam; Roostalu, Urmas; Grabher, Clemens; Rastegar, Sepand; Reischl, Markus; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Failure to repair the sarcolemma leads to muscle cell death, depletion of stem cells and myopathy. Hence, membrane lesions are instantly sealed by a repair patch consisting of lipids and proteins. It has remained elusive how this patch is removed to restore cell membrane integrity. Here we examine sarcolemmal repair in live zebrafish embryos by real-time imaging. Macrophages remove the patch. Phosphatidylserine (PS), an ‘eat-me' signal for macrophages, is rapidly sorted from adjacent sarcolemma to the repair patch in a Dysferlin (Dysf) dependent process in zebrafish and human cells. A previously unrecognized arginine-rich motif in Dysf is crucial for PS accumulation. It carries mutations in patients presenting with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. This underscores the relevance of this sequence and uncovers a novel pathophysiological mechanism underlying this class of myopathies. Our data show that membrane repair is a multi-tiered process involving immediate, cell-intrinsic mechanisms as well as myofiber/macrophage interactions. PMID:27641898

  13. Characterization of the phosphatidylserine-exposing subpopulation of sickle cells.

    PubMed

    de Jong, K; Larkin, S K; Styles, L A; Bookchin, R M; Kuypers, F A

    2001-08-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS), exclusively present in the inner monolayer of the normal red blood cell (RBC) membrane, is exposed in subpopulations of sickle cells. PS-exposing RBCs were found predominantly among the densest and the very light sickle cells. Within the light RBC fraction, PS exposure was found on reticulocytes, transferrin receptor-expressing reticulocytes, and mature RBCs. The last subset contained low-density valinomycin-resistant RBCs, previously shown to have high Na(+) and low K(+) content. This subpopulation contained the highest percentage of PS-exposing cells. The PS-exposing sickle cells did not show the sustained high cytosolic Ca(++) levels that have been shown to activate scramblase activity. Data from this study indicate that PS exposure can occur at different stages in the life of the sickle RBC and that it correlates with the loss of aminophospholipid translocase activity, the only common denominator of the PS-exposing cells. The additional requirement of scramblase activation may occur during transient increases in cytosolic Ca(++). (Blood. 2001;98:860-867)

  14. Synthesis of a fluorescently labeled compound for the detection of arsenic-induced apoptotic HL60 cells.

    PubMed

    Femia, A Lis; Temprana, C Facundo; Amor, M Silvia; Grasselli, Mariano; Alonso, Silvia Del V

    2012-03-01

    Arsenic compounds have shown medical usefulness since they proved to be effective in causing complete remission of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In this work we obtained a fluorescently labeled arsenic compound that can be used with current fluorescence techniques for basic and applied research, focused on arsenic-induced apoptosis studies. This compound is an arsanilic acid bearing a covalently linked FITC that was chemically synthesized and characterized by fluorescence, UV-Vis, mass and FTIR spectrometry. In addition, we assessed its apoptotic activity as well as its fluorescent labeling properties in HL60 cell line as a leukemia cell model through flow cytometry. We obtained a compound with a 1:1 FITC:arsenic ratio and a 595 m/z, confirming its structure by FTIR. This compound proved to be useful at inducing apoptosis in the leukemia cell model and labeling this apoptotic cell population, in such a way that the highest FITC fluorescence correlated with the highest arsenic amount.

  15. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins counteract arsenic-induced oxidative stress in brain, heart, and liver of female rats.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Srivastava, R S; Sharma, B; Malik, J K

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity through induction of oxidative stress is a well-known mechanism of organ toxicity. To address this problem, buffalo epiphyseal proteins (BEP, at 100 μg/kg BW, i.p. for 28 days) were administered intraperitoneally to female Wistar rats exposed to As (100 ppm sodium arsenite via drinking water for 28 days). Arsenic exposure resulted in marked elevation in lipid peroxidation in brain, cardiac, and hepatic tissues, whereas significant (p < 0.05) adverse change in catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione level were observed in cardiac, hepatic, and brain tissues of As-administered animals. BEP significantly (p < 0.05) counteracted all the adverse changes in antioxidant defense system brought about by As administration. Based on these results, we consider BEP as a potent antioxidant to be used for protection from arsenic-induced oxidative stress related damage of vital organs.

  16. Mechanism of arsenic-induced neurotoxicity may be explained through cleavage of p35 to p25 by calpain.

    PubMed

    Vahidnia, A; van der Straaten, R J H M; Romijn, F; van Pelt, J; van der Voet, G B; de Wolff, F A

    2008-04-01

    In recent studies we have demonstrated that arsenic (As) metabolites change the composition of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins in vivo and in vitro. To further examine the mechanism of arsenic-induced neurotoxicity with various arsenate metabolites (iAsV, MMAV and DMAV) and arsenite metabolites (iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAIII), we investigated the role of the proteolytic enzyme calpain and its involvement in the cleavage of p35 protein to p25, and also mRNA expression levels of calpain, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (gsk3ss). A HeLa cell line transfected with a p35 construct (HeLa-p35) was used as a model, since all other proteins such as calpain, CDK5 and GSK3beta are already present in HeLa cells as they are in neuronal cells. HeLa-p35 cells were incubated with various As metabolites and concentrations of 0, 10 and 30 microM for duration of 4 h. Subsequently the cells were either lysed to study their relative quantification levels of these genes or to be examined on their p35-protein expression. P35-RNA expression levels were significantly (p<0.01) increased by arsenite metabolites, while p35 protein was cleaved to p25 (and p10) after incubation with these metabolites. The cleavage of p35 is caused by calcium (Ca2+) induced activation of calpain. Inhibition of calpain activity by calpeptin prevents cleavage of p35 to p25. These results suggest that cleavage of p35 to p25 by calpain, probably As-induced Ca2+-influx, may explain the mechanism by which arsenic induces its neurotoxic effects.

  17. Protective role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) seed on arsenic-induced hepatocellular degeneration in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit; Maji, Gurupada; Deb, Bimal; Pan, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-08-01

    In an attempt to develop new herbal therapy, an aqueous extract of the seed of Moringa oleifera was used to screen the effect on arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in female rat of Wistar strain. Subchronic exposure to sodium arsenite (0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/day via drinking water for a period of 24 days) significantly increased activities of hepatic and lipid function markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL along with a decrease in total protein and HDL. A notable distortion of hepatocellular histoarchitecture was prominent with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation following arsenic exposure. A marked elevation of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue was also evident from the hepatic accumulation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes along with suppressed activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, co-administration of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera (500 mg/100 g body weight/day for a period of 24 days) was found to significantly prevent the arsenic-induced alteration of hepatic function markers and lipid profile. Moreover, the degeneration of histoarchitecture of liver found in arsenic-treated rats was protected along with partial but definite prevention against DNA fragmentation induction. Similarly, generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals were found to be significantly less along with restored activities of antioxidant enzymes in M. oleifera co-administered group with comparison to arsenic alone treatment group. The present investigation offers strong evidence for the hepato-protective and antioxidative efficiencies of M. oleifera seed extract against oxidative stress induced by arsenic. PMID:20661662

  18. Arsenic-induced cutaneous hyperplastic lesions are associated with the dysregulation of Yap, a Hippo signaling-related protein

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Arsenic activates canonical Hippo signaling pathway and up-regulates αCatenin in the skin. •Arsenic activates transcriptional activity of Yap by its nuclear translocation. •Yap is involved in the disruption of tight/adherens junctions in arsenic-exposed animals. -- Abstract: Arsenic exposure in humans causes a number of toxic manifestations in the skin including cutaneous neoplasm. However, the mechanism of these alterations remains elusive. Here, we provide novel observations that arsenic induced Hippo signaling pathway in the murine skin. This pathway plays crucial roles in determining organ size during the embryonic development and if aberrantly activated in adults, contributes to the pathogenesis of epithelial neoplasm. Arsenic treatment enhanced phosphorylation-dependent activation of LATS1 kinase and other Hippo signaling regulatory proteins Sav1 and MOB1. Phospho-LATS kinase is known to catalyze the inactivation of a transcriptional co-activator, Yap. However, in arsenic-treated epidermis, we did not observed its inactivation. Thus, as expected, unphosphorylated-Yap was translocated to the nucleus in arsenic-treated epidermis. Yap by binding to the transcription factors TEADs induces transcription of its target genes. Consistently, an up-regulation of Yap-dependent target genes Cyr61, Gli2, Ankrd1 and Ctgf was observed in the skin of arsenic-treated mice. Phosphorylated Yap is important in regulating tight and adherens junctions through its binding to αCatenin. We found disruption of these junctions in the arsenic-treated mouse skin despite an increase in αCatenin. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced canonical Hippo signaling pathway and Yap-mediated disruption of tight and adherens junctions are independently regulated. These effects together may contribute to the carcinogenic effects of arsenic in the skin.

  19. Gain-of-function mutations in the phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PTDSS1) gene cause Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio B; Jenkins, Dagan; Chanudet, Estelle; Tasseva, Guergana; Ishida, Miho; Anderson, Glenn; Docker, James; Ryten, Mina; Sa, Joaquim; Saraiva, Jorge M; Barnicoat, Angela; Scott, Richard; Calder, Alistair; Wattanasirichaigoon, Duangrurdee; Chrzanowska, Krystyna; Simandlová, Martina; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Stanier, Philip; Beales, Philip L; Vance, Jean E; Moore, Gudrun E

    2014-01-01

    Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a syndrome of intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies that features generalized craniotubular hyperostosis. By using whole-exome sequencing and selecting variants consistent with the predicted dominant de novo etiology of LMS, we identified causative heterozygous missense mutations in PTDSS1, which encodes phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PSS1). PSS1 is one of two enzymes involved in the production of phosphatidylserine. Phosphatidylserine synthesis was increased in intact fibroblasts from affected individuals, and end-product inhibition of PSS1 by phosphatidylserine was markedly reduced. Therefore, these mutations cause a gain-of-function effect associated with regulatory dysfunction of PSS1. We have identified LMS as the first human disease, to our knowledge, caused by disrupted phosphatidylserine metabolism. Our results point to an unexplored link between phosphatidylserine synthesis and bone metabolism.

  20. Gain-of-function mutations in the phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PTDSS1) gene cause Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio B; Jenkins, Dagan; Chanudet, Estelle; Tasseva, Guergana; Ishida, Miho; Anderson, Glenn; Docker, James; Ryten, Mina; Sa, Joaquim; Saraiva, Jorge M; Barnicoat, Angela; Scott, Richard; Calder, Alistair; Wattanasirichaigoon, Duangrurdee; Chrzanowska, Krystyna; Simandlová, Martina; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Stanier, Philip; Beales, Philip L; Vance, Jean E; Moore, Gudrun E

    2014-01-01

    Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a syndrome of intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies that features generalized craniotubular hyperostosis. By using whole-exome sequencing and selecting variants consistent with the predicted dominant de novo etiology of LMS, we identified causative heterozygous missense mutations in PTDSS1, which encodes phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PSS1). PSS1 is one of two enzymes involved in the production of phosphatidylserine. Phosphatidylserine synthesis was increased in intact fibroblasts from affected individuals, and end-product inhibition of PSS1 by phosphatidylserine was markedly reduced. Therefore, these mutations cause a gain-of-function effect associated with regulatory dysfunction of PSS1. We have identified LMS as the first human disease, to our knowledge, caused by disrupted phosphatidylserine metabolism. Our results point to an unexplored link between phosphatidylserine synthesis and bone metabolism. PMID:24241535

  1. Further evidence against a direct genotoxic mode of action for arsenic-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Catherine B.; Leszczynska, Joanna; Hickey, Christina; Rossman, Toby G.

    2007-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water, a mixture of arsenite and arsenate, is associated with increased skin and other cancers in Asia and Latin America, but not the United States. Arsenite alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in experimental animals; therefore, it is not a complete carcinogen in skin. We recently showed that low concentrations of arsenite enhanced the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in hairless mice, suggesting arsenic cocarcinogenesis with sunlight in skin cancer and perhaps with different carcinogenic partners for lung and bladder tumors. Cocarcinogenic mechanisms could include blocking DNA repair, stimulating angiogenesis, altering DNA methylation patterns, dysregulating cell cycle control, induction of aneuploidy and blocking apoptosis. Arsenicals are documented clastogens but not strong mutagens, with weak mutagenic activity reported at highly toxic concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Previously, we showed that arsenite, but not monomethylarsonous acid (MMA[III]), induced delayed mutagenesis in HOS cells. Here, we report new data on the mutagenicity of the trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites MMA(III) and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] at the gpt locus in Chinese hamster G12 cells. Both methylated arsenicals seemed mutagenic with apparent sublinear dose responses. However, significant mutagenesis occurred only at highly toxic concentrations of MMA(III). Most mutants induced by MMA(III) and DMA(III) exhibited transgene deletions. Some non-deletion mutants exhibited altered DNA methylation. A critical discussion of cell survival leads us to conclude that clastogenesis occurs primarily at highly cytotoxic arsenic concentrations, casting further doubt as to whether a genotoxic mode of action (MOA) for arsenicals is supportable.

  2. Fertilization Induces a Transient Exposure of Phosphatidylserine in Mouse Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Curia, Claudio A.; Ernesto, Juan I.; Stein, Paula; Busso, Dolores; Schultz, Richard M.; Cuasnicu, Patricia S.; Cohen, Débora J.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is normally localized to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and the requirement of PS translocation to the outer leaflet in cellular processes other than apoptosis has been demonstrated recently. In this work we investigated the occurrence of PS mobilization in mouse eggs, which express flippase Atp8a1 and scramblases Plscr1 and 3, as determined by RT-PCR; these enzyme are responsible for PS distribution in cell membranes. We find a dramatic increase in binding of flouresceinated-Annexin-V, which specifically binds to PS, following fertilization or parthenogenetic activation induced by SrCl2 treatment. This increase was not observed when eggs were first treated with BAPTA-AM, indicating that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration was required for PS exposure. Fluorescence was observed over the entire egg surface with the exception of the regions overlying the meiotic spindle and sperm entry site. PS exposure was also observed in activated eggs obtained from CaMKIIγ null females, which are unable to exit metaphase II arrest despite displaying Ca2+ spikes. In contrast, PS exposure was not observed in TPEN-activated eggs, which exit metaphase II arrest in the absence of Ca2+ release. PS exposure was also observed when eggs were activated with ethanol but not with a Ca2+ ionophore, suggesting that the Ca2+ source and concentration are relevant for PS exposure. Last, treatment with cytochalasin D, which disrupts microfilaments, or jasplakinolide, which stabilizes microfilaments, prior to egg activation showed that PS externalization is an actin-dependent process. Thus, the Ca2+ rise during egg activation results in a transient exposure of PS in fertilized eggs that is not associated with apoptosis. PMID:23951277

  3. Attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine-cholesterol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bach, D; Miller, I R

    2001-10-01

    Mixtures of cholesterol with dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine or deuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine were investigated by polarized and non polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. From polarized spectra the dichroic ratios of various vibrations as a function of cholesterol were calculated. Dichroic ratios of methylene vibration (CH(2)) 2934 cm(-1) of cholesterol decreases with increase of cholesterol concentration leveling off in the region where cholesterol phase separation takes place. The orientation of deuterated methylene (CD(2)) symmetric and asymmetric bands of the deuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine is influenced little by cholesterol. In the polar region of dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine no effect of cholesterol on the dichroic ratios of carbonyl (C==O) and asymmetric phosphate (PO(2)(-)) vibrations were detected. For nonpolarized spectra the broad bands in the polar region of the phospholipid were deconvoluted. The carbonyl band (C==O) in pure dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine is composed of five bands; in the presence of increasing concentrations of cholesterol conformational change of these vibrations takes place evolving into one predominant band. Similar conformational change takes place in the presence of 75 molecules water/molecule DMPS. For the asymmetric phosphate band very small shifts due to interaction with cholesterol were detected.

  4. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2009-03-15

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

  5. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, C.-H.

    2009-03-15

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

  6. Characterization of osseointegrative phosphatidylserine and cholesterol orthopaedic implant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, William Paul, III

    Total joint arthroplasties are one of the most successful surgeries available today for improving patients' quality of life. Increasing demand is driven largely by an ageing population and an increased occurrence of obesity. Current patient options have significant shortcomings. Nearly a third of patients require a revision surgery before the implant is 15 years old, and those who have revision surgeries are at an increased risk of requiring additional reoperations. A recent implant technology that has shown to be effective at improving bone to implant integration is the use of phosphatidylserine (DOPS) coatings. These coatings are challenging to analyze and measure due to their highly dynamic, soft, rough, thick, and optically diffractive properties. Previous work had difficulty investigating pertinent parameters for these coating's development due in large part to a lack of available analytical techniques and a dearth of understanding of the micro- and nano-structural configuration of the coatings. This work addresses the lack of techniques available for use with DOPS coatings through the development of original methods of measurement, including the use of scanning white light interferometry and nanoindentation. These techniques were then applied for the characterization of DOPS coatings and the study of effects from several factors: 1. influence of adding calcium and cholesterol to the coatings, 2. effects of composition and roughness on aqueous contact angles, and 3. impact of ageing and storage environment on the coatings. Using these newly developed, highly repeatable quantitative analysis methods, this study sheds light on the microstructural configuration of the DOPS coatings and elucidates previously unexplained phenomena of the coatings. Cholesterol was found to supersaturate in the coatings at high concentration and phase separate into an anhydrous crystalline form, while lower concentrations were found to significantly harden the coatings. Morphological

  7. Arsenicals produce stable progressive changes in DNA methylation patterns that are linked to malignant transformation of immortalized urothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Taylor J.; Novak, Petr; Wnek, Shawn M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2009-12-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation participates in carcinogenesis and is a molecular hallmark of a tumor cell. Tumor cells generally exhibit a redistribution of DNA methylation resulting in global hypomethylation with regional hypermethylation; however, the speed in which these changes emerge has not been fully elucidated and may depend on the temporal location of the cell in the path from normal, finite lifespan to malignant transformation. We used a model of arsenical-induced malignant transformation of immortalized human urothelial cells and DNA methylation microarrays to examine the extent and temporal nature of changes in DNA methylation that occur during the transition from immortal to malignantly transformed. Our data presented herein suggest that during arsenical-induced malignant transformation, aberrant DNA methylation occurs non-randomly, progresses gradually at hundreds of gene promoters, and alters expression of the associated gene, and these changes are coincident with the acquisition of malignant properties, such as anchorage independent growth and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. The DNA methylation changes appear stable, since malignantly transformed cells removed from the transforming arsenical exhibited no reversion in DNA methylation levels, associated gene expression, or malignant phenotype. These data suggest that arsenicals act as epimutagens and directly link their ability to induce malignant transformation to their actions on the epigenome.

  8. All-trans retinoic acid protects against arsenic-induced uterine toxicity in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Chatterji, U.

    2011-12-15

    Background and purpose: Arsenic exposure frequently leads to reproductive failures by disrupting the rat uterine histology, hormonal integrity and estrogen signaling components of the rat uterus, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was assessed as a prospective therapeutic agent for reversing reproductive disorders. Experimental approach: Rats exposed to arsenic for 28 days were allowed to either recover naturally or were treated simultaneously with ATRA for 28 days or treatment continued up to 56 days. Hematoxylin-eosin double staining was used to evaluate changes in the uterine histology. Serum gonadotropins and estradiol were assayed by ELISA. Expression of the estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}), an estrogen responsive gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, was assessed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Key results: ATRA ameliorated sodium arsenite-induced decrease in circulating estradiol and gonadotropin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, along with recovery of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands. Concomitant up regulation of ER{alpha}, VEGF, cyclin D1, CDK4 and Ki-67 was also observed to be more prominent for ATRA-treated rats as compared to the rats that were allowed to recover naturally for 56 days. Conclusions and implications: Collectively, the results reveal that ATRA reverses arsenic-induced disruption of the circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, and degeneration of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands of the rat uterus, indicating resumption of their functional status. Since structural and functional maintenance of the pubertal uterus is under the influence of estradiol, ATRA consequently up regulated the estrogen receptor and resumed cellular proliferation, possibly by an antioxidant therapeutic approach against arsenic toxicity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic

  9. Arsenic induced neuronal apoptosis in guinea pigs is Ca2+ dependent and abrogated by chelation therapy: role of voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Mehta, Ashish; Mishra, Deepshikha; Flora, Swaran J S

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic contaminated drinking water has affected more than 200 million people globally. Chronic arsenicism has also been associated with numerous neurological diseases. One of the prime mechanisms postulated for arsenic toxicity is reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the kinetic relationship of ROS with calcium and attempted to dissect the calcium ion channels responsible for calcium imbalance after arsenic exposure. We also explored if mono- or combinational chelation therapy prevents arsenic-induced (25ppm in drinking water for 4 months) neuronal apoptosis in a guinea pig animal model. Results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure caused a significant increase in ROS followed by NO and calcium influx. This calcium influx is mainly dependent on L-type voltage gated channels that disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, increase bax/bcl2 levels and caspase 3 activity leading to apoptosis. Interestingly, blocking of ROS could completely reduce calcium influx whereas calcium blockage partially reduced ROS increase. While in general mono- and combinational chelation therapies were effective in reversing arsenic induced alteration, combinational therapy of DMSA and MiADMSA was most effective. Our results provide evidence for the role of L-type calcium channels in regulating arsenic-induced calcium influx and DMSA+MiADMSA combinational therapy may be a better protocol than monotherapy in mitigating chronic arsenicosis.

  10. Ethanol enhances arsenic-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via both NFAT and NF-κB signalings in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hitron, John Andrew; Wise, James T F; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Zhang, Zhuo; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-10-15

    Arsenic is a known carcinogen to humans, and chronic exposure to environmental arsenic is a worldwide health concern. As a dietary factor, ethanol carries a well-established risk for malignancies, but the effects of co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol on tumor development are not well understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that ethanol would enhance the function of an environmental carcinogen such as arsenic through increase in COX-2 expression. Our in vitro results show that ethanol enhanced arsenic-induced COX-2 expression. We also show that the increased COX-2 expression associates with intracellular ROS generation, up-regulated AKT signaling, with activation of both NFAT and NF-κB pathways. We demonstrate that antioxidant enzymes have an inhibitory effect on arsenic/ethanol-induced COX-2 expression, indicating that the responsive signaling pathways from co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol relate to ROS generation. In vivo results also show that co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol increased COX-2 expression in mice. We conclude that ethanol enhances arsenic-induced COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells via both the NFAT and NF-κB pathways. These results imply that, as a common dietary factor, ethanol ingestion may be a compounding risk factor for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis/cancer development.

  11. Arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage is mediated by decreased PGC-1α expression and its downstream targets in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-08-25

    The present study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage and its relation to biogenesis in rat brain. Chronic sodium arsenite (25 ppm, orally) administration for 12 weeks decreased mitochondrial complexes activities and mRNA expression of selective complexes subunits. The expression of mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α, and its downstream targets NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam were decreased significantly both at mRNA and protein levels suggesting impaired biogenesis following chronic arsenic-exposure. In addition to this, protein expression analysis also revealed activation of Bax and caspase-3, leading to translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. This was further confirmed by electron microscopy study which depicted morphological changes in mitochondria in terms of altered nuclear and mitochondrial shape and chromatin condensation in arsenic-treated rats. The immunohistochemical studies showed both nuclear and cytosolic localization of NRF-1 and NRF-2 in arsenic-exposed rat brain further suggesting regulatory role of these transcription factors under arsenic neurotoxicity. The results of present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat brain that may present as important target to reveal the mechanism for arsenic-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27425645

  12. Arsenic induced neuronal apoptosis in guinea pigs is Ca2+ dependent and abrogated by chelation therapy: role of voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Mehta, Ashish; Mishra, Deepshikha; Flora, Swaran J S

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic contaminated drinking water has affected more than 200 million people globally. Chronic arsenicism has also been associated with numerous neurological diseases. One of the prime mechanisms postulated for arsenic toxicity is reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the kinetic relationship of ROS with calcium and attempted to dissect the calcium ion channels responsible for calcium imbalance after arsenic exposure. We also explored if mono- or combinational chelation therapy prevents arsenic-induced (25ppm in drinking water for 4 months) neuronal apoptosis in a guinea pig animal model. Results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure caused a significant increase in ROS followed by NO and calcium influx. This calcium influx is mainly dependent on L-type voltage gated channels that disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, increase bax/bcl2 levels and caspase 3 activity leading to apoptosis. Interestingly, blocking of ROS could completely reduce calcium influx whereas calcium blockage partially reduced ROS increase. While in general mono- and combinational chelation therapies were effective in reversing arsenic induced alteration, combinational therapy of DMSA and MiADMSA was most effective. Our results provide evidence for the role of L-type calcium channels in regulating arsenic-induced calcium influx and DMSA+MiADMSA combinational therapy may be a better protocol than monotherapy in mitigating chronic arsenicosis. PMID:23376091

  13. Activation of Hedgehog signaling by the environmental toxicant arsenic may contribute to the etiology of arsenic-induced tumors.

    PubMed

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Li, Hua; Kozul, Courtney D; Black, Kendall E; Singh, Samer; Gosse, Julie A; DiRenzo, James; Martin, Kathleen A; Wang, Baolin; Hamilton, Joshua W; Karagas, Margaret R; Robbins, David J

    2010-03-01

    Exposure to the environmental toxicant arsenic, through both contaminated water and food, contributes to significant health problems worldwide. In particular, arsenic exposure is thought to function as a carcinogen for lung, skin, and bladder cancer via mechanisms that remain largely unknown. More recently, the Hedgehog signaling pathway has also been implicated in the progression and maintenance of these same cancers. Based on these similarities, we tested the hypothesis that arsenic may act in part through activating Hedgehog signaling. Here, we show that arsenic is able to activate Hedgehog signaling in several primary and established tissue culture cells as well as in vivo. Arsenic activates Hedgehog signaling by decreasing the stability of the repressor form of GLI3, one of the transcription factors that ultimately regulate Hedgehog activity. We also show, using tumor samples from a cohort of bladder cancer patients, that high levels of arsenic exposure are associated with high levels of Hedgehog activity. Given the important role Hedgehog signaling plays in the maintenance and progression of a variety of tumors, including bladder cancer, these results suggest that arsenic exposure may in part promote cancer through the activation of Hedgehog signaling. Thus, we provide an important insight into the etiology of arsenic-induced human carcinogenesis, which may be relevant to millions of people exposed to high levels of arsenic worldwide.

  14. Molecular basis for arsenic-induced alteration in nitric oxide production and oxidative stress: implication of endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yoshito; Pi, Jingbo

    2004-08-01

    Accumulated epidemiological studies have suggested that prolonged exposure of humans to arsenic in drinking water is associated with vascular diseases. The exact mechanism of how this occurs currently unknown. Nitric oxide (NO), formed by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), plays a crucial role in the vascular system. Decreased availability of biologically active NO in the endothelium is implicated in the pathophysiology of several vascular diseases and inhibition of eNOS by arsenic is one of the proposed mechanism s for arsenic-induced vascular diseases. In addition, during exposure to arsenic, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can occur, resulting in oxidative stress, which is another major risk factor for vascular dysfunction. The molecular basis for decreased NO levels and increased oxidative stress during arsenic exposure is poorly understood. In this article, evidence for arsenic-mediated alteration in NO production and oxidative stress is reviewed. The results of a cross-sectional study in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning and experimental animal studies to elucidate a potential mechanism for the impairment of NO formation and oxidative stress caused by prolonged exposure to arsenate in the drinking water are also reviewed.

  15. Use of arsenic-induced palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and skin cancers to predict risk of subsequent internal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ling-I; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Lee, Chih-Hung; Yang, Tse-Yen; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-02-01

    Hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratoses, and Bowen's disease are hallmarks of chronic arsenic exposure. The association between arsenic-induced skin lesions and subsequent internal cancers is examined by using a community-based prospective study. The cohort was enrolled from an arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern Taiwan, where 2,447 residents participated in skin examinations during the late 1980s. The number of participants diagnosed with hyperpigmentation was 673; with hyperkeratosis, 243; and with skin cancer (Bowen's disease or non-melanoma skin cancer), 378. Newly diagnosed internal cancers were ascertained through linkage with National Cancer Registry profiles. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for potential risk predictors. Compared with participants without skin lesions, patients affected with skin cancers had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer (hazard ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 2.92, 7.38) and urothelial carcinoma (hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.30) after adjustment for potential confounders and cumulative arsenic exposure. Hyperkeratosis is significantly associated with an increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.35, 5.67). A significant interactive effect on lung cancer risk between hyperkeratosis and cigarette smoking was identified, which suggests that patients with hyperkeratosis who have been exposed to arsenic should cease smoking. PMID:23299695

  16. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  17. Effects of leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum L. on arsenic-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sharmila Banu, G; Kumar, G; Murugesan, A G

    2009-02-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of Ocimum sanctum (200mg/kg, once daily) post arsenic exposure (100 ppm in drinking water for 4 months) was investigated in rats. Animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood. On the other hand, a significant decrease in hepatic ALAD, and increase in delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity were noted after arsenic exposure. These changes were accompanied by an increase TBARS level in liver and kidney. Activities of liver, kidney and brain superoxide dismutase and catalase also showed a decrease on arsenic exposure. Administration of O. sanctum post arsenic exposure, exhibited significant recovery in blood ALAD activity while, it restored blood GSH and ROS levels. Other blood biochemical variables remained unchanged on O. sanctum supplementation. Interestingly, there was a marginal, but significant depletion of arsenic from blood, liver and kidneys. The results conclude that post arsenic administration of O. sanctum has significant role in protecting animals from arsenic-induced oxidative stress and in the depletion of arsenic concentration. Further studies thus can be recommended for determining the effect of co-administrating of O. sanctum during chelating therapy with a thiol chelator.

  18. Ameliorative effect of quercetin against arsenic-induced sperm DNA damage and daily sperm production in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Rehman, Saima; Ullah, Hizb; Munawar, Asma; Ain, Qurat Ul; Iqbal, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the protective effect of quercetin was evaluated against arsenic induced reproductive ailments in male rats. For this purpose, male rats (n = 5/group) weighing 180-250 g were used. First group served as control, second group received arsenic (50 ppm) in drinking water. Third group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) alone, while fourth group received arsenic + quercetin. All treatments were carried out for 49 days. After treatment, animals were killed by decapitation; testis and epididymis were dissected out. Right epididymis was minced immediately for comet assay, while left epididymis was processed for histology. Similarly, right testis was homogenized for estimation of daily sperm production (DSP) and detection of metal concentration. The results of our research revealed that arsenic treatment did not cause any significant change in body weight and testicular volume. Quercetin treatment significantly prevented tissue deposition of arsenic within the testis. Arsenic treatment caused a significant reduction in DSP, however, in the arsenic + quercetin-treated group and quercetin alone-treated group, DSP was significantly high as compared to the arsenic-treated group. Histological study of epididymis showed empty lumen in arsenic-treated group while in arsenic + quercetin-treated group and quercetin alone-treated group, lumen were filled with sperm and were comparable to control. Sperm DNA damage, induced by arsenic, was significantly reversed toward control levels by supplementation of quercetin. These results suggest that quercetin not only prevents deposition of arsenic in tissues, but can also protect the sperm DNA damage.

  19. Use of arsenic-induced palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and skin cancers to predict risk of subsequent internal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ling-I; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Lee, Chih-Hung; Yang, Tse-Yen; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-02-01

    Hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratoses, and Bowen's disease are hallmarks of chronic arsenic exposure. The association between arsenic-induced skin lesions and subsequent internal cancers is examined by using a community-based prospective study. The cohort was enrolled from an arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern Taiwan, where 2,447 residents participated in skin examinations during the late 1980s. The number of participants diagnosed with hyperpigmentation was 673; with hyperkeratosis, 243; and with skin cancer (Bowen's disease or non-melanoma skin cancer), 378. Newly diagnosed internal cancers were ascertained through linkage with National Cancer Registry profiles. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for potential risk predictors. Compared with participants without skin lesions, patients affected with skin cancers had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer (hazard ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 2.92, 7.38) and urothelial carcinoma (hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.30) after adjustment for potential confounders and cumulative arsenic exposure. Hyperkeratosis is significantly associated with an increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.35, 5.67). A significant interactive effect on lung cancer risk between hyperkeratosis and cigarette smoking was identified, which suggests that patients with hyperkeratosis who have been exposed to arsenic should cease smoking.

  20. Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, P; Chakrabarti Mallick, J; Guha, B; Khuda-Bukhsh, AR

    2003-01-01

    Background Arsenic in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of West Bengal, India and adjoining areas of Bangladesh. Because of the tremendous magnitude of the problem, there seems to be no way to tackle the problem overnight. Efforts to provide arsenic free water to the millions of people living in these dreaded zones are being made, but are awfully inadequate. In our quest for finding out an easy, safe and affordable means to combat this problem, a homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album-30, appears to yield promising results in mice. The relative efficacies of two micro doses of this drug, namely, Arsenicum Album-30 and Arsenicum Album-200, in combating arsenic toxicity have been determined in the present study on the basis of some accepted biochemical protocols. Methods Mice were divided into different sets of control (both positive and negative) and treated series (As-intoxicated, As-intoxicated plus drug-fed). Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in liver and blood were analyzed in the different series of mice at six different fixation intervals. Results Both Arsenicum Album-30 and Arsenicum Album-200 ameliorated arsenic-induced toxicity to a considerable extent as compared to various controls. Conclusions The results lend further support to our earlier views that microdoses of potentized Arsenicum Album are capable of combating arsenic intoxication in mice, and thus are strong candidates for possible use in human subjects in arsenic contaminated areas under medical supervision. PMID:14570596

  1. Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Awasthi, Surabhi; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenic accumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 µM) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 µM) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, γ-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants. PMID:24985886

  2. Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Awasthi, Surabhi; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenic accumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 µM) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 µM) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, γ-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants.

  3. Arsenic-induced cancer cell phenotype in human breast epithelia is estrogen receptor-independent but involves aromatase activation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Tokar, Erik J.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor, and tentatively linked to breast cancer by some studies. Therefore, we tested the effects of chronic inorganic arsenic exposure on the normal, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. Cells were chronically exposed to a low-level arsenite (500 nM) for up to 24 weeks. Markers of cancer cell phenotype and expression of critical genes relevant to breast cancer or stem cells (SCs) were examined. After 24 weeks, chronic arsenic-exposed breast epithelial (CABE) cells showed increases in secreted MMP activity, colony formation, invasion and proliferation rate, indicating an acquired cancer cell phenotype. These CABE cells presented with basal-like breast cancer characteristics, including ER-α, HER-2 and progesterone receptor negativity, and overexpression of K5 and p63. Putative CD44+/CD24−/low breast SCs were increased to 80% over control in CABE cells. CABE cells also formed multilayer cell mounds, indicative of loss of contact inhibition. These mounds showed high levels of K5 and p63 indicating the potential presence of CSCs. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition occurred during arsenic exposure.. Overexpression of aromatase, a key rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen synthesis, occurred with arsenic starting early on in exposure. Levels of 17β-estradiol increased in CABE cells and their conditioned medium. The aromatase inhibitor, letrozole abolished arsenic-induced increases of 17β-estradiol production, and reversed cancer cell phenotype. Thus, chronic arsenic exposure drive human breast epithelia into a cancer cell phenotype with an apparent overabundance of putative CSCs. Arsenic appears to transform breast epithelia through overexpression of aromatase, thereby activating oncogenic processes independent of ER. PMID:24068038

  4. Arsenic-induced intensity oscillations in reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements. [during MBE of GaAs and InAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. F.; Fernandez, R.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Madhukar, A.

    1986-01-01

    A technique of arsenic-induced RHEED intensity oscillations has been used to accurately measure arsenic incorporation rates as a function of substrate temperature during the homoepitaxial growths of both GaAs and InAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Measurements were made at growth temperatures from 350 to 650 C and at arsenic fluxes of 0.1 to 10.0 monolayer/s. The method measures only the arsenic actually incorporated into the growing film and does not include the arsenic lost in splitting the arsenic tetramers or lost by evaporation from the sample.

  5. A lysine-rich motif in the phosphatidylserine receptor PSR-1 mediates recognition and removal of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hengwen; Chen, Yu-Zen; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xiang; Godfroy, James I.; Liang, Qian; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Tianying; Yuan, Quan; Royal, Mary Ann; Driscoll, Monica; Xia, Ning-Shao; Yin, Hang; Xue, Ding

    2014-01-01

    The conserved phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) was first identified as a receptor for phosphatidylserine, an "eat-me" signal exposed by apoptotic cells. However, several studies suggest that PSR may also act as an arginine demethylase, a lysyl hydroxylase, or an RNA binding protein through its N-terminal JmjC domain. How PSR might execute drastically different biochemical activities, and whether they are physiologically significant, remain unclear. Here we report that a lysine-rich motif in the extracellular domain of PSR-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans PSR, mediates specific phosphatidylserine binding in vitro and clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. This motif also mediates phosphatidylserine-induced oligomerization of PSR-1, suggesting a mechanism by which PSR-1 activates phagocytosis. Mutations in the phosphatidylserine-binding motif, but not in its Fe(II) binding site critical for the JmjC activity, abolish PSR-1 phagocytic function. Moreover, PSR-1 enriches and clusters around apoptotic cells during apoptosis. These results establish that PSR-1 is a conserved, phosphatidylserine-recognizing phagocyte receptor. PMID:25564762

  6. Concomitant administration of Moringa oleifera seed powder in the remediation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Dubey, D K; Kannan, G M; Flora, S J S

    2007-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by arsenic has become a cause of global public health concern. In West Bengal, India, almost 6 million people are endemically exposed to inorganic arsenic by drinking heavily contaminated groundwater through hand-pumped tube wells. No safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures for treating arsenic poisoning are available. We recently reported that some of the herbal extracts possess properties effective in reducing arsenic concentration and in restoring some of the toxic effects of arsenic in animal models. Moringa oleifera Lamarack (English: Horseradish-tree, Drumstick-tree, Hindi: Saijan, Sanskrit: Shigru) belongs to the Moringaceae family, is generally known in the developing world as a vegetable, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) seed powder could restore arsenic induced oxidative stress and reduce body arsenic burden. Exposure to arsenic (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 6weeks) led to a significant increase in the levels of tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), metallothionein (MT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) which were accompanied by a decrease in the activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in mice. Arsenic exposed mice also exhibited liver injury as reflected by reduced acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and altered heme synthesis pathway as shown by inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity. Co-administration of M. oleifera seed powder (250 and 500 mg/kg, orally) with arsenic significantly increased the activities of SOD, catalase, GPx with elevation in reduced GSH level in tissues (liver, kidney and brain). These changes were accompanied by approximately 57%, 64% and 17% decrease in blood ROS, liver

  7. Arsenic responsive microRNAs in vivo and their potential involvement in arsenic-induced oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Gaile, Daniel P.; Gong, Zhihong; Qiu, Wenting; Ge, Yichen; Zhang, Chuanwu; Huang, Chenping; Yan, Hongtao; Olson, James R.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Wu, Hongmei

    2015-03-15

    Arsenic exposure is postulated to modify microRNA (miRNA) expression, leading to changes of gene expression and toxicities, but studies relating the responses of miRNAs to arsenic exposure are lacking, especially with respect to in vivo studies. We utilized high-throughput sequencing technology and generated miRNA expression profiles of liver tissues from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to various concentrations of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) for 60 days. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the miRNA expression profiles clustered the SD rats into different groups based on the arsenic exposure status, indicating a highly significant association between arsenic exposure and cluster membership (p-value of 0.0012). Multiple miRNA expressions were altered by arsenic in an exposure concentration-dependent manner. Among the identified arsenic-responsive miRNAs, several are predicted to target Nfe2l2-regulated antioxidant genes, including glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) which are involved in glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Exposure to low concentrations of arsenic increased mRNA expression for Gclc and Gclm, while high concentrations significantly reduced their expression, which were correlated to changes in hepatic GCL activity and GSH level. Moreover, our data suggested that other mechanisms, e.g., miRNAs, rather than Nfe2l2-signaling pathway, could be involved in the regulation of mRNA expression of Gclc and Gclm post-arsenic exposure in vivo. Together, our findings show that arsenic exposure disrupts the genome-wide expression of miRNAs in vivo, which could lead to the biological consequence, such as an altered balance of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure induces changes of hepatic miRNA expression profiles. • Hepatic GCL activity and GSH level in rats are altered following arsenic exposure. • Arsenic induced GCL expression change is

  8. Concomitant administration of Moringa oleifera seed powder in the remediation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Dubey, D K; Kannan, G M; Flora, S J S

    2007-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by arsenic has become a cause of global public health concern. In West Bengal, India, almost 6 million people are endemically exposed to inorganic arsenic by drinking heavily contaminated groundwater through hand-pumped tube wells. No safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures for treating arsenic poisoning are available. We recently reported that some of the herbal extracts possess properties effective in reducing arsenic concentration and in restoring some of the toxic effects of arsenic in animal models. Moringa oleifera Lamarack (English: Horseradish-tree, Drumstick-tree, Hindi: Saijan, Sanskrit: Shigru) belongs to the Moringaceae family, is generally known in the developing world as a vegetable, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) seed powder could restore arsenic induced oxidative stress and reduce body arsenic burden. Exposure to arsenic (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 6weeks) led to a significant increase in the levels of tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), metallothionein (MT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) which were accompanied by a decrease in the activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in mice. Arsenic exposed mice also exhibited liver injury as reflected by reduced acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and altered heme synthesis pathway as shown by inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity. Co-administration of M. oleifera seed powder (250 and 500 mg/kg, orally) with arsenic significantly increased the activities of SOD, catalase, GPx with elevation in reduced GSH level in tissues (liver, kidney and brain). These changes were accompanied by approximately 57%, 64% and 17% decrease in blood ROS, liver

  9. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine andmore » phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.« less

  10. Photoaffinity labeling of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with an aryl azide derivative of phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.P.; Wang, H.H. )

    1990-02-06

    A photoactivatable analogue of phosphatidylserine, {sup 125}I-labeled 4-azidosalicylic acid-phosphatidylserine ({sup 125}I ASA-PS), was used to label both native acetylcholine receptor (AchR)-rich membranes from Torpedo californica and AchR membranes affinity purified from Torpedo reconstituted into asolectin vesicles. The radioiodinated arylazido group attaches directly to the phospholipid head group and thus probes for regions of the AchR structure in contact with the negatively charged head group of phosphatidylserine. All four subunits of the AchR incorporated the label, with the {alpha} subunit incorporating approximately twice as much as each of the other subunits on a per mole basis. The regions of the AchR {alpha} subunit that incorporated {sup 125}I ASA-PS were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion. The majority of label incorporated into fragments representing a more complete digestion of the {alpha} subunit was localized to 11.7- and 10.1-kDa V8 cleavage fragments, both beginning at Asn-339 and of sufficient length to contain the hydrophobic region M4. An 18.7-kDa fragment beginning at Ser-173 and of sufficient length to contain the hydrophobic regions M1, M2, and M3 was also significantly labeled. In contrast, V8 cleavage fragments representing roughly a third of the amino-terminal portion of the {alpha} subunit incorporated little or no detectable amount of probe.

  11. Proteinase 3 Is a Phosphatidylserine-binding Protein That Affects the Production and Function of Microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Martin, Katherine R; Kantari-Mimoun, Chahrazade; Yin, Min; Pederzoli-Ribeil, Magali; Angelot-Delettre, Fanny; Ceroi, Adam; Grauffel, Cédric; Benhamou, Marc; Reuter, Nathalie; Saas, Philippe; Frachet, Philippe; Boulanger, Chantal M; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-05-13

    Proteinase 3 (PR3), the autoantigen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis, is expressed at the plasma membrane of resting neutrophils, and this membrane expression increases during both activation and apoptosis. Using surface plasmon resonance and protein-lipid overlay assays, this study demonstrates that PR3 is a phosphatidylserine-binding protein and this interaction is dependent on the hydrophobic patch responsible for membrane anchorage. Molecular simulations suggest that PR3 interacts with phosphatidylserine via a small number of amino acids, which engage in long lasting interactions with the lipid heads. As phosphatidylserine is a major component of microvesicles (MVs), this study also examined the consequences of this interaction on MV production and function. PR3-expressing cells produced significantly fewer MVs during both activation and apoptosis, and this reduction was dependent on the ability of PR3 to associate with the membrane as mutating the hydrophobic patch restored MV production. Functionally, activation-evoked MVs from PR3-expressing cells induced a significantly larger respiratory burst in human neutrophils compared with control MVs. Conversely, MVs generated during apoptosis inhibited the basal respiratory burst in human neutrophils, and those generated from PR3-expressing cells hampered this inhibition. Given that membrane expression of PR3 is increased in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, MVs generated from neutrophils expressing membrane PR3 may potentiate oxidative damage of endothelial cells and promote the systemic inflammation observed in this disease. PMID:26961880

  12. Combined Efficacy of Gallic Acid and MiADMSA with Limited Beneficial Effects Over MiADMSA Against Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Flora, Sjs

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid is an organic acid known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The present study is focused on evaluating the role of gallic acid in providing better therapeutic outcomes against arsenic-induced toxicity. Animals pre-exposed to arsenic were treated with monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new chelating drug, alone and in combination with gallic acid, consecutively for 10 days. The study suggests that (1) gallic acid in presence of MiADMSA is only moderately beneficial against arsenic, (2) monotherapy with gallic acid is more effective than in combination with MiADMSA after arsenic exposure in reducing oxidative injury, and (3) MiADMSA monotherapy as reported previously provides significant therapeutic efficacy against arsenic. Thus, based on the present results, we conclude that gallic acid is effective against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but provides limited additional beneficial effects when administered in combination with MiADMSA. We still recommend that lower doses of gallic acid be evaluated both individually and in combination with MiADMSA, as it might not exhibit the shortcomings we observed with higher doses in this study.

  13. Combined Efficacy of Gallic Acid and MiADMSA with Limited Beneficial Effects Over MiADMSA Against Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Flora, SJS

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid is an organic acid known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The present study is focused on evaluating the role of gallic acid in providing better therapeutic outcomes against arsenic-induced toxicity. Animals pre-exposed to arsenic were treated with monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new chelating drug, alone and in combination with gallic acid, consecutively for 10 days. The study suggests that (1) gallic acid in presence of MiADMSA is only moderately beneficial against arsenic, (2) monotherapy with gallic acid is more effective than in combination with MiADMSA after arsenic exposure in reducing oxidative injury, and (3) MiADMSA monotherapy as reported previously provides significant therapeutic efficacy against arsenic. Thus, based on the present results, we conclude that gallic acid is effective against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but provides limited additional beneficial effects when administered in combination with MiADMSA. We still recommend that lower doses of gallic acid be evaluated both individually and in combination with MiADMSA, as it might not exhibit the shortcomings we observed with higher doses in this study. PMID:26339189

  14. Role of Metabolism in Arsenic-Induced Toxicity: Identification and Quantification of Arsenic Metabolites in Tissues and Excreta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a known toxicant and carcinogen. Methylation of inorganic arsenic was once thought to be a detoxification mechanism because of the rapid excretion and relatively lower toxicity of the pentavalent organic arsenical metabolites. Advances in analytical chemistry have al...

  15. Contributions of phosphatidylserine-positive platelets and leukocytes and microparticles to hypercoagulable state in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfa; Ma, Ruishuang; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Muhua; Zhao, Liangliang; Bi, Yayan; Kou, Junjie; Shi, Jialan; Zou, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    Hypercoagulability in gastric cancer is a common complication and a major contributor to poor prognosis. This study aimed to determine procoagulant activity of blood cells and microparticles (MPs) in gastric cancer patients. Phosphatidylserine-positive blood cells and MPs, and their procoagulant properties in particular, were assessed in 48 gastric cancer patients and 35 healthy controls. Phosphatidylserine-positive platelets, leukocytes, and MPs in patients with tumor-node-metastasis stage III/IV gastric cancer were significantly higher than those in stage I/II patients or healthy controls. Moreover, procoagulant activity of platelets, leukocytes, and MPs in stage III/IV patients was significantly increased compared to the controls, as indicated by shorter clotting time, higher intrinsic and extrinsic factor tenase, and prothrombinase complex activity. Interestingly, lactadherin, which competes with factors V and VIII to bind phosphatidylserine, dramatically prolonged clotting time of the cells and MPs by inhibiting factor tenase and prothrombinase complex activity. Although anti-tissue factor antibody significantly attenuated extrinsic tenase complex activity of leukocytes and MPs, it only slightly prolonged clotting times. Meanwhile, treatment with radical resection reduced phosphatidylserine-positive platelets, leukocytes, and MPs, and prolonged the clotting times of the remaining cells and MPs. Our results suggest that phosphatidylserine-positive platelets, leukocytes, and MPs contribute to hypercoagulability and represent a potential therapeutic target to prevent coagulation in patients with stage III/IV gastric cancer.

  16. Amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia by phosphatidylserine and curcumin in the day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A; Edris, Edward M; Levinsky, Paul J; Williams, Justin M; Brouwer, Ari R; Gessay, Shawn A

    2016-09-01

    In the one-trial taste-avoidance task in day-old chicks, acetylcholine receptor activation has been shown to be important for memory formation. Injection of scopolamine produces amnesia, which appears to be very similar in type to that of Alzheimer's disease, which is correlated with low levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Traditional pharmacological treatments of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor blockers, improve memory and delay the onset of impairments in memory compared with placebo controls. These agents also ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in the day-old chick trained on the one-trial taste-avoidance task. The present experiments examined the ability of two less traditional treatments for Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine and curcumin, to ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in day-old chicks. The results showed that 37.9 mmol/l phosphatidylserine and 2.7 mmol/l curcumin significantly improved retention in chicks administered scopolamine, whereas lower doses were not effective. Scopolamine did not produce state-dependent learning, indicating that this paradigm in day-old chicks might be a useful one to study the effects of possible Alzheimer's treatments. In addition, chicks administered curcumin or phosphatidylserine showed little avoidance of a bead associated with water reward, indicating that these drugs did not produce response inhibition. The current results extend the findings that some nontraditional memory enhancers can ameliorate memory impairment and support the hypothesis that these treatments might be of benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27388114

  17. Cofactor-free detection of phosphatidylserine with cyclic peptides mimicking lactadherin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Wang, Fang; Wang, Qin; Gao, Jianmin

    2011-10-01

    Cyclic peptides (cLacs) are designed to mimic the natural phosphatidylserine (PS) binding protein lactadherin. Unlike annexin V or its small molecule mimics, the cLac peptides selectively target PS-presenting membranes with no need for metal cofactors. We further show that a fluorophore-labeled cLac effectively stains early apoptotic cells. The small size and facile conjugation with a variety of imaging tracers make the cLac design promising for imaging cell death in vitro as well as in living organisms.

  18. Methylation matters

    PubMed Central

    Costello, J.; Plass, C.

    2001-01-01

    DNA methylation is not just for basic scientists any more. There is a growing awareness in the medical field that having the correct pattern of genomic methylation is essential for healthy cells and organs. If methylation patterns are not properly established or maintained, disorders as diverse as mental retardation, immune deficiency, and sporadic or inherited cancers may follow. Through inappropriate silencing of growth regulating genes and simultaneous destabilisation of whole chromosomes, methylation defects help create a chaotic state from which cancer cells evolve. Methylation defects are present in cells before the onset of obvious malignancy and therefore cannot be explained simply as a consequence of a deregulated cancer cell. Researchers are now able to detect with exquisite sensitivity the cells harbouring methylation defects, sometimes months or years before the time when cancer is clinically detectable. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of specific genes has been directly linked with the tumour response to chemotherapy and patient survival. Advances in our ability to observe the methylation status of the entire cancer cell genome have led us to the unmistakable conclusion that methylation abnormalities are far more prevalent than expected. This methylomics approach permits the integration of an ever growing repertoire of methylation defects with the genetic alterations catalogued from tumours over the past two decades. Here we discuss the current knowledge of DNA methylation in normal cells and disease states, and how this relates directly to our current understanding of the mechanisms by which tumours arise.


Keywords: methylation; cancer PMID:11333864

  19. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) alleviates arsenic-induced damages to DNA and intestinal tissues in rat and in situ intestinal loop by reinforcing antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Sajed Ali, Sk; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-09-01

    This study elucidates the protective role of Green tea (Camellia sinensis or CS) against arsenic-induced mutagenic DNA-breakage/intestinal (small) damages in female rats. Intestinal epithelial cells receive ingested arsenic initially. Though, the possibility of damages in this tissue is immense and the therapeutic strategies against this damage are of great concern, reports on either issue are scanty. Our earlier study on arsenic-exposed human unveils a link between carcinogenesis and mutagenic DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation of CS-extract (10 mg/mL water) with NaAsO2 (0.6 ppm)/100 g b.w. for 28 days to rats offered a significant protection against arsenic-induced oxidative damages to DNA and intestinal (small) tissues by buttressing antioxidant systems. Necrotic and apoptotic damages and their CS-protection are shown in DNA-fragmentation, comet-assay, and histoarchitecture (hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-schiff staining) results. Only arsenic exposure significantly decreased intestinal superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and level of soluble thiol with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde/conjugated dienes. Alteration of serum necrotic marker lactate dehydrogenase and the metabolic inflammatory marker c-reactive protein also indicate the impairment may be occurring at transcription and/or cellular signal transduction level. In addition, in situ incubation in rat intestinal loop filled for 24 h with NaAsO2 alone (250 µM) or with aqueous CS-extract (250 mg/mL) suggests that small intestinal epithelial cells are significantly protected by CS against arsenic-associated necrotic/mutagenic damages, which is observed in DNA-breakage studies. In conclusion, besides intensifying endogenous antioxidant system, CS polyphenols also offer a direct role on free radical scavenging activity that is associated to the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakages and prevention of tissue necrosis/carcinogenesis generated by arsenic.

  20. Arsenic-induced skin lesions among Atacameño people in Northern Chile despite good nutrition and centuries of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A H; Arroyo, A P; Mazumder, D N; Kosnett, M J; Hernandez, A L; Beeris, M; Smith, M M; Moore, L E

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that the indigenous Atacameño people in Northern Chile might be protected from the health effects of arsenic in drinking water because of many centuries of exposure. Here we report on the first intensive investigation of arsenic-induced skin lesions in this population. We selected 11 families (44 participants) from the village of Chiu Chiu, which is supplied with water containing between 750 and 800 microg/L inorganic arsenic. For comparison, 8 families (31 participants) were also selected from a village where the water contains approximately 10 microg/L inorganic arsenic. After being transported to the nearest city for blind assessment, participants were examined by four physicians with experience in studying arsenic-induced lesions. Four of the six men from the exposed village, who had been drinking the contaminated water for more than 20 years, were diagnosed with skin lesions due to arsenic, but none of the women had definite lesions. A 13-year-old girl had definite skin pigmentation changes due to arsenic, and a 19-year-old boy had both pigmentation changes and keratoses on the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet. Family interviews identified a wide range of fruits and vegetables consumed daily by the affected participants, as well as the weekly intake of red meat and chicken. However, the prevalence of skin lesions among men and children in the small population studied was similar to that reported with corresponding arsenic drinking water concentrations in both Taiwan and West Bengal, India--populations in which extensive malnutrition has been thought to increase susceptibility. PMID:10903614

  1. Dysregulation of DNA methylation induced by past arsenic treatment causes persistent genomic instability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Maurizio; Caradonna, Fabio; Klein, Catherine B

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms by which arsenic-induced genomic instability is initiated and maintained are poorly understood. To investigate potential epigenetic mechanisms, in this study we evaluated global DNA methylation levels in V79 cells and human HaCaT keratinocytes at several time points during expanded growth of cell cultures following removal of arsenite exposures. We have found altered genomic methylation patterns that persisted up to 40 cell generations in HaCaT cells after the treatments were withdrawn. Moreover, mRNA expression levels were evaluated by RT-PCR for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HMLH1, and HMSH2 genes, demonstrating that the down regulation of DNMT3A and DNMT3B genes, but not DNMT1, occurred in an arsenic dose-dependent manner, and persisted for many cell generations following removal of the arsenite, offering a plausible mechanism of persistently genotoxic arsenic action. Analyses of promoter methylation status of the DNA mismatch repair genes HMLH1 and HMSH2 show that HMSH2, but not HMLH1, was epigenetically regulated by promoter hypermethylation changes following arsenic treatment. The results reported here demonstrate that arsenic exposure promptly induces genome-wide global DNA hypomethylation, and some specific gene promoter methylation changes, that persist for many cell generations following withdrawal of arsenite, supporting the hypothesis that the cells undergo epigenetic reprogramming at both the gene and genome level that is durable over many cell generations in the absence of further arsenic treatment. These DNA methylation changes, in concert with other known epigenome alterations, are likely contributing to long-lasting arsenic-induced genomic instability that manifests in several ways, including aberrant chromosomal effects. PMID:26581878

  2. Dysregulation of DNA Methylation Induced by Past Arsenic Treatment Causes Persistent Genomic Instability in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Maurizio; Caradonna, Fabio; Klein, Catherine B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which arsenic-induced genomic instability is initiated and maintained are poorly understood. To investigate potential epigenetic mechanisms, in this study we evaluated global DNA methylation levels in V79 cells and human HaCaT keratinocytes at several time points during expanded growth of cell cultures following removal of arsenite exposures. We have found altered genomic methylation patterns that persisted up to 40 cell generations in HaCaT cells after the treatments were withdrawn. Moreover, mRNA expression levels were evaluated by RT-PCR for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HMLH1, and HMSH2 genes, demonstrating that the down regulation of DNMT3A and DNMT3B genes, but not DNMT1, occurred in an arsenic dose-dependent manner, and persisted for many cell generations following removal of the arsenite, offering a plausible mechanism of persistently genotoxic arsenic action. Analyses of promoter methylation status of the DNA mismatch repair genes HMLH1 and HMSH2 show that HMSH2, but not HMLH1, was epigenetically regulated by promoter hypermethylation changes following arsenic treatment. The results reported here demonstrate that arsenic exposure promptly induces genome-wide global DNA hypomethylation, and some specific gene promoter methylation changes, that persist for many cell generations following withdrawal of arsenite, supporting the hypothesis that the cells undergo epigenetic reprogramming at both the gene and genome level that is durable over many cell generations in the absence of further arsenic treatment. These DNA methylation changes, in concert with other known epigenome alterations, are likely contributing to long-lasting arsenic-induced genomic instability that manifests in several ways, including aberrant chromosomal effects. PMID:26581878

  3. Dysregulation of DNA methylation induced by past arsenic treatment causes persistent genomic instability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Maurizio; Caradonna, Fabio; Klein, Catherine B

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms by which arsenic-induced genomic instability is initiated and maintained are poorly understood. To investigate potential epigenetic mechanisms, in this study we evaluated global DNA methylation levels in V79 cells and human HaCaT keratinocytes at several time points during expanded growth of cell cultures following removal of arsenite exposures. We have found altered genomic methylation patterns that persisted up to 40 cell generations in HaCaT cells after the treatments were withdrawn. Moreover, mRNA expression levels were evaluated by RT-PCR for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HMLH1, and HMSH2 genes, demonstrating that the down regulation of DNMT3A and DNMT3B genes, but not DNMT1, occurred in an arsenic dose-dependent manner, and persisted for many cell generations following removal of the arsenite, offering a plausible mechanism of persistently genotoxic arsenic action. Analyses of promoter methylation status of the DNA mismatch repair genes HMLH1 and HMSH2 show that HMSH2, but not HMLH1, was epigenetically regulated by promoter hypermethylation changes following arsenic treatment. The results reported here demonstrate that arsenic exposure promptly induces genome-wide global DNA hypomethylation, and some specific gene promoter methylation changes, that persist for many cell generations following withdrawal of arsenite, supporting the hypothesis that the cells undergo epigenetic reprogramming at both the gene and genome level that is durable over many cell generations in the absence of further arsenic treatment. These DNA methylation changes, in concert with other known epigenome alterations, are likely contributing to long-lasting arsenic-induced genomic instability that manifests in several ways, including aberrant chromosomal effects.

  4. Analysis of the transcriptional regulation of cancer-related genes by aberrant DNA methylation of the cis-regulation sites in the promoter region during hepatocyte carcinogenesis caused by arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhuang; Wu, Lin; Lu, Ming; Meng, Xianzhi; Gao, Bo; Qiao, Xin; Zhang, Weihui; Xue, Dongbo

    2015-01-01

    Liver is the major organ for arsenic methylation metabolism and may be the potential target of arsenic-induced cancer. In this study, normal human liver cell was treated with arsenic trioxide, and detected using DNA methylation microarray. Some oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, transcription factors (TF), and tumor-associated genes (TAG) that have aberrant DNA methylation have been identified. However, simple functional studies of genes adjacent to aberrant methylation sites cannot well reflect the regulatory relationship between DNA methylation and gene transcription during the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced liver cancer, whereas a further analysis of the cis-regulatory elements and their trans-acting factors adjacent to DNA methylation can more precisely reflect the relationship between them. MYC and MAX (MYC associated factor X) were found to participating cell cycle through a bioinformatics analysis. Additionally, it was found that the hypomethylation of cis-regulatory sites in the MYC promoter region and the hypermethylation of cis-regulatory sites in the MAX promoter region result in the up-regulation of MYC mRNA expression and the down-regulation of MAX mRNA, which increased the hepatocyte carcinogenesis tendency. PMID:26046465

  5. Characterization of Plasmodium phosphatidylserine decarboxylase expressed in yeast and application for inhibitor screening

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Yeon; Lawres, Lauren; Toh, Justin Y.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipid biosynthesis is critical for the development, differentiation and pathogenesis of several eukaryotic pathogens. Genetic studies have validated the pathway for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis from phosphatidylserine catalyzed by phosphatidylserine decarboxylase enzymes (PSD) as a suitable target for development of antimicrobials; however no inhibitors of this class of enzymes have been discovered. We show that the Plasmodium falciparum PSD can restore the essential function of the yeast gene in strains requiring PSD for growth. Genetic, biochemical and metabolic analyses demonstrate that amino acids between positions 40 and 70 of the parasite enzyme are critical for proenzyme processing and decarboxylase activity. We used the essential role of Plasmodium PSD in yeast as a tool for screening a library of anti-malarials. One of these compounds is 7-chloro-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-quinolinamine, an inhibitor with potent activity against P. falciparum, and low toxicity toward mammalian cells. We synthesized an analog of this compound and showed that it inhibits PfPSD activity and eliminates Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice. These results highlight the importance of 4-quinolinamines as a novel class of drugs targeting membrane biogenesis via inhibition of PSD activity PMID:26585333

  6. The cholesterol content of the erythrocyte membrane is an important determinant of phosphatidylserine exposure.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, Rob; Bochem, Andrea E; Hilarius, Petra M; van Bruggen, Robin; Bergkamp, Ferry; Hovingh, G Kees; Verhoeven, Arthur J

    2012-12-01

    Maintenance of the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the plasma membrane is a prerequisite for the survival of erythrocytes. Various stimuli have been shown to induce scrambling of phospholipids and thereby exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS). In two types of patients, both with aberrant plasma cholesterol levels, we observed an aberrant PS exposure in erythrocytes upon stimulation. We investigated the effect of high and low levels of cholesterol on the ATP-dependent flippase, which maintains phospholipid asymmetry, and the ATP-independent scrambling activity, which breaks down phospholipid asymmetry. We analyzed erythrocytes of a patient with spur cell anemia, characterized by elevated plasma cholesterol, and the erythrocytes of Tangier disease patients with very low levels of plasma cholesterol. In normal erythrocytes, loaded with cholesterol or depleted of cholesterol in vitro, the same analyses were performed. Changes in the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of erythrocytes had marked effects on PS exposure upon cell activation. Excess cholesterol profoundly inhibited PS exposure, whereas cholesterol depletion led to increased PS exposure. The activity of the ATP-dependent flippase was not changed, suggesting a major influence of cholesterol on the outward translocation of PS. The effects of cholesterol were not accompanied by eminent changes in cytoskeletal and membrane proteins. These findings emphasize the importance of cholesterol exchange between circulating plasma and the erythrocyte membrane as determinant for phosphatidylserine exposure in erythrocytes.

  7. Complementary probes reveal that phosphatidylserine is required for the proper transbilayer distribution of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Masashi; Fairn, Gregory D

    2015-04-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of metazoan cellular membranes and it helps to maintain the structural integrity and fluidity of the plasma membrane. Here, we developed a cholesterol biosensor, termed D4H, based on the fourth domain of Clostridium perfringens theta-toxin, which recognizes cholesterol in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane and organelles. The D4H probe disassociates from the plasma membrane upon cholesterol extraction and after perturbations in cellular cholesterol trafficking. When used in combination with a recombinant version of the biosensor, we show that plasmalemmal phosphatidylserine is essential for retaining cholesterol in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In vitro experiments reveal that 1-stearoy-2-oleoyl phosphatidylserine can induce phase separation in cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers and shield cholesterol from cholesterol oxidase. Finally, the altered transbilayer distribution of cholesterol causes flotillin-1 to relocalize to endocytic organelles. This probe should be useful in the future to study pools of cholesterol in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane and organelles. PMID:25663704

  8. The Molecular Structure of a Phosphatidylserine Bilayer Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Jianjun; Cheng, Xiaolin; Monticelli, Luca; Heberle, Frederick A; Kucerka, Norbert; Tieleman, D. Peter; Katsaras, John

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids play essential roles in biological processes, including enzyme activation and apoptosis. We report on the molecular structure and atomic scale interactions of a fluid bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS). A scattering density profile model, aided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was developed to jointly refine different contrast small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, which yielded a lipid area of 62.7 A2 at 25 C. MD simulations with POPS lipid area constrained at different values were also performed using all-atom and aliphatic united-atom models. The optimal simulated bilayer was obtained using a model-free comparison approach. Examination of the simulated bilayer, which agrees best with the experimental scattering data, reveals a preferential interaction between Na+ ions and the terminal serine and phosphate moieties. Long-range inter-lipid interactions were identified, primarily between the positively charged ammonium, and the negatively charged carboxylic and phosphate oxygens. The area compressibility modulus KA of the POPS bilayer was derived by quantifying lipid area as a function of surface tension from area-constrained MD simulations. It was found that POPS bilayers possess a much larger KA than that of neutral phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. We propose that the unique molecular features of POPS bilayers may play an important role in certain physiological functions.

  9. Complementary probes reveal that phosphatidylserine is required for the proper transbilayer distribution of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Masashi; Fairn, Gregory D

    2015-04-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of metazoan cellular membranes and it helps to maintain the structural integrity and fluidity of the plasma membrane. Here, we developed a cholesterol biosensor, termed D4H, based on the fourth domain of Clostridium perfringens theta-toxin, which recognizes cholesterol in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane and organelles. The D4H probe disassociates from the plasma membrane upon cholesterol extraction and after perturbations in cellular cholesterol trafficking. When used in combination with a recombinant version of the biosensor, we show that plasmalemmal phosphatidylserine is essential for retaining cholesterol in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In vitro experiments reveal that 1-stearoy-2-oleoyl phosphatidylserine can induce phase separation in cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers and shield cholesterol from cholesterol oxidase. Finally, the altered transbilayer distribution of cholesterol causes flotillin-1 to relocalize to endocytic organelles. This probe should be useful in the future to study pools of cholesterol in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane and organelles.

  10. Human rhinovirus-induced inflammatory responses are inhibited by phosphatidylserine containing liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, C A; Kaur, R; Edwards, M R; Mondhe, M; Robinson, D; Prestwich, E C; Hume, R D; Marshall, C A; Perrie, Y; O'Donnell, V B; Harwood, J L; Sabroe, I; Parker, L C

    2016-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are major contributors to the healthcare burden associated with acute exacerbations of chronic airway disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Cellular responses to HRV are mediated through pattern recognition receptors that may in part signal from membrane microdomains. We previously found Toll-like receptor signaling is reduced, by targeting membrane microdomains with a specific liposomal phosphatidylserine species, 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (SAPS). Here we explored the ability of this approach to target a clinically important pathogen. We determined the biochemical and biophysical properties and stability of SAPS liposomes and studied their ability to modulate rhinovirus-induced inflammation, measured by cytokine production, and rhinovirus replication in both immortalized and normal primary bronchial epithelial cells. SAPS liposomes rapidly partitioned throughout the plasma membrane and internal cellular membranes of epithelial cells. Uptake of liposomes did not cause cell death, but was associated with markedly reduced inflammatory responses to rhinovirus, at the expense of only modest non-significant increases in viral replication, and without impairment of interferon receptor signaling. Thus using liposomes of phosphatidylserine to target membrane microdomains is a feasible mechanism for modulating rhinovirus-induced signaling, and potentially a prototypic new therapy for viral-mediated inflammation. PMID:26906404

  11. Phosphatidylserine Synthase Controls Cell Elongation Especially in the Uppermost Internode in Rice by Regulation of Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jinbo; Zhang, Baocai; Ren, Yulong; Ding, Yu; Zhou, Yihua; Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Kunneng; Wang, Jiu-Lin; Lei, Cailin; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Gao, He; Bao, Yiqun; Wan, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The uppermost internode is one of the fastest elongating organs in rice, and is expected to require an adequate supply of cell-wall materials and enzymes to the cell surface to enhance mechanical strength. Although it has been reported that the phenotype of shortened uppermost internode 1 (sui1) is caused by mutations in PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE SYNTHASE (OsPSS), the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the OsPSS-1, as a gene expressed predominantly in elongating cells, regulates post-Golgi vesicle secretion to intercellular spaces. Mutation of OsPSS-1 leads to compromised delivery of CESA4 and secGFP towards the cell surface, resulting in weakened intercellular adhesion and disorganized cell arrangement in parenchyma. The phenotype of sui1-4 is caused largely by the reduction in cellulose contents in the whole plant and detrimental delivery of pectins in the uppermost internode. We found that OsPSS-1 and its potential product PS (phosphatidylserine) localized to organelles associated with exocytosis. These results together suggest that OsPSS-1 plays a potential role in mediating cell expansion by regulating secretion of cell wall components. PMID:27055010

  12. Thymosin α1 Interacts with Exposed Phosphatidylserine in Membrane Models and in Cells and Uses Serum Albumin as a Carrier.

    PubMed

    Mandaliti, Walter; Nepravishta, Ridvan; Sinibaldi Vallebona, Paola; Pica, Francesca; Garaci, Enrico; Paci, Maurizio

    2016-03-15

    Thymosin α1 is a peptidic hormone with pleiotropic activity and is used in the therapy of several diseases. It is unstructured in water solution and interacts with negative regions of vesicles by assuming two tracts of helical conformation with a structural break between them. This study reports on Thymosin α1's interaction with mixed phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine, the negative component of the membranes, by ¹H and natural abundance ¹⁵N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results indicate that interaction occurs when the membrane is negatively charged by exposing phosphatidylserine. Moreover, the direct interaction of Thymosin α1 with K562 cells with an overexposure of phosphatidylserine as a consequence of resveratrol-induced apoptosis was conducted. Thymosin α1's interaction with human serum albumin was also investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Steady-state saturation transfer, transfer nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy methodologies all reveal that the C-terminal region of Thymosin α1 is involved in the interaction with serum albumin. These results may shed more light on Thymosin α1's mechanism of action by its insertion in negative regions of membranes due to the exposure of phosphatidylserine. Once Thymosin α1's N-terminus has been inserted into the membrane, the rest may interact with nearby proteins and/or receptors acting as effectors and causing a biological signaling cascade, thus exerting thymosin α1's pleiotropy. PMID:26909491

  13. Arsenic induced changes in growth development and apoptosis in neonatal and adult brain cells in vivo and in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sukumar; Bhaumik, Sraboni; Nag Chaudhury, Aditi; Das Gupta, Shyamal

    2002-03-10

    Arsenic at a nonlethal level in drinking water consumed over a period of time has been reported to produce chronic toxicity and various types of health problems ranging from skin cancer to disturbance in memory. Neurotoxic effects have been reported in clinical cases with chronic exposure to arsenic. Physiological detoxication of arsenic occurs partially through methylation. Arsenic and its methylated derivatives are distributed in different organs and systems. The present study examined the possible interference in the neuronal development and differentiation due to the exposure to arsenic during gestation. The experiments were carried out to examine short and long term effects of arsenic on brain explants and cells grown and maintained in tissue culture system. The effects of arsenic exposure showed changes in brain cell membrane function indicated by generation and release of reactive oxygen-nitrogen intermediates. On the morphological aspect the explants' growth was reduced, ground matrix was lost and neural networking was inhibited. Cells showed signs of apoptotic changes. Arsenic toxicity may induce damage to brain cells prior to more visible clinical conditions. The deleterious effects also pass from the maternal to fetal tissue across the transplacental barrier.

  14. Suppression of atopic dermatitis in mice model by reducing inflammation utilizing phosphatidylserine-coated biodegradable microparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Purnima; Hosain, Md Zahangir; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Takeo, Masafumi; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Controlling inflammatory response is important to avoid chronic inflammation in many diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD). In this research, we tried using a phosphatidylserine (PS)-coated microparticles in the AD mouse model for achieving the modulation of the macrophage phenotype to an anti-inflammatory state. Here, we prepared poly (D,L-lactic acid) microparticle coated with PS on the outside shell. We confirmed the cellular uptake of the PS-coated microparticle, which leads to the significant downregulation of the inflammatory cytokine production. In the mouse model of AD, the PS-coated microparticle was injected subcutaneously for a period of 12 days. The mice showed significant reduction in the development of AD symptoms comparing with the mice treated with the PC-coated microparticle. PMID:26414796

  15. Detection of phosphatidylserine exposure on leukocytes following treatment with human galectins.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Connie M; Rodrigues, Lilian Cataldi; Baruffi, Marcelo Dias; Sullivan, Harold C; Cummings, Richard D; Stowell, Sean R

    2015-01-01

    Cellular turnover represents a fundamental aspect of immunological homeostasis. While many factors appear to regulate leukocyte removal during inflammatory resolution, recent studies suggest that members of the galectin family play a unique role in orchestrating this process. Unlike cellular removal through apoptotic cell death, several members of the galectin family induce surface expression of phosphatidylserine (PS), a phagocytic marker on cells undergoing apoptosis, in the absence of cell death. However, similar to PS on cells undergoing apoptosis, galectin-induced PS exposure sensitizes cells to phagocytic removal. As galectins appear to prepare cells for phagocytic removal without actually inducing apoptotic cell death, this process has recently been coined preaparesis. Given the unique characteristics of galectin-induced PS exposure in the context of preaparesis, we will examine important considerations when evaluating the potential impact of different galectin family members on PS exposure and cell viability.

  16. Involvement of VAT-1 in Phosphatidylserine Transfer from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Junker, Mirco; Rapoport, Tom A

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondria receive phosphatidylserine (PS) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but how PS is moved from the ER to mitochondria is unclear. Current models postulate a physical link between the organelles, but no involvement of cytosolic proteins. Here, we have reconstituted PS transport from the ER to mitochondria in vitro using Xenopus egg components. Transport is independent of ER proteins, but is dependent on a cytosolic factor that has a preferential affinity for PS. Crosslinking with a photoactivatable PS analog identified VAT-1 as a candidate for a cytosolic PS transport protein. Recombinant, purified VAT-1 stimulated PS transport into mitochondria and depletion of VAT-1 from Xenopus cytosol with specific antibodies led to a reduction of transport. Our results suggest that cytosolic factors have a role in PS transport from the ER to mitochondria, implicate VAT-1 in the transport process, and indicate that physical contact between the organelles is not essential.

  17. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential. PMID:25568918

  18. Room temperature ordering of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine bilayers induced by short chain alcohols.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, E; Bach, D; Miller, I R

    2013-01-01

    Using differential scanning calorimetry and small and wide angle X-ray diffraction, we show that, following extended incubation at room temperature, methanol, propanol, and three of the isomers of butanol can induce ordering in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS) gel phase bilayers. The organization of the bilayers in the presence of ethanol, described previously, is now observed to be a general effect of short chain alcohols. Evidence is presented for tilting of the acyl chains with respect to the bilayer normal in the presence of ethanol or propanol. However, the different chain lengths of the alcohols, and isomeric form, influence the thermal stability of the ordered gel to different extents. This behavior is unlike that of the gel state phosphatidylcholine analog which, in the presence of short chain alcohols, undergoes hydrocarbon chain interdigitation. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine added to DPPS in the presence of 20 vol% ethanol, acts to suppress the ordered gel phase.

  19. TIM-4 structures identify a Metal Ion-dependent Ligand Binding Site where phosphatidylserine binds

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Cesar; Ballesteros, Angela; Martinez-Muñoz, Laura; Mellado, Mario; Kaplan, Gerardo G.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Casasnovas, José M.

    2008-01-01

    The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins are important regulators of T cell responses. They have been linked to autoimmunity and cancer. Structures of the murine TIM-4 identified a Metal Ion-dependent Ligand Binding Site (MILIBS) in the immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of the TIM family. The characteristic CC’ loop of the TIM domain and the hydrophobic FG loop shaped a narrow cavity where acidic compounds penetrate and coordinate to a metal ion bound to conserved residues in the TIM proteins. The structure of phosphatidylserine bound to the Ig domain showed that the hydrophilic head penetrates into the MILIBS and coordinates with the metal ion, while the aromatic residues on the tip of the FG loop interacted with the fatty acid chains and could insert into the lipid bilayer. Our results also revealed a significant role of the MILIBS in trafficking of TIM-1 to the cell surface. PMID:18083575

  20. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential.

  1. Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex as an additional diagnostic marker of APS?

    PubMed

    Žigon, P; Čučnik, S; Ambrožič, A; Sodin Šemrl, S; Kveder, T; Božič, B

    2012-06-01

    Antiprothrombin antibodies can be measured by ELISA using either a prothrombin/phosphatidylserine complex (aPS/PT) or prothrombin alone (aPT) as antigen. We aimed to compare the clinical features of autoimmune patients with avidity of aPS/PT and determine the diagnostic efficiency of aPS/PT and aPT for assessing antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). aPS/PT were of low (n = 9), heterogeneous (n = 31) and high (n = 8) avidity out of 48 cases. None of the samples with low avidity were positive in aPT ELISA. Among patients with heterogeneous or high avidity aPS/PT, there was a significantly greater number of patients with APS as compared to patients with low avidity (38/39 vs. 7/9; p < 0.05). No SLE patients had high avidity antiprothrombin antibodies.

  2. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in phosphatidylcholine host bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, F C; Ojcius, D M; Hubbell, W L

    1986-01-01

    Potentiometric titrations and surface potential measurements have been used to determine the intrinsic pKa values of both the carboxyl and amino groups of phosphatidylserine (PS) in mixed vesicles of PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC), and also of the amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in mixed PE-PC vesicles. The pKa of the carboxyl group of PS in liposomes with different PS/PC lipid ratios measured by the two different methods is 3.6 +/- 0.1, and the pKa of its amino group is 9.8 +/- 0.1. The pKa of the amino group of PE in PE-PC vesicles, determined solely by surface potential measurements, is 9.6 +/- 0.1. These pKa values are independent of the aqueous phase ionic strength and of the effect of the liposome's surface potential due to the presence of these partially charged lipids. PMID:3955180

  3. Reactive oxygen species and phosphatidylserine externalization in murine sickle red cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tinku; Kuypers, Frans A

    2004-02-01

    Due to their role in oxygen transport and the presence of redox active haemoglobin molecules, red blood cells (RBC) generate relatively high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To counteract the potential deleterious effects of ROS, RBCs have a well-integrated network of anti-oxidant mechanisms to combat this oxidative stress. ROS formation is increased in sickle-cell disease (SCD) and our studies in a murine SCD model showed a significant increase in the generation of ROS when compared with normal mice. Our data also indicated that murine sickle RBCs exhibit a significantly increased ATP catabolism, partly due to the increased activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase to regenerate intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels to neutralize the adverse milieu of oxidative stress. Higher ATP consumption by the murine sickle RBCs, together with the increased ROS formation and impairment of the aminophospholipid translocase or flipase may underlie the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of these cells.

  4. Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major ‘eat-me’ signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering.

  5. Methyl Iodide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane, CH3I) was reported as a potential alternative to the stratospheric ozone-depleting fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) in the mid-1990s (Sims et al., 1995; Ohr et al., 1996). It has since received significant research attention to determine its environmental fate and tran...

  6. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid loaded nano-insulin has greater potentials of combating arsenic induced hyperglycemia in mice: Some novel findings

    SciTech Connect

    Samadder, Asmita; Das, Jayeeta; Das, Sreemanti; De, Arnab; Saha, Santu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-02-15

    Diabetes is a menacing problem, particularly to inhabitants of groundwater arsenic contaminated areas needing new medical approaches. This study examines if PLGA loaded nano-insulin (NIn), administered either intraperitoneally (i.p.) or through oral route, has a greater cost-effective anti-hyperglycemic potential than that of insulin in chronically arsenite-fed hyperglycemic mice. The particle size, morphology and zeta potential of nano-insulin were determined using dynamic light scattering method, scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. The ability of the nano-insulin (NIn) to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) was also checked. Circular dichroic spectroscopic (CD) data of insulin and nano-insulin in presence or absence of arsenic were compared. Several diabetic markers in different groups of experimental and control mice were assessed. The mitochondrial functioning through indices like cytochrome c, pyruvate-kinase, glucokinase, ATP/ADP ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell membrane potential and calcium-ion level was also evaluated. Expressions of the relevant marker proteins and mRNAs like insulin, GLUT2, GLUT4, IRS1, IRS2, UCP2, PI3, PPARγ, CYP1A1, Bcl2, caspase3 and p38 for tracking-down the signaling cascade were also analyzed. Results revealed that i.p.-injected nano-encapsulated-insulin showed better results; NIn, due to its smaller size, faster mobility, site-specific release, could cross BBB and showed positive modulation in mitochondrial signaling cascades and other downstream signaling molecules in reducing arsenic-induced-hyperglycemia. CD data indicated that nano-insulin had less distorted secondary structure as compared with that of insulin in presence of arsenic. Thus, overall analyses revealed that PLGA nano-insulin showed better efficacy in combating arsenite-induced-hyperglycemia than that of insulin and therefore, has greater potentials for use in nano-encapsulated form. - Highlights: ► PLGA encapsulated nano

  7. Host Cell Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Regulates the Assembly and Budding of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Adu-Gyamfi, Emmanuel; Johnson, Kristen A.; Fraser, Mark E.; Scott, Jordan L.; Soni, Smita P.; Jones, Keaton R.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Tessier, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipid-enveloped viruses replicate and bud from the host cell where they acquire their lipid coat. Ebola virus, which buds from the plasma membrane of the host cell, causes viral hemorrhagic fever and has a high fatality rate. To date, little has been known about how budding and egress of Ebola virus are mediated at the plasma membrane. We have found that the lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) regulates the assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40. VP40 binds PS-containing membranes with nanomolar affinity, and binding of PS regulates VP40 localization and oligomerization on the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Further, alteration of PS levels in mammalian cells inhibits assembly and egress of VP40. Notably, interactions of VP40 with the plasma membrane induced exposure of PS on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane at sites of egress, whereas PS is typically found only on the inner leaflet. Taking the data together, we present a model accounting for the role of plasma membrane PS in assembly of Ebola virus-like particles. IMPORTANCE The lipid-enveloped Ebola virus causes severe infection with a high mortality rate and currently lacks FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines. Ebola virus harbors just seven genes in its genome, and there is a critical requirement for acquisition of its lipid envelope from the plasma membrane of the human cell that it infects during the replication process. There is, however, a dearth of information available on the required contents of this envelope for egress and subsequent attachment and entry. Here we demonstrate that plasma membrane phosphatidylserine is critical for Ebola virus budding from the host cell plasma membrane. This report, to our knowledge, is the first to highlight the role of lipids in human cell membranes in the Ebola virus replication cycle and draws a clear link between selective binding and transport of a lipid across the membrane of the human cell and use of that lipid for subsequent viral entry. PMID

  8. Methyl chloroform

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1994-04-01

    Methyl chloroform is identified as a Class 1 ozone-depleting substance under Title VI of the CAA Amendments. On Nov. 30, 1993, EPA ordered the phaseout of Class 1 ozone-depleting substances -- chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform -- by Jan. 1, 1996. Methyl chloroform and other Class 1 substances may be used after the dead-line if sources can be found through recycling or existing inventories. Methyl chloroform is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under CAA. It also is a SARA Title III, Sec. 313 compound with a reportable quantity of 1,000 pounds. OSHA and the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists have set 350 ppm as the time-weighted average airborne exposure level for methyl chloroform. NIOSH lists its immediately dangerous to life or health'' concentration as 1,000 parts per million. DOT identifies the substance as a hazardous material, Class 6.1 (poison).

  9. Arsenic Induces Insulin Resistance in Mouse Adipocytes and Myotubes Via Oxidative Stress-Regulated Mitochondrial Sirt3-FOXO3a Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Padmaja Divya, Sasidharan; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Vinod Roy, Ram; Andrew Hitron, John; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Huang, Bin; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic via drinking water is associated with an increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigates the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress protein Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and its targeting proteins in chronic arsenic-induced T2DM in mouse adipocytes and myotubes. The results show that chronic arsenic exposure significantly decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) in correlation with reduced expression of insulin-regulated glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4). Expression of Sirt3, a mitochondrial deacetylase, was dramatically decreased along with its associated transcription factor, forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) upon arsenic exposure. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was observed in both 3T3L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes treated by arsenic. Reduced FOXO3a activity by arsenic exhibited a decreased binding affinity to the promoters of both manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α, a broad and powerful regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Forced expression of Sirt3 or MnSOD in mouse myotubes elevated Δψm and restored ISGU inhibited by arsenic exposure. Our results suggest that Sirt3/FOXO3a/MnSOD signaling plays a significant role in the inhibition of ISGU induced by chronic arsenic exposure. PMID:25979314

  10. Arsenic Induces Insulin Resistance in Mouse Adipocytes and Myotubes Via Oxidative Stress-Regulated Mitochondrial Sirt3-FOXO3a Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Padmaja Divya, Sasidharan; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Vinod Roy, Ram; Andrew Hitron, John; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Huang, Bin; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic via drinking water is associated with an increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigates the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress protein Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and its targeting proteins in chronic arsenic-induced T2DM in mouse adipocytes and myotubes. The results show that chronic arsenic exposure significantly decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) in correlation with reduced expression of insulin-regulated glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4). Expression of Sirt3, a mitochondrial deacetylase, was dramatically decreased along with its associated transcription factor, forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) upon arsenic exposure. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was observed in both 3T3L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes treated by arsenic. Reduced FOXO3a activity by arsenic exhibited a decreased binding affinity to the promoters of both manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α, a broad and powerful regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Forced expression of Sirt3 or MnSOD in mouse myotubes elevated Δψm and restored ISGU inhibited by arsenic exposure. Our results suggest that Sirt3/FOXO3a/MnSOD signaling plays a significant role in the inhibition of ISGU induced by chronic arsenic exposure.

  11. The Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Receptor CD300a Binds Dengue Virus and Enhances Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carnec, Xavier; Meertens, Laurent; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Perera-Lecoin, Manuel; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Kitaura, Jiro; Ramdasi, Rasika; Schwartz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiological agent of the major human arboviral disease. We previously demonstrated that the TIM and TAM families of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells mediate DENV entry into target cells. We show here that human CD300a, a recently identified phospholipid receptor, also binds directly DENV particles and enhances viral entry. CD300a facilitates infection of the four DENV serotypes, as well as of other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus. CD300a acts as an attachment factor that enhances DENV internalization through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CD300a recognizes predominantly phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEth) and to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. Mutation of residues in the IgV domain critical for phospholipid binding abrogate CD300a-mediated enhancement of DENV infection. Finally, we show that CD300a is expressed at the surface of primary macrophages and anti-CD300a polyclonal antibodies partially inhibited DENV infection of these cells. Overall, these data indicate that CD300a is a novel DENV binding receptor that recognizes PtdEth and PtdSer present on virions and enhance infection. IMPORTANCE Dengue disease, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has emerged as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans and is a major global health concern. The molecular bases of DENV-host cell interactions during virus entry are poorly understood, hampering the discovery of new targets for antiviral intervention. We recently discovered that the TIM and TAM proteins, two receptor families involved in the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, interact with DENV particles-associated PtdSer through a mechanism that mimics the recognition of apoptotic cells and mediate DENV infection. In this study, we show that CD300a, a novel identified phospholipid receptor, mediates DENV infection. CD300a

  12. Mercury Induces the Externalization of Phosphatidyl-Serine in Human Renal Proximal Tubule (HK-2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Dwayne J.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    The underlying mechanism for the biological activity of inorganic mercury is believed to be the high affinity binding of divalent mercuric cations to thiols of sulfhydryl groups of proteins. A comprehensive analysis of published data indicates that inorganic mercury is one of the most environmentally abundant toxic metals, is a potent and selective nephrotoxicant that preferentially accumulates in the kidneys, and is known to produce cellular injury in the kidneys. Binding sites are present in the proximal tubules, and it is in the epithelial cells of these tubules that toxicants such as inorganic mercury are reabsorbed. This can affect the enzymatic activity and the structure of various proteins. Mercury may alter protein and membrane structure and function in the epithelial cells and this alteration may result in long term residual effects. This research was therefore designed to evaluate the dose-response relationship in human renal proximal tubule (HK-2) cells following exposure to inorganic mercury. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay for cell viability. The Annexin-V assay was performed by flow cytometry to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization. Cells were exposed to mercury for 24 hours at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 μg/mL. Cytotoxicity experiments yielded a LD50 value of 4.65 ± 0.6 μg/mL indicating that mercury is highly toxic. The percentages of cells undergoing early apoptosis were 0.70 ± 0.03%, 10.0 ± 0.02%, 11.70 ± 0.03%, 15.20 ± 0.02%, 16.70 ± 0.03%, 24.20 ±0.02%, and 25.60 ± 0.04% at treatments of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 μg/mL of mercury respectively. This indicates a dose-response relationship with regard to mercury-induced cytotoxicity and the externalization of phosphatidylserine in HK-2 cells. PMID:17617677

  13. DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marinus, M.G.; Løbner-Olesen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication errors, controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication at oriC, and regulation of transcription initiation at promoters containing GATC sequences. In contrast, there is no known function for Dcm methylation although Dcm recognition sites constitute sequence motifs for Very Short Patch repair of T/G base mismatches. In certain bacteria (e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Caulobacter crescentus) adenine methylation is essential and in C. crescentus, it is important for temporal gene expression which, in turn, is required for coordinating chromosome initiation, replication and division. In practical terms, Dam and Dcm methylation can inhibit restriction enzyme cleavage; decrease transformation frequency in certain bacteria; decrease the stability of short direct repeats; are necessary for site-directed mutagenesis; and to probe eukaryotic structure and function. PMID:26442938

  14. Phosphatidylserine index as a marker of the procoagulant phenotype of acute myelogenous leukemia cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Recht, Olivia; Gruber, András; Levine, Ross L.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are at risk for thrombotic complications. Risk to develop thrombosis is closely tied to leukemia subtype, and studies have shown an association between leukocytosis and thrombosis in AML M3. We evaluated the relative roles of cell count and the surface expression of tissue factor (TF) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the procoagulant phenotype of AML cell lines. The TF-positive AML M3 cell lines, NB4 and HL60, and AML M2 cell line, AML14, exhibited both extrinsic tenase and prothrombinase activity in a purified system and promoted experimental thrombus formation. In contrast, the TF-negative AML cell line, HEL, exhibited only prothrombinase activity and did not affect the rate of occlusive thrombus formation. In plasma, NB4, HL60 and AML14 shortened clotting times in a cell-count, PS- and TF-dependent manner. Exposure of cultured NB4, HL60, and AML14 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent daunorubicin increased their extrinsic tenase activity and PS expression. Clot initiation time inversely correlated with logarithm of PS index, defined as the product of multiplying leukocyte count with cell surface PS exposure. We propose that leukemia cell PS index may serve as a biomarker for procoagulant activity.

  15. Atomic View of Calcium-Induced Clustering of Phosphatidylserine in Mixed Lipid Bilayers†

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, John M.; Davis-Harrison, Rebecca L.; Clay, Mary C.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Ohkubo, Y. Zenmei; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Morrissey, James H.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2011-01-01

    Membranes play key regulatory roles in biological processes, with bilayer composition exerting marked effects on binding affinities and catalytic activities of a number of membrane-associated proteins. In particular, proteins involved in diverse processes such as vesicle fusion, intracellular signaling cascades, and blood coagulation interact specifically with anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS) in the presence of Ca2+ ions. While Ca2+ is suspected to induce PS clustering in mixed phospholipid bilayers, the detailed structural effects of this ion on anionic lipids are not established. In this study, combining magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) measurements of isotopically labeled serine headgroups in mixed lipid bilayers with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of PS lipid bilayers in the presence of different counterions, we provide site-resolved insights into the effects of Ca2+ on the structure and dynamics of lipid bilayers. Ca2+-induced conformational changes of PS in mixed bilayers are observed in both liposomes and Nanodiscs, a nanoscale membrane-mimetic of bilayer patches. Site-resolved multidimensional correlation SSNMR spectra of bilayers containing 13C, 15N-labeled PS demonstrate that Ca2+ ions promote two major PS headgroup conformations, which are well resolved in two-dimensional 13C-13C, 15N-13C and 31P-13C spectra. The results of MD simulations performed on PS lipid bilayers in the presence or absence of Ca2+ provide an atomic view of the conformational effects underlying the observed spectra. PMID:21294564

  16. Oral administration of squid lecithin-transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bong-Jun; Han, Jeong-Jun; Shim, Insop; Her, Song; Lee, Yang-Seok; Lee, Hye-Jung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine (PS), which originates from marine life, has received much attention as a viable alternative to bovine cerebral cortex PS. In this study, the use of squid phosphatidylcholine-transphosphatidylated PS (SQ-PS) was evaluated through examination of its ameliorating effects on age-associated learning and memory deficits in rats. Aged rats were orally administered SQ-PS (10, 20, or 50 mg/kg per day) once a day for seven days 30 min prior to behavioral assessment in a Morris water maze. SQ-PS administration produced significant dose-dependent improvements in escape latency for finding the platform in the Morris water maze in the aged rats even though Soy-PS administration also exhibited comparable improvements with SQ-PS. Biochemical alterations in the hippocampal cholinergic system, including changes in choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase immunoreactivity, were consistent with the behavioral results. In addition, SQ-PS treatment significantly restored age-associated decreases of choline transporter and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 1 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate that orally administered SQ-PS dose-dependently aids in the improvement of memory deficits that occur during normal aging in rats. This suggests that SQ-PS may be a useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of diminished memory function in elderly people.

  17. Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )

    1991-05-01

    The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

  18. T cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Protein (TIM)-4 binds phosphatidylserine and mediates uptake of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Norimoto; Karisola, Piia; Peña-Cruz, Victor; Dorfman, David M.; Jinushi, Masahisa; Umetsu, Sarah E.; Butte, Manish J.; Nagumo, Haruo; Chernova, Irene; Zhu, Baogong; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Ito, Susumu; Dranoff, Glenn; Kaplan, Gerardo G.; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Freeman, Gordon J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The T cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) proteins regulate T cell activation and tolerance. Both TIM-4, expressed on human and mouse macrophages and dendritic cells, and TIM-1 specifically bind to phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of apoptotic cells and do not bind to any other phospholipid tested. TIM-4+ peritoneal macrophages, TIM-1+ kidney cells, as well as TIM-4 or TIM-1 transfected cells efficiently phagocytose apoptotic cells and phagocytosis can be blocked by TIM-4 or TIM-1 mAbs. TIM proteins have a unique binding cavity made by an unusual conformation of the CC′ and FG loops of the TIM IgV domain and mutations in this cavity eliminated PS binding and phagocytosis. TIM-4 mAbs that block PS binding and phagocytosis map to epitopes in this binding cavity. These results show that TIM-4 and TIM-1 are immunologically restricted members of the group of receptors that recognize PS, critical for the efficient clearance of apoptotic cells and prevention of autoimmunity. PMID:18082433

  19. The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Jorissen, B L; Brouns, F; Van Boxtel, M P; Ponds, R W; Verhey, F R; Jolles, J; Riedel, W J

    2001-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid widely sold as a nutritional supplement. PS has been claimed to enhance neuronal membrane function and hence cognitive function, especially in the elderly. We report the results of a clinical trial of soybean-derived PS (S-PS) in aging subjects with memory complaints. Subjects were 120 elderly (> 57 years) of both sexes who fulfilled the more stringent criteria for age-associated memory impairment (AAMI); some also fulfilled the criteria for age-associated cognitive decline. Subjects were allocated at random to one of the three treatment groups: placebo, 300mg S-PS daily, or 600mg S-PS daily. Assessments were carried out at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, and after a wash-out period of 3 weeks. Tests of learning and memory, choice reaction time, planning and attentional functions were administered at each assessment. Delayed recall and recognition of a previously learned word list comprised the primary outcome measures. No significant differences were found in any of the outcome variables between the treatment groups. There were also no significant interactions between treatment and 'severity of memory complaints'. In conclusion, a daily supplement of S-PS does not affect memory or other cognitive functions in older individuals with memory complaints. PMID:11842880

  20. Indolic uremic solutes enhance procoagulant activity of red blood cells through phosphatidylserine exposure and microparticle release.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunyan; Ji, Shuting; Dong, Weijun; Qi, Yushan; Song, Wen; Cui, Debin; Shi, Jialan

    2015-11-01

    Increased accumulation of indolic uremic solutes in the blood of uremic patients contributes to the risk of thrombotic events. Red blood cells (RBCs), the most abundant blood cells in circulation, may be a privileged target of these solutes. However, the effect of uremic solutes indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on procoagulant activity (PCA) of erythrocyte is unclear. Here, RBCs from healthy adults were treated with IS and IAA (mean and maximal concentrations reported in uremic patients). Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of RBCs and their microparticles (MPs) release were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-lactadherin and detected by flow cytometer. Cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]) with Fluo 3/AM was analyzed by flow cytometer. PCA was assessed by clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PS exposure, MPs generation, and consequent PCA of RBCs at mean concentrations of IS and IAA enhanced and peaked in maximal uremic concentrations. Moreover, 128 nM lactadherin, a PS inhibitor, inhibited over 90% PCA of RBCs and RMPs. Eryptosis or damage, by indolic uremic solutes was due to, at least partially, the increase of cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Our results suggest that RBC eryptosis in uremic solutes IS and IAA plays an important role in thrombus formation through releasing RMPs and exposing PS. Lactadherin acts as an efficient anticoagulant in this process. PMID:26516916

  1. Phosphatidylserine treatment relieves the block to retrovirus infection of cells expressing glycosylated virus receptors

    PubMed Central

    Coil, David A; Miller, A Dusty

    2005-01-01

    Background A major determinant of retrovirus host range is the presence or absence of appropriate cell-surface receptors required for virus entry. Often orthologs of functional receptors are present in a wide range of species, but amino acid differences can render these receptors non-functional. In some cases amino acid differences result in additional N-linked glycosylation that blocks virus infection. The latter block to retrovirus infection can be overcome by treatment of cells with compounds such as tunicamycin, which prevent the addition of N-linked oligosaccharides. Results We have discovered that treatment of cells with liposomes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS) can also overcome the block to infection mediated by N-linked glycosylation. Importantly, this effect occurs without apparent change in the glycosylation state of the receptors for these viruses. This effect occurs with delayed kinetics compared to previous results showing enhancement of virus infection by PS treatment of cells expressing functional virus receptors. Conclusion We have demonstrated that PS treatment can relieve the block to retrovirus infection of cells expressing retroviral receptors that have been rendered non-functional by glycosylation. These findings have important implications for the current model describing inhibition of virus entry by receptor glycosylation. PMID:16091143

  2. Involvement of Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase in the metabolism of phosphatidylserine in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Mutation of SAC1 causes not only the accumulation of phosphoinositides but also reduction of the phosphatidylserine (PS) level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the mechanism underlying the PS reduction in SAC1-deleted cells. Incorporation of (32) P into PS was significantly delayed in sac1∆ cells. Such a delay was also observed in SAC1- and PS decarboxylase gene-deleted cells, suggesting that the reduction in the PS level is caused by a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of PS. A reduction in the PS level was also observed with repression of STT4 encoding phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase or deletion of VPS34 encoding phophatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, the combination of mutations of SAC1 and STT4 or VPS34 did not restore the reduced PS level, suggesting that both the synthesis and degradation of phosphoinositides are important for maintenance of the PS level. Finally, we observed an abnormal PS distribution in sac1∆ cells when a specific probe for PS was expressed. Collectively, these results suggested that Sac1 is involved in the maintenance of a normal rate of biosynthesis and distribution of PS.

  3. Structural and Biological Interaction of hsc-70 Protein with Phosphatidylserine in Endosomal Microautophagy.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Kateryna; Clement, Cristina C; Kaushik, Susmita; Stiller, Barbara; Arias, Esperanza; Ahmad, Atta; Rauch, Jennifer N; Chatterjee, Victor; Melis, Chiara; Scharf, Brian; Gestwicki, Jason E; Cuervo, Ana-Maria; Zuiderweg, Erik R P; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-08-26

    hsc-70 (HSPA8) is a cytosolic molecular chaperone, which plays a central role in cellular proteostasis, including quality control during protein refolding and regulation of protein degradation. hsc-70 is pivotal to the process of macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy, and endosomal microautophagy. The latter requires hsc-70 interaction with negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) at the endosomal limiting membrane. Herein, by combining plasmon resonance, NMR spectroscopy, and amino acid mutagenesis, we mapped the C terminus of the hsc-70 LID domain as the structural interface interacting with endosomal PS, and we estimated an hsc-70/PS equilibrium dissociation constant of 4.7 ± 0.1 μm. This interaction is specific and involves a total of 4-5 lysine residues. Plasmon resonance and NMR results were further experimentally validated by hsc-70 endosomal binding experiments and endosomal microautophagy assays. The discovery of this previously unknown contact surface for hsc-70 in this work elucidates the mechanism of hsc-70 PS/membrane interaction for cytosolic cargo internalization into endosomes. PMID:27405763

  4. INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT. Phosphatidylserine transport by ORP/Osh proteins is driven by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Moser von Filseck, Joachim; Čopič, Alenka; Delfosse, Vanessa; Vanni, Stefano; Jackson, Catherine L; Bourguet, William; Drin, Guillaume

    2015-07-24

    In eukaryotic cells, phosphatidylserine (PS) is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but is highly enriched in the plasma membrane (PM), where it contributes negative charge and to specific recruitment of signaling proteins. This distribution relies on transport mechanisms whose nature remains elusive. Here, we found that the PS transporter Osh6p extracted phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and exchanged PS for PI4P between two membranes. We solved the crystal structure of Osh6p:PI4P complex and demonstrated that the transport of PS by Osh6p depends on PI4P recognition in vivo. Finally, we showed that the PI4P-phosphatase Sac1p, by maintaining a PI4P gradient at the ER/PM interface, drove PS transport. Thus, PS transport by oxysterol-binding protein-related protein (ORP)/oxysterol-binding homology (Osh) proteins is fueled by PI4P metabolism through PS/PI4P exchange cycles.

  5. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for phosphatidylserine exposure on apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Jean-Philippe; Hehl, Michaela; Millward, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    A simple, "mix-and-measure" microplate assay for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the surface of apoptotic cells is described. The assay exploits the fact that annexin V, a protein with high affinity and specificity for PtdSer, forms trimers and higher order oligomers on binding to membranes containing PtdSer. The transition from soluble monomer to cell-bound oligomer is detected using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer from europium chelate-labeled annexin V to Cy5-labeled annexin V. PtdSer detection is achieved by a single addition of a reagent mix containing labeled annexins and calcium ions directly to cell cultures in a 96-well plate, followed by a brief incubation before fluorescence measurement. The assay can be used to quantify PtdSer exposure on both suspension cells and adherent cells in situ. This method is simpler and faster than existing annexin V binding assays based on flow cytometry or microscopy, and it yields precise data with Z' values of 0.6-0.7. PMID:18835236

  6. Phosphatidylserine is a global immunosuppressive signal in efferocytosis, infectious disease, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Birge, R B; Boeltz, S; Kumar, S; Carlson, J; Wanderley, J; Calianese, D; Barcinski, M; Brekken, R A; Huang, X; Hutchins, J T; Freimark, B; Empig, C; Mercer, J; Schroit, A J; Schett, G; Herrmann, M

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved and tightly regulated cell death modality. It serves important roles in physiology by sculpting complex tissues during embryogenesis and by removing effete cells that have reached advanced age or whose genomes have been irreparably damaged. Apoptosis culminates in the rapid and decisive removal of cell corpses by efferocytosis, a term used to distinguish the engulfment of apoptotic cells from other phagocytic processes. Over the past decades, the molecular and cell biological events associated with efferocytosis have been rigorously studied, and many eat-me signals and receptors have been identified. The externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) is arguably the most emblematic eat-me signal that is in turn bound by a large number of serum proteins and opsonins that facilitate efferocytosis. Under physiological conditions, externalized PS functions as a dominant and evolutionarily conserved immunosuppressive signal that promotes tolerance and prevents local and systemic immune activation. Pathologically, the innate immunosuppressive effect of externalized PS has been hijacked by numerous viruses, microorganisms, and parasites to facilitate infection, and in many cases, establish infection latency. PS is also profoundly dysregulated in the tumor microenvironment and antagonizes the development of tumor immunity. In this review, we discuss the biology of PS with respect to its role as a global immunosuppressive signal and how PS is exploited to drive diverse pathological processes such as infection and cancer. Finally, we outline the rationale that agents targeting PS could have significant value in cancer and infectious disease therapeutics. PMID:26915293

  7. Antibodies to Phosphatidylserine/Prothrombin Complex in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Analytical and Clinical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa K; Willis, Rohan; Harris, E Nigel; Branch, Ware D; Tebo, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy-related morbidity accompanied by persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Current laboratory criteria for APS classification recommend testing for lupus anticoagulant as well as IgG and IgM anticardiolipin, and beta-2 glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) antibodies. However, there appears to be a subset of patients with classical APS manifestations who test negative for the recommended criteria aPL tests. While acknowledging that such patients may have clinical features that are not of an autoimmune etiology, experts also speculate that these "seronegative" patients may test negative for relevant autoantibodies as a result of a lack of harmonization and/or standardization. Alternatively, they may have aPL that target other antigens involved in the pathogenesis of APS. In the latter, autoantibodies that recognize a phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (PS/PT) complex have been reported to be associated with APS and may have diagnostic relevance. This review highlights analytical and clinical attributes associated with PS/PT antibodies, taking into consideration the performance characteristics of criteria aPL tests in APS with specific recommendations for harmonization and standardization efforts.

  8. Variation in human cancer cell external phosphatidylserine is regulated by flippase activity and intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhapurapu, Subrahmanya D.; Blanco, Víctor M.; Sulaiman, Mahaboob K.; Vallabhapurapu, Swarajya Lakshmi; Chu, Zhengtao; Franco, Robert S.; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Viable cancer cells expose elevated levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the exoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms leading to elevated PS exposure in viable cancer cells have not been defined. We previously showed that externalized PS may be used to monitor, target and kill tumor cells. In addition, PS on tumor cells is recognized by macrophages and has implications in antitumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular details of PS exposure on cancer cells in order to improve therapeutic targeting. Here we explored the mechanisms regulating the surface PS exposure in human cancer cells and found that differential flippase activity and intracellular calcium are the major regulators of surface PS exposure in viable human cancer cells. In general, cancer cell lines with high surface PS exhibited low flippase activity and high intracellular calcium, whereas cancer cells with low surface PS exhibited high flippase activity and low intracellular calcium. High surface PS cancer cells also had higher total cellular PS than low surface PS cells. Together, our results indicate that the amount of external PS in cancer cells is regulated by calcium dependent flippase activity and may also be influenced by total cellular PS. PMID:26462157

  9. SUI-family genes encode phosphatidylserine synthases and regulate stem development in rice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hengfu; Gao, Peng; Liu, Chengwu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhongchi; Luo, Da

    2013-01-01

    In vascular plants, the regulation of stem cell niche determines development of aerial shoot which consists of stems and lateral organs. Intercalary meristem (IM) controls internode elongation in rice and other grasses, however little attention has been paid to the underlying mechanism of stem cell maintenance. Here, we investigated the stem development in rice and showed that the Shortened Uppermost Internode 1 (SUI1) family of genes are pivotal for development of rice stems. We demonstrated that SUI-family genes regulate the development of IM for internode elongation and also the cell expansion of the panicle stem rachis in rice. The SUI-family genes encoded base-exchange types of phosphatidylserine synthases (PSSs), which possessed enzymatic activity in a yeast complementary assay. Overexpression of SUI1 and SUI2 caused outgrowths of internodes during vegetative development, and we showed that expression patterns of Oryza Sativa Homeobox 15 (OSH15) and Histone4 were impaired. Furthermore, genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that overexpression and RNA knockdown of SUI-family genes affected downstream gene expression related to phospholipid metabolic pathways. Moreover, using Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry, we analyzed PS contents in different genetic backgrounds of rice and showed that the quantity of very long chain fatty acids PS is affected by transgene of SUI-family genes. Our study reveals a new mechanism conveyed by the SUI1 pathway and provides evidence to link lipid metabolism with plant stem cell maintenance.

  10. Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva.

    PubMed

    Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira de; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena

    2013-09-01

    Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

  11. Transport through recycling endosomes requires EHD1 recruitment by a phosphatidylserine translocase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoken; Uchida, Yasunori; Wang, Jiao; Matsudaira, Tatsuyuki; Nakagawa, Takatoshi; Kishimoto, Takuma; Mukai, Kojiro; Inaba, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Molday, Robert S; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    P4-ATPases translocate aminophospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine (PS), to the cytosolic leaflet of membranes. PS is highly enriched in recycling endosomes (REs) and is essential for endosomal membrane traffic. Here, we show that PS flipping by an RE-localized P4-ATPase is required for the recruitment of the membrane fission protein EHD1. Depletion of ATP8A1 impaired the asymmetric transbilayer distribution of PS in REs, dissociated EHD1 from REs, and generated aberrant endosomal tubules that appear resistant to fission. EHD1 did not show membrane localization in cells defective in PS synthesis. ATP8A2, a tissue-specific ATP8A1 paralogue, is associated with a neurodegenerative disease (CAMRQ). ATP8A2, but not the disease-causative ATP8A2 mutant, rescued the endosomal defects in ATP8A1-depleted cells. Primary neurons from Atp8a2−/− mice showed a reduced level of transferrin receptors at the cell surface compared to Atp8a2+/+ mice. These findings demonstrate the role of P4-ATPase in membrane fission and give insight into the molecular basis of CAMRQ. PMID:25595798

  12. Phosphatidylserine translocation at the yeast trans-Golgi network regulates protein sorting into exocytic vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Hannah M.; Sere, Yves Y.; Diab, Nicholas S.; Menon, Anant K.; Graham, Todd R.

    2015-01-01

    Sorting of plasma membrane proteins into exocytic vesicles at the yeast trans-Golgi network (TGN) is believed to be mediated by their coalescence with specific lipids, but how these membrane-remodeling events are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the ATP-dependent phospholipid flippase Drs2 is required for efficient segregation of cargo into exocytic vesicles. The plasma membrane proteins Pma1 and Can1 are missorted from the TGN to the vacuole in drs2∆ cells. We also used a combination of flippase mutants that either gain or lose the ability to flip phosphatidylserine (PS) to determine that PS flip by Drs2 is its critical function in this sorting event. The primary role of PS flip at the TGN appears to be to control the oxysterol-binding protein homologue Kes1/Osh4 and regulate ergosterol subcellular distribution. Deletion of KES1 suppresses plasma membrane–missorting defects and the accumulation of intracellular ergosterol in drs2 mutants. We propose that PS flip is part of a homeostatic mechanism that controls sterol loading and lateral segregation of protein and lipid domains at the TGN. PMID:26466678

  13. Phosphatidylserine flipping enhances membrane curvature and negative charge required for vesicular transport

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Baldridge, Ryan D.; Chi, Richard J.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated protein transport between organelles of the secretory and endocytic pathways is strongly influenced by the composition and organization of membrane lipids. In budding yeast, protein transport between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and early endosome (EE) requires Drs2, a phospholipid translocase in the type IV P-type ATPase family. However, downstream effectors of Drs2 and specific phospholipid substrate requirements for protein transport in this pathway are unknown. Here, we show that the Arf GTPase-activating protein (ArfGAP) Gcs1 is a Drs2 effector that requires a variant of the ArfGAP lipid packing sensor (+ALPS) motif for localization to TGN/EE membranes. Drs2 increases membrane curvature and anionic phospholipid composition of the cytosolic leaflet, both of which are sensed by the +ALPS motif. Using mutant forms of Drs2 and the related protein Dnf1, which alter their ability to recognize phosphatidylserine, we show that translocation of this substrate to the cytosolic leaflet is essential for +ALPS binding and vesicular transport between the EE and the TGN. PMID:24019533

  14. TIM genes: a family of cell surface phosphatidylserine receptors that regulate innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Gordon J.; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The TIM (T cell/transmembrane, immunoglobulin, and mucin) gene family plays a critical role in regulating immune responses, including allergy, asthma, transplant tolerance, autoimmunity, and the response to viral infections. The unique structure of TIM immunoglobulin variable region domains allows highly specific recognition of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells. TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 all recognize PtdSer but differ in expression, suggesting that they have distinct functions in regulating immune responses. TIM-1, an important susceptibility gene for asthma and allergy, is preferentially expressed on T-helper 2 (Th2) cells and functions as a potent costimulatory molecule for T-cell activation. TIM-3 is preferentially expressed on Th1 and Tc1 cells, and generates an inhibitory signal resulting in apoptosis of Th1 and Tc1 cells. TIM-3 is also expressed on some dendritic cells and can mediate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cross-presentation of antigen. In contrast, TIM-4 is exclusively expressed on antigen-presenting cells, where it mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and plays an important role in maintaining tolerance. TIM molecules thus provide a functional repertoire for recognition of apoptotic cells, which determines whether apoptotic cell recognition leads to immune activation or tolerance, depending on the TIM molecule engaged and the cell type on which it is expressed. PMID:20536563

  15. Phosphatidylserine Targets Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Professional Phagocytes In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Konduru, Nagarjun V.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Feng, Weihong; Basova, Liana V.; Belikova, Natalia A.; Bayir, Hülya; Clark, Katherine; Rubin, Marc; Stolz, Donna; Vallhov, Helen; Scheynius, Annika; Witasp, Erika; Fadeel, Bengt; Kichambare, Padmakar D.; Star, Alexander; Kisin, Elena R.; Murray, Ashley R.; Shvedova, Anna A.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2009-01-01

    Broad applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) dictate the necessity to better understand their health effects. Poor recognition of non-functionalized SWCNT by phagocytes is prohibitive towards controlling their biological action. We report that SWCNT coating with a phospholipid “eat-me” signal, phosphatidylserine (PS), makes them recognizable in vitro by different phagocytic cells - murine RAW264.7 macrophages, primary monocyte-derived human macrophages, dendritic cells, and rat brain microglia. Macrophage uptake of PS-coated nanotubes was suppressed by the PS-binding protein, Annexin V, and endocytosis inhibitors, and changed the pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Loading of PS-coated SWCNT with pro-apoptotic cargo (cytochrome c) allowed for the targeted killing of RAW264.7 macrophages. In vivo aspiration of PS-coated SWCNT stimulated their uptake by lung alveolar macrophages in mice. Thus, PS-coating can be utilized for targeted delivery of SWCNT with specified cargoes into professional phagocytes, hence for therapeutic regulation of specific populations of immune-competent cells. PMID:19198650

  16. Interactions of c-Raf-1 with phosphatidylserine and 14-3-3.

    PubMed

    McPherson, R A; Harding, A; Roy, S; Lane, A; Hancock, J F

    1999-07-01

    Activation of Raf-1 occurs at the plasma membrane. We recently showed that 14-3-3 must be complexed with Raf-1 for efficient recruitment to the plasma membrane and activation by Ras, but that 14-3-3 is completely displaced from Raf-1 following plasma membrane binding. We show here that the Raf-1 zinc finger is not absolutely required for 14-3-3 binding but is required to stabilize the interaction between Raf-1 and 14-3-3. Incubation of Raf-1 with phosphatidylserine, an inner plasma membrane phospholipid, results in removal of 14-3-3 and an increase in Raf-1 kinase activity, whereas removal of 14-3-3 from Raf-1 using specific phosphopeptides substantially reduces Raf-1 basal kinase activity. Displacement of 14-3-3 from activated Raf-1 by phosphopeptides has no effect on kinase activity if Raf-1 is first removed from solution, but completely eradicates kinase activity of soluble activated Raf-1. These results suggest a mechanism for the removal of 14-3-3 from Raf-1 at the plasma membrane and show that removal of 14-3-3 from Raf-1 has markedly different effects depending on experimental conditions.

  17. TMEM16F is required for phosphatidylserine exposure and microparticle release in activated mouse platelets.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Sakata, Asuka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Eto, Koji; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2015-10-13

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the surface of activated platelets requires the action of a phospholipid scramblase(s), and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of the tenase and prothrombinase complexes involved in blood coagulation. Here, we found that the activation of mouse platelets with thrombin/collagen or Ca(2+) ionophore at 20 °C induces PtdSer exposure without compromising plasma membrane integrity. Among five transmembrane protein 16 (TMEM16) members that support Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scrambling, TMEM16F was the only one that showed high expression in mouse platelets. Platelets from platelet-specific TMEM16F-deficient mice exhibited defects in activation-induced PtdSer exposure and microparticle shedding, although α-granule and dense granule release remained intact. The rate of tissue factor-induced thrombin generation by TMEM16F-deficient platelets was severely reduced, whereas thrombin-induced clot retraction was unaffected. The imaging of laser-induced thrombus formation in whole animals showed that PtdSer exposure on aggregated platelets was TMEM16F-dependent in vivo. The phenotypes of the platelet-specific TMEM16F-null mice resemble those of patients with Scott syndrome, a mild bleeding disorder, indicating that these mice may provide a useful model for human Scott syndrome. PMID:26417084

  18. Platelet binding sites for factor VIII in relation to fibrin and phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Gary E; Novakovic, Valerie A; Shi, Jialan; Rasmussen, Jan; Pipe, Steven W

    2015-09-01

    Thrombin-stimulated platelets expose very little phosphatidylserine (PS) but express binding sites for factor VIII (fVIII), casting doubt on the role of exposed PS as the determinant of binding sites. We previously reported that fVIII binding sites are increased three- to sixfold when soluble fibrin (SF) binds the αIIbβ3 integrin. This study focuses on the hypothesis that platelet-bound SF is the major source of fVIII binding sites. Less than 10% of fVIII was displaced from thrombin-stimulated platelets by lactadherin, a PS-binding protein, and an fVIII mutant defective in PS-dependent binding retained platelet affinity. Therefore, PS is not the determinant of most binding sites. FVIII bound immobilized SF and paralleled platelet binding in affinity, dependence on separation from von Willebrand factor, and mediation by the C2 domain. SF also enhanced activity of fVIII in the factor Xase complex by two- to fourfold. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESH8, against the fVIII C2 domain, inhibited binding of fVIII to SF and platelets but not to PS-containing vesicles. Similarly, mAb ESH4 against the C2 domain, inhibited >90% of platelet-dependent fVIII activity vs 35% of vesicle-supported activity. These results imply that platelet-bound SF is a component of functional fVIII binding sites. PMID:26162408

  19. Phosphatidylserine increases IKBKAP levels in a humanized knock-in IKBKAP mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bochner, Ron; Ziv, Yael; Zeevi, David; Donyo, Maya; Abraham, Lital; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Ast, Gil

    2013-07-15

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a severe neurodegenerative genetic disorder restricted to the Ashkenazi Jewish population. The most common mutation in FD patients is a T-to-C transition at position 6 of intron 20 of the IKBKAP gene. This mutation causes aberrant skipping of exon 20 in a tissue-specific manner, leading to reduction of the IκB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) protein in the nervous system. We established a homozygous humanized mouse strain carrying human exon 20 and its two flanking introns; the 3' intron has the transition observed in the IKBKAP gene of FD patients. Although our FD humanized mouse does not display FD symptoms, the unique, tissue-specific splicing pattern of the IKBKAP in these mice allowed us to evaluate the effect of therapies on gene expression and exon 20 splicing. The FD mice were supplemented with phosphatidylserine (PS), a safe food supplement that increases mRNA and protein levels of IKBKAP in cell lines generated from FD patients. Here we demonstrated that PS treatment increases IKBAKP mRNA and IKAP protein levels in various tissues of FD mice without affecting exon 20 inclusion levels. We also observed that genes associated with transcription regulation and developmental processes were up-regulated in the cerebrum of PS-treated mice. Thus, PS holds promise for the treatment of FD.

  20. Autophagic vesicles on mature human reticulocytes explain phosphatidylserine-positive red cells in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Mankelow, Tosti J; Griffiths, Rebecca E; Trompeter, Sara; Flatt, Joanna F; Cogan, Nicola M; Massey, Edwin J; Anstee, David J

    2015-10-01

    During maturation to an erythrocyte, a reticulocyte must eliminate any residual organelles and reduce its surface area and volume. Here we show this involves a novel process whereby large, intact, inside-out phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed autophagic vesicles are extruded. Cell surface PS is a well-characterized apoptotic signal initiating phagocytosis. In peripheral blood from patients after splenectomy or in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the number of circulating red cells exposing PS on their surface is elevated. We show that in these patients PS is present on the cell surface of red cells in large (∼1.4 µm) discrete areas corresponding to autophagic vesicles. The autophagic vesicles found on reticulocytes are identical to those observed on red cells from splenectomized individuals and patients with SCD. Our data suggest the increased thrombotic risk associated with splenectomy, and patients with hemoglobinopathies is a possible consequence of increased levels of circulating mature reticulocytes expressing inside-out PS-exposed autophagic vesicles because of asplenia.

  1. Phosphatidylserine externalization and procoagulant activation of erythrocytes induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Syed M; Donkor, David A; Bhakta, Varsha; Eltringham-Smith, Louise J; Dwivedi, Dhruva J; Moore, Jane C; Pepler, Laura; Ivetic, Nikola; Nazi, Ishac; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Liaw, Patricia C; Sheffield, William P

    2016-04-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a wide range of infections in multiple hosts by releasing an arsenal of virulence factors such as pyocyanin. Despite numerous reports on the pleiotropic cellular targets of pyocyanin toxicity in vivo, its impact on erythrocytes remains elusive. Erythrocytes undergo an apoptosis-like cell death called eryptosis which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization; this process confers a procoagulant phenotype on erythrocytes as well as fosters their phagocytosis and subsequent clearance from the circulation. Herein, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa pyocyanin-elicited PS exposure and cell shrinkage in erythrocyte while preserving the membrane integrity. Mechanistically, exposure of erythrocytes to pyocyanin showed increased cytosolic Ca(2+) activity as well as Ca(2+) -dependent proteolytic processing of μ-calpain. Pyocyanin further up-regulated erythrocyte ceramide abundance and triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. Pyocyanin-induced increased PS externalization in erythrocytes translated into enhanced prothrombin activation and fibrin generation in plasma. As judged by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl-ester labelling, pyocyanin-treated erythrocytes were cleared faster from the murine circulation as compared to untreated erythrocytes. Furthermore, erythrocytes incubated in plasma from patients with P. aeruginosa sepsis showed increased PS exposure as compared to erythrocytes incubated in plasma from healthy donors. In conclusion, the present study discloses the eryptosis-inducing effect of the virulence factor pyocyanin, thereby shedding light on a potentially important mechanism in the systemic complications of P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:26781477

  2. TMEM16F is required for phosphatidylserine exposure and microparticle release in activated mouse platelets

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Sakata, Asuka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Eto, Koji; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the surface of activated platelets requires the action of a phospholipid scramblase(s), and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of the tenase and prothrombinase complexes involved in blood coagulation. Here, we found that the activation of mouse platelets with thrombin/collagen or Ca2+ ionophore at 20 °C induces PtdSer exposure without compromising plasma membrane integrity. Among five transmembrane protein 16 (TMEM16) members that support Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scrambling, TMEM16F was the only one that showed high expression in mouse platelets. Platelets from platelet-specific TMEM16F-deficient mice exhibited defects in activation-induced PtdSer exposure and microparticle shedding, although α-granule and dense granule release remained intact. The rate of tissue factor-induced thrombin generation by TMEM16F-deficient platelets was severely reduced, whereas thrombin-induced clot retraction was unaffected. The imaging of laser-induced thrombus formation in whole animals showed that PtdSer exposure on aggregated platelets was TMEM16F-dependent in vivo. The phenotypes of the platelet-specific TMEM16F-null mice resemble those of patients with Scott syndrome, a mild bleeding disorder, indicating that these mice may provide a useful model for human Scott syndrome. PMID:26417084

  3. Phase separation of cholesterol and the interaction of ethanol with phosphatidylserine-cholesterol bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Bach, D; Borochov, N; Wachtel, E

    2002-02-01

    Thermotropic and structural effects of ethanol on phosphatidylserine (PS) membranes containing up to 0.4 mol fraction cholesterol were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that in the presence of cholesterol, 10% (v/v) added ethanol depresses the melting temperature of the phospholipid by approximately 2 degrees C, similar to what was observed in the absence of cholesterol. Below the melting temperature the progressive disordering effect of added cholesterol is weakly enhanced by the presence of ethanol. In the liquid crystalline state, the marked decrease in the thickness of the bilayer which ethanol causes in the absence of cholesterol (Chem. Phys. Lipids 92 (1998) 127), is also observed in its presence. We conclude that, in contrast to what has been observed for zwitterionic phospholipids, high concentrations of cholesterol do not diminish the interaction of ethanol with PS membranes. With addition of 10% (v/v) ethanol, crystalline cholesterol diffraction, an indication of phase separation of the sterol, appears at mol fraction cholesterol 0.34, as compared to 0.3 in the absence of ethanol (Chem. Phys. Lipids 92 (1998) 71).

  4. Interaction of an annexin V homodimer (Diannexin) with phosphatidylserine on cell surfaces and consequent antithrombotic activity.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra K; Emeis, Jef J; Allison, Anthony C

    2007-03-01

    Annexin V (AV), a protein with anticoagulant activity, exerts antithrombotic activity by binding to phosphatidylserine (PS), inhibiting activation of serine proteases important in blood coagulation. The potential use of this protein as an anticoagulant is limited as it rapidly passes from the blood into the kidneys due to its relatively small size (36 kDa). We used recombinant DNA technology to produce a homodimer of human AV (DAV, 73 kDa), which exceeds the renal filtration threshold, and has a 6.5-hour half-life in the rat circulation. Human red blood cells with externalized PS were used to show that DAV had a higher affinity for PS-exposing cells than AV. DAV labeling sensitively identifies PS-exposing cells, was found to be a potent inhibitor of the activity of the prothombinase complexes and inhibits the ability of secretory phospholipaseA(2) to hydrolyze phospholipids of PS-exposing cells, reducing the formation of mediators of blood coagulation and reperfusion injury. DAV exerts dose-dependent antithrombotic activity in rat veins. This combination of activities suggests that DAV is a valuable probe to measure PS exposure and may be efficacious as a novel drug in a wide range of clinical situations.

  5. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-10-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress.

  6. Application of cDNA microarray to the study of arsenic-induced liver diseases in the population of Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Liu, J; LeCluyse, E L; Zhou, Y S; Cheng, M L; Waalkes, M P

    2001-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental toxicant and a human carcinogen. Epidemiology studies link human arsenic exposure to various diseases and cancers, including liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms for arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity are poorly understood. To better understand these mechanisms, we used the human cancer cDNA expression array to profile aberrant gene expression in arsenic-exposed populations in Guizhou, China. The selected patients had a history of exposure to environmental arsenic for at least 6-10 years, and had arsenic-induced skin lesions and hepatomegaly. Samples were obtained by liver needle biopsy. Histology showed degenerative liver lesions, such as chronic inflammation, vacuolation, and focal necrosis. The University of North Carolina Hospitals provided normal human liver tissues from surgical resection or rejected transplants. Microarray was performed with total RNA from liver samples, and signal intensities were analyzed with AtlasImage software and normalized with 9 housekeeping genes. Means and SEM were calculated for statistical analysis. Approximately 60 genes (10%) were differentially expressed in arsenic-exposed human livers compared to controls. The differentially expressed genes included those involved in cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and intermediate filaments. The observed gene alterations appear to be reflective of hepatic degenerative lesions seen in the arsenic-exposed patients. This array analysis revealed important patterns of aberrant gene expression occurring with arsenic exposure in human livers. Aberrant expressions of several genes were consistent with the results of array analysis of chronic arsenic-exposed mouse livers and chronic arsenic-transformed rat liver cells. Clearly, a variety of gene expression changes may play an integral role in arsenic hepatotoxicity and possibly carcinogenesis.

  7. Protective Effects of Combined Selenium and Punica granatum Treatment on Some Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Arsenic-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Noha M; El Batsh, Maha M

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Punica granatum is known by its free radical scavenging properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of combined selenium and P. granatum against arsenic-induced liver injury. Seventy-five female albino rats were divided into five groups (of 15 rats each). Toxicity was induced by oral sodium arsenite (5.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) daily) (group ІІ). Treatment of arsenic-intoxicated rats was induced by daily oral administration of sodium selenite (3 mg/kg bw) (group ІІІ), 100 mg of P. granatum ethanol extract per kilogram body weight dissolved in 300 mL distilled water in three divided doses (100 mL of this suspension every 8 h) (group IV), and combined daily oral treatment with both selenite and P. granatum ethanol extract (group V). After 3 weeks, serum and liver tissues were obtained from the decapitated rats for different estimations. Hepatotoxicity was demonstrated by significant elevation in liver weights and activities of liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and decrease in serum total proteins and albumin (p < 0.05) which were confirmed by histopathological examination. Additionally, arsenic hepatotoxicity led to an increased values of malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, nitric oxide, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p < 0.05) and decreased activity of thioredoxin reductase, values of total anti-oxidant capacity, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression. Significant improvement in all assessed parameters was observed in rat group treated with both P. granatum and selenium. It was concluded that combined P. granatum and selenium treatment had a synergistic hepatoprotective effect against arsenic toxicity through activation of Nrf2 anti-oxidant pathway.

  8. Protective Effects of Combined Selenium and Punica granatum Treatment on Some Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Arsenic-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Noha M; El Batsh, Maha M

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Punica granatum is known by its free radical scavenging properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of combined selenium and P. granatum against arsenic-induced liver injury. Seventy-five female albino rats were divided into five groups (of 15 rats each). Toxicity was induced by oral sodium arsenite (5.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) daily) (group ІІ). Treatment of arsenic-intoxicated rats was induced by daily oral administration of sodium selenite (3 mg/kg bw) (group ІІІ), 100 mg of P. granatum ethanol extract per kilogram body weight dissolved in 300 mL distilled water in three divided doses (100 mL of this suspension every 8 h) (group IV), and combined daily oral treatment with both selenite and P. granatum ethanol extract (group V). After 3 weeks, serum and liver tissues were obtained from the decapitated rats for different estimations. Hepatotoxicity was demonstrated by significant elevation in liver weights and activities of liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and decrease in serum total proteins and albumin (p < 0.05) which were confirmed by histopathological examination. Additionally, arsenic hepatotoxicity led to an increased values of malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, nitric oxide, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p < 0.05) and decreased activity of thioredoxin reductase, values of total anti-oxidant capacity, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression. Significant improvement in all assessed parameters was observed in rat group treated with both P. granatum and selenium. It was concluded that combined P. granatum and selenium treatment had a synergistic hepatoprotective effect against arsenic toxicity through activation of Nrf2 anti-oxidant pathway. PMID:26085057

  9. Long-Time Cooling before Cryopreservation Decreased Translocation of Phosphatidylserine (Ptd-L-Ser) in Human Ovarian Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To translocation (externalization) of phosphatidylserine lead at least the five negative effects observed during cells cryopreservation: hypoxia, increasing of intracellular Ca2+, osmotic disruption of cellular membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to test the intensiveness of the phosphatidylserine translocation immediately after thawing and after 45 d xenografting of human ovarian tissue, which was either frozen just after operative removal from patient or cooled before cryopreservation to 5°C for 24 h and then frozen. Materials and Methods Ovarian fragments from twelve patients were divided into small pieces in form of cortex with medulla, and randomly divided into the following four groups. Pieces of Group 1 (n=30) were frozen immediately after operation, thawed and just after thawing their quality was analyzed. Group 2 pieces (n=30) after operation were cooled to 5°C for 24 h, then frozen after 24 h pre-cooling to 5°C, thawed and just after thawing their quality was analyzed. Group 3 pieces (n=30) were frozen immediately after operation without pre-cooling, thawed, transplanted to SCID mice and then, after 45 d of culture their quality was analyzed. Group 4 pieces (n=30) were frozen after 24 h pre-cooling to 5°C, thawed, transplanted to SCID mice and then, after 45 d their quality was analyzed. The effectiveness of the pre-freezing cooling of tissuewas evaluated by the development of follicles (histology) and by intensiveness of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FACS with FITC-Annexin V and Propidium Iodide). Results For groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm3 was 19.0, 20.2, 12.9, and 12.2, respectively (P1-2, 3-4 >0.1). For these groups, 99%, 98%, 88% and 90% preantral follicles, respectively were morphologically normal (P1-2, 3-4 >0.1). The FACS analysis showed significantly decreased intensiveness of translocation of phosphatidylserine after pre

  10. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  11. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Methyl chlorocarbonate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chlorocarbonate ; CASRN 79 - 22 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  13. Methyl isocyanate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl isocyanate ; CASRN 624 - 83 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  14. Methyl parathion

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl parathion ; CASRN 298 - 00 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Methyl methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl methacrylate ; CASRN 80 - 62 - 6 ( 03 / 02 / 98 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  16. Methyl iodide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl iodide ; CASRN 74 - 88 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  17. Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Bind to Protein Z Cooperatively and with Equal Affinity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Tanusree; Manoj, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Protein Z (PZ) is an anticoagulant that binds with high affinity to Protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) and accelerates the rate of ZPI-mediated inhibition of factor Xa (fXa) by more than 1000-fold in the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipids. PZ promotion of the ZPI-fXa interaction results from the anchoring of the Gla domain of PZ onto phospholipid surfaces and positioning the bound ZPI in close proximity to the Gla-anchored fXa, forming a ternary complex of PZ/ZPI/fXa. Although interaction of PZ with phospholipid membrane appears to be absolutely crucial for its cofactor activity, little is known about the binding of different phospholipids to PZ. The present study was conceived to understand the interaction of different phospholipids with PZ. Experiments with both soluble lipids and model membranes revealed that PZ binds to phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) with equal affinity (Kd~48 μM); further, PS and PE bound to PZ synergistically. Equilibrium dialysis experiments revealed two lipid-binding sites for both PS and PE. PZ binds with weaker affinity to other phospholipids, e.g., phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and binding of these lipids is not synergistic with respect to PS. Both PS and PE -containing membranes supported the formation of a fXa-PZ complex. PZ protection of fXa from antithrombin inhibition were also shown to be comparable in presence of both PS: PC and PE: PC membranes. These findings are particularly important and intriguing since they suggest a special affinity of PZ, in vivo, towards activated platelets, the primary membrane involved in blood coagulation process. PMID:27584039

  18. Effect of calcium and magnesium on phosphatidylserine membranes: experiments and all-atomic simulations.

    PubMed

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Rodríguez-Beas, César; Faraudo, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    It is known that phosphatidylserine (PS(-)) lipids have a very similar affinity for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations, as revealed by electrokinetic and stability experiments. However, despite this similar affinity, experimental evidence shows that the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) induces very different aggregation behavior for PS(-) liposomes as characterized by their fractal dimensions. Also, turbidity measurements confirm substantial differences in aggregation behavior depending on the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) cations. These puzzling results suggest that although these two cations have a similar affinity for PS(-) lipids, they induce substantial structural differences in lipid bilayers containing each of these cations. In other words, these cations have strong ion-specific effects on the structure of PS(-) membranes. This interpretation is supported by all-atomic molecular-dynamics simulations showing that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations have different binding sites and induce different membrane hydration. We show that although both ions are incorporated deep into the hydrophilic region of the membrane, they have different positions and configurations at the membrane. Absorbed Ca(2+) cations present a peak at a distance ~2 nm from the center of the lipid bilayer, and their most probable binding configuration involves two oxygen atoms from each of the charged moieties of the PS molecule (phosphate and carboxyl groups). In contrast, the distribution of absorbed Mg(2+) cations has two different peaks, located a few angstroms before and after the Ca(2+) peak. The most probable configurations (corresponding to these two peaks) involve binding to two oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups (the most superficial binding peak) or two oxygen atoms from phosphate groups (the most internal peak). Moreover, simulations also show differences in the hydration structure of the membrane: we obtained a hydration of 7.5 and 9 water molecules per lipid in simulations with Ca(2+) and Mg(2

  19. A simple flow cytometry method improves the detection of phosphatidylserine-exposing extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Arraud, N; Gounou, C; Linares, R; Brisson, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma contains cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which participate in physiopathological processes and have potential applications as disease biomarker. However, the enumeration of EVs faces major problems, due to their sub-micrometer size and to intrinsic limitations in methods of characterization, mainly flow cytometry (FCM). Objectives Our objective is to enumerate EVs in plasma, by taking as the prototype the population of phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposing EVs, which constitute one of the major EV populations and are responsible for thrombotic disorders. Methods The concentration of PS-exposing EVs in platelet-free plasma (PFP) of healthy subjects was measured by FCM using either light scattering or fluorescence as the trigger and fluorescent Annexin-5 (Anx5) as the specific label. In addition, PS-exposing EVs were enumerated by electron microscopy (EM) after labeling with Anx5 gold nanoparticles and sedimentation on EM grids. Results We show that about 50× more Anx5-positive EVs are detected by FCM when detection is triggered on fluorescence as compared with light scattering. By fluorescence triggering, concentrations of 22 000–30 000 Anx5-positive EVs per μL PFP were determined, using two different flow cytometers. The limit of detection of the fluorescence triggering method was estimated at about 1000–2500 Anx5 molecules. Results from EM suggest that EVs down to 100–150 nm diameter are detected by fluorescence triggering. Conclusion This study presents a simple method for enumerating EVs. We believe that this method is applicable in a general context and will improve our understanding of the roles of EVs in pathophysiological situations, which will open avenues for the development of EV-based diagnosis assays. PMID:25348269

  20. The phosphatidylserine receptor TIM4 utilizes integrins as coreceptors to effect phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Flannagan, Ronald S; Canton, Johnathan; Furuya, Wendy; Glogauer, Michael; Grinstein, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM4), a phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-binding receptor, mediates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. How TIM4 exerts its function is unclear, and conflicting data have emerged. To define the mode of action of TIM4, we used two distinct but complementary approaches: 1) we compared bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild-type and TIM4(-/-) mice, and 2) we heterologously expressed TIM4 in epithelioid AD293 cells, which rendered them competent for engulfment of PtdSer-bearing targets. Using these systems, we demonstrate that rather than serving merely as a tether, as proposed earlier by others, TIM4 is an active participant in the phagocytic process. Furthermore, we find that TIM4 operates independently of lactadherin, which had been proposed to act as a bridging molecule. Of interest, TIM4-driven phagocytosis depends on the activation of integrins and involves stimulation of Src-family kinases and focal adhesion kinase, as well as the localized accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. These mediators promote recruitment of the nucleotide-exchange factor Vav3, which in turn activates small Rho-family GTPases. Gene silencing or ablation experiments demonstrated that RhoA, Rac1, and Rac2 act synergistically to drive the remodeling of actin that underlies phagocytosis. Single-particle detection experiments demonstrated that TIM4 and β1 integrins associate upon receptor clustering. These findings support a model in which TIM4 engages integrins as coreceptors to evoke the signal transduction needed to internalize PtdSer-bearing targets such as apoptotic cells.

  1. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei; Fairn, Gregory D; Hancock, John F

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization. PMID:26572827

  2. Phosphatidylserine-Dependent Catalysis of Stalk and Pore Formation by Synaptobrevin JMR-TMD Peptide.

    PubMed

    Tarafdar, Pradip K; Chakraborty, Hirak; Bruno, Michael J; Lentz, Barry R

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of a SNARE complex in neurotransmitter release is widely accepted, there exist different views on how the complex promotes fusion. One hypothesis is that the SNARE complex's ability to bring membranes into contact is sufficient for fusion, another points to possible roles of juxtamembrane regions (JMRs) and transmembrane domains (TMDs) in catalyzing lipid rearrangement, and another notes the complex's presumed ability to bend membranes near the point of contact. Here, we performed experiments with highly curved vesicles brought into contact using low concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to investigate the influence of the synaptobrevin (SB) TMD with an attached JMR (SB-JMR-TMD) on the rates of stalk and pore formation during vesicle fusion. SB-JMR-TMD enhanced the rates of stalk and fusion pore (FP) formation in a sharply sigmoidal fashion. We observed an optimal influence at an average of three peptides per vesicle, but only with phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing vesicles. Approximately three SB-JMR-TMDs per vesicle optimally ordered the bilayer interior and excluded water in a similar sigmoidal fashion. The catalytic influences of hexadecane and SB-JMR-TMD on fusion kinetics showed little in common, suggesting different mechanisms. Both kinetic and membrane structure measurements support the hypotheses that SB-JMR-TMD 1) catalyzes initial intermediate formation as a result of its basic JMR disrupting ordered interbilayer water and permitting closer interbilayer approach, and 2) catalyzes pore formation by forming a membrane-spanning complex that increases curvature stress at the circumference of the hemifused diaphragm of the prepore intermediate state.

  3. Phosphatidylserine translocation to the mitochondrion is an ATP-dependent process in permeabilized animal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, D.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were pulse labeled with ({sup 3}H)serine, and the synthesis of phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine from phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)serine during the subsequent chase was used as a measure of lipid translocation to the mitochondria. When the CHO-K1 cells were pulse labeled and subsequently permeabilized with 50 {mu}g of saponin per ml, there was no significant turnover of nascent phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)serine to form phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine during an ensuring chase. Supplementation of the permeabilized cells with 2 mM ATP resulted in significant phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine synthesis (83% of that found in intact cells) from phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)serine during a subsequent 2-hr chase. Phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine synthesis essentially ceased after 2 hr in the permeabilized cells. The translocation-dependent synthesis of phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine was a saturable process with respect to ATP concentration in permeabilized cells. The conversion of phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)serine to phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine did not occur in saponin-treated cultures supplemented with 2 mM AMP, 2 mM 5{prime}-adenylyl imidodiphosphate, or apyrase plus 2 mM ATP. ATP was the most effective nucleotide, but the addition of GTP, CTP, UTP, and ADP also supported the translocation-dependent synthesis of phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine albeit to a lesser extent. These data provide evidence that the interorganelle translocation of phosphatidylserine requires ATP and is largely independent of soluble cytosolic proteins.

  4. Computing membrane-AQP5-phosphatidylserine binding affinities with hybrid steered molecular dynamics approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liao Y

    2015-01-01

    In order to elucidate how phosphatidylserine (PS6) interacts with AQP5 in a cell membrane, we develop a hybrid steered molecular dynamics (hSMD) method that involves (1) simultaneously steering two centers of mass of two selected segments of the ligand and (2) equilibrating the ligand-protein complex with and without biasing the system. Validating hSMD, we first study vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) in complex with N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-((pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amino)benzamide (8ST), for which the binding energy is known from in vitro experiments. In this study, our computed binding energy well agrees with the experimental value. Knowing the accuracy of this hSMD method, we apply it to the AQP5-lipid-bilayer system to answer an outstanding question relevant to AQP5’s physiological function: Will the PS6, a lipid having a single long hydrocarbon tail that was found in the central pore of the AQP5 tetramer crystal, actually bind to and inhibit AQP5’s central pore under near-physiological conditions, namely, when AQP5 tetramer is embedded in a lipid bilayer? We find, in silico, using the CHARMM 36 force field, that binding PS6 to AQP5 is a factor of 3 million weaker than “binding” it in the lipid bilayer. This suggests that AQP5’s central pore will not be inhibited by PS6 or a similar lipid in a physiological environment. PMID:25955791

  5. Phosphatidylserine exposure and red cell viability in red cell aging and in hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Boas, Franz Edward; Forman, Linda; Beutler, Ernest

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal aging or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS exposure. To investigate the role of PS exposure in normal red cell aging, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an age-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS exposure and a random destruction of red cells without PS exposure. By using this model, we demonstrated that the exposure of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS exposure on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells. PMID:9501218

  6. Aminoglycoside-induced phosphatidylserine externalisation in sensory hair cells is regionally restricted, rapid and reversible

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, R.J.; Gale, J.E.; Ranatunga, K.M.; Kros, C.J.; Richardson, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    The aminophospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) is normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the plasmalemma. During certain cellular processes, including apoptosis, PS translocates to the outer leaflet and can be labelled with externally-applied annexin-V, a calcium-dependent PS-binding protein. In mouse cochlear cultures, annexin-V labelling reveals the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin induces rapid PS externalisation, specifically on the apical surface of hair cells. PS externalisation is observed within ~75 seconds of neomycin perfusion, first on the hair bundle and then on membrane blebs forming around the apical surface. Whole-cell capacitance also increases significantly within minutes of neomycin application indicating blebbing is accompanied by membrane addition to the hair-cell surface. PS-externalisation and membrane blebbing can, nonetheless, occur independently. Pre-treating hair cells with calcium chelators, a procedure that blocks mechanotransduction, or overexpressing a PIP2-binding pleckstrin-homology domain, can reduce neomycin-induced PS externalisation, suggesting neomycin enters hair cells via transduction channels, clusters PIP2, and thereby activates lipid scrambling. The effects of short-term neomycin treatment are reversible. Following neomycin washout, PS is no longer detected on the apical surface, apical membrane blebs disappear and surface-bound annexin-V is internalised, distributing throughout the supra-nuclear cytoplasm of the hair cell. Hair cells can therefore repair, and recover from, neomycin-induced surface damage. Hair cells lacking myosin VI, a minus-end directed actin-based motor implicated in endocytosis, can also recover from brief neomycin treatment. Internalised annexin-V, however, remains below the apical surface thereby pinpointing a critical role for myosin VI in the transport of endocytosed material away from the hair cell’s periphery. PMID:18829952

  7. Phosphatidylserine-Dependent Catalysis of Stalk and Pore Formation by Synaptobrevin JMR-TMD Peptide.

    PubMed

    Tarafdar, Pradip K; Chakraborty, Hirak; Bruno, Michael J; Lentz, Barry R

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of a SNARE complex in neurotransmitter release is widely accepted, there exist different views on how the complex promotes fusion. One hypothesis is that the SNARE complex's ability to bring membranes into contact is sufficient for fusion, another points to possible roles of juxtamembrane regions (JMRs) and transmembrane domains (TMDs) in catalyzing lipid rearrangement, and another notes the complex's presumed ability to bend membranes near the point of contact. Here, we performed experiments with highly curved vesicles brought into contact using low concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to investigate the influence of the synaptobrevin (SB) TMD with an attached JMR (SB-JMR-TMD) on the rates of stalk and pore formation during vesicle fusion. SB-JMR-TMD enhanced the rates of stalk and fusion pore (FP) formation in a sharply sigmoidal fashion. We observed an optimal influence at an average of three peptides per vesicle, but only with phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing vesicles. Approximately three SB-JMR-TMDs per vesicle optimally ordered the bilayer interior and excluded water in a similar sigmoidal fashion. The catalytic influences of hexadecane and SB-JMR-TMD on fusion kinetics showed little in common, suggesting different mechanisms. Both kinetic and membrane structure measurements support the hypotheses that SB-JMR-TMD 1) catalyzes initial intermediate formation as a result of its basic JMR disrupting ordered interbilayer water and permitting closer interbilayer approach, and 2) catalyzes pore formation by forming a membrane-spanning complex that increases curvature stress at the circumference of the hemifused diaphragm of the prepore intermediate state. PMID:26536263

  8. Synergies of phosphatidylserine and protein disulfide isomerase in tissue factor activation

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Florian; Ruf, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor and cofactor for factor VII/VIIa, initiates haemostasis and thrombosis. Initial tissue distribution studies suggested that TF was sequestered from the circulation and only present at perivascular sites. However, there is now clear evidence that TF also exists as a blood-borne form with critical contributions not only to arterial thrombosis following plaque rupture and to venous thrombosis following endothelial perturbation, but also to various other clotting abnormalities associated with trauma, infection, or cancer. Because thrombin generation, fibrin deposition, and platelet aggregation in the contexts of haemostasis, thrombosis, and pathogen defence frequently occur without TF de novo synthesis, considerable efforts are still directed to understanding the molecular events underlying the conversion of predominantly non-coagulant or cryptic TF on the surface of haematopoietic cells to a highly procoagulant molecule following cellular injury or stimulation. This article will review some of the still controversial mechanisms implicated in cellular TF activation or decryption with particular focus on the coordinated effects of outer leaflet phosphatidylserine exposure and thiol-disulfide exchange pathways involving protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In this regard, our recent findings of ATP-triggered stimulation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor on myeloid and smooth muscle cells resulting in potent TF activation and shedding of procoagulant microparticles as well as of rapid monocyte TF decryption following antithymocyte globulin-dependent membrane complement fixation have delineated specific PDI-dependent pathways of cellular TF activation and thus illustrated additional and novel links in the coupling of inflammation and coagulation. PMID:24452853

  9. Effect of calcium and magnesium on phosphatidylserine membranes: experiments and all-atomic simulations.

    PubMed

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Rodríguez-Beas, César; Faraudo, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    It is known that phosphatidylserine (PS(-)) lipids have a very similar affinity for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations, as revealed by electrokinetic and stability experiments. However, despite this similar affinity, experimental evidence shows that the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) induces very different aggregation behavior for PS(-) liposomes as characterized by their fractal dimensions. Also, turbidity measurements confirm substantial differences in aggregation behavior depending on the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) cations. These puzzling results suggest that although these two cations have a similar affinity for PS(-) lipids, they induce substantial structural differences in lipid bilayers containing each of these cations. In other words, these cations have strong ion-specific effects on the structure of PS(-) membranes. This interpretation is supported by all-atomic molecular-dynamics simulations showing that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations have different binding sites and induce different membrane hydration. We show that although both ions are incorporated deep into the hydrophilic region of the membrane, they have different positions and configurations at the membrane. Absorbed Ca(2+) cations present a peak at a distance ~2 nm from the center of the lipid bilayer, and their most probable binding configuration involves two oxygen atoms from each of the charged moieties of the PS molecule (phosphate and carboxyl groups). In contrast, the distribution of absorbed Mg(2+) cations has two different peaks, located a few angstroms before and after the Ca(2+) peak. The most probable configurations (corresponding to these two peaks) involve binding to two oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups (the most superficial binding peak) or two oxygen atoms from phosphate groups (the most internal peak). Moreover, simulations also show differences in the hydration structure of the membrane: we obtained a hydration of 7.5 and 9 water molecules per lipid in simulations with Ca(2+) and Mg(2

  10. Effect of Calcium and Magnesium on Phosphatidylserine Membranes: Experiments and All-Atomic Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Rodríguez-Beas, César; Faraudo, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    It is known that phosphatidylserine (PS−) lipids have a very similar affinity for Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, as revealed by electrokinetic and stability experiments. However, despite this similar affinity, experimental evidence shows that the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ induces very different aggregation behavior for PS− liposomes as characterized by their fractal dimensions. Also, turbidity measurements confirm substantial differences in aggregation behavior depending on the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ cations. These puzzling results suggest that although these two cations have a similar affinity for PS− lipids, they induce substantial structural differences in lipid bilayers containing each of these cations. In other words, these cations have strong ion-specific effects on the structure of PS− membranes. This interpretation is supported by all-atomic molecular-dynamics simulations showing that Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations have different binding sites and induce different membrane hydration. We show that although both ions are incorporated deep into the hydrophilic region of the membrane, they have different positions and configurations at the membrane. Absorbed Ca2+ cations present a peak at a distance ∼2 nm from the center of the lipid bilayer, and their most probable binding configuration involves two oxygen atoms from each of the charged moieties of the PS molecule (phosphate and carboxyl groups). In contrast, the distribution of absorbed Mg2+ cations has two different peaks, located a few angstroms before and after the Ca2+ peak. The most probable configurations (corresponding to these two peaks) involve binding to two oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups (the most superficial binding peak) or two oxygen atoms from phosphate groups (the most internal peak). Moreover, simulations also show differences in the hydration structure of the membrane: we obtained a hydration of 7.5 and 9 water molecules per lipid in simulations with Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. PMID:22824273

  11. Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Bind to Protein Z Cooperatively and with Equal Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Tanusree; Manoj, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Protein Z (PZ) is an anticoagulant that binds with high affinity to Protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) and accelerates the rate of ZPI-mediated inhibition of factor Xa (fXa) by more than 1000-fold in the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipids. PZ promotion of the ZPI-fXa interaction results from the anchoring of the Gla domain of PZ onto phospholipid surfaces and positioning the bound ZPI in close proximity to the Gla-anchored fXa, forming a ternary complex of PZ/ZPI/fXa. Although interaction of PZ with phospholipid membrane appears to be absolutely crucial for its cofactor activity, little is known about the binding of different phospholipids to PZ. The present study was conceived to understand the interaction of different phospholipids with PZ. Experiments with both soluble lipids and model membranes revealed that PZ binds to phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) with equal affinity (Kd~48 μM); further, PS and PE bound to PZ synergistically. Equilibrium dialysis experiments revealed two lipid-binding sites for both PS and PE. PZ binds with weaker affinity to other phospholipids, e.g., phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and binding of these lipids is not synergistic with respect to PS. Both PS and PE -containing membranes supported the formation of a fXa-PZ complex. PZ protection of fXa from antithrombin inhibition were also shown to be comparable in presence of both PS: PC and PE: PC membranes. These findings are particularly important and intriguing since they suggest a special affinity of PZ, in vivo, towards activated platelets, the primary membrane involved in blood coagulation process. PMID:27584039

  12. Anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies: an additional diagnostic marker for APS?

    PubMed

    Pregnolato, Francesca; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Encabo, Susan; Shums, Zakera; Norman, Gary L; Tripodi, Armando; Chantarangkul, Veena; Bertero, Tiziana; De Micheli, Valeria; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Among the diagnostic assays for anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), lupus anticoagulant (LA) is the strongest predictor of thrombosis; however, it presents several limitations as interference with anticoagulant therapy and poor inter-laboratory agreement. Two-thirds of LA activity is apparently due to antibodies against prothrombin (PT), usually detectable by ELISA. Binding of PT to phosphatidylserine (PS) has been shown to enhance solid-phase anti-PT assay sensitivity. To determine the prevalence of antibodies against PS/PT (aPS/PT) in APS, we tested the semiquantitative QUANTA Lite(®) aPS/PT ELISA in a cohort of 80 APS patients. The prevalence of aPS/PT was 81.3%, rising to 87.6% when considering LA-positive subjects only. We observed a strong correlation between aPS/PT and LA (p = 0.006). To note, APS patients with thrombotic manifestations displayed significantly higher IgG aPS/PT titers compared to 20 aPL asymptomatic carriers (p = 0.012). To rule out a possible cross-reactivity of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) with PS/PT complex, we tested two monoclonal aβ2GPI antibodies and an affinity-purified (AP) polyclonal aβ2GPI IgG obtained from the serum of a patient reacting against both β2GPI and PS/PT. The two monoclonal antibodies did not show any reactivity against PS/PT complex, similarly the AP IgGs did not react toward PS/PT antigen while preserved their aβ2GPI activity. Our findings suggest that aPS/PT are a definite antibody population in APS. Moreover, the good correlation between aPS/PT ELISA and LA may support its use as a surrogate test for LA, particularly useful to overcome the technical limitations of the functional assay.

  13. La3+-induced fusion of phosphatidylserine liposomes. Close approach, intermembrane intermediates, and the electrostatic surface potential.

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, J; Alford, D; Cohen, J; Düzgüneş, N

    1988-01-01

    The fusion of large unilamellar phosphatidylserine liposomes (PS LUV) induced by La3+ has been monitored using the 1-aminoapthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid/p-xylenebis(pyridinium bromide) (ANTS/DPX) fluorescence assay for the mixing of aqueous contents. The fusion event is extensive and nonleaky, with up to 95% mixing of contents in the fused liposomes. However, addition of excess EDTA leads to disruption of the fusion products in a way that implies the existence of metastable intermembrane contact sites. The maximal fusion activity occurs between 10 and 100 microM La3+ and fusion can be terminated rapidly, without loss of contents, by the addition of excess La3+, e.g., 1 mM La3+ at pH 7.4. This observation is explained by the very large intrinsic binding constant (approximately 10(5) M-1) of La3+ to the PS headgroup, as measured by microelectrophoresis. Addition of 1 mM La3+ causes charge reversal of the membrane and a large positive surface potential. La3+ binding to PS causes the release of a proton. These data can be explained if La3+ can chelate to PS at two sites, with one of the sites being the primary amino group. This binding model successfully predicts that at pH 4.5 fusion occurs up to 2 mM La3+, due to reduced La3+ binding at low pH. We conclude that the general mechanism of membrane fusion includes three kinetic steps. In addition to (a) aggregation, there is (b) the close approach of the surfaces, or thinning of the hydration layer, and (c) the formation of intermembrane intermediates which determine the extent to which membrane destabilization leads to fusion (mixing of aqueous contents), as opposed to lysis. The lifetime of these intermembrane intermediates appears to depend upon La3+ binding to both PS sites. PMID:3382713

  14. Protein kinase C activation induces phosphatidylserine exposure on red blood cells.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kitty; Rettig, Michael P; Low, Philip S; Kuypers, Frans A

    2002-10-15

    We have shown previously that red blood cells (RBCs) can be induced to influx Ca(2+) when treated with lipid mediators, such as lysophosphatidic acid and prostaglandin E(2), that are released during clot formation. Since calcium loading of RBCs can lead to both protein kinase C (PKC) activation and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, we decided to investigate the possible linkage between PKC activation and membrane PS scrambling using phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a commonly used activator of PKC. Treatment of RBCs with PMA in a calcium-containing buffer caused immediate PS exposure in an RBC subpopulation. The size of the subpopulation did not change upon further incubation, indicating that not all RBCs are equally susceptible to this treatment. Using a fluorescent indicator, we found a subpopulation of RBCs with elevated intracellular calcium levels. In the absence of extracellular calcium, no PS exposure was found. However, we did find cells with high levels of calcium that did not expose PS, and a variable percentage of PS-exposing cells that did not show elevated calcium concentrations. Inhibition of PKC with either calphostin C, a blocker of the PMA binding site, or chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of the active site, diminished the level of formation of PS-exposing cells. However, the inhibitors had different effects on calcium internalization, indicating that a high calcium concentration alone was not responsible for inducing PS exposure in the absence of PKC activity. Moreover, PKC inhibition could prevent PS exposure induced by calcium and ionophore treatment of RBCs. We conclude that PKC is implicated in the mechanism of membrane phospholipid scrambling.

  15. Response of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and metal imbalance to combined administration of DMSA and monoisoamyl-DMSA during chronic arsenic poisoning in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, S; Flora, S J S

    2007-03-01

    -exposed rats compared to that of normal animals. These changes were accompanied by a significant elevation in blood and soft-tissue arsenic concentration. Co-administration of DMSA and MiADMSA at lower dose (0.15 mmol/kg) was most effective not only in reducing arsenic-induced oxidative stress but also in depleting arsenic from blood and soft tissues compared to other treatments. This combination was also able to repair DNA damage caused following arsenic exposure. We thus recommend combined administration of DMSA and MiADMSA for achieving optimum effects of chelation therapy.

  16. Localization, Purification, and Functional Reconstitution of the P4-ATPase Atp8a2, a Phosphatidylserine Flippase in Photoreceptor Disc Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Kwok, Michael C. M.; Molday, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a relatively new subfamily of P-type ATPases implicated in the energy-dependent translocation of aminophospholipids across cell membranes. In this study, we report on the localization and functional properties of Atp8a2, a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily that has not been studied previously. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed high expression of atp8a2 mRNA in the retina and testis. Within the retina, immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies localized Atp8a2 to outer segment disc membranes of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Atp8a2 purified from photoreceptor outer segments by immunoaffinity chromatography exhibited ATPase activity that was stimulated by phosphatidylserine and to a lesser degree phosphatidylethanolamine but not by phosphatidylcholine or other membrane lipids. Purified Atp8a2 was reconstituted into liposomes containing fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylserine to measure the ability of Atp8a2 to flip phosphatidylserine across the lipid bilayer. Fluorescence measurements showed that Atp8a2 flipped fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylserine from the inner leaflet of liposomes (equivalent to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes) to the outer leaflet (equivalent to cytoplasmic leaflet) in an ATP-dependent manner. Our studies provide the first direct biochemical evidence that purified P4-ATPases can translocate aminophospholipids across membranes and further implicates Atp8a2 in the generation and maintenance of phosphatidylserine asymmetry in photoreceptor disc membranes. PMID:19778899

  17. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively activates PKC-epsilon, possibly binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Hi, Rika; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), a newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative with cyclopropane rings instead of cis-double bonds, on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In the in situ PKC assay with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, DCP-LA significantly activated PKC in PC-12 cells in a concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 microM) manner, with the maximal effect at 100 nM, and the DCP-LA effect was blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, or a selective inhibitor peptide of the novel PKC isozyme PKC-epsilon. Furthermore, DCP-LA activated PKC in HEK-293 cells that was inhibited by the small, interfering RNA against PKC-epsilon. In the cell-free PKC assay, of the nine isozymes examined here, DCP-LA most strongly activated PKC-epsilon, with >7-fold potency over other PKC isozymes, in the absence of dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol; instead, the DCP-LA action was inhibited by dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine. DCP-LA also activated PKC-gamma, a conventional PKC, but to a much lesser extent compared with that for PKC-epsilon, by a mechanism distinct from PKC-epsilon activation. Thus, DCP-LA serves as a selective activator of PKC-epsilon, possibly by binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site on PKC-epsilon. These results may provide fresh insight into lipid signaling in PKC activation.

  18. Ameliorative effects of Syzygium jambolanum extract and its poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid nano-encapsulated form on arsenic-induced hyperglycemic stress: a multi-parametric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Samadder, Asmita; Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2012-12-01

    In South East Asia, groundwater arsenic contamination has become a great menace. Chronic arsenic intoxication leads to a hyperglycemic condition in animals and man. Because of undesirable side-effects and affordability, orthodox medicine, like insulin, is not preferred by many who like natural products instead. Unfortunately, such natural products mostly lack scientific validation. Therefore, we became interested in assessing the efficacy of the ethanolic seed extract of Syzygium jambolanum (SJ), traditionally used against diabetic conditions. We also formulated poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-encapsulated nano-SJ (NSJ) and tested whether the ameliorative potentials of SJ could be enhanced by nano-encapsulation. In this study, we conducted both in vitro (in L6 cells) and in vivo (in mice) experiments to assess the relative efficacy of SJ and NSJ. We characterized the physico-chemical features of NSJ by atomic force microscopy and critically analyzed several bio-markers and signal proteins associated with arsenic-induced stress and hyperglycemia. We also determined the relative ameliorative potentials of SJ and NSJ by using standard protocols. NSJ could cross the blood brain barrier in mice. Overall results suggested that NSJ had a greater potential than that of SJ, indicating the possibility of using NSJ in the future drug design and management of arsenic-induced hyperglycemia and stress.

  19. Antibodies against Native and Oxidized Cardiolipin and Phosphatidylserine and Phosphorylcholine in Atherosclerosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Frostegård, Anna G.; Su, Jun; Hua, Xiang; Vikström, Max; de Faire, Ulf; Frostegård, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine (anti-CL and anti-PS) are associated with thrombosis. In contrast, we determined that IgM antibodies against oxidized CL and PS (OxCL and OxPS) and phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) could be protection markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods 226 individuals with established hypertension (diastolic pressure>95 mmHg) from the European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis. Antibodies were tested by ELISA. As a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis, the mean of the maximum intima-media thicknesses (IMT) in the far walls of common carotids and bifurcations was determined by ultrasonography at the time of inclusion and 4 years following inclusion. Results Increases in IMT measures at follow-up were significantly less common in subjects which at baseline had high IgM anti-OxPS and anti-PC at above 75th percentile: OR 0,45, CI (0,23–0,86) and OR 0.37, CI (0,19–0,71), p = 0.0137 respectively and above 90th percentile: OR 0.32, CI (0,12–0,84) and OR 0.39, CI (0,15–1.00), p = 0.050 and OR 0,22, CI (0,08–0,59) p = 0,0029. IgM anti-OxCL was negatively associated with IMT increases (OR, 0.32, CI (0,12–0,84), p = 0231). There were no associations for IgM anti-PS or anti-CL. Anti-PC, as determined herein by a commercial ELISA, was strongly associated with data from our previously published in house ELISA (R = 0,87; p<0,0001).) Anti-PC was also a risk marker at low levels (below 25th percentile; OR = 2,37 (1,16–4,82), p = 0,0177). Conclusions High levels of IgM anti-OxPS and anti-OxCL, but not traditional anti-phospholipid antibodies (anti-PS and anti-CL), are associated with protection against atherosclerosis development. In addition, low IgM anti-PC was a risk marker but high a protection marker. PMID:25473948

  20. TIM-4, a Receptor for Phosphatidylserine, Controls Adaptive Immunity by Regulating the Removal of Antigen-Specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Albacker, Lee A.; Karisola, Piia; Chang, Ya-Jen; Umetsu, Sarah E.; Zhou, Meixia; Akbari, Omid; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Baumgarth, Nicole; Freeman, Gordon J.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is characterized by the expansion of an Ag-specific T cell population following Ag exposure. The precise mechanisms, however, that control the expansion and subsequent contraction in the number of Ag-specific T cells are not fully understood. We show that T cell/transmembrane, Ig, and mucin (TIM)-4, a receptor for phosphatidylserine, a marker of apoptotic cells, regulates adaptive immunity in part by mediating the removal of Ag-specific T cells during the contraction phase of the response. During Ag immunization or during infection with influenza A virus, blockade of TIM-4 on APCs increased the expansion of Ag-specific T cells, resulting in an increase in secondary immune responses. Conversely, overexpression of TIM-4 on APCs in transgenic mice reduced the number of Ag-specific T cells that remained after immunization, resulting in reduced secondary T cell responses. There was no change in the total number of cell divisions that T cells completed, no change in the per cell proliferative capacity of the remaining Ag-specific T cells, and no increase in the development of Ag-specific regulatory T cells in TIM-4 transgenic mice. Thus, TIM-4–expressing cells regulate adaptive immunity by mediating the removal of phosphatidylserine-expressing apoptotic, Ag-specific T cells, thereby controlling the number of Ag-specific T cells that remain after the clearance of Ag or infection. PMID:21037090

  1. Position-specific isotope analysis of the methyl group carbon in methylcobalamin for the investigation of biomethylation processes.

    PubMed

    Wuerfel, Oliver; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Jochmann, Maik A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-03-01

    In the environment, the methylation of metal(loid)s is a widespread phenomenon, which enhances both biomobility as well as mostly the toxicity of the precursory metal(loid)s. Different reaction mechanisms have been proposed for arsenic, but not really proven yet. Here, carbon isotope analysis can foster our understanding of these processes, as the extent of the isotopic fractionation allows to differentiate between different types of reaction, such as concerted (SN2) or stepwise nucleophilic substitution (SN1) as well as to determine the origin of the methyl group. However, for the determination of the kinetic isotope effect the initial isotopic value of the transferred methyl group has to be determined. To that end, we used hydroiodic acid for abstraction of the methyl group from methylcobalamin (CH3Cob) or S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and subsequent analysis of the formed methyl iodide by gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In addition, three further independent methods have been investigated to determine the position-specific δ (13)C value of CH3Cob involving photolytic cleavage with different additives or thermolytic cleavage of the methyl-cobalt bonding and subsequent measurement of the formed methane by GC-IRMS. The thermolytic cleavage gave comparable results as the abstraction using HI. In contrast, photolysis led to an isotopic fractionation of about 7 to 9 ‰. Furthermore, we extended a recently developed method for the determination of carbon isotope ratios of organometal(loid)s in complex matrices using hydride generation for volatilization and matrix separation before heart-cut GC and IRMS to the analysis of the low boiling partly methylated arsenicals, which are formed in the course of arsenic methylation. Finally, we demonstrated the applicability of this methodology by investigation of carbon fractionation due to the methyl transfer from CH3Cob to arsenic induced by glutathione.

  2. 4.1R-deficient human red blood cells have altered phosphatidylserine exposure pathways and are deficient in CD44 and CD47 glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Jeremy, Kris P.; Plummer, Zoe E.; Head, David J.; Madgett, Tracey E.; Sanders, Kelly L.; Wallington, Amanda; Storry, Jill R.; Gilsanz, Florinda; Delaunay, Jean; Avent, Neil D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein 4.1R is an important component of the red cell membrane skeleton. It imparts structural integrity and has transmembrane signaling roles by direct interactions with transmembrane proteins and other membrane skeletal components, notably p55 and calmodulin. Design and Methods Spontaneous and ligation-induced phosphatidylserine exposure on erythrocytes from two patients with 4.1R deficiency were studied, using CD47 glycoprotein and glycophorin C as ligands. We also looked for protein abnormalities in the 4.1R - based multiprotein complex. Results Phosphatidylserine exposure was significantly increased in 4.1R-deficient erythrocytes obtained from the two different individuals when ligands to CD47 glycoprotein were bound. Spontaneous phosphatidylserine exposure was normal. 4.1R, glycophorin C and p55 were missing or sharply reduced. Furthermore there was an alteration or deficiency of CD47 glycoprotein and a lack of CD44 glycoprotein. Based on a recent study in 4.1R-deficient mice, we found that there are clear functional differences between interactions of human red cell 4.1R and its murine counterpart. Conclusions Glycophorin C is known to bind 4.1R, and we have defined previously that it also binds CD47. From our evidence, we suggest that 4.1R plays a role in the phosphatidylserine exposure signaling pathway that is of fundamental importance in red cell turnover. The linkage of CD44 to 4.1R may be relevant to this process. PMID:19794081

  3. Activation of NADPH-recycling systems in leaves and roots of Arabidopsis thaliana under arsenic-induced stress conditions is accelerated by knock-out of Nudix hydrolase 19 (AtNUDX19) gene.

    PubMed

    Corpas, Francisco J; Aguayo-Trinidad, Simeón; Ogawa, Takahisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2016-03-15

    NADPH is an important cofactor in cell growth, proliferation and detoxification. Arabidopsis thaliana Nudix hydrolase 19 (AtNUDX19) belongs to a family of proteins defined by the conserved amino-acid sequence GX5-EX7REUXEEXGU which has the capacity to hydrolyze NADPH as a physiological substrate in vivo. Given the importance of NADPH in the cellular redox homeostasis of plants, the present study compares the responses of the main NADPH-recycling systems including NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) and NADP-malic enzyme (ME) in the leaves and roots of Arabidopsis wild-type (Wt) and knock-out (KO) AtNUDX19 mutant (Atnudx19) plants under physiological and arsenic-induced stress conditions. Two major features were observed in the behavior of the main NADPH-recycling systems: (i) under optimal conditions in both organs, the levels of these activities were higher in nudx19 mutants than in Wt plants; and, (ii) under 500μM AsV conditions, these activities increase, especially in nudx19 mutant plants. Moreover, G6PDH activity in roots was the most affected enzyme in both Wt and nudx19 mutant plants, with a 4.6-fold and 5.0-fold increase, respectively. In summary, the data reveals a connection between the absence of chloroplastic AtNUDX19 and the rise in all NADP-dehydrogenase activities under physiological and arsenic-induced stress conditions, particularly in roots. This suggests that AtNUDX19 could be a key factor in modulating the NADPH pool in plants and consequently in redox homeostasis. PMID:26878367

  4. INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT. PI4P/phosphatidylserine countertransport at ORP5- and ORP8-mediated ER-plasma membrane contacts.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jeeyun; Torta, Federico; Masai, Kaori; Lucast, Louise; Czapla, Heather; Tanner, Lukas B; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R; Nakatsu, Fubito; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-07-24

    Lipid transfer between cell membrane bilayers at contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes help to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis. We found that two similar ER integral membrane proteins, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 5 (ORP5) and ORP8, tethered the ER to the plasma membrane (PM) via the interaction of their pleckstrin homology domains with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in this membrane. Their OSBP-related domains (ORDs) harbored either PI4P or phosphatidylserine (PS) and exchanged these lipids between bilayers. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that ORP5 and ORP8 could mediate PI4P/PS countertransport between the ER and the PM, thus delivering PI4P to the ER-localized PI4P phosphatase Sac1 for degradation and PS from the ER to the PM. This exchange helps to control plasma membrane PI4P levels and selectively enrich PS in the PM.

  5. New tests to detect antiphospholipid antibodies: antiprothrombin (aPT) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Savino; Khamashta, Munther A; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura

    2014-05-01

    Antiprothrombin antibodies have been proposed as potential new biomarkers for thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the setting of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Antiprothrombin antibodies are commonly detected by ELISA, using prothrombin coated onto irradiated plates (aPT), or prothrombin in complex with phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT), as antigen. Although these antibodies can co-exist in the same patient, aPT and aPS/PT seem to belong to different populations of autoantibodies. Early research explored the role of antibodies to prothrombin as potential antigenic targets for the lupus anticoagulant (LA). To date their clinical significance is being investigated and their potential role in identifying patients at higher risk of developing thrombotic events or pregnancy morbidity is being probed.

  6. Simulations of nanopore formation and phosphatidylserine externalization in lipid membranes subjected to a high-intensity, ultrashort electric pulse.

    PubMed

    Hu, Q; Joshi, R P; Schoenbach, K H

    2005-09-01

    A combined MD simulator and time dependent Laplace solver are used to analyze the electrically driven phosphatidylserine externalization process in cells. Time dependent details of nanopore formation at cell membranes in response to a high-intensity (100 kV/cm), ultrashort (10 ns) electric pulse are also probed. Our results show that nanosized pores could typically be formed within about 5 ns. These predictions are in very good agreement with recent experimental data. It is also demonstrated that defect formation and PS externalization in membranes should begin on the anode side. Finally, the simulations confirm that PS externalization is a nanopore facilitated event, rather than the result of molecular translocation across the trans-membrane energy barrier.

  7. Simulations of nanopore formation and phosphatidylserine externalization in lipid membranes subjected to a high-intensity, ultrashort electric pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q.; Joshi, R. P.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2005-09-01

    A combined MD simulator and time dependent Laplace solver are used to analyze the electrically driven phosphatidylserine externalization process in cells. Time dependent details of nanopore formation at cell membranes in response to a high-intensity (100kV/cm) , ultrashort (10ns) electric pulse are also probed. Our results show that nanosized pores could typically be formed within about 5ns . These predictions are in very good agreement with recent experimental data. It is also demonstrated that defect formation and PS externalization in membranes should begin on the anode side. Finally, the simulations confirm that PS externalization is a nanopore facilitated event, rather than the result of molecular translocation across the trans-membrane energy barrier.

  8. Aspirin induces cell death and caspase-dependent phosphatidylserine externalization in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, E; Dalmau, M; Barragán, M; Pueyo, G; Bartrons, R; Gil, J

    1999-01-01

    The induction of cell death by aspirin was analysed in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. Aspirin induced two hallmarks of apoptosis: nuclear chromatin condensation and increase in phosphatidylserine externalization. However, aspirin did not induce either oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA, decrease in DNA content or nuclear fragmentation. The effect of aspirin on Annexin V binding was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases in the apoptotic action of aspirin. However, aspirin did not induce proteolysis of PARP, suggesting that aspirin does not increase nuclear caspase 3-like activity in HT-29 cells. This finding may be related with the ‘atypical’ features of aspirin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10496355

  9. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Binding of nitroxide analogs of a local anesthetic and a photoactivatable analog of phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Electron spin resonance was used to contrast the accessibility of tertiary and quaternary amine local anesthetics to their high affinity binding site in the desensitized Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AchR). Preincubation of AchR-rich membranes with agonist resulted in a substantial reduction in the initial association of the quaternary amine local anesthetic C6SLMEI with the receptor. The time-dependent reduction in association follows a biphasic exponential function having rate constants of 0.19 min{sup {minus}1} and 0.03 min{sup {minus}1}. In contrast, agonist preincubation did not produce a comparable decrease in the association of C6SL, a tertiary amine analog, with the AchR. The results are modeled in two ways: (1) A charge gate near the channel mouth in the desensitized receptor limits access of the permanently charged cationic local anesthetic (C6SLMEI), but not for the uncharged form of the tertiary amine anesthetic C6SL. (2) A hydrophobic pathway, possibly through a corridor in the annular lipid surrounding receptor subunits, allows the uncharged form of C6SL to reach the high affinity binding site in the AchR. A photoactivatable analog of phosphatidylserine {sup 125}I 4-azido salicylic acid-phosphatidylserine ({sup 125}I ASA-PS) was use to label both Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes and reconstituted AchR membranes. All four subunits of the AchR were found to incorporate label, with the {alpha} subunit incorporating approximately twice as much as each of the other subunits on a per mole basis. The regions of the AchR {alpha} subunit that incorporate {sup 125}I ASA-PS were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion. Eighty-one per cent of the incorporated label was localized to 11.7 and 10.1 kdal V8 cleavage fragments.

  10. Joint effects of urinary arsenic methylation capacity with potential modifiers on arsenicosis: a cross-sectional study from an endemic arsenism area in Huhhot Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Huihui; Xu, Yuanyuan; Li, Xin; Sun, Guifan

    2014-07-01

    A lower arsenic methylation capacity is believed to be associated with various arsenic-related diseases. However, the synergistic effect of the arsenic methylation capacity and potential modifiers on arsenicosis risk is unclear. The current study evaluated the joint effect of the arsenic methylation capacity with several risk factors on the risk of arsenicosis characterized by skin lesions. In total, 302 adults (79 arsenicosis and 223 non-arsenicosis) residing in an endemic arsenism area in Huhhot Basin were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were determined, and the percentages of arsenic species (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%), as well as two methylation indices (primary methylation index, PMI, and secondary methylation index, SMI), were calculated to assess the arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. The results showed that a lower methylation capacity, which is indicated by higher MMA% values and lower DMA% and SMI values, was significantly associated with arsenicosis after the adjustment for multiple confounders. The relative excess risk for interactions between higher MMA% values and older age was 2.35 (95% CI: -0.56, 5.27), and the relative excess risk for interactions between higher MMA% values and lower BMI was 1.08 (95% CI: -1.20, 3.36). The data also indicated a suggestive synergistic effect of a lower arsenic methylation capacity (lower DMA% and SMI) with older age, lower BMI, and male gender. The findings of the present study suggest that a lower arsenic methylation capacity was associated with arsenicosis and that certain risk factors may enhance the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions. PMID:24834823

  11. Joint effects of urinary arsenic methylation capacity with potential modifiers on arsenicosis: a cross-sectional study from an endemic arsenism area in Huhhot Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Huihui; Xu, Yuanyuan; Li, Xin; Sun, Guifan

    2014-07-01

    A lower arsenic methylation capacity is believed to be associated with various arsenic-related diseases. However, the synergistic effect of the arsenic methylation capacity and potential modifiers on arsenicosis risk is unclear. The current study evaluated the joint effect of the arsenic methylation capacity with several risk factors on the risk of arsenicosis characterized by skin lesions. In total, 302 adults (79 arsenicosis and 223 non-arsenicosis) residing in an endemic arsenism area in Huhhot Basin were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were determined, and the percentages of arsenic species (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%), as well as two methylation indices (primary methylation index, PMI, and secondary methylation index, SMI), were calculated to assess the arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. The results showed that a lower methylation capacity, which is indicated by higher MMA% values and lower DMA% and SMI values, was significantly associated with arsenicosis after the adjustment for multiple confounders. The relative excess risk for interactions between higher MMA% values and older age was 2.35 (95% CI: -0.56, 5.27), and the relative excess risk for interactions between higher MMA% values and lower BMI was 1.08 (95% CI: -1.20, 3.36). The data also indicated a suggestive synergistic effect of a lower arsenic methylation capacity (lower DMA% and SMI) with older age, lower BMI, and male gender. The findings of the present study suggest that a lower arsenic methylation capacity was associated with arsenicosis and that certain risk factors may enhance the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions.

  12. Family correlations of arsenic methylation patterns in children and parents exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joyce S; Kalman, David A; Moore, Lee E; Kosnett, Michael J; Arroyo, Alex P; Beeris, Martin; Mazumder, D N Guha; Hernandez, Alexandra L; Smith, Allan H

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the evidence of a familial contribution to urinary methylation patterns in families ingesting arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic methylation can be assessed by measuring urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (InAs) and its methylated metabolites, monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). Methylation activity is reflected in the ratios: InAs/methylated arsenic (InAs/metAs) and MMA/DMA. Eleven families from Chile were selected because of their long-term exposure to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water (735-762 microg/L). Each family consisted of a father, a mother, and two children. We measured urinary arsenic and its methylated metabolites for each participant (n = 44). The intraclass correlation coefficients showed that 13-52% of the variations in the methylation patterns were from being a member of a specific family. Family correlations were calculated for father-mother, parent-child, and sibling-sibling pairs. Methylation patterns correlated strongly between siblings [r = 0.78 for InAs/metAs, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.94; r = 0.82 for MMA/DMA, 95%CI, 0.43-0.95] compared to lower correlations in father-mother pairs (r = 0.18, r = -0.01, respectively), after adjustment for total urinary arsenic, age, and sex. Family correlations were not notably altered when adjustments were made for specific blood micronutrients (methionine, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B6, selenium, and vitamin B12 potentially related to methylation. We also report on a family pedigree with high prevalence of arsenic-induced effects. Participants from this family had low InAs/metAs values, which is consistent with increased toxicity of trivalent methylated arsenic species. Despite our small sample size, we observed that methylation patterns aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Larger studies with more extensive pedigrees will need to be conducted to

  13. Family correlations of arsenic methylation patterns in children and parents exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joyce S; Kalman, David A; Moore, Lee E; Kosnett, Michael J; Arroyo, Alex P; Beeris, Martin; Mazumder, D N Guha; Hernandez, Alexandra L; Smith, Allan H

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the evidence of a familial contribution to urinary methylation patterns in families ingesting arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic methylation can be assessed by measuring urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (InAs) and its methylated metabolites, monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). Methylation activity is reflected in the ratios: InAs/methylated arsenic (InAs/metAs) and MMA/DMA. Eleven families from Chile were selected because of their long-term exposure to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water (735-762 microg/L). Each family consisted of a father, a mother, and two children. We measured urinary arsenic and its methylated metabolites for each participant (n = 44). The intraclass correlation coefficients showed that 13-52% of the variations in the methylation patterns were from being a member of a specific family. Family correlations were calculated for father-mother, parent-child, and sibling-sibling pairs. Methylation patterns correlated strongly between siblings [r = 0.78 for InAs/metAs, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.94; r = 0.82 for MMA/DMA, 95%CI, 0.43-0.95] compared to lower correlations in father-mother pairs (r = 0.18, r = -0.01, respectively), after adjustment for total urinary arsenic, age, and sex. Family correlations were not notably altered when adjustments were made for specific blood micronutrients (methionine, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B6, selenium, and vitamin B12 potentially related to methylation. We also report on a family pedigree with high prevalence of arsenic-induced effects. Participants from this family had low InAs/metAs values, which is consistent with increased toxicity of trivalent methylated arsenic species. Despite our small sample size, we observed that methylation patterns aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Larger studies with more extensive pedigrees will need to be conducted to

  14. The influence of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine on phase behaviour of and cellular response to lyotropic liquid crystalline dispersions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hsin-Hui; Crowston, Jonathan G; Huber, Florian; Saubern, Simon; McLean, Keith M; Hartley, Patrick G

    2010-12-01

    Lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) have the potential to act as amphiphilic scaffolds for the presentation of lipids and subsequent application in, for example, bioseparations and therapeutic delivery. In this work we have formulated lyotropic liquid crystalline systems based on the synthetic amphiphile 1,2,3-trihydroxy-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane (phytantriol) and containing the lipid dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS). We have prepared a range of DPPS-containing phytantriol cubosome formulations and characterized them using Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Cryo-transmission electron microscopy. These techniques show that increased DPPS content induces marked changes in lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour, characterized by changes in crystallographic dimensions and increases in vesicle content. Furthermore, in vitro cell culture studies indicate that these changes correlate with lipid/surfactant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. A model cell membrane based on a surface supported phospholipid bilayer was used to gain insights into cubosome-bilayer interactions using Quartz Crystal Microgravimetry. The data show that mass uptake at the supported bilayer increased with DPPS content. We propose that the cytotoxicity of the DPPS-containing dispersions results from changes in lipid/surfactant phase behaviour and the preferential attachment and fusion of vesicles at the cell membrane.

  15. Phosphatidylserine (PS) Is Exposed in Choroidal Neovascular Endothelium: PS-Targeting Antibodies Inhibit Choroidal Angiogenesis In Vivo and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Aredo, Bogale; Zhang, Kaiyan; Zhong, Xin; Pulido, Jose S.; Wang, Shusheng; He, Yu-Guang; Huang, Xianming; Brekken, Rolf A.; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) accounts for 90% of cases of severe vision loss in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration. Identifying new therapeutic targets for CNV may lead to novel combination therapies to improve outcomes and reduce treatment burden. Our goal was to test whether phosphatidylserine (PS) becomes exposed in the outer membrane of choroidal neovascular endothelium, and whether this could provide a new therapeutic target for CNV. Methods Choroidal neovascularization was induced in C57BL/6J mice using laser photocoagulation. Choroidal neovascularization lesions costained for exposed PS and for intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (or isolectin B4) were imaged in flat mounts and in cross sections. The laser CNV model and a choroidal sprouting assay were used to test the effect of PS-targeting antibodies on choroidal angiogenesis. Choroidal neovascularization lesion size was determined by intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM-2) staining of flat mounts. Results We found that PS was exposed in CNV lesions and colocalized with vascular endothelial staining. Treatment with PS-targeting antibodies led to a 40% to 80% reduction in CNV lesion area when compared to treatment with a control antibody. The effect was the same as that seen using an equal dose of an anti-VEGF antibody. Results were confirmed using the choroid sprouting assay, an ex vivo model of choroidal angiogenesis. Conclusions We demonstrated that PS is exposed in choroidal neovascular endothelium. Furthermore, targeting this exposed PS with antibodies may be of therapeutic value in CNV. PMID:26529048

  16. Identification of lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) as the target of unbiasedly selected cancer specific peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Tanvi J.; Toombs, Jason E.; Minna, John D.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Udugamasooriya, Damith Gomika

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an anionic phospholipid maintained on the inner-leaflet of the cell membrane and is externalized in malignant cells. We previously launched a careful unbiased selection targeting biomolecules (e.g. protein, lipid or carbohydrate) distinct to cancer cells by exploiting HCC4017 lung cancer and HBEC30KT normal epithelial cells derived from the same patient, identifying HCC4017 specific peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1. In this current study, we identified PS as the target of PPS1. We validated direct PPS1 binding to PS using ELISA-like assays, lipid dot blot and liposome based binding assays. In addition, PPS1 recognized other negatively charged and cancer specific lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. PPS1 did not bind to neutral lipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine found in cancer and phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin found in normal cells. Further we found that the dimeric version of PPS1 (PPS1D1) displayed strong cytotoxicity towards lung cancer cell lines that externalize PS, but not normal cells. PPS1D1 showed potent single agent anti-tumor activity and enhanced the efficacy of docetaxel in mice bearing H460 lung cancer xenografts. Since PS and anionic phospholipid externalization is common across many cancer types, PPS1 may be an alternative to overcome limitations of protein targeted agents. PMID:27120792

  17. Distinct Modes of Macrophage Recognition for Apoptotic and Necrotic Cells Are Not Specified Exclusively by Phosphatidylserine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, Regina E.; Ucker, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The distinction between physiological (apoptotic) and pathological (necrotic) cell deaths reflects mechanistic differences in cellular disintegration and is of functional significance with respect to the outcomes that are triggered by the cell corpses. Mechanistically, apoptotic cells die via an active and ordered pathway; necrotic deaths, conversely, are chaotic and passive. Macrophages and other phagocytic cells recognize and engulf these dead cells. This clearance is believed to reveal an innate immunity, associated with inflammation in cases of pathological but not physiological cell deaths. Using objective and quantitative measures to assess these processes, we find that macrophages bind and engulf native apoptotic and necrotic cells to similar extents and with similar kinetics. However, recognition of these two classes of dying cells occurs via distinct and noncompeting mechanisms. Phosphatidylserine, which is externalized on both apoptotic and necrotic cells, is not a specific ligand for the recognition of either one. The distinct modes of recognition for these different corpses are linked to opposing responses from engulfing macrophages. Necrotic cells, when recognized, enhance proinflammatory responses of activated macrophages, although they are not sufficient to trigger macrophage activation. In marked contrast, apoptotic cells profoundly inhibit phlogistic macrophage responses; this represents a cell-associated, dominant-acting anti-inflammatory signaling activity acquired posttranslationally during the process of physiological cell death. PMID:11294896

  18. Novel function of stabilin-2 in myoblast fusion: the recognition of extracellular phosphatidylserine as a “fuse-me” signal

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Go-Woon; Park, Seung-Yoon; Kim, In-San

    2016-01-01

    Myoblast fusion is important for skeletal muscle formation. Even though the knowledge of myoblast fusion mechanism has accumulated over the years, the initial signal of fusion is yet to be elucidated. Our study reveals the novel function of a phosphatidylserine (PS) receptor, stabilin-2 (Stab2), in the modulation of myoblast fusion, through the recognition of PS exposed on myoblasts. During differentiation of myoblasts, Stab2 expression is higher than other PS receptors and is controlled by calcineurin/NFAT signaling on myoblasts. The forced expression of Stab2 results in an increase in myoblast fusion; genetic ablation of Stab2 in mice causes a reduction in muscle size, as a result of impaired myoblast fusion. After muscle injury, muscle regeneration is impaired in Stab2-deficient mice, resulting in small myofibers with fewer nuclei, which is due to reduction of fusion rather than defection of myoblast differentiation. The fusion-promoting role of Stab2 is dependent on its PS-binding motif, and the blocking of PS-Stab2 binding impairs cell-cell fusion on myoblasts. Given our previous finding that Stab2 recognizes PS exposed on apoptotic cells for sensing as an “eat-me” signal, we propose that PS-Stab2 binding is required for sensing of a “fuse-me” signal as the initial signal of myoblast fusion. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 303-304] PMID:27174501

  19. Targeted detection of phosphatidylserine in biomimetic membranes and in vitro cell systems using annexin V-containing cubosomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hsin-Hui; Lake, Vanessa; Le Brun, Anton P; James, Michael; Duff, Anthony P; Peng, Yong; McLean, Keith M; Hartley, Patrick G

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have formulated Annexin V (ANX) decorated phosphatidylserine containing phytantriol (PSPhy) cubosomes to act as probes for the enhanced detection of apoptotic membranes in both model and in vitro cell systems. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) indicated that ANX-containing PSPhy (ANX-PSPhy) cubosomes retain the Pn3m cubic symmetry and cubic phase nanoparticle characteristics of PSPhy cubosomes. The interaction of ANX-PSPhy cubosomes with apoptotic model and cellular membranes was also investigated using both quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and confocal microscopy which confirmed that ANX-PSPhy cubosomes can selectively bind to apoptotic cells and model membranes. Neutron reflectometry has also been used to show strong binding of ANX-PSPhy cubosomes to a model apoptotic membrane, and in addition reveals changes in both the bilayer structure and in the internal structure of the cubosome in a region adjacent to the membrane as a result of material exchange. This material exchange between cubosome and apoptotic model bilayer was further demonstrated using Cryo-TEM. We have demonstrated that lipid bound protein, in this case Annexin V, can be used to target cubosome systems to biological surfaces in vitro.

  20. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine on erythrocytes from sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, R H; Phillips, G; Medof, M E; Mold, C

    1993-01-01

    Deoxygenation of erythrocytes from sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients alters membrane phospholipid distribution with increased exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet. This study investigated whether altered membrane phospholipid exposure on sickle erythrocytes results in complement activation. In vitro deoxygenation of sickle but not normal erythrocytes resulted in complement activation measured by C3 binding. Additional evidence indicated that this activation was the result of the alterations in membrane phospholipids. First, complement was activated by normal erythrocytes after incubation with sodium tetrathionate, which produces similar phospholipid changes. Second, antibody was not required for complement activation by sickle or tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Third, the membrane regulatory proteins, decay-accelerating factor (CD55) and the C3b/C4b receptor (CD35), were normal on sickle and tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Finally, insertion of PE or PS into normal erythrocytes induced alternative pathway activation. SCA patients in crisis exhibited increased plasma factor Bb levels compared with baseline, and erythrocytes isolated from hospitalized SCA patients had increased levels of bound C3, indicating that alternative pathway activation occurs in vivo. Activation of complement may be a contributing factor in sickle crisis episodes, shortening the life span of erythrocytes and decreasing host defense against infections. Images PMID:7690777

  1. Characterization of phosphatidylserine-dependent beta2-glycoprotein I macrophage interactions. Implications for apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, K; Schroit, A J

    1998-10-30

    The binding and uptake of phosphatidylserine (PS)-expressing cells appears to involve multiple receptor-mediated systems that recognize the lipid either directly or indirectly through intermediate proteins that form a molecular bridge between the cells. Here we show that beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), a 50-kDa serum glycoprotein, binds PS-containing vesicles and serves as an intermediate for the interaction of these vesicles with macrophages. Chemical modification of lysines and cysteines abolished beta2GPI-dependent PS uptake by inhibiting the binding of PS to beta2GPI and the binding of PS.beta2GPI complex to macrophages, respectively. Recognition was mediated by beta2GPI and not by the lipid because antibodies to beta2GPI inhibited binding of the complex to macrophages. These results indicate that human (THP-1-derived) macrophages bind beta2GPI only after it is bound to its lipid ligand. Competition experiments with monosaccharides that inhibit lectin-dependent interactions, and PS.beta2GPI binding experiments using deglycosylated beta2GPI, suggested that carbohydrate residues were not required for macrophage recognition of the complex. Antibodies to putative macrophage PS receptors (CD36, CD68, and CD14) did not inhibit uptake of the complex. These data suggest that beta2GPI can bind cells that fail to maintain membrane lipid asymmetry and generate a specific bridging moiety that is recognized for clearance by a phagocyte receptor that is distinct from CD36, CD68, and CD14.

  2. Targeted detection of phosphatidylserine in biomimetic membranes and in vitro cell systems using annexin V-containing cubosomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hsin-Hui; Lake, Vanessa; Le Brun, Anton P; James, Michael; Duff, Anthony P; Peng, Yong; McLean, Keith M; Hartley, Patrick G

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have formulated Annexin V (ANX) decorated phosphatidylserine containing phytantriol (PSPhy) cubosomes to act as probes for the enhanced detection of apoptotic membranes in both model and in vitro cell systems. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) indicated that ANX-containing PSPhy (ANX-PSPhy) cubosomes retain the Pn3m cubic symmetry and cubic phase nanoparticle characteristics of PSPhy cubosomes. The interaction of ANX-PSPhy cubosomes with apoptotic model and cellular membranes was also investigated using both quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and confocal microscopy which confirmed that ANX-PSPhy cubosomes can selectively bind to apoptotic cells and model membranes. Neutron reflectometry has also been used to show strong binding of ANX-PSPhy cubosomes to a model apoptotic membrane, and in addition reveals changes in both the bilayer structure and in the internal structure of the cubosome in a region adjacent to the membrane as a result of material exchange. This material exchange between cubosome and apoptotic model bilayer was further demonstrated using Cryo-TEM. We have demonstrated that lipid bound protein, in this case Annexin V, can be used to target cubosome systems to biological surfaces in vitro. PMID:23899446

  3. Novel function of stabilin-2 in myoblast fusion: the recognition of extracellular phosphatidylserine as a "fuse-me" signal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Go-Woon; Park, Seung-Yoon; Kim, In-San

    2016-06-01

    Myoblast fusion is important for skeletal muscle formation. Even though the knowledge of myoblast fusion mechanism has accumulated over the years, the initial signal of fusion is yet to be elucidated. Our study reveals the novel function of a phosphatidylserine (PS) receptor, stabilin-2 (Stab2), in the modulation of myoblast fusion, through the recognition of PS exposed on myoblasts. During differentiation of myoblasts, Stab2 expression is higher than other PS receptors and is controlled by calcineurin/NFAT signaling on myoblasts. The forced expression of Stab2 results in an increase in myoblast fusion; genetic ablation of Stab2 in mice causes a reduction in muscle size, as a result of impaired myoblast fusion. After muscle injury, muscle regeneration is impaired in Stab2- deficient mice, resulting in small myofibers with fewer nuclei, which is due to reduction of fusion rather than defection of myoblast differentiation. The fusion-promoting role of Stab2 is dependent on its PS-binding motif, and the blocking of PS-Stab2 binding impairs cell-cell fusion on myoblasts. Given our previous finding that Stab2 recognizes PS exposed on apoptotic cells for sensing as an "eat-me" signal, we propose that PS-Stab2 binding is required for sensing of a "fuse-me" signal as the initial signal of myoblast fusion. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 303-304].

  4. 14-3-3ζ regulates the mitochondrial respiratory reserve linked to platelet phosphatidylserine exposure and procoagulant function

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwaelder, Simone M.; Darbousset, Roxane; Cranmer, Susan L.; Ramshaw, Hayley S.; Orive, Stephanie L.; Sturgeon, Sharelle; Yuan, Yuping; Yao, Yu; Krycer, James R.; Woodcock, Joanna; Maclean, Jessica; Pitson, Stuart; Zheng, Zhaohua; Henstridge, Darren C.; van der Wal, Dianne; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Berndt, Michael C.; Andrews, Robert K.; James, David E.; Lopez, Angel F.; Jackson, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of adaptor proteins regulate diverse cellular functions including cell proliferation, metabolism, adhesion and apoptosis. Platelets express numerous 14-3-3 isoforms, including 14-3-3ζ, which has previously been implicated in regulating GPIbα function. Here we show an important role for 14-3-3ζ in regulating arterial thrombosis. Interestingly, this thrombosis defect is not related to alterations in von Willebrand factor (VWF)–GPIb adhesive function or platelet activation, but instead associated with reduced platelet phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and procoagulant function. Decreased PS exposure in 14-3-3ζ-deficient platelets is associated with more sustained levels of metabolic ATP and increased mitochondrial respiratory reserve, independent of alterations in cytosolic calcium flux. Reduced platelet PS exposure in 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice does not increase bleeding risk, but results in decreased thrombin generation and protection from pulmonary embolism, leading to prolonged survival. Our studies define an important role for 14-3-3ζ in regulating platelet bioenergetics, leading to decreased platelet PS exposure and procoagulant function. PMID:27670677

  5. PI4P/phosphatidylserine countertransport at ORP5- and ORP8-mediated ER–plasma membrane contacts

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jeeyun; Torta, Federico; Masai, Kaori; Lucast, Louise; Czapla, Heather; Tanner, Lukas B.; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transfer between cell membrane bilayers at contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes help to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis. We found that two similar ER integral membrane proteins, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)–related protein 5 (ORP5) and ORP8, tethered the ER to the plasma membrane (PM) via the interaction of their pleckstrin homology domains with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in this membrane. Their OSBP-related domains (ORDs) harbored either PI4P or phosphatidylserine (PS) and exchanged these lipids between bilayers. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that ORP5 and ORP8 could mediate PI4P/PS counter transport between the ER and the PM, thus delivering PI4P to the ER-localized PI4P phosphatase Sac1 for degradation and PS from the ER to the PM. This exchange helps to control plasma membrane PI4P levels and selectively enrich PS in the PM. PMID:26206935

  6. p85α recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C.; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as FcγRIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis. PMID:24477292

  7. p85α recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C., III; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as FcγRIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis.

  8. Phosphatidylserine Converts Immunogenic Recombinant Human Acid Alpha-Glucosidase to a Tolerogenic Form in a Mouse Model of Pompe Disease.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jennifer L; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2016-10-01

    Development of unwanted immune responses against therapeutic proteins is a major clinical complication. Recently, we have shown that exposure of Factor VIII in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) induces antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness to Factor VIII rechallenge, suggesting that PS is not immune suppressive, but rather immune regulatory in that PS converts an immunogen to a tolerogen. Since PS is exposed in the outer leaflet during apoptosis, we hypothesize that PS imparts tolerogenic activity to this natural process. Thus, immunization with PS containing liposomes would mimic this natural process. Here, we investigate the immune regulatory effects of PS in inducing tolerance toward recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA). rhGAA was found to complex with PS liposomes through hydrophobic interactions, and incubation PS-rhGAA with dendritic cells resulted in the increased secretion of transforming growth factor-β. Immunization with PS-rhGAA or O-phospho-L-serine-rhGAA led to a reduction in anti-rhGAA antibody response which persisted despite rechallenge with free rhGAA. Importantly, the titer levels in a majority of these animals remained unchanged after rechallenge and can be considered nonresponders. These data provide evidence that PS liposomes can be used to induce tolerance toward therapeutic proteins, in general. PMID:27488899

  9. Influence of Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Newborn Sex on Global Methylation of Cord Blood DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pilsner, J. Richard; Hall, Megan N.; Liu, Xinhua; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Yunus, Mahammad; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Graziano, Joseph H.; Gamble, Mary V.

    2012-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As) exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. Design Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs), maternal blood As (mbAs) and cord blood As (cbAs). Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. Results In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1) and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58) but negative among female newborns (N = 43); tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively) and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07). Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings

  10. Calorimetric and spectroscopic studies of the thermotropic phase behavior of lipid bilayer model membranes composed of a homologous series of linear saturated phosphatidylserines.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R N; McElhaney, R N

    2000-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior of lipid bilayer model membranes composed of the even-numbered, N-saturated 1,2-diacyl phosphatidylserines was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and by Fourier-transform infrared and (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At pH 7.0, 0.1 M NaCl and in the absence of divalent cations, aqueous dispersions of these lipids, which have not been incubated at low temperature, exhibit a single calorimetrically detectable phase transition that is fully reversible, highly cooperative, and relatively energetic, and the transition temperatures and enthalpies increase progressively with increases in hydrocarbon chain length. Our spectroscopic observations confirm that this thermal event is a lamellar gel (L(beta))-to-lamellar liquid crystalline (L(alpha)) phase transition. However, after low temperature incubation, the L(beta)/L(alpha) phase transition of dilauroyl phosphatidylserine is replaced by a higher temperature, more enthalpic, and less cooperative phase transition, and an additional lower temperature, less enthalpic, and less cooperative phase transition appears in the longer chain phosphatidylserines. Our spectroscopic results indicate that this change in thermotropic phase behavior when incubated at low temperatures results from the conversion of the L(beta) phase to a highly ordered lamellar crystalline (L(c)) phase. Upon heating, the L(c) phase of dilauroyl phosphatidylserine converts directly to the L(alpha) phase at a temperature slightly higher than that of its original L(beta)/L(alpha) phase transition. Calorimetrically, this process is manifested by a less cooperative but considerably more energetic, higher-temperature phase transition, which replaces the weaker L(beta)/L(alpha) phase transition alluded to above. However, with the longer chain compounds, the L(c) phase first converts to the L(beta) phase at temperatures some 10-25 degrees C below that at which the L(beta) phase converts to the L(alpha) phase

  11. Role of the lysine-rich cluster of the C2 domain in the phosphatidylserine-dependent activation of PKCalpha.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alfaro, Jose A; Gomez-Fernandez, Juan C; Corbalan-Garcia, Senena

    2004-01-23

    The C2 domain of PKCalpha is a Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-targeting module involved in the plasma membrane localization of the enzyme. Recent findings have shown an additional area located in the beta3-beta4 strands, named the lysine-rich cluster, which has been demonstrated to be involved in the PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-dependent activation of the enzyme. Nevertheless, whether other anionic phospholipids can bind to this region and contribute to the regulation of the enzyme's function is not clear. To study other possible roles for this cluster, we generated double and triple mutants that substituted the lysine by alanine residues, and studied their binding and activation properties in a Ca(2+)/phosphatidylserine-dependent manner and compared them with the wild-type protein. It was found that some of the mutants exerted a constitutive activation independently of membrane binding. Furthermore, the constructs were fused to green fluorescent protein and were expressed in fibroblast cells. It was shown that none of the mutants was able to translocate to the plasma membrane, even in saturating conditions of Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol, suggesting that the interactions performed by this lysine-rich cluster are a key event in the subcellular localization of PKCalpha. Taken together, the results obtained showed that these lysine residues might be involved in two functions: one to establish an intramolecular interaction that keeps the enzyme in an inactive conformation; and the second, once the enzyme has been partially activated, to establish further interactions with diacylglycerol and/or acidic phospholipids, leading to the full activation of PKCalpha.

  12. Taxol induces concentration-dependent phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and cell cycle arrest in ASTC-a-1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wen-jing; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2010-02-01

    Taxol (Paclitaxel) is an important natural product for the treatment of solid tumors. Different concentrations of taxol can trigger distinct effects on both the cellular microtubule network and biochemical pathways. Apoptosis induced by low concentrations (5-30 nM) of taxol was associated with mitotic arrest, alteration of microtubule dynamics and/or G2/M cell cycle arrest, whereas high concentrations of this drug (0.2-30 μM) caused significant microtubule damage, and was found recently to induce cytoplasm vacuolization in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells. In present study, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, confocal microscope, and flow cytometry analysis were used to analyze the cell death form induced by 35 nM and 70 μM of taxol respectively in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells. After treatment of 35 nM taxol for 48 h, the OD450 value was 0.80, and 35 nM taxol was found to induce dominantly cell death in apoptotic pathway such as phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, G2/M phase arrest after treatment for 24 h, and nuclear fragmentation after treatment for 48 h. After 70 μM taxol treated the cell for 24 h, the OD450 value was 1.01, and 70 μM taxol induced cytoplasm vacuolization programmed cell death (PCD) and G2/M phase as well as the polyploidy phase arrest in paraptotic-like cell death. These findings imply that the regulated signaling pathway of cell death induced by taxol is dependent on taxol concentration in ASTC-a-1 cells.

  13. Calpain-controlled detachment of major glycoproteins from the cytoskeleton regulates adhesive properties of activated phosphatidylserine-positive platelets.

    PubMed

    Artemenko, Elena O; Yakimenko, Alena O; Pichugin, Alexey V; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2016-02-15

    In resting platelets, adhesive membrane glycoproteins are attached to the cytoskeleton. On strong activation, phosphatidylserine(PS)-positive and -negative platelet subpopulations are formed. Platelet activation is accompanied by cytoskeletal rearrangement, although the glycoprotein attachment status in these two subpopulations is not clear. We developed a new, flow cytometry-based, single-cell approach to investigate attachment of membrane glycoproteins to the cytoskeleton in cell subpopulations. In PS-negative platelets, adhesive glycoproteins integrin αIIbβ3, glycoprotein Ib and, as shown for the first time, P-selectin were associated with the cytoskeleton. In contrast, this attachment was disrupted in PS-positive platelets; it was retained to some extent only in the small convex regions or 'caps'. It correlated with the degradation of talin and filamin observed only in PS-positive platelets. Calpain inhibitors essentially prevented the disruption of membrane glycoprotein attachment in PS-positive platelets, as well as talin and filamin degradation. With the suggestion that detachment of glycoproteins from the cytoskeleton may affect platelet adhesive properties, we investigated the ability of PS-positive platelets to resist shear-induced breakaway from the immobilized fibrinogen. Shear rates of 500/s caused PS-positive platelet breakaway, but their adhesion stability increased more than 10-fold after pretreatment of the platelets with calpain inhibitor. In contrast, the ability of PS-positive platelets to adhere to immobilized von Willebrand's factor at 100/s was low, but this was not affected by the preincubation of platelets with a calpain inhibitor. Our data suggest that calpain-controlled detachment of membrane glycoproteins is a new mechanism that is responsible for the loss of ability of the procoagulant platelets to resist detachment from thrombi by high shear stress.

  14. The Role of Putative Phosphatidylserine-Interactive Residues of Tissue Factor on Its Coagulant Activity at the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shabbir A.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Sen, Prosenjit; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is thought to play a critical role in tissue factor (TF) decryption. Recent molecular dynamics simulation studies suggested that the TF ectodomain may directly interact with PS. To investigate the potential role of TF direct interaction with the cell surface phospholipids on basal TF activity and the enhanced TF activity following the decryption, one or all of the putative PS-interactive residues in the TF ectodomain were mutated and tested for their coagulant activity in cell systems. Out of the 9 selected TF mutants, five of them -TFS160A, TFS161A, TFS162A, TFK165A, and TFD180A- exhibited a similar TF coagulant activity to that of the wild-type TF. The specific activity of three mutants, TFK159A, TFS163A, and TFK166A, was reduced substantially. Mutation of the glycine residue at the position 164 markedly abrogated the TF coagulant activity, resulting in ~90% inhibition. Mutation of all nine lipid binding residues together did not further decrease the activity of TF compared to TFG164A. A similar fold increase in TF activity was observed in wild-type TF and all TF mutants following the treatment of THP-1 cells with either calcium ionomycin or HgCl2, two agents that are commonly used to decrypt TF. Overall, our data show that a few select TF residues that are implicated in interacting with PS contribute to the TF coagulant activity at the cell surface. However, our data also indicate that TF regions outside of the putative lipid binding region may also contribute to PS-dependent decryption of TF. PMID:27348126

  15. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine in monolayers deposited on mercury electrodes.

    PubMed Central

    Moncelli, M R; Becucci, L; Guidelli, R

    1994-01-01

    The intrinsic pKa values of the phosphate groups of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and of the phosphate and carboxyl groups of phosphatidylserine (PS) in self-organized monolayers deposited on a hanging mercury drop electrode were determined by a novel procedure based on measurements of the differential capacity C of this lipid-coated electrode. In view of the Gouy-Chapman theory, plots of 1/C at constant bulk pH and variable KCl concentration against the reciprocal of the calculated diffuse-layer capacity Cd,0 at zero charge exhibit slopes that decrease from an almost unit value to vanishingly low values as the absolute value of the charge density on the lipid increases from zero to approximately 2 microC cm-2. The intrinsic pKa values so determined are 0.5 for PE and 0.8 for PC. The plots of 1/C against 1/Cd,0 for pure PS exhibit slopes that pass from zero to a maximum value and then back to zero as pH is varied from 7.5 to 3, indicating that the charge density of the lipid film passes from slight negative to slight positive values over this pH range. An explanation for this anomalous behavior, which is ascribed to the phosphate group of PS, is provided. Interdispersion of PS and PC molecules in the film decreases the "formal" pKa value of the latter group by about three orders of magnitude. PMID:8075331

  16. T Cell/Transmembrane, Ig, and Mucin-3 Allelic Variants Differentially Recognize Phosphatidylserine and Mediate Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Bu, Xia; Ballesteros, Angela; Santiago, César; Chim, Yee-Ling E.; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Karisola, Piia; Pichavant, Muriel; Kaplan, Gerardo G.; Umetsu, Dale T.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Casasnovas, José M.

    2011-01-01

    T cell/transmembrane, Ig, and mucin (TIM) proteins, identified using a congenic mouse model of asthma, critically regulate innate and adaptive immunity. TIM-1 and TIM-4 are receptors for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), exposed on the surfaces of apoptotic cells. Herein, we show with structural and biological studies that TIM-3 is also a receptor for PtdSer that binds in a pocket on the N-terminal IgV domain in coordination with a calcium ion. The TIM-3/PtdSer structure is similar to that of TIM-4/PtdSer, reflecting a conserved PtdSer binding mode by TIM family members. Fibroblastic cells expressing mouse or human TIM-3 bound and phagocytosed apoptotic cells, with the BALB/c allelic variant of mouse TIM-3 showing a higher capacity than the congenic C.D2 Es-Hba–allelic variant. These functional differences were due to structural differences in the BC loop of the IgV domain of the TIM-3 polymorphic variants. In contrast to fibroblastic cells, T or B cells expressing TIM-3 formed conjugates with but failed to engulf apoptotic cells. Together these findings indicate that TIM-3–expressing cells can respond to apoptotic cells, but the consequence of TIM-3 engagement of PtdSer depends on the polymorphic variants of and type of cell expressing TIM-3. These findings establish a new paradigm for TIM proteins as PtdSer receptors and unify the function of the TIM gene family, which has been associated with asthma and autoimmunity and shown to modulate peripheral tolerance. PMID:20083673

  17. Mutational analysis of Raf-1 cysteine rich domain: requirement for a cluster of basic aminoacids for interaction with phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Improta-Brears, T; Ghosh, S; Bell, R M

    1999-08-01

    Activation of Raf-1 kinase is preceded by a translocation of Raf-1 to the plasma membrane in response to external stimuli. The membrane localization of Raf-1 is facilitated through its interaction with activated Ras and with membrane phospholipids. Previous evidence suggests that the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras is mediated by two distinct domains within the N-terminal region of Raf-1 comprising amino acid residues 51-131 and residues 139-184, the latter of which codes for a zinc containing cysteine-rich domain. The cysteine-rich domain of Raf-1 is also reported to associate with other proteins, such as 14-3-3, and for selectively binding acidic phospholipids, particularly phosphatidylserine (PS). In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of progressive deletions and point mutations within the cysteine-rich domain of Raf-1 on its ability to bind PS. A reduced interaction with PS was observed in vitro for all deletion mutants of Raf-1 expressed either as full-length proteins or as fragments containing the isolated cysteine-rich domain. In particular, the cluster of basic amino acids R143, K144, and K148 appeared to be critical for interaction with PS, since substitution of all three residues to alanine resulted in a protein that failed to interact with liposomes enriched for PS. Expression of Raf-1 in vivo, containing point mutations in the cysteine-rich domain resulted in a truncated polypeptide that lacked both the Ras and PS binding sites and could no longer translocate to the plasma membrane upon serum stimulation. These results indicate that the basic residues 143, 144 and 148 in the anterior half of Raf-1 cysteine-rich domain play a role in the association with the lipid bilayer and possibly in protein stability, therefore they might contribute to Raf-1 localization and subsequent activation.

  18. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O'Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Billheimer, Dean; Lu Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-04-15

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

  19. Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Unitary Conductance and Ba2+ Block of the BK Ca2+–activated K+ Channel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Bong; Kim, Hee Jeong; Ryu, Pan Dong; Moczydlowski, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Incorporation of BK Ca2+–activated K+ channels into planar bilayers composed of negatively charged phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS) or phosphatidylinositol (PI) results in a large enhancement of unitary conductance (gch) in comparison to BK channels in bilayers formed from the neutral zwitterionic lipid, phospatidylethanolamine (PE). Enhancement of gch by PS or PI is inversely dependent on KCl concentration, decreasing from 70% at 10 mM KCl to 8% at 1,000 mM KCl. This effect was explained previously by a surface charge hypothesis (Moczydlowski, E., O. Alvarez, C. Vergara, and R. Latorre. 1985. J. Membr. Biol. 83:273–282), which attributed the conductance enhancement to an increase in local K+ concentration near the entryways of the channel. To test this hypothesis, we measured the kinetics of block by external and internal Ba2+, a divalent cation that is expected to respond strongly to changes in surface electrostatics. We observed little or no effect of PS on discrete blocking kinetics by external and internal Ba2+ at 100 mM KCl and only a small enhancement of discrete and fast block by external Ba2+ in PS-containing membranes at 20 mM KCl. Model calculations of effective surface potential sensed by the K+ conduction and Ba2+-blocking reactions using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern theory of lipid surface charge do not lend support to a simple electrostatic mechanism that predicts valence-dependent increase of local cation concentration. The results imply that the conduction pore of the BK channel is electrostatically insulated from the lipid surface, presumably by a lateral distance of separation (>20 Å) from the lipid head groups. The lack of effect of PS on apparent association and dissociation rates of Ba2+ suggest that lipid modulation of K+ conductance is preferentially coupled through conformational changes of the selectivity filter region that determine the high K+ flux rate of this channel relative to other cations. We discuss possible mechanisms

  20. DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F

    2006-01-01

    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of si

  1. Methyl salicylate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Deep heating rubs overdose; Oil of wintergreen overdose ... These products contain methyl salicylate: Deep-heating creams used to relieve sore muscles and joints (Ben Gay, Icy Hot) Oil of wintergreen Solutions for vaporizers Other products may also ...

  2. ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation

    David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National
    Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

  3. Genetic association between intronic variants in AS3MT and arsenic methylation efficiency is focused on a large linkage disequilibrium cluster in chromosome 10.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Klimecki, Walter T

    2010-04-01

    Differences in arsenic metabolism are known to play a role in individual variability in arsenic-induced disease susceptibility. Genetic variants in genes relevant to arsenic metabolism are considered to be partially responsible for the variation in arsenic metabolism. Specifically, variants in arsenic (3+ oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), the key gene in the metabolism of arsenic, have been associated with increased arsenic methylation efficiency. Of particular interest is the fact that different studies have reported that several of the AS3MT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are in strong linkage-disequilibrium (LD), which also extends to a nearby gene, CYP17A1. In an effort to characterize the extent of the region in LD, we genotyped 46 SNPs in a 347,000 base region of chromosome 10 that included AS3MT in arsenic-exposed subjects from Mexico. Pairwise LD analysis showed strong LD for these polymorphisms, represented by a mean r(2) of 0.82, spanning a region that includes five genes. Genetic association analysis with arsenic metabolism confirmed the previously observed association between AS3MT variants, including this large cluster of linked polymorphisms, and arsenic methylation efficiency. The existence of a large genomic region sharing strong LD with polymorphisms associated with arsenic metabolism presents a predicament because the observed phenotype cannot be unequivocally assigned to a single SNP or even a single gene. The results reported here should be carefully considered for future genomic association studies involving AS3MT and arsenic metabolism.

  4. Genetic association between intronic variants in AS3MT and arsenic methylation efficiency is focused on a large linkage disequilibrium cluster in chromosome 10

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in arsenic metabolism are known to play a role in individual variability in arsenic-induced disease susceptibility. Genetic variants in genes relevant to arsenic metabolism are considered to be partially responsible for the variation in arsenic metabolism. Specifically, variants in arsenic (3+ oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), the key gene in the metabolism of arsenic, have been associated with increased arsenic methylation efficiency. Of particular interest is the fact that different studies have reported that several of the AS3MT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are in strong linkage-disequilibrium (LD), which also extends to a nearby gene, CYP17A1. In an effort to characterize the extent of the region in LD, we genotyped 46 SNPs in a 347,000 base region of chromosome 10 that included AS3MT in arsenic-exposed subjects from Mexico. Pairwise LD analysis showed strong LD for these polymorphisms, represented by a mean r2 of 0.82, spanning a region that includes 5 genes. Genetic association analysis with arsenic metabolism confirmed the previously observed association between AS3MT variants, including this large cluster of linked polymorphisms, and arsenic methylation efficiency. The existence of a large genomic region sharing strong LD with polymorphisms associated with arsenic metabolism presents a predicament because the observed phenotype cannot be unequivocally assigned to a single SNP or even a single gene. The results reported here should be carefully considered for future genomic association studies involving AS3MT and arsenic metabolism. PMID:20014157

  5. Removal of spermatozoa with externalized phosphatidylserine from sperm preparation in human assisted medical procreation: effects on viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    de Vantéry Arrighi, Corinne; Lucas, Hervé; Chardonnens, Didier; de Agostini, Ariane

    2009-01-01

    Background Externalization of phosphatidylserine (EPS) occurs in apoptotic-like spermatozoa and could be used to remove them from sperm preparations to enhance sperm quality for assisted medical procreation. We first characterized EPS in sperms from infertile patients in terms of frequency of EPS spermatozoa as well as localization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on spermatozoa. Subsequently, we determined the impact of depleting EPS spermatozoa on sperm quality. Methods EPS were visualized by fluorescently-labeled annexin V binding assay. Double staining with annexin V and Hoechst differentiates apoptotic from necrotic spermatozoa. We used magnetic-activated cell sorting using annexin V-conjugated microbeads (MACS-ANMB) technique to remove EPS spermatozoa from sperm prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC). The impact of this technique on sperm quality was evaluated by measuring progressive motility, viability, and the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by Rhodamine 123. Results Mean percentages of EPS spermatozoa were 14% in DGC sperm. Four subpopulations of spermatozoa were identified: 70% alive, 3% early apoptotic, 16% necrotic and 11% late apoptotic or necrotic. PS were localized on head and/or midpiece or on the whole spermatozoa. MACS efficiently eliminates EPS spermatozoa. MACS combined with DGC allows a mean reduction of 70% in EPS and of 60% in MMP-disrupted spermatozoa with a mean increase of 50% in sperm survival at 24 h. Conclusion Human ejaculates contain EPS spermatozoa which can mostly be eliminated by DGC plus MACS resulting in improved sperm long term viability, motility and MMP integrity. EPS may be used as an indicator of sperm quality and removal of EPS spermatozoa may enhance fertility potential in assisted medical procreation. PMID:19133142

  6. Associations of B- and C-Raf with cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, and lipid second messengers: preferential binding of Raf to artificial lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Hekman, Mirko; Hamm, Heike; Villar, Ana V; Bader, Benjamin; Kuhlmann, Jurgen; Nickel, Joachim; Rapp, Ulf R

    2002-07-01

    The serine/threonine kinase C-Raf is a key mediator in cellular signaling. Translocation of Raf to membranes has been proposed to be facilitated by Ras proteins in their GTP-bound state. In this study we provide evidence that both purified B- and C-Raf kinases possess lipophilic properties and associate with phospholipid membranes. In the presence of phosphatidylserine and lipid second messengers such as phosphatidic acid and ceramides these associations were very specific with affinity constants (K(D)) in the range of 0.5-50 nm. Raf association with liposomes was accompanied by displacement of 14-3-3 proteins and inhibition of Raf kinase activities. Interactions of Raf with cholesterol are of particular interest, since cholesterol has been shown to be involved, together with sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids in the formation of specialized lipid microdomains called rafts. We demonstrate here that purified Raf proteins have moderate binding affinity for cholesterol. However, under conditions of lipid raft formation, Raf association with cholesterol (or rafts) increased dramatically. Since ceramides also support formation of rafts and interact with Raf we propose that Raf may be present at the plasma membrane in two distinct microdomains: in raft regions via association with cholesterol and ceramides and in non-raft regions due to interaction with phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. At either location Raf kinase activity was inhibited by lipid binding in the absence or presence of Ras. Ras-Raf interactions with full-length C-Raf were studied both in solution and in phospholipid environment. Ras association with Raf was GTP dependent as previously demonstrated for C-Raf-RBD fragments. In the presence of liposomes the recruitment of C-Raf by reconstituted Ras-farnesyl was only marginal, since almost 70% of added C-Raf was bound by the lipids alone. Thus Ras-Raf binding in response to activation of Ras-coupled receptors may utilize Raf protein that is

  7. In vitro Methylation Assay to Study Protein Arginine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Bikkavilli, Rama Kamesh; Avasarala, Sreedevi; Van Scoyk, Michelle; Karuppusamy Rathinam, Manoj Kumar; Tauler, Jordi; Borowicz, Stanley; Winn, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications in the nucleus. Protein arginine methylation can be identified and/or determined via proteomic approaches, and/or immunoblotting with methyl-arginine specific antibodies. However, these techniques sometimes can be misleading and often provide false positive results. Most importantly, these techniques cannot provide direct evidence in support of the PRMT substrate specificity. In vitro methylation assays, on the other hand, are useful biochemical assays, which are sensitive, and consistently reveal if the identified proteins are indeed PRMT substrates. A typical in vitro methylation assay includes purified, active PRMTs, purified substrate and a radioisotope labeled methyl donor (S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H] methionine). Here we describe a step-by-step protocol to isolate catalytically active PRMT1, a ubiquitously expressed PRMT family member. The methyl transferase activities of the purified PRMT1 were later tested on Ras-GTPase activating protein binding protein 1 (G3BP1), a known PRMT substrate, in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H] methionine as the methyl donor. This protocol can be employed not only for establishing the methylation status of novel physiological PRMT1 substrates, but also for understanding the basic mechanism of protein arginine methylation. PMID:25350748

  8. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 03 / 002 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ( CAS No . 108 - 10 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordan

  9. Haloxyfop-methyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Haloxyfop - methyl ; CASRN 69806 - 40 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. Thiophanate-methyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thiophanate - methyl ; CASRN 23564 - 05 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  11. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloromethyl methyl ether ( CMME ) ; CASRN 107 - 30 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  12. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  13. Pirimiphos-methyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Pirimiphos - methyl ; CASRN 29232 - 93 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  14. DNA Methylation in Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, Wouter; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease of articular joints and primarily characterized by degradation and calcification of articular cartilage. Presently, no effective treatment other than pain relief exists and patients ultimately need to undergo replacement surgery of the affected joint. During disease progression articular chondrocytes, the single cell type present in articular cartilage, show altered transcriptional profiles and undergo phenotypic changes that resemble the terminal differentiation route apparent in growth plate chondrocytes. Hence, given its prominent function in both regulating gene expression and maintaining cellular phenotypes, DNA methylation of CpG dinucleotides is intensively studied in the context of OA. An increasing number of studies have been published that employed a targeted approach on genes known to play a role in OA pathophysiology. As of such, it has become clear that OA responsive DNA methylation changes seem to mediate disease associated aberrant gene expression. Furthermore, established OA susceptibility alleles such as GDF5 and DIO2 appear to confer OA risk via DNA methylation and respective pathophysiological expression changes. In more recent years, genome wide profiling of DNA methylation in OA affected articular cartilage has emerged as a powerful tool to address the epigenetic changes in their entirety, which has resulted in the identification of putative patient subgroups as well as generic OA associated pathways. PMID:27019616

  15. Kenaf methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additional or alternative feedstocks are one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, for the first time, the fuel properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil methyl esters are comprehensively reported. This biodiesel is also relatively unique by containing small ...

  16. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

  17. DNA Methylation Screening and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sant, Karilyn E.; Nahar, Muna S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic form of gene regulation that is universally important throughout the life course, especially during in utero and postnatal development. DNA methylation aids in cell cycle regulation and cellular differentiation processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation profiles may be altered by diet and the environment, and that these profiles are especially vulnerable during development. Thus, it is important to understand the role of DNA methylation in developmental governance and subsequent disease progression. A variety of molecular methods exist to assay for global, gene-specific, and epigenome-wide methylation. Here we describe these methods and discuss their relative strengths and limitations. PMID:22669678

  18. Direct DNA Methylation Profiling Using Methyl Binding Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yinni; Blair, Steve; Gillespie, David; Jensen, Randy; Myszka, David G.; Badran, Ahmed H.; Ghosh, Indraneel; Chagovetz, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is responsible for gene silencing by establishing heterochromatin structure that represses transcription, and studies have shown that cytosine methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions acts as a precursor to early cancer development. The naturally occurring methyl binding domain (MBD) proteins from mammals are known to bind to the methylated CpG dinucleotide (mCpG), and subsequently recruit other chromatin-modifying proteins to suppress transcription. Conventional methods of detection for methylated DNA involve bisulfite treatment or immunoprecipitation prior to performing an assay. We focus on proof-of-concept studies for a direct microarray-based assay using surface-bound methylated probes. The recombinant protein 1xMBD-GFP recognizes hemi-methylation and symmetric methylation of the CpG sequence of hybridized dsDNA, while displaying greater affinity for the symmetric methylation motif, as evaluated by SPR. From these studies, for symmetric mCpG, the KD for 1xMBD-GFP ranged from 106 nM to 870 nM, depending upon the proximity of the methylation site to the sensor surface. The KD values for non-symmetrical methylation motifs were consistently greater (> 2 µM), but the binding selectivity between symmetric and hemi-methylation motifs ranged from 4 to 30, with reduced selectivity for sites close to the surface or multiple sites in proximity, which we attribute to steric effects. Fitting skew normal probability density functions to our data, we estimate an accuracy of 97.5% for our method in identifying methylated CpG loci, which can be improved through optimization of probe design and surface density. PMID:20507169

  19. Monitoring apoptosis and neuronal degeneration by real-time detection of phosphatidylserine externalization using a polarity-sensitive indicator of viability and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yujin E; Chen, Jeannie; Langen, Ralf; Chan, Jonah R

    2015-01-01

    Applications for noninvasive real-time imaging of apoptosis and neuronal degeneration are hindered by technical limitations in imaging strategies and by existing probes. Monitoring the progression of a cell through apoptosis could provide valuable insight into the temporal events that initiate cell death as well as the potential for rescue of apoptotic cells. We engineered an annexin-based biosensor to function as a polarity-sensitive indicator for viability and apoptosis (known as psIVa) by binding to externalized phosphatidylserine (ps) exposed on apoptotic cell membranes. constructed from a structure-based design strategy, psIVa fluoresces only when bound to ps and remains effectively undetectable in solution. In this paper, we describe protocols for the design, expression, purification and labeling of psIVa as well as for its application in time-lapse imaging of degenerating neurons in culture; the entire protocol can be completed in 2 weeks. the primary advantage of this method is the flexibility to use psIVa, in combination with other probes and without perturbing experimental conditions, to explore the cellular mechanisms involved in apoptosis and degeneration in real time. PMID:20671723

  20. Mechanism of Action of Thymosinα1: Does It Interact with Membrane by Recognition of Exposed Phosphatidylserine on Cell Surface? A Structural Approach.

    PubMed

    Nepravishta, R; Mandaliti, W; Vallebona, P S; Pica, F; Garaci, E; Paci, M

    2016-01-01

    Thymosinα1 is a peptidic hormone with pleiotropic activity, which is used in the therapy of several diseases. It is unstructured in water solution and interacts with negative regions of micelles and vesicles assuming two tracts of helical conformation with a structural flexible break in between. The studies of the interaction of Thymosinα1 with micelles of mixed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and sodium dodecylsulfate and vesicles with mixed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine, the latter the negative component of the membranes, by (1)H and natural abundance (15)N NMR are herewith reported, reviewed, and discussed. The results indicate that the preferred interactions are those where the surface is negatively charged due to sodium dodecylsulfate or due to the presence of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine exposed on the surface. In fact the unbalance of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine on the cellular surface is an important phenomenon present in pathological conditions of cells. Moreover, the direct interaction of Thymosinα1 with K562 cells presenting an overexposure of phosphatidylserine as a consequence of resveratrol-induced apoptosis was carried out. PMID:27450732

  1. Binding of Alphaherpesvirus Glycoprotein H to Surface α4β1-Integrins Activates Calcium-Signaling Pathways and Induces Phosphatidylserine Exposure on the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gramatica, Andrea; Herrmann, Andreas; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular signaling connected to integrin activation is known to induce cytoplasmic Ca2+ release, which in turn mediates a number of downstream signals. The cellular entry pathways of two closely related alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), are differentially regulated with respect to the requirement of interaction of glycoprotein H (gH) with α4β1-integrins. We show here that binding of EHV-1, but not EHV-4, to target cells resulted in a rapid and significant increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels. EHV-1 expressing EHV-4 gH (gH4) in lieu of authentic gH1 failed to induce Ca2+ release, while EHV-4 with gH1 triggered significant Ca2+ release. Blocking the interaction between gH1 and α4β1-integrins, inhibiting phospholipase C (PLC) activation, or blocking binding of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) to its receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) abrogated Ca2+ release. Interestingly, phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the plasma membrane in response to cytosolic calcium increase after EHV-1 binding through a scramblase-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of both Ca2+ release from the ER and scramblase activation blocked PS scrambling and redirected virus entry to the endocytic pathway, indicating that PS may play a role in facilitating virus entry directly at the plasma membrane. PMID:26489864

  2. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  3. DNA methylation and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, A V; Kisseljova, N P

    2001-03-01

    In the world of easy things truth is opposed to lie; in the world of complicated things one profound truth is opposed to another not less profound than the first. Neils Bohr The hypothesis of the exclusively genetic origin of cancer ("cancer is a disease of genes, a tumor without any damage to the genome does not exist") dominated in the oncology until recently. A considerable amount of data confirming this hypothesis was accumulated during the last quarter of the last century. It was demonstrated that the accumulation of damage of specific genes lies at the origin of a tumor and its following progression. The damage gives rise to structural changes in the respective proteins and, consequently, to inappropriate mitogenic stimulation of cells (activation of oncogenes) or to the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes that inhibit cell division, or to the combination of both (in most cases). According to an alternative (epigenetic) hypothesis that was extremely unpopular until recently, a tumor is caused not by a gene damage, but by an inappropriate function of genes ("cancer is a disease of gene regulation and differentiation"). However, recent studies led to the convergence of these hypotheses that initially seemed to be contradictory. It was established that both factors--genetic and epigenetic--lie at the origin of carcinogenesis. The relative contribution of each varies significantly in different human tumors. Suppressor genes and genes of repair are inactivated in tumors due to their damage or methylation of their promoters (in the latter case an "epimutation", an epigenetic equivalent of a mutation, occurs, producing the same functional consequences). It is becoming evident that not only the mutagens, but various factors influencing cell metabolism, notably methylation, should be considered as carcinogens.

  4. Methyl Halide Production by Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, G. D.; Varner, R. K.; Blanchard, R. O.; Sive, B. C.; Crill, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl iodide (CH3I) are methyl halide gases that contribute significant amounts of halogen radicals to the atmosphere. In an effort to better understand the global budget of methyl halides and their impact on the atmosphere, we need to identify the natural sources in addition to the known anthropogenic sources of these compounds. We are investigating the role of fungi in the production of methyl halides in the soils and wetlands in southern New Hampshire, USA. Previous research has shown that wood decay fungi and ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are within a group of fungi called basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. In our study, measurements of headspace gas extracted from flasks containing fungi grown in culture demonstrate that a variety of fungi, including basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. Our research sites include four ecosystems: an agricultural field, a temperate forest, a fresh water wetland, and coastal salt marshes. We have collected and isolated fungi at each site by culturing tissue samples of fruiting bodies and plant material, by using wood baits, and from the direct culture of soil. We compared the rates of methyl halide emissions from the fungi in the four ecosystems. In addition, we measured emissions from previously assayed fungal isolates after reintroducing them to sterilized soils that were collected from their original environments. Fungal biomass was determined by substrate-induced respiration (SIR). The emission rate by the fungus was determined by a linear regression of the concentration of methyl halide in the sample headspace over time divided by the fungal biomass.

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to prothrombin in solid phase (aPT) and to phosphatidylserine-prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) in patients with and without lupus anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Sciascia, Savino; Murru, Veronica; Garcia-Fernandez, Cesar; Sanna, Giovanni; Khamashta, Munther A

    2013-02-01

    Antibodies to prothrombin in solid phase (aPT) and those to phosphatidiyserine-prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) have been suggested to strongly correlate with the presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA). As their clinical diagnostic value and true relationship with the LA remains elusive, we designed this study to evaluate the prevalence and significance of aPT and aPS/PT in a large cohort of patients with and without LA. Samples from 257 patients were included. aPT and aPS/PT were tested by ELISA. LA was tested as per the current criteria from the ISTH Subcommittee on LA-Phospholipid-dependent antibodies. aPS/PT and aPT were found in 51% and 32% of LA-positive (LA+ve) patients and in 22% and 28% of LA-negative (LA-ve) patients, respectively. Thrombosis, particularly venous thrombosis was associated with IgG aPT in the LA+ve group (p=0.0006) and in the LA-ve group (p=0.017). Antibodies to phosphatidylserine-prothrombin, either IgG and IgM were associated with thrombosis in general (p=0.0003) in particularly with venous thrombosis in the LA+ve group (p<0.0001 for IgG and p=0.025 for IgM; respectively) and the LA-ve group (p=0.028, 0.02 and 0.001, respectively). Further multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that LA and of IgG and/or IgM aPS/PT were independent risk factors for thrombosis and pregnancy loss. In conclusion, aPS/PT, but not aPT, are more frequently found in patients with LA. Their association with thrombosis seems to be independent of the presence of LA. PMID:23254928

  6. Differences in intracellular calcium dynamics cause differences in α-granule secretion and phosphatidylserine expression in platelets adhering on glass and TiO2.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Swati; Donati, Alessia; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the activation of purified human platelets due to their adhesion on glass and TiO2 in the absence of extracellular calcium was investigated. Differences in α-granule secretion between platelets adhering on the two surfaces were detected by examining the expression and secretion of the α-granule markers P-selectin (CD62P) and β-thromboglobulin. Similarly, differences in the expression of phosphatidylserine (PS), and in the activation of the major integrin GPIIb/IIIa, on the surfaces of the adhering platelets, were also observed. While all of these activation markers were expressed in platelets adhering on glass, the surface markers were not expressed in platelets adhering on TiO2, and β-thromboglobulin secretion levels were substantially reduced. Differences in marker expression and secretion correlated with differences in the intracellular calcium dynamics. Calcium ionophore treatment triggered α-granule secretion and PS expression in TiO2-adhering platelets but had no effect on the activation of GPIIb/IIIa. These results demonstrate specificity in the way surfaces of artificial materials activate platelets, link differences in the intracellular calcium dynamics observed in the platelets adhering on the two surfaces to the differences in some of the platelet responses (α-granule secretion and PS expression), but also highlight the involvement of synergistic, calcium-independent pathways in platelet activation. The ability to control activation in surface-adhering platelets makes this an attractive model system for studying platelet signaling pathways and for tissue engineering applications. PMID:27124595

  7. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Zanotta, Danilo; Puricelli, Silvana; Bonoldi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin) plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104) were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation). They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001). Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. PMID:24523587

  8. Tumor-specific targeting by Bavituximab, a phosphatidylserine-targeting monoclonal antibody with vascular targeting and immune modulating properties, in lung cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Gerber, David E; Hao, Guiyang; Watkins, Linda; Stafford, Jason H; Anderson, Jon; Holbein, Blair; Öz, Orhan K; Mathews, Dana; Thorpe, Philip E; Hassan, Gedaa; Kumar, Amit; Brekken, Rolf A; Sun, Xiankai

    2015-01-01

    Bavituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody with immune modulating and tumor-associated vascular disrupting properties demonstrated in models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The molecular target of Bavituximab, phosphatidylserine (PS), is exposed on the outer leaflet of the membrane bi-layer of malignant vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells to a greater extent than on normal tissues. We evaluated the tumor-targeting properties of Bavituximab for imaging of NSCLC xenografts when radiolabeled with (111)In through conjugation with a bifunctional chelating agent, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). In vitro binding of (111)In-DOTA-Bavituximab to PS was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Biodistribution of (111)In-DOTA-Bavituximab was conducted in normal rats, which provided data for dosimetry calculation. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging was performed in athymic nude rats bearing A549 NSCLC xenografts. At the molar conjugation ratio of 0.54 DOTA per Bavituximab, the PS binding affinity of (111)In-DOTA-Bavituximab was comparable to that of unmodified Bavituximab. Based on the quantitative SPECT/CT imaging data analysis, (111)In-DOTA-Bavituximab demonstrated tumor-specific uptake as measured by the tumor-tomuscle ratio, which peaked at 5.2 at 72 hr post-injection. In contrast, the control antibody only presented a contrast of 1.2 at the same time point.These findings may underlie the diagnostic efficacy and relative low rates of systemic vascular and immune-related toxicities of this immunoconjugate. Future applications of (111)In-DOTA-bavituximab may include prediction of efficacy, indication of tumor immunologic status, or characterization of radiographic findings. PMID:26550540

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to prothrombin in solid phase (aPT) and to phosphatidylserine-prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) in patients with and without lupus anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Sciascia, Savino; Murru, Veronica; Garcia-Fernandez, Cesar; Sanna, Giovanni; Khamashta, Munther A

    2013-02-01

    Antibodies to prothrombin in solid phase (aPT) and those to phosphatidiyserine-prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) have been suggested to strongly correlate with the presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA). As their clinical diagnostic value and true relationship with the LA remains elusive, we designed this study to evaluate the prevalence and significance of aPT and aPS/PT in a large cohort of patients with and without LA. Samples from 257 patients were included. aPT and aPS/PT were tested by ELISA. LA was tested as per the current criteria from the ISTH Subcommittee on LA-Phospholipid-dependent antibodies. aPS/PT and aPT were found in 51% and 32% of LA-positive (LA+ve) patients and in 22% and 28% of LA-negative (LA-ve) patients, respectively. Thrombosis, particularly venous thrombosis was associated with IgG aPT in the LA+ve group (p=0.0006) and in the LA-ve group (p=0.017). Antibodies to phosphatidylserine-prothrombin, either IgG and IgM were associated with thrombosis in general (p=0.0003) in particularly with venous thrombosis in the LA+ve group (p<0.0001 for IgG and p=0.025 for IgM; respectively) and the LA-ve group (p=0.028, 0.02 and 0.001, respectively). Further multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that LA and of IgG and/or IgM aPS/PT were independent risk factors for thrombosis and pregnancy loss. In conclusion, aPS/PT, but not aPT, are more frequently found in patients with LA. Their association with thrombosis seems to be independent of the presence of LA.

  10. Anti-prothrombin (aPT) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies and the risk of thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Savino; Sanna, Giovanni; Murru, Veronica; Roccatello, Dario; Khamashta, Munther A; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura

    2014-02-01

    Antibodies to prothrombin are detected by directly coating prothrombin on irradiated ELISA plates (aPT) or by using the phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex as antigen (aPS/PT). Although these antibodies have both been associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and a correlation between the two assays have been reported, it seems that aPT and aPS/PT belong to different populations of autoantibodies. It was our objective to systematically review the available evidence on aPT and aPS/PT antibodies and the risk of thrombosis in APS. Medline-reports published between 1988 and 2013 investigating aPT and aPS/PT as a risk factor for thrombosis were included. Whenever possible, antibody isotype(s) and site of thrombosis were analysed. This systematic review is based on available data from more than 7,000 patients and controls from 38 studies analysing aPT and 10 aPS/PT. Antibodies to prothrombin (both aPT and aPS/PT) increased the risk of thrombosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-3.5). aPS/PT seemed to represent a stronger risk factor for thrombosis, both arterial and/or venous than aPT (OR 5.11; 95%CI 4.2-6.3 and OR 1.82; 95%CI 1.44-2.75, respectively). In conclusion, routine measurement of aPS/PT (but not aPT) might be useful in establishing the thrombotic risk of patients with previous thrombosis and/or systemic lupus erythematosus. Their inclusion as laboratory criteria for the APS should be indisputably further explored.

  11. Kinetic analysis of mineral formation during in vitro modeling of matrix vesicle mineralization: effect of annexin A5, phosphatidylserine, and type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Genge, Brian R; Wu, Licia N Y; Wuthier, Roy E

    2007-08-15

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) are involved in de novo mineral formation by nearly all vertebrate tissues. The driving force for MV mineralization is a nucleational core composed of three principal constituents: (i) amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), complexed in part with phosphatidylserine (PS) to form (ii) calcium-phosphate-lipid complexes (CPLX), and (iii) annexin A5 (AnxA5), the principal lipid-dependent Ca(2+)-binding protein in MVs. We describe methods for reconstituting the nucleational core using a biomimetic approach and for analyzing the kinetics of its induction of mineral formation. The method is based on light scattering by the nascent crystallites at 340 nm and monitors mineral formation at regular intervals without disturbing the system using an automated plate reader. It yields precise replicate values that typically agree within less than 5%. As with MVs, mineral formation by the synthetic complex follows a sigmoidal pattern; following a quiescent induction period, rapid formation ensues for a limited time, followed by a distinct decline in rate that continues to slow, ultimately reaching a maximal asymptotic value. Key to quantization of mineral formation is the use of first-derivative analysis, which defines the induction time, the rate and the amount of initial mineral formation. Furthermore, using a five-parameter logistic curve-fitting algorithm, the maximal amount of mineral formation can be predicted accurately. Using these methods, we document the dramatic finding that AnxA5 synergistically activates PS-CPLX, transforming it from a very weak nucleator of mineral formation to a potent one. The methods presented should enable systematic study of the effects of numerous other factors thought to contribute to mineral formation.

  12. Surface Phosphatidylserine Is Responsible for the Internalization on Microvesicles Derived from Hypoxia-Induced Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaozhong; Wang, Lisheng; Xiao, Fengjun; Zhang, Hongchao

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous data have proven that microvesicles derived from hypoxia-induced mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-MVs) can be internalized into endothelial cells, enhancing their proliferation and vessel structure formation and promoting in vivo angiogenesis. However, there is a paucity of information about how the MSC-MVs are up-taken by endothelial cells. Methods MVs were prepared from the supernatants of human bone marrow MSCs that had been exposed to a hypoxic and/or serum-deprivation condition. The incorporation of hypoxia-induced MSC-MVs into human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVECs) was observed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in the presence or absence of recombinant human Annexin-V (Anx-V) and antibodies against human CD29 and CD44. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted at Anx-V and PSR was delivered into HUVECs, or HUVECs were treated with a monoclonal antibody against phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) and the cellular internalization of MVs was re-assessed. Results The addition of exogenous Anx-V could inhibit the uptake of MVs isolated from hypoxia-induced stem cells by HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the anti-CD29 and CD44 antibodies had no effect on the internalization process. The suppression was neither observed in Anx-V siRNA-transfected HUVECs, however, addition of anti-PSR antibody and PSR siRNA-transfected HUVECs greatly blocked the incorporation of MVs isolated from hypoxia-induced stem cells into HUVECs. Conclusion PS on the MVs isolated from hypoxia-induced stem cells is the critical molecule in the uptake by HUVECs. PMID:26808539

  13. Photodissociation of methyl chloride and methyl bromide in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) have been suggested to be significant sources of the stratospheric halogens. The breakup of these compounds in the stratosphere by photodissociation or reaction with OH releases halogen atoms which catalytically destroy ozone. Experimental results are presented for ultraviolet photoabsorption cross sections of CH3Cl and CH3Br. Calculations are presented of loss rates for the methyl halides due to photodissociation and reaction with OH and of mixing ratios of these species in the stratosphere.

  14. DNA methylation pathways and their crosstalk with histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiamu; Johnson, Lianna M.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of DNA and of histone 3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) are highly correlated with gene silencing in eukaryotes from fungi to humans. Both of these epigenetic marks need to be established at specific regions of the genome and then maintained at these sites through cell division. Protein structural domains that specifically recognize methylated DNA and methylated histones are key for targeting enzymes that catalyse these marks to appropriate genome sites. Genetic, genomic, structural and biochemical data reveal connections between these two epigenetic marks, and these domains mediate much of the crosstalk. PMID:26296162

  15. Aberrant DNA Methylation in Keratoacanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a self-limiting epidermal tumor for which histopathological examination sometimes suggests malignancy. Based on inconsistent clinical views, KA can be regarded as both a benign tumor and a variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Aberrant DNA methylation frequently occurs in malignant tumors but it scarcely occurs in benign tumors. Whether aberrant methylation occurs in KA has not been previously examined. Objective The aim is to elucidate whether aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) containing a high density of cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites occurs in KA. Methods Five SCC cell lines, two cultured samples of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), 18 clinical SCC samples, and 21 clinical KA samples were analyzed with Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips, quantitative real-time methylation-specific PCR (RT-MSP) and/or bisulfite sequencing. Results Genome-wide analyses of NHEK, KA, and SCC indicated that there was a greater number of aberrantly hypermethylated CGIs in SCC than in KA and there were aberrantly hypermethylated CGIs which are common in both. Among the common hypermethylated CGIs, RT-MSP and bisulfite sequencing targeting CGIs located on CCDC17, PVR, and MAP3K11 gene bodies also showed that methylation levels were significantly higher in KA than in normal epidermis. Statistical analyses suggested that the methylation level of CGI located on PVR in SCC might be correlated to lymph node metastasis (P = 0.013, Mann-Whitney U test) and that the methylation level of CGI in MAP3K11 in KA might be correlated to age (P = 0.031, linear regression analysis). Conclusion Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in KA. PMID:27788211

  16. [DNA methylation in thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Xianyun; Shang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yutuo

    2015-03-01

    Cancer has become clear that not merely gene variations but also epigenetic modifications may contribute to it. Epigenetic changes refer to stable alterations in gene expression with unrelated to changes in the underlying genetic sequence,resulting in heritable. DNA methylation is one of the common epigenetic changes. It control the gene expression through changing DNA conformation and stability, chromatin structer, DNA-protein interaction. The reversal of dysregulated DNA methylation has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The artical will provide an overview of how DNA methylation contribute to thyroid carcinoma dissemination,invasion and metastasis and we will summarize the latest epigenetic therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

  17. DNA methylation in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Freudenheim, Jo L

    2010-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological cancer, and it has been shown to be a complex disease driven by abnormal genetic and epigenetic alterations, as well as environmental factors. Epigenetic changes resulting in aberrant gene expression are dynamic and modifiable features of many cancer types. A significant epigenetic change is aberrant DNA methylation. In this review, we review evidence on the role of aberrant DNA methylation, examining changes in relation to endometrial carcinogenesis, and report on recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of aberrant DNA methylation to endometrial cancer with the emphasis on the role of dietary/lifestyle and environmental factors, as well as opportunities and challenges of DNA methylation in endometrial cancer management and prevention. PMID:20543579

  18. Catalase plays an important role in a genotoxic pathway of methylated arsenicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a common contaminant of drinking water in many parts of the world. Consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking water has been implicated in both cancerous and non-cancerous health conditions. However, the pathways that lead to arsenic-induced health conditions have no...

  19. Specificity of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Towards Oxidized Phosphatidylserines: LC-ESI-MS Characterization of Products and Computer Modeling of Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Macphee, Colin H.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ independent lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a member of the phospholipase A2 superfamily with a distinguishing characteristic of high specificity for oxidatively modified sn-2 fatty acid residues in phospholipids which has been especially well characterized for peroxidized species of phosphatidylcholines (PC). The ability of Lp-PLA2 to hydrolyze peroxidized species of phosphatidylserine (PS) – acting as a recognition signal for clearance of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes - as well as the products of the reaction have not been investigated. We performed LC-MS-ESI-based structural characterization of oxygenated/hydrolyzed molecular species of PS - containing linoleic acid in either sn-2 position (C18:0/C18:2) or in both sn-1 and sn-2 positions (C18:2/C18:2) - formed in cytochrome c/ H2O2 driven enzymatic oxidation reaction. Cytochrome c has been chosen as a catalyst of peroxidation reactions due to its likely involvement in PS oxidation in apoptotic cells. We found that Lp-PLA2 catalyzed the hydrolysis of both non-truncated and truncated (oxidatively fragmented) species of oxidized PS species albeit with different efficiencies and performed detailed characterization of the major reaction products – oxygenated derivatives of linoleic acid as well as non-oxygenated and oxygenated species of lyso-PS. Among linoleic acid products, derivatives oxygenated at the C9 position, including 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) – a potent ligand of G protein-coupled receptor G2A - were the most abundant. Computer modeling of interactions of Lp-PLA2 with different PS oxidized species indicated that they are able to bind in proximity (<5Å) to Ser273 and His351 of the catalytic triad. For 9-hydroxy- and 9-hydroperoxy- derivatives of oxidized PS, the sn-2 ester bond was positioned within the very close proximity (<3Å) from the Ser273 residue - a nucleophile directly attacking the sn-2 bond – thus favoring the hydrolysis reaction. We

  20. Genome-wide methylation study on depression: differential methylation and variable methylation in monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Córdova-Palomera, A; Fatjó-Vilas, M; Gastó, C; Navarro, V; Krebs, M-O; Fañanás, L

    2015-01-01

    Depressive disorders have been shown to be highly influenced by environmental pathogenic factors, some of which are believed to exert stress on human brain functioning via epigenetic modifications. Previous genome-wide methylomic studies on depression have suggested that, along with differential DNA methylation, affected co-twins of monozygotic (MZ) pairs have increased DNA methylation variability, probably in line with theories of epigenetic stochasticity. Nevertheless, the potential biological roots of this variability remain largely unexplored. The current study aimed to evaluate whether DNA methylation differences within MZ twin pairs were related to differences in their psychopathological status. Data from the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip was used to evaluate peripheral blood DNA methylation of 34 twins (17 MZ pairs). Two analytical strategies were used to identify (a) differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and (b) variably methylated probes (VMPs). Most DMPs were located in genes previously related to neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Remarkably, one of these DMPs (cg01122889) was located in the WDR26 gene, the DNA sequence of which has been implicated in major depressive disorder from genome-wide association studies. Expression of WDR26 has also been proposed as a biomarker of depression in human blood. Complementarily, VMPs were located in genes such as CACNA1C, IGF2 and the p38 MAP kinase MAPK11, showing enrichment for biological processes such as glucocorticoid signaling. These results expand on previous research to indicate that both differential methylation and differential variability have a role in the etiology and clinical manifestation of depression, and provide clues on specific genomic loci of potential interest in the epigenetics of depression. PMID:25918994

  1. PCMdb: Pancreatic Cancer Methylation Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, Gandharva; Sharma, Minakshi; Kumar, Shailesh; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gupta, Sudheer; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most aggressive malignancy and urgently requires new biomarkers to facilitate early detection. For providing impetus to the biomarker discovery, we have developed Pancreatic Cancer Methylation Database (PCMDB, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/pcmdb/), a comprehensive resource dedicated to methylation of genes in pancreatic cancer. Data was collected and compiled manually from published literature. PCMdb has 65907 entries for methylation status of 4342 unique genes. In PCMdb, data was compiled for both cancer cell lines (53565 entries for 88 cell lines) and cancer tissues (12342 entries for 3078 tissue samples). Among these entries, 47.22% entries reported a high level of methylation for the corresponding genes while 10.87% entries reported low level of methylation. PCMdb covers five major subtypes of pancreatic cancer; however, most of the entries were compiled for adenocarcinomas (88.38%) and mucinous neoplasms (5.76%). A user-friendly interface has been developed for data browsing, searching and analysis. We anticipate that PCMdb will be helpful for pancreatic cancer biomarker discovery.

  2. Methyl chloroform and the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankara, A.R.; Albritton, D.L.

    1995-07-14

    The atmospheric abundance of methyl chloroform, CH{sub 3}CCl{sub 3}, a compound of only anthropogenic origin, is actually decreasing because of emission reductions in compliance with the United Nations Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments. This observation, reported by Prinn and co-workers elsewhere in this issue, is based on data from surface-level monitoring stations. The observed trends in methyl chloroform abundance have a few straightforward scientific consequences and substantial policy relevance as discussed in this article. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Isopropyl methyl phosphonic acid (IMPA)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isopropyl methyl phosphonic acid ( IMPA ) ; CASRN 1832 - 54 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  4. p-Chlorophenyl methyl sulfone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Chlorophenyl methyl sulfone ; CASRN 98 - 57 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  5. p-Chlorophenyl methyl sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Chlorophenyl methyl sulfide ; CASRN 123 - 09 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for N

  6. p-Chlorophenyl methyl sulfoxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Chlorophenyl methyl sulfoxide ; CASRN 934 - 73 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  7. Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells....

  8. Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl-ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells...

  9. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L. Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  10. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. L.; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  11. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  16. Quantitative DNA Methylation Profiling in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ammerpohl, Ole; Haake, Andrea; Kolarova, Julia; Siebert, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are fundamental for the regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic alterations can lead to the development and the evolution of malignant tumors as well as the emergence of phenotypically different cancer cells or metastasis from one single tumor cell. Here we describe bisulfite pyrosequencing, a technology to perform quantitative DNA methylation analyses, to detect aberrant DNA methylation in malignant tumors.

  17. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R. )

    1990-07-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile ({sup 3}H)methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the ({sup 3}H)methyl group.

  18. ELUCIDATING THE PATHWAY FOR ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymatically-catalyzed methylation of arsenic is part of a metabolic pathway that converts inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Hence, in humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic, methyl and dimethyl arsenic account for most of the arsenic that is excreted in the ...

  19. Raf-1 kinase possesses distinct binding domains for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid regulates the translocation of Raf-1 in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Strum, J C; Sciorra, V A; Daniel, L; Bell, R M

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the cysteine-rich amino-terminal domain of Raf-1 kinase interacts selectively with phosphatidylserine (Ghosh, S., Xie, W. Q., Quest, A. F. G., Mabrouk, G. M., Strum, J. C., and Bell, R. M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10000-10007). Further analysis showed that full-length Raf-1 bound to both phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid (PA). Specifically, a carboxyl-terminal domain of Raf-1 kinase (RafC; residues 295 648 of human Raf-1) interacted strongly with phosphatidic acid. The binding of RafC to PA displayed positive cooperativity with Hill numbers between 3.3 and 6.2; the apparent Kd ranged from 4.9 +/- 0.6 to 7.8 +/- 0.9 mol % PA. The interaction of RafC with PA displayed a pH dependence distinct from the interaction between the cysteine-rich domain of Raf-1 and PA. Also, the RafC-PA interaction was unaffected at high ionic strength. Of all the lipids tested, only PA and cardiolipin exhibited high affinity binding; other acidic lipids were either ineffective or weakly effective. By deletion mutagenesis, the PA binding site within RafC was narrowed down to a 35-amino acid segment between residues 389 and 423. RafC did not bind phosphatidyl alcohols; also, inhibition of PA formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by treatment with 1% ethanol significantly reduced the translocation of Raf-1 from the cytosol to the membrane following stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. These results suggest a potential role of the lipid second messenger, PA, in the regulation of translocation and subsequent activation of Raf-1 in vivo.

  20. Dietary administration of sodium arsenite to rats: Relations between dose and urinary concentrations of methylated and thio-metabolites and effects on the rat urinary bladder epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shugo; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Chen, Baowei; Naranmandura, Hua; Le, X. Chris; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-04-15

    Based on epidemiological data, chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is carcinogenic to humans, inducing skin, urinary bladder and lung tumors. In vivo, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to organic methylated arsenicals including the highly toxic dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}). Short-term treatment of rats with 100 mug/g trivalent arsenic (As{sup III}) as sodium arsenite in the diet or in drinking water induced cytotoxicity and necrosis of the urothelial superficial layer, with increased cell proliferation and hyperplasia. The objectives of this study were to determine if these arsenic-induced urothelial effects are dose responsive, the dose of arsenic at which urothelial effects are not detected, and the urinary concentrations of the arsenical metabolites. We treated female F344 rats for 5 weeks with sodium arsenite at dietary doses of 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. Cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and hyperplasia of urothelial superficial cells were increased in a dose-responsive manner, with maximum effects found at 50 ppm As{sup III}. There were no effects at 1 ppm As{sup III}. The main urinary arsenical in As{sup III}-treated rats was the organic arsenical dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}). The thio-metabolites dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA{sup V}) and monomethylmonothioarsinic acid (MMMTA{sup V}) were also found in the urine of As{sup III}-treated rats. The LC{sub 50} concentrations of DMMTA{sup V} for rat and human urothelial cells in vitro were similar to trivalent oxygen-containing arsenicals. These data suggest that dietary As{sup III}-induced urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation are dose responsive, and the urothelial effects have a threshold corresponding to the urinary excretion of measurable reactive metabolites.

  1. Regulation of DNA methylation of Rasgrf1

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Bong June; Herman, Herry; Sikora, Aimee; Smith, Laura T.; Plass, Christoph; Soloway, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, DNA is methylated at cytosines within CpG dinucleotides. Properly regulated methylation is crucial for normal development1,2. Inappropriate methylation may contribute to tumorigenesis by silencing tumor-suppressor genes3-10 or by activating growth-stimulating genes11-13. Although many genes have been identified that acquire methylation and whose expression is methylation-sensitive14,15, little is known about how DNA methylation is controlled16. We have identified a DNA sequence that regulates establishment of DNA methylation in the male germ line at Rasgrf1. In mice, the imprinted Rasgrf1 locus is methylated on the paternal allele within a differentially methylated domain (DMD) 30 kbp 5′ of the promoter. Expression is exclusively from the paternal allele in neonatal brain17. Methylation is regulated by a repeated sequence, consisting of a 41-mer repeated 40 times, found immediately 3′ of the DMD. This sequence is present in organisms in which Rasgrf1 is imprinted18. In addition, DMD methylation is required for imprinted Rasgrf1 expression. Together the DMD and repeat element constitute a binary switch that regulates imprinting at the locus. PMID:11753386

  2. Increased DNA methylation in the suicide brain.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Xin, Yurong; Chanrion, Benjamin; O'Donnell, Anne H; Ge, Yongchao; Dwork, Andrew J; Arango, Victoria; Mann, J John

    2014-09-01

    Clinical studies find that childhood adversity and stressful life events in adulthood increase the risk for major depression and for suicide. The predispositions to either major depression or suicide are thought to depend on genetic risk factors or epigenetic effects. We investigated DNA methylation signatures postmortem in brains of suicides with diagnosis of major depressive disorder. DNA methylation levels were determined at single C-phosphate-G (CpG) resolution sites within ventral prefrontal cortex of 53 suicides and nonpsychiatric controls, aged 16 to 89 years. We found that DNA methylation increases throughout the lifespan. Suicides showed an 8-fold greater number of methylated CpG sites relative to controls (P < 2.2 x 10(-16)), with greater DNA methylation changes over and above the increased methylation observed in normal aging. This increased DNA methylation may be a significant contributor to the neuropathology and psychopathology underlying the risk of suicide in depression.

  3. Microbial mercury methylation in Antarctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, Caitlin M; Tate, Michael T; Wick, Ryan R; Schultz, Mark B; Zemla, Adam; Thelen, Michael P; Schofield, Robyn; Krabbenhoft, David P; Holt, Kathryn E; Moreau, John W

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury onto sea ice and circumpolar sea water provides mercury for microbial methylation, and contributes to the bioaccumulation of the potent neurotoxin methylmercury in the marine food web. Little is known about the abiotic and biotic controls on microbial mercury methylation in polar marine systems. However, mercury methylation is known to occur alongside photochemical and microbial mercury reduction and subsequent volatilization. Here, we combine mercury speciation measurements of total and methylated mercury with metagenomic analysis of whole-community microbial DNA from Antarctic snow, brine, sea ice and sea water to elucidate potential microbially mediated mercury methylation and volatilization pathways in polar marine environments. Our results identify the marine microaerophilic bacterium Nitrospina as a potential mercury methylator within sea ice. Anaerobic bacteria known to methylate mercury were notably absent from sea-ice metagenomes. We propose that Antarctic sea ice can harbour a microbial source of methylmercury in the Southern Ocean. PMID:27670112

  4. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation

    PubMed Central

    Feltus, F. A.; Lee, E. K.; Costello, J. F.; Plass, C.; Vertino, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context. PMID:14519846

  5. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  6. Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

  7. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Jürgen; Schorr, Heike; Bodis, Marion; Isber, Sonia; Hübner, Ulrich; Knapp, Jean-Pierre; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 than omnivores do. Vitamin B12 deficiency (holotranscobalamin II <35 pmol/L or methylmalonic acid >271 nmol/L) was found in 58% of 71 vegetarians studied. Higher homocysteine levels (>12 micromol/L) found in 45% indicate disturbed remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. The methylation of DNA is strongly linked to homocysteine metabolism. Since DNA methylation is an important epigenetic factor in the regulation of gene expression, alteration of the methylation pattern has been associated with aging, cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases. Three observations indicate that DNA methylation could be diminished by a vegetarian lifestyle. The vegetarian diet has a low content of methionine, remethylation of homocysteine is reduced by vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels can induce the generation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases. In our study we observed a significant correlation between SAH and whole-genome methylation (r=-0.36, p<0.01). This observation underlines the role of SAH as a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases. The methylation status was not correlated with homocysteine or S-adenosylemethionine (SAM). These results indicate that the degree of methylation does not depend on the supply of methyl groups and that the reverse generation of SAH has no influence. In addition to whole-genome methylation, the specific promoter methylation of the p66Shc gene was studied. However, the latter did not correlate with SAH, SAM or homocysteine. Obviously, the promoter methylation of the p66Shc gene is controlled in a specific way, without following the general regulating influence of SAH. In conclusion, an inhibitory effect of SAH on whole-genome methylation was found, but from our data no interaction between vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation could be determined.

  8. Comprehensive and quantitative multilocus methylation analysis reveals the susceptibility of specific imprinted differentially methylated regions to aberrant methylation in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome with epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshiyuki; Higashimoto, Ken; Jozaki, Kosuke; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Makita, Yoshio; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Takada, Fumio; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Migita, Makoto; Kosaki, Rika; Matsubara, Keiko; Ogata, Tsutomu; Matsuo, Muneaki; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Ohtsuka, Yasufumi; Nishioka, Kenichi; Joh, Keiichiro; Mukai, Tsunehiro; Hata, Kenichiro; Soejima, Hidenobu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expression of imprinted genes is regulated by DNA methylation of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome is an imprinting disorder caused by epimutations of DMRs at 11p15.5. To date, multiple methylation defects have been reported in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome patients with epimutations; however, limited numbers of DMRs have been analyzed. The susceptibility of DMRs to aberrant methylation, alteration of gene expression due to aberrant methylation, and causative factors for multiple methylation defects remain undetermined. Methods: Comprehensive methylation analysis with two quantitative methods, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and bisulfite pyrosequencing, was conducted across 29 DMRs in 54 Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome patients with epimutations. Allelic expressions of three genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed. All DMRs with aberrant methylation were sequenced. Results: Thirty-four percent of KvDMR1–loss of methylation patients and 30% of H19DMR–gain of methylation patients showed multiple methylation defects. Maternally methylated DMRs were susceptible to aberrant hypomethylation in KvDMR1–loss of methylation patients. Biallelic expression of the genes was associated with aberrant methylation. Cis-acting pathological variations were not found in any aberrantly methylated DMR. Conclusion: Maternally methylated DMRs may be vulnerable to DNA demethylation during the preimplantation stage, when hypomethylation of KvDMR1 occurs, and aberrant methylation of DMRs affects imprinted gene expression. Cis-acting variations of the DMRs are not involved in the multiple methylation defects. PMID:24810686

  9. The genetic basis for bacterial mercury methylation.

    PubMed

    Parks, Jerry M; Johs, Alexander; Podar, Mircea; Bridou, Romain; Hurt, Richard A; Smith, Steven D; Tomanicek, Stephen J; Qian, Yun; Brown, Steven D; Brandt, Craig C; Palumbo, Anthony V; Smith, Jeremy C; Wall, Judy D; Elias, Dwayne A; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-03-15

    Methylmercury is a potent neurotoxin produced in natural environments from inorganic mercury by anaerobic bacteria. However, until now the genes and proteins involved have remained unidentified. Here, we report a two-gene cluster, hgcA and hgcB, required for mercury methylation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. In either bacterium, deletion of hgcA, hgcB, or both genes abolishes mercury methylation. The genes encode a putative corrinoid protein, HgcA, and a 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin, HgcB, consistent with roles as a methyl carrier and an electron donor required for corrinoid cofactor reduction, respectively. Among bacteria and archaea with sequenced genomes, gene orthologs are present in confirmed methylators but absent in nonmethylators, suggesting a common mercury methylation pathway in all methylating bacteria and archaea sequenced to date.

  10. Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Shim, Sung-Mi; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Joon-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Lee, Suman

    2007-06-29

    The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes.

  11. An integrated workflow for DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingchuan; Demirci, Feray; Mahalingam, Gayathri; Demirci, Caghan; Nakano, Mayumi; Meyers, Blake C

    2013-05-20

    The analysis of cytosine methylation provides a new way to assess and describe epigenetic regulation at a whole-genome level in many eukaryotes. DNA methylation has a demonstrated role in the genome stability and protection, regulation of gene expression and many other aspects of genome function and maintenance. BS-seq is a relatively unbiased method for profiling the DNA methylation, with a resolution capable of measuring methylation at individual cytosines. Here we describe, as an example, a workflow to handle DNA methylation analysis, from BS-seq library preparation to the data visualization. We describe some applications for the analysis and interpretation of these data. Our laboratory provides public access to plant DNA methylation data via visualization tools available at our "Next-Gen Sequence" websites (http://mpss.udel.edu), along with small RNA, RNA-seq and other data types. PMID:23706300

  12. DNA methylation: old dog, new tricks?

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Cornelia G; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is generally associated with repression of transcription initiation at CpG-island promoters. Here we argue that, on the basis of recent high-throughput genomic and proteomic screenings, DNA methylation can also have different outcomes, including activation of transcription. This is evidenced by the fact that transcription factors can interact with methylated DNA sequences. Furthermore, in certain cellular contexts, genes containing methylated promoters are highly transcribed. Interestingly, this uncoupling between methylated DNA and repression of transcription seems to be particularly evident in germ cells and pluripotent cells. Thus, contrary to previous assumptions, DNA methylation is not exclusively associated with repression of transcription initiation. PMID:25372310

  13. (State resolved studies of the methyl radical)

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Reactions of methyl radicals play a major role in the combustion of nearly all hydrocarbon fuels. During the past three years, the objectives of our DOE supported research have been (1) to examine photodissociations producing methyl radicals in order to learn the internal and translational energy distributions of the products, and (2) to develop a capability to investigate important combustion reactions using these methyl radicals as reagents are summarized. The sources for methyl (and other) radicals that have been examined in our laboratory, and our progress in constructing an apparatus to investigate their reactions. Our group has performed detailed examination of four methyl sources: methyl iodide, acetone, acetaldehyde, and nitromethane. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Shim, Sung-Mi; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Joon-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Lee, Suman . E-mail: suman@cha.ac.kr

    2007-06-29

    The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes.

  15. Hypoxic radiosensitization by the antimicrobial methyl paraben

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, G.P.; Sade, N.

    1984-08-01

    The antimicrobial preservative, methyl paraben (methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate) sensitizes anoxic buffered suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus to gamma-radiation. The maximal response at an 0.5 mM concentration represents a 150 percent increase in response over that for deoxygenated suspensions without additive, and 80 percent of the response for aerated suspensions alone. Methyl paraben is not toxic to the test organism under the present test conditions.

  16. DNA Methylation of BDNF Gene in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Çöpoğlu, Ümit Sertan; İğci, Mehri; Bozgeyik, Esra; Kokaçya, M. Hanifi; İğci, Yusuf Ziya; Dokuyucu, Recep; Arı, Mustafa; Savaş, Haluk A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although genetic factors are risk factors for schizophrenia, some environmental factors are thought to be required for the manifestation of disease. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene functions without causing a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. It has been suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It is established that methylation status of the BDNF gene is associated with fear learning, memory, and stressful social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the DNA methylation status of BDNF gene in patients with schizophrenia. Material/Methods The study included 49 patients (33 male and 16 female) with schizophrenia and 65 unrelated healthy controls (46 male and 19 female). Determination of methylation pattern of CpG islands was based on the principle that bisulfite treatment of DNA results in conversion of unmethylated cytosine residues into uracil, whereas methylated cytosine residues remain unmodified. Methylation-specific PCR was performed with primers specific for either methylated or unmethylated DNA. Results There was no significant difference in methylated or un-methylated status for BDNF promoters between schizophrenia patients and controls. The mean duration of illness was significantly lower in the hemi-methylated group compared to the non-methylated group for BDNF gene CpG island-1 in schizophrenia patients. Conclusions Although there were no differences in BDNF gene methylation status between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, there was an association between duration of illness and DNA methylation. PMID:26851233

  17. Direct synthesis of methyl phosphoramidates in carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Lam, Sarah; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-28

    A direct installation of a methyl phosphoramidate group by using methyl benzylphosphoramidochloridate into carbohydrates and amino acid is described. This one-step synthesis is efficient for both primary and secondary alcohols and exhibited excellent regioselectivity and functional group compatibility. Formation of a single diastereomer is observed in certain cases. The N-benzyl protecting group on methyl phosphoramidates is easily removed under mild conditions.

  18. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  19. Methylation – an uncommon modification of glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Erika

    2013-01-01

    A methyl group on a sugar residue is a rarely reported event. Until now this kind of modification has been found in the kingdom of animals only in worms and molluscs, whereas it is more frequently present in some species of bacteria, fungi, algae and plants, but not in mammals. The monosaccharides involved as well as the positions of the methyl groups on the sugar vary with the species. Methylation seems to play a role in some recognition events but details are still unknown. This review summarises the current knowledge on methylation of sugars in all kinds of organism. PMID:22944672

  20. Determining DNA methylation profiles using sequencing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Suhua; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Jacobsen, Steven E; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic mark that has a significant impact on the regulation of transcription and replication of DNA. DNA methylation patterns are highly conserved across cell divisions and are therefore highly heritable. Furthermore, in multicellular organisms, DNA methylation patterning is a key determinant of cellular differentiation and tissue-specific expression patterns. Lastly, DNA demethylases can affect global levels of DNA methylation during specific stages of development. Bisulfite sequencing is considered the gold standard for measuring the methylation state of cytosines. Sodium bisulfite -converts unmethylated cytosines to uracils (which after PCR are converted to thymines), while leaving methylated cytosines unconverted. By mapping bisulfite treated DNA back to the original reference genome, it is then possible to determine the methylation state of individual cytosines. With the advent of next-generation sequencers during the past few years, it is now possible to determine the methylation state of an entire genome. Here, we describe in detail two protocols for preparing bisulfite treated libraries, which may be sequenced using Illumina GAII sequencers. The first of these uses premethylated adapters, which are not affected by bisulfite treatments, while the second uses a two-stage adapter strategy and does not require premethylation of the adapters. We also describe the specialized protocol for mapping bisulfite converted reads. These approaches allow one to determine the methylation state of each cytosine in the genome. PMID:21431774

  1. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development.

    PubMed

    Slieker, Roderick C; Roost, Matthias S; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2015-10-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA methylation landscape using the 450k array of four human tissues (amnion, muscle, adrenal and pancreas) during the first and second trimester of gestation (9,18 and 22 weeks). We show that a tissue-specific signature, constituted by tissue-specific hypomethylated CpG sites, was already present at 9 weeks of gestation (W9). Furthermore, we report large-scale remodelling of DNA methylation from W9 to W22. Gain of DNA methylation preferentially occurred near genes involved in general developmental processes, whereas loss of DNA methylation mapped to genes with tissue-specific functions. Dynamic DNA methylation was associated with enhancers, but not promoters. Comparison of our data with external fetal adrenal, brain and liver revealed striking similarities in the trajectory of DNA methylation during fetal development. The analysis of gene expression data indicated that dynamic DNA methylation was associated with the progressive repression of developmental programs and the activation of genes involved in tissue-specific processes. The DNA methylation landscape of human fetal development provides insight into regulatory elements that guide tissue specification and lead to organ functionality.

  2. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems. PMID:25849023

  3. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  4. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic.../methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers...

  6. Phenyltrimethylammonium Salts as Methylation Reagents in the Nickel-Catalyzed Methylation of C-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Mao; Chatani, Naoto

    2016-02-24

    Methylation of C(sp(2))-H bonds was achieved through the Ni(II)-catalyzed reaction of benzamides with phenyltrimethylammonium bromide or iodide as the source of the methyl group. The reaction has a broad scope and shows high functional-group compatibility. The reaction is also applicable to the methylation of C(sp(3))-H bonds in aliphatic amides. PMID:26821872

  7. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  8. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  9. Synthesis of both enantiomers of 12-methyl-13-tridecanolide and 14-methyl-15-pentadecanolide (muscolide).

    PubMed

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Mamiya, Natsuki; Kashin, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Both enantiomers of 12-methyl-13-tridecanolide{(R)-(+)-1, (S)-(-)-1} and 14-methyl-15-pentadecanolide (muscolide) {(R)-(+)-2, (S)-(-)-2} were synthesized from either (S)-(+)- or (R)-(-)-3-bromo-2-methyl-1-propanol 8 as a chiral building block. PMID:23980425

  10. 2-Amino-5-methyl-pyridinium 4-methyl-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The 4-methyl-benzoate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2(+)·C8H7O2(-), is nearly planar, with a dihedral angle of 6.26 (10)° between the benzene ring and the carboxyl-ate group. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl-ate O atoms of the anion via a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds with an R2(2)(8) ring motif, forming an approximately planar ion pair with a dihedral angle of 9.63 (4)° between the pyridinium and benzene rings. The ion pairs are further connected via N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane. PMID:23476474

  11. Conformation-selective methylation of geminivirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Paprotka, T; Deuschle, K; Metzler, V; Jeske, H

    2011-11-01

    Geminiviruses with small circular single-stranded DNA genomes replicate in plant cell nuclei by using various double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediates: distinct open circular and covalently closed circular as well as heterogeneous linear DNA. Their DNA may be methylated partially at cytosine residues, as detected previously by bisulfite sequencing and subsequent PCR. In order to determine the methylation patterns of the circular molecules, the DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Abutilon mosaic virus were investigated utilizing bisulfite treatment followed by rolling circle amplification. Shotgun sequencing of the products yielded a randomly distributed 50% rate of C maintenance after the bisulfite reaction for both viruses. However, controls with unmethylated single-stranded bacteriophage DNA resulted in the same level of C maintenance. Only one short DNA stretch within the C2/C3 promoter of TYLCSV showed hyperprotection of C, with the protection rate exceeding the threshold of the mean value plus 1 standard deviation. Similarly, the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes suggested that geminiviruses escape silencing by methylation very efficiently, by either a rolling circle or recombination-dependent replication mode. In contrast, attempts to detect methylated bases positively by using methylcytosine-specific antibodies detected methylated DNA only in heterogeneous linear dsDNA, and methylation-dependent restriction enzymes revealed that the viral heterogeneous linear dsDNA was methylated preferentially. PMID:21835804

  12. Measuring methyl bromide emissions from fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.R.; Gan, J.; Ernst, F.F.; Yates, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    Methyl bromide is used extensively for pest control. Recent evidence suggests that methyl bromide may react with stratospheric ozone and, due to the Clean Air Act, is scheduled for phase-out within the next 5 to 10 years. As indicated in a recent report from The National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program, there will be substantial economic impact on the agricultural community if the use of methyl bromide is restricted. There are several areas of uncertainty concerning the agricultural use of methyl bromide. Foremost is the quantification of mass emitted to the atmosphere from agricultural fields. To address this, two field experiments were conducted to directly measure methyl bromide emissions. In the first experiment, methyl bromide was injected at approximately 25 cm depth and the soil was covered with 1 mil high-density polyethylene plastic. The second experiment was similar except that methyl bromide was injected at approximately 68 cm depth and the soil was not covered. From these experiments, the emission rate into the atmosphere and the subsurface transport of methyl bromide was determined. Both experiments include a field-scale mass balance to verify the accuracy of the flux-measurement methods as well as to check data consistency. The volatilization rate and mass lost was determined from estimates of the degradation and from several atmospheric and chamber flux methods.

  13. Epigenetic DNA Methylation Linked to Social Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Lenkov, Kapa; Lee, Mi H.; Lenkov, Olga D.; Swafford, Andrew; Fernald, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Social status hierarchies are ubiquitous in vertebrate social systems, including humans. It is well known that social rank can influence quality of life dramatically among members of social groups. For example, high-ranking individuals have greater access to resources, including food and mating prerogatives that, in turn, have a positive impact on their reproductive success and health. In contrast low ranking individuals typically have limited reproductive success and may experience lasting social and physiological costs. Ultimately, social rank and behavior are regulated by changes in gene expression. However, little is known about mechanisms that transduce social cues into transcriptional changes. Since social behavior is a dynamic process, we hypothesized that a molecular mechanism such as DNA methylation might play a role these changes. To test this hypothesis, we used an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, in which social rank dictates reproductive access. We show that manipulating global DNA methylation state strongly biases the outcomes of social encounters. Injecting DNA methylating and de-methylating agents in low status animals competing for status, we found that animals with chemically increased methylation states were statistically highly likely to ascend in rank. In contrast, those with inhibited methylation processes and thus lower methylation levels were statistically highly unlikely to ascend in rank. This suggests that among its many roles, DNA methylation may be linked to social status and more generally to social behavior. PMID:26717574

  14. The origins of atmospheric methyl mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Prestbo, E.M.; Bloom, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    Methyl Hg in precipitation shows strong regional patterns, with highest volume weighted mean values (0.4 ng/L) in the Pacific Northwest and lowest values in Florida (<0.01 ng/l). Over most of the North Central region, average values range from 0.05 to 0.2 ng/L. Several potential sources of methyl Hg to the atmosphere have been investigated, including direct anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric methylation of Hg{sup o} or Hg(II), and emissions of methyl or dimethyl Hg from natural surfaces (oceans, bogs, or forests). Direct measurements of major total Hg sources such as coal and waste combustors, and sewage treatment facilities suggest that direct anthropogenic emissions are an insignificant source of methyl Hg to the atmosphere. The gas phase reaction of methyl halides with Hg{sup o} also appears to be an insignificant source of methyl Hg to the atmosphere. Recent laboratory experiments have provided a likely mechanism for atmospheric Hg methylation via a complex reaction involving acetate, sulfite, and iron. From a series of field measurements, another source appears to be the degradation of dimethyl mercury emitted by the upwelling of deep ocean water.

  15. Fully methylated, atomically flat (111) silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidélis, A.; Ozanam, F.; Chazalviel, J.-N.

    2000-01-01

    The atomically flat hydrogenated (111) silicon surface has been methylated by anodization in a Grignard reagent and the surface obtained characterized by infrared spectroscopy. 100% substitution of the hydrogen atoms by methyl groups is observed. The resulting surface exhibits preserved ordering and superior chemical stability.

  16. Methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah R; Meehan, Richard R; Young, Lorraine E

    2006-01-01

    Here, we describe a robust and reproducible methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) method to detect the percentage methylation in repeat sequences of individual pre-implantation ovine embryos produced by different embryo technologies. This method allows the comparison of embryos produced by nuclear transfer with other production and embryo culture methods, accounting for the heterogeneity between embryos within a single treatment. DNA extracted from single embryos is digested with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme to determine the percentage methylation after PCR amplification in comparison with an undigested control. The undigested control represents 100% methylation because methylation-sensitive enzymes do not cut methylated DNA, allowing the entire sample to be amplified by PCR. Image analysis quantification of the digested subsample PCR product on an ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel is proportional to the amount of methylated DNA in each embryo. By comparing quadruplicate values obtained for each embryo against a standard curve, we are able to ensure the validity of our results for each individual embryo. Compared with bisulphite sequencing methods, the method described is rapid, inexpensive, and relatively high-throughput. PMID:16761730

  17. The Synthesis of Methyl Salicylate: Amine Diazotization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that this experiment takes safety and noncarcinogenic reactants into account. Demonstrates the use of diazonium salts for the replacement of an aromatic amine group by a phenolic hydroxyl. Involves two pleasant-smelling organic compounds, methyl anthranilate (grape) and methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). (MVL)

  18. Maternal DNA Methylation Regulates Early Trophoblast Development

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Miguel R.; King, Michelle; Perez-Garcia, Vicente; Bogutz, Aaron B.; Caley, Matthew; Fineberg, Elena; Lefebvre, Louis; Cook, Simon J.; Dean, Wendy; Hemberger, Myriam; Reik, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    Summary Critical roles for DNA methylation in embryonic development are well established, but less is known about its roles during trophoblast development, the extraembryonic lineage that gives rise to the placenta. We dissected the role of DNA methylation in trophoblast development by performing mRNA and DNA methylation profiling of Dnmt3a/3b mutants. We find that oocyte-derived methylation plays a major role in regulating trophoblast development but that imprinting of the key placental regulator Ascl2 is only partially responsible for these effects. We have identified several methylation-regulated genes associated with trophoblast differentiation that are involved in cell adhesion and migration, potentially affecting trophoblast invasion. Specifically, trophoblast-specific DNA methylation is linked to the silencing of Scml2, a Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 protein that drives loss of cell adhesion in methylation-deficient trophoblast. Our results reveal that maternal DNA methylation controls multiple differentiation-related and physiological processes in trophoblast via both imprinting-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:26812015

  19. Arsenic-induced oxidative cerebral disorders: protection by taurine.

    PubMed

    Das, Joydeep; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether the conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, could play any protective role against the potent neurotoxin arsenic (As)-induced oxidative impairment in the rat brain. Administration in the form of NaAsO(2) (at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days, orally), As increased the intracellular accumulation of metallic As, reactive oxygen species, and super oxide radicals. The toxin also augmented the extent of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and the levels of glutathione disulphide. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes, membrane-bound enzymes, acetylcholinesterase, and the levels of reduced glutathione, as well as total thiols, have been significantly decreased due to As exposure. Oral administration of taurine (at a dose of 100 mg/kg/body weight for 5 days) was found to be very effective in the prevention of As-induced oxidative impairment in the brain tissue of the experimental rats. To validate the experimental results, a well-known water-soluble antioxidant, vitamin C, was used as the positive control in the study. Combining all, results suggest that taurine plays a beneficial role against As-induced cerebral oxidative stress.

  20. Arsenic-induced bladder cancer in an animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Samuel M. Ohnishi, Takamasa Arnold, Lora L. Le, X. Chris

    2007-08-01

    Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}) is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder, but not in mice. The carcinogenic mode of action involves cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell proliferation. Dietary DMA{sup V} does not produce urinary solids or significant alterations in urinary composition. The cytotoxicity is due to formation of a reactive metabolite, likely dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), concentrated and excreted in the urine. Urinary concentrations of DMA{sup III} are dose-dependent, and the urinary concentrations are at cytotoxic levels based on in vitro studies. The no observed effect level (NOEL) in these rat dietary studies for detectable levels of DMA{sup III}, cytotoxicity, and proliferation is 2 ppm, with marginal changes at 10 ppm. The tumorigenic dose is 100 ppm. Recent investigations have demonstrated that arsenicals administered to the rat result in binding to a specific cysteine in the hemoglobin alpha chain as DMA{sup III}, regardless of the arsenical being administered. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) is not carcinogenic in rats or mice. In short term experiments ({<=} 10 weeks), sodium arsenate in the drinking water induces significant cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation. There is little evidence that the cytotoxicity produced following administration of arsenicals is caused by oxidative damage, as antioxidants show little inhibitory activity of the cytotoxicity of the various arsenicals either in vitro or in vivo. In summary, the mode of action for DMA{sup V}-induced bladder carcinogenesis in the rat involves generation of a reactive metabolite (DMA{sup III}) leading to cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation, is a non-linear process, and likely involves a threshold. Extrapolation to human risk needs to take this into account along with the significant differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics that occur between different species.

  1. FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES ARSENIC-INDUCED GENOTOXICITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Folate deficiency increases background levels of DNA damage and can enhance the mutagenicity of chemical agents. Duplicate experiments were performed to investigate the effect of dietary folate deficiency on arsenic induction of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood cells. Male C5...

  2. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented.

  3. DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Xie, Nina; Jin, Peng; Wang, Tao

    2015-06-01

    In mammals, DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are specific epigenetic mechanisms that can contribute to the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions. DNA methylation is important for the function of embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells (such as haematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells and germline stem cells), and changes in DNA methylation patterns are essential for successful nuclear reprogramming. In the past several years, the rediscovery of hydroxymethylation and the TET enzymes expanded our insights tremendously and uncovered more dynamic aspects of cytosine methylation regulation. Here, we review the current knowledge and highlight the most recent advances in DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and several well-studied adult stems cells. Our current understanding of stem cell epigenetics and new advances in the field will undoubtedly stimulate further clinical applications of regenerative medicine in the future.

  4. DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies Global Methylation Differences and Markers of Adrenocortical Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rechache, Nesrin S.; Wang, Yonghong; Stevenson, Holly S.; Killian, J. Keith; Edelman, Daniel C.; Merino, Maria; Zhang, Lisa; Nilubol, Naris; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Meltzer, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Context: It is not known whether there are any DNA methylation alterations in adrenocortical tumors. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the methylation profile of normal adrenal cortex and benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Methods: Genome-wide methylation status of CpG regions were determined in normal (n = 19), benign (n = 48), primary malignant (n = 8), and metastatic malignant (n = 12) adrenocortical tissue samples. An integrated analysis of genome-wide methylation and mRNA expression in benign vs. malignant adrenocortical tissue samples was also performed. Results: Methylation profiling revealed the following: 1) that methylation patterns were distinctly different and could distinguish normal, benign, primary malignant, and metastatic tissue samples; 2) that malignant samples have global hypomethylation; and 3) that the methylation of CpG regions are different in benign adrenocortical tumors by functional status. Normal compared with benign samples had the least amount of methylation differences, whereas normal compared with primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma samples had the greatest variability in methylation (adjusted P ≤ 0.01). Of 215 down-regulated genes (≥2-fold, adjusted P ≤ 0.05) in malignant primary adrenocortical tumor samples, 52 of these genes were also hypermethylated. Conclusions: Malignant adrenocortical tumors are globally hypomethylated as compared with normal and benign tumors. Methylation profile differences may accurately distinguish between primary benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Several differentially methylated sites are associated with genes known to be dysregulated in malignant adrenocortical tumors. PMID:22472567

  5. One-pot approach for examining the DNA methylation patterns using an engineered methyl-probe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Chang, Matthew; Yuan, Chongli

    2014-08-15

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a common observation in various types of human cancers, i.e., breast and lung cancers. Nevertheless, the current DNA methylation detection approaches require bisulfite treatments and are laborious or costly to perform. To address these challenges, we developed a methyl-probe based on the MBD1 protein. Combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, our probe can sensitively detect the existence of DNA methylation at concentrations above 20nM in a one-pot assay. The probe can quantify the total amount of methylated CG dinucleotides above ~20nM, independent of DNA sequence contexts, concentrations (20-1900nM) and methylation levels (5-100%). Our detection platform offers a simple and cheap alternative DNA methylation detection approach.

  6. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1) Is Involved in the Induction of Phosphatidylserine Receptor (PSR) in Response to dsRNA Virus Infection and Contributes to Apoptotic Cell Clearance in CHSE-214 Cell

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Hsin-Chia; Evensen, Øystein; Hong, Jiann-Ruey; Kuo, Chia-Yu; Tso, Chun-Hsi; Ngou, Fang-Huar; Lu, Ming-Wei; Wu, Jen-Leih

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) recognizes a surface marker on apoptotic cells and initiates engulfment. This receptor is important for effective apoptotic cell clearance and maintains normal tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune response. However, the regulation of PSR expression remains poorly understood. In this study, we determined that interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) was dramatically upregulated upon viral infection in the fish cell. We observed apoptosis in virus-infected cells and found that both PSR and IRF-1 increased simultaneously. Based on a bioinformatics promoter assay, IRF-1 binding sites were identified in the PSR promoter. Compared to normal viral infection, we found that PSR expression was delayed, viral replication was increased and virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited following IRF-1 suppression with morpholino oligonucleotides. A luciferase assay to analyze promoter activity revealed a decreasing trend after the deletion of the IRF-1 binding site on PSR promoter. The results of this study indicated that infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection induced both the apoptotic and interferon (IFN) pathways, and IRF-1 was involved in regulating PSR expression to induce anti-viral effects. Therefore, this work suggests that PSR expression in salmonid cells during IPNV infection is activated when IRF-1 binds the PSR promoter. This is the first report to show the potential role of IRF-1 in triggering the induction of apoptotic cell clearance-related genes during viral infection and demonstrates the extensive crosstalk between the apoptotic and innate immune response pathways. PMID:25342322

  7. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18–22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11–13 and weeks 18–22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  8. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18-22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11-13 and weeks 18-22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  9. High-frequency aberrantly methylated targets in pancreatic adenocarcinoma identified via global DNA methylation analysis using methylCap-seq

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive reprogramming and dysregulation of DNA methylation is an important characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC). Our study aimed to characterize the genomic methylation patterns in various genomic contexts of PC. The methyl capture sequencing (methylCap-seq) method was used to map differently methylated regions (DMRs) in pooled samples from ten PC tissues and ten adjacent non-tumor (PN) tissues. A selection of DMRs was validated in an independent set of PC and PN samples using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), and methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-based qPCR (MSRE-qPCR). The mRNA and expressed sequence tag (EST) expression of the corresponding genes was investigated using RT-qPCR. Results A total of 1,131 PC-specific and 727 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were identified in association with CpG islands (CGIs), including gene-associated CGIs and orphan CGIs; 2,955 PC-specific and 2,386 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were associated with gene promoters, including promoters containing or lacking CGIs. Moreover, 1,744 PC-specific and 1,488 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were found to be associated with CGIs or CGI shores. These results suggested that aberrant hypermethylation in PC typically occurs in regions surrounding the transcription start site (TSS). The BSP, MSP, MSRE-qPCR, and RT-qPCR data indicated that the aberrant DNA methylation in PC tissue and in PC cell lines was associated with gene (or corresponding EST) expression. Conclusions Our study characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in PC and identified DMRs that were distributed among various genomic contexts that might influence the expression of corresponding genes or transcripts to promote PC. These DMRs might serve as diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets for PC. PMID:25276247

  10. 40 CFR 180.439 - Thifensulfuron methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of thifensulfuron methyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities... established for residues of thifensulfuron methyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  11. Proteomic and ultrastructural analysis of the effect of a new nitazoxanide-N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid against Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Matadamas-Martínez, Félix; Castillo, Rafael; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Méndez-Cuesta, Carlos; de Souza, Wanderley; Gadelha, Ana Paula; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Hernández, José Manuel; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián

    2016-04-01

    In an effort to develop alternative drugs for the treatment of giardiasis our research group has synthesized and evaluated a novel nitazoxanide and N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid molecule, named CMC-20. It showed an IC50 of 0.010 μM on Giardia intestinalis, lower than the IC50 values of 0.015, 0.037 and 1.224 μM for nitazoxanide, albendazole and metronidazole, respectively. In addition, we report studies carried out on its mechanism of action and effect at the ultrastructural level on G. intestinalis. The proteomic analysis of trophozoites treated with CMC-20 revealed significant changes in the expression level of proteins of the cytoskeleton, alpha and beta tubulin, alpha-1, beta giardin and axoneme-associated protein, among other molecules. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated that CMC-20 induces morphological changes on the parasite that loses its characteristic pear shape. Uncommon large bulbous structure at the flagella end, and parasites showing flange membrane bending and a concave depression in the ventral region, resembling an encystation process, were also observed. In addition, some apoptotic and autophagic-like features, such as membrane blebbing, intense vacuolation, chromatin condensation and multilamellar bodies were detected. Phosphatidylserine externalization was determined as an apoptotic marker by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy; however, a typical ladder-like DNA fragmentation profile was not detected. Although it was found that CMC-20 triggers the encystation process, damage to the cyst wall indicates loss of viability. PMID:27033928

  12. On your histone mark, SET, methylate!

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Lysine methylation of histones and non-histone proteins has emerged in recent years as a posttranslational modification with wide-ranging cellular implications beyond epigenetic regulation. The molecular interactions between lysine methyltransferases and their substrates appear to be regulated by posttranslational modifications surrounding the lysine methyl acceptor. Two very interesting examples of this cross-talk between methyl-lysine sites are found in the SET (Su(var)3–9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax) domain-containing lysine methyltransferases SET7 and SETDB1, whereby the histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) modification prevents methylation by SETDB1 on H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and the histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 9 (H3K9me3) modification prevents methylation by SET7 on H3K4. A similar cross-talk between posttranslational modifications regulates the functions of non-histone proteins such as the tumor suppressor p53 and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Herein, in cis effects of acetylation, phosphorylation, as well as arginine and lysine methylation on lysine methylation events will be discussed. PMID:23625014

  13. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile.

  14. DNA methylation and body temperature in fishes.

    PubMed

    Varriale, Annalisa; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2006-12-30

    Previous investigations from our laboratory [Jabbari, K., Cacciò, S., Pais de Barros, J.P., Desgres, J., Bernardi G., 1997. Evolutionary changes in CpG and methylation levels in the genome of vertebrates. Gene 205, 109-118.] led to the discovery of two different methylation levels in the genomes of vertebrates, a higher one exhibited by fishes and amphibians and a lower one shown by mammals and birds. It was also noted that data from the literature indicated a higher CpG level in fishes and amphibians compared to mammals and birds. Such observations led to suggesting the existence of two equilibria and to speculate that the transitions between the two equilibria in DNA methylation and CpG levels were due to a higher deamination rate in warm-blooded vertebrates related to their higher body temperature. Here we used Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis to study methylation levels in a number of fish genomes living at different temperatures. We found that polar fishes exhibit DNA methylation levels that are higher than those of tropical and temperate fishes, the latter being in turn higher than the methylation levels of warm-blooded vertebrates, as expected from previous work. A closer analysis of the data revealed that, among Antarctic fishes, the Channichthyidae (the icefishes, deprived of haemoglobin) had the highest methylation level, and that, among temperate and tropical fishes the latter showed the lowest methylation level. These results confirm the existence of an inverse relationship between DNA methylation and body temperature, when the latter is maintained over evolutionary times.

  15. Genome-Wide Methylation Profiling of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rukova, B; Staneva, R; Hadjidekova, S; Stamenov, G; Milanova; Toncheva, D

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the major psychiatric disorders. It is a disorder of complex inheritance, involving both heritable and environmental factors. DNA methylation is an inheritable epigenetic modification that stably alters gene expression. We reasoned that genetic modifications that are a result of environmental stimuli could also make a contribution. We have performed 26 high-resolution genome-wide methylation array analyses to determine the methylation status of 27,627 CpG islands and compared the data between patients and healthy controls. Methylation profiles of DNAs were analyzed in six pools: 220 schizophrenia patients; 220 age-matched healthy controls; 110 female schizophrenia patients; 110 age-matched healthy females; 110 male schizophrenia patients; 110 age-matched healthy males. We also investigated the methylation status of 20 individual patient DNA samples (eight females and 12 males. We found significant differences in the methylation profile between schizophrenia and control DNA pools. We found new candidate genes that principally participate in apoptosis, synaptic transmission and nervous system development (GABRA2, LIN7B, CASP3). Methylation profiles differed between the genders. In females, the most important genes participate in apoptosis and synaptic transmission (XIAP, GABRD, OXT, KRT7), whereas in the males, the implicated genes in the molecular pathology of the disease were DHX37, MAP2K2, FNDC4 and GIPC1. Data from the individual methylation analyses confirmed, the gender-specific pools results. Our data revealed major differences in methylation profiles between schizophrenia patients and controls and between male and female patients. The dysregulated activity of the candidate genes could play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:25937794

  16. Sunflower oil methyl ester as diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Hasan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methyl ester formation represents one approach to overcome the problems associated with the relatively high viscosity of sunflower oil when used as a diesel fuel replacement. Sunflower oil methyl ester is being prepared at the University of North Dakota Engieering Experiment Station. Physical and chemical properties of this material at varying levels of refinement and purity will be used to define fuel properties. Engine testing is being carried out to determine if the fouling characteristics of methyl ester are significantly less than those of sunflower oil. 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  18. Chirped Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy on Methyl Butanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Hays, Brian M.; Abeysekera, Chamara; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2016-06-01

    The microwave spectrum of methyl butanoate has been taken from 8-18 GHz using a chirped pulse spectrometer. This molecule is a model biofuel, and its thermal decomposition products are of interest due to its many dissociation channels. As a preliminary step before such pyrolysis studies, we have examined the jet cooled spectrum of methyl butanoate in a chirped pulse spectrometer, which shows a very rich spectrum. Several conformers have been identified, each with tunneling splittings in the methyl ester group due to internal rotation. These spectra have been fit to obtain rotational constants, relative populations, and methyl rotor barriers for each conformational isomer. The results of these studies are compared to high level calculations.

  19. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  20. Emission of methyl bromide from biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Manoe, S.; Andreae, M.O. )

    1994-03-04

    Bromine is, per atom, far more efficient than chlorine in destroying stratospheric ozone, and methyl bromide is the single largest source of stratospheric bromine. The two main previously known sources of this compound are emissions from the ocean and from the compound's use as an agricultural pesticide. Laboratory biomass combustion experiments showed that methyl bromide was emitted in the smoke from various fuels tested. Methyl bromide was also found in smoke plumes from wildfires in savannas, chaparral, and boreal forest. Global emissions of methyl bromide from biomass burning are estimated to be in the range of 10 to 50 gigagrams per year, which is comparable to the amount produced by ocean emission and pesticide use and represents a major contribution ([approximately]30 percent) to the stratospheric bromine budget.

  1. Targeting DNA Methylation for Epigenetic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojing; Lay, Fides; Han, Han; Jones, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns are established during embryonic development and faithfully copied through somatic cell divisions. Based on our understanding of DNA methylation and other interrelated epigenetic modifications, a comprehensive view of the epigenetic landscape and cancer epigenome is evolving. The cancer methylome is highly disrupted, making DNA methylation an excellent target for anti-cancer therapies. During the last few decades, an increasing number of drugs targeting DNA methylation have been developed in an effort to increase efficacy, stability and to decrease toxicity. The earliest and the most successful epigenetic drug to date, 5-Azacytidine, is currently recommended as the first-line treatment for high risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients. Encouraging results from clinical trials have prompted further efforts to elucidate epigenetic alterations in cancer and subsequently develop new epigenetic therapies. This review delineates the latest cancer epigenetic models, recent discovery of hypomethylation agents and their application in the clinic. PMID:20846732

  2. INDUCTION OF GENOTOXIC DAMAGE IS NOT HIGHLY CORRELATED WITH THE ABILITY OT METHYLATE ARSENITE IN VITRO IN THE LEUKOCYTES OF 4 MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Abstract

    Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant that impacts the health of large populations of people throughout the world; however, the mode or mechanism by which arsenic induces cancer is unclear. In a series of in vitro studies, we exposed leukocytes from...

  3. Oxidative carbonylation of styrene to methyl cinnamate

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.Y.

    1987-04-01

    Oxidative carbonylation technology is used for making methyl cinnamate from styrene as an alternative to Claisen condensation of benzaldehyde with methyl acetate. Using this approach, the optimum yield of cinnamate is greater than 90%, with CO{sub 2}, acetophenone, and phenylsuccinate as the major by-products. The conversion of styrene and the selectivity to cinnamate depend upon the types of catalysts and reaction conditions used. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed to account for the selective formation of cinnamate.

  4. Cytosine methylation profiling of cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Mathias; Turner, Julia; Gibbs, Peter; Lipton, Lara; Giovanneti, Mara; Cantor, Charles; van den Boom, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    DNA-methylation changes in human cancer are complex and vary between the different types of cancer. Capturing this epigenetic variability in an atlas of DNA-methylation changes will be beneficial for basic research as well as translational medicine. Hypothesis-free approaches that interrogate methylation patterns genome-wide have already generated promising results. However, these methods are still limited by their quantitative accuracy and the number of CpG sites that can be assessed individually. Here, we use a unique approach to measure quantitative methylation patterns in a set of >400 candidate genes. In this high-resolution study, we employed a cell-line model consisting of 59 cancer cell lines provided by the National Cancer Institute and six healthy control tissues for discovery of methylation differences in cancer-related genes. To assess the effect of cell culturing, we validated the results from colon cancer cell lines by using clinical colon cancer specimens. Our results show that a large proportion of genes (78 of 400 genes) are epigenetically altered in cancer. Although most genes show methylation changes in only one tumor type (35 genes), we also found a set of genes that changed in many different forms of cancer (seven genes). This dataset can easily be expanded to develop a more comprehensive and ultimately complete map of quantitative methylation changes. Our methylation data also provide an ideal starting point for further translational research where the results can be combined with existing large-scale datasets to develop an approach that integrates epigenetic, transcriptional, and mutational findings. PMID:18353987

  5. Function and evolution of DNA methylation in Nasonia vitripennis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Wheeler, David; Avery, Amanda; Rago, Alfredo; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Colbourne, John K; Clark, Andrew G; Werren, John H

    2013-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis is an emerging genetic model for functional analysis of DNA methylation. Here, we characterize genome-wide methylation at a base-pair resolution, and compare these results to gene expression across five developmental stages and to methylation patterns reported in other insects. An accurate assessment of DNA methylation across the genome is accomplished using bisulfite sequencing of adult females from a highly inbred line. One-third of genes show extensive methylation over the gene body, yet methylated DNA is not found in non-coding regions and rarely in transposons. Methylated genes occur in small clusters across the genome. Methylation demarcates exon-intron boundaries, with elevated levels over exons, primarily in the 5' regions of genes. It is also elevated near the sites of translational initiation and termination, with reduced levels in 5' and 3' UTRs. Methylated genes have higher median expression levels and lower expression variation across development stages than non-methylated genes. There is no difference in frequency of differential splicing between methylated and non-methylated genes, and as yet no established role for methylation in regulating alternative splicing in Nasonia. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that many genes maintain methylation status across long evolutionary time scales. Nasonia methylated genes are more likely to be conserved in insects, but even those that are not conserved show broader expression across development than comparable non-methylated genes. Finally, examination of duplicated genes shows that those paralogs that have lost methylation in the Nasonia lineage following gene duplication evolve more rapidly, show decreased median expression levels, and increased specialization in expression across development. Methylation of Nasonia genes signals constitutive transcription across developmental stages, whereas non-methylated genes show more dynamic developmental expression patterns. We

  6. Function and Evolution of DNA Methylation in Nasonia vitripennis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Wheeler, David; Avery, Amanda; Rago, Alfredo; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Colbourne, John K.; Clark, Andrew G.; Werren, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis is an emerging genetic model for functional analysis of DNA methylation. Here, we characterize genome-wide methylation at a base-pair resolution, and compare these results to gene expression across five developmental stages and to methylation patterns reported in other insects. An accurate assessment of DNA methylation across the genome is accomplished using bisulfite sequencing of adult females from a highly inbred line. One-third of genes show extensive methylation over the gene body, yet methylated DNA is not found in non-coding regions and rarely in transposons. Methylated genes occur in small clusters across the genome. Methylation demarcates exon-intron boundaries, with elevated levels over exons, primarily in the 5′ regions of genes. It is also elevated near the sites of translational initiation and termination, with reduced levels in 5′ and 3′ UTRs. Methylated genes have higher median expression levels and lower expression variation across development stages than non-methylated genes. There is no difference in frequency of differential splicing between methylated and non-methylated genes, and as yet no established role for methylation in regulating alternative splicing in Nasonia. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that many genes maintain methylation status across long evolutionary time scales. Nasonia methylated genes are more likely to be conserved in insects, but even those that are not conserved show broader expression across development than comparable non-methylated genes. Finally, examination of duplicated genes shows that those paralogs that have lost methylation in the Nasonia lineage following gene duplication evolve more rapidly, show decreased median expression levels, and increased specialization in expression across development. Methylation of Nasonia genes signals constitutive transcription across developmental stages, whereas non-methylated genes show more dynamic developmental expression

  7. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis. PMID:25732744

  8. Editing DNA Methylation in the Mammalian Genome.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Shawn; Wu, Hao; Ji, Xiong; Stelzer, Yonatan; Wu, Xuebing; Czauderna, Szymon; Shu, Jian; Dadon, Daniel; Young, Richard A; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2016-09-22

    Mammalian DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism orchestrating gene expression networks in many biological processes. However, investigation of the functions of specific methylation events remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that fusion of Tet1 or Dnmt3a with a catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) enables targeted DNA methylation editing. Targeting of the dCas9-Tet1 or -Dnmt3a fusion protein to methylated or unmethylated promoter sequences caused activation or silencing, respectively, of an endogenous reporter. Targeted demethylation of the BDNF promoter IV or the MyoD distal enhancer by dCas9-Tet1 induced BDNF expression in post-mitotic neurons or activated MyoD facilitating reprogramming of fibroblasts into myoblasts, respectively. Targeted de novo methylation of a CTCF loop anchor site by dCas9-Dnmt3a blocked CTCF binding and interfered with DNA looping, causing altered gene expression in the neighboring loop. Finally, we show that these tools can edit DNA methylation in mice, demonstrating their wide utility for functional studies of epigenetic regulation. PMID:27662091

  9. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis.

  10. Native DNA repeats and methylation in Ascobolus.

    PubMed Central

    Goyon, C; Rossignol, J L; Faugeron, G

    1996-01-01

    We identified two classes of native dispersed DNA repeats in the Ascobolus genome. The first class consisted of several kilobase long, methylated repeats. These repeats, named Mars (methylated Ascobolus repeated sequences), fell in one family of LINE-like elements and in three families of LTR-containing retrotransposable elements. The methylation features of Mars elements were those expected if they were natural targets for the MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) previously discovered in Ascobolus. The second class consisted of short repeats, approximately 100 bp long, corresponding to 5S rRNA and tRNA genes. As expected from their size, which was too small to allow MIP to occur, they were unmethylated, as were 26 kb of unique sequences tested. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that MIP is targeted at natural DNA repeats and constitutes a defensive process against the detrimental consequences of the spreading of mobile elements throughout the genome. The 9 kb tandem repeats harbouring the 28S, 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes displayed methylation features suggesting that rDNA methylation proceeds through a process other than MIP. PMID:8811089

  11. DNA methylation biomarkers: cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mikeska, Thomas; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient's response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease.

  12. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Mikeska, Thomas; Craig, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease. PMID:25229548

  13. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol residues. 173.250 Section 173.250... and Related Substances § 173.250 Methyl alcohol residues. Methyl alcohol may be present in the... specifies the presence of methyl alcohol and provides for the use of the hops extract only as prescribed...

  14. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  15. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  16. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  17. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin...

  18. The 94- to 97-kDa mouse macrophage membrane protein that recognizes oxidized low density lipoprotein and phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes is identical to macrosialin, the mouse homologue of human CD68.

    PubMed Central

    Ramprasad, M P; Fischer, W; Witztum, J L; Sambrano, G R; Quehenberger, O; Steinberg, D

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported the partial purification of a 94- to 97-kDa plasma membrane protein from mouse peritoneal macrophages that binds oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes. We have now identified that protein as macrosialin, a previously cloned macrophage-restricted membrane protein in the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family (mouse homologue of human CD68). Early in the course of purification of the 94- to 97-kDa protein, a new OxLDL-binding band at 190-200 kDa appeared and copurified with the 94- to 97-kDa protein. The HPLC pattern of tryptic peptides from this higher molecular mass ligand-binding band closely matched that derived from the 94- to 97-kDa band. Specifically, the same three macrosialin-derived tryptic peptides (9, 9, and 15 residues) were present in the purified 94- to 97-kDa band and in the 190- to 200-kDa band and antisera raised against peptide sequences in macrosialin recognized both bands. An antiserum against macrosialin precipitated most of the 94- to 97-kDa OxLDL-binding material. We conclude that the binding of OxLDL to mouse macrophage membranes is in part attributable to macrosialin. Our previous studies show that OxLDL competes with oxidized red blood cells and with apoptotic thymocytes for binding to mouse peritoneal macrophages. Whether macrosialin plays a role in recognition of OxLDL and oxidatively damaged cells by intact macrophages remains uncertain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568176

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid induces increases in [Ca2+]i via inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production and activates protein kinase C gamma and -delta via phosphatidylserine binding site: implication in apoptosis in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Filomenko, Rodolphe; Plé, Aude; Rébé, Cédric; Bettaieb, Ali; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2007-12-01

    We investigated, in monocytic leukemia U937 cells, the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) on calcium signaling and determined the implication of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) in this pathway. DHA induced dose-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i, which were contributed by intracellular pool, via the production of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) influx, via opening of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. Chemical inhibition of PLC, PKCgamma, and PKCdelta, but not of PKCbeta I/II, PKCalpha, or PKCbetaI, significantly diminished DHA-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. In vitro PKC assays revealed that DHA induced a approximately 2-fold increase in PKCgamma and -delta activities, which were temporally correlated with the DHA-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. In cell-free assays, DHA, but not other structural analogs of fatty acids, activated these PKC isoforms. Competition experiments revealed that DHA-induced activation of both the PKCs was dose-dependently inhibited by phosphatidylserine (PS). Furthermore, DHA induced apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, followed by caspase-3 activation. Chemical inhibition of PKCgamma/delta and of SOC/CRAC channels significantly attenuated both DHA-stimulated ROS production and caspase-3 activity. Our study suggests that DHA-induced activation of PLC/IP3 pathway and activation of PKCgamma/delta, via its action on PS binding site, may be involved in apoptosis in U937 cells.

  20. Methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing reveals a prognostic methylation signature in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Cannoodt, Robrecht; Verniers, Kimberly; De Wilde, Bram; Laureys, Geneviève; Van Roy, Nadine; Berbegall, Ana P.; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Bown, Nick; Clément, Nathalie; Combaret, Valérie; Haber, Michelle; Hoyoux, Claire; Murray, Jayne; Noguera, Rosa; Pierron, Gaelle; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Schulte, Johannes H.; Stallings, Ray L.; Tweddle, Deborah A.; De Preter, Katleen; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of neuroblastoma outcome prediction remains challenging. Therefore, this study aims at establishing novel prognostic tumor DNA methylation biomarkers. In total, 396 low- and high-risk primary tumors were analyzed, of which 87 were profiled using methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing for differential methylation analysis between prognostic patient groups. Subsequently, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assays were developed for 78 top-ranking differentially methylated regions and tested on two independent cohorts of 132 and 177 samples, respectively. Further, a new statistical framework was used to identify a robust set of MSP assays of which the methylation score (i.e. the percentage of methylated assays) allows accurate outcome prediction. Survival analyses were performed on the individual target level, as well as on the combined multimarker signature. As a result of the differential DNA methylation assessment by MBD sequencing, 58 of the 78 MSP assays were designed in regions previously unexplored in neuroblastoma, and 36 are located in non-promoter or non-coding regions. In total, 5 individual MSP assays (located in CCDC177, NXPH1, lnc-MRPL3-2, lnc-TREX1-1 and one on a region from chromosome 8 with no further annotation) predict event-free survival and 4 additional assays (located in SPRED3, TNFAIP2, NPM2 and CYYR1) also predict overall survival. Furthermore, a robust 58-marker methylation signature predicting overall and event-free survival was established. In conclusion, this study encompasses the largest DNA methylation biomarker study in neuroblastoma so far. We identified and independently validated several novel prognostic biomarkers, as well as a prognostic 58-marker methylation signature. PMID:26646589

  1. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and...

  2. Measurement of Mercury Methylation in Lake Water and Sediment Samples

    PubMed Central

    Furutani, Akira; Rudd, John W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Biological mercury methylation was assayed by a new radiochemical technique in the water column and sediments of a mercury-contaminated lake. In 24 weeks during 1979, there were three episodes of methylating activity in surface floc and in water, each lasting 3 to 5 weeks. Periods of methylation in the water column coincided with surface sediment methylation and appeared to be related to overall microbial activity. Mercury was actively methylated in the presence of bound sulfide. PMID:16345649

  3. Methylation interactions in Arabidopsis hybrids require RNA-directed DNA methylation and are influenced by genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Dong; Lang, Zhaobo; He, Li; Yang, Lan; Zeng, Liang; Li, Yanqiang; Zhao, Cheng; Huang, Huan; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Huiming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-07-19

    DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark in plants and many animals. How parental alleles interact in progeny to influence the epigenome is poorly understood. We analyzed the DNA methylomes of Arabidopsis Col and C24 ecotypes, and their hybrid progeny. Hybrids displayed nonadditive DNA methylation levels, termed methylation interactions, throughout the genome. Approximately 2,500 methylation interactions occurred at regions where parental DNA methylation levels are similar, whereas almost 1,000 were at differentially methylated regions in parents. Methylation interactions were characterized by an abundance of 24-nt small interfering RNAs. Furthermore, dysfunction of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway abolished methylation interactions but did not affect the increased biomass observed in hybrid progeny. Methylation interactions correlated with altered genetic variation within the genome, suggesting that they may play a role in genome evolution. PMID:27382183

  4. Global DNA Methylation of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Mola, Marina; Ois, Ángel; Rodríguez-Campello, Ana; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Carrera, Caty; Montaner, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Roquer, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke (IS), a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder, is among the leading causes of mortality and long-term disability in the western world. Epidemiological data provides evidence for a genetic component to the disease, but its epigenetic involvement is still largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, change over time and may be associated with aging processes and with modulation of the risk of various pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. We analyzed 2 independent cohorts of IS patients. Global DNA methylation was measured by luminometric methylation assay (LUMA) of DNA blood samples. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the methylation differences between the 3 most common IS subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), small-artery disease (SAD), and cardio-aortic embolism (CE). A total of 485 IS patients from 2 independent hospital cohorts (n = 281 and n = 204) were included, distributed across 3 IS subtypes: LAA (78/281, 59/204), SAD (97/281, 53/204), and CE (106/281, 89/204). In univariate analyses, no statistical differences in LUMA levels were observed between the 3 etiologies in either cohort. Multivariate analysis, adjusted by age, sex, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habit, confirmed the lack of differences in methylation levels between the analyzed IS subtypes in both cohorts. Despite differences in pathogenesis, our results showed no global methylation differences between LAA, SAD, and CE subtypes of IS. Further work is required to establish whether the epigenetic mechanism of methylation might play a role in this complex disease. PMID:24788121

  5. Evidence for methyl group transfer between the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bedale, W.A.; Nettleton, D.O.; Sopata, C.S.; Thoelke, M.S.; Ordal, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present evidence for methyl (as methyl or methoxy) transfer from the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins H1 and possibly H3 of Bacillus subtilis to the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein H2. This methyl transfer, which has been observed in vitro was strongly stimulated by the chemoattractant aspartate and thus may plan an important role in the sensory processing system of this organism. Although radiolabeling of H1 and H3 began at once after the addition of (/sup 3/H) methionine, radiolabeling of H2 showed a lag. Furthermore, the addition of excess nonradioactive methionine caused immediate exponential delabeling of H1 and H3 while labeling of H2 continued to increase. Methylation of H2 required the chemotactic methyltransferase, probably to first methylate H1 and H3. Aspartate caused increased labeling of H2 and strongly decreased labeling of H1 and H3 after the addition of nonradioactive methionine. Without the addition of nonradioactive methionine, aspartate caused demethylation of H1 and to a lesser extent H3, with an approximately equal increase of methylation of H2.

  6. Methyl N-phenyl carbamate synthesis from aniline and methyl formate: carbon recycling to chemical products.

    PubMed

    Yalfani, Mohammad S; Lolli, Giulio; Müller, Thomas E; Wolf, Aurel; Mleczko, Leslaw

    2015-02-01

    Methyl N-phenyl carbamate was synthesized from aniline by using methyl formate as a green and efficient carbonylating agent. High yields were obtained at milder reaction conditions compared to the conventional CO/CH3 OH route. Studies on the reaction sequence led to suggest an alternative and more efficient route to the carbamate via formanilide as intermediate.

  7. MethylAction: detecting differentially methylated regions that distinguish biological subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Jeffrey M; Hu, Bo; Ting, Angela H

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation differences capture substantial information about the molecular and gene-regulatory states among biological subtypes. Enrichment-based next generation sequencing methods such as MBD-isolated genome sequencing (MiGS) and MeDIP-seq are appealing for studying DNA methylation genome-wide in order to distinguish between biological subtypes. However, current analytic tools do not provide optimal features for analyzing three-group or larger study designs. MethylAction addresses this need by detecting all possible patterns of statistically significant hyper- and hypo- methylation in comparisons involving any number of groups. Crucially, significance is established at the level of differentially methylated regions (DMRs), and bootstrapping determines false discovery rates (FDRs) associated with each pattern. We demonstrate this functionality in a four-group comparison among benign prostate and three clinical subtypes of prostate cancer and show that the bootstrap FDRs are highly useful in selecting the most robust patterns of DMRs. Compared to existing tools that are limited to two-group comparisons, MethylAction detects more DMRs with strong differential methylation measurements confirmed by whole genome bisulfite sequencing and offers a better balance between precision and recall in cross-cohort comparisons. MethylAction is available as an R package at http://jeffbhasin.github.io/methylaction.

  8. High-Throughput Analysis of Global DNA Methylation Using Methyl-Sensitive Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Feinweber, Carmen; Knothe, Claudia; Lötsch, Jörn; Thomas, Dominique; Geisslinger, Gerd; Parnham, Michael J.; Resch, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major regulatory process of gene transcription, and aberrant DNA methylation is associated with various diseases including cancer. Many compounds have been reported to modify DNA methylation states. Despite increasing interest in the clinical application of drugs with epigenetic effects, and the use of diagnostic markers for genome-wide hypomethylation in cancer, large-scale screening systems to measure the effects of drugs on DNA methylation are limited. In this study, we improved the previously established fluorescence polarization-based global DNA methylation assay so that it is more suitable for application to human genomic DNA. Our methyl-sensitive fluorescence polarization (MSFP) assay was highly repeatable (inter-assay coefficient of variation = 1.5%) and accurate (r2 = 0.99). According to signal linearity, only 50–80 ng human genomic DNA per reaction was necessary for the 384-well format. MSFP is a simple, rapid approach as all biochemical reactions and final detection can be performed in one well in a 384-well plate without purification steps in less than 3.5 hours. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant correlation between MSFP and the LINE-1 pyrosequencing assay, a widely used global DNA methylation assay. MSFP can be applied for the pre-screening of compounds that influence global DNA methylation states and also for the diagnosis of certain types of cancer. PMID:27749902

  9. Methylation matters? Decreased methylation status of genomic DNA in the blood of schizophrenic twins.

    PubMed

    Bönsch, Dominikus; Wunschel, Michael; Lenz, Bernd; Janssen, Gesa; Weisbrod, Matthias; Sauer, Heinrich

    2012-08-15

    Studies of schizophrenia inheritance in identical twins show a concordance of about 50%, which supports an epigenetic model. In our present study we investigated methylation of genomic DNA and promoter methylation of Reelin and SOX10 genes in peripheral blood of twins suffering from schizophrenia. Global DNA methylation was reduced (52.3%) in schizophrenic twins if compared with healthy control twins (65.7%). The reduced methylation was significant in males only. We also found a similar hypomethylation in the non-affected twins of discordant pairs and a mixed group of psychiatric controls. In discordant twins there was a relative hypermethylation of the SOX10 promoter. Within-pair-difference of methylation of Reelin promoter was significantly lower in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins. PMID:23102571

  10. Conformational studies by liquid crystal NMR and ab initio calculations: methyl nicotinate and methyl isonicotinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Masao; Kurokawa, Hideki; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Konaka, Shigehiro

    1992-04-01

    Conformational properties of methyl nicotinate and methyl isonicotinate have been studied by liquid crystal 1H-NMR spectroscopy combined with ab initio calculations. The solvent used is a mixture of 80 mol.% of EBBA and 20 mol.% of MBBA.Ab initio calculations have been performed with 4-21G and MINI-4 basis sets to estimate molecular structures and the potential functions for internal rotation. Some structural parameters and the energy difference between rotational isomers have been refined by using observed dipolar coupling constants. The correlation between internal rotation and reorientational molecular motion has been taken into account according to the theory of Emsley, Luckhurst and Stockley. The parameters of the mean external potential are found to take similar values for methyl nicotinate and methyl isonicotinate. The energy difference of the two stable conformers of methyl nicotinate is in agreement with the analysis neglecting the correlation between the two motions.

  11. Estimating DNA methylation levels by joint modeling of multiple methylation profiles from microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Mengjie; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Summary DNA methylation studies have been revolutionized by the recent development of high throughput array-based platforms. Most of the existing methods analyze microarray methylation data on a probe-by-probe basis, ignoring probe-specific effects and correlations among methylation levels at neighboring genomic locations. These methods can potentially miss functionally relevant findings associated with genomic regions. In this paper, we propose a statistical model that allows us to pool information on the same probe across multiple samples to estimate the probe affinity effect, and to borrow strength from the neighboring probe sites to better estimate the methylation values. Using a simulation study we demonstrate that our method can provide accurate model-based estimates. We further use the proposed method to develop a new procedure for detecting differentially methylated regions, and compare it with a state-of-the-art approach via a data application. PMID:26433612

  12. Estimating DNA methylation levels by joint modeling of multiple methylation profiles from microarray data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Mengjie; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-06-01

    DNA methylation studies have been revolutionized by the recent development of high throughput array-based platforms. Most of the existing methods analyze microarray methylation data on a probe-by-probe basis, ignoring probe-specific effects and correlations among methylation levels at neighboring genomic locations. These methods can potentially miss functionally relevant findings associated with genomic regions. In this article, we propose a statistical model that allows us to pool information on the same probe across multiple samples to estimate the probe affinity effect, and to borrow strength from the neighboring probe sites to better estimate the methylation values. Using a simulation study, we demonstrate that our method can provide accurate model-based estimates. We further use the proposed method to develop a new procedure for detecting differentially methylated regions, and compare it with a state-of-the-art approach via a data application.

  13. 40 CFR 180.437 - Methyl 2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl 2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-m-toluate; tolerances for residues. 180.437 Section 180.437 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS...

  14. Autism: a redox/methylation disorder.

    PubMed

    Deth, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    While autism is still a mysterious developmental disorder, expansion of research efforts over the past 10 to 15 years has yielded a number of important clues implicating both genetic and environmental factors. We can now assert with a measure of confidence that contemporary autism reflects the combined impact of multiple environmental factors on the processes that regulate development in genetically vulnerable individuals. Since epigenetic regulation of gene expression is acknowledged as the most critical factor in development and DNA methylation (the addition of a carbon atom at discrete locations) is the fundamental event for epigenetic regulation, dysfunctional methylation can be considered as a likely cause of autism. Since methylation activity is highly sensitive to oxidative stress (an abnormal redox state) and many environmental factors promote oxidative stress, we have proposed a redox/methylation hypothesis for autism causation. The narrative herein describes the evolution of this hypothesis, which is essentially a series of linked discoveries about how the brain uniquely relies on oxidation and methylation to guide its development and to carry out its cognitive functions. PMID:24416710

  15. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures. PMID:26502561

  16. Methyl-DEAE-dextran: a candidate biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Zambito, Ylenia; Baggiani, Andrea; Carelli, Vera; Serafini, Maria Francesca; Di Colo, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The full quaternisation of DEAE-dextran was successfully attempted and an application of the quaternised product was suggested. Commercial DEAE-dextran was reacted with iodomethane at 60 degrees C in the presence of NaOH. The raw product was purified by dialysis, during which the iodide ion was replaced by chloride. N-methylation and O-methylation resulted from the reaction. A second methylation step produced no further changes in the molecule. Alkalimetry indicated the absence of amino groups in the methylated polymer molecule, thus testifying to a complete quaternisation. N-acetylcysteine (AcCy) was neutralised with the polymer in the hydroxide form, thus obtaining the methyl DEAE-dextran salt of AcCy (Me-DEAE-dextran/AcCy), whereby an ophthalmic formulation for the treatment of the dry eye syndrome was prepared. For comparison, the neutral AcCy salt of commercial DEAE-dextran (DEAE-dextran/AcCy) was prepared. The AcCy content in Me-DEAE-dextran/AcCy was higher than in DEAE-dextran/AcCy (23 vs 13%), while the viscosity of a solution containing the salt concentration corresponding to the therapeutic AcCy concentration (4%w/v) was lower with the former compared to the latter salt (20.5 vs 23.9 mPa s). Both solutions were ipotonic (245 mOsm/kg), whereas the commercial Tirocular is strongly hypertonic (900 mOsm/kg) and irritant.

  17. Scintillation Proximity Assay of Arginine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Xie, Nan; Feng, You; Zheng, Y. George

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of arginine residues, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is one important protein post-translational modification involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. A fast and effective assay for PRMT can provide valuable information for dissecting the biological functions of PRMTs, as well as for screening small-molecule inhibitors of arginine methylation. Currently, among the methods used for PRMT activity measurement, many contain laborious separation procedures, which restrict the applications of these assays for high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery. The authors report here a mix-and-measure method to measure PRMT activity based on the principle of scintillation proximity assay (SPA). In this assay, 3H-AdoMet was used as methyl donor, and biotin-modified histone H4 peptide served as a methylation substrate. Following the methylation reaction catalyzed by PRMTs, streptavidin-coated SPA beads were added to the reaction solution, and SPA signals were detected by a MicroBeta scintillation counter. No separation step is needed, which simplifies the assay procedure and greatly enhances the assay speed. Particularly, the miniaturization and robustness suggest that this method is suited for HTS of PRMT inhibitors. PMID:21821785

  18. Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters - Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a jet-stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glaude, Pierre Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Bax, Sarah; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valerie; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique

    2010-11-15

    The modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters was investigated and the specific chemistry, which is due to the presence of the ester group in this class of molecules, is described. New reactions and rate parameters were defined and included in the software EXGAS for the automatic generation of kinetic mechanisms. Models generated with EXGAS were successfully validated against data from the literature (oxidation of methyl hexanoate and methyl heptanoate in a jet-stirred reactor) and a new set of experimental results for methyl decanoate. The oxidation of this last species was investigated in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures from 500 to 1100 K, including the negative temperature coefficient region, under stoichiometric conditions, at a pressure of 1.06 bar and for a residence time of 1.5 s: more than 30 reaction products, including olefins, unsaturated esters, and cyclic ethers, were quantified and successfully simulated. Flow rate analysis showed that reactions pathways for the oxidation of methyl esters in the low-temperature range are similar to that of alkanes. (author)

  19. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  20. DNA methylation, a hand behind neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haoyang; Liu, Xinzhou; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations represent a sort of functional modifications related to the genome that are not responsible for changes in the nucleotide sequence. DNA methylation is one of such epigenetic modifications that have been studied intensively for the past several decades. The transfer of a methyl group to the 5 position of a cytosine is the key feature of DNA methylation. A simple change as such can be caused by a variety of factors, which can be the cause of many serious diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we have reviewed and summarized recent progress regarding DNA methylation in four major neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The studies of these four major neurodegenerative diseases conclude the strong suggestion of the important role DNA methylation plays in these diseases. However, each of these diseases has not yet been understood completely as details in some areas remain unclear, and will be investigated in future studies. We hope this review can provide new insights into the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases from the epigenetic perspective. PMID:24367332

  1. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies novel methylated genes in neuroblastoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Maja; Beck, Stephan; Kogner, Per; Martinsson, Tommy; Carén, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neuroblastoma is a very heterogeneous tumor of childhood. The clinical spectra range from very aggressive metastatic disease to spontaneous regression, even without therapy. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a common feature of most cancers. For neuroblastoma, it has been demonstrated both for single genes as well as genome-wide, where a so-called methylator phenotype has been described. Here, we present a study using Illumina 450K methylation arrays on 60 neuroblastoma tumors. We show that aggressive tumors, characterized by International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) as stage M, are hypermethylated compared to low-grade tumors. On the contrary, INRG stage L tumors display more non-CpG methylation. The genes with the highest number of hypermethylated CpG sites in INRG M tumors are TERT, PCDHGA4, DLX5, and DLX6-AS1. Gene ontology analysis showed a representation of neuronal tumor relevant gene functions among the differentially methylated genes. For validation, we used a set of independent tumors previously analyzed with the Illumina 27K methylation arrays, which confirmed the differentially methylated sites. Top candidate genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed for altered gene expression through the R2 platform (http://r2.amc.nl), and for correlations between methylation and gene expression in a public dataset. Altered expression in nonsurvivors was found for the genes B3GALT4 and KIAA1949, CLIC5, DLX6-AS, TERT, and PIRT, and strongest correlations were found for TRIM36, KIAA0513, and PIRT. Our data indicate that methylation profiling can be used for patient stratification and informs on epigenetically deregulated genes with the potential of increasing our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of tumor development. PMID:26786290

  2. Controlling DNA methylation: many roads to one modification.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Michael; Selker, Eric U

    2005-04-01

    Genetic, biochemical and cytological studies on DNA methylation in several eukaryotic organisms have resulted in leaps of understanding in the past three years. Discoveries of mechanistic links between DNA methylation and histone methylation, and between these processes and RNA interference (RNAi) machineries have reinvigorated the field. The details of the connections between DNA methylation, histone modifications and RNA silencing remain to be elucidated, but it is already clear that no single pathway accounts for all DNA methylation found in eukaryotes. Rather, different taxa use one or more of several general mechanisms to control methylation. Despite recent progress, classic questions remain, including: What are the signals for DNA methylation? Are "de novo" and "maintenance" methylation truly separate processes? How is DNA methylation regulated?

  3. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M. )

    1990-05-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of {sup 3}H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action.

  4. Reconfiguration of DNA methylation in aging.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Michele; Ciccarone, Fabio; Calabrese, Roberta; Franceschi, Claudio; Bürkle, Alexander; Caiafa, Paola

    2015-11-01

    A complex interplay between multiple biological effects shapes the aging process. The advent of genome-wide quantitative approaches in the epigenetic field has highlighted the effective impact of epigenetic deregulation, particularly of DNA methylation, on aging. Age-associated alterations in DNA methylation are commonly grouped in the phenomenon known as "epigenetic drift" which is characterized by gradual extensive demethylation of genome and hypermethylation of a number of promoter-associated CpG islands. Surprisingly, specific DNA regions show directional epigenetic changes in aged individuals suggesting the importance of these events for the aging process. However, the epigenetic information obtained until now in aging needs a re-consideration due to the recent discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a new DNA epigenetic mark present on genome. A recapitulation of the factors involved in the regulation of DNA methylation and the changes occurring in aging will be described in this review also considering the data available on 5 hmC.

  5. Fragrance material review on methyl dihydrojasmonate.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-10-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of methyl dihydrojasmonate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Methyl dihydrojasmonate is a member of the fragrance structural group ketones cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones. The common characteristic structural element of the group members is a cyclopentanone or cyclopentenone ring with a straight or branched chain alkane or alkene substituent. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for methyl dihydrojasmonate were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire ketones cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (this issue) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material.

  6. Fragrance material review on methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-10-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of methyl jasmonate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Methyl jasmonate is a member of the fragrance structural group Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones. The common characteristic structural element of the group members is a cyclopentanone or cyclopentenone ring with a straight or branched chain alkane or alkene substituent. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for methyl jasmonate were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones in fragrances.

  7. Eukaryotic DNA methylation as an evolutionary device.

    PubMed

    Colot, V; Rossignol, J L

    1999-05-01

    DNA methylation is catalyzed by a family of conserved DNA methyltransferases and is widespread among protists, plants, fungi and animals. It is however absent in some species and its genomic distribution varies among organisms. Sequence comparisons suggest that known and putative eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases fall into at least five structurally distinct subfamilies. Furthermore, it is now clear that DNA methylation can be involved in several functions, some of which may coexist within the same organism. It can inhibit transcription initiation, arrest transcript elongation, act as an imprinting signal, and suppress homologous recombination. On the basis of these observations, we argue that DNA methylation has been conserved during evolution because it provides unique possibilities for setting up functions of various types.

  8. MicroRNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sippy; Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna E; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Peltomäki, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA (including microRNA) associated gene silencing have been identified as a major characteristic in human cancers. These alterations may occur more frequently than genetic mutations and play a key role in silencing tumor suppressor genes or activating oncogenes, thereby affecting multiple cellular processes. In recent years, studies have shown that microRNAs, that act as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression are frequently deregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), via aberrant DNA methylation. Over the past decade, technological advances have revolutionized the field of epigenetics and have led to the identification of numerous epigenetically dysregulated miRNAs in CRC, which are regulated by CpG island hypermethylation and DNA hypomethylation. In addition, aberrant DNA methylation of miRNA genes holds a great promise in several clinical applications such as biomarkers for early screening, prognosis, and therapeutic applications in CRC. PMID:27573897

  9. Adsorption of methyl mercaptan on activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Bashkova, Svetlana; Bagreev, Andrey; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2002-06-15

    Activated carbons of different origins were studied as methyl mercaptan adsorbents in wet, dry, and oxidizing conditions. The materials were characterized using adsorption of nitrogen, Boehm titration, and thermal analysis. Investigation was focused on the feasibility of the removal of methyl mercaptan on activated carbons and on the role of surface chemistry and porosity in the adsorption/oxidation processes. The results showed relatively high capacities of carbons for removal of CH3SH. The amount adsorbed depends on the surface features. Methyl mercaptan, in general, is oxidized to disulfides, which, depending on the chemistry of the carbon surface, can be converted to sulfonic acid due to the presence of water and active radicals.

  10. Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

    1980-09-01

    Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.