Science.gov

Sample records for methylococcus capsulatus bath

  1. Membrane-associated methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, J A; DiSpirito, A A

    1996-01-01

    An active preparation of the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was isolated by ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography using dodecyl beta-D-maltoside as the detergent. The active preparation consisted of three major polypeptides with molecular masses of 47,000, 27,000, and 25,000 Da. Two of the three polypeptides (those with molecular masses of 47,000 and 27,000 Da) were identified as the polypeptides induced when cells expressing the soluble MMO are switched to culture medium in which the pMMO is expressed. The 27,000-Da polypeptide was identified as the acetylene-binding protein. The active enzyme complex contained 2.5 iron atoms and 14.5 copper atoms per 99,000 Da. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the enzyme showed evidence for a type 2 copper center (g perpendicular = 2.057, g parallel = 2.24, and magnitude of A parallel = 172 G), a weak high-spin iron signal (g = 6.0), and a broad low-field (g = 12.5) signal. Treatment of the pMMO with nitric oxide produced the ferrous-nitric oxide derivative observed in the membrane fraction of cells expressing the pMMO. When duroquinol was used as a reductant, the specific activity of the purified enzyme was 11.1 nmol of propylene oxidized.min-1.mg of protein-1, which accounted for approximately 30% of the cell-free propylene oxidation activity. The activity was stimulated by ferric and cupric metal ions in addition to the cytochrome b-specific inhibitors myxothiazol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. PMID:8576034

  2. Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Secretome of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    PubMed Central

    Indrelid, Stine; Mathiesen, Geir; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte R.

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was recently demonstrated to abrogate inflammation in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting interactions with cells involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis and emphasizing the importance of understanding the many properties of M. capsulatus. Secreted proteins determine how bacteria may interact with their environment, and a comprehensive knowledge of such proteins is therefore vital to understand bacterial physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze protein secretion in M. capsulatus (Bath) by identifying the secretion systems present and the respective secreted substrates. Computational analysis revealed that in addition to previously recognized type II secretion systems and a type VII secretion system, a type Vb (two-partner) secretion system and putative type I secretion systems are present in M. capsulatus (Bath). In silico analysis suggests that the diverse secretion systems in M.capsulatus transport proteins likely to be involved in adhesion, colonization, nutrient acquisition and homeostasis maintenance. Results of the computational analysis was verified and extended by an experimental approach showing that in addition an uncharacterized protein and putative moonlighting proteins are released to the medium during exponential growth of M. capsulatus (Bath). PMID:25479164

  3. The Soil Bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath Interacts with Human Dendritic Cells to Modulate Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Indrelid, Stine; Kleiveland, Charlotte; Holst, René; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased in Western countries during the course of the twentieth century, and is evolving to be a global disease. Recently we showed that a bacterial meal of a non-commensal, non-pathogenic methanotrophic soil bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath prevents experimentally induced colitis in a murine model of IBD. The mechanism behind the effect has this far not been identified. Here, for the first time we show that M. capsulatus, a soil bacterium adheres specifically to human dendritic cells, influencing DC maturation, cytokine production, and subsequent T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation. We characterize the immune modulatory properties of M. capsulatus and compare its immunological properties to those of another Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium, the commensal Escherichia coli K12, and the immune modulatory Gram-positive probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in vitro. M. capsulatus induces intermediate phenotypic and functional DC maturation. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction M. capsulatus-primed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) enhance T cell expression of CD25, the γ-chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor, supports cell proliferation, and induce a T cell cytokine profile different from both E. coli K12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. M. capsulatus Bath thus interacts specifically with MoDC, affecting MoDC maturation, cytokine profile, and subsequent MoDC directed T cell polarization. PMID:28293233

  4. Nitrogen isotopomer site preference of N2O produced by Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Sutka, R L; Ostrom, N E; Ostrom, P H; Gandhi, H; Breznak, J A

    2003-01-01

    The relative importance of individual microbial pathways in nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production is not well known. The intramolecular distribution of (15)N in N(2)O provides a basis for distinguishing biological pathways. Concentrated cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Nitrosomonas europaea were used to investigate the site preference of N(2)O by microbial processes during nitrification. The average site preference of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath (5.5 +/- 3.5 per thousand) and N. europaea (-2.3 +/- 1.9 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (-8.3 +/- 3.6 per thousand) differed significantly (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 247.9, p = 0). These results demonstrate that the mechanisms for hydroxylamine oxidation are distinct in M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea. The average delta(18)O-N(2)O values of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation for M. capsulatus Bath (53.1 +/- 2.9 per thousand) and N. europaea (-23.4 +/- 7.2 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (4.6 +/- 1.4 per thousand) were significantly different (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 279.98, p = 0). Although the nitrogen isotope value of the substrate, hydroxylamine, was similar in both cultures, the observed fractionation (delta(15)N) associated with N(2)O production via hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea (-2.3 and 26.0 per thousand, respectively) provided evidence that differences in isotopic fractionation were associated with these two organisms. The site preferences in this study are the first measured values for isolated microbial processes. The differences in site preference are significant and indicate that isotopomers provide a basis for apportioning biological processes producing N(2)O.

  5. The Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) Secreted Protein, MopE*, Binds Both Reduced and Oxidized Copper

    PubMed Central

    Ve, Thomas; Mathisen, Karina; Helland, Ronny; Karlsen, Odd A.; Fjellbirkeland, Anne; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Andersson, K. Kristoffer; Pedersen, Rolf-Birger; Lillehaug, Johan R.; Jensen, Harald B.

    2012-01-01

    Under copper limiting growth conditions the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) secrets essentially only one protein, MopE*, to the medium. MopE* is a copper-binding protein whose structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of MopE* revealed a unique high affinity copper binding site consisting of two histidine imidazoles and one kynurenine, the latter an oxidation product of Trp130. In this study, we demonstrate that the copper ion coordinated by this strong binding site is in the Cu(I) state when MopE* is isolated from the growth medium of M. capsulatus. The conclusion is based on X-ray Near Edge Absorption spectroscopy (XANES), and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies. EPR analyses demonstrated that MopE*, in addition to the strong copper-binding site, also binds Cu(II) at two weaker binding sites. Both Cu(II) binding sites have properties typical of non-blue type II Cu (II) centres, and the strongest of the two Cu(II) sites is characterised by a relative high hyperfine coupling of copper (A|| = 20 mT). Immobilized metal affinity chromatography binding studies suggests that residues in the N-terminal part of MopE* are involved in forming binding site(s) for Cu(II) ions. Our results support the hypothesis that MopE plays an important role in copper uptake, possibly making use of both its high (Cu(I) and low Cu(II) affinity properties. PMID:22916218

  6. Oxidation of ultrafast radical clock substrate probes by the soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Valentine, A M; LeTadic-Biadatti, M H; Toy, P H; Newcomb, M; Lippard, S J

    1999-04-16

    Radical clock substrate probes were used to assess the viability of a discrete substrate radical species in the mechanism of hydrocarbon oxidation by the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). New substituted cyclopropane probes were used with very fast ring-opening rate constants and other desirable attributes, such as the ability to discriminate between radical and cationic intermediates. Oxidation of these substrates by a reconstituted sMMO system resulted in no rearranged products, allowing an upper limit of 150 fs to be placed on the lifetime of a putative radical species. This limit strongly suggests that there is no such substrate radical intermediate. The two enantiomers of trans-1-methyl-2-phenyl-cyclopropane were prepared, and the regioselectivity of their oxidation to the corresponding cyclopropylmethanol and cyclopropylphenol products was determined. The results are consistent with selective orientation of the two enantiomeric substrates in the hydrophobic cavity at the active site of sMMO, specific models for which were examined by molecular modeling.

  7. Structure of the redox sensor domain of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) MmoS‡

    PubMed Central

    Ukaegbu, Uchechi E.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    MmoS from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is the multidomain sensor protein of a two component signaling system proposed to play a role in the copper-mediated regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). MmoS binds an FAD cofactor within its N-terminal tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domains, suggesting that it functions as a redox sensor. The crystal structure of the MmoS tandem PAS domains, designated PAS-A and PAS-B, has been determined to 2.34 Å resolution. Both domains adopt the typical PAS domain α/β topology and are structurally similar. The two domains are linked by a long α helix and do not interact with one another. The FAD cofactor is housed solely within PAS-A and is stabilized by an extended hydrogen bonding network. The overall fold of PAS-A is similar to other flavin-containing PAS domains, but homodimeric interactions in other structures are not observed in the MmoS sensor, which crystallized as a monomer. The structure both provides new insight into the architecture of tandem PAS domains and suggests specific residues that may play a role in MmoS FAD redox chemistry and subsequent signal transduction. PMID:19271777

  8. Presence of methyl sterol and bacteriohopanepolyol in an outer-membrane preparation from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Kato, Katharine; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic/intracytoplasmic and outer membrane preparations of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of a total membrane fraction prepared by disruption using a French pressure cell. The cytoplasmic and/or intracytoplasmic membrane fraction consisted of two distinct bands, Ia and Ib (buoyant densities 1.16 and 1.18 g ml (exp -1), respectively) that together contained 57% of the protein, 68% of the phospholipid, 73% of the ubiquinone and 89% of the CN-sensitive NADH oxidase activity. The only apparent difference between these two cytoplasmic bands was a much higher phospholipid content for Ia. The outer membrane fraction (buoyant density 1.23-1.24 g ml (exp -1)) contained 60% of the lipopolysaccharide-associated, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, 74% of the methylsterol, and 66% of the bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP); phospholipid to methyl sterol or BHP ratios were 6:1. Methanol dehydrogenase activity and a c-type cytochrome were also present in this outer membrane fraction. Phospholipase A activity was present in borh the cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane fractions. The unique distribution of cyclic triterpenes may reflect a specific role in conferring outer membrane stability in this methanotrophic bacterium.

  9. Component interactions in the soluble methane monooxygenase system from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Gassner, G T; Lippard, S J

    1999-09-28

    The soluble methane monooxygenase system of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) includes three protein components: a 251-kDa non-heme dinuclear iron hydroxylase (MMOH), a 39-kDa iron-sulfur- and FAD-containing reductase (MMOR), and a 16-kDa regulatory protein (MMOB). The thermodynamic stability and kinetics of formation of complexes between oxidized MMOH and MMOB or MMOR were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy at temperatures ranging from 3.3 to 45 degrees C. The results, in conjunction with data from equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation studies of MMOR and MMOB, indicate that free MMOR and MMOB exist as monomers in solution and bind MMOH with 2:1 stoichiometry. The role of component interactions in the catalytic mechanism of sMMO was investigated through simultaneous measurement of oxidase and hydroxylase activities as a function of varied protein component concentrations during steady-state turnover. The partitioning of oxidase and hydroxylase activities of sMMO is highly dependent on both the MMOR concentration and the nature of the organic substrate. In particular, NADH oxidation is significantly uncoupled from methane hydroxylation at MMOR concentrations exceeding 20% of the hydroxylase concentration but remains tightly coupled to propylene epoxidation at MMOR concentrations ranging up to the MMOH concentration. The steady-state kinetic data were fit to numerical simulations of models that include both the oxidase activities of free MMOR and of MMOH/MMOR complexes and the hydroxylase activity of MMOH/MMOB complexes. The data were well described by a model in which MMOR and MMOB bind noncompetitively at distinct interacting sites on the hydroxylase. MMOB manifests its regulatory effects by differentially accelerating intermolecular electron transfer from MMOR to MMOH containing bound substrate and product in a manner consistent with its activating and inhibitory effects on the hydroxylase.

  10. Inactivation of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by acetylene.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh D; Lin, Ya-Ping; Van Vuong, Quan; Nagababu, Penumaka; Chang, Brian T-A; Ng, Kok Yaoh; Chen, Chein-Hung; Han, Chau-Chung; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Li, Mai Suan; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2015-12-01

    Acetylene (HCCH) has a long history as a mechanism-based enzyme inhibitor and is considered an active-site probe of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Here, we report how HCCH inactivates pMMO in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by using high-resolution mass spectrometry and computational simulation. High-resolution MALDI-TOF MS of intact pMMO complexes has allowed us to confirm that the enzyme oxidizes HCCH to the ketene (C2H2O) intermediate, which then forms an acetylation adduct with the transmembrane PmoC subunit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the peptides derived from in-gel proteolytic digestion of the protein subunit identifies K196 of PmoC as the site of acetylation. No evidence is obtained for chemical modification of the PmoA or PmoB subunit. The inactivation of pMMO by a single adduct in the transmembrane PmoC domain is intriguing given the complexity of the structural fold of this large membrane-protein complex as well as the complicated roles played by the various metal cofactors in the enzyme catalysis. Computational studies suggest that the entry of hydrophobic substrates to, and migration of products from, the catalytic site of pMMO are controlled tightly within the transmembrane domain. Support of these conclusions is provided by parallel experiments with two related alkynes: propyne (CH3CCH) and trifluoropropyne (CF3CCH). Finally, we discuss the implication of these findings to the location of the catalytic site in pMMO.

  11. Structure and protein–protein interactions of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Culpepper, Megen A.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2014-10-07

    In the initial steps of their metabolic pathway, methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane to methanol with methane monooxygenases (MMOs) and methanol to formaldehyde with methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs). Several lines of evidence suggest that the membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO) and MDH interact to form a metabolic supercomplex. To further investigate the possible existence of such a supercomplex, native MDH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been purified and characterized by size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering and X-ray crystallography. M. capsulatus (Bath) MDH is primarily a dimer in solution, although an oligomeric species with a molecular mass of ~450–560 kDa forms at higher protein concentrations. The 2.57 Å resolution crystal structure reveals an overall fold and α₂β₂ dimeric architecture similar to those of other MDH structures. In addition, biolayer interferometry studies demonstrate specific protein–protein interactions between MDH and M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO as well as between MDH and the truncated recombinant periplasmic domains of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO (spmoB). These interactions exhibit KD values of 833 ± 409 nM and 9.0 ± 7.7 μM, respectively. The biochemical data combined with analysis of the crystal lattice interactions observed in the MDH structure suggest a model in which MDH and pMMO associate not as a discrete, stoichiometric complex but as a larger assembly scaffolded by the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  12. The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the delta 9, delta 10 and delta 11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 degrees C cells and the lowest in 50 degrees C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

  13. The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1992-01-01

    Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the Delta9, Delta10, and Delta11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 C cells and the lowest in 50 C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

  14. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  15. Kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of intermediates and component interactions in reactions of methane monooxygenase from methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.E.; Valentine, A.M.; Salifoglou, A.; Lippard, S.J.; Wang, D.; Huynh, B.H.; Edmondson, D.E.

    1995-10-18

    We describe mechanistic studies of the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme system from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Interactions among the three sMMO components, the hydroxylase (H), reductase (R), and protein B (B), were investigated by monitoring conversion of nitrobenzene to nitrophenol under both single turnover and catalytic conditions. During catalytic turnover, hydroxylation occurs to afford 3-nitrophenol (43%) and 4-nitrophenol (57%), whereas hydroxylation takes place exclusively (> 95%) to give 4-nitrophenol under single turnover conditions in the absence of reductase. Protein B exerts a strong influence on single turnover reactions of nitrobenzene, with optimal rate constants and yields obtained by using 1.5-2 equiv of protein R per equivalent of hydroxylase. The temperature dependence of these kinetic values was determined. Changes in dioxygen concentration and pH, as well as exchange of solvent accessible protons with D{sub 2}O, did not significantly affect the rate constants for either of these processes, the implications of which for the kinetic mechanism are discussed. From the present and related evidence, structures for H{sub peroxo} and Q are proposed. 54 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. The noncommensal bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) ameliorates dextran sulfate (Sodium Salt)-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by influencing mechanisms essential for maintenance of the colonic barrier function.

    PubMed

    Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Hult, Lene T Olsen; Spetalen, Signe; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Christofferesen, Trine Eker; Bengtsson, Oskar; Romarheim, Odd Helge; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of a bacterial meal has recently been shown to efficiently abolish soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. The objective of this study was to investigate whether inclusion of this bacterial meal in the diet could abrogate disease development in a murine model of epithelial injury and colitis and thus possibly have therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6N mice were fed ad libitum a control diet or an experimental diet containing 254 g/kg of body weight BioProtein, a bacterial meal consisting of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), together with the heterogenic bacteria Ralstonia sp., Brevibacillus agri, and Aneurinibacillus sp. At day 8, colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ad libitum in the drinking water for 6 days. Symptoms of DSS treatment were less profound after prophylactic treatment with the diet containing the BioProtein. Colitis-associated parameters such as reduced body weight, colon shortening, and epithelial damage also showed significant improvement. Levels of acute-phase reactants, proteins whose plasma concentrations increase in response to inflammation, and neutrophil infiltration were reduced. On the other, increased epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced mucin 2 (Muc2) transcription indicated improved integrity of the colonic epithelial layer. BioProtein mainly consists of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (88%). The results that we obtained when using a bacterial meal consisting of M. capsulatus (Bath) were similar to those obtained when using BioProtein in the DSS model. Our results show that a bacterial meal of the noncommensal bacterium M. capsulatus (Bath) has the potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing colonic barrier function, as judged by increased epithelial proliferation and increased Muc2 transcription.

  17. Physiological evidence for the presence of a cis-trans isomerase of unsaturated fatty acids in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath to adapt to the presence of toxic organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Claudia; Eberlein, Christian; Mäusezahl, Ines; Kappelmeyer, Uwe; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2010-07-01

    The physiology of the response in the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath towards thermal and solvent stress was studied. A systematic investigation of the toxic effects of organic compounds (chlorinated phenols and alkanols) on the growth of this bacterium was carried out. The sensitivity to the tested alkanols correlated with their chain length and hydrophobicity; methanol was shown to be an exception to which the cells showed a very high tolerance. This can be explained by the adaptation of these bacteria to growth on C1 compounds. On the other hand, M. capsulatus Bath was very sensitive towards the tested chlorinated phenols. The high toxic effect of phenolic compounds on methanotrophic bacteria might be explained by the occurrence of toxic reactive oxygen species. In addition, a physiological proof of the presence of cis-trans isomerization as a membrane-adaptive response mechanism in M. capsulatus was provided. This is the first report on physiological evidence for the presence of the unique postsynthetic membrane-adaptive response mechanism of the cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in a bacterium that does not belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Vibrio where this mechanism was already reported and described extensively.

  18. The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Colby, J; Stirling, D I; Dalton, H

    1977-08-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses the oxidation of various substituted methane derivatives including methanol. 2. It is a very non-specific oxygenase and, in some of its catalytic properties, apparently resembles the analogous enzyme from Methylomonas methanica but differs from those found in Methylosinus trichosporium and Methylomonas albus. 3. CO is oxidized to CO2. 4. C1-C8 n-alkanes are hydroxylated, yielding mixtures of the corresponding 1- and 2-alcohols; no 3- or 4-alcohols are formed. 5. Terminal alkenes yield the corresponding 1,2-epoxides. cis- or trans-but-2-ene are each oxidized to a mixture of 2,3-epoxybutane and but-2-en-1-ol with retention of the cis or trans configuration in both products; 2-butanone is also formed from cis-but-2-ene only. 6. Dimethyl ether is oxidized. Diethyl ether undergoes sub-terminal oxidation, yielding ethanol and ethanal in equimolar amounts. 7. Methane mono-oxygenase also hydroxylates cyclic alkanes and aromatic compounds. However, styrene yields only styrene epoxide and pyridine yields only pyridine N-oxide. 8. Of those compounds tested, only NADPH can replace NADH as electron donor.

  19. The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Stirling, D I; Dalton, H

    1977-01-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses the oxidation of various substituted methane derivatives including methanol. 2. It is a very non-specific oxygenase and, in some of its catalytic properties, apparently resembles the analogous enzyme from Methylomonas methanica but differs from those found in Methylosinus trichosporium and Methylomonas albus. 3. CO is oxidized to CO2. 4. C1-C8 n-alkanes are hydroxylated, yielding mixtures of the corresponding 1- and 2-alcohols; no 3- or 4-alcohols are formed. 5. Terminal alkenes yield the corresponding 1,2-epoxides. cis- or trans-but-2-ene are each oxidized to a mixture of 2,3-epoxybutane and but-2-en-1-ol with retention of the cis or trans configuration in both products; 2-butanone is also formed from cis-but-2-ene only. 6. Dimethyl ether is oxidized. Diethyl ether undergoes sub-terminal oxidation, yielding ethanol and ethanal in equimolar amounts. 7. Methane mono-oxygenase also hydroxylates cyclic alkanes and aromatic compounds. However, styrene yields only styrene epoxide and pyridine yields only pyridine N-oxide. 8. Of those compounds tested, only NADPH can replace NADH as electron donor. PMID:411486

  20. Fractionation of the methane isotopologues 13CH4, 12CH3D, and 13CH3D during aerobic oxidation of methane by Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, David T.; Welander, Paula V.; Ono, Shuhei

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methane plays a major role in reducing the amount of methane emitted to the atmosphere from freshwater and marine settings. We cultured an aerobic methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at 30 and 37 °C, and determined the relative abundance of 12CH4, 13CH4, 12CH3D, and 13CH3D (a doubly-substituted, or ;clumped; isotopologue of methane) to characterize the clumped isotopologue effect associated with aerobic methane oxidation. In batch culture, the residual methane became enriched in 13C and D relative to starting methane, with D/H fractionation a factor of 9.14 (Dε/13ε) larger than that of 13C/12C. As oxidation progressed, the Δ13CH3D value (a measure of the excess in abundance of 13CH3D relative to a random distribution of isotopes among isotopologues) of residual methane decreased. The isotopologue fractionation factor for 13CH3D/12CH4 was found to closely approximate the product of the measured fractionation factors for 13CH4/12CH4 and 12CH3D/12CH4 (i.e., 13C/12C and D/H). The results give insight into enzymatic reversibility in the aerobic methane oxidation pathway. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model was developed to predict isotopologue signatures expected for methane in the environment that has been partially-oxidized by aerobic methanotrophy. Measurement of methane clumped isotopologue abundances can be used to distinguish between aerobic methane oxidation and alternative methane-cycling processes.

  1. The C-terminal aqueous-exposed domain of the 45 kDa subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a Cu(I) sponge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Steve S-F; Ji, Cheng-Zhi; Wu, Ya Ping; Lee, Tsu-Lin; Lai, Chien-Hung; Lin, Su-Ching; Yang, Zong-Lin; Wang, Vincent C-C; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Chan, Sunney I

    2007-12-04

    The crystal structure of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been reported recently [Lieberman, R. L., and Rosenzweig, A. C. (2005) Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane, Nature 434, 177-182]. Subsequent work has shown that the preparation on which the X-ray analysis is based might be missing many of the important metal cofactors, including the putative trinuclear copper cluster at the active site as well as ca. 10 copper ions (E-clusters) that have been proposed to serve as a buffer of reducing equivalents to re-reduce the copper atoms at the active site following the catalytic chemistry [Chan, S. I., Wang, V. C.-C., Lai, J. C.-H., Yu, S. S.-F., Chen, P. P.-Y., Chen, K. H.-C., Chen, C.-L., and Chan, M. K. (2007) Redox potentiometry studies of particulate methane monooxygenase: Support for a trinuclear copper cluster active site, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 46, 1992-1994]. Since the aqueous-exposed domains of the 45 kDa subunit (PmoB) have been suggested to be the putative binding domains for the E-cluster copper ions, we have cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli the two aqueous-exposed subdomains toward the N- and C-termini of the subunit: the N-terminal subdomain (residues 54-178) and the C-terminal subdomain (residues 257-394 and 282-414). The recombinant C-terminal water-exposed subdomain is shown to behave like a Cu(I) sponge, taking up to ca. 10 Cu(I) ions cooperatively when cupric ions are added to the protein fragment in the presence of dithiothreitol or ascorbate. In addition, circular dichroism measurements reveal that the C-terminal subdomain folds into a beta-sheet structure in the presence of Cu(I). The propensity for the C-terminal subdomain to bind Cu(I) is consistent with the high redox potential(s) determined for the E-cluster copper ions in the pMMO. These properties of the E-clusters are in accordance with the function proposed

  2. Inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with hydrochlorofluorocarbons and fluorinated methanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matheson, L.J.; Jahnke, L.L.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The inhibition of methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) exposed to hydrochlorofluorocarbon 21 (HCFC-21; difluorochloromethane [CHF2Cl]), HCFC-22 (fluorodichloromethane [CHFCl2]), and various fluorinated methanes was investigated. HCFC-21 inhibited methane oxidation to a greater extent than HCFC-22, for both the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenases. Among the fluorinated methanes, both methyl fluoride (CH3F) and difluoromethane (CH2F2) were inhibitory while fluoroform (CHF3) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) were not. The inhibition of methane oxidation by HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 was irreversible, while that by methyl fluoride was reversible. The HCFCs also proved inhibitory to methanol dehydrogenase, which suggests that they disrupt other aspects of C1 catabolism in addition to methane monooxygenase activity.

  3. Methyl sterol and cyclopropane fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus grown at low oxygen tensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.; Nichols, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    The sterol and fatty acid concentrations for M. capsulatus grown in fed-batch cultures over a wide range of oxygen tensions (0.1-10.6 percent) and at a constant methane level are evaluated. The analyses reveal that the biomass decreases as oxygen levels are lowered; the sterol concentration increases when the oxygen range is between 0.5-1.1 percent and decreases when the oxygen range is below 0.5 percent; and the amount of monounsaturated C16 decreases and the concentration of cyclopropane fatty acids increases after oxygen is reduced. It is noted that growth and membrane synthesis occur at low oxygen concentrations and that the synthesis of membrane lipids responds to growth conditions.

  4. Preparation and characterization of a (Cu,Zn)-pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Li; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-12-01

    We report the preparation of a (Cu,Zn)-particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in which the bulk of the copper ions of the electron-transfer clusters (E-clusters) has been replaced by divalent Zn ions. The Cu and Zn contents in the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO were determined by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption K-edge spectroscopy. Further characterization of the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO was provided by pMMO-activity assays as well as low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy following reductive titration and incubation in air or air/propylene mixtures. The pMMO-activity assays indicated that the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO was no longer capable of supporting catalytic turnover of hydrocarbon substrates. However, the EPR studies revealed that the catalytic cluster (C-cluster) copper ions in the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO were still capable of supporting the activation of dioxygen when reduced, and that the 14N-superhyperfine features associated with one of the type 2 Cu(II) centers in the hydroxylation C-cluster remained unperturbed. The replacement of the E-cluster copper ions by Zn ions did compromise the ability of the protein to mediate the transfer of reducing equivalents from exogenous reductants to the C-clusters. These observations provide strong support for the electron transfer and catalytic roles for the E-cluster and C-cluster copper ions, respectively.

  5. Oxidation of C1 Compounds by Particulate fractions from Methylococcus capsulatus: distribution and properties of methane-dependent reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase (methane hydroxylase).

    PubMed Central

    Ribbons, D W

    1975-01-01

    Cell-free particulate fractions of extracts from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus catalyze the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and O2-dependent oxidation of methane (methane hydroxylase). The only oxidation product detected was formate. These preparations also catalyze the oxidation of methanol and formaldehyde to formate in the presence or absence of phenazine methosulphate with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Methane hydroxylase activity cannot be reproducibly obtained from disintegrated cell suspensions even though the whole cells actively respired when methane was presented as a substrate. Varying the disintegration method or extraction medium had no significant effect on the activities obtained. When active particles were obtained, hydroxylase activity was stable at 0 C for days. Methane hydroxylase assays were made by measuring the methane-dependent oxidation of NADH by O2. In separate experiments, methane consumption and the accumulation of formate were also demonstrated. Formate is not oxidized by these particulate fractions. The effects of particle concentration, temperature, pH, and phosphate concentration on enzymic activity are described. Ethane is utilized in the presence of NADH and O2. The stoichiometric relationships of the reaction(s) with methane as substrate were not established since (i) the presumed initial product, methanol, is also oxidized to formate, and (ii) the contribution that NADH oxidase activity makes to the observed consumption of reactants could not be assessed in the presence of methane. Studies with known inhibitors of electron transport systems indicate that the path of electron flow from NADH to oxygen is different for the NADH oxidase, methane hydroxylase, and methanol oxidase activities. Images PMID:238946

  6. Revisiting the mechanism of dioxygen activation in soluble methane monooxygenase from M. capsulatus (Bath): evidence for a multi-step, proton-dependent reaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Tinberg, Christine E; Lippard, Stephen J

    2009-12-29

    Stopped-flow kinetic investigations of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from M. capsulatus (Bath) have clarified discrepancies that exist in the literature regarding several aspects of catalysis by this enzyme. The development of thorough kinetic analytical techniques has led to the discovery of two novel oxygenated iron species that accumulate in addition to the well-established intermediates H(peroxo) and Q. The first intermediate, P*, is a precursor to H(peroxo) and was identified when the reaction of reduced MMOH and MMOB with O(2) was carried out in the presence of >or=540 microM methane to suppress the dominating absorbance signal due to Q. The optical properties of P* are similar to those of H(peroxo), with epsilon(420) = 3500 M(-1) cm(-1) and epsilon(720) = 1250 M(-1) cm(-1). These values are suggestive of a peroxo-to-iron(III) charge-transfer transition and resemble those of peroxodiiron(III) intermediates characterized in other carboxylate-bridged diiron proteins and synthetic model complexes. The second identified intermediate, Q*, forms on the pathway of Q decay when reactions are performed in the absence of hydrocarbon substrate. Q* does not react with methane, forms independently of buffer composition, and displays a unique shoulder at 455 nm in its optical spectrum. Studies conducted at different pH values reveal that rate constants corresponding to P* decay/H(peroxo) formation and H(peroxo) decay/Q formation are both significantly retarded at high pH and indicate that both events require proton transfer. The processes exhibit normal kinetic solvent isotope effects (KSIEs) of 2.0 and 1.8, respectively, when the reactions are performed in D(2)O. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the observations of these novel intermediates and the proton dependencies of P* to H(peroxo) and H(peroxo) to Q conversion.

  7. A continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (X-band) study of the Cu2+ sites of particulate methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) in membrane and pure dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase of the adrenal medulla.

    PubMed Central

    Katterle, Bettina; Gvozdev, Rudolf I; Abudu, Ntei; Ljones, Torbjørn; Andersson, K Kristoffer

    2002-01-01

    All methanotrophic bacteria express a membrane-bound (particulate) methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO). In the present study, we have investigated pMMO in membrane fragments from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M). pMMO contains a typical type-2 Cu(2+) centre with the following EPR parameters: g(z) 2.24, g(x,y) 2.06, A(Cu)(z) 19.0 mT and A(Cu)(x,y) 1.0 mT. Simulation of the Cu(2+) spectrum yielded a best match by using four equivalent nitrogens (A(N)=1.5 mT, 42 MHz). Incubation with ferricyanide neither changed nor increased the amount of EPR-active Cu(2+), in contrast with other reports. The EPR visible copper seems not to be part of any cluster, as judged from the microwave power saturation behaviour. Continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (CW ENDOR; 9.4 GHz, 5-20 K) experiments at g( perpendicular) of the Cu(II) spectrum show a weak coupling to protons with an A(H) of 2.9 MHz that corresponds to a distance of 3.8 A (1 A identical with 0.1 nm), assuming that it is a purely dipolar coupling. Incubation in (2)H(2)O leads to a significant decrease in these (1)H-ENDOR intensities, showing that these protons are exchangeable. This result strongly suggests that the EPR visible copper site of pMMO is accessible to solvent, which was confirmed by the chelation of the Cu(2+) by diethyldithiocarbamic acid. The (1)H and (14)N hyperfine coupling constants confirm a histidine ligation of the EPR visible copper site in pMMO. The hyperfine structure in the ENDOR or EPR spectra of pMMO is not influenced by the inhibitors azide, cyanide or ammonia, indicating that they do not bind to the EPR visible copper. We compared pMMO with the type-2 Cu(2+) enzyme, dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase (DbetaM). For DbetaM, it is assumed that the copper site is solvent-accessible. CW ENDOR shows similar weakly coupled and (2)H(2)O-exchangeable protons (2.9 MHz), as observed in pMMO, as well as the strongly coupled nitrogens (40 MHz) from the co-ordinating N of the histidines in DbetaM. In

  8. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic attacks depression suicidal thoughts paranoia delusions and hallucinations distorted sense of reality decreased ability to think ... of bath salts may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis ...

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Rhodobacter capsulatus: genes, mutants, expression, and physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, R G; Gabbert, K K; Locke, T A; Madigan, M T

    1997-01-01

    Like many other prokaryotes, the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus produces high levels of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) when a suitable carbon source is available. The three genes that are traditionally considered to be necessary in the PHA biosynthetic pathway, phaA (beta-ketothiolase), phaB (acetoacetylcoenzyme A reductase), and phaC (PHA synthase), were cloned from Rhodobacter capsulatus. In R. capsulatus, the phaAB genes are not linked to the phaC gene. Translational beta-galactosidase fusions to phaA and phaC were constructed and recombined into the chromosome. Both phaC and phaA were constitutively expressed regardless of whether PHA production was induced, suggesting that control is posttranslational at the enzymatic level. Consistent with this conclusion, it was shown that the R. capsulatus transcriptional nitrogen-sensing circuits were not involved in PHA synthesis. The doubling times of R. capsulatus transcriptional nitrogen-sensing circuits were not involved in PHA synthesis. The doubling times of R. capsulatus grown on numerous carbon sources were determined, indicating that this bacterium grows on C2 to C12 fatty acids. Grown on acetone, caproate, or heptanoate, wild-type R. capsulatus produced high levels of PHAs. Although a phaC deletion strain was unable to synthesize PHAs on any carbon source, phaA and phaAB deletion strains were able to produce PHAs, indicating that alternative routes for the synthesis of substrates for the synthase are present. The nutritional versatility and bioenergetic versatility of R. capsulatus, coupled with its ability to produce large amounts of PHAs and its genetic tractability, make it an attractive model for the study of PHA production. PMID:9251189

  10. Cloning of the Rhodobacter capsulatus hemA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Biel, S W; Wright, M S; Biel, A J

    1988-01-01

    Portions of the Rhodobacter capsulatus hemA gene have been cloned from a hemA::Tn5 insertion strain into the lambda bacteriophage derivative EMBL3. A cosmid containing the wild-type R. capsulatus hemA gene was isolated by complementation of the hemA::Tn5 mutant. The cosmid contains a 1.4-kilobase EcoRI fragment that spans the hemA::Tn5 insertion site. The entire hemA gene is contained in this fragment and the adjacent 0.6-kilobase EcoRI fragment. Images PMID:2842318

  11. Baby Bath Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel more comfortable at bath time. Start by learning baby bath basics. There's no need to give your newborn a bath every day. Three times a week might be enough until your baby becomes more mobile. Bathing your baby too much can dry out ...

  12. Clustering of genes necessary for hydrogen oxidation in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H W; Wall, J D

    1991-01-01

    Three cosmids previously shown to contain information necessary for the expression of uptake of hydrogenase in Rhodobacter capsulatus were found to be present in a cluster on the chromosome. Earlier genetic experiments suggested the presence of at least six genes essential for hydrogenase activity that are now shown to be in a region of approximately 18 kb that includes the structural genes for the enzyme. A potential response regulator gene was sequenced as a part of the hup gene region. PMID:2007559

  13. Sequence of the indoleglycerol phosphate synthase (trpC) gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Rudzik, M; Young, D A; Marrs, B L

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated, cloned, and sequenced the indoleglycerol phosphate synthase gene (trpC) from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Normalized alignment scores comparing the trpC gene of R. capsulatus with the trpC genes of other bacterial species are reported. An unexpected degree of similarity to the trpC gene of Bacillus subtilis was found. PMID:1644778

  14. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... risks of using synthetic cathinones (bath salts)? Another danger of bath salts is that they might contain ... Drugs: Is There a Way to Reduce the Dangers? June 09, 2015 / The NIDA Blog Team Concert ...

  15. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  16. Physiological control and regulation of the Rhodobacter capsulatus cbb operons.

    PubMed

    Paoli, G C; Vichivanives, P; Tabita, F R

    1998-08-01

    The genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) reductive pentose phosphate pathway in Rhodobacter capsulatus are organized in at least two operons, each preceded by a separate cbbR gene, encoding potential LysR-type transcriptional activators. As a prelude to studies of cbb gene regulation in R. capsulatus, the nucleotide sequence of a 4,537-bp region, which included cbbRII, was determined. This region contained the following open reading frames: a partial pgm gene (encoding phosphoglucomutase) and a complete qor gene (encoding NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase), followed by cbbRII, cbbF (encoding fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase), cbbP (encoding phosphoribulokinase), and part of cbbT (encoding transketolase). Physiological control of the CBB pathway and regulation of the R. capsulatus cbb genes were studied by using a combination of mutant strains and promoter fusion constructs. Characterization of mutant strains revealed that either form I or form II ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), encoded by the cbbLS and cbbM genes, respectively, could support photoheterotrophic and autotrophic growth. A strain with disruptions in both cbbL and cbbM could not grow autotrophically and grew photoheterotrophically only when dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the culture medium. Disruption of cbbP resulted in a strain that did not synthesize form II RubisCO and had a phenotype similar to that observed in the RubisCO-minus strain, suggesting that there is only one cbbP gene in R. capsulatus and that this gene is cotranscribed with cbbM. Analysis of RubisCO activity and synthesis in strains with disruptions in either cbbRI or cbbRII, and beta-galactosidase determinations from wild-type and mutant strains containing cbbIp- and cbbIIp-lacZ fusion constructs, indicated that the cbbI and cbbII operons of R. capsulatus are within separate CbbR regulons.

  17. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jouanneau, Y.; Roby, C.; Meyer, C.M.; Vignais, P.M. )

    1989-07-25

    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, nitrogenase is regulated by a reversible covalent modification of Fe protein or dinitrogenase reductase (Rc2). The linkage of the modifying group to inactive Rc2 was found to be sensitive to alkali and to neutral hydroxylamine. Complete release of the modifying group was achieved by incubation of inactive Rc2 in 0.4 or 1 M hydroxylamine. After hydroxylamine treatment of the Rc2 preparation, the modifying group could be isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The modifying group comigrated with ADP-ribose on both ion-exchange HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. Analyses by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provided further evidence that the modifying group was ADP-ribose. The NMR spectrum of inactive Rc2 exhibited signals characteristic of ADP-ribose; integration of these signals allowed calculation of a molar ration ADP-ribose/Rc2 of 0.63. A hexapeptide carrying the ADP-ribose moiety was purified from a subtilisin digest of inactive Rc2. The structure of this peptide, determined by amino acid analysis and sequencing, is Gly-Arg(ADP-ribose)-Gly-Val-Ile-Thr. This structure allows identification of the binding site for ADP-ribose as Arg 101 of the polypeptide chain of Rc2. It is concluded that nitrogenase activity in R. capsulatus is regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginyl residue of dinitrogenase reductase.

  18. A comparison of the substrate and electron-donor specificities of the methane mono-oxygenases from three strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, D I; Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1979-01-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium has the same broad substrate specificity as the analogous enzyme from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath); the enzyme from Methylomonas methanica is more specific. 2. Contrary to previous reports, NAD(P)H and not ascorbate is the required electron donor for the enzyme from Methylosinus trichosporium. 3. It is concluded that these three bacteria contain similar methane mono-oxygenases. PMID:106847

  19. Electrocution in a bath.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, E C

    1995-01-01

    A wife was found dead by her husband, lying in a tiled bath on a cast concrete floor, with a 1 kW electric radiator immersed in the bath water. Initially the case was treated as accidental death, but the police charged the husband with murder on the grounds that his wife could not have died in the manner he described. Subsequent investigation showed that the bath had a low resistance to earth and that there were faults in both the house wiring and the radiator cable, which, together with a high blood alcohol content, produced a fatal chain of events.

  20. Artificial Quantum Thermal Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Alireza; Neven, Hartmut

    In this talk, we present a theory for engineering the temperature of a quantum system different from its ambient temperature, that is basically an analog version of the quantum metropolis algorithm. We define criteria for an engineered quantum bath that, when couples to a quantum system with Hamiltonian H, drives the system to the equilibrium state e/- H / T Tr (e - H / T) with a tunable parameter T. For a system of superconducting qubits, we propose a circuit-QED approximate realization of such an engineered thermal bath consisting of driven lossy resonators. We consider an artificial thermal bath as a simulator for many-body physics or a controllable temperature knob for a hybrid quantum-thermal annealer.

  1. Expression in Escherichia coli and characterization of a recombinant 7Fe ferredoxin of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Jouanneau, Y; Duport, C; Meyer, C; Gaillard, J

    1992-01-01

    The 7Fe ferredoxin of Rhodobacter capsulatus (FdII) could be expressed in Escherichia coli by cloning the fdxA gene coding for FdII downstream from the lac promoter. The expressed recombinant ferredoxin appeared as a brown protein which was specifically recognized in E. coli cell-free extracts by anti-FdII serum. The purified recombinant ferredoxin was indistinguishable from R. capsulatus FdII on the basis of its molecular, redox and spectroscopic properties. These results indicate that the [3Fe-4S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters were correctly inserted into the recombinant ferredoxin. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1325780

  2. Mixed ether bath for electrodeposition of aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, K.

    1969-01-01

    Anisole added to the bath mixture improves Brenner aluminum plating bath technique. Mixture has lower bath vapor-pressure and the electro-deposits obtained have greater physical strength than deposits from the Brenner bath.

  3. Electrochemical communication between heterotrophically grown Rhodobacter capsulatus with electrodes mediated by an osmium redox polymer.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kamrul; Patil, Sunil A; Górecki, Kamil; Leech, Dónal; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Gorton, Lo

    2013-10-01

    The metabolically versatile purple bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus was investigated to check its possible applicability in biofuel cells and electrochemical microbial biosensors. The wild type strain ATCC 17015 and mutant strain 37b4 lacking the lipopolysaccharide capsule was compared for their ability to communicate with electrodes modified with an osmium redox polymer. In this work, aerobic heterotrophically grown R. capsulatus were used to screen for efficient cell-electrode communication for later implementation using photoheterotrophically grown bacteria. The bacterial cells embedded in the osmium polymer matrix demonstrated efficient electrical "wiring" with the electrodes and were able to generate a noticeable current with succinate as substrate. Interestingly, at 2mM succinate the wild type strain showed much better bioelectrocatalytic current generation (4.25 μA/cm(2)) than the strain lacking capsule (1.55 μA/cm(2)). The wild type strain also exhibited a stable current response for longer time, demonstrating that the bacterial lipopolysaccharide in fact enhances the stability of the polymer matrix layer of the modified electrode. Control experiments with R. capsulatus without any mediator did not show any current irrespective of the capsule presence. This demonstrates that development of photosensors and other light driven bioelectrochemical devices could be feasible using R. capsulatus and will be at focus for future studies.

  4. Phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation promotes organic carbon acquisition by Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003.

    PubMed

    Caiazza, Nicky C; Lies, Douglas P; Newman, Dianne K

    2007-10-01

    Anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation is usually considered to be a lithoautotrophic metabolism that contributes to primary production in Fe-based ecosystems. In this study, we employed Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 as a model organism to test the hypothesis that phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation can be coupled to organic carbon acquisition. R. capsulatus SB1003 oxidized Fe(II) under anoxic conditions in a light-dependent manner, but it failed to grow lithoautotrophically on soluble Fe(II). When the strain was provided with Fe(II)-citrate, however, growth was observed that was dependent upon microbially catalyzed Fe(II) oxidation, resulting in the formation of Fe(III)-citrate. Subsequent photochemical breakdown of Fe(III)-citrate yielded acetoacetic acid that supported growth in the light but not the dark. The deletion of genes (RRC00247 and RRC00248) that encode homologs of atoA and atoD, required for acetoacetic acid utilization, severely impaired the ability of R. capsulatus SB1003 to grow on Fe(II)-citrate. The growth yield achieved by R. capsulatus SB1003 in the presence of citrate cannot be explained by lithoautotrophic growth on Fe(II) enabled by indirect effects of the ligand [such as altering the thermodynamics of Fe(II) oxidation or preventing cell encrustation]. Together, these results demonstrate that R. capsulatus SB1003 grows photoheterotrophically on Fe(II)-citrate. Nitrilotriacetic acid also supported light-dependent growth on Fe(II), suggesting that Fe(II) oxidation may be a general mechanism whereby some Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria mine otherwise inaccessible organic carbon sources.

  5. Identification and isolation of genes essential for H2 oxidation in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H W; Love, J; Borghese, R; Wall, J D

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Rhodobacter capsulatus unable to grow photoautotrophically with H2 and CO2 were isolated. Those lacking uptake hydrogenase activity as measured by H2-dependent methylene blue reduction were analyzed genetically and used in complementation studies for the isolation of the wild-type genes. Results of further subcloning and transposon Tn5 mutagenesis suggest the involvement of a minimum of five genes. Hybridization to the 2.2-kilobase-pair SstI fragment that lies within the coding region for the large and small subunits of Bradyrhizobium japonicum uptake hydrogenase showed one region of strong homology among the R. capsulatus fragments isolated, which we interpret to mean that one or both structural genes were among the genes isolated. Images PMID:2536678

  6. Extracellular production of tellurium nanoparticles by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Roberto; Brucale, Marco; Fortunato, Gianuario; Lanzi, Massimiliano; Mezzi, Alessio; Valle, Francesco; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Zannoni, Davide

    2016-05-15

    The toxic oxyanion tellurite (TeO3(2-)) is acquired by cells of Rhodobacter capsulatus grown anaerobically in the light, via acetate permease ActP2 and then reduced to Te(0) in the cytoplasm as needle-like black precipitates. Interestingly, photosynthetic cultures of R. capsulatus can also generate Te(0) nanoprecipitates (TeNPs) outside the cells upon addition of the redox mediator lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone). TeNPs generation kinetics were monitored to define the optimal conditions to produce TeNPs as a function of various carbon sources and lawsone concentration. We report that growing cultures over a 10 days period with daily additions of 1mM tellurite led to the accumulation in the growth medium of TeNPs with dimensions from 200 up to 600-700 nm in length as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This result suggests that nucleation of TeNPs takes place over the entire cell growth period although the addition of new tellurium Te(0) to pre-formed TeNPs is the main strategy used by R. capsulatus to generate TeNPs outside the cells. Finally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of TeNPs indicate they are coated with an organic material which keeps the particles in solution in aqueous solvents.

  7. Transcriptional Profiling of Hydrogen Production Metabolism of Rhodobacter capsulatus under Temperature Stress by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gürgan, Muazzez; Afşar Erkal, Nilüfer; Özgür, Ebru; Gündüz, Ufuk; Eroglu, Inci; Yücel, Meral

    2015-01-01

    Biohydrogen is a clean and renewable form of hydrogen, which can be produced by photosynthetic bacteria in outdoor large-scale photobioreactors using sunlight. In this study, the transcriptional response of Rhodobacter capsulatus to cold (4 °C) and heat (42 °C) stress was studied using microarrays. Bacteria were grown in 30/2 acetate/glutamate medium at 30 °C for 48 h under continuous illumination. Then, cold and heat stresses were applied for two and six hours. Growth and hydrogen production were impaired under both stress conditions. Microarray chips for R. capsulatus were custom designed by Affymetrix (GeneChip®. TR_RCH2a520699F). The numbers of significantly changed genes were 328 and 293 out of 3685 genes under cold and heat stress, respectively. Our results indicate that temperature stress greatly affects the hydrogen production metabolisms of R. capsulatus. Specifically, the expression of genes that participate in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and the electron transport system were induced by cold stress, while decreased by heat stress. Heat stress also resulted in down regulation of genes related to cell envelope, transporter and binding proteins. Transcriptome analysis and physiological results were consistent with each other. The results presented here may aid clarification of the genetic mechanisms for hydrogen production in purple non-sulfur (PNS) bacteria under temperature stress. PMID:26086826

  8. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  9. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  10. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  11. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  12. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Heat-Resistant Mutant Strains (A52 and B41) of the Photosynthetic Hydrogen-Producing Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Abdulmecit; Cakar, Zeynep Petek; Yucel, Meral; Ozcan, Orhan; Sencan, Sevde; Sertdemir, Ibrahim; Erguner, Bekir; Yuceturk, Betul; Sarac, Aydan; Yuksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two heat-resistant mutant strains, A52 and B41, derived from Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710, and with different hydrogen production levels, are reported here. These sequences may help understand the molecular basis of heat resistance and hydrogen production in R. capsulatus. PMID:27284151

  14. Environmental geology of Bath, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellaway, G. A.

    1995-10-01

    The hot springs of Bath, England, have been of importance to man for hundreds of years. It was a famous spa in Roman times. Subsequently, the springs were used during the 17th through the 20th centuries and extensive urban and commercial properties were developed at Bath using the water for medical and tourist-oriented activities. With urban and commercial development in the area, man's impact on the environment was substantial and typical environmental problems included pollution, land subsidence, or stability that effected construction, drainage, highways, and canals. During the growth of Bath in the 18th and 19th centuries these environmental problems were described by geologist William Smith and Joseph Townsend. Bath and vicinity provides a unique example of environmental geoscience.

  15. Inactivation of Mg chelatase during transition from anaerobic to aerobic growth in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Willows, Robert D; Lake, Vanessa; Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Beale, Samuel I

    2003-06-01

    The facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can adapt from an anaerobic photosynthetic mode of growth to aerobic heterotrophic metabolism. As this adaptation occurs, the cells must rapidly halt bacteriochlorophyll synthesis to prevent phototoxic tetrapyrroles from accumulating, while still allowing heme synthesis to continue. A likely control point is Mg chelatase, the enzyme that diverts protoporphyrin IX from heme biosynthesis toward the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway by inserting Mg(2+) to form Mg-protoporphyrin IX. Mg chelatase is composed of three subunits that are encoded by the bchI, bchD, and bchH genes in R. capsulatus. We report that BchH is the rate-limiting component of Mg chelatase activity in cell extracts. BchH binds protoporphyrin IX, and BchH that has been expressed and purified from Escherichia coli is red in color due to the bound protoporphyrin IX. Recombinant BchH is rapidly inactivated by light in the presence of O(2), and the inactivation results in the formation of a covalent adduct between the protein and the bound protoporphyrin IX. When photosynthetically growing R. capsulatus cells are transferred to aerobic conditions, Mg chelatase is rapidly inactivated, and BchH is the component that is most rapidly inactivated in vivo when cells are exposed to aerobic conditions. The light- and O(2)-stimulated inactivation of BchH could account for the rapid inactivation of Mg chelatase in vivo and provide a mechanism for inhibiting the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll during adaptation of photosynthetically grown cells to aerobic conditions while still allowing heme synthesis to occur for aerobic respiration.

  16. Microbiologists meet geologists in Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onstott, T. C.

    A diverse group of microbiologists, molecular biologists, chemical engineers, and geologists met in Bath, United Kingdom, in September 1993 to reach across the barriers separating their disciplines and report new findings in the expanding field of geomicrobiology. The occasion was the second International Symposium on Subsurface Microbiology, cosponsored by the Subsurface Science Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Historically, Bath was a resort centered around the emission of thermal waters credited with the potential to cure numerous ills. The location was appropriate given that biotechnology appears to have considerable potential to cure some challenging environmental ailments.

  17. Gene co-expression network analysis in Rhodobacter capsulatus and application to comparative expression analysis of Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Pena-Castillo, Lourdes; Mercer, Ryan; Gurinovich, Anastasia; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.; Westbye, Alexander; Beatty, J. T.; Lang, Andrew S.

    2014-08-28

    The genus Rhodobacter contains purple nonsulfur bacteria found mostly in freshwater environments. Representative strains of two Rhodobacter species, R. capsulatus and R. sphaeroides, have had their genomes fully sequenced and both have been the subject of transcriptional profiling studies. Gene co-expression networks can be used to identify modules of genes with similar expression profiles. Functional analysis of gene modules can then associate co-expressed genes with biological pathways, and network statistics can determine the degree of module preservation in related networks. In this paper, we constructed an R. capsulatus gene co-expression network, performed functional analysis of identified gene modules, and investigated preservation of these modules in R. capsulatus proteomics data and in R. sphaeroides transcriptomics data. Results: The analysis identified 40 gene co-expression modules in R. capsulatus. Investigation of the module gene contents and expression profiles revealed patterns that were validated based on previous studies supporting the biological relevance of these modules. We identified two R. capsulatus gene modules preserved in the protein abundance data. We also identified several gene modules preserved between both Rhodobacter species, which indicate that these cellular processes are conserved between the species and are candidates for functional information transfer between species. Many gene modules were non-preserved, providing insight into processes that differentiate the two species. In addition, using Local Network Similarity (LNS), a recently proposed metric for expression divergence, we assessed the expression conservation of between-species pairs of orthologs, and within-species gene-protein expression profiles. Conclusions: Our analyses provide new sources of information for functional annotation in R. capsulatus because uncharacterized genes in modules are now connected with groups of genes that constitute a joint functional

  18. Crystallization of a flavodoxin involved in nitrogen fixation in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Bortolotti, Ana; Cortez, Néstor; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2008-05-01

    The flavodoxin NifF from R. capsulatus, a candidate for nitrogenase reduction during nitrogen fixation, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Preliminary X-ray data processing at 2.17 Å resolution allowed determination of the crystal system and unit-cell parameters. Flavodoxins are small electron-transfer proteins that contain one molecule of noncovalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN). The flavodoxin NifF from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is reduced by one electron from ferredoxin/flavodoxin:NADP(H) reductase and was postulated to be an electron donor to nitrogenase in vivo. NifF was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and concentrated for crystallization using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Crystals grew from a mixture of PEG 3350 and PEG 400 at pH 5.5 and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.49, c = 121.32 Å. X-ray data sets have been collected to 2.17 Å resolution.

  19. Evolutionary implications of phylogenetic analyses of the gene transfer agent (GTA) of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Lang, Andrew S; Taylor, Terumi A; Beatty, J Thomas

    2002-11-01

    The gene transfer agent (GTA) of the a-proteobacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is a cell-controlled genetic exchange vector. Genes that encode the GTA structure are clustered in a 15-kb region of the R. capsulatus chromosome, and some of these genes show sequence similarity to known bacteriophage head and tail genes. However, the production of GTA is controlled at the level of transcription by a cellular two-component signal transduction system. This paper describes homologues of both the GTA structural gene cluster and the GTA regulatory genes in the a-proteobacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Caulobacter crescentus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Brucella melitensis. These sequences were used in a phylogenetic tree approach to examine the evolutionary relationships of selected GTA proteins to these homologues and (pro)phage proteins, which was compared to a 16S rRNA tree. The data indicate that a GTA-like element was present in a single progenitor of the extant species that contain both GTA structural cluster and regulatory gene homologues. The evolutionary relationships of GTA structural proteins to (pro)phage proteins indicated by the phylogenetic tree patterns suggest a predominantly vertical descent of GTA-like sequences in the a-proteobacteria and little past gene exchange with (pro)phages.

  20. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  2. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey From collection of Bath Marine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey From collection of Bath Marine Museum, Washington Street, Bath SOUTHEAST VIEW OF HOUSE FROM WOOD ENGRAVING ON 1851 BATH MAP - George F. Patten House, 118 Front Street, Bath, Sagadahoc County, ME

  5. Crystallization of a flavodoxin involved in nitrogen fixation in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Bortolotti, Ana; Cortez, Néstor; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Flavodoxins are small electron-transfer proteins that contain one molecule of noncovalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN). The flavodoxin NifF from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is reduced by one electron from ferredoxin/flavodoxin:NADP(H) reductase and was postulated to be an electron donor to nitrogenase in vivo. NifF was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and concentrated for crystallization using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Crystals grew from a mixture of PEG 3350 and PEG 400 at pH 5.5 and belong to the tetragonal space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.49, c = 121.32 Å. X-ray data sets have been collected to 2.17 Å resolution. PMID:18453705

  6. An overlap between operons involved in carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Young, D A; Rudzik, M B; Marrs, B L

    1992-08-15

    A new example of superoperonal gene arrangement has been documented in the Rhodobacter capsulatus photosynthetic gene cluster. The promoter for the operon initiated by the bchI gene is embedded within an upstream operon for carotenoid synthesis. The stop codon for the crtA gene, the only gene in the first operon, overlaps the start codon of the downstream bchI gene. As a consequence of this overlap, the promoter(s) for the bch operon must be located within the crtA structural gene. The bchI gene is shown here for the first time to be required for the conversion of protoporphyrin IX to subsequent intermediates in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis.

  7. In vitro assembly of a prohead-like structure of the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent

    SciTech Connect

    Spano, Anthony J. . E-mail: ajs6z@virginia.edu; Chen, Frank S.; Goodman, Benjamin E.; Sabat, Agnes E.; Simon, Martha N.; Wall, Joseph S.; Correia, John J.; McIvor, Wilson; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.; Schnur, Joel M.; Lebedev, Nikolai

    2007-07-20

    The gene transfer agent (GTA) is a phage-like particle capable of exchanging double-stranded DNA fragments between cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Here we show that the major capsid protein of GTA, expressed in E. coli, can be assembled into prohead-like structures in the presence of calcium ions in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of uranyl acetate staining material and thin sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed material demonstrates that these associates have spherical structures with diameters in the range of 27-35 nm. The analysis of scanning TEM images revealed particles of mass {approx} 4.3 MDa, representing 101 {+-} 11 copies of the monomeric subunit. The establishment of this simple and rapid method to form prohead-like particles permits the GTA system to be used for genome manipulation within the photosynthetic bacterium, for specific targeted drug delivery, and for the construction of biologically based distributed autonomous sensors for environmental monitoring.

  8. Replacement of sugars to hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus using dark fermentation effluent as substrate.

    PubMed

    Silva, Felipe Thales Moreira; Moreira, Luiza Rojas; de Souza Ferreira, Juliana; Batista, Fabiana Regina Xavier; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative for the increased global energy demand since it has high energy density and is a clean fuel. The aim of this work was to evaluate the photo-fermentation by Rhodobacter capsulatus, using the dark fermentation effluent as substrate. Different systems were tested by changing the type of sugar in the dark fermentation, investigating the influence of supplementing DFE with sugar and adding alternate and periodically lactose and glucose throughout the process. The supplementation of the DFE with sugar resulted in higher H2 productivity and the replacement of the sugars repeatedly during the photo-fermentation process was important to maintain the cell culture active. By controlling the residual amount of sugar, bacteria inhibition was avoided; lactic acid, that was toxic to the biomass, was consumed and the metabolic route of butyric acid production was predominant. Under optimum conditions, the H2 productivity reached 208.40mmolH2/Ld in 52h.

  9. Zinc biosorption by the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Magnin, Jean-Pierre; Gondrexon, Nicolas; Willison, John C

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the first report providing information on the zinc (Zn) biosorption potentialities of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. The effects of various biological, physical, and chemical parameters on Zn biosorption were studied in both the wild-type strain B10 and a strain, RC220, lacking the endogenous plasmid. At an initial Zn concentration of 10 mg·L(-1), the Zn biosorption capacity at pH 7 for bacterial biomass grown in synthetic medium containing lactate as carbon source was 17 and 16 mg Zn·(g dry mass)(-1) for strains B10 and RC220, respectively. Equilibrium was achieved in a contact time of 30-120 min, depending on the initial Zn concentration. Zn sorption by live biomass was modelled, at equilibrium, according to the Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir isotherms, in the range of 1-600 mg Zn·L(-1). The wild-type strain showed a maximal Zn uptake capacity (Qm) of 164 ± 8 mg·(g dry mass)(-1) and an equilibrium constant (Kads) of 0.017 ± 0.00085 L·(mg Zn)(-1), compared with values of 73.9 mg·(g dry mass)(-1) and 0.361 L·mg(-1) for the strain lacking the endogenous plasmid. The Qm value observed for R. capsulatus B10 is one of the highest reported in the literature, suggesting that this strain may be useful for Zn bioremediation. The lower Qm value and higher equilibrium constant observed for strain RC220 suggest that the endogenous plasmid confers an enhanced biosorption capacity in this bacterium, although no genetic determinants for Zn resistance appear to be located on the plasmid, and possible explanations for this are discussed.

  10. The Reductive Half-reaction of Xanthine Dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Hall, James; Reschke, Stefan; Cao, Hongnan; Leimkühler, Silke; Hille, Russ

    2014-01-01

    The kinetic properties of an E232Q variant of the xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus have been examined to ascertain whether Glu232 in wild-type enzyme is protonated or unprotonated in the course of catalysis at neutral pH. We find that kred, the limiting rate constant for reduction at high [xanthine], is significantly compromised in the variant, a result that is inconsistent with Glu232 being neutral in the active site of the wild-type enzyme. A comparison of the pH dependence of both kred and kred/Kd from reductive half-reaction experiments between wild-type and enzyme and the E232Q variant suggests that the ionized Glu232 of wild-type enzyme plays an important role in catalysis by discriminating against the monoanionic form of substrate, effectively increasing the pKa of substrate by two pH units and ensuring that at physiological pH the neutral form of substrate predominates in the Michaelis complex. A kinetic isotope study of the wild-type R. capsulatus enzyme indicates that, as previously determined for the bovine and chicken enzymes, product release is principally rate-limiting in catalysis. The disparity in rate constants for the chemical step of the reaction and product release, however, is not as great in the bacterial enzyme as compared with the vertebrate forms. The results indicate that the bacterial and bovine enzymes catalyze the chemical step of the reaction to the same degree and that the faster turnover observed with the bacterial enzyme is due to a faster rate constant for product release than is seen with the vertebrate enzyme. PMID:25258317

  11. Molecular genetic and molecular evolutionary studies on the bacteriochlorophyll synthesis genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Burke-Agueero, Donald H.

    1992-08-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus, purple bacterium capable of either aerobic or photosynthetic growth, has proven to be very useful in genetic studies of photosynthesis. Forty-four genes clustered together within a 46 kilobase region are required to establish photosynthetic ability in R. capsulatus. Approximately twenty of these genes are involved in bacteriochlorophyll synthesis of which eight ``bch`` genes are the subject of this thesis. Six of these genes were found to code for the two ring reductases. The first converts protochlorophyllide (PChlide) into a chlorin, the immediate precursor to chlorophyll a, and then into a bacteriochlorin. Each reductase is shown to be made up of three subunits. PChlide reductase is coded by the genes bchN, bchB, and bchL. Proteins with amino acid sequences markedly similar to those of bchN and bchL have been shown in other organisms to be required for chlorophyll synthesis; hence, their designation as chlN and chlB. A third chloroplast-encoded gene of heretofore unknown function shares amino acid identities with bchB and is probably the third subunit of the plant PChlide reductase. The bchA locus, which encodes the chlorin reductase, is found to be made up of three separate, translationally coupled genes, referred to as bchX, bchY, and bchZ. Amino acid similarities between bchX, bchL, and the nitrogenase reductase protein nifH suggest that all three classes of proteins share certain three-dimensional structural features, including elements that are central to the enzymatic mechanism of nifH. PChlide reductase and chlorin reductase are clearly derived from a common ancestor. Several lines of analysis suggests the ancestor of both enzyme systems reduced PChlide twice to produce bacteriochlorophyll supporting the concept bacteriochlorophyll as the ancestral reaction center pigment.

  12. Molecular genetic and molecular evolutionary studies on the bacteriochlorophyll synthesis genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Burke-Agueero, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus, purple bacterium capable of either aerobic or photosynthetic growth, has proven to be very useful in genetic studies of photosynthesis. Forty-four genes clustered together within a 46 kilobase region are required to establish photosynthetic ability in R. capsulatus. Approximately twenty of these genes are involved in bacteriochlorophyll synthesis of which eight bch'' genes are the subject of this thesis. Six of these genes were found to code for the two ring reductases. The first converts protochlorophyllide (PChlide) into a chlorin, the immediate precursor to chlorophyll a, and then into a bacteriochlorin. Each reductase is shown to be made up of three subunits. PChlide reductase is coded by the genes bchN, bchB, and bchL. Proteins with amino acid sequences markedly similar to those of bchN and bchL have been shown in other organisms to be required for chlorophyll synthesis; hence, their designation as chlN and chlB. A third chloroplast-encoded gene of heretofore unknown function shares amino acid identities with bchB and is probably the third subunit of the plant PChlide reductase. The bchA locus, which encodes the chlorin reductase, is found to be made up of three separate, translationally coupled genes, referred to as bchX, bchY, and bchZ. Amino acid similarities between bchX, bchL, and the nitrogenase reductase protein nifH suggest that all three classes of proteins share certain three-dimensional structural features, including elements that are central to the enzymatic mechanism of nifH. PChlide reductase and chlorin reductase are clearly derived from a common ancestor. Several lines of analysis suggests the ancestor of both enzyme systems reduced PChlide twice to produce bacteriochlorophyll supporting the concept bacteriochlorophyll as the ancestral reaction center pigment.

  13. Rhodobacter capsulatus Catalyzes Light-Dependent Fe(II) Oxidation under Anaerobic Conditions as a Potential Detoxification Mechanism▿

    PubMed Central

    Poulain, Alexandre J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse bacteria are known to oxidize millimolar concentrations of ferrous iron [Fe(II)] under anaerobic conditions, both phototrophically and chemotrophically. Yet whether they can do this under conditions that are relevant to natural systems is understood less well. In this study, we tested how light, Fe(II) speciation, pH, and salinity affected the rate of Fe(II) oxidation by Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Although R. capsulatus cannot grow photoautotrophically on Fe(II), it oxidizes Fe(II) at rates comparable to those of bacteria that do grow photoautotrophically on Fe(II) as soon as it is exposed to light, provided it has a functional photosystem. Chelation of Fe(II) by diverse organic ligands promotes Fe(II) oxidation, and as the pH increases, so does the oxidation rate, except in the presence of nitrilotriacetate; nonchelated forms of Fe(II) are also more rapidly oxidized at higher pH. Salt concentrations typical of marine environments inhibit Fe(II) oxidation. When growing photoheterotrophically on humic substances, R. capsulatus is highly sensitive to low concentrations of Fe(II); it is inhibited in the presence of concentrations as low as 5 μM. The product of Fe(II) oxidation, ferric iron, does not hamper growth under these conditions. When other parameters, such as pH or the presence of chelators, are adjusted to promote Fe(II) oxidation, the growth inhibition effect of Fe(II) is alleviated. Together, these results suggest that Fe(II) is toxic to R. capsulatus growing under strictly anaerobic conditions and that Fe(II) oxidation alleviates this toxicity. PMID:19717624

  14. Open reading frame 176 in the photosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus encodes idi, a gene for isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, F M; Baker, J A; Poulter, C D

    1996-01-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase catalyzes an essential activation step in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. A database search based on probes from the highly conserved regions in three eukaryotic IPP isomerases revealed substantial similarity with ORF176 in the photosynthesis gene cluster in Rhodobacter capsulatus. The open reading frame was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector. The encoded 20-kDa protein, which was purified in two steps by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, catalyzed the interconversion of IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Thus, the photosynthesis gene cluster encodes all of the enzymes required to incorporate IPP into the ultimate carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll metabolites in R. capsulatus. More recent searches uncovered additional putative open reading frames for IPP isomerase in seed-bearing plants (Oryza sativa, Arabadopsis thaliana, and Clarkia breweri), a worm (Caenorhabiditis elegans), and another eubacterium (Escherichia coli). The R. capsulatus enzyme is the smallest of the IPP isomerases to be identified thus far and may consist mostly of a fundamental catalytic core for the enzyme. PMID:8550491

  15. Role for draTG and rnf Genes in Reduction of 2,4-Dinitrophenol by Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, Lara P.; García, Patricia; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Klipp, Werner; Blasco, Rafael; Castillo, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    The phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is able to reduce 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) to 2-amino-4-nitrophenol enzymatically and thus can grow in the presence of this uncoupler. DNP reduction was switched off by glutamine or ammonium, but this short-term regulation did not take place in a draTG deletion mutant. Nevertheless, the target of DraTG does not seem to be the nitrophenol reductase itself since the ammonium shock did not inactivate the enzyme. In addition to this short-term regulation, ammonium or glutamine repressed the DNP reduction system. Mutants of R. capsulatus affected in ntrC or rpoN exhibited a 10-fold decrease in nitroreductase activity in vitro but almost no DNP activity in vivo. In addition, mutants affected in rnfA or rnfC, which are also under NtrC control and encode components involved in electron transfer to nitrogenase, were unable to metabolize DNP. These results indicate that NtrC regulates dinitrophenol reduction in R. capsulatus, either directly or indirectly, by controlling expression of the Rnf proteins. Therefore, the Rnf complex seems to supply electrons for both nitrogen fixation and DNP reduction. PMID:11160111

  16. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  17. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT... Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps,...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT... Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps,...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT... Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps,...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  2. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  3. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  4. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  5. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  6. Soluble variants of Rhodobacter capsulatus membrane-anchored cytochrome cy are efficient photosynthetic electron carriers.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Yavuz; Lee, Dong-Woo; Mandaci, Sevnur; Osyczka, Artur; Prince, Roger C; Daldal, Fevzi

    2008-05-16

    Photosynthetic (Ps) electron transport pathways often contain multiple electron carriers with overlapping functions. Here we focus on two c-type cytochromes (cyt) in facultative phototrophic bacteria of the Rhodobacter genus: the diffusible cyt c2 and the membrane-anchored cyt c(y). In species like R. capsulatus, cyt c(y) functions in both Ps and respiratory electron transport chains, whereas in other species like R. sphaeroides, it does so only in respiration. The molecular bases of this difference was investigated by producing a soluble variant of cyt c(y) (S-c(y)), by fusing genetically the cyt c2 signal sequence to the cyt c domain of cyt c(y). This novel electron carrier was unable to support the Ps growth of R. capsulatus. However, strains harboring cyt S-c(y) regained Ps growth ability by acquiring mutations in its cyt c domain. They produced cyt S-c(y) variants at amounts comparable with that of cyt c2, and conferred Ps growth. Chemical titration indicated that the redox midpoint potential of cyt S-c(y) was about 340 mV, similar to that of cyts c2 or c(y). Remarkably, electron transfer kinetics from the cyt bc1 complex to the photochemical reaction center (RC) mediated by cyt S-c(y) was distinct from those seen with the cyt c2 or cyt c(y). The kinetics exhibited a pronounced slow phase, suggesting that cyt S-c(y) interacted with the RC less tightly than cyt c2. Comparison of structural models of cyts c2 and S-c(y) revealed that several of the amino acid residues implicated in long-range electrostatic interactions promoting binding of cyt c2 to the RC are not conserved in cyt c(y), whereas those supporting short-range hydrophobic interactions are conserved. These findings indicated that attaching electron carrier cytochromes to the membrane allowed them to weaken their interactions with their partners so that they could accommodate more rapid multiple turnovers.

  7. Development of a Rhodobacter capsulatus self-reporting model system for optimizing light-dependent, [FeFe]-hydrogenase-driven H2 production

    DOE PAGES

    Wecker, Matt S. A.; Beaton, Stephen E.; Chado, Robert A.; ...

    2016-08-17

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus normally photoproduces H2 as a by-product of its nitrogenase-catalyzed nitrogen-fixing activity. Such H2 production, however, is expensive from a metabolic perspective, requiring nearly four times as many photons as the equivalent algal hydrogenase-based system. Here we report the insertion of a Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its three attendant hydrogenase assembly proteins into an R. capsulatus strain lacking its native uptake hydrogenase. Further, this strain is modified to fluoresce upon sensing H2. The resulting strain photoproduces H2 and self-reports its own H2 production through fluorescence. Furthermore, this model system represents a unique method of developing hydrogenase-basedmore » H2 production in R. capsulatus, may serve as a powerful system for in vivo directed evolution of hydrogenases and hydrogenase-associated genes, and provides a means of screening for increased metabolic production of H2.« less

  8. RegA control of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Willett, Jonathan; Smart, James L; Bauer, Carl E

    2007-11-01

    We provide in vivo genetic and in vitro biochemical evidence that RegA directly regulates bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus. beta-Galactosidase expression assays with a RegA-disrupted strain containing reporter plasmids for Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester oxidative cyclase (bchE), Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase (bchD), and phytoene dehydrogenase (crtI) demonstrate RegA is responsible for fourfold anaerobic induction of bchE, threefold induction of bchD, and twofold induction of crtI. Promoter mapping studies, coupled with DNase I protection assays, map the region of RegA binding to three sites in the bchE promoter region. Similar studies at the crtA and crtI promoters indicate that RegA binds to a single region equidistant from these divergent promoters. These results demonstrate that RegA is directly responsible for anaerobic induction of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis genes bchE, bchD, bchJ, bchI, bchG, and bchP and carotenoid biosynthesis genes crtI, crtB, and crtA.

  9. Hydrogen photosynthesis by Rhodobacter capsulatus and its coupling to a PEM fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Deliang; Bultel, Yann; Magnin, Jean-Pierre; Roux, Claude; Willison, John C.

    Four different mutant strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus (IR1, IR3, IR4 and JP91), a photosynthetic purple non-sulfur bacterium, were tested for their ability to produce hydrogen in a 3 L volume photobioreactor coupled to a small PEM fuel cell. The four mutants, together with the wild-type strain, B10, were grown at 30 °C under illumination with 30 mmol L -1DL-lactate and 5 mmol L -1L-glutamate as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. Bacterial growth was measured by monitoring the increase in absorbance at 660 nm, and hydrogen yield, and substrate conversion efficiency were measured under the same conditions. The hydrogen production capability of the five strains was then compared and shown to be in the order: IR3 > JP91 > IR4 > B10 > IR1. The most preferment strain, IR3, showed a substrate conversion efficiency of 84.8% and a hydrogen yield of 3.9 L L -1 of culture. The biogas produced by these photobioreactor cultures was successfully used as feed for a small PEM fuel cell system, with the mutant IR3 showing the most sustained hydrogen and current production. The maximum current was similar to that obtained using pure hydrogen produced by a small electrolysis cell (High-Tec Inc.).

  10. Mutational and nucleotide sequence analysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Sganga, M W; Aksamit, R R; Cantoni, G L; Bauer, C E

    1992-01-01

    The genetic locus ahcY, encoding the enzyme S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (EC 3.3.1.1) from the bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, has been mapped by mutational analysis to within a cluster of genes involved in regulating the induction and maintenance of the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus. Sequence analysis demonstrates that ahcY encodes a 51-kDa polypeptide that displays 64% sequence identity to its human homolog. Insertion mutants in ahcY lack detectable S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase activity and, as a consequence, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine accumulates in the cells, resulting in a 16-fold decrease in the intracellular ratio of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine as compared to wild-type cells. The ahcY disrupted strain fails to grow in minimal medium; however, growth is restored in minimal medium supplemented with methionine or homocysteine or in a complex medium, thereby indicating that the hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine plays a key role in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. The ahcY mutant, when grown in supplemented medium, synthesizes significantly reduced levels of bacteriochlorophyll, indicating that modulation of the intracellular ratio of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine may be an important factor in regulating bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis. PMID:1631127

  11. Bubble baths: just splashing around?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Wesley; Speirs, Nathan; Sharker, Saberul Islam; Hurd, Randy; Williams, Bj; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-11-01

    Soap Bubbles on the water surface would seem to be an intuitive means for splash suppression, but their presence appears to be a double edged sword. We present on the water entry of hydrophilic spheres where the liquid surface is augmented by the presence of a bubble layer, similar to a bubble bath. While the presence of a bubble layer can diminish splashing upon impact at low Weber numbers, it also induces cavity formation at speeds below the critical velocity. The formation of a cavity generally results in larger Worthington jets and thus, larger amounts of ejected liquid. Bubble layers induce cavity formation by wetting the sphere prior to liquid impact, causing them to form cavities similar to those created by hydrophobic spheres. Droplets present on a pre-wetted sphere disrupt the flow of the advancing liquid during entry, pushing it away from the impacting body to form an entrained air cavity. This phenomena was noted by Worthington with pre-wetted stone marbles, and suggests that the application of a bubble layer is generally ineffective as a means of splash suppression.

  12. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ..omega../sup 70/ promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus magnesium chelatase BchI subunit.

    PubMed

    Willows, R D; Hansson, M; Beale, S I; Laurberg, M; Al-Karadaghi, S

    1999-03-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus BchI protein is one of three subunits of Mg chelatase, the enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step of chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis. The BchI protein was produced with an inducible T7 RNA polymerase expression system in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified from the soluble cell-extract fraction and crystallized from polyethylene glycol solution. The crystals diffract to a minimum Bragg spacing of 2.1 A. The space group is P63 with unit-cell dimensions a = b = 90.6, c = 84.1 A.

  14. Protective coating for salt-bath brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, A. C.; Gyorgak, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Ceramic coating, consisting of graphite, enameler's clay, and algin binder, applied to materials prior to salt bath brazing facilitates brazing process and results in superior joints. Alternate coating materials and their various proportions are given.

  15. GBC Kitchen and Bath, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GBC Kitchen and Bath, LLC (the Company) is located in Alexandria, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C.

  16. Rhodobacter capsulatus magnesium chelatase subunit BchH contains an oxygen sensitive iron-sulfur cluster.

    PubMed

    Sirijovski, Nick; Mamedov, Fikret; Olsson, Ulf; Styring, Stenbjörn; Hansson, Mats

    2007-12-01

    Magnesium chelatase is the first unique enzyme of the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. It consists of three subunits (BchI, BchD, and BchH). Amino acid sequence analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus BchH revealed a novel cysteine motif (393CX2CX3CX14C) that was found in only six other proteobacteria (CX2CX3CX11-14C). The cysteine motif is likely to coordinate an unprecedented [Fe-S] cluster. Purified BchH demonstrated absorbance in the 460 nm region. This absorbance was abolished in BchH proteins with alanine substitutions at positions Cys396 and Cys414. These modified proteins were also EPR silent. In contrast, wild type BchH protein in the reduced state showed EPR signals resembling those of a [4Fe-4S] cluster with rhombic symmetry and g values at 1.90, 1.93, and 2.09, superimposed with a [3Fe-4S] cluster centered at g = 2.02. The [3Fe-4S] signal was observed independently of the [4Fe-4S] signal under oxidizing conditions. Mg-chelatase activity assays showed that the cluster is not catalytic. We suggest that the [4Fe-4S] and [3Fe-4S] signals originate from a single coordination site on the monomeric BchH protein and that the [4Fe-4S] cluster is sensitive to oxidation. It is speculated that the cluster participates in the switching between aerobic and anaerobic life of the proteobacteria.

  17. Optimizing multi-step B-side charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Faries, Kaitlyn M.; Kressel, Lucas L.; Dylla, Nicholas P.; Wander, Marc J.; Hanson, Deborah K.; Holten, Dewey; Laible, Philip D.; Kirmaier, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Using high-throughput methods for mutagenesis, protein isolation and charge-separation functionality, we have assayed 40 Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction center (RC) mutants for their P+ QB- yield (P is a dimer of bacteriochlorophylls and Q is a ubiquinone) as produced using the normally inactive B-side cofactors BB and HB (where B is a bacteriochlorophyll and H is a bacteriopheophytin). Two sets of mutants explore all possible residues at M131 (M polypeptide, native residue Val near HB) in tandem with either a fixed His or a fixed Asn at L181 (L polypeptide, native residue Phe near BB). A third set of mutants explores all possible residues at L181 with a fixed Glu at M131 that can form a hydrogen bond to HB. For each set of mutants, the results of a rapid millisecond screening assay that probes the yield of P+ QB- are compared among that set and to the other mutants reported here or previously. For a subset of eight mutants, the rate constants and yields of the individual B-side electron transfer processes are determined via transient absorption measurements spanning 100 fs to 50 μs. The resulting ranking of mutants for their yield of P+ QB- from ultrafast experiments is in good agreement with that obtained from the millisecond screening assay, further validating the efficient, high-throughput screen for B-side transmembrane charge separation. Results from mutants that individually show progress toward optimization of P+ HB- → P+ QB- electron transfer or initial P* → P+ HB- conversion highlight unmet challenges of optimizing both processes simultaneously.

  18. Effects of room temperature on physiological and subjective responses during whole-body bathing, half-body bathing and showering.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Ni, Furong; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    The effects of bathroom thermal conditions on physiological and subjective responses were evaluated before, during, and after whole-body bath (W-bath), half-body bath (H-bath) and showering. The air temperature of the dressing room and bathroom was controlled at 10 degrees C, 17.5 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 min under nine conditions on separate days. The water temperature of the bathtub and shower was controlled at 40 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body weight loss and blood characteristics (hematocrit: Hct, hemoglobin: Hb) were evaluated. Also, thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort (TC) and thermal acceptability (TA) were recorded. BP decreased rapidly during W-bath and H-bath compared to showering. HR during W-bath was significantly higher than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.01). The double products due to W-bath during bathing were also greater than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.05). There were no distinct differences in Hct and Hb among the nine conditions. However, significant differences in body weight loss were observed among the bathing methods: W-bath > H-bath > showering (p < 0.001). W-bath showed the largest increase in Tre and Tsk, followed by H-bath, and showering. Significant differences in Tre after bathing among the room temperatures were found only at H-bath. The changes in Tre after bathing for H-bath at 25 degrees C were similar to those for W-bath at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C. TS and TC after bathing significantly differed for the three bathing methods at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C (TS: p < 0.01 TC: p < 0.001). Especially, for showering, the largest number of subjects felt "cold" and "uncomfortable". Even though all of the subjects could accept the 10 degrees C condition after W-bath, such conditions were intolerable to half of them after showering. These results suggested that the

  19. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Lohakare, J D; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens.

  20. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

  1. Proteomic analysis and identification of the structural and regulatory proteins of the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frank; Spano, Anthony; Goodman, Benjamin E; Blasier, Kiev R; Sabat, Agnes; Jeffery, Erin; Norris, Andrew; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Lebedev, Nikolai

    2009-02-01

    The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (GTA) is a unique phage-like particle that exchanges genetic information between members of this same species of bacterium. Besides being an excellent tool for genetic mapping, the GTA has a number of advantages for biotechnological and nanoengineering purposes. To facilitate the GTA purification and identify the proteins involved in GTA expression, assembly and regulation, in the present work we construct and transform into R. capsulatus Y262 a gene coding for a C-terminally His-tagged capsid protein. The constructed protein was expressed in the cells, assembled into chimeric GTA particles inside the cells and excreted from the cells into surrounding medium. Transmission electron micrographs of phosphotungstate-stained, NiNTA-purified chimeric GTA confirm that its structure is similar to normal GTA particles, with many particles composed both of a head and a tail. The mass spectrometric proteomic analysis of polypeptides present in the GTA recovered outside the cells shows that GTA is composed of at least 9 proteins represented in the GTA gene cluster including proteins coded for by Orf's 3, 5, 6-9, 11, 13, and 15.

  2. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  3. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  4. Nonequilibrium quantum chains under multisite Lindblad baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Pedro H.; Landi, Gabriel T.; de Oliveira, Mario J.

    2016-09-01

    We study a quantum XX chain coupled to two heat reservoirs that act on multiple sites and are kept at different temperatures and chemical potentials. The baths are described by Lindblad dissipators, which are constructed by direct coupling to the fermionic normal modes of the chain. Using a perturbative method, we are able to find analytical formulas for all steady-state properties of the system. We compute both the particle or magnetization current and the energy current, both of which are found to have the structure of Landauer's formula. We also obtain exact formulas for the Onsager coefficients. All properties are found to differ substantially from those of a single-site bath. In particular, we find a strong dependence on the intensity of the bath couplings. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the Onsager reciprocal relations are satisfied.

  5. Effects of Stanger bath therapy on fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Eksioglu, Emel; Yazar, Duygu; Bal, Ajda; Usan, Hicran Demir; Cakci, Aytul

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Stanger bath on the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM). Fifty women with FM were randomly divided into two groups. The first group (n=25) was treated with amitriptyline, 10 mg/day for 8 weeks, and Stanger bath, 20 min daily for ten sessions. The second group (n=25) only had amitriptyline, 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. In the first group the assessment parameters were measured before (t1), at the end (t2), and 2 months after the hydrotherapy (t3). In the second group these parameters were examined before (T1) and 2 months after the treatment (T2). Patients were evaluated by number of tender points and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) scores. There was significant improvement in number of tender points between t1 and t2 (P<0.01) and t1 and t3 (P<0.001) in the Stanger bath group. In addition, there was significant improvement in FIQ scores between t1 and t2 (P<0.001) and t1 and t3 (P<0.01) in the Stanger bath group. In the second group we observed significant improvement in FIQ scores and tender point numbers between T1 and T2 (P=0.00). We did not find any difference between groups in tender point number percent change (p=0.074). However, we observed statistically significant improvement in percent change of FIQ scores in Stanger bath group (-30+/-16.7) when compared to group 2 (-19.3+/-13) (p=0.016). We conclude that Stanger bath therapy when combined with amitriptyline has a long lasting effect and better outcome in FM patients.

  6. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath.

  7. Photo-biohydrogen production potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK from wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biotechnological exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass is promising for sustainable and environmentally sound energy provision strategy because of the abundant availability of the renewable resources. Wheat straw (WS) comprising of 75-80% cellulose and hemicellulose is one of widely available, inexpensive and renewable lignocellulosic biomass types. The cellulosic and hemicellulose substrate can be hydrolyzed into monomeric sugars by chemical and/or biological methods. Results This study examined comparative potential of dilute acid and pre-ammonia pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw (WS) for hydrogen production by purple non sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK. Gas production became noticeable after 14 h of inoculation in WS pretreated with 4% H2SO4. The detoxified liquid hydrolyzate (DLH) after overliming attained a production level of 372 mL-H2/L after 16 h under illumination of 120-150 W/m2 at 30 ± 2.0°C. Whereas the non-detoxified acid pretreated hydrolyzate (NDLH) of WS could produce only upto 254 mL-H2/L after 21 h post inoculation. Evolution of H2 became observable just after 10 ± 2.0 h of inoculation by employing 48 h age inoculum on the WS pretreated with 30% ammonia, hydrolyzed with cellulase 80 FPU/g and β-glucosidase 220 CbU/ml at 50°C. Upto 712 ml/L of culture was measured with continuous shaking for 24 h. The 47.5% and 64.2% higher hydrogen volume than the DLH and NDLH substrates, respectively appeared as a function of significantly higher monomeric sugar contents of the enzymatically hydrolyzed substrate and lesser/zero amounts of toxic derivatives including pH reducing agents. Conclusion Photofermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic waste is a feasible approach for eco-friendly sustainable supply of bioenergy in a cost-effective way. Results of this study provide new insight for addressing biotechnological exploitation of abundantly available and low-cost cellulosic substrates

  8. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    PubMed

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  9. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case

    PubMed Central

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  10. String melting in a photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Karouby, Johanna

    2013-10-01

    We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

  11. High yield single stage conversion of glucose to hydrogen by photofermentation with continuous cultures of Rhodobacter capsulatus JP91.

    PubMed

    Abo-Hashesh, Mona; Desaunay, Nicolas; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Photofermentative hydrogen (H(2)) production from glucose with the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus JP91 (hup(-)) was examined using a photobioreactor operated in continuous mode. Stable and high hydrogen yields on glucose were obtained at three different retention times (HRTs; 24, 48 and 72 h). The H(2) production rates, varying between 0.57 and 0.81 mmol/h, and optical densities (OD(600 nm)) were similar for the different HRTs examined. However, the rate of glucose consumption was influenced by HRT being greater at HRT 24h than HRTs 48 and 72 h. The highest hydrogen yield, 9.0 ± 1.2 mol H(2)/mol glucose, was obtained at 48 h HRT. These results show that single stage photofermentative hydrogen production from glucose using photobioreactors operated in continuous culture mode gives high, nearly stoichiometric yields of hydrogen from glucose, and thus is considerably more promising than either two stage photofermentation or co-culture approaches.

  12. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of Rhodobacter capsulatus NifF: uncovering general features of nitrogen-fixation (nif)-flavodoxins.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Bortolotti, Ana; Cortez, Néstor; Hermoso, Juan A

    2013-01-09

    Analysis of the crystal structure of NifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its homologues reported so far reflects the existence of unique structural features in nif flavodoxins: a leucine at the re face of the isoalloxazine, an eight-residue insertion at the C-terminus of the 50's loop and a remarkable difference in the electrostatic potential surface with respect to non-nif flavodoxins. A phylogenetic study on 64 sequences from 52 bacterial species revealed four clusters, including different functional prototypes, correlating the previously defined as "short-chain" with the firmicutes flavodoxins and the "long-chain" with gram-negative species. The comparison of Rhodobacter NifF structure with other bacterial flavodoxin prototypes discloses the concurrence of specific features of these functional electron donors to nitrogenase.

  13. The NprA nitroreductase required for 2,4-dinitrophenol reduction in Rhodobacter capsulatus is a dihydropteridine reductase.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Reinado, Eva; Roldán, María Dolores; Castillo, Francisco; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado

    2008-11-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus nprA gene codes for a putative nitroreductase. A recombinant His(6)-NprA protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. This protein contained FMN and showed nitroreductase activity with a wide range of nitroaromatic compounds, such as 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,6-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), 2,4-dinitrobenzoate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and with the nitrofuran derivatives nitrofurazone and furazolidone. NADPH was the main electron donor and the ortho nitro group was preferably reduced to the corresponding amino derivative. The apparent K(m) values of NprA for NADPH, 2,4-dinitrophenol, picric acid and furazolidone were 40 microM, 78 microM, 72 microM and 83 microM, respectively, at pH and temperature optima (pH 6.5, 30 degrees C). Escherichia coli cells overproducing the NprA protein were much more sensitive to the prodrug 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB1954) used in cancer therapy than non-transformed cells. NprA showed the highest activity with the quinonoid form of 6,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydropterine as substrate, so that NprA may be involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin in R. capsulatus. Expression of a transcriptional nprA-lacZ gene fusion was induced by phenylalanine or tyrosine, but not by other amino acids like glutamate or alanine. Furthermore, both nitroreductase activity and phenylalanine assimilation were inhibited in vivo by ammonium. A mutant defective in the nprA gene showed better growth rate with Phe or Tyr as nitrogen source than the wild-type strain, although both strains showed similar growth in media with Glu or without added nitrogen. These results suggest that the NprA nitroreductase may act in vivo as a dihydropteridine reductase involved in aromatic amino acids metabolism.

  14. Effector-Mediated Interaction of CbbRI and CbbRII Regulators with Target Sequences in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Dubbs, Padungsri; Dubbs, James M.; Tabita, F. Robert

    2004-01-01

    In Rhodobacter capsulatus, genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate pathway are located in the cbbI and cbbII operons. Each operon contains a divergently transcribed LysR-type transcriptional activator (CbbRI and CbbRII) that regulates the expression of its cognate cbb promoter in response to an as yet unidentified effector molecule(s). Both CbbRI and CbbRII were purified, and the ability of a variety of potential effector molecules to induce changes in their DNA binding properties at their target promoters was assessed. The responses of CbbRI and CbbRII to potential effectors were not identical. In gel mobility shift assays, the affinity of both CbbRI and CbbRII for their target promoters was enhanced in the presence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), phosphoenolpyruvate, 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycolate. ATP, 2-phosphoglycerate, and KH2PO4 were found to enhance only CbbRI binding, while fructose-1,6-bisphosphate enhanced the binding of only CbbRII. The DNase I footprint of CbbRI was reduced in the presence of RuBP, while reductions in the CbbRII DNase I footprint were induced by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and KH2PO4. The current in vitro results plus recent in vivo studies suggest that CbbR-mediated regulation of cbb transcription is controlled by multiple metabolic signals in R. capsulatus. This control reflects not only intracellular levels of Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle metabolic intermediates but also the fixed (organic) carbon status and energy charge of the cell. PMID:15547275

  15. The reductive half-reaction of xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: the role of Glu232 in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, James; Reschke, Stefan; Cao, Hongnan; Leimkühler, Silke; Hille, Russ

    2014-11-14

    The kinetic properties of an E232Q variant of the xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus have been examined to ascertain whether Glu(232) in wild-type enzyme is protonated or unprotonated in the course of catalysis at neutral pH. We find that kred, the limiting rate constant for reduction at high [xanthine], is significantly compromised in the variant, a result that is inconsistent with Glu(232) being neutral in the active site of the wild-type enzyme. A comparison of the pH dependence of both kred and kred/Kd from reductive half-reaction experiments between wild-type and enzyme and the E232Q variant suggests that the ionized Glu(232) of wild-type enzyme plays an important role in catalysis by discriminating against the monoanionic form of substrate, effectively increasing the pKa of substrate by two pH units and ensuring that at physiological pH the neutral form of substrate predominates in the Michaelis complex. A kinetic isotope study of the wild-type R. capsulatus enzyme indicates that, as previously determined for the bovine and chicken enzymes, product release is principally rate-limiting in catalysis. The disparity in rate constants for the chemical step of the reaction and product release, however, is not as great in the bacterial enzyme as compared with the vertebrate forms. The results indicate that the bacterial and bovine enzymes catalyze the chemical step of the reaction to the same degree and that the faster turnover observed with the bacterial enzyme is due to a faster rate constant for product release than is seen with the vertebrate enzyme.

  16. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1....

  17. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  18. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  20. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  1. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  3. Development of a Rhodobacter capsulatus self-reporting model system for optimizing light-dependent, [FeFe]-hydrogenase-driven H2 production.

    PubMed

    Wecker, Matt S A; Beaton, Stephen E; Chado, Robert A; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2017-02-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus normally photoproduces H2 as a by-product of its nitrogenase-catalyzed nitrogen-fixing activity. Such H2 production, however, is expensive from a metabolic perspective, requiring nearly four times as many photons as the equivalent algal hydrogenase-based system (Ghirardi et al., 2009 Photobiological hydrogen-producing systems. Chem Soc Rev 38(1):52-61). Here, we report the insertion of a Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its three attendant hydrogenase assembly proteins into an R. capsulatus strain lacking its native uptake hydrogenase. Further, this strain is modified to fluoresce upon sensing H2 . The resulting strain photoproduces H2 and self-reports its own H2 production through fluorescence. This model system represents a unique method of developing hydrogenase-based H2 production in R. capsulatus, may serve as a powerful system for in vivo directed evolution of hydrogenases and hydrogenase-associated genes, and provides a means of screening for increased metabolic production of H2 . Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 291-297. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Purification of the integration host factor homolog of Rhodobacter capsulatus: cloning and sequencing of the hip gene, which encodes the beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, B; Delic-Attree, I; De Sury D'Aspremont, R; David, L; Vinçon, M; Vignais, P M

    1993-01-01

    We describe a method for rapid purification of the integration host factor (IHF) homolog of Rhodobacter capsulatus that has allowed us to obtain microgram quantities of highly purified protein. R. capsulatus IHF is an alpha beta heterodimer similar to IHF of Escherichia coli. We have cloned and sequenced the hip gene, which encodes the beta subunit. The deduced amino acid sequence (10.7 kDa) has 46% identity with the beta subunit of IHF from E. coli. In gel electrophoretic mobility shift DNA binding assays, R. capsulatus IHF was able to form a stable complex in a site-specific manner with a DNA fragment isolated from the promoter of the structural hupSL operon, which contains the IHF-binding site. The mutated IHF protein isolated from the Hup- mutant IR4, which is mutated in the himA gene (coding for the alpha subunit), gave a shifted band of greater mobility, and DNase I footprinting analysis has shown that the mutated IHF interacts with the DNA fragment from the hupSL promoter region differently from the way that the wild-type IHF does. Images PMID:8407826

  5. Salt Bath Oxinitriding of Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Teimouri, M.; Aliofkhazraee, M.; Mousavi Khoee, S. M.

    Salt bath oxinitriding is a duplex surface treatment developed to improve tribological and corrosion properties of ferrous materials. In this research, gray cast iron samples were nitrided at the temperature range of 480°C-580°C, and then oxidized in an oxidative salt bath. The phase composition of surface layer was identified by X-ray diffraction. Using a microhardness tester, hardness of nitrided gray cast iron was measured. Corrosion behavior of treated (nitrided and oxinitrided) samples was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization technique in 3.5% NaCl solution. XRD analyses indicate that the surface layer in nitrided and oxinitrided samples is composed of ɛ-iron nitride (Fe2-3N) and magnetite (Fe3O4), respectively. Results show that the corrosion resistance of gray cast iron can be improved up to 170%.

  6. Astronaut Jack Lousma taking hot bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A closeup view of Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. In deploying the shower facility, the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

  7. Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mocé-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-01-01

    A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bacteriological criteria. In contrast, viral genomes were only detected in 20% of the samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Somatic coliphages outnumbered all other indicators. F-specific RNA phages were detected in only 15% of the samples, whereas phages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were detected in 70% of samples. A numerical relationship between the numbers of enteroviruses and the numbers of enterococci and somatic coliphages was observed. In situ inactivation experiments showed that viruses persisted significantly longer than the bacterial indicators. Only somatic coliphages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides persisted longer than the viruses. These results explain the numbers of enteroviruses and indicators in bathing waters attending the numbers usually found in sewage in the area. Somatic coliphages show a very good potential to predict the risk of viruses being present in bathing waters. PMID:16269717

  8. Polymer translocation through nanopore into active bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Mingfeng; Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2016-11-01

    Polymer translocation through nanopores into a crowded environment is of ubiquitous importance in many biological processes. Here we investigate polymer translocation through a nanopore into an active bath of self-propelled particles in two-dimensional space using Langevin dynamics simulations. Interestingly, we find that the mean translocation time <" separators=" τ > can show a bell-shape dependence on the particle activity Fa at a fixed volume fraction ϕ, indicating that the translocation process may become slower for small activity compared to the case of the passive media, and only when the particle activity becomes large enough can the translocation process be accelerated. In addition, we also find that <" separators=" τ > can show a minimum as a function of ϕ if the particle activity is large enough, implying that an intermediate volume fraction of active particles is most favorable for the polymer translocation. Detailed analysis reveals that such nontrivial behaviors result from the two-fold effect of active bath: one that active particles tend to accumulate near the pore, providing an extra pressure hindering the translocation, and the other that they also aggregate along the polymer chain, generating an effective pulling force accelerating the translocation. Such results demonstrate that active bath plays rather subtle roles on the polymer translocation process.

  9. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; LaCamera, Alfred F.; Troup, R. Lee; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  10. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  11. Protecting coherence by reservoir engineering: intense bath disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zixian; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-08-01

    We put forward a scheme based on reservoir engineering to protect quantum coherence from leaking to bath, in which we intensely disturb the Lorentzian bath by N harmonic oscillators. We show that the intense disturbance changes the spectrum of the bath and reduces the qubit-bath interaction. Furthermore, we give the exact time evolution with the Lorentzian spectrum by a master equation and calculate the concurrence and survival probability of the qubits to demonstrate the effect of the intense bath disturbance on the protection of coherence. Meanwhile, we reveal the dynamic effects of counter-rotating interaction on the qubits as compared to the results of the rotating-wave approximation.

  12. The SOS Response Master Regulator LexA Regulates the Gene Transfer Agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Represses Transcription of the Signal Transduction Protein CckA

    PubMed Central

    Kuchinski, Kevin S.; Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Westbye, Alexander B.; Ding, Hao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) is a genetic exchange element that combines central aspects of bacteriophage-mediated transduction and natural transformation. RcGTA particles resemble a small double-stranded DNA bacteriophage, package random ∼4-kb fragments of the producing cell genome, and are released from a subpopulation (<1%) of cells in a stationary-phase culture. RcGTA particles deliver this DNA to surrounding R. capsulatus cells, and the DNA is integrated into the recipient genome though a process that requires homologs of natural transformation genes and RecA-mediated homologous recombination. Here, we report the identification of the LexA repressor, the master regulator of the SOS response in many bacteria, as a regulator of RcGTA activity. Deletion of the lexA gene resulted in the abolition of detectable RcGTA production and an ∼10-fold reduction in recipient capability. A search for SOS box sequences in the R. capsulatus genome sequence identified a number of putative binding sites located 5′ of typical SOS response coding sequences and also 5′ of the RcGTA regulatory gene cckA, which encodes a hybrid histidine kinase homolog. Expression of cckA was increased >5-fold in the lexA mutant, and a lexA cckA double mutant was found to have the same phenotype as a ΔcckA single mutant in terms of RcGTA production. The data indicate that LexA is required for RcGTA production and maximal recipient capability and that the RcGTA-deficient phenotype of the lexA mutant is largely due to the overexpression of cckA. IMPORTANCE This work describes an unusual phenotype of a lexA mutant of the alphaproteobacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus in respect to the phage transduction-like genetic exchange carried out by the R. capsulatus gene transfer agent (RcGTA). Instead of the expected SOS response characteristic of prophage induction, this lexA mutation not only abolishes the production of RcGTA particles but also impairs the ability

  13. Communication: quantum dynamics in classical spin baths.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2013-07-21

    A formalism for studying the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in classical spin baths is introduced. The theory is based on generalized antisymmetric brackets and predicts the presence of open-path off-diagonal geometric phases in the evolution of the density matrix. The weak coupling limit of the equation can be integrated by standard algorithms and provides a non-Markovian approach to the computer simulation of quantum systems in classical spin environments. It is expected that the theory and numerical schemes presented here have a wide applicability.

  14. Orbiting droplets on a vibrated bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampara, Naresh; Burger, Loic; Gilet, Tristan; Microfluidics, university of liege Team

    2015-11-01

    A millimeter-sized oil droplet can bounce on a vertically vibrated liquid bath for unlimited time. It may couple to the surface wave it emits; leading to horizontal self-propulsion called walking. When several walkers coexist close to one another, they either repel or attract each other, in response to the superposition of the waves they generate. Attraction leads to various bound states, including droplets that orbit around each other. We have experimentally investigated the variety of quantized orbital motions exhibited by two, three and more identical walkers, as a function of forcing acceleration. Each motion is quantified in terms of droplet and wave energy.

  15. Xenon and halogenated alkanes track putative substrate binding cavities in the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Whittington, D A; Rosenzweig, A C; Frederick, C A; Lippard, S J

    2001-03-27

    To investigate the role of protein cavities in facilitating movement of the substrates, methane and dioxygen, in the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH), we determined the X-ray structures of MMOH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) cocrystallized with dibromomethane or iodoethane, or by using crystals pressurized with xenon gas. The halogenated alkanes bind in two cavities within the alpha-subunit that extend from one surface of the protein to the buried dinuclear iron active site. Two additional binding sites were located in the beta-subunit. Pressurization of two crystal forms of MMOH with xenon resulted in the identification of six binding sites located exclusively in the alpha-subunit. These results indicate that hydrophobic species bind preferentially in preexisting cavities in MMOH and support the hypothesis that such cavities may play a functional role in sequestering and enhancing the availability of the physiological substrates for reaction at the active site.

  16. Difluoromethane, a new and improved inhibitor of methanotrophy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Sasson, C.; Oremland, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Difluoromethane (HFC-32; DFM) is compared to acetylene and methyl fluoride as an inhibitor of methanotrophy in cultures and soils. DFM was found to be a reversible inhibitor of CH4 oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Consumption of CH4 in soil was blocked by additions of low levels of DFM (0.03 kPa), and this inhibition was reversed by DFM removal. Although a small quantity of DFM was consumed during these incubations, its remaining concentration was sufficiently elevated to sustain inhibition. Methanogenesis in anaerobic soil slurries, including acetoclastic methanogenesis, was unaffected by levels of DFM which inhibit methanotrophy. Low levels of DFM (0.03 kPa) also inhibited nitrification and N2O production by soils. DFM is proposed as an improved inhibitor of CH4 oxidation over acetylene and/or methyl fluoride on the basis of its reversibility, its efficacy at low concentrations, its lack of inhibition of methanogenesis, and its low cost.

  17. Assisting Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents with Bathing: Effects of Two Bathing Interventions on Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeffer, Beverly; Talerico, Karen Amann; Rasin, Joyce; Mitchell, C. Madeline; Stewart, Babara J.; McKenzie, Darlene; Barrick, Ann Louise; Rader, Joanne; Sloane, Philip D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: When cognitively impaired nursing home residents exhibit agitated and aggressive behaviors during bathing, nursing home caregivers are in a unique position to improve residents' experience. This report addresses whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) who received training in a person-centered approach with showering and with the…

  18. Stochastic dynamics with a mesoscopic bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyukhin, Alexander V.; Schofield, Jeremy

    2001-10-01

    We consider the effects of bath size on the nature of the dynamics and transport properties for two simple models in which the bath is composed of a collinear chain of harmonic oscillators. The first model consists of an untwisted rotating chain (elastic rotor) for which we obtain a non-Markovian equation analogous to the generalized Langevin equation for the rotational degrees of freedom. We demonstrate that the corresponding memory function oscillates with a frequency close to that of the lowest mode of the chain. The second model considered consists of a tagged oscillator in a finite harmonic chain. For this model, we find an additional harmonic force in the generalized Langevin equation for the terminal atom that does not appear in the equation of motion for the semi-infinite chain. It is demonstrated that the force constant for the additional harmonic force scales as 1/N, where N is the number of oscillators in the chain. Using an exact representation for the velocity correlation function, the transport properties of the model are discussed.

  19. Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasscock, Barbara H.

    1995-01-01

    In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

  20. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  1. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  2. [Improving the quality of bathing water by oxygen releasing substances].

    PubMed

    Jessen, H J

    1989-06-01

    The bath water of an indoor swimming bath of 25m length has been preparatory acc. to TGL 37780/02 and by procedings of flocculation-filtration-chlorination. the filter drain water (clear water) had been supplemented by 20...30 percentage hydrogen peroxide or potassium peroxide sulphate. The reaction with chlorine existing in surplus and hydrogen peroxide results in a spontaneous formation of nascinating oxygen. The occurring wet oxidation of contents substances of the bath water also with an increased frequentation of the indoor swimming bath results in reduced rates of CSVMn and chloramine. This fact can be explained by the concurring reaction between oxygen and chlorine. Because of its low expense, the forced decomposition of hydrogen peroxide could be an alternative for utilization of ozone in small bathes. Contrary to this the combination potassium peroxide sulphate/chlorine will not result in such a significant improvement of the quality of bath water.

  3. Effectiveness of saltwater baths in the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Brian Woodford; Arbuckle, Harvey A; Berman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current management of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) focuses on preventing secondary infections--a leading cause of mortality--by regularly cleaning and bandaging blisters and erosions and preventive bandaging of high-friction areas. Unfortunately the baths and showers used to remove bandages and clean the skin are often painful, causing lack of adherence and subsequent increases in infections, pain, and antimicrobial use. This study evaluates the hypothesis that bathing individuals with EB in saltwater is less painful than in normal bath water. The study also explores whether taking saltwater baths reduces infections as measured through skin pruritus, odor, discharge, and nonbathing pain. Participants recruited from the Children's Hospital Colorado Outpatient EB Clinic completed standardized questionnaires assessing the effects of the clinic's saltwater bathing recommendations; the data were analyzed using frequencies and Fisher tests. After starting saltwater baths, patients reported a significant reduction in pain (91%), pain medication use (66%), skin odor (31%), and skin discharge (44%). No significant differences were found with respect to the type of EB, age, length of time using baths, or amount of salt added. Saltwater baths are a noninvasive, low-cost, effective treatment that significantly reduces bathing pain, pain medication use, and some signs of skin infection. This treatment can be recommended to patients with all studied EB types without regard to age, the specific amount of salt used, bathing frequency, or pain level. Given the central role bathing and dressing changes play in the management of EB, the use of saltwater baths can lead to significant improvement in quality of life.

  4. Bath Salts: A Newly Recognized Cause of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jonathan; Parikh, Samir; Valentine, Christopher; Haddad, Nabil; Shidham, Ganesh; Rovin, Brad; Hebert, Lee; Agarwal, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Bath salts are substance of abuse that are becoming more common and are difficult to recognize due to negative toxicology screening. Acute kidney injury due to bath salt use has not previously been described. We present the case of a previously healthy male who developed acute kidney injury and dialysis dependence after bath salt ingestion and insufflation. This was self-reported with negative toxicology screening. Clinical course was marked by severe hyperthermia, hyperkalemia, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria, and sepsis. We discuss signs and symptoms, differential diagnoses, potential mechanisms of injury, management, and review of the literature related to bath salt toxicity. PMID:24555135

  5. An assessment of the impact of the proposed EU bathing water directive on Irish coastal bathing area compliance.

    PubMed

    Chawla, R; Real, K; Masterson, B

    2005-01-01

    An assessment of the impact of the new microbial water quality standards of the proposed EU Bathing Water Directive on the classification of designated Irish coastal bathing areas is presented. The new standards are applied retrospectively to the microbial water quality results for the bathing seasons of 1999, 2000 and 2001, and the outcome is compared with that recorded under the present Bathing Water Directive. A Microsoft EXCEL application was developed to generate the retrospective bathing area classifications according to the proposed Directive (Excellent, Good, Poor). It was found that the number of Irish coastal bathing areas not attaining 'Excellent' classification (as would be required at present for the Blue Flag award) was trebled; the number attaining 'Good' classification was increased by about 50%, and the number attracting 'Poor' classification (equivalent to 'Fail' under the present Directive) was increased nine-fold. Some of the shortcomings of the proposed Directive and suggestions for its revision are discussed.

  6. Enzymic systems proposed to be involved in the dissimilatory reduction of selenite in the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Kessi, Janine

    2006-03-01

    Various enzymic systems, such as nitrite reductase, sulfite reductase and glutathione reductase, have been proposed for, or suspected to be involved in, the reduction of selenite in bacteria. As alphaproteobacteria have been shown to be highly tolerant to transition metal oxyanions, it seemed interesting to investigate the hypothetical involvement of these different enzymes in the reduction of selenite in the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodobacter capsulatus. The hypothetical involvement of nitrite reductase and sulfite reductase in the reduction of selenite in these bacteria was investigated by analysing the effects of nitrite and sulfite amendments on the growth and kinetics of selenite reduction. The reduction of selenite was not concomitant with that of either sulfite or nitrite in Rs. rubrum, suggesting that the reduction pathways operate independently. In Rb. capsulatus, strong interactions were observed between the nitrite reduction and selenite reduction pathways. However, in both organisms, selenite reduction took place during both the growth phase and the stationary phase, indicating that selenite metabolism is constitutively expressed. In contrast, neither nitrite nor sulfite was transformed during stationary phase, suggesting that the metabolism of both ions is induced, which implies that identical reduction pathways for selenite and nitrite or selenite and sulfite are excluded. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, S-n-butyl homocysteine sulfoximine), a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, was used to depress the intracellular glutathione level. In stationary-phase cultures of both Rs. rubrum and Rb. capsulatus amended with BSO, the rate of reduction of selenite was slowed, indicating that glutathione may be involved in the dissimilatory reduction of selenite in these organisms. The analysis of the headspace gases of the cultures indicated that the synthesis of methylated selenium compounds was prevented in the presence of 3

  7. One for All or All for One: Heterogeneous Expression and Host Cell Lysis Are Key to Gene Transfer Agent Activity in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Paul C. M.; Westbye, Alexander B.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The gene transfer agent (RcGTA) of Rhodobacter capsulatus is the model for a family of novel bacteriophage-related genetic elements that carry out lateral transfer of essentially random host DNA. Genuine and putative gene transfer agents have been discovered in diverse genera and are becoming recognized as potentially an important source of genetic exchange and microbial evolution in the oceans. Despite being discovered over 30 years ago, little is known about many essential aspects of RcGTA biology. Here, we validate the use of direct fluorescence reporter constructs, which express the red fluorescent protein mCherry in R. capsulatus. A construct containing the RcGTA promoter fused to mCherry was used to examine the single-cell expression profiles of wild type and RcGTA overproducer R. capsulatus populations, under different growth conditions and growth phases. The majority of RcGTA production clearly arises from a small, distinct sub-set of the population in the wild type strain and a larger sub-set in the overproducer. The most likely RcGTA release mechanism concomitant with this expression pattern is host cell lysis and we present direct evidence for the release of an intracellular enzyme accompanying RcGTA release. RcGTA ORF s is annotated as a ‘cell wall peptidase’ but we rule out a role in host lysis and propose an alternative function as a key contributor to RcGTA invasion of a target cell during infection. PMID:22916305

  8. Q-band ENDOR spectra of the Rieske protein from Rhodobacter capsulatus ubiquinol-cyctochrome c oxidoreductase show two histidines coordinated to the (2Fe-2S) cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Gurbiel, R.J. Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow ); Ohnishi, Tomoko; Robertson, D.E.; Daldal, F. ); Hoffman, B.M. )

    1991-12-10

    Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments were performed on {sup 14}N (natural abundance) and {sup 15}N-enriched iron-sulfur Rieske protein in the ubiquinol-cytochrome c{sub 2} oxidoreductase from Rhodobactor capsulatus. The experiments proved that two distinct nitrogenous ligands, histidines, are undoubtedly ligated to the Rieske (2Fe-2S) center. The calculations of hyperfine tensors give values similar but not identical to those of the Rieske-type cluster in phthalate dioxygenase of Pseudomonas cepacia and suggest a slightly different geometry of the iron-sulfur cluster in the two proteins.

  9. Soluble methane monooxygenase component B gene probe for identification of methanotrophs that rapidly degrade trichloroethylene.

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, H C; Hanson, R S

    1992-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, and fluorescence-labelled signature probes were used for the characterization of methanotrophic bacteria as well as for the identification of methanotrophs which contained the soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) gene and were able to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). The gene encoding a soluble MMO component B protein from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was cloned. It contained a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment. With this cloned component B gene as probe, methanotroph types I, II, and X and environmental and bioreactor samples were screened for the presence of the gene encoding soluble MMO. Fragments produced by digestion of DNA with rare cutting restriction endonucleases were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and transferred to Zeta-Probe membrane (Bio-Rad) for Southern blot analysis. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of soluble MMO by Western blot analysis and the ability to degrade TCE. The physiological groups of methanotrophs in each sample were determined by hybridizing cells with fluorescence-labelled signature probes. Among twelve pure or mixed cultures, DNA fragments of seven methanotrophs hybridized with the soluble MMO B gene probe. When grown in media with limited copper, all of these bacteria degraded TCE. All of them are type II methanotrophs. The soluble MMO component B gene of the type X methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, did not hybridize to the M. trichosporium OB3b soluble MMO component B gene probe, although M. capsulatus Bath also produces a soluble MMO. Images PMID:1349468

  10. Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

  11. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  12. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  13. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  14. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  15. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  16. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  17. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  18. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  19. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  20. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  1. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  2. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  3. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  4. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  5. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  6. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  7. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  8. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  10. Electrochromic responses of carotenoid absorbance bands in purified light-harvesting complexes from Rhodobacter capsulatus reconstituted into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, M G; Jackson, J B

    1993-09-13

    Light-Harvesting Complexes I and II (LHI and LHII) were extracted from chromatophores of Rhodobacter capsulatus, purified in Triton X-100 and reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. Application of membrane potentials (K+ diffusion potentials) to LHII proteoliposomes led to absorbance changes in the carotenoid bands which were spectrally similar to those in chromatophores. These (electrochromic) absorbance changes were linear with the applied membrane potential between -107 mV and +105 mV. The data were consistent with the existence of two forms of carotenoid in LHII. One form, comprising 2/3 of the total and with a long wavelength absorbance maximum at 510 nm, was not significantly affected by membrane potential. The other component, comprising 1/3 of the total and with a long wavelength absorbance maximum at 516.5 nm, was shifted by approx. 1.6 nm to the red by a membrane potential of 105 mV. Reduction of the B800 bacteriochlorophyll in LHII with NaBH4 before reconstitution did not affect the absorbance spectrum of the carotenoids and it did not affect their response to applied membrane potentials in proteoliposomes. Although the electrochromically-sensitive carotenoids might be associated with B800, interactions with the bacteriochlorophyll are perhaps not the cause of the polarisation of the carotenoid that is responsible for the linearity of the response. The carotenoids in reconstituted LHI complexes were not detectably electrochromic. The electrochromic absorbance changes of carotenoids in LHII could be useful for membrane potential measurement in liposomes containing ion-translocating proteins.

  11. Effects of basin baths, tub baths, and showers on cardiovascular responses in 51 health men and women.

    PubMed

    Winslow, E H; Smith, J

    1991-01-01

    Heart rate and blood pressure during rest and bathing are generally lower in healthy individuals than in hospitalized patients. However, medications can exaggerate or attenuate patients' responses. Heart rate and blood pressure are highest during showering and lowest during basin baths in both patients and healthy subjects, but the differences among the three types of bathing are not clinically dramatic. In addition, the vigor of the activity can be easily controlled; hospitalized patients naturally conserve effort and move more slowly and deliberately than healthy individuals. A tachycardic response to bathing seems to be common in both healthy subjects and hospitalized patients. Careful control of water temperature and heart rate monitoring during bathing appear to be indicated when hospitalized cardiac patients bathe. Comparison of responses to sitting and standing showering would be worthwhile. The findings of this study help delineate the typical cardiovascular responses of healthy adults to three methods of bathing. The findings also emphasize gender differences and the importance of studying both men and women. Only by determining normal responses in men and women can abnormal responses be recognized. More study on cardiovascular responses to bathing and other common activities in both healthy and sick persons is clearly needed to better describe, explain, predict, and control responses to activity and to build a scientific foundation for activity prescription and restriction.

  12. Synergistic dark and photo-fermentation continuous system for hydrogen production from molasses by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated synergistic dark and photo-fermentation using continuous fermentation system (CFS). The system relies on connecting several fermenters from bottom of one to top culture level of the next in a manner that allows for delaying movement of the substrate and thus for its full consumption. While H2 was collected, CFS allowed for moving liquid byproducts toward the outlet and hence continuous productivity. CFS could be efficiently used for: (1) Continuous dark and photo-fermentation H2 production by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Rhodobacter capsulatus producing 5.65moleH2mole(-1) hexose; (2) Continuous dark-fermentation synergistic H2, acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) production by C. acetobutylicum which produced per mole hexose, 2.43mol H2 along with 73.08g ABE (3) Continuous H2 and methane production by C. acetobutylicum and bacterial sludge producing, per mole hexose, 1.64mol pure H2 and 2.56mol CH4 mixed with 0.37mol H2·The hydraulic retention time (HRT) for whole system was short where organic acids produced in dark-fermentation in first fermenter were synergistically utilized for H2 production by R. capsulatus in subsequent fermenters. CFS is suitable for fast-digestible sugars but not lignocelluloses or other hard-digestible organics, requiring prolonged HRT, unless such polymeric organics were hydrolyzed prior to fermentation.

  13. The ccoNOQP gene cluster codes for a cb-type cytochrome oxidase that functions in aerobic respiration of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Thöny-Meyer, L; Beck, C; Preisig, O; Hennecke, H

    1994-11-01

    The genes for a new type of a haem-copper cytochrome oxidase were cloned from Rhodobacter capsulatus strain 37b4, using the Bradyrhizobium japonicum fixNOQP gene region as a hybridizing probe. Four genes, probably organized in an operon (ccoNOQP), were identified; their products share extensive amino acid sequence similarity with the FixN, O, Q and P proteins that have recently been shown to be the subunits of a cb-type oxidase. CcoN is a b-type cytochrome, CcoO and CcoP are membrane-bound mono- and dihaem c-type cytochromes and CcoQ is a small membrane protein of unknown function. Genes for a similar oxidase are also present in other non-rhizobial bacterial species such as Azotobacter vinelandii, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as revealed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. A ccoN mutant was constructed whose phenotype, in combination with the structural information on the gene products, provides evidence that the CcoNOQP oxidase is a cytochrome c oxidase of the cb type, which supports aerobic respiration in R. capsulatus and which is probably identical to the cbb3-type oxidase that was recently purified from a different strain of the same species. Mutant analysis also showed that this oxidase has no influence on photosynthetic growth and nitrogen-fixation activity.

  14. Cooperation between two periplasmic copper chaperones is required for full activity of the cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase and copper homeostasis in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    DOE PAGES

    Trasnea, Petru -Iulian; Utz, Marcel; Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia; ...

    2016-02-28

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient that functions as a cofactor in several important enzymes, like respiratory heme-copper oxygen reductases. Yet, Cu is also toxic and therefore cells engage a highly coordinated Cu uptake and delivery system to prevent the accumulation of toxic Cu concentrations. In the current work we analyzed Cu delivery to the cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase (cbb3-Cox) of Rhodobacter capsulatus. We identified the PCuAC-like periplasmic chaperone PccA and analyzed its contribution to cbb3-Cox assembly. Our data demonstrate that PccA is a Cu-binding protein with a preference for Cu(I), which is required for efficient cbb3-Cox assembly, in particularmore » at low Cu concentrations. By using in vivo and in vitro crosslinking we show that PccA forms a complex with the Sco1-homologue SenC. This complex is stabilized in the absence of the cbb3-Cox specific assembly factors CcoGHIS. In cells lacking SenC, the cytoplasmic Cu content is significantly increased, but the simultaneous absence of PccA prevents this Cu accumulation. Lastly, these data demonstrate that the interplay between PccA and SenC is not only required for Cu delivery during cbb3-Cox assembly, but that it also regulates Cu homeostasis in R. capsulatus.« less

  15. Effect of light-dark cycles on hydrogen and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by a photoheterotrophic culture and Rhodobacter capsulatus using a dark fermentation effluent as substrate.

    PubMed

    Montiel Corona, Virginia; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Revah, Sergio; Morales, Marcia

    2017-02-01

    A Rhodobacter capsulatus strain and a photoheterotrophic culture (IZT) were cultivated to produce hydrogen under different light-dark cycles. A dark fermentation effluent (DFE) was used as substrate. It was found that IZT culture had an average cumulative hydrogen production (Paccum H2) of 1300±43mLH2L(-1) under continuous illumination and light-dark cycles of 30 or 60min. In contrast, R. capsulatus reduced its Paccum H2 by 20% under 30:30min light-dark cycles, but tripled its poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) content (308±2mgPHB gdw(-1)) compared to continuous illumination. The highest PHB content by IZT culture was 178±10mgPHB gdw(-1) under 15:15min light-dark cycles. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the IZT culture was mainly composed of Rhodopseudomonas palustris identified with high nucleotide similarity (99%). The evaluated cultures might be used for hydrogen and PHB production. They might provide energy savings by using light-dark cycles and DFE valorization.

  16. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns.

  17. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 μM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 μM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 μM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 μM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning.

  18. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-11-26

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  19. Electrochemical studies of zinc nickel codeposition in sulphate bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Krisha, Mortaga M.

    2005-11-01

    The electrodeposition of Zn-Ni alloys from a sulphate bath was studied under different conditions. The bath had the composition 0.40 M sodium sulphate, 0.01 M sulphuric acid, 0.16 M boric acid, 0.20 M zinc sulphate and 0.20 M nickel sulphate. It is found that the plating bath temperature has a great effect on the cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic measurements during electrodeposition, and consequently linear polarization resistance for corrosion study and the alloy composition. Under the examined conditions, the electrodeposition of the alloys was of anomalous type. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the alloys consisted of the δ-phase (Ni 3Zn 22) or a mixture of the two phases δ and γ (Ni 5Zn 21). The comparison between Ni deposition and Zn-Ni codeposition revealed that the remarkable inhibition of Ni deposition takes place due to the presence of Zn 2+ in the plating bath. The Ni deposition starts at -0.85 V in the bath of Ni deposition only, but the deposition starts at more negative potentials in the codeposition bath although the concentration of Ni 2+ is the same in the both baths.

  20. Quantum Spin Baths Induced Transition of Decoherence and Entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pochung; Lai Chengyan; Hung, J.-T.; Mou Chungyu

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the reduced dynamics of single or two qubits coupled to an interacting quantum spin bath modeled by a XXZ spin chain. By using the method of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG), we evaluate nonperturbatively the induced decoherence and entanglement. We find that the behavior of both decoherence and entanglement strongly depend on the phase of the underlying spin bath. We show that spin baths can induce entanglement for an initially disentangled pair of qubits. We observe that entanglement sudden death only occurs in paramagnetic phase and discuss the effect of the coupling range.

  1. Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors and attic scuttle, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Noises of spin baths for qubits in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihui; Das, Anirban; Lidar, Daniel; Takahashi, Susumu

    2012-02-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising qubit candidate for quantum information processing and high precision magnetometry and is an excellent platform for studying quantum spin dynamics [1,2]. Overcoming spin decoherence of NV centers is critical to the applications. Coupling to spin baths of paramagnetic impurities and nuclei is a major decoherence source for NV centers. Therefore, recent theoretical and experimental efforts have aimed at suppressing the bath noises. In this presentation, we will discuss effects of the spin baths on the qubits at different regimes including high magnetic fields where the degree of the electron spin polarization is almost complete [3]. We will also discuss dynamical decoupling sequences to investigate spin bath noises. [4pt] [1] R. Hanson et al., Science. 320, 352 (2008). [0pt] [2] G. de Lange et al., Science. 330, 60 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Takahashi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 047601 (2008)

  5. INTERIOR GUEST BATH, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR GUEST BATH, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  6. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  8. Self-replaceable thermocouple for molten steel bath - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blau, P.; Zellner, G.

    1971-01-01

    Thermocouple wires, consisting of tungsten-rhenium alloy protected by ablative ceramic coating, are wound on a reel and fed continuously into bath. Tests indicate accuracy and reliability are comparable to conventional devices.

  9. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  10. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  11. 6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. Quantum kicked harmonic oscillator in contact with a heat bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Reynoso, M. Á.; López Vázquez, P. C.; Gorin, T.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the quantum harmonic oscillator in contact with a finite-temperature bath, modeled by the Caldeira-Leggett master equation. Applying periodic kicks to the oscillator, we study the system in different dynamical regimes between classical integrability and chaos, on the one hand, and ballistic or diffusive energy absorption, on the other. We then investigate the influence of the heat bath on the oscillator in each case. Phase-space techniques allow us to simulate the evolution of the system efficiently. In this way, we calculate high-resolution Wigner functions at long times, where the system approaches a quasistationary cyclic evolution. Thereby, we perform an accurate study of the thermodynamic properties of a nonintegrable, quantum chaotic system in contact with a heat bath at finite temperature. In particular, we find that the heat transfer between harmonic oscillator and heat bath is governed by Fourier's law.

  13. Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Implementation of the European Union's Bathing Water Directive in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yukseler, Hande; Girgin, Serkan; Yetis, Ulku; Valatka, Simonas; Semeniene, Daiva; Kerestecioglu, Merih; Jacobsen, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The European Union (EU) Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) sets out standards for designated bathing waters which should be complied with by all Member States. Turkey, being a candidate country to the EU, requires heavy-cost investments in achieving approximation with the EU Environmental Acquis. This paper provides a description of the technical measures and investment and operational cost assessment related to the implementation of the Bathing Water Directive in Turkey. Bathing waters are defined as "all running or still freshwaters or parts thereof and seawater, in which bathing is explicitly authorized by the competent authorities, or bathing is not prohibited and is traditionally practiced by a large number of bathers". Since there is no complete registration of bathing waters in Turkey, this study has targeted all coastal agglomerations and designated these as in proximity to "highly-touristic" and "other" agglomerations including the agglomerations in the proximity of six lakes that are popularly used as bathing waters. For each of these agglomerations an assessment of the existing infrastructure has been made. In defining the infrastructural need, two scenarios have been developed. According to Scenario 1, only highly-touristic and touristic places are to receive investment. The suggested further treatment was "disinfection+sea outfall" and "sea-outfall", for highly-touristic and touristic agglomerations, respectively. In Scenario 2, other coastal agglomerations and all freshwater lakes were also included and disinfection has been proposed for these settlements. It appears that the total investment is at around 12.6 million Euros for Scenario 1 and increases to 21.8 million Euros for Scenario 2; whereas the annual operational and maintenance costs are about 0.5 and 0.8 million Euros for Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively.

  15. Characterization of Rhodobacter capsulatus genes encoding a molybdenum transport system and putative molybdenum-pterin-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, G; Angermüller, S; Klipp, W

    1993-01-01

    The alternative, heterometal-free nitrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus is repressed by traces of molybdenum in the medium. Strains carrying mutations located downstream of nifB copy II were able to express the alternative nitrogenase even in the presence of high molybdate concentrations. DNA sequence analysis of a 5.5-kb fragment of this region revealed six open reading frames, designated modABCD, mopA, and mopB. The gene products of modB and modC are homologous to ChlJ and ChlD of Escherichia coli and represent an integral membrane protein and an ATP-binding protein typical of high-affinity transport systems, respectively. ModA and ModD exhibited no homology to known proteins, but a leader peptide characteristic of proteins cleaved during export to the periplasm is present in ModA, indicating that ModA might be a periplasmic molybdate-binding protein. The MopA and MopB proteins showed a high degree of amino acid sequence homology to each other. Both proteins contained a tandem repeat of a domain encompassing 70 amino acid residues, which had significant sequence similarity to low-molecular-weight molybdenum-pterin-binding proteins from Clostridium pasteurianum. Compared with that for the parental nifHDK deletion strain, the molybdenum concentrations necessary to repress the alternative nitrogenase were increased 4-fold in a modD mutant and 500-fold in modA, modB, and modC mutants. No significant inhibition of the heterometal-free nitrogenase by molybdate was observed for mopA mopB double mutants. The uptake of molybdenum by mod and mop mutants was estimated by measuring the activity of the conventional molybdenum-containing nitrogenase. Molybdenum transport was not affected in a mopA mopB double mutant, whereas strains carrying lesions in the binding-protein-dependent transport system were impaired in molybdenum uptake. PMID:8491722

  16. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2001-07-10

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  17. Effect of hyperthermic water bath on parameters of cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Blazícková, S; Rovenský, J; Koska, J; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Effects of hyperthermic water bath on selected immune parameters (lymphocyte subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell counts and their activity) were studied in a group of 10 volunteers. Application of hyperthermic water bath (both topical and whole-body) was followed by a significant reduction of relative B lymphocyte counts. Whole-body hyperthermic water bath reduced relative total T lymphocyte counts, increased relative CD8+ T lymphocyte and NK cell counts and increased NK activity. Whole-body hyperthermic bath increased somatotropic hormone (STH) activity in eight out of 10 volunteers; higher relative counts of CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells were observed compared with the group of volunteers not responding to hyperthermic water bath by STH secretion. In five volunteers STH was released in response to local hyperthermic water bath and the NK activity of lymphocytes also increased but their relative counts did not. The results suggest that these increases in CD8+ lymphocyte and NK cell counts are probably dependent on increased STH production.

  18. Hydroxylamine assimilation by Rhodobacter capsulatus E1F1. requirement of the hcp gene (hybrid cluster protein) located in the nitrate assimilation nas gene region for hydroxylamine reduction.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Purificación; Pino, Carmen; Olmo-Mira, M Francisca; Castillo, Francisco; Roldán, M Dolores; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado

    2004-10-29

    Rhodobacter capsulatus E1F1 grows phototrophically with nitrate as nitrogen source. Using primers designed for conserved motifs in bacterial assimilatory nitrate reductases, a 450-bp DNA was amplified by PCR and used for the screening of a genomic library. A cosmid carrying an insert with four SalI fragments of 2.8, 4.1, 4.5, and 5.8 kb was isolated, and DNA sequencing revealed that it contains a nitrate assimilation (nas) gene region, including the hcp gene coding for a hybrid cluster protein (HCP). Expression of hcp is probably regulated by a nitrite-sensitive repressor encoded by the adjacent nsrR gene. A His(6)-HCP was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. HCP contained about 6 iron and 4 labile sulfide atoms per molecule, in agreement with the presence of both [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-2S-2O] clusters, and showed hydroxylamine reductase activity, forming ammonia in vitro with methyl viologen as reductant. The apparent K(m) values for NH(2)OH and methyl viologen were 1 mM and 7 microM, respectively, at the pH and temperature optima (9.3 and 40 degrees C). The activity was oxygen-sensitive and was inhibited by sulfide and iron reagents. R. capsulatus E1F1 grew phototrophically, but not heterotrophically, with 1 mM NH(2)OH as nitrogen source, and up to 10 mM NH(2)OH was taken up by anaerobic resting cells. Ammonium was transiently accumulated in the media, and its assimilation was prevented by L-methionine-D,L-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. In addition, hydroxylamine- or nitrite-grown cells showed the higher hydroxylamine reductase activities. However, R. capsulatus B10S, a strain lacking the whole hcp-nas region, did not grow with 1 mM NH(2)OH. Also, E. coli cells overproducing HCP tolerate hydroxyl-amine better during anaerobic growth. These results suggest that HCP is involved in assimilation of NH(2)OH, a toxic product that could be formed during nitrate assimilation, probably in the nitrite reduction step.

  19. Proteome Profiling of the Rhodobacter capsulatus Molybdenum Response Reveals a Role of IscN in Nitrogen Fixation by Fe-Nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Marie-Christine; Wagner, Eva; Langklotz, Sina; Pfänder, Yvonne; Hött, Sina; Bandow, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhodobacter capsulatus is capable of synthesizing two nitrogenases, a molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase and an alternative Mo-free iron-only nitrogenase, enabling this diazotroph to grow with molecular dinitrogen (N2) as the sole nitrogen source. Here, the Mo responses of the wild type and of a mutant lacking ModABC, the high-affinity molybdate transporter, were examined by proteome profiling, Western analysis, epitope tagging, and lacZ reporter fusions. Many Mo-controlled proteins identified in this study have documented or presumed roles in nitrogen fixation, demonstrating the relevance of Mo control in this highly ATP-demanding process. The levels of Mo-nitrogenase, NifHDK, and the Mo storage protein, Mop, increased with increasing Mo concentrations. In contrast, Fe-nitrogenase, AnfHDGK, and ModABC, the Mo transporter, were expressed only under Mo-limiting conditions. IscN was identified as a novel Mo-repressed protein. Mo control of Mop, AnfHDGK, and ModABC corresponded to transcriptional regulation of their genes by the Mo-responsive regulators MopA and MopB. Mo control of NifHDK and IscN appeared to be more complex, involving different posttranscriptional mechanisms. In line with the simultaneous control of IscN and Fe-nitrogenase by Mo, IscN was found to be important for Fe-nitrogenase-dependent diazotrophic growth. The possible role of IscN as an A-type carrier providing Fe-nitrogenase with Fe-S clusters is discussed. IMPORTANCE Biological nitrogen fixation is a central process in the global nitrogen cycle by which the abundant but chemically inert dinitrogen (N2) is reduced to ammonia (NH3), a bioavailable form of nitrogen. Nitrogen reduction is catalyzed by nitrogenases found in diazotrophic bacteria and archaea but not in eukaryotes. All diazotrophs synthesize molybdenum-dependent nitrogenases. In addition, some diazotrophs, including Rhodobacter capsulatus, possess catalytically less efficient alternative Mo-free nitrogenases, whose expression

  20. ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

  1. Oxygen uptake and cardiovascular responses in control adults and acute myocardial infarction patients during bathing.

    PubMed

    Winslow, E H; Lane, L D; Gaffney, F A

    1985-01-01

    Physiological responses before, during, and after three types of baths were determined in 18 patients who were 5 to 17 days postinfarction and 22 control adults. In the patients, oxygen consumption (VO2) averaged 6, 7, and 7 ml/kg/min, peak heart rate 105, 108, and 112 beats per minute, and rate pressure product 115, 120, and 111 for basin, tub, and shower bathing, respectively. Oxygen consumption during bathing was less than 3 times resting levels. The patients had a significantly lower VO2 during bathing than the control subjects. The patients' peak heart rates were higher than anticipated for the level of exertion, and sometimes exceeded the target heart rates used in predischarge testing. Peak heart rate and occurrence of dysrhythmia did not differ significantly between the three types of baths. In the women patients, rate pressure product was significantly higher after tub bath than after basin bath or shower. The subjects had no cardiovascular symptoms during bathing, rated all three baths as light exertion, and disliked the basin bath. The data show that the physiologic costs of the three types of baths are similar, differences in responses to bathing seem more a function of subject variability than bath type, and many cardiac patients can take a tub bath or shower earlier in their hospitalization. However, more research is needed to predict patients likely to have an exaggerated response to bathing and to develop clear guidelines for bath method selection and progression.

  2. Hydrogen production by hup(-) mutant and wild-type strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus from dark fermentation effluent of sugar beet thick juice in batch and continuous photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Basar; Gürgan, Muazzez; Özgür, Ebru; Gündüz, Ufuk; Yücel, Meral; Eroglu, Inci

    2015-10-01

    Photofermentative production of hydrogen is a promising and sustainable process; however, it should be coupled to dark fermentation to become cost effective. In order to integrate dark fermentation and photofermentation, the suitability of dark fermenter effluents for the photofermentative hydrogen production must be demonstrated. In this study, thermophilic dark fermenter effluent (DFE) of sugar beet thick juice was used as a substrate in photofermentation process to compare wild-type and uptake hydrogenase-deficient (hup (-)) mutant strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus by means of hydrogen production and biomass growth. The tests were conducted in small-scale (50 mL) batch and large-scale (4 L) continuous photobioreactors in indoor conditions under continuous illumination. In small scale batch conditions, maximum cell concentrations were 0.92 gdcw/L c and 1.50 gdcw/L c, hydrogen yields were 34 % and 31 %, hydrogen productivities were 0.49 mmol/(L c·h) and 0.26 mmol/(Lc·h), for hup (-) and wild-type cells, respectively. In large-scale continuous conditions, maximum cell concentrations were 1.44 gdcw/L c and 1.87 gdcw/L c, hydrogen yields were 48 and 46 %, and hydrogen productivities were 1.01 mmol/(L c·h) and 1.05 mmol/(L c·h), for hup (-) and wild-type cells, respectively. Our results showed that Rhodobacter capsulatus hup (-) cells reached to a lower maximum cell concentration but their hydrogen yield and productivity were in the same range or superior compared to the wild-type cells in both batch and continuous operating modes. The maximum biomass concentration, yield and productivity of hydrogen were higher in continuous mode compared to the batch mode with both bacterial strains.

  3. High-level soluble expression of the hemA gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus and comparative study of its enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jia-wei; Zhu, Li; Wu, Mian-bin; Yang, Li-rong; Lin, Jian-ping; Cen, Pei-lin

    2014-05-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus hemA gene, which encodes 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) and the enzymatic properties of the purified recombinant ALAS (RC-ALAS) were studied. Compared with ALASs encoded by hemA genes from Agrobacterium radiobacter (AR-ALAS) and Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS-ALAS), the specific activity of RC-ALAS reached 198.2 U/mg, which was about 31.2% and 69.5% higher than those of AR-ALAS (151.1 U/mg) and RS-ALAS (116.9 U/mg), respectively. The optimum pH values and temperatures of the three above mentioned enzymes were all pH 7.5 and 37 °C, respectively. Moreover, RC-ALAS was more sensitive to pH, while the other two were sensitive to temperature. The effects of metals, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the three ALASs were also investigated. The results indicate that they had the same effects on the activities of the three ALASs. SDS and metal ions such as Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) strongly inhibited the activities of the ALASs, while Mn(2+) exerted slight inhibition, and K(+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+), or EDTA had no significant effect. The specificity constant of succinyl coenzyme A [(kcat/Km)(S-CoA)] of RC-ALAS was 1.4989, which was higher than those of AR-ALAS (0.7456) and RS-ALAS (1.1699), showing its high catalytic efficiency. The fed-batch fermentation was conducted using the recombinant strain containing the R. capsulatus hemA gene, and the yield of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) achieved was 8.8 g/L (67 mmol/L) under the appropriate conditions.

  4. The puhE gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus is needed for optimal transition from aerobic to photosynthetic growth and encodes a putative negative modulator of bacteriochlorophyll production.

    PubMed

    Aklujkar, Muktak; Prince, Roger C; Beatty, J Thomas

    2005-05-15

    A conserved orf of previously unknown function (herein designated as puhE) is located 3' of the reaction centre H (puhA) gene in purple photosynthetic bacteria, in the order puhABCE in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Disruptions of R. capsulatus puhE resulted in a long lag in the growth of photosynthetic cultures inoculated with cells grown under high aeration, and increased the level of the peripheral antenna, light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2). The amount of the photosynthetic reaction centre (RC) and its core antenna, light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1), was reduced; however, there was no decrease in expression of a lacZ reporter fused to the puf (RC and LH1) promoter, in RC assembly in the absence of LH1, or in LH1 assembly in the absence of the RC. In strains that lack LH2, disruption of puhE increased the in vivo absorption at 780 nm, which we attribute to excess bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl) pigment production. This effect was seen in the presence and absence of PufQ, a protein that stimulates BChl biosynthesis. Expression of puhE from a plasmid reduced A(780) production in puhE mutants. We suggest that PuhE modulates BChl biosynthesis independently of PufQ, and that the presence of excess BChl in PuhE(-)LH2(+) strains results in excess LH2 assembly and also interferes with the adaptation of cells during the transition from aerobic respiratory to anaerobic photosynthetic growth.

  5. Analyses of Methanobactin, a Novel Copper-Binding Compound, or Chalkophore, from Methanotrophs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semrau, J. D.; Yoon, S.; Dispirito, A.; Kraemer, S.

    2009-12-01

    Methanotrophs, cells that utilize methane as their sole carbon and energy source are known to have high requirements for copper. Many of these cells are known to synthesize a copper-chelating agent, or chalkophore, termed methanobactin that appears integral to copper uptake. Structural analyses indicate that methanobactin is a small chromopeptide that binds copper utilizing two alkylidene oxazolone rings. Using a suite of spectrophotemetric and calorimetry analyses, it was discovered that methanobactin preferentially binds copper, but also binds other metals, including gold, forming gold nanoparticles. To screen methanobactin production by methanotrophs, as well as to determine if other cells make chalkophores, a plate assay developed from the Chromo Azurol S (CAS) assay for siderophore production, was modified. In the standard CAS assay, a color change in CAS plate is observed as iron (III) ion weakly bound to CAS is taken up by siderophores. In our modified assay, iron (III) chloride of the initial CAS solution was substituted with copper(II) chloride. Assay results indicated that of the four tested methanotrophs (Methylomicrobium album BG8, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, and Methylocystis parvus OBBP), only M. album BG8, M. trichosporium OB3b, and M. capsulatus produced methanobactin, while M. parvus OBBP did not. The assay can be easily adopted for detection of chalkophores in other microorganisms and detection as well as for screening of putative mutants of chalkophore synthesis.

  6. Dissipative quantum dynamics with the surrogate Hamiltonian approach. A comparison between spin and harmonic baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, David; Koch, Christiane P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2004-07-01

    The dissipative quantum dynamics of an anharmonic oscillator coupled to a bath is studied with the purpose of elucidating the differences between the relaxation to a spin bath and to a harmonic bath. Converged results are obtained for the spin bath by the surrogate Hamiltonian approach. This method is based on constructing a system-bath Hamiltonian, with a finite but large number of spin bath modes, that mimics exactly a bath with an infinite number of modes for a finite time interval. Convergence with respect to the number of simultaneous excitations of bath modes can be checked. The results are compared to calculations that include a finite number of harmonic modes carried out by using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method of Nest and Meyer [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 24 (2003)]. In the weak coupling regime, at zero temperature and for small excitations of the primary system, both methods converge to the Markovian limit. When initially the primary system is significantly excited, the spin bath can saturate restricting the energy acceptance. An interaction term between bath modes that spreads the excitation eliminates the saturation. The loss of phase between two cat states has been analyzed and the results for the spin and harmonic baths are almost identical. For stronger couplings, the dynamics induced by the two types of baths deviate. The accumulation and degree of entanglement between the bath modes have been characterized. Only in the spin bath the dynamics generate entanglement between the bath modes.

  7. Identification and sequence analysis of the hupR1 gene, which encodes a response regulator of the NtrC family required for hydrogenase expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Richaud, P; Colbeau, A; Toussaint, B; Vignais, P M

    1991-01-01

    The hupR1 gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus was cloned and sequenced. It can encode a protein of 53,843 Da which shares significant similarity with several transcriptional regulators and activates transcription of the structural hupSL genes of [NiFe]hydrogenase, as shown by the use of a translational fusion of lacZ with the hupSL promoter. A Hup- mutant having a point mutation in the hupR1 gene is described. PMID:1885559

  8. Characterization of a Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction center mutant that enhances the distinction between spectral forms of the initial electron donor.

    PubMed

    Eastman, J E; Taguchi, A K; Lin, S; Jackson, J A; Woodbury, N W

    2000-12-05

    A large scale mutation of the Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction center M-subunit gene, sym2-1, has been constructed in which amino acid residues M205-M210 have been changed to the corresponding L subunit amino acids. Two interconvertable spectral forms of the initial electron donor are observed in isolated reaction centers from this mutant. Which conformation dominates depends on ionic strength, the nature of the detergent used, and the temperature. Reaction centers from this mutant have a ground-state absorbance spectrum that is very similar to wild-type when measured immediately after purification in the presence of high salt. However, upon subsequent dialysis against a low ionic strength buffer or the addition of positively charged detergents, the near-infrared spectral band of P (the initial electron donor) in sym2-1 reaction centers is shifted by over 30 nm to the blue, from 852 to 820 nm. Systematically varying either the ionic strength or the amount of charged detergent reveals an isobestic point in the absorbance spectrum at 845 nm. The wild-type spectrum also shifts with ionic strength or detergent with an isobestic point at 860 nm. The large spectral separation between the two dominant conformational forms of the sym2-1 reaction center makes detailed measurements of each state possible. Both of the spectral forms of P bleach in the presence of light. Electrochemical measurements of the P/P+ midpoint potential of sym2-1 reaction centers show an increase of about 30 mV upon conversion from the long-wavelength form to the short-wavelength form of the mutant. The rate constant of initial electron transfer in both forms of the mutant reaction centers is essentially the same, suggesting that the spectral characteristics of P are not critical for charge separation. The short-wavelength form of P in this mutant also converts to the long-wavelength form as a function of temperature between room temperature and 130 K, again giving rise to an isobestic point, in this

  9. Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: Hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2014-04-07

    We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.

  10. Open reading frame 5 (ORF5), encoding a ferredoxinlike protein, and nifQ are cotranscribed with nifE, nifN, nifX, and ORF4 in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Vivian, C; Hennecke, S; Pühler, A; Klipp, W

    1989-05-01

    DNA sequence analysis of a 1,600-base-pair fragment located downstream of nifENX in nif region A of Rhodobacter capsulatus revealed two additional open reading frames (ORFs): ORF5, encoding a ferredoxinlike protein, and nifQ. The ferredoxinlike gene product contained two cysteine motifs, typical of ferredoxins coordinating two 4Fe-4S clusters, but the distance between these two motifs was unusual for low-molecular-weight ferredoxins. The R. capsulatus nifQ gene product shared a high degree of homology with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii NifQ, including a typical cysteine motif located in the C-terminal part. nifQ insertion mutants and also an ORF5-nifQ double deletion mutant showed normal diazotrophic growth only in the presence of high concentrations of molybdate. This demonstrated that the gene encoding the ferredoxinlike protein is not essential for nitrogen fixation. No NifA-activated consensus promoter could be found in the intergenic region between nifENX-ORF4 and ORF5-nifQ. Analyses of a nifQ-lacZYA fusion revealed that transcription of nifQ was initiated at a promoter in front of nifE. In contrast to other nitrogen-fixing organisms, R. capsulatus nifE, nifN, nifX, ORF4, ORF5, and nifQ were organized in one transcriptional unit.

  11. Development of a Rhodobacter capsulatus self-reporting model system for optimizing light-dependent, [FeFe]-hydrogenase-driven H2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Wecker, Matt S. A.; Beaton, Stephen E.; Chado, Robert A.; Ghirardi, Maria L.

    2016-08-17

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus normally photoproduces H2 as a by-product of its nitrogenase-catalyzed nitrogen-fixing activity. Such H2 production, however, is expensive from a metabolic perspective, requiring nearly four times as many photons as the equivalent algal hydrogenase-based system. Here we report the insertion of a Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its three attendant hydrogenase assembly proteins into an R. capsulatus strain lacking its native uptake hydrogenase. Further, this strain is modified to fluoresce upon sensing H2. The resulting strain photoproduces H2 and self-reports its own H2 production through fluorescence. Furthermore, this model system represents a unique method of developing hydrogenase-based H2 production in R. capsulatus, may serve as a powerful system for in vivo directed evolution of hydrogenases and hydrogenase-associated genes, and provides a means of screening for increased metabolic production of H2.

  12. Development of a Rhodobacter capsulatus self-reporting model system for optimizing light-dependent, [FeFe]-hydrogenase-driven H 2 production: A Model System for Optimizing H 2 Production

    DOE PAGES

    Wecker, Matt S. A.; Beaton, Stephen E.; Chado, Robert A.; ...

    2016-08-23

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus normally photoproduces H2 as a by-product of its nitrogenase-catalyzed nitrogen-fixing activity. Such H2 production, however, is expensive from a metabolic perspective, requiring nearly four times as many photons as the equivalent algal hydrogenase-based system (Ghirardi et al. 2009). Here we report the insertion of a Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its three attendant hydrogenase assembly proteins into an R. capsulatus strain lacking its native uptake hydrogenase. Further, this strain is modified to fluoresce upon sensing H2. The resulting strain photoproduces H2 and self-reports its own H2 production through fluorescence. This model system represents a unique methodmore » of developing hydrogenase-based H2 production in R. capsulatus, may serve as a powerful system for in vivo directed evolution of hydrogenases and hydrogenase-associated genes, and provides a means of screening for increased metabolic production of H2.« less

  13. Self-Starting Micromotors in a Bacterial Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelani, Luca; di Leonardo, Roberto; Ruocco, Giancarlo

    2009-01-01

    Micromotors pushed by biological entities, such as motile bacteria, constitute a fascinating way to convert chemical energy into mechanical work at the micrometer scale. Here we show, by using numerical simulations, that a properly designed asymmetric object can be spontaneously set into the desired motion when immersed in a chaotic bacterial bath. Our findings open the way to conceive new hybrid microdevices exploiting the mechanical power production of bacterial organisms. Moreover, the system provides an example of how, in contrast with equilibrium thermal baths, the irreversible chaotic motion of active particles can be rectified by asymmetric environments.

  14. Effect of precursor concentration and bath temperature on the growth of chemical bath deposited tin sulphide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasree, Y.; Chalapathi, U.; Uday Bhaskar, P.; Sundara Raja, V.

    2012-01-01

    SnS is a promising candidate for a low-cost, non-toxic solar cell absorber layer. Tin sulphide thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a solution containing stannous chloride, thioacetamide, ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA). The effects of concentration of tin salt, triethanolamine and bath temperature on the growth of tin sulphide films have been investigated in order to optimize the growth conditions to obtain tin monosulphide (SnS) films. SnS films obtained under optimized conditions were found to be polycrystalline in nature with orthorhombic structure. The optical band gap of these films was found to be 1.5 eV.

  15. 19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Bath-induced coherence and the secular approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastham, P. R.; Kirton, P.; Cammack, H. M.; Lovett, B. W.; Keeling, J.

    2016-07-01

    Finding efficient descriptions of how an environment affects a collection of discrete quantum systems would lead to new insights into many areas of modern physics. Markovian, or time-local, methods work well for individual systems, but for groups a question arises: Does system-bath or intersystem coupling dominate the dissipative dynamics? The answer has profound consequences for the long-time quantum correlations within the system. We consider two bosonic modes coupled to a bath. By comparing an exact solution against different Markovian master equations, we find that a smooth crossover of the equations of motion between dominant intersystem and system-bath coupling exists—but it requires a nonsecular master equation. We predict singular behavior of the dynamics and show that the ultimate failure of nonsecular equations of motion is essentially a failure of the Markov approximation. Our findings support the use of time-local theories throughout the crossover between system-bath-dominated and intersystem-coupling-dominated dynamics.

  17. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  2. Clinical skills: bed bathing and personal hygiene needs of patients.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Jones, Anne

    The maintenance of personal hygiene is essential for a patient's health and well-being. Nurses play a key role in ensuring that the individual hygiene needs of patients are met. In this article the process of bed-bathing a patient is described.

  3. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  4. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  5. Elderly people urged not to bath when home alone.

    PubMed

    1994-03-30

    Elderly people should only have a batch when someone else is in the house and should never lock the door, researchers have urged. The calls follow a survey which found one in seven older people have been trapped in the bath at least once.

  6. 16 CFR 1215.2 - Requirements for infant bath seats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... products that are designed or intended to retain water for bathing. (ii) (2) Instead of section 6.1 of ASTM... test solution (see table 1) to distilled water, immediately before each test run, thoroughly saturate all test platform surfaces above the water line where the product makes contact and where...

  7. VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING 991. (6/7/68) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILTIN SHELVES. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. NOTE THE WINDOWS IN THE UPPER PORTION OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, M-Shaped Four-Bedroom Duplex Type 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT OF THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES NEXT TO THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. ] SUMMARY: The United States Consumer Product Safety...

  16. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  17. Effects of tub bathing procedures on preterm infants' behavior.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Yin, Ti

    2006-12-01

    Although medical advances have increased the survival rate of preterm infants, morbidity in terms of neurodevelopmental impairment has not decreased for this population. This results in caregivers having to reconsider how neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) caregiving impacts on preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different phases of a routine tub bath on preterm infants' distress and state behavior in the NICU. The study used an exploratory repeated measures design that focused on preterm infants' distress and state behavior, and evaluated the effects of three phases of a routine tub bath, which were performed according to standard unit practice in the NICU. Thirteen nurses repeatedly bathed 12 infants on different days, and 64 baths were videotaped for the purpose of assessing the variety of distress behavior. The procedures of one bath could be categorized into three phases designated to Phases I, II, and III. The variables were measured by a preterm infant behavioral coding scheme developed for this research. The inter-rater reliability of the instrument ranged from .82 to .99. Mixed effects analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences among the bath phases in the occurrences of distress and state behavior. The results showed significant statistical difference among most distress behaviors during the three phases (e.g. "startle, jerk, tremor" F ratio = 25.62, p < .001; "finger splay, grasping, fisting" F ratio = 49.99, p < .001; "grimace" F ratio = 36.55, p < .001; "fussing or crying" F ratio = 25.27, p < .001), with the exception of "extension, arching and squirming". In particular, the occurrence of distress and state behavior increased significantly in phase II. Routine tub bathing not only disrupts preterm infants' sleep but also causes an increase in distress behavior. Preterm infants' stress increases with the intrusiveness of nursing procedures. NICU caregivers should consider the effects of routine

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the Rhodobacter capsulatus fruK gene, which encodes fructose-1-phosphate kinase: evidence for a kinase superfamily including both phosphofructokinases of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L F; Reizer, A; Reizer, J; Cai, B; Tomich, J M; Saier, M H

    1991-01-01

    The fruK gene encoding fructose-1-phosphate kinase (FruK), located within the fructose (fru)-catabolic operon of Rhodobacter capsulatus, was sequenced. FruK of R. capsulatus (316 amino acids; molecular weight = 31,232) is the same size as and is homologous to FruK of Escherichia coli, phosphofructokinase B (PfkB) of E. coli, phosphotagatokinase of Staphylococcus aureus, and ribokinase of E. coli. These proteins therefore make up a family of homologous proteins, termed the PfkB family. A phylogenetic tree for this new family was constructed. Sequence comparisons plus chemical inactivation studies suggested the lack of involvement of specific residues in catalysis. Although the Rhodobacter FruK differed markedly from the other enzymes within the PfkB family with respect to amino acid composition, these enzymes exhibited similar predicted secondary structural features. A large internal segment of the Rhodobacter FruK was found to be similar in sequence to the domain bearing the sugar bisphosphate-binding region of the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of plants and bacteria. Proteins of the PfkB family did not exhibit statistically significant sequence identity with PfkA of E. coli. PfkA, however, is homologous to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic ATP- and PPi-dependent Pfks (the PfkA family). These eukaryotic, ATP-dependent enzymes each consist of a homotetramer (mammalian) or a heterooctamer (yeasts), with each subunit containing an internal duplication of the size of the entire PfkA protein of E. coli. In some of these enzymes, additional domains are present. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the PfkA family and revealed that the bacterial enzymes closely resemble the N-terminal domains of the eukaryotic enzyme subunits whereas the C-terminal domains have diverged more extensively. The PPi-dependent Pfk of potato is only distantly related to the ATP-dependent enzymes. On the basis of their similar functions, sizes, predicted

  19. Characterization of a nif-regulated flavoprotein (FprA) from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Redox properties and molecular interaction with a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Y; Meyer, C; Asso, M; Guigliarelli, B; Willison, J C

    2000-02-01

    A flavoprotein from Rhodobacter capsulatus was purified as a recombinant (His)6-tag fusion from an Escherichia coli clone over-expressing the fprA structural gene. The FprA protein is a homodimer containing one molecule of FMN per 48-kDa monomer. Reduction of the flavoprotein by dithionite showed biphasic kinetics, starting with a fast step of semiquinone (SQ) formation, and followed by a slow reduction of the SQ. This SQ was in the anionic form as shown by EPR and optical spectroscopies. Spectrophotometric titration gave a midpoint redox potential for the oxidized/SQ couple of Em1 = +20 mV (pH 8.0), whereas the SQ/hydroquinone couple could not be titrated due to the thermodynamic instability of SQ associated with its slow reduction process. The inability to detect the intermediate form, SQ, upon oxidative titration confirmed this instability and led to an estimate of Em2 - Em1 of > 80 mV. The reduction of SQ by dithionite was significantly accelerated when the [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin FdIV was used as redox mediator. The midpoint redox potential of this ferredoxin was determined to be -275 +/- 2 mV at pH 7.5, consistent with FdIV serving as electron donor to FprA in vivo. FdIV and FprA were found to cross-react when incubated together with the 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, giving a covalent complex with an Mr of approximately 60 000. Formation of this complex was unaffected by the redox states of the two proteins. Other [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins, including FdV and FdVI from R. capsulatus, were ineffective as electron carriers to FprA, and cross-reacted poorly with the flavoprotein. The possible function of FprA with regard to nitrogen fixation was investigated using an fprA-deleted mutant. Although nitrogenase activity was significantly reduced in the mutant compared with the wild-type strain, nitrogen fixation was apparently unaffected by the fprA deletion even under iron limitation or microaerobic conditions.

  20. [The use of sodium chloride baths in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Anisimkina, A N; Aĭrapetova, N S; Davydova, O B; Doronina, Iu V; Derevnina, N A; Gontar', E V

    1996-01-01

    80 patients with chronic bronchitis took baths with sodium chloride concentration 20, 40, 60 g/l and temperature 37-38 degrees C. The baths produced a positive effect on central and regional hemodynamics, reduced inflammation and sensitization.

  1. [The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].

    PubMed

    Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

    1998-01-01

    Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  2. The Medical Risks and Benefits of Sauna, Steam Bath, and Whirlpool Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Saunas, steam baths, and whirlpools--popular fixtures at health clubs--are safe means of relaxation if used properly. Ignoring the recommendations for moderate, commonsense enjoyment of these baths may expose users to health risks, including sudden death, arrhythmias, and skin infections. A guide to safe use of such baths is presented. (Author/CB)

  3. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling... into publicly owned treatment works resulting from oxidizing and reducing salt bath descaling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  4. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling... into publicly owned treatment works resulting from oxidizing and reducing salt bath descaling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  5. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling... into publicly owned treatment works resulting from oxidizing and reducing salt bath descaling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the...

  6. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling... into publicly owned treatment works resulting from oxidizing and reducing salt bath descaling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  7. INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

  8. Using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety to Evaluate a Hospital-Wide Daily Chlorhexidine Bathing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Caya, Teresa; Musuuza, Jackson; Yanke, Eric; Schmitz, Michelle; Anderson, Brooke; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a systems engineering approach to evaluate housewide implementation of daily chlorhexidine bathing. We performed direct observations of the bathing process and conducted provider and patient surveys. The main outcome was compliance with bathing using a checklist. Fifty-seven percent of baths had full compliance with the chlorhexidine bathing protocol. Additional time was the main barrier. Institutions undertaking daily chlorhexidine bathing should perform a rigorous assessment of implementation to optimize the benefits of this intervention. PMID:26035708

  9. A stirred bath technique for diffusivity measurements in cell matrices.

    PubMed

    Chresand, T J; Dale, B E; Hanson, S L; Gillies, R J

    1988-10-05

    A stirred bath technique was developed for determining effective diffusivities in cell matrices. The technique involves cell immobilization in a dilute gel which has negligible effect on solute diffusion. Agar and collagen were tested as immobilizing gels. Agar gel was shown to have minor interactions with the diffusion of various biological molecules, and was used for immobilization of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) cells. Diffusivities of glucose and lactic acid were measured in EAT matrices for cell loadings between 20 and 45 vol %. Treatment with glutaraldehyde was effective in quenching the metabolic activity of the cells while preserving their physical properties and diffusive resistance. The measured data agree favorably with predictions based on Maxwell's equation for effective diffusion in a periodic composite material. The stirred bath technique is useful for diffusivity determinations in immobilized matrices or free slurries, and is applicable to both microbial and mammalian cell systems.

  10. Effective run-and-tumble dynamics of bacteria baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoluzzi, M.; Di Leonardo, R.; Angelani, L.

    2013-10-01

    E. coli bacteria swim in straight runs interrupted by sudden reorientation events called tumbles. The resulting random walks give rise to density fluctuations that can be derived analytically in the limit of non-interacting particles or equivalently of very low concentrations. However, in situations of practical interest, the concentration of bacteria is always large enough to make interactions an important factor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the dynamic structure factor of a model bacterial bath for increasing values of densities. We show that it is possible to reproduce the dynamics of density fluctuations in the system using a free run-and-tumble model with effective fitting parameters. We discuss the dependence of these parameters, e.g., the tumbling rate, tumbling time and self-propulsion velocity, on the density of the bath.

  11. Optimization of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulfide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Oladeji, I.O.; Chow, L.

    1997-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is known to be an excellent heterojunction partner of p-type cadmium telluride (CdTe) or p-type copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) due essentially to its high electron affinity. It is widely used as a window material in high efficiency thin-film solar cells based on CdTe or CuInSe{sub 2} owing to its transparency and photoconductivity among other properties. The authors report the optimization of CdS thin film grown by chemical bath deposition where homogeneous reactions are minimized. The optimum parameters have enabled them to maximize the thickness of the deposited film in a single dip and to grow thicker films by periodically replenishing the concentration of reactants while the substrate remains continuously dipped in the reaction bath. Characterization results reveal the deposited CdS films exhibit improved optical and electrical properties.

  12. Observations on the effect of immersion in Bath spa water.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hare, J P; Heywood, A; Summerhayes, C; Lunn, G; Evans, J M; Walters, G; Corrall, R J; Dieppe, P A

    1985-01-01

    Immersion in water in spas has been practised for centuries and has many proponents. Despite fierce debate about its efficacy there has been little scientific evaluation of the effect of immersion in mineral waters. Eight normal subjects were immersed in Bath spa water for two hours and the renal, haematological, and cardiovascular responses were compared with those in the control periods before and after immersion. Significant, twofold diuresis and natriuresis, 5% haemodilution, and a 50% increase in cardiac index were observed in subjects immersed, sitting, in Bath spa water at 35 degrees C. These changes may constitute part of the scientific rationale for spa treatment in many states of disease. Images FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 PMID:3936569

  13. Optimization of the hydrogen yield from single-stage photofermentation of glucose by Rhodobacter capsulatus JP91 using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Sobro, Irma Flore; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogen production from glucose via single-stage photofermentation was examined with the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus JP91 (hup-). Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the independent experimental variables of glucose concentration, glutamate concentration and light intensity, as well as examining their interactive effects for maximization of molar hydrogen yield. Under optimal condition with a light intensity of 175W/m(2), 35mM glucose, and 4.5mM glutamate, a maximum hydrogen yield of 5.5 (±0.15)molH(2)/molglucose, and a maximum nitrogenase activity of 246 (±3.5)nmolC(2)H(4)/ml/min were obtained. Densitometric analysis of nitrogenase Fe-protein expression under different conditions showed significant variation in Fe-protein expression with a maximum at the optimized central point. Even under optimum conditions for hydrogen production, a significant fraction of the Fe-protein was found in the ADP-ribosylated state, suggesting that further improvement in yields might be possible.

  14. Bacteriochlorophyll-dependent expression of genes for pigment-binding proteins in Rhodobacter capsulatus involves the RegB/RegA two-component system.

    PubMed

    Abada, E M; Balzer, A; Jäger, A; Klug, G

    2002-04-01

    Expression of the puf and puc operons, which encode proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus of Rhodobacter capsulatus, is regulated by oxygen. A drop in the oxygen tension in the environment leads to an increase in the levels of puf and puc mRNAs. In strains lacking bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) due to mutations in bch genes, the rise in puf and puc mRNA levels observed on reduction of oxygen tension is much less pronounced than in wild-type cells, indicating co-regulation of the syntheses of pigments and pigment-binding proteins. Here we show that Bchl synthesis also affects the expression of the bchC gene, which codes for a subunit of bacteriochlorophyll synthase, suggesting an autoregulatory mechanism for the Bchl biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that the RegB/RegA two-component system, which is known to play a central role in oxygen-controlled expression of photosynthesis genes, is also involved in the Bchl-dependent regulation. Mutant strains which do not synthesize RegB or RegA show similar oxygen-dependent puf and puc expression in the presence and absence of Bchl. Our results support the view that the RegB/RegA system can directly or indirectly sense whether Bchl synthesis takes place or not.

  15. Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, David Allen

    1992-11-01

    A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis of two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.

  16. Phosphate Concentration and the Putative Sensor Kinase Protein CckA Modulate Cell Lysis and Release of the Rhodobacter capsulatus Gene Transfer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Westbye, A. B.; Leung, M. M.; Florizone, S. M.; Taylor, T. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Fogg, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) is a bacteriophage-like genetic element with the sole known function of horizontal gene transfer. Homologues of RcGTA genes are present in many members of the alphaproteobacteria and may serve an important role in microbial evolution. Transcription of RcGTA genes is induced as cultures enter the stationary phase; however, little is known about cis-active sequences. In this work, we identify the promoter of the first gene in the RcGTA structural gene cluster. Additionally, gene transduction frequency depends on the growth medium, and the reason for this is not known. We report that millimolar concentrations of phosphate posttranslationally inhibit the lysis-dependent release of RcGTA from cells in both a complex medium and a defined medium. Furthermore, we found that cell lysis requires the genes rcc00555 and rcc00556, which were expressed and studied in Escherichia coli to determine their predicted functions as an endolysin and holin, respectively. Production of RcGTA is regulated by host systems, including a putative histidine kinase, CckA, and we found that CckA is required for maximal expression of rcc00555 and for maturation of RcGTA to yield gene transduction-functional particles. PMID:23995641

  17. Use of hupS::lacZ gene fusion to study regulation of hydrogenase expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus: stimulation by H2.

    PubMed Central

    Colbeau, A; Vignais, P M

    1992-01-01

    The Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase enzyme was used as a reporter molecule for genetic fusions in Rhodobacter capsulatus. DNA fragments that were from the upstream region of the hydrogenase structural operon hupSLM and contained 5' hupS sequences were fused in frame to a promoterless lacZ gene, yielding fusion proteins comprising the putative signal sequence and the first 22 amino acids of the HupS protein joined to the eight amino acid of beta-galactosidase. We demonstrate the usefulness of the hupS::lacZ fusion in monitoring regulation of hydrogenase gene expression. The activities of plasmid-determined beta-galactosidase and chromosome-encoded hydrogenase changed in parallel in response to various growth conditions (light or dark, aerobiosis or anaerobiosis, and presence or absence of ammonia or of H2), showing that changes in hydrogenase activity were due to changes in enzyme synthesis. Molecular hydrogen stimulated hydrogenase synthesis in dark, aerobic cultures and in illuminated, anaerobic cultures. Analysis of hupS::lacZ expression in various mutants indicated that neither the hydrogenase structural genes nor NifR4 (sigma 54) was essential for hydrogen regulation of hydrogenase synthesis. PMID:1624420

  18. Sequence analysis and interposon mutagenesis of the hupT gene, which encodes a sensor protein involved in repression of hydrogenase synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Elsen, S; Richaud, P; Colbeau, A; Vignais, P M

    1993-01-01

    The hupT gene, which represses hydrogenase gene expression in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, has been identified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of hupT and of the contiguous downstream open reading frame, hupU, is reported. The HupT protein of 456 amino acids (48,414 Da) has sequence similarity with the FixL, DctB, NtrB, and ArcB proteins and is predicted to be a soluble sensor kinase. Insertional inactivation of the hupT gene led to deregulation of transcriptional control, so that the hydrogenase structural operon hupSLC became overexpressed in cells grown anaerobically or aerobically. The HupT- mutants were complemented in trans by a plasmid containing an intact copy of the hupT gene. The hupU open reading frame, capable of encoding a protein of 84,879 Da, shared identity with [NiFe]hydrogenase subunits; the strongest similarity was observed with the periplasmic hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio baculatus. Images PMID:8226687

  19. Rayleigh wave inversion using heat-bath simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yongxu; Peng, Suping; Du, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Ma, Zhenyuan; Lin, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The dispersion of Rayleigh waves can be used to obtain near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity profiles. This is performed mainly by inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves, which has been proven to be a highly nonlinear and multimodal problem, and it is unsuitable to use local search methods (LSMs) as the inversion algorithm. In this study, a new strategy is proposed based on a variant of simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. SA, which simulates the annealing procedure of crystalline solids in nature, is one of the global search methods (GSMs). There are many variants of SA, most of which contain two steps: the perturbation of model and the Metropolis-criterion-based acceptance of the new model. In this paper we propose a one-step SA variant known as heat-bath SA. To test the performance of the heat-bath SA, two models are created. Both noise-free and noisy synthetic data are generated. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and a variant of SA, known as the fast simulated annealing (FSA) algorithm, are also adopted for comparison. The inverted results of the synthetic data show that the heat-bath SA algorithm is a reasonable choice for Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion. Finally, a real-world inversion example from a coal mine in northwestern China is shown, which proves that the scheme we propose is applicable.

  20. Integrated hydro-bacterial modelling for predicting bathing water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoxian; Falconer, Roger A.; Lin, Binliang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years health risks associated with the non-compliance of bathing water quality have received increasing worldwide attention. However, it is particularly challenging to establish the source of any non-compliance, due to the complex nature of the source of faecal indicator organisms, and the fate and delivery processes and scarcity of field measured data in many catchments and estuaries. In the current study an integrated hydro-bacterial model, linking a catchment, 1-D model and 2-D model were integrated to simulate the adsorption-desorption processes of faecal bacteria to and from sediment particles in river, estuarine and coastal waters, respectively. The model was then validated using hydrodynamic, sediment and faecal bacteria concentration data, measured in 2012, in the Ribble river and estuary, and along the Fylde coast, UK. Particular emphasis has been placed on the mechanism of faecal bacteria transport and decay through the deposition and resuspension of suspended sediments. The results showed that by coupling the E.coli concentration with the sediment transport processes, the accuracy of the predicted E.coli levels was improved. A series of scenario runs were then carried out to investigate the impacts of different management scenarios on the E.coli concentration levels in the coastal bathing water sites around Liverpool Bay, UK. The model results show that the level of compliance with the new EU bathing water standards can be improved significantly by extending outfalls and/or reducing urban sources by typically 50%.

  1. Blackbody radiation: rosetta stone of heat bath models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, R. F.

    2007-06-01

    The radiation field can be regarded as a collection of independent harmonic oscillators and, as such, constitutes a heat bath. Moreover, the known form of its interaction with charged particles provides a "rosetta stone" for deciding on and interpreting the correct interaction for the more general case of a quantum particle in an external potential and coupled to an arbitrary heat bath. In particular, combining QED with the machinery of stochastic physics, enables the usual scope of applications to be widened. We discuss blackbody radiation effects on: the equation of motion of a radiating electron (obtaining an equation of motion which is free from runaway solutions), anomalous diffusion, the spreading of a Gaussian wave packet, and decoherence effects due to zero-point oscillations. In addition, utilizing a formula we obtained for the free energy of an oscillator in a heat bath, enables us to determine all the quantum thermodynamic functions of interest (particularly in the areas of quantum information and nanophysics where small systems are involved) and from which we obtain temperature dependent Lamb shifts, quantum effects on the entropy at low temperature and implications for Nernst's law.

  2. Affecting non-Markovian behaviour by changing bath structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, V.; Plato, A. D. K.; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Kim, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    For many open quantum systems, a master equation approach employing the Markov approximation cannot reliably describe the dynamical behaviour. This is the case, for example, in a number of solid state or biological systems, and it has motivated a line of research aimed at quantifying the amount of non-Markovian behaviour (NMB) in a given model. Within this framework, we investigate the dynamics of a quantum harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a bosonic bath. We focus on Gaussian states, which are suitably treated using a covariance matrix approach. Concentrating on an entanglement based NMB quantifier (NMBQ) proposed by Rivas et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 050403), we consider the role that near resonant and off-resonant modes play in affecting the NMBQ. By using a large but finite bath of oscillators for both Ohmic and super Ohmic spectral densities we find, by systematically increasing the coupling strength, initially the near resonant modes provide the most significant non-Markovian effects, while after a certain threshold of coupling strength the off-resonant modes play the dominant role. We also consider the NMBQ for two other models where we add a single strongly coupled oscillator to the model in extra bath mode and ‘buffer’ configurations, which affects the modes that determine NMB.

  3. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis.

  4. [Turpentine white emulsion baths in the rehabilation in patients with sexual dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, I V; Li, A A; Gusev, M E

    2000-01-01

    100 patients with sexual dysfunction (SD) and 20 SD patients took turpentine white emulsion baths and sodium chloride baths, respectively. The turpentine baths were given with step-by-step rise in turpentine concentration from 20 to 50 ml per 200 l of water, temperature 36-37 degrees C, duration of the procedure 10-15 min. The course consisted of 10-12 procedures which were conducted daily or each other day. The turpentine baths were more effective than sodium chloride baths (85 vs 50%, respectively).

  5. Habitual hot-spring bathing by a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Eishi, Tokida

    2007-12-01

    Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging group in Jigokudani valley, Nagano prefecture, are known to bathe in a hot spring. We used scan sampling in a study aimed at elucidating the causal factors and possible social transmission of this behavior. From 1980-2003, 31% of a total 114 females in the group habitually bathed in the hot spring. The habit was more widespread in dominant matrilines than in subordinate matrilines. Infants whose mothers bathed were more likely to bathe than infants of mothers who did not bathe. The number of monkeys bathing was clearly influenced by ambient air temperature. More monkeys bathed in the hot spring in winter than in summer. The results support the thermoregulation hypothesis of hot-spring bathing. Bathing behavior varies among age and sex categories of monkeys, with adult females and juveniles bathing more often than adult males and subadults. We compared hot-spring bathing with other thermoregulatory behaviors in various primate populations.

  6. Structure of the puf operon of the obligately aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll alpha-containing bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114 and its expression in a Rhodobacter capsulatus puf puc deletion mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Kortlüke, C; Breese, K; Gad'on, N; Labahn, A; Drews, G

    1997-01-01

    Roseobacter denitrificans (Erythrobacter species strain OCh114) synthesizes bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl) and the photosynthetic apparatus only in the presence of oxygen and is unable to carry out primary photosynthetic reactions and to grow photosynthetically under anoxic conditions. The puf operon of R. denitrificans has the same five genes in the same order as in many photosynthetic bacteria, i.e., pufBALMC. PufC, the tetraheme subunit of the reaction center (RC), consists of 352 amino acids (Mr, 39,043); 20 and 34% of the total amino acids are identical to those of PufC of Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Rubrivivax gelatinosus, respectively. The N-terminal hydrophobic domain is probably responsible for anchoring the subunit in the membrane. Four heme-binding domains are homologous to those of PufC in several purple bacteria. Sequences similar to pufQ and pufX of Rhodobacter capsulatus were not detected on the chromosome of R. denitrificans. The puf operon of R. denitrificans was expressed in trans in Escherichia coli, and all gene products were synthesized. The Roseobacter puf operon was also expressed in R. capsulatus CK11, a puf puc double-deletion mutant. For the first time, an RC/light-harvesting complex I core complex was heterologously synthesized. The strongest expression of the R. denitrificans puf operon was observed under the control of the R. capsulatus puf promoter, in the presence of pufQ and pufX and in the absence of pufC. Charge recombination between the primary donor P+ and the primary ubiquinone Q(A)- was observed in the transconjugant, showing that the M and L subunits of the RC were correctly assembled. The transconjugants did not grow photosynthetically under anoxic conditions. PMID:9286973

  7. [Shower-bath and its influence on the behaviour of the aerobic resident flora of the human skin. Half-side comparisons between a single shower bath with and without bath supplements (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A A

    1980-01-01

    A method for the in vivo investigation of shower-bath supplements and their influences on the human skin flora is presented. The shower-bath supplement is added in a constant dosis directly to the shower-jet to obtain constant conditions of shower-bathing on the human skin. Different concentrations of the shower-bath supplement in neighboured areas of the skin can be avoided and this allows to make comparative investigations of the effect of shower-bath supplements to the normal human skin flora. The reproducibility of the results and the accuracy of the method were investigated in half-side comparisons of the aerobic resident flora of the flexor sides of the forearms in three groups of volunteers, 60 persons in total. A marketable product in two slightly differing modificatons was used as shower-bath supplement. Half-side comparisons between each of the two supplements against water alone and between the shower-bath supplements directly were performed. The detergent washing method was used for sampling the skin flora. Statistically significant changes of the aerobic resident flora in the half-side comparison between the two supplements were obvious only 24 h after a single bath. It could be proved that the results can be reproduced at different times and with different groups of vlunteers. Further more, that a half-side comparison between th two shower-bath supplements detects more sensible differences in the effect on the human skin flora of the two marketable products than the comparison of each supplement with water alone.

  8. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations.

    PubMed

    Mavros, Michael G; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-08-07

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the "Landau-Zener resummation" of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.

  9. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-08-01

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the "Landau-Zener resummation" of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.

  10. Copper selenide thin films by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    1999-05-01

    We report the structural, optical, and electrical properties of thin films (0.05 to 0.25 μm) of copper selenide obtained from chemical baths using sodium selenosulfate or N,N-dimethylselenourea as a source of selenide ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on the films obtained from baths using sodium selenosulfate suggest a cubic structure as in berzelianite, Cu 2- xSe with x=0.15. Annealing the films at 400°C in nitrogen leads to a partial conversion of the film to Cu 2Se. In the case of films obtained from the baths containing dimethylselenourea, the XRD patterns match that of klockmannite, CuSe. Annealing these films in nitrogen at 400°C results in loss of selenium, and consequently a composition rich in copper, similar to Cu 2- xSe, is reached. Optical absorption in the films result from free carrier absorption in the near infrared region with absorption coefficient of ˜10 5 cm -1. Band-to-band transitions which gives rise to the optical absorption in the visible-ultraviolet region may be interpreted in terms of direct allowed transitions with band gap in the 2.1-2.3 eV range and indirect allowed transitions with band gap 1.2-1.4 eV. All the films, as prepared and annealed, show p-type conductivity, in the range of (1-5)×10 3 Ω -1 cm -1. This results in high near infrared reflectance, of 30-80%.

  11. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-08-07

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.

  12. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  13. Decoherence of a single spin coupled to an interacting spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ning; Fröhling, Nina; Xing, Xi; Hackmann, Johannes; Nanduri, Arun; Anders, Frithjof B.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-01-01

    Decoherence of a central spin coupled to an interacting spin bath via inhomogeneous Heisenberg coupling is studied by two different approaches, namely an exact equations of motion (EOMs) method and a Chebyshev expansion technique (CET). By assuming a wheel topology of the bath spins with uniform nearest-neighbor X X -type intrabath coupling, we examine the central spin dynamics with the bath prepared in two different types of bath initial conditions. For fully polarized baths in strong magnetic fields, the polarization dynamics of the central spin exhibits a collapse-revival behavior in the intermediate-time regime. Under an antiferromagnetic bath initial condition, the two methods give excellently consistent central spin decoherence dynamics for finite-size baths of N ≤14 bath spins. The decoherence factor is found to drop off abruptly on a short time scale and approach a finite plateau value which depends on the intrabath coupling strength nonmonotonically. In the ultrastrong intrabath coupling regime, the plateau values show an oscillatory behavior depending on whether N /2 is even or odd. The observed results are interpreted qualitatively within the framework of the EOM and perturbation analysis. The effects of anisotropic spin-bath coupling and inhomogeneous intrabath bath couplings are briefly discussed. Possible experimental realization of the model in a modified quantum corral setup is suggested.

  14. Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

  15. Dynamical quantum phase transitions in presence of a spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-León, Á.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2017-02-01

    We derive an effective time independent Hamiltonian for the transverse Ising model coupled to a spin bath, in the presence of a high frequency AC magnetic field. The spin blocking mechanism that removes the quantum phase transition can be suppressed by the AC field, allowing tunability of the quantum critical point. We calculate the phase diagram, including the nuclear spins, and apply the results to quantum Ising systems with long-range dipolar interactions; the example of LiHoF4 is discussed in detail.

  16. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  17. Generalized Energy Equipartition in Harmonic Oscillators Driven by Active Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Pellicciotta, Nicola; Lepore, Alessia; Angelani, Luca; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

  18. BchJ and BchM interact in a 1 : 1 ratio with the magnesium chelatase BchH subunit of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Artur; Willows, Robert D

    2010-11-01

    Substrate channeling between the enzymatic steps in the (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by magnesium chelatase (BchI/ChlI, BchD/ChlD and BchH/ChlH subunits) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:magnesium-protoporphyrin IX O-methyltransferase (BchM/ChlM) has been suggested. This involves delivery of magnesium-protoporphyrin IX from the BchH/ChlH subunit of magnesium chelatase to BchM/ChlM. Stimulation of BchM/ChlM activity by BchH/ChlH has previously been shown, and physical interaction of the two proteins has been demonstrated. In plants and cyanobacteria, there is an added layer of complexity, as Gun4 serves as a porphyrin (protoporphyrin IX and magnesium-protoporphyrin IX) carrier, but this protein does not exist in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. BchJ may play a similar role to Gun4 in Rhodobacter, as it has no currently assigned function in the established pathway. Purified recombinant Rhodobacter capsulatus BchJ and BchM were found to cause a shift in the equilibrium amount of Mg-protoporphyrin IX formed in a magnesium chelatase assay. Analysis of this shift revealed that it was always in a 1 : 1 ratio with either of these proteins and the BchH subunit of the magnesium chelatase. The establishment of the new equilibrium was faster with BchM than with BchJ in a coupled magnesium chelatase assay. BchJ bound magnesium-protoporphyrin IX or formed a ternary complex with BchH and magnesium-protoporphyrin IX. These results suggest that BchJ may play a role as a general magnesium porphyrin carrier, similar to one of the roles of GUN4 in oxygenic organisms.

  19. Heterologous expression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus BchI, -D, and -H genes that encode magnesium chelatase subunits and characterization of the reconstituted enzyme.

    PubMed

    Willows, R D; Beale, S I

    1998-12-18

    Magnesium chelatase inserts Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX in the chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathways. In photosynthetic bacteria, the products of three genes, bchI, bchD, and bchH, are required for magnesium chelatase activity. These genes from Rhodobacter capsulatus were cloned separately into expression plasmids pET3a and pET15b. The pET15b constructs produced NH2-terminally His6-tagged proteins. All proteins were highly expressed and were purified to near homogeneity. The BchI and BchH proteins were soluble. BchD proteins were insoluble, inactive inclusion bodies that were renatured by rapid dilution from 6 M urea. The presence of BchI in the solution into which the urea solution of BchD was diluted increased the yield of active BchD. A molar ratio of 1 BchI:1 BchD was sufficient for maximum renaturation of BchD. All of the proteins were active in the magnesium chelatase assay except His-tagged BchI, which was inactive and inhibited in incubations containing non-His-tagged BchI. Expressed BchH proteins contained tightly bound protoporphyrin IX, and they were susceptible to inactivation by light. Maximum magnesium chelatase activity per mol of BchD occurred at a stoichiometry of 4 BchI:1 BchD. The optimum reaction pH was 8.0. The reaction exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to protoporphyrin IX and BchH.

  20. bchFNBH bacteriochlorophyll synthesis genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus and identification of the third subunit of light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase in bacteria and plants.

    PubMed

    Burke, D H; Alberti, M; Hearst, J E

    1993-04-01

    We present the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of four contiguous bacteriochlorophyll synthesis genes from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Three of these genes code for enzymes which catalyze reactions common to the chlorophyll synthesis pathway and therefore are likely to be found in plants and cyanobacteria as well. The pigments accumulated in strains with physically mapped transposon insertion mutations are analyzed by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, allowing us to assign the genes as bchF, bchN, bchB, and bchH, in that order. bchF encodes a bacteriochlorophyll alpha-specific enzyme that adds water across the 2-vinyl group. The other three genes are required for portions of the pathway that are shared with chlorophyll synthesis, and they were expected to be common to both pathways. bchN and bchB are required for protochlorophyllide reduction in the dark (along with bchL), a reaction that has been observed in all major groups of photosynthetic organisms except angiosperms, where only the light-dependent reaction has been clearly established. The purple bacterial and plant enzymes show 35% identity between the amino acids coded by bchN and chlN (gidA) and 49% identity between the amino acids coded by bchL and chlL (frxC). Furthermore, bchB is 33% identical to ORF513 from the Marchantia polymorpha chloroplast. We present arguments in favor of the probable role of ORF513 (chlB) in protochlorophyllide reduction in the dark. The further similarities of all three subunits of protochlorophyllide reductase and the three subunits of chlorin reductase in bacteriochlorophyll synthesis suggest that the two reductase systems are derived from a common ancestor.

  1. 1-Deoxy-d-Xylulose 5-Phosphate Synthase, the Gene Product of Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2816 and ORF 2895 in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Frederick M.; Eubanks, Lisa M.; Testa, Charles A.; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Baker, Jonathan A.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2001-01-01

    In eubacteria, green algae, and plant chloroplasts, isopentenyl diphosphate, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, is synthesized by the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The five carbons of the basic isoprenoid unit are assembled by joining pyruvate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The reaction is catalyzed by the thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. In Rhodobacter capsulatus, two open reading frames (ORFs) carry the genes that encode 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. ORF 2816 is located in the photosynthesis-related gene cluster, along with most of the genes required for synthesis of the photosynthetic machinery of the bacterium, whereas ORF 2895 is located elsewhere in the genome. The proteins encoded by ORF 2816 and ORF 2895, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase A and B, containing a His6 tag, were synthesized in Escherichia coli and purified to greater than 95% homogeneity in two steps. 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase A appears to be a homodimer with 68 kDa subunits. A new assay was developed, and the following steady-state kinetic constants were determined for 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase A and B: Kmpyruvate = 0.61 and 3.0 mM, Kmd-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate = 150 and 120 μM, and Vmax = 1.9 and 1.4 μmol/min/mg in 200 mM sodium citrate (pH 7.4). The ORF encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase B complemented the disrupted essential dxs gene in E. coli strain FH11. PMID:11114895

  2. Sulfite stimulates the ATP hydrolysis activity of but not proton translocation by the ATP synthase of Rhodobacter capsulatus and interferes with its activation by delta muH+.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, P; Turina, P; Fregni, V; Melandri, B A

    1997-09-01

    Sulfite stimulates the rate of ATP hydrolysis by the ATP synthase in chromatophores of Rhodobacter capsulatus. The stimulated activity is inhibited by oligomycin. The activation takes place also in uncoupled chromatophores. The activation consists in an increase of about 12-15-fold of the Vmax for the ATP hydrolysis reaction, while the Km for MgATP is unaffected at 0.16+/-0.03 mM. The dependence of Vmax on the sulfite concentration follows a hyperbolic pattern with half maximum effect at 12 mM. Sulfite affects the ability of the enzyme in translocating protons. Concomitant measurements of the rate of ATP hydrolysis and of ATP-induced protonic flows demonstrate that at sulfite concentrations of greater than 10 mM the hydrolytic reaction becomes progressively uncoupled from the process of proton translocation. This is accompanied by an inhibition of ATP synthesis, either driven by light or by artificially induced ionic gradients. ATP synthesis is totally inhibited at concentrations of at least 80 mM. Sulfite interferes with the mechanism of activation by delta muH+. Low concentrations of this anion (< or = 2 mM) prevent the activation by delta muH+. At higher concentrations a marked stimulation of the activity prevails, regardless of the occurrence of a delta muH+ across the membrane. Phosphate at millimolar concentrations can reverse the inhibition by sulfite. These experimental results can be simulated by a model assuming multiple and competitive equilibria for phosphate or sulfite binding with two binding sites for the two ligands (for sulfite K1S = 0.26 and K2S = 37 mM, and for phosphate K1P = 0.06 and K2P = 4.22 mM), and in which the state bound only to one sulfite molecule is totally inactive in hydrolysis. The competition between phosphate and sulfite is consistent with the molecular structures of the two ligands and of the enzyme.

  3. Coupling of proton flow to ATP synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus: F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase is absent from about half of chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Feniouk, B A; Cherepanov, D A; Junge, W; Mulkidjanian, A Y

    2001-11-01

    F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase (H(+)-ATP synthase, F(0)F(1)) utilizes the transmembrane protonmotive force to catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Structurally the enzyme consists of a membrane-embedded proton-translocating F(0) portion and a protruding hydrophilic F(1) part that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP. In photosynthetic purple bacteria a single turnover of the photosynthetic reaction centers (driven by a short saturating flash of light) generates protonmotive force that is sufficiently large to drive ATP synthesis. Using isolated chromatophore vesicles of Rhodobacter capsulatus, we monitored the flash induced ATP synthesis (by chemoluminescence of luciferin/luciferase) in parallel to the transmembrane charge transfer through F(0)F(1) (by following the decay of electrochromic bandshifts of intrinsic carotenoids). With the help of specific inhibitors of F(1) (efrapeptin) and of F(0) (venturicidin), we decomposed the kinetics of the total proton flow through F(0)F(1) into (i) those coupled to the ATP synthesis and (ii) the de-coupled proton escape through F(0). Taking the coupled proton flow, we calculated the H(+)/ATP ratio; it was found to be 3.3+/-0.6 at a large driving force (after one saturating flash of light) but to increase up to 5.1+/-0.9 at a smaller driving force (after a half-saturating flash). From the results obtained, we conclude that our routine chromatophore preparations contained three subsets of chromatophore vesicles. Chromatophores with coupled F(0)F(1) dominated in fresh material. Freezing/thawing or pre-illumination in the absence of ADP and P(i) led to an increase in the fraction of chromatophores with at least one de-coupled F(0)(F(1)). The disclosed fraction of chromatophores that lacked proton-conducting F(0)(F(1)) (approx. 40% of the total amount) remained constant upon these treatments.

  4. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  5. Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

  6. Efficient heat-bath sampling in Fock space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Adam; Changlani, Hitesh; Umrigar, Cyrus

    We introduce an algorithm for sampling many-body quantum states in Fock space. The algorithm efficiently samples states with probability approximately proportional to an arbitrary function of the second-quantized Hamiltonian matrix elements connected to the current state. We apply the new sampling algorithm to the recently-developed Semistochastic Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo method (S-FCIQMC), a semistochastic implementation of the power method for projecting out the ground state energy in a basis of Slater determinants. The heat-bath sampling requires modest additional computational time and memory compared to uniform sampling but results in newly-spawned weights that are approximately of the same magnitude, thereby greatly improving the efficiency of projection. A comparison in efficiency between uniform and approximate heat-bath sampling is performed on the all-electron nitrogen dimer at equilibrium in Dunning's cc-pVXZ basis sets with X ∈ D , T , Q , 5 , demonstrating a large gain in efficiency that increases with basis set size. This work was supported in part by grants NSF CHE-1112097, DOE DE-SC0006650, and NSF ACI-1534965.

  7. Equilibrium states of a test particle coupled to finite-size heat baths.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qun; Smith, S Taylor; Onofrio, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    We report on numerical simulations of the dynamics of a test particle coupled to competing Boltzmann heat baths of finite size. After discussing some features of the single bath case, we show that the presence of two heat baths further constrains the conditions necessary for the test particle to thermalize with the heat baths. We find that thermalization is a spectral property in which the oscillators of the bath with frequencies in the range of the test particle characteristic frequency determine its degree of thermalization. We also find an unexpected frequency shift of the test particle response with respect to the spectra of the two heat baths. Finally, we discuss implications of our results for the study of high-frequency nanomechanical resonators through cold damping cooling techniques and for engineering reservoirs capable of mitigating the back action on a mechanical system.

  8. Daily Bathing with Chlorhexidine and Its Effects on Nosocomial Infection Rates in Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Raulji, Chittalsinh M; Clay, Kristin; Velasco, Cruz; Yu, Lolie C

    2015-01-01

    Infections remain a serious complication in pediatric oncology patients. To determine if daily bathing with Chlorhexidine gluconate can decrease the rate of nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients, we reviewed rates of infections in pediatric oncology patients over a 14-month span. Intervention group received daily bath with Chlorhexidine, while the control group did not receive daily bath. The results showed that daily bath with antiseptic chlorhexidine as daily prophylactic antiseptic topical wash leads to decreased infection density amongst the pediatric oncology patients, especially in patients older than 12 years of age. Furthermore, daily chlorhexidine bathing significantly reduced the rate of hospital acquired infection in patients older than 12 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that daily bathing with chlorhexidine may be an effective measure of reducing nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients.

  9. Music-assisted bathing: making shower time easier for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kendra D; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    It is estimated that 90% of nursing home residents need assistance with bathing. The purpose of this article is to describe a music-assisted care technique that can be used by caregivers when bathing nursing home residents with dementia. Research suggests that music has many therapeutic benefits for people with dementia. Using music to soothe anxiety can be an effective intervention to assist with lessening of agitation during activities of daily living, especially bathing. This article will provide nursing and direct care staff tools to successfully conduct the music-assisted bathing protocol. Consideration for choosing appropriate music for bathing, the creation of individualized personalized playlists, and acknowledgement of desired outcomes are presented. Incorporating music-assisted bathing may address neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia by lessening agitation and improving mood, which in turn can increase job satisfaction.

  10. Dissipative Landau-Zener transitions of a qubit: Bath-specific and universal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Keiji; Wubs, Martijn; Kohler, Sigmund; Haenggi, Peter; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2007-06-01

    We study Landau-Zener transitions in a qubit coupled to a bath at zero temperature. A general formula that is applicable to models with a nondegenerate ground state is derived. We calculate exact transition probabilities for a qubit coupled to either a bosonic or a spin bath. The nature of the baths and the qubit-bath coupling is reflected in the transition probabilities. For diagonal coupling, when the bath causes energy fluctuations of the diabatic qubit states but no transitions between them, the transition probability coincides with the standard Landau-Zener probability of an isolated qubit. This result is universal as it does not depend on the specific type of bath. For pure off-diagonal coupling, by contrast, the tunneling probability is sensitive to the coupling strength. We discuss the relevance of our results for experiments on molecular nanomagnets, in circuit QED, and for the fast-pulse readout of superconducting phase qubits.

  11. Does the bathing water classification depend on sampling strategy? A bootstrap approach for bathing water quality assessment, according to Directive 2006/7/EC requirements.

    PubMed

    López, Iago; Alvarez, César; Gil, José L; Revilla, José A

    2012-11-30

    Data on the 95th and 90th percentiles of bacteriological quality indicators are used to classify bathing waters in Europe, according to the requirements of Directive 2006/7/EC. However, percentile values and consequently, classification of bathing waters depend both on sampling effort and sample-size, which may undermine an appropriate assessment of bathing water classification. To analyse the influence of sampling effort and sample size on water classification, a bootstrap approach was applied to 55 bacteriological quality datasets of several beaches in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that the probability of failing the regulatory standards of the Directive is high when sample size is low, due to a higher variability in percentile values. In this way, 49% of the bathing waters reaching an "Excellent" classification (95th percentile of Escherichia coli under 250 cfu/100 ml) can fail the "Excellent" regulatory standard due to sampling strategy, when 23 samples per season are considered. This percentage increases to 81% when 4 samples per season are considered. "Good" regulatory standards can also be failed in bathing waters with an "Excellent" classification as a result of these sampling strategies. The variability in percentile values may affect bathing water classification and is critical for the appropriate design and implementation of bathing water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Programs. Hence, variability of percentile values should be taken into account by authorities if an adequate management of these areas is to be achieved.

  12. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  13. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-03-15

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous.

  14. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  15. Effective Interactions between Colloidal Particles Suspended in a Bath of Swimming Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelani, L.; Maggi, C.; Bernardini, M. L.; Rizzo, A.; di Leonardo, R.

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics of passive colloidal tracers in a bath of self-propelled particles is receiving a lot of attention in the context of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Here we demonstrate that active baths are also capable of mediating effective interactions between suspended bodies. In particular we observe that a bath of swimming bacteria gives rise to a short range attraction similar to depletion forces in equilibrium colloidal suspensions. Using numerical simulations and experiments we show how the features of this interaction arise from the combination of nonequilibrium dynamics (peculiar of bacterial baths) and excluded volume effects.

  16. Quantum Entanglement and Discord Dynamics of two Noninteracting Spin Qubits in Two Independent Spin Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lan; Wu, Guiping; Yan, Lin

    2017-03-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord between two non-interacting qubits, which couple with two independent spin baths, obeying the XXZ Hamiltonian. After the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, one could reduce the spin bath to a single-mode bosonic bath field. Then we use this model to study the entanglement and discord dynamics of two qubits in their corresponding spin bath. For the initial Werner state, it is indicated that both entanglement and quantum discord exhibit death and revival behavior, while the quantum correlations change more smaller.

  17. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    PubMed

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  18. Gauging a quantum heat bath with dissipative Landau-Zener transitions.

    PubMed

    Wubs, Martijn; Saito, Keiji; Kohler, Sigmund; Hänggi, Peter; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2006-11-17

    We calculate the exact Landau-Zener transition probabilities for a qubit with an arbitrary linear coupling to a bath at zero temperature. The final quantum state exhibits a peculiar entanglement between the qubit and the bath. In the special case of diagonal coupling, the bath does not influence the transition probability, whatever the speed of the Landau-Zener sweep. It is proposed to use Landau-Zener transitions to determine both the reorganization energy and the integrated spectral density of the bath. Possible applications include circuit QED and molecular nanomagnets.

  19. Gauging a Quantum Heat Bath with Dissipative Landau-Zener Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Wubs, Martijn; Kohler, Sigmund; Haenggi, Peter; Saito, Keiji; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2006-11-17

    We calculate the exact Landau-Zener transition probabilities for a qubit with an arbitrary linear coupling to a bath at zero temperature. The final quantum state exhibits a peculiar entanglement between the qubit and the bath. In the special case of diagonal coupling, the bath does not influence the transition probability, whatever the speed of the Landau-Zener sweep. It is proposed to use Landau-Zener transitions to determine both the reorganization energy and the integrated spectral density of the bath. Possible applications include circuit QED and molecular nanomagnets.

  20. Resonator-assisted quantum bath engineering of a flux qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for preparation of any orbital state with the controllable phase factor of a superconducting flux qubit assisted by a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the polarization efficiency of the arbitrary direction rotating on the Bloch sphere, and obtain an effective Rabi frequency by using the convergence condition of the Markovian master equation. The processes of polarization can be implemented effectively in a dissipative environment created by resonator photon loss when the spectrum of the microwave resonator matches with the specially tailored Rabi and resonant frequencies of the drive. Our calculations indicate that state-preparation fidelities in excess of 99% and the required time on the order of magnitude of a microsecond are in principle possible for experimentally reasonable sample parameters. Furthermore, our proposal could be applied to other systems with spin-based qubits.

  1. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: an emerging designer drug phenomenon.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-02-27

    Synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as 'bath salts', became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that dysregulation of central monoamine systems is a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification.

  2. Instability arisen on liquid jet penetrated in flowing liquid bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Naoto; Ueno, Ichiro

    2009-11-01

    We carry out an experimental study with a special interest on a penetration process and an instability on a liquid jet impinged to a flowing liquid pool. The impinged jet penetrates into the flowing bath accompanying with an entrainment of the ambient immiscible gas without coalescing with the liquid in the pool until the air wrap around the jet collapses. The wrapping air controls instabilities arisen on the jet. We observe the dynamic behaviors of the penetrated jet and the departure of the bubble of the wrapping gas at the tip of the collapsing jet by use of a high-speed camera in order to categorize the behaviors as functions of the velocities of the jet and flow in the pool. We also evaluate an averaged thickness of the wrapping gas through the observation.

  3. Increased coherence time in narrowed bath states in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravert, Lars B.; Lorenz, Peter; Nase, Carsten; Stolze, Joachim; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2016-09-01

    We study the influence of narrowed distributions of the nuclear Overhauser field on the decoherence of a central electron spin in quantum dots. We describe the spin dynamics in quantum dots by the central spin model. We use analytic solutions for uniform couplings and the time dependent density-matrix renormalization group (tDMRG) for nonuniform couplings. With these tools we calculate the dynamics of the central spin for large baths of nuclear spins with or without external magnetic field applied to the central spin. The focus of our study is the influence of initial mixtures with narrowed distributions of the Overhauser field and of applied magnetic fields on the decoherence of the central spin.

  4. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: An emerging designer drug phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as ‘bath salts’, became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate dysregulation of central monoamine systems are a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. PMID:23911668

  5. Functional assignment of gene AAC16202.1 from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003: new insights into the bacterial SDR sorbitol dehydrogenases family.

    PubMed

    Sola-Carvajal, Agustín; García-García, María Inmaculada; Sánchez-Carrón, Guiomar; García-Carmona, Francisco; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with over 60,000 non-redundant sequences in the database, many of which need a correct functional assignment. Among them, the gene AAC16202.1 (NCBI) from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 has been assigned in Uniprot both as a sorbitol dehydrogenase (#D5AUY1) and, as an N-acetyl-d-mannosamine dehydrogenase (#O66112), both enzymes being of biotechnological interest. When the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)pLys, the purified enzyme was not active toward N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, whereas it was active toward d-sorbitol and d-fructose. However, the relative activities toward xylitol and l-iditol (0.45 and 6.9%, respectively) were low compared with that toward d-sorbitol. Thus, the enzyme could be considered sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) with very low activity toward xylitol, which could increase its biotechnological interest for determining sorbitol without the unspecific cross-determination of added xylitol in food and pharma compositions. The tetrameric enzyme (120 kDa) showed similar catalytic efficiency (2.2 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) to other sorbitol dehydrogenases for d-sorbitol, with an optimum pH of 9.0 and an optimum temperature of 37 °C. The enzyme was also more thermostable than other reported SDH, ammonium sulfate being the best stabilizer in this respect, increasing the melting temperature (T(m)) up to 52.9 °C. The enzyme can also be considered as a new member of the Zn(2+) independent SDH family since no effect on activity was detected in the presence of divalent cations or chelating agents. Finally, its in silico analysis enabled the specific conserved sequence blocks that are the fingerprints of bacterial sorbitol dehydrogenases and mainly located at C-terminal of the protein, to be determined for the first time. This knowledge will facilitate future data curation of present databases and a better functional assignment of newly described

  6. X-ray crystallographic and mass spectrometric structure determination and functional characterization of succinylated porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus: implications for ion selectivity and single-channel conductance.

    PubMed Central

    Przybylski, M.; Glocker, M. O.; Nestel, U.; Schnaible, V.; Blüggel, M.; Diederichs, K.; Weckesser, J.; Schad, M.; Schmid, A.; Welte, W.; Benz, R.

    1996-01-01

    The role of charges near the pore mouth has been discussed in theoretical work about ion channels. To introduce new negative charges in a channel protein, amino groups of porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus 37b4 were succinylated with succinic anhydride, and the precise extent and sites of succinylations and structures of the succinylporins determined by mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Molecular weight and peptide mapping analyses using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry identified selective succinylation of three lysine-epsilon-amino groups (Lys-46, Lys-298, Lys-300) and the N-terminal alpha-amino group. The structure of a tetra-succinylated porin (TS-porin) was determined to 2.4 A and was generally found unchanged in comparison to native porin to form a trimeric complex. All succinylated amino groups found in a mono/di-succinylated porin (MS-porin) and a TS-porin are localized at the inner channel surface and are solvent-accessible: Lys-46 is located at the channel constriction site, whereas Lys-298, Lys-300, and the N-terminus are all near the periplasmic entrance of the channel. The Lys-46 residue at the central constriction loop was modeled as succinyl-lysine from the electron density data and shown to bend toward the periplasmic pore mouth. The electrical properties of the MS-and TS-porins were determined by reconstitution into black lipid membranes, and showed a negative charge effect on ion transport and an increased cation selectivity through the porin channel. The properties of a typical general diffusion porin changed to those of a channel that contains point charges near the pore mouth. The single-channel conductance was no longer a linear function of the bulk aqueous salt concentration. The substantially higher cation selectivity of the succinylated porins compared with the native protein is consistent with the increase of negatively charged groups introduced. These results show tertiary structure

  7. Appraising the Literature On Bathing Practices And Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Strouse, Abigail C

    2015-01-01

    As pressure for reduced catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA UTI) rates continues, health care organizations are challenged to find new methods for infection prevention. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence regarding the impact of bathing practices, particularly non-basin bathing, on CAUTI prevention.

  8. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80 Section 420.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory §...

  9. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  10. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... use is not known. Data from a 2005 survey by the American Baby Group (2006 Baby Products Tracking... entail use with wet, naked babies. The data associated with these two incidents suggest that the unique... for bath seats, leaving the designer ample freedom to design a bath seat that allows easy entry...

  11. Clinical and pharmacological aspects of bath salt use: a review of the literature and case reports.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Karen; Striebel, Joan; Cho, Arthur K; Wang, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Bath salts are designer drugs with stimulant properties that are a growing medical and psychiatric concern due to their widespread availability and use. Although the chemical compounds in the mixtures referred to as "bath salts" vary, many are derivatives of cathinone, a monoamine alkaloid. Cathinones have an affinity for dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine synapses in the brain. Because of the strong selection for these neurotransmitters, these drugs induce stimulating effects similar to those of methamphetamines, cocaine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA). Much of the emerging information about bath salts is from emergency department evaluation and treatment of severe medical and neuropsychiatric adverse outcomes. This review consists of a compilation of case reports and describes the emergent literature that illustrates the chemical composition of bath salts, patterns of use, administration methods, medical and neuropsychiatric effects, and treatments of patients with bath salt toxicity.

  12. Bath's Law as a Consequence of Magnitude Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, R.; Maura, M.; Lombardi, A.

    2002-12-01

    We revisit the issue of the so-called Bath's law concerning the difference D1 between the magnitude of the mainshock, M0, and the second largest shock, M1, in the same sequence. Various authors, in the past, observed that this difference is approximately equal to 1.2. Feller demonstrated in 1966 that the D1 expected value was about 0.5 given that the difference between the two largest random variables of a sample, N, exponentially distributed is also a random variable with the same distribution. Feller's proof leads to the consequence that the mainshock comes from a sample, which is different from the one of its aftershocks. A mathematical formulation of the problem is developed here, the only assumption being that all the events belong to the same self-similar set of earthquakes following the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a constant b-value. Assuming that the number of aftershocks in each aftershock series is known, and not extremely large, this model shows a substantial dependence of D1 on the magnitude thresholds chosen for the mainshock and its largest aftershock. In this way it explains the large D1 values reported in the past. Analysis of the PDE catalog of shallow earthquakes demonstrates a good agreement between the average D1 values predicted by the theoretical model and those observed. Limiting our attention to the average D1 values, Bath's law doesn't seem to strongly contradict the Gutenberg-Richter law. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of the observed D1 distribution shows that the Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis doesn't fully explain the experimental observations. The theoretical distribution has a larger proportion of low D1 values and a smaller proportion of high D1 values than the experimental observations. A reasonable explanation for this mismatch, which appears a minor effect with respect to what was supposed in the past, seems to consist in the byes (not assumed in the model) that the selection of clustered events produces on the

  13. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae

  14. Cooperation between two periplasmic copper chaperones is required for full activity of the cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase and copper homeostasis in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Trasnea, Petru -Iulian; Utz, Marcel; Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia; Lagies, Simon; Daldal, Fevzi; Koch, Hans -Georg

    2016-02-28

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient that functions as a cofactor in several important enzymes, like respiratory heme-copper oxygen reductases. Yet, Cu is also toxic and therefore cells engage a highly coordinated Cu uptake and delivery system to prevent the accumulation of toxic Cu concentrations. In the current work we analyzed Cu delivery to the cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase (cbb3-Cox) of Rhodobacter capsulatus. We identified the PCuAC-like periplasmic chaperone PccA and analyzed its contribution to cbb3-Cox assembly. Our data demonstrate that PccA is a Cu-binding protein with a preference for Cu(I), which is required for efficient cbb3-Cox assembly, in particular at low Cu concentrations. By using in vivo and in vitro crosslinking we show that PccA forms a complex with the Sco1-homologue SenC. This complex is stabilized in the absence of the cbb3-Cox specific assembly factors CcoGHIS. In cells lacking SenC, the cytoplasmic Cu content is significantly increased, but the simultaneous absence of PccA prevents this Cu accumulation. Lastly, these data demonstrate that the interplay between PccA and SenC is not only required for Cu delivery during cbb3-Cox assembly, but that it also regulates Cu homeostasis in R. capsulatus.

  15. Analysis of tellurium thin films electrodeposition from acidic citric bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik, Remigiusz; Kutyła, Dawid; Mech, Krzysztof; Żabiński, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    This work presents the description of the electrochemical process of formation thin tellurium layers from citrate acidic solution. The suggested methodology consists in the preparation of stable acidic baths with high content of tellurium, and with the addition of citrate acid. In order to analyse the mechanism of the process of tellurium deposition, the electroanalytical tests were conducted. The tests of cyclic voltammetry and hydrodynamic ones were performed with the use of polycrystalline gold disk electrode. The range of potentials in which deposition of tellurium in direct four-electron process is possible was determined as well as the reduction of deposited Te° to Te2- and its re-deposition as a result of the comproportionation reaction. On the basis of the obtained results, the deposition of tellurium was conducted by the potentiostatic method. The influence of a deposition potential and a concentration of TeO2 in the solution on the rate of tellurium coatings deposition was examined. The presence of tellurium was confirmed by X-ray spectrofluorometry and electron probe microanalysis. In order to determine the phase composition and the morphology, the obtained coatings were analysed with the use of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  16. CdSe nanowires grown by using chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubur, H. Metin; Septekin, F.; Alpdogan, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Cadmium-selenide (CdSe) nanowire thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 70 °C. Cadmium sulfate and sodium selenosulphate were used as Cd2+ and Se2- ion sources, respectively. The CdSe nanowire film was annealed in an air atmosphere at 573 K for 1 hour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the nanowire films as-deposited and annealed had mixed cubic and hexagonal phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the CdSe nanowires had lengths ranging from 642 nm to 2.5 μm and diameters ranging from 46 nm to 211 nm. The optical properties of the as-deposited and the annealed nanowire films, an investigated by recording the transmission spectra by using an UV-visible spectrophotometer revealed that the energy band gap decreased (from 1.78 eV to 1.50 eV) upon annealing. The conductivity measurements made by using four-probe methods for both the annealed and the as-deposited films showed that the resistivity, conductivity and activation energy changed upon annealing.

  17. Mechanisms of carrier transport induced by a microswimmer bath.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    It was shown that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as "carrier") exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of a V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanism itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modeling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  18. Locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of 'bath salt' cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Taylor, Cynthia M; Forster, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    A number of psychostimulant-like cathinone compounds are being sold as 'legal' alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether cathinone compounds stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of cocaine and/or methamphetamine. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, mephedrone, naphyrone, flephedrone, and butylone were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) from saline. All compounds fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. Several commonly marketed cathinones produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable with those of cocaine and methamphetamine, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liabilities. MDPV and naphyrone produced locomotor stimulant effects that lasted much longer than those of cocaine or methamphetamine and therefore may be of particular concern, particularly because MDPV is one of the most commonly found substances associated with emergency room visits because of adverse effects of taking 'bath salts'.

  19. Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Lowen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as ”carrier”) which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  20. Laser cooling of a harmonic oscillator's bath with optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xunnong; Taylor, Jacob

    Thermal noise reduction in mechanical systems is a topic both of fundamental interest for studying quantum physics at the macroscopic level and for application of interest, such as building high sensitivity mechanics based sensors. Similar to laser cooling of neutral atoms and trapped ions, the cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce additional damping channel to mechanical motion, while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of temperature to quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an efficient scheme for reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme. Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

  1. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg coating baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xuping; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Changjun; Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Peng, Haoping

    2017-02-01

    Surface oxidation of molten Zn-6Al baths containing 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 wt. % Mg were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. γ-Al2O3 is formed on the surface of the Zn-6Al bath, while MgAl2O4 and MgO occur at 460 °C in the Zn-6Al-3Mg and Zn-6Al-6Mg baths, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg baths was performed. Calculated phase diagrams at 460 °C and 560 °C show good agreements with the experimental results. MgO or MgAl2O4 exists in almost the entire composition range of the calculated oxidation diagrams. According to the calculation, oxidation products depend on the composition and temperature of the baths. The primary and secondary oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg baths can be reasonably explained by oxidation phase diagrams. Utilizing these results, the favorable practical bath melts and operating conditions can be designed.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin applied topically by whole-body bathing method in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Hirota, Takashi; Tashiro, Mari; Noguchi, Wataru; Kawano, Yayoi; Hanawa, Takehisa; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yuasa, Nae; Koshino, Machi; Shiraishi, Yumi; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Akagi, Keita; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Makigami, Kuniko; Komoda, Masayo

    2016-10-15

    As a novel administration method of ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we proposed a "whole-body bathing method (WBBM)". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. Previously, we demonstrated that WBBM could deliver IVM to the skin but not to the plasma in rats. In the present study, to assess the clinical validity of the method an arm bathing examination (first trial) and a whole-body bathing examination (second trial) were conducted in healthy volunteers. In both the first and second trials, after bathing in fluid containing IVM, the exposure in the stratum corneum was higher compared with that after taking IVM p.o. as reported previously. IVM was not detected in plasma at any sampling point after the whole-body bathing in the second trial. Furthermore no serious adverse events were found. These results in both trials suggest that WBBM can deliver IVM to the human stratum corneum without systemic exposure or serious adverse effects in healthy volunteers, and at concentrations that would be adequate for scabies treatment.

  4. Initial system-bath state via the maximum-entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jibo; Len, Yink Loong; Ng, Hui Khoon

    2016-11-01

    The initial state of a system-bath composite is needed as the input for prediction from any quantum evolution equation to describe subsequent system-only reduced dynamics or the noise on the system from joint evolution of the system and the bath. The conventional wisdom is to write down an uncorrelated state as if the system and the bath were prepared in the absence of each other; yet, such a factorized state cannot be the exact description in the presence of system-bath interactions. Here, we show how to go beyond the simplistic factorized-state prescription using ideas from quantum tomography: We employ the maximum-entropy principle to deduce an initial system-bath state consistent with the available information. For the generic case of weak interactions, we obtain an explicit formula for the correction to the factorized state. Such a state turns out to have little correlation between the system and the bath, which we can quantify using our formula. This has implications, in particular, on the subject of subsequent non-completely positive dynamics of the system. Deviation from predictions based on such an almost uncorrelated state is indicative of accidental control of hidden degrees of freedom in the bath.

  5. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  6. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  7. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  8. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  9. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  10. The effects of daily bathing on symptoms of patients with bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto, Yoshihito; Homma, Chie; Takeoka, Shinjiro; Fukusumi, Munehisa; Mouri, Atsuto; Hamamoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of bathing in asthma patients is not yet fully known. Objective We conducted an observational study to investigate changes in symptoms and their degree by bathing in asthmatic patients. Methods A questionnaire focusing on ever experienced bathing-induced symptom changes and their degree, as well as contributing factors, was designed and administered to asthmatic patients in the outpatient department of our institute between January 2012 and November 2013. Results Two hundred fifteen cases were recruited. In 60 cases (27.9%), asthmatic symptoms appeared, including 20 cases of chest discomfort (33.3%), 19 cases of cough (31.7%), and 21 cases of wheezing (35.0%). The triggering factors included vapor inhalation (32 cases, 53.3%), hydrostatic pressure on the thorax due to body immersion in the bathtub (26 cases, 43.3%), and sudden change of air temperature (16 cases, 26.7%). Thirty-eight cases (17.7%) experienced improvement in active asthmatic symptoms by bathing. Vapor inhalation was the most common contributing factor (34 cases, 89.5%), followed by warming of the whole body (13 cases, 34.2%). There was no relationship between asthma severity and the appearance of bathing-induced symptoms or improvement of active asthmatic symptoms by bathing. Conclusion The effects of bathing in asthmatic patients widely differed from patient to patient and their etiology includes several factors. For those who suffer from bathing-induced asthma symptoms, preventive methods, such as premedication with bronchodilators before bathing, should be established. This study is registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) clinical trials registry in Japan with the registration number UMIN000015641. PMID:27141485

  11. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the heat bath for two Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    De Bacco, Caterina; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo; Sekimoto, Ken

    2014-05-09

    We propose a new look at the heat bath for two Brownian particles, in which the heat bath as a "system" is both perturbed and sensed by the Brownian particles. Nonlocal thermal fluctuations give rise to bath-mediated static forces between the particles. Based on the general sum rule of the linear response theory, we derive an explicit relation linking these forces to the friction kernel describing the particles' dynamics. The relation is analytically confirmed in the case of two solvable models and could be experimentally challenged. Our results point out that the inclusion of the environment as a part of the whole system is important for micron- or nanoscale physics.

  12. Pressure Effects on the Relaxation of an Excited Nitromethane Molecule in an Argon Bath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER Pressme effects on the relaxation of an excited nitromethane W911NF-09-l-0199 molecule in an argon bath 5b. GRANT...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 ABSTRACT Pressure effects on the relaxation of an excited nitromethane molecule in an argon bath Report Title Classical...effects on the relaxation of an excited nitromethane molecule in an argon bath Luis A. Rivera-Rivera,1 Albert F. Wagner,2 Thomas D. Sewell,1 and Donald L

  13. On the operation of machines powered by quantum non-thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kofman, Abraham G.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-08-01

    Diverse models of engines energised by quantum-coherent, hence non-thermal, baths allow the engine efficiency to transgress the standard thermodynamic Carnot bound. These transgressions call for an elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. Here we show that non-thermal baths may impart not only heat, but also mechanical work to a machine. The Carnot bound is inapplicable to such a hybrid machine. Intriguingly, it may exhibit dual action, concurrently as engine and refrigerator, with up to 100% efficiency. We conclude that even though a machine powered by a quantum bath may exhibit an unconventional performance, it still abides by the traditional principles of thermodynamics.

  14. Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V.

    2012-12-15

    The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects

  15. Books, Baths, and Burials: Notes on Certain Nineteenth Century Adoptive Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Early legislation relating to street lighting, baths and washhouses, burial of the dead, public libraries and public improvements in England and Wales, reflected Parliament's suspicion of local democracy and distrust of local authorities. (9 references) (Author)

  16. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L. V.; Loredo, S. L.; Krishnan, B.; Aguilar Martinez, J. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Avellaneda, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb2S3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb2S3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  17. Quantum many-body theory for qubit decoherence in a finite-size spin bath

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Wen; Liu Renbao

    2008-11-07

    We develop a cluster-correlation expansion theory for the many-body dynamics of a finite-size spin bath in a time scale relevant to the decoherence of a center spin or qubit embedded in the bath. By introducing the cluster correlation as the evolution of a group of bath spins divided by the correlations of all the subgroups, the propagator of the whole bath is factorized into the product of all possible cluster correlations. Each cluster-correlation term accounts for the authentic (non-factorizable) collective excitations within that group. Convergent results can be obtained by truncating the cluster-correlation expansion up to a certain cluster size, as verified in an exactly solvable spin-chain model.

  18. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  19. [Sulfide ooze mud and sodium chloride baths in treating osteoarthrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Novikova, N V

    1989-01-01

    Humoral immunity initially affected in patients with osteoarthrosis returns to normal under the influence of a multiple-modality treatment involving application of sulphide moor in combination with sodium chloride baths.

  20. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  1. Substituted cathinone products: a new trend in "bath salts" and other designer stimulant drug use.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Erik W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Willing, Laura M; Holstege, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the availability of a new generation of "designer drug" stimulants that are marketed as "bath salts" and other household products. The products are not true bath salts and contain substituted cathinone stimulant substances, such as methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone. Calls to the American Association of Poison Control Centers regarding "bath salts" consumption began in 2010 and have continued since that time. Few reports of systematic epidemiologic surveillance or definitive clinical effects of toxicity specifically associated with "bath salts" consumption have been reported in the medical literature. The current narrative review describes the growing trend of designer substituted cathinone use, pharmacology, clinical effects, and recent regulatory changes. It is hoped that a greater understanding of the clinical effects and use patterns will help inform policy and practice.

  2. Equilibrium characteristics of tartrate and EDTA-based electroless copper deposition baths

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasubramanian, M.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E.; Chen, K.S.

    1997-08-01

    Electroless deposition of copper is being used for a variety of applications, one of them being the development of seed metallic layers on non-metals, which are widely used in electronic circuitry. Solution equilibrium characteristics of two electroless copper baths containing EDTA and tartrate as the complexing agents were studied as functions of pH, chelating agent and metal ion concentrations. Equilibrium diagrams were constructed for both cu-tartrate and Cu-EDTA systems. It was determined that copper is chiefly complexed as Cu(OH){sub 2}L{sub 2}{sup {minus}4} in the tartrate bath, and as CuA{sup {minus}2} in the EDTA bath, where L and A are the complexing tartrate and EDTA ligands, respectively. The operating ranges for electroless copper deposition were identified for both baths. Dependence of Cu(OH){sub 2} precipitation on the pH and species concentrations was also studied for these systems.

  3. Strength of glass lenses processed in an ultrasonically stimulated chemtempering bath.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, W H; Rosenfield, A R

    1984-01-01

    Comparative experiments were performed on conventionally chemtempered lenses and ones chemtempered in an ultrasonically stimulated, slowly oscillated salt bath. With ultrasonic stimulation, a substantially shorter treatment time was found to result in greater strength and greater surface enrichment of K+ ions. The K+-rich surface layer was as deep or deeper than that found in conventionally chem-tempered lenses. The results suggest that the ultrasonic stimulation continually enriches the salt bath with K+ ions in the region of the lens surface.

  4. Discrimination of the prochiral hydrogens at the C-2 position of n-alkanes by the methane/ammonia monooxygenase family proteins.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Miyoshi, Teppei; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2015-08-14

    The selectivity of ammonia monooxygenase from Nitrosomonas europaea (AMO-Ne) for the oxidation of C4-C8n-alkanes to the corresponding alcohol isomers was examined to show the ability of AMO-Ne to recognize the n-alkane orientation within the catalytic site. AMO-Ne in whole cells produces 1- and 2-alcohols from C4-C8n-alkanes, and the regioselectivity is dependent on the length of the carbon chain. 2-Alcohols produced from C4-C7n-alkanes were predominantly either the R- or S-enantiomers, while 2-octanol produced from n-octane was racemic. These results indicate that AMO-Ne can discriminate between the prochiral hydrogens at the C-2 position, with the degree of discrimination varying according to the n-alkane. Compared to the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and that of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, AMO-Ne showed a distinct ability to discriminate between the orientation of n-butane and n-pentane in the catalytic site.

  5. Effects of Zinc on Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Activity and Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Sirajuddin, Sarah; Barupala, Dulmini; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. Zinc is a known inhibitor of pMMO, but the details of zinc binding and the mechanism of inhibition are not understood. Metal binding and activity assays on membrane-bound pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) reveal that zinc inhibits pMMO at two sites that are distinct from the copper active site. The 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of Methylocystis species strain Rockwell pMMO reveals two previously undetected bound lipids, and metal soaking experiments identify likely locations for the two zinc inhibition sites. The first is the crystallographic zinc site in the pmoC subunit, and zinc binding here leads to the ordering of 10 previously unobserved residues. A second zinc site is present on the cytoplasmic side of the pmoC subunit. Parallels between these results and zinc inhibition studies of several respiratory complexes suggest that zinc might inhibit proton transfer in pMMO. PMID:24942740

  6. Partial oxidative conversion of methane to methanol through selective inhibition of methanol dehydrogenase in methanotrophic consortium from landfill cover soil.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Sun; Ahn, Chang-Min; Mahanty, Biswanath; Kim, Chang-Gyun

    2013-11-01

    Using a methanotrophic consortium (that includes Methylosinus sporium NCIMB 11126, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath) isolated from a landfill site, the potential for partial oxidation of methane into methanol through selective inhibition of methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) over soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) with some selected MDH inhibitors at varied concentration range, was evaluated in batch serum bottle and bioreactor experiments. Our result suggests that MDH activity could effectively be inhibited either at 40 mM of phosphate, 100 mM of NaCl, 40 mM of NH4Cl or 50 μM of EDTA with conversion ratios (moles of CH3OH produced per mole CH4 consumed) of 58, 80, 80, and 43 %, respectively. The difference between extent of inhibition in MDH activity and sMMO activity was significantly correlated (n = 6, p < 0.05) with resultant methane to methanol conversion ratio. In bioreactor study with 100 mM of NaCl, a maximum specific methanol production rate of 9 μmol/mg h was detected. A further insight with qPCR analysis of MDH and sMMO coding genes revealed that the gene copy number continued to increase along with biomass during reactor operation irrespective of presence or absence of inhibitor, and differential inhibition among two enzymes was rather the key for methanol production.

  7. Stopped-flow Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of nitromethane oxidation by the diiron(IV) intermediate of methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Mylrajan; Ambundo, Edna A; George, Simon J; Lippard, Stephen J; Thorneley, Roger N F

    2003-09-17

    The hydroxylase component (MMOH) of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was reduced to the diiron(II) form and then allowed to react with dioxygen to generate the diiron(IV) intermediate Q in the first phase of a double-mixing stopped-flow experiment. CD3NO2 was then introduced in the second phase of the experiment, which was carried out in D2O at 25 degrees C. The kinetics of the reaction of the substrate with Q were monitored by stopped-flow Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, observing the disappearance of the asymmetric NO2 bending vibration at 1548 cm-1. The data were fit to a single-exponential function, which yielded a kobs of 0.45 +/- 0.07 s-1. This result is in quantitative agreement with a kobs of 0.39 +/- 0.01 s-1 obtained by observing the disappearance of Q by double-mixing stopped-flow optical spectroscopy at its absorption maximum of 420 nm. These results provide for the first time direct monitoring of the hydroxylation of a methane-derived substrate in the MMOH reaction pathway and demonstrate that Q decay occurs concomitantly with substrate consumption.

  8. Resolving conflicts in public health protection and ecosystem service provision at designated bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Quilliam, Richard S; Kinzelman, Julie; Brunner, Joel; Oliver, David M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding and quantifying the trade-off between the requirement for clean safe bathing water and beaches and their wider ecosystem services is central to the aims of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and vital for the sustainability and economic viability of designated bathing waters. Uncertainty surrounding the impacts of ensuing bathing water policy transitions, e.g. the EU revised Bathing Waters Directive (rBWD), puts new urgency on our need to understand the importance of natural beach assets for human recreation, wildlife habitat and for protection from flooding and erosion. However, managing coastal zones solely in terms of public health could have potentially negative consequences on a range of other social and cultural ecosystem services, e.g. recreation. Improving our knowledge of how bathing waters, surrounding beach environments and local economies might respond to shifts in management decisions is critical in order to inform reliable decision-making, and to evaluate future implications for human health. In this paper we explore the conflicts and trade-offs that emerge at public beach environments, and propose the development of an evaluative framework of viable alternatives in environmental management whereby bathing waters are managed for their greatest utility, driven by identifying the optimal ecosystem service provision at any particular site.

  9. Limb-Threatening Ischemia in a Young Man with Cathinone "Bath Salt" Intoxication: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Asem; Tittley, Jacques; Anand, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    "Bath salts" are synthetic designer drugs that have stimulant properties and are a growing medical concern. The chemical compounds in the mixtures have an affinity for receptors in the brain resulting in a stimulant effect similar to that seen with methamphetamines and cocaine. Although illegal in Canada, these drugs are widely available online with over 20 synthetic drugs marketed as "bath salts" and used increasingly among recreational drug users. Much of the medical literature regarding these drugs comes from emergency medicine case reports, which outline the acute, severe medical, and psychiatric effects of "bath salt" toxicity. In this report, we outline severe vascular limb compromise, which occurred in a 24-year-old man who took large doses of bath salts obtained online from China. We detail our experience to re-establish perfusion to the limbs, and the morbidities encountered due to the ischemic insult our patient experienced. The duration and clinical presentation of "bath salt" toxicity are frequently complicated by lack of toxicology screens for the agents on board, and lack of any pharmacokinetic evidence surrounding these synthetic compounds. Although "bath salts" are now illegal in Canada, these drugs are widely available online and have become an increasing public health concern that involves significant morbidity and mortality to users. Creating a base of knowledge and front-line experience are the only current tool in combating the diverse detrimental aftermath of these synthetic agents' abuse.

  10. Determination of hydrogen contamination of depleted uranium in a triple carbonate salt bath

    SciTech Connect

    Hammetter, J.R.

    1987-05-29

    Cast Depleted uranium (DU) ingots are placed in a stainless steel rack and submerged into a triple carbonate salt bath at 625/degree/C. After soaking for 1 to 2 hours (i.e., 1 hr. min., 2 hr. max.), the ingot and rack are removed from the salt bath and taken to the roll table where the ingot is removed from the rack and rolled. The salt residue on the rack begins to cool and, as it does absorbs moisture from the air which is the source of hydrogen. Another ingot is loaded into the rack, placed into the salt bath and the H/sub 2/ is liberated into the bath. When the H/sub 2/ concentration of the salt bath exceeds the H/sub 2/ concentration of the incoming ingots, diffusion of atomic H/sub 2/ into the DU ingot will occur. The objective of this study is to verify that the existing preheat soak times of 1 hour minimum and 2 hours maximum does not increase the H/sub 2/ content of a 2 inch thick DU ingot, soaking in a triple carbonate salt bath at 625/degree/C to above the specified maximum of 1 ppM. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Relief of Chronic Posterior Neck Pain Depending on the Type of Forest Therapy: Comparison of the Therapeutic Effect of Forest Bathing Alone Versus Forest Bathing With Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Boram; Kim, Taikon; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Choi, Seungyoung; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Jun, Byol; Park, Seen Young; Lee, Sung Jae

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the pain-reducing effect of forest bathing alone versus forest bathing in combination with stretching and strengthening exercises in patients with chronic posterior neck pain. Methods Sixty-four subjects with posterior neck pain that had lasted more than 3 months were enrolled. They were randomly divided into a forest bathing alone (FBA) group and a forest bathing with exercise (FBE) group; each group included 32 subjects. All subjects from both groups walked every morning in the forest for about 2 hours for 5 days. In the afternoon, the FBE group did a stretching and strengthening exercise for about 4 hours; the FBA group had free time in the woods. Visual analog scale (VAS) on one day, VAS over the previous week, neck disability index (NDI), EuroQol 5D-3L VAS (EQ VAS) and index (EQ index), McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ), the number of trigger points in the posterior neck region (TRPs), and the range of motion of the cervical spine were evaluated on the first and last day of the program and compared between the two groups. Results The number of TRPs were significantly reduced in the FBE group compared with the FBA group (p=0.013). However, the other scales showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion When patients with chronic posterior neck pain underwent a short-term forest bathing (less than 7 days) program, FBE was more effective in the reduction of the number of TRPs than FBA. However, all other pain measurement scales we evaluated showed no statistically significant difference between the two protocols. PMID:26798610

  12. Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths.

    PubMed

    Sääskilahti, K; Oksanen, J; Tulkki, J

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations.

  13. Revision of the EU Bathing Water Directive: economic costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Stavros; Bateman, Ian J

    2005-04-01

    The European Union (EU) Bathing Water Directive of 1976 ([Commission of the European Communities, 1976. Council Directive of 8th December 1975 Concerning the Quality of Bathing Water (76/160/EEC). Official Journal of the European Community. 5th February 1976, L31/1, Brussels]) sets out standards for designated bathing waters which should be complied with by all member states. Intervening advances in pollution science, related technology and managerial expertise have allowed the European Commission to consider revision of EU environmental legislation where appropriate. As a result, a number of revisions to the 1976 Directive have been proposed ([Commission of the European Communities, 1994. Commission Proposal for a Council Directive Concerning the Quality of Bathing Water. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, COM (94) 36 Final, Brussels; Commission of the European Communities, 2000. Developing a New Bathing Water Policy, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, COM (2000) 860 Final, 21/12/200, Brussels; Commission of the European Communities, 2002. Commission Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning the Quality of Bathing Water, COM (2002) 581 Final, 24/10/2002, Brussels]). This paper considers these revisions in terms of the economic costs and benefits associated with any change in policy. The focus is on the public's willingness to pay for a revised Directive and the consequent public health benefits afforded to individuals and society. These economic benefits are compared to the costs of implementing changes to bring bathing waters up to the required standard.

  14. [Collaboration between Physician Emerich Lindenmayer and Architect Jan Nevole in Restoring the Sokobanja Turkish Bath].

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Gordana; Nešković, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of two-section baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture. Based upon their specific function, these baths possess a special architectural expression, are often monumental, decorative and imaginative in their forms and ornamentation. Prince Miloš initiated repair works of the Soko Banja baths and spa springs immediately after the settlement became a part of the Serbian Principality in 1834. When work on restoring the men's baths started, a separate room with a tub was built for Prince Miloš, while the women's bath remained in ruins. In 1847, the Ministry of Interior sent Dr Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole, as an expert team, to assess the state of the hammam so that it could be included in the undertakings funded from the state budget. After the assessment and review of the existing issues and upon a detailed report submitted to the Ministry of Interior, complex repairs were conducted in 1850, according to Nevole's architectural design and his constant supervision. The approach implemented in the architectural renovation process was based on highly regarded principles of the time, thus preserving both the hammam's original function and its valuable architecture.

  15. Characteristics of Sudden Bath-Related Death Investigated by Medical Examiners in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Background Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Methods Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Results Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). Conclusions The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced. PMID:25503827

  16. Permanent draft genome of Thermithiobaclillus tepidarius DSM 3134(T), a moderately thermophilic, obligately chemolithoautotrophic member of the Acidithiobacillia.

    PubMed

    Boden, Rich; Hutt, Lee P; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, Tatiparthi; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Thermithiobacillus tepidarius DSM 3134(T) was originally isolated (1983) from the waters of a sulfidic spring entering the Roman Baths (Temple of Sulis-Minerva) at Bath, United Kingdom and is an obligate chemolithoautotroph growing at the expense of reduced sulfur species. This strain has a genome size of 2,958,498 bp. Here we report the genome sequence, annotation and characteristics. The genome comprises 2,902 protein coding and 66 RNA coding genes. Genes responsible for the transaldolase variant of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle were identified along with a biosynthetic horseshoe in lieu of Krebs' cycle sensu stricto. Terminal oxidases were identified, viz. cytochrome c oxidase (cbb3, EC 1.9.3.1) and ubiquinol oxidase (bd, EC 1.10.3.10). Metalloresistance genes involved in pathways of arsenic and cadmium resistance were found. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer accounting for 5.9 % of the protein-coding genes was found, including transfer from Thiobacillus spp. and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, isolated from the same spring. A sox gene cluster was found, similar in structure to those from other Acidithiobacillia - by comparison with Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus denitrificans, an additional gene between soxA and soxB was found, annotated as a DUF302-family protein of unknown function. As the Kelly-Friedrich pathway of thiosulfate oxidation (encoded by sox) is not used in Thermithiobacillus spp., the role of the operon (if any) in this species remains unknown. We speculate that DUF302 and sox genes may have a role in periplasmic trithionate oxidation.

  17. Changes of minimal erythema dose after water and salt water baths.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Schröpl, F

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of salt water baths on UV irradiation, especially balneophototherapy, is incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various concentrated salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED). We determined the MEDdry (UVB) in 24 healthy, previously UV unexposed subjects on the inner forearm. Subjects were divided randomly into two groups of 12. Subsequently, the MEDwet was assessed on each forearm after 30 min tap water or 5% salt water bath (group A), respectively, or after 30 min 10% or 20% salt water bath (group B), respectively. Compared with the MEDdry, a significantly decreased MEDwet, was observed after all exposures (group A==>F = 18.94; P < 0.001; group B==>F = 11.73; P < 0.006). A maximal relative decrease in MEDdry of about 51.4% was observed after the 10% salt water bath. The 5% salt solution caused a modest relative decrease in MEDwet of 23.4%. We observed a markedly increased photosensitivity to UVB after all exposures, without a linear correlation between the MED and the salt water concentration. A determination of MED during balneophototherapy should be carried out after bathing in order to reduce the cumulative UV dose and to prevent acute photodamage.

  18. Magnetic Fe-Co films electroplated in a deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohgai, T.; Nakano, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukunaga, H.

    2015-05-01

    We fabricated Fe-Co films from a deep eutectic solvent (DES)-based plating bath and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2.4H2O, and CoCl2.6H2O. The composition of the plated films depended on the amount of FeCl2.4H2O in the plating bath, and Fe content of the films was varied from 0 to 100 at. %. Depending on the Fe content, the saturation magnetization and the coercivity of the films varied. The Fe76Co24 film shows high saturation magnetization and smooth surface, and the change in the saturation magnetization shows good agreement with the expected change by the Slater-Pauling curve. High current efficiency (>90%) could be obtained in the wide film composition. From these results, we concluded that the DES-based plating bath is one of effective baths for the Fe-Co films with high current efficiency.

  19. Total quantum Zeno effect and intelligent states for a two-level system in a squeezed bath

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Stephany, J.; Orszag, M.

    2006-11-15

    In this work we show that, by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two-level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states that display total Zeno effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

  20. Keldysh approach to periodically driven systems with a fermionic bath: Nonequilibrium steady state, proximity effect, and dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong E.; Levchenko, Alex; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2017-03-01

    We study properties of a periodically driven system coupled to a thermal bath. As a nontrivial example, we consider a periodically driven metallic system coupled to a superconducting bath. The effect of the superconductor on the driven system is twofold: it (a) modifies density of states in the metal via the proximity effect and (b) acts as a thermal bath for light-excited quasiparticles. Using Keldysh formalism, we calculate, nonperturbatively in the system-bath coupling, the steady-state properties of the system and obtain nonequilibrium distribution function. The latter allows one to calculate observable quantities which can be spectroscopically measured in tunneling experiments.

  1. Dynamics of a Single Spin-1/2 Coupled to x- and y-Spin Baths: Algorithm and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, M. A.; Guerra, Marta L.; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Jin, Fengping

    The real-time dynamics of a single spin-1/2 particle, called the central spin, coupled to the x(y)-components of the spins of one or more baths is simulated. The bath Hamiltonians contain interactions of x(y)-components of the bath spins only but are general otherwise. An efficient algorithm is described which allows solving the time-dependent Schr'odinger equation for the central spin, even if the x(y) baths contain hundreds of spins. The algorithm requires storage for 2 × 2 matrices only, no matter how many spins are in the baths. We calculate the expectation value of the central spin, as well as its von Neumann entropy S(t), the quantum purity P(t), and the off-diagonal elements of the quantum density matrix. In the case of coupling the central spin to both x- and y- baths the relaxation of S(t) and P(t) with time is a power law, compared to an exponential if the central spin is only coupled to an x-bath. The effect of different initial states for the central spin and bath is studied. Comparison with more general spin baths is also presented.

  2. No-go theorem for ground state cooling given initial system-thermal bath factorization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Ground-state cooling and pure state preparation of a small object that is embedded in a thermal environment is an important challenge and a highly desirable quantum technology. This paper proves, with two different methods, that a fundamental constraint on the cooling dynamic implies that it is impossible to cool, via a unitary system-bath quantum evolution, a system that is embedded in a thermal environment down to its ground state, if the initial state is a factorized product of system and bath states. The latter is a crucial but artificial assumption included in numerous tools that treat system-bath dynamics, such as master equation approaches and Kraus operator based methods. Adopting these approaches to address ground state and even approximate ground state cooling dynamics should therefore be done with caution, considering the fundamental theorem exposed in this work.

  3. Calorimetric Observation of Single {He}_2^* Excimers in a 100-mK He Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, F. W.; Hertel, S. A.; Rooks, M. J.; McClintock, P. V. E.; McKinsey, D. N.; Prober, D. E.

    2017-02-01

    We report the first calorimetric detection of individual {He}_2^* excimers within a bath of superfluid ^4{He}. The detector used in this work is a single superconducting titanium transition edge sensor (TES) with an energy resolution of {˜ }1 {eV}, immersed directly in the helium bath. {He}_2^* excimers are produced in the surrounding bath using an external gamma-ray source. These excimers exist either as short-lived singlet or long-lived triplet states. We demonstrate detection (and discrimination) of both states: In the singlet case the calorimeter records the absorption of a prompt {≈ }15 {eV} photon, and in the triplet case the calorimeter records a direct interaction of the molecule with the TES surface, which deposits a distinct fraction of the {≈ }15 {eV}, released upon decay, into the surface. We also briefly discuss the detector fabrication and characterization.

  4. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  5. Observation of an anomalous decoherence effect in a quantum bath at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pu; Kong, Xi; Zhao, Nan; Shi, Fazhan; Wang, Pengfei; Rong, Xing; Liu, Ren-Bao; Du, Jiangfeng

    2011-12-06

    The decoherence of quantum objects is a critical issue in quantum science and technology. It is generally believed that stronger noise causes faster decoherence. Strikingly, recent theoretical work suggests that under certain conditions, the opposite is true for spins in quantum baths. Here we report an experimental observation of an anomalous decoherence effect for the electron spin-1 of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in high-purity diamond at room temperature. We demonstrate that, under dynamical decoupling, the double-transition can have longer coherence time than the single-transition even though the former couples to the nuclear spin bath as twice strongly as the latter does. The excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results confirms the controllability of the weakly coupled nuclear spins in the bath, which is useful in quantum information processing and quantum metrology.

  6. Predicting the effect of livestock inputs of E. coli on microbiological compliance of bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Vinten, Andrew J A; Lewis, D R; McGechan, M; Duncan, A; Aitken, M; Hill, C; Crawford, C

    2004-01-01

    Three alternative approaches to predicting delivery of faecal indicators from livestock sources to surface water in the catchment of the River Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland, are described. These are a soil transport model which assumes all E. coli are transported through the soil, a regression model using observed E. coli concentrations in surface waters, and a distributed catchment model (PAMIMO). Each of these is linked to a simple group of equations describing inputs of E. coli from livestock to land, transport and inactivation in the river Irvine and mixing and inactivation in the sea. The models predict E. coli content of bathing water for Irvine beach. The regression model gives the best predictions of bathing water quality. The low values predicted by the soil transport model suggests that preventing surface runoff of faecal indicators from livestock would provide an adequate solution to the problem of bathing water contamination.

  7. Artificial quantum thermal bath: Engineering temperature for a many-body quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Alireza; Neven, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    Temperature determines the relative probability of observing a physical system in an energy state when that system is energetically in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we present a theory for engineering the temperature of a quantum system different from its ambient temperature. We define criteria for an engineered quantum bath that, when coupled to a quantum system with Hamiltonian H , drives the system to the equilibrium state e/-H/TTr (e-H /T) with a tunable parameter T . This is basically an analog counterpart of the digital quantum metropolis algorithm. For a system of superconducting qubits, we propose a circuit-QED approximate realization of such an engineered thermal bath consisting of driven lossy resonators. Our proposal opens the path to simulate thermodynamical properties of many-body quantum systems of size not accessible to classical simulations. Also we discuss how an artificial thermal bath can serve as a temperature knob for a hybrid quantum-thermal annealer.

  8. Physical Properties of Nanostructured CdO Films from Alkaline Baths Containing Saccharin as Additive

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath. PMID:23844379

  9. Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

    2014-06-01

    Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study.

  10. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  11. Physical properties of nanostructured CdO films from alkaline baths containing saccharin as additive.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath.

  12. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  13. Bath Parameter Dependence of Chemically-Deposited Copper Selenide Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin films (0.2-0.6 μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that complexing the Cu2+ ions with TEA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu2-xSe.

  14. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Mohd Norizam Md; Zakaria, Azmi; Jafari, Atefeh; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Rafizah Wan; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established. PMID:22754325

  15. Characterization of CdTe films deposited at various bath temperatures and concentrations using electrophoretic deposition.

    PubMed

    Daud, Mohd Norizam Md; Zakaria, Azmi; Jafari, Atefeh; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Rafizah Wan; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.

  16. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven.

  17. Investigation of electroless tin deposition from acidic thiourea-type bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araźna, A.; Bieliński, J.

    2006-10-01

    The constant tendency of miniaturization in electronic products and developments in surface assembly techniques creates requirement to prepare new techniques and processes also in the range of metallic coatings. An additional factor which influences the evolution of preservatives coatings technology is the necessity to adapt Polish law to European directive. From 1 st July 2006 there will be an obligatory RoHS directive banning applying lead in electronics. Electroless tin deposition is one of an alternative for Sn/Pb lead free preservative films on copper surface in PCB technology. Electroless deposition of tin coatings on copper can be made in two ways: from an alkaline bath - the process disproportionation of Sn(II) compounds and from acidic bath contain complex compound such as thiourea - the displacement of copper by tin in Sn(II). Alkaline baths are not used in printed circuit board technology because it has destructive influence on resists. Besides acidic baths complex compounds contain additional stability solution composition which modify structure of obtained tin film. Quality and thickness tin layer are fundamental parameters which determine its protective character. The research test were done in thiourea-type electroless tin bath. The influence of different parameters on n rate of tin deposition and thickness of Sn coating were determined: temperature of the bath, Sn(II)-salt, thiourea and HCl concentration. Tin layers were depositioned on electrolytical copper foil. The thickness of Sn coating was determined by coulometry in 2M HCl. The rate deposition process depends mainly on the thiourea and HCl concentrations in solution. The temperature is also a very important parameter. The thickness of tin layer grows when the temperature increase. Although above 70°C appear undesirable thiourea decomposition. The results of the investigation show that further investigations are necessary for this solution.

  18. Nonequilibrium processes from generalized Langevin equations: Realistic nanoscale systems connected to two thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, H.; Genina, A.; Stella, L.; Lorenz, C. D.; Kantorovich, L.

    2016-05-01

    We extend the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) method [L. Stella, C. D. Lorenz, and L. Kantorovich, Phys. Rev. B 89, 134303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.134303] to model a central classical region connected to two realistic thermal baths at two different temperatures. In such nonequilibrium conditions a heat flow is established, via the central system, in between the two baths. The GLE-2B (GLE two baths) scheme permits us to have a realistic description of both the dissipative central system and its surrounding baths. Following the original GLE approach, the extended Langevin dynamics scheme is modified to take into account two sets of auxiliary degrees of freedom corresponding to the mapping of the vibrational properties of each bath. These auxiliary variables are then used to solve the non-Markovian dissipative dynamics of the central region. The resulting algorithm is used to study a model of a short Al nanowire connected to two baths. The results of the simulations using the GLE-2B approach are compared to the results of other simulations that were carried out using standard thermostatting approaches (based on Markovian Langevin and Nosé-Hoover thermostats). We concentrate on the steady-state regime and study the establishment of a local temperature profile within the system. The conditions for obtaining a flat profile or a temperature gradient are examined in detail, in agreement with earlier studies. The results show that the GLE-2B approach is able to treat, within a single scheme, two widely different thermal transport regimes, i.e., ballistic systems, with no temperature gradient, and diffusive systems with a temperature gradient.

  19. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling.

  20. Sympathomimetic syndrome, choreoathetosis, and acute kidney injury following "bath salts" injection.

    PubMed

    Sutamtewagul, Grerk; Sood, Vineeta; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    "Bath salts" is a well known street drug which can cause several cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, only one case of acute kidney injury has been reported in the literature. We present a case with sympathomimetic syndrome, choreoathetosis, gustatory and olfactory hallucinations, and acute kidney injury following the use of bath salts. A 37-year-old man with past medical history of hypertension and depression was brought to the emergency center with body shaking. Three days before admission he injected 3 doses of bath salts intravenously and felt eye pain with blurry vision followed by a metallic taste, strange smells, profuse sweating, and body shaking. At presentation he had a sympathomimetic syndrome including high blood pressure, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hyperhydrosis with choreoathetotic movements. Laboratory testing revealed leukocytosis and acute kidney injury with a BUN of 95 mg/ dL and a creatinine of 15.2 mg/dL. Creatine kinase was 4,457 IU/dL. Urine drug screen is negative for amphetamine, cannabinoids, and cocaine; blood alcohol level was zero. During his ICU stay he became disoriented and agitated. Supportive treatment with 7.2 liters of intravenous fluid over 3 days, haloperidol, and lorazepam gradually improved his symptoms and his renal failure. Bath salts contain 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, a psychoactive norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Choreoathetosis in this patient could be explained through dopaminergic effect of bath salts or uremic encephalopathy. The mechanism for acute kidney injury from bath salts may involve direct drug effects though norepinephrine and dopamine-induced vasoconstriction (renal ischemia), rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, and/or volume contraction.

  1. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  2. Klein-Gordon Fields and Bose-Einstein Condensates: Thermal Bath Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.; Matos, T.

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the consequences caused by a thermal bath upon the properties associated to the symmetry breaking of scalar fields with one-loop correction potential. Concerning the nonrelativistic regime associated with the aforementioned system, we calculate the shift in the condensation temperature caused by the thermal bath, assuming a harmonic oscillator type potential. We prove that the shift in the condensation temperature depends on the associated scale of the system. In addition, we obtain bounds associated to the scale that could lead to relevant corrections on the condensation temperature under typical conditions.

  3. Temperature and bath size in exact diagonalization dynamical mean field theory.

    PubMed

    Liebsch, Ansgar; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2012-02-08

    Dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), combined with finite-temperature exact diagonalization, is one of the methods used to describe electronic properties of strongly correlated materials. Because of the rapid growth of the Hilbert space, the size of the finite bath used to represent the infinite lattice is severely limited. In view of the increasing interest in the effect of multi-orbital and multi-site Coulomb correlations in transition metal oxides, high-T(c) cuprates, iron-based pnictides, organic crystals, etc, it is appropriate to explore the range of temperatures and bath sizes in which exact diagonalization provides accurate results for various system properties. On the one hand, the bath must be large enough to achieve a sufficiently dense level spacing, so that useful spectral information can be derived, especially close to the Fermi level. On the other hand, for an adequate projection of the lattice Green's function onto a finite bath, the choice of the temperature is crucial. The role of these two key ingredients in exact diagonalization DMFT is discussed for a wide variety of systems in order to establish the domain of applicability of this approach. Three criteria are used to illustrate the accuracy of the results: (i) the convergence of the self-energy with the bath size, (ii) the quality of the discretization of the bath Green's function, and (iii) comparisons with complementary results obtained via continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo DMFT. The materials comprise a variety of three-orbital and five-orbital systems, as well as single-band Hubbard models for two-dimensional triangular, square and honeycomb lattices, where non-local Coulomb correlations are important. The main conclusion from these examples is that a larger number of correlated orbitals or sites requires a smaller number of bath levels. Down to temperatures of 5-10 meV (for typical bandwidths W ≈ 2 eV) two bath levels per correlated impurity orbital or site are usually adequate.

  4. Zeno and anti-Zeno effect for a two-level system in a squeezed bath

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D. F.; Stephany, J.

    2006-04-15

    We discuss the appearance of Zeno or anti-Zeno effects in an exponentially decaying system. We consider the quantum dynamics of a continuously monitored two level system interacting with a squeezed bath. We find that the behavior of the system depends critically on the way in which the squeezed bath is prepared. For specific choices of the squeezing phase the system shows Zeno or anti-Zeno effects in conditions for which it would decay exponentially if no measurements were done. This result allows for a clear interpretation in terms of the equivalent spin system interacting with a fictitious magnetic field.

  5. Effect of light and oxygen and adaptation to changing light conditions in a photosynthetic mutant in which the LHII complex of Rhv. sulfidophilum was heterologously expressed in a strain of Rb. capsulatus whose puc operon was deleted.

    PubMed

    Barbieri Md, María del Rosario; Kerber, Norma L; Pucheu, Norma L; Tadros, Monier H; García, Augusto F

    2002-09-01

    In this paper we show the effect of oxygen and light on the expression of the photosynthetic apparatus of a mutant heterologously expressing the puc operon. This mutant was obtained by introducing in trans an expression plasmid, bearing the puc A, B, and C genes of Rhv. sulfidophilum, as well as its own promoter, in an LHII(-) mutant of Rb. capsulatus. The results showed that oxygen and light repressed LHII expression. Even low-light intensities lowered the LHII content to undetectable levels by spectrophotometry or by SDS-PAGE. In high-light grown cells, where the relative ratios of LHI and LHII complexes were significantly diminished, we were able to detect LHII complexes. Under the latter condition, the absorption spectrum showed that some pigment accumulated in the membrane even in the absence of cell division. These pigments were used in a later step to assemble LHII complexes, when the high-light grown cells were transferred to semiaerobiosis in the dark. Transition of high-light grown cells to low-light conditions allowed us to study the adaptability of these heterologous mutant cells. We observed that adaptation never occurred, in part probably owing to energy limitation.

  6. A point mutation in the ATP synthase of Rhodobacter capsulatus results in differential contributions of Delta(pH) and Delta(phi) in driving the ATP synthesis reaction.

    PubMed

    Turina, Paola; Melandri, B Andrea

    2002-04-01

    The interface between the c-subunit oligomer and the a subunit in the F0 sector of the ATP synthase is believed to form the core of the rotating motor powered by the protonic flow. Besides the essential cAsp61 and aArg210 residues (Escherichia coli numbering), a few other residues at this interface, although nonessential, show a high degree of conservation, among these aGlu219. The homologous residue aGlu210 in the ATP synthase of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been substituted by a lysine. Inner membranes prepared from the mutant strain showed approximately half of the ATP synthesis activity when driven both by light and by acid-base transitions. As estimated with the ACMA assay, proton pumping rates in the inner membranes were also reduced to a similar extent in the mutant. The most striking impairment of ATP synthesis in the mutant, a decrease as low as 12 times as compared to the wild-type, was observed in the absence of a transmembrane electrical membrane potential (Delta(phi)) at low transmembrane pH difference (Delta(pH)). Therefore, the mutation seems to affect both the mechanism responsible for coupling F1 with proton translocation by F0, and the mechanism determining the relative contribution of Delta(pH) and Delta(phi) in driving ATP synthesis.

  7. 33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area. 334.782 Section 334.782 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area....

  8. Modelling of Escherichia coli concentrations in bathing water at microtidal coasts.

    PubMed

    Palazón, A; López, I; Aragonés, L; Villacampa, Y; Navarro-González, F J

    2017-03-24

    Monitoring of the quality of bathing water in line with the European Commission bathing water directive (Directive 2006/7/EC) is a significant economic expense for those countries with great lengths of coastline. In this study a numerical model based on finite elements is generated whose objective is partially substituting the microbiological analysis of the quality of coastal bathing waters. According to a study of the concentration of Escherichia coli in 299 Spanish Mediterranean beaches, it was established that the most important variables that influence the concentration are: monthly sunshine hours, mean monthly precipitation, number of goat cattle heads, population density, presence of Posidonia oceanica, UV, urbanization level, type of sediment, wastewater treatment ratio, salinity, distance to the nearest discharge, and wave height perpendicular to the coast. Using these variables, a model with an absolute error of 10.6±1.5CFU/100ml is achieved. With this model, if there are no significant changes in the beach environment and the variables remain more or less stable, the concentration of E. coli in bathing water can be determined, performing only specific microbiological analyses to verify the water quality.

  9. Preparation of CIGS-based solar cells using a buffered electrodeposition bath

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath

    2007-11-20

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of at least 9.0% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide thin film. The thin film is prepared by simultaneously electroplating copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a substrate using a buffered electro-deposition bath. The electrodeposition is followed by adding indium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film.

  10. The application of electrodialysis to extend the lifetime of commerical electroplating baths

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, G.; Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, B.

    1995-04-01

    Electrodialysis has been investigated as a method to extend the lifetime of industrial electroplating solutions via the selective removal of inert electrolyte salts that build up during electroplating operations. The electrodialysis measurements were made using a commercially available plate- and frame-type cell and various combinations of Nafion cation exchange and either Tosflex or Neosepta anion exchange membranes. Two commercial plating solutions were studied: a zinc-tin bath in which there is a buildup of excess potassium hydroxide and a nickel-tungsten bath characterized by a buildup of excess sodium sulfate. Potassium hydroxide was effectively removed from the zinc-tin bath with very little loss of the heavy metals. Two configurations were investigated: a three compartment configuration with potassium hydroxide in the anolyte strip and sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip, and a two compartment configuration with sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip and the anode placed directly in the plating solution. In both cases potassium hydroxide was stripped from the plating solution at greater than 94% current efficiency, but at a slightly greater voltage in the three compartment cell due to increased resistance caused by the extra membrane. A three compartment configuration was used to remove sodium sulfate from the nickel-tungsten bath, with acid solution in the catholyte and alkaline solution in the anolyte. Current efficiencies for salt removal were high but with appreciable loss of tungsten and nickel to the strip solutions.

  11. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andreas M; Eiden, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps), a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step). In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity. PMID:25977851

  12. Analysis and Experiments for a Computational Model of a Heat Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, A. M.; Warren, J. O.

    1999-11-01

    A question of some interest in computational statistical mechanics is whether macroscopic quantities can be accurately computed without detailed resolution of the fastest scales in the problem. To address this question a simple model for a distinguished particle immersed in a heat bath is studied (due to Ford and Kac). The model yields a Hamiltonian system of dimension 2 N+2 for the distinguished particle and the degrees of freedom describing the bath. It is proven that, in the limit of an infinite number of particles in the heat bath ( N→∞), the motion of the distinguished particle is governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of dimension 2. Numerical experiments are then conducted on the Hamiltonian system of dimension 2 N+2 ( N≫1) to investigate whether the motion of the distinguished particle is accurately computed (i.e., whether it is close to the solution of the SDE) when the time step is small relative to the natural time scale of the distinguished particle, but the product of the fastest frequency in the heat bath and the time step is not small—the underresolved regime in which many computations are performed. It is shown that certain methods accurately compute the limiting behavior of the distinguished particle, while others do not. Those that do not are shown to compute a different, incorrect, macroscopic limit.

  13. Diagrammatic description of a system coupled strongly to a bosonic bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marthaler, Michael; Leppäkangas, Juha

    2016-10-01

    We study a system-bath description in the strong-coupling regime where it is not possible to derive a master equation for the reduced density matrix by a direct expansion in the system-bath coupling. A particular example is a bath with significant spectral weight at low frequencies. Through a unitary transformation, it can be possible to find a more suitable small expansion parameter. Within such an approach, we construct a formally exact expansion of the master equation on the Keldysh contour. We consider a system diagonally coupled to a bosonic bath and expansion in terms of a nondiagonal hopping term. The lowest-order expansion is equivalent to the so-called P (E ) theory or noninteracting blip approximation. The analysis of the higher-order contributions shows that there are two different classes of higher-order diagrams. We study how the convergence of this expansion depends on the form of the spectral function with significant weight at zero frequency.

  14. 75 FR 31688 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats... conformity assessment bodies to assess children's products for conformity with ``other children's product safety rules.'' Section 14(f)(1) of the CPSA defines ``children's product safety rule'' as ``a...

  15. Optimisation of the formulation of a bubble bath by a chemometric approach market segmentation and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Bertetto, Mariella

    2003-03-01

    The optimisation of the formulation of a commercial bubble bath was performed by chemometric analysis of Panel Tests results. A first Panel Test was performed to choose the best essence, among four proposed to the consumers; the best essence chosen was used in the revised commercial bubble bath. Afterwards, the effect of changing the amount of four components (the amount of primary surfactant, the essence, the hydratant and the colouring agent) of the bubble bath was studied by a fractional factorial design. The segmentation of the bubble bath market was performed by a second Panel Test, in which the consumers were requested to evaluate the samples coming from the experimental design. The results were then treated by Principal Component Analysis. The market had two segments: people preferring a product with a rich formulation and people preferring a poor product. The final target, i.e. the optimisation of the formulation for each segment, was obtained by the calculation of regression models relating the subjective evaluations given by the Panel and the compositions of the samples. The regression models allowed to identify the best formulations for the two segments ofthe market.

  16. Numerical Simulations of the Kinetic Energy Transfer in the Bath of a BOF Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaobin; Ersson, Mikael; Zhong, Liangcai; Jönsson, Pär

    2016-02-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental aspects of the kinetic energy transfer from a top and bottom gas injection to the bath of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) by applying a mathematical model. The analyses revealed that the energy transfer is less efficient when top lance height is lowered or the flowrate is increased in the top blowing operations. However, an inverse trend was found that the kinetic energy transfer is increased when the bottom flowrate is increased for the current bottom blowing operation conditions. The kinetic energy transfer index results indicated that the energy transfer for the bottom blowing is much more efficient than that of the top blowing operations. To understand the effects of the upper buoyant phase on the energy dissipation of the bulk liquid in the bath, different mass and physical properties of slag and foam were considered in the bottom blowing simulations. The slag on top of the bath is found to dissipate by 6.6, 9.4, and 11.2 pct for slag mass values of 5, 9, and 15 t compared to the case without slag atop the surface of the bath, respectively. The results showed that the kinetic energy transfer is not largely influenced by the viscosity of the upper slag or the foaming phases.

  17. Microbiological investigations on the water of a thermal bath at Budapest.

    PubMed

    Szuróczki, Sára; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Káli, Szandra; Lippai, Anett; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

    2016-06-01

    Thermal baths are unique aquatic environments combining a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic ecological factors, which also appear in their microbiological state. There is limited information on the microbiology of thermal baths in their complexity, tracking community shifts from the thermal wells to the pools. In the present study, the natural microbial community of well and pool waters in Gellért bath was studied in detail by cultivation-based techniques. To isolate bacteria, 10% R2A and minimal synthetic media (with "bath water") with agar-agar and gellan gum were used after prolonged incubation time; moreover, polyurethane blocks covered with media were also applied. Strains were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene after grouping them by amplified rDNA restriction analysis. From each sample, the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria was characteristic though their diversity differed among samples. Members of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Bacteroidetes were also identified. Representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus phylum appeared only in the pool water. The largest groups in the pool water belonged to the Tistrella and Chelatococcus genera. The most dominant member in the well water was a new taxon, its similarity to Hartmannibacter diazotrophicus as closest relative was 93.93%.

  18. Increase in outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water in Finland in summer 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Ari; Al-Hello, Haider; Zacheus, Outi; Kilponen, Jaana; Maunula, Leena; Huusko, Sari; Lappalainen, Maija; Miettinen, Ilkka; Blomqvist, Soile; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2017-01-01

    An increased number of suspected outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water were reported to the Finnish food- and waterborne outbreak (FWO) registry in July and August 2014. The investigation reports were assessed by a national outbreak investigation panel. Eight confirmed outbreaks were identified among the 15 suspected outbreaks linked to bathing water that had been reported to the FWO registry. According to the outbreak investigation reports, 1,453 persons fell ill during these outbreaks. Epidemiological and microbiological data revealed noroviruses as the main causative agents. During the outbreaks, exceptionally warm weather had boosted the use of beaches. Six of eight outbreaks occurred at small lakes; for those, the investigation strongly suggested that the beach users were the source of contamination. In one of those eight outbreaks, an external source of contamination was identified and elevated levels of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were noted in water. In the remaining outbreaks, FIB analyses were insufficient to describe the hygienic quality of the water. Restrictions against bathing proved effective in controlling the outbreaks. In spring 2015, the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health (Valvira) published guidelines for outbreak control to prevent bathing water outbreaks. PMID:28251888

  19. [Status of microcirculation in elderly hypertensive patients during treatment with sodium chloride baths].

    PubMed

    Abramovich, S G

    2002-01-01

    Microcirculation was studied with biomicroscopy of the eye bulbar conjunctiva's vessels in 50 patients with essential hypertension stage II aged 60-80 years. They took half baths with sodium chloride mineral water at Irkutsk health resort "Angara". The treatment resulted in improvement of perivascular and intravascular end blood flow.

  20. 75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080 beginning...

  1. MASTER BATH. VIEW FACING EAST Camp H.M. Smith and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Sample pretreatment for the capillary electrophoretic determination of organic acids in chromium(III) plating baths.

    PubMed

    Taraba, Lukáš; Křížek, Tomáš; Kubíčková, Anna; Coufal, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    This work deals with the development and optimization of the sample pretreatment and consequent electrophoretic analysis of two modern plating baths containing chromium(III) and either citric acid or oxalic acid. Some model mixtures containing known amounts of components of industrial baths have been prepared to simulate simplified bath matrices. Prior to analysis, a sample pretreatment consisting of the addition of some agents that could release acid from the stable chromium complex was tested. Determination of organic anions was accomplished by indirect UV detection. The best results were achieved by precipitation of chromium(III) hydroxide. The content of oxalate and citrate in real samples was calculated as 96.5% (SD 2.3%) and 97.3% (SD 0.8%), respectively, of the declared amount. Very good robustness of the method and satisfactory repeatability of migration time and peak area were obtained. This simple inexpensive method is suitable for routine determination of citric and oxalic acid in chromium(III)-based plating baths.

  3. EVALUATION OF ULTRAFILTRATION TO RECOVER AQUEOUS IRON PHOSPHATING/DEGREASING BATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention efforts studied in the report summarized here targeted the hazardous waste generated from a 5000-gal iron phosphating/degreasing bath used by a metal fabricator to clean and precondition steel parts for painting. This project was carried out in four stages: (...

  4. The application of electrodialysis to extend the lifetime of commercial electroplating baths

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, G.; Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, B.; Smith, W.H.

    1993-12-31

    Electrodialysis has been investigated as a method to extend the lifetime of industrial electroplating solutions via the selective removal of inert electrolyte salts that build up during electroplating operations. The electrodialysis measurements were made using a commercially available plate-and frame-type cell and various combinations of Nafion cation ``change and either Tosflex or Neosepta anion exchange membranes. Two commercial plating solutions were studied: a zinc-tin bath in which there is a buildup of excess potassium hydroxide and a nickel-tungsten bath characterized by a buildup of excess sodium sulfate. Potassium hydroxide was effectively removed from the zinc-tin bath with very little loss of the heavy metals. Two configurations were investigated: a three compartment configuration with potassium hydroxide in the anolyte strip and sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip, and a two compartment configuration with sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip and the anode placed directly in the plating solution. In both cases potassium hydroxide was stripped from the plating solution at greater than 94% current efficiency, but at a slightly greater voltage in the three compartment cell due to increased resistance caused by the extra membrane. A three compartment configuration was used to remove sodium sulfate from the nickel-tungsten bath, with acid solution in the catholyte and alkaline solution in the anolyte. Current efficiencies for salt removal were high but with appreciable loss of tungsten and nickel to the strip solutions.

  5. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Kotaro; Akiyoshi, Toshiki; Azuma, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ohgai, Takeshi; Morimura, Takao; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ṡ 4H2O, NiCl2 ṡ 6H2O and CoCl2 ṡ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 %) in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  6. Effect of bath water temperature and immersion time on bend angle during cartilage thermoforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ryan; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Diaz, Sergio H.; Ho, K.-H. K.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2003-06-01

    Much interest has been placed on the permanent reshaping of cartilage for facial reconstructive surgery using lasers. An alternate way to reshape cartilage is to heat the tissue in a water bath while maintaining the specimen in mechanical deformation. The objective of this study was to measure the circular bend angle of a cartilage specimen produced by varying the temperature and immersion time in a water bath. Rectangular cartilage specimens (18 x 4 x 1.5 mm) were bent in a semicircular jig (diameter 11 mm) and then immersed in a saline bath at temperatures between 50 - 80°C. The immersion times were 5, 20, 80, 160 and 320 seconds at each temperature. The distance between the ends of each specimen was measured before reshaping and at 15 minutes and 24 hours after immersion in order to calculate the resulting bend angle. The largest bend angle occurred in the specimen immersed in saline at 74°C for 320 seconds, illustrating a definite thermal influence on the physical shape of the cartilage sample. The critical immersion times and bath temperatures where definite shape change occurred were determined.

  7. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission or CPSC) announces that the CPSC has submitted...

  8. Clinical and physiologic effects of sodium chloride baths in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Mitchell, Mark A; Watson, Megan

    2011-12-01

    Sodium chloride (salt; NaCl) has been used for freshwater fish to decrease stress and manage a variety of disease conditions. Recommendations for dose and duration vary greatly. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential adverse clinical and physiologic side effects of different concentrations of saltwater baths on goldfish. Eleven goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used in a cross-over study to assess the effects of three different salt concentrations (5, 10, and 20 g/L) on plasma biochemistries and clinical response. Baseline plasma chemistries were obtained and analyzed immediately prior to placing the goldfish into the saltwater bath and after the fish was removed. A 2-wk washout period was used in-between each treatment. Significant differences were found in fish in the sodium (10 g/L, P = 0.007; 20 g/L, P = 0.01), chloride (10 g/L, P = 0.006; 20 g/L, P = 0.001), and alanine aminotransferase (10 g/L, P = 0.002; 20 g/L, P = 0.004) after their exposure to 10 and 20 g/L saltwater. Glucose levels were found to differ significantly after exposure to all three NaCl concentrations (5 g/L, P = 0.0009; 10 g/L, P = 0.0001; 20 g/L, P = 0.0005). Clinically, 5 g/L and 10 g/L saltwater baths were well tolerated by the fish for the duration of the intended 12-hr treatments, with only one goldfish being removed during the 10 g/L bath at 7 hr for listlessness. The average time goldfish spent in the 20 g/L salt bath was 43 min, with six (54%) of the fish remaining in the 20 g/L salt bath for the intended 60-min treatment period. The remaining 5 (46%) goldfish were removed because they became listless or dyspneic. All of the fish recovered from the treatments without complication. The results of this study suggest that goldfish tolerate saltwater baths but that physiologic disturbances can occur at the higher doses.

  9. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia

    2016-12-01

    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  10. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  11. "Bath salts" and "plant food" products: the experience of one regional US poison center.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christine M; Dulaney, Anna R; Beuhler, Michael C; Kacinko, Sherri

    2013-03-01

    Abuse of psychogenic substances sold as "bath salts" and "plant food" has escalated in recent years in the United States (USA). Previous reports suggest regional differences in the primary active β-keto phenylalkylamines found in these products and the corresponding signs and symptoms reported after exposure. Currently, there are only limited studies describing the clinical effects associated with reported "bath salts" exposure in the USA. This study describes the clinical effects associated with "bath salt" and "plant food" exposures as reported to the poison center serving the state of North Carolina (Carolinas Poison Center). We performed a retrospective review of the Carolinas Poison Center database for all cases of reported human exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products from 2010 to 2011 with specific attention to clinical effects and routes of exposure. Additionally, we reviewed therapies used, trended the volume of exposure cases reported over the study period, and evaluated the distribution of calls within state counties using descriptive statistics. Carolinas Poison Center received 485 total calls and 409 reported exposure calls regarding "bath salt" or "plant food" products between January of 2010 and December of 2011. The peak of reported exposures occurred in May of 2011. Clinical effects commonly reported in the exposure cases generated from these calls included tachycardia (53.3 %, n = 218), agitated/irritable (50.4 %, n = 206), hallucination/delusions (26.7 %, n = 109), and hypertension (25.2 %, n = 103). In addition to intravenous fluids, common therapies included benzodiazepines (46.0 %, n = 188), sedation (13.4 %, n = 55), alkalinization (3.90 %, n = 16), antihistamine (4.16 %, n = 17), and intubation (3.67 %, n = 15). Haloperidol was the antipsychotic agent used most often to treat agitation (n = 40). Serious complications associated with reported exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products

  12. Investigation of “Bath Salts” Use Patterns Within an Online Sample of Users in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Bath salts” are synthetic stimulant “legal highs” that have recently been banned in the U.S. Epidemiological data regarding bath salts use are limited. In the present study, 113 individuals in the U.S. reporting use of bath salts completed an anonymous, online survey characterizing demographic, experiential, and psychological variables. Respondents were more often male, 18–24 years old, and Caucasian/white with some college education. Past year use was typically low (≤ 10 days), but marked by repeated dosing. Intranasal was the most frequently reported administration route and subjective effects were similar to other stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines). Bath salts use was associated with increased sexual desire and sexual HIV risk behavior, and met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for disordered use in more than half of respondents. Bath salts use persists in the U.S. despite federal bans of cathinone-like constituents. Self-reported stimulant-like effects of bath salts suggest their use as substitutes for traditional illicit stimulants. Data revealed more normative outcomes vis-à-vis extreme accounts by media and medical case reports. However, indications of product abuse potential and sexual risk remain, suggesting bath salts pose potential public health harm. PMID:25364987

  13. Fast Salt Bath Heat Treatment for a Bainitic/Martensitic Low-Carbon Low-Alloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanec, Julia; Saastamoinen, Ari; Kivivuori, Seppo; Louhenkilpi, Seppo

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical properties of a low-alloyed steel with 0.06 wt pct C were investigated after a series of heat treatment processes using salt bath followed by quenching into water in order to obtain bainitic/martensitic steel. Salt bath holding time varied from 30 to 330 seconds. Hardness, tensile properties and toughness have been examined. The results show the obtained microstructure significantly enhances the impact strength (up to 187 J) and toughness (up to 71.4 pct critical reduction) with good hardness (239 ± 4 HV) and tensile strength (720 to 800 MPa) compared to direct quenching heat treatment without salt bath holding.

  14. [The therapeutic use of iodide-bromide-sodium chloride baths combined with hydrocortisone phonophoresis in patients with osteoarthrosis and gout].

    PubMed

    Kamenskaia, N S; Fedorova, N E

    1990-01-01

    Hydrocortisone phonophoresis (HPP) on the affected joints or balneotherapy with iodine bromine baths as well as the complex of these two modalities were used to treat 197 patients with osteoarthrosis. Thirty-one of the patients had secondary arthrosis due to recurrent gout attacks. Monotherapy with HPP proved beneficial in affection of 1-2 joints whereas the baths appeared preferable in polyosteoarthrosis, its association with spinal osteoarthrosis, arterial hypertension. Combined application of HPP and the baths produced more pronounced and stable effect with the best relief recorded in polyosteoarthrosis, its progression, secondary synovitis.

  15. Distinct difference of flaA genotypes of Legionella pneumophila between isolates from bath water and cooling tower water.

    PubMed

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Chang, Bin; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Ichinose, Masayuki; Endo, Takuro; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the genetic difference of Legionella pneumophila in human-made environments, we collected isolates of L. pneumophila from bath water (n = 167) and cooling tower water (n = 128) primarily in the Kanto region in 2001 and 2005. The environmental isolates were serogrouped and sequenced for a target region of flaA. A total of 14 types of flaA genotypes were found: 10 from cooling tower water and nine from bath water. The flaA genotypes of isolates from cooling tower water were quite different from those of bath water.

  16. Kinetics Analysis of Higher Temperature Salt Bath Nitriding for Aisi 1045 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingyang; Chen, Yao; Chai, Yating; Hu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Rapid salt bath nitriding was conducted at higher temperature above 600∘C instead of normally used 560∘C for AISI 1045 steel. Optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-hardness tester were employed to characterize the microstructure, phase constituents and micro-hardness of the treated specimens. The results showed that salt bath nitriding at higher temperature could significantly increase the compound layer thickness and higher cross-sectional hardness can be obtained. Kinetics analysis illustrated that the nitrogen atoms diffusion coefficient was obviously increased with temperature, and the activation energy of nitrogen atom diffusion was decreased from 220kJṡmol-1 to 142kJṡmol-1.

  17. Temperature dependence of vibrational energy transfer between vibrationally excited polyatomic molecules and bath gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Yakovlev, D. L.; Sambor, E. G.

    2000-08-01

    Efficiency of vibrational energy transfer (VET) in vibrational quasicontinuum of triplet states was estimated from the dependence of time-resolved delayed fluorescence of benzophenone and anthraquinone on bath gas pressure. The negative temperature dependence for vibration-vibration (V-V) and positive for vibration-translation (V-T) energy transfers from benzophenone and anthraquinone to bath gases (C 2H 4, SF 6, CCl 4, C 5H 12) were obtained between 373 and 553 K. Polarizability and dipole moment of colliding molecules seem to affect the efficiency of V-V relaxation. These data reflect the dominance of long-range attractive interactions in V-V energy transfer and short-range repulsive interactions in V-T energy transfer.

  18. Escherichia coli at Ohio Bathing Beaches--Distribution, Sources, Wastewater Indicators, and Predictive Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Gifford, Amie M.; Darner, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of studies during the recreational seasons of 2000 and 2001 strengthen the science that supports monitoring of our Nation?s beaches. Water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ancillary water-quality and environmental data were collected or compiled to determine their relation to E. coli concentrations. Data were collected at three Lake Erie urban beaches (Edgewater, Villa Angela, and Huntington), two Lake Erie beaches in a less populated area (Mentor Headlands and Fairport Harbor), and one inland-lake beach (Mosquito Lake). The distribution of E. coli in water and sediments within the bathing area, outside the bathing area, and near the swash zone was investigated at the three Lake Erie urban beaches and at Mosquito Lake. (The swash zone is the zone that is alternately covered and exposed by waves.) Lake-bottom sediments from outside the bathing area were not significant deposition areas for E. coli. In contrast, interstitial water and subsurface sediments from near the swash zone were enriched with E. coli. For example, E. coli concentrations were as high as 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in some interstitial waters. Although there are no standards for E. coli in swash-zone materials, the high concentrations found at some locations warrant concern for public health. Studies were done at Mosquito Lake to identify sources of fecal contamination to the lake and bathing beach. Escherichia coli concentrations decreased with distance from a suspected source of fecal contamination that is north of the beach but increased at the bathing beach. This evidence indicated that elevated E. coli concentrations at the bathing beach are of local origin rather than from transport of bacteria from sites to the north. Samples collected from the three Lake Erie urban beaches and Mosquito Lake were analyzed to determine whether wastewater indicators could be used as surrogates for E. coli at bathing beaches

  19. Datura stramonium toxicity mistakenly diagnosed as "bath salt" intoxication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Kelly; Hourani, David

    2014-01-01

    Datura stramonium is a wildly growing plant found in West Virginia and in temperate regions throughout the world that is sometimes abused by young people because of its hallucinogenic effects. D. Stramonium overdose produces a classic anticholinergic syndrome that can lead to severe and sometimes fatal complications. Poisoning can be confused with more commonly seen drugs of abuse, particularly synthetic drugs which are not revealed by standard drug screens. Misdiagnosis can delay appropriate care and potentially lead to poorer outcomes. We present a case of a 15 year-old male with acute D. Stramonium poisoning initially misdiagnosed with bath salt intoxication who required treatment by two emergency departments, a pediatric ICU, and who was ultimately transferred to an inpatient psychiatric facility. We then discuss differential diagnosis of D. Stramonium poisoning and bath salt intoxication and present management strategies for the two conditions.

  20. Angular self-localization of impurities rotating in a bosonic bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Seiringer, Robert; Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2017-03-01

    The existence of a self-localization transition in the polaron problem has been under an active debate ever since Landau suggested it 84 years ago. Here we reveal the self-localization transition for the rotational analog of the polaron—the angulon quasiparticle. We show that, unlike for the polarons, self-localization of angulons occurs at finite impurity-bath coupling already at the mean-field level. The transition is accompanied by the spherical-symmetry breaking of the angulon ground state and a discontinuity in the first derivative of the ground-state energy. Moreover, the type of symmetry breaking is dictated by the symmetry of the microscopic impurity-bath interaction, which leads to a number of distinct self-localized states. The predicted effects can potentially be addressed in experiments on cold molecules trapped in superfluid helium droplets and ultracold quantum gases, as well as on electronic excitations in solids and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  1. A Compton-suppression detection system for use in manganese bath measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Doostizadeh, H.; Hazami, Z.; Doust-Mohammadi, V.

    2015-07-01

    The manganese sulfate bath technique is a standard tool for neutron source strength measurement (Park et al., 2005). However, the dominate Compton continuum of most sodium iodide scintillators used in manganese bath systems (MBSs) does not allow the precise identification of induced gamma rays required for such measurements. In this research, to resolve this problem, a Compton-suppression system has been proposed which consists of a 2 in. by 2 in. NaI(Tl) right cylindrical scintillator as the main and a set of eight rectangular NE102 plastic scintillators of 12×12×15 cm3 dimensions as suppression detectors. Both detectors operate in anti-coincidence circuit to suppress the Compton continuum. The proposed system has been simulated with the MCNPX code with two different approaches and the corresponding measurements with 137Cs gamma-ray source and neutron-activated MnSO4 solution have been undertaken that give rise to a promising agreement.

  2. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality.

  3. Critical and strong-coupling phases in one- and two-bath spin-boson models.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cheng; Weichselbaum, Andreas; von Delft, Jan; Vojta, Matthias

    2012-04-20

    For phase transitions in dissipative quantum impurity models, the existence of a quantum-to-classical correspondence has been discussed extensively. We introduce a variational matrix product state approach involving an optimized boson basis, rendering possible high-accuracy numerical studies across the entire phase diagram. For the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model with a power-law bath spectrum ∝ω(s), we confirm classical mean-field behavior for s<1/2, correcting earlier numerical renormalization-group results. We also provide the first results for an XY-symmetric model of a spin coupled to two competing bosonic baths, where we find a rich phase diagram, including both critical and strong-coupling phases for s<1, different from that of classical spin chains. This illustrates that symmetries are decisive for whether or not a quantum-to-classical correspondence exists.

  4. Preparation of plastic spherical microlenses by use of a fluoropolymer stencil and oil-bath heating.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiromoto; Kojima, Ryousuke; Usui, Hiroaki

    2003-07-01

    A new method for fabricating plastic spherical microlenses was developed, which allowed self-alignment of lenses and self-organized formation of a spherical shape. First a low-surface-energy fluoropolymer thin film was deposited and patterned as a stencil. Then photosensitive phenol resin was patterned on it as the lens material. Finally the resin was annealed in an oil bath to form a sphere. The molten phenol resin spontaneously formed a sphere and positioned itself in the center of the fluoropolymer ring pattern as a result of the difference of surface free energy and the equivalently zero-gravity condition in the oil bath. When a light-emitting-diode printer head was loaded with spherical microlenses, its optical output increased by 1 order of magnitude.

  5. Study of planar heterojunction perovskite photovoltaic cells using compact titanium oxide by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kouhei; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Takahashi, Kohshin; Taima, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Spin-coated perovskite solar cells from sol-gels result in high processing costs because of the need for high temperatures. Here, we report a low-temperature spin-coating route to fabricate planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells using chemical bath deposition of compact-TiOx layers. Comparison of the solar cell properties of compact-TiOx and compact-TiO2 layers show that the power conversion efficiency of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell fabricated by the low-temperature, compact-TiOx route is comparable to that of conventional TiO2. The chemical bath deposition method requires heating to 150 °C only to form amorphous compact-TiOx films compared with the 450 °C required for crystalline anatase compact-TiO2 films.

  6. Synthesis of carbon/EMD composite from carbon-suspended sulfuric acid and manganese sulfate bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Gen-Pei; Yoshio, Masaki; Noguchi, Hideyuki; Kozawa, Akiya

    1994-10-01

    A study has been made of the electrodeposition of MnO2 on a titanium anode from a carbon or carbon/MnO2 composite suspended in a H2SO4-MnSO4 bath. Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) containing acetylene black or vapor-grown carbon fiber shows excellent alkaline battery performance and good grindability. Nevertheless, passivation of the titanium anode sometimes occurs during electrolysis at a current density of 1 A dm(exp -2). This problem is successfully resolved without loss of battery performance, by using carbon/ delta-MnO2 as suspension particles. Apart from producing EMDs with good grindability and excellent battery performance, this bath has several other advantages, namely: easy maintenance of the dispersion, good reproducibility, low anode potential during electrolysis, and higher carbon content. It is proposed that a close relationship exists between battery performance and the surface characteristics of EMDs such as BET surface area and pore size.

  7. An ETF TF-coil concept employing NbTi alloy, bath cooled with superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y.-H.; Purcell, J. R.; Alcorn, J. S.; Homeyer, W.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary study has been performed to assess the feasibility and engineering consideration of employing NbTi alloy conductor, bath cooled with superfluid helium (He II), in an Engineering Test Facility (ETF) toroidal field (TF) coil. This study indicates that saturated superfluid helium (He II) merits serious consideration as an alternative to the use of He I for high field (11-12 tesla) NbTi alloy TF-coils, which require bath temperatures below 4 K. The primary advantages of He II over reduced temperature (2.5-3 K) He I are two: (1) Due to the extremely high thermal conductivity of He II, almost all of the sub-lambda enthalpy is available to absorb local or transient heat loads; and (2) the relatively high surface heat transfer results in substantially improved conductor stability characteristics. The disadvantages of He II relative to reduced temperature He I are increased refrigeration power and pumping requirements, and some additional system complexity.

  8. Effects of water temperature on cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation during foot immersion (foot bath)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, M.; Ono, K.; Onodera, S.

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to make clear the effects of water temperature during foot immersion (foot bath) on heart rate, blood pressure, rectal temperature and autonomic nervous system modulation. The subjects performed foot immersion at 25, 35, 41 and 45 degrees Celsius at random, during different days, but always at the same time. Cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation was estimated with the power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability by using the Fast Fourier Transformation. The two frequency components of HRV was measured by integrate low frequency (LF; 0.04- 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF; 0.15- 0.40 Hz). HF was used as an indicator of cardiac vagal modulation and was showed logarithmically (LogHF). LogHF during foot immersion at 35 and 41 degrees Celsius was significantly increased. These data indicate that cardiac vagal activity was affected by water temperature during foot immersion (foot bath).

  9. Baths Salts, Spice, and Related Designer Drugs: The Science Behind the Headlines

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Ernesto; Watterson, Lucas R.; Marusich, Julie A.; Fantegrossi, William E.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of synthetic psychoactive substances known as “designer drugs,” or “new psychoactive substances” (NPS), is increasing at an alarming rate. NPS are purchased as alternatives to traditional illicit drugs of abuse and are manufactured to circumvent laws regulating the sale and use of controlled substances. Synthetic cathinones (i.e., “bath salts”) and synthetic cannabinoids (i.e., “spice”) are two types of NPS that have received substantial media attention. Although low recreational doses of bath salts or spice compounds can produce desirable effects, high doses or chronic exposure often leads to dangerous medical consequences, including psychosis, violent behaviors, tachycardia, hyperthermia, and even death. Despite the popularity of NPS, there is a paucity of scientific data about these drugs. Here we provide a brief up-to-date review describing the mechanisms of action and neurobiological effects of synthetic cathinones and cannabinoids. PMID:25392483

  10. On the alternatives for bath correlators and spectral densities from mixed quantum-classical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Valleau, Stephanie; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Eisfeld, Alexander

    2012-12-14

    We investigate on the procedure of extracting a 'spectral density' from mixed QM/MM calculations and employing it in open quantum systems models. In particular, we study the connection between the energy gap correlation function extracted from ground state QM/MM and the bath spectral density used as input in open quantum system approaches. We introduce a simple model which can give intuition on when the ground state QM/MM propagation will give the correct energy gap. We also discuss the role of higher order correlators of the energy-gap fluctuations which can provide useful information on the bath. Further, various semiclassical corrections to the spectral density, are applied and investigated. Finally, we apply our considerations to the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. For this system, our results suggest the use of the Harmonic prefactor for the spectral density rather than the Standard one, which was employed in the simulations of the system carried out to date.

  11. Chemical bath deposition of thin film cadmium selenide for photoelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, R.A.; Raugh, R.D.

    1983-02-01

    Chemical bath deposition provides an attractive, low cost method of producing cadmium chalcogenide thin films. Intimate contact between the bath solution and the substrate material permits uniform deposition on substrates of complex geometry, presently difficult with spray pyrolysis, vacuum evaporation, or electrodeposition techniques. For CdSe, rigorous control of deposition conditions promotes the formation of a hexagonal, specularly reflecting deposit rather than a less desirable sphalerite (cubic) powdery deposit. Scanning electron microscopy reveals a small grained layered plate morphology similar to that produced by the evaporation method. Specularly reflecting CdSe films can be formed over large area substrates at a thickness optimal for their use as photoelectrochemical cells (PEC). Employing polysulfide as the redox couple, conversion efficiencies as high as 6.8% have been achieved in the authors' laboratory for these films using a tungstenhalogen white light source.

  12. Removal of water from a shallow bath under laser pulse irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, L I; Gladush, G G; Glova, A F; Drobyazko, S V; Krasyukov, A G; Mainashev, V S; Rerikh, V L; Taran, M D

    2011-05-31

    An experimental investigation was made of water removal from a shallow bath under the action of a CO{sub 2}-laser radiation pulse focused to a spot of size substantially smaller than the bath length. We showed that the specific expenditure of energy is determined by the intensity of laser radiation at the water surface for different values of the focal spot area and pulse duration. The removal dynamics was studied by single-frame photography technique. It was determined that the water is removed layerwise only from the walls of the cavern, which expands in the horizontal direction upon cessation of the radiation pulse. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were made of the water removal, and a mechanism was proposed to explain the experimentally observed removal pattern. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  13. High-temperature conductivity in chemical bath deposited copper selenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanam, M.; Manoj, P. K.; Prabhu, Rajeev. R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports high-temperature (305-523 K) electrical studies of chemical bath deposited copper (I) selenide (Cu 2-xSe) and copper (II) selenide (Cu 3Se 2) thin films. Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have been prepared on glass substrates from the same chemical bath at room temperature by controlling the pH. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles, it has been found that Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have cubic and tetragonal structures, respectively. The composition of the chemical constituent in the films has been confirmed from XRD data and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). It has been found that both phases of copper selenide thin films have thermally activated conduction in the high-temperature range. In this paper we also report the variation of electrical parameters with film thickness and the applied voltage.

  14. Understanding Characteristic of Abrasion of Refractory Lining Caused by Bath Oscillation in BOF Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, Zongshu

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the refractory abrasion occurring widely inside basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. The mechanism of refractory abrasion is examined numerically referring to the bath oscillation with regard to flows, turbulence and wall shear stress inside a BOF. The simulation results reveal that the refractory abrasion tends to occur on the wall region between the slag/atmosphere and slag/metal interfaces due to the oscillation of the bath in the blowing process, which generally promotes slag-line erosion. The decreased nozzle angle, and either increased lance height or operation pressure can lead to more serious refractory erosion that occurs more likely during the slag-making period in the operation of BOF.

  15. Microbiological analysis in three diverse natural geothermal bathing pools in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-03-14

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000-40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria.

  16. Two-frequency forcing of droplet rebounds on a liquid bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampara, Naresh; Gilet, Tristan

    2016-11-01

    Droplets can bounce indefinitely on a liquid bath vertically vibrated in a sinusoidal fashion. We here present experimental results that extend this observation to forcing signals composed of a combination of two commensurable frequencies. The Faraday and Goodridge thresholds are characterized. Then a number of vertical bouncing modes are reported, including walkers. The vertical motion can become chaotic, in which case the horizontal motion is an alternation of walk and stop.

  17. Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yu-Min; Wang, Jih-Wen; Liue, Chun-Ying; Yeh, Shinn-Horng

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  18. Cavitation Enhancing Nanodroplets Mediate Efficient DNA Fragmentation in a Bench Top Ultrasonic Water Bath

    PubMed Central

    Malc, Ewa P.; Jayakody, Chatura N.; Tsuruta, James K.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Janzen, William P.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon nanodroplet formulation is shown to be an effective cavitation enhancement agent, enabling rapid and consistent fragmentation of genomic DNA in a standard ultrasonic water bath. This nanodroplet-enhanced method produces genomic DNA libraries and next-generation sequencing results indistinguishable from DNA samples fragmented in dedicated commercial acoustic sonication equipment, and with higher throughput. This technique thus enables widespread access to fast bench-top genomic DNA fragmentation. PMID:26186461

  19. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugle, Dhananjay; Jadhav, Ghanshyam

    2016-05-01

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  20. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  1. A study of electron transfer using a three-level system coupled to an ohmic bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takasu, Masako; Chandler, David

    1993-01-01

    Electron transfer is studied using a multi-level system coupled to a bosonic bath. Two body correlation functions are obtained using both exact enumeration of spin paths and Monte Carlo simulation. It was found that the phase boundary for the coherent-incoherent transition lies at a smaller friction in the asymmetric two-level model than in the symmetric two-level model. A similar coherent-incoherent transition is observed for three-level system.

  2. [Interference currents and chloride sodium baths in combined treatment of scoliosis in children].

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Popov, V V; Podgornaia, O V

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of administration of interference currents, chloride sodium baths and their combined effect in therapy of scoliosis of the first and second degree in children. These physical factors have a positive effect on the orthopedic status, functional condition of spinal and abdominal muscles, parameters of peakflowmetry, electrocardio- and cardiointervalography. The highest therapeutic activity was noted in combined use of these factors.

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of metal concentration in an alloy electroplating bath

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    An energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis system has been developed for rapid, simultaneous analysis of gold and copper concentrations in an aqueous electroplating bath. The speed and repeatability of the system make it well suited for in-process control. Data collection and reduction are automatic. The analysis requires less than 10 minutes from taking the sample to printing the gold and copper concentrations.

  4. Angular velocity distribution of a granular planar rotator in a thermalized bath.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, J; Talbot, J; Viot, P

    2007-05-01

    The kinetics of a granular planar rotator with a fixed center undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles is analyzed both numerically and analytically by means of the Boltzmann equation. The angular velocity distribution evolves from quasi-Gaussian in the Brownian limit to an algebraic decay in the limit of an infinitely light particle. In addition, we compare this model to that of a planar rotator with a free center and discuss the prospects for experimental confirmation of these results.

  5. Differentiating Nitrification and Denitrification Sources of Nitrous Oxide Based on the Isotopomeric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutka, R. L.; Pitt, A. J.; Ostrom, N. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; Gandhi, H.; Breznak, J.; Bergsma, T.

    2003-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) are steadily increasing primarily due to microbial activity in the environment. This has prompted efforts to apportion microbial sources of N2O to specific microbial processes. We investigated the isotopomeric composition N2O as a possible aid in differentiating microbial production mechanisms. Isotopomer refers not only to the isotopic abundance of N2O (δ 15N and δ 18O), but also to the 15N abundance within each of the nitrogen atoms comprising this molecule. In the linear N2O molecule, the central atom is referred to as alpha (α ) and the terminal nitrogen atom is referred to as beta (β ). The site preference refers to the difference between δ 15Nα and δ 15Nβ . We conducted experiments with pure bacterial cultures and agricultural soil mesocosms. Four microbial pathways for the production of N2O were investigated including hydroxylamine oxidation via autotrophic nitrifiers and methane oxidizers and nitrite reduction via denitrifiers and autotrophic nitrifiers. We used concentrated cell suspensions of a nitrifier (Nitrosomonas europaea), a methane oxidizer (Methylococcus capsulatus Bath) and a denitrifier that lacks N2O reductase (Pseudomonas chlororaphis). The average site preference of N2O produced by the oxidation of hydroxylamine by M. capsulatus Bath (5.5 +/- 3.5 per mil) and N. europaea(-2.3 +/- 1.9 per mil) was significantly different. Nitrous oxide produced by the reduction of nitrite by N. europaea and P. chlororaphis had a site preference of -8.3 +/- 3.6 per mil and -8.1 +/- 3.4 per mil, respectively. These results demonstrate that site preference can distinguish N2O produced by hydroxylamine oxidation by two distinct organisms. Furthermore, N2O derived by hydroxylamine oxidation differed significantly from that derived from nitrite reduction by the same nitrifying organism. Soil mesocosm experiments were used to determine that consumption of N2O did not change the isotopomeric composition. Since

  6. Determination of totalcoliform and faecalcoliform bacteria from bathing water with FLUOROCULT-BRILA-broth.

    PubMed

    Havemeister, G

    1991-01-01

    The BRILA-MUG one-tube-test in connection with the MPN-method can be used successfully to determine with sufficient reliability the number of indices of total coliforms and faecal coliforms according to the EC-Directive for bathing waters. Using the one-tube-test and determination of gas production, fluorescence and indole production is, from the hygienic point of view for surface waters, equal in value to subculture and biochemical identification. The test needs only a minimum of material and laboratory staff. Differences between this test and other more extensive tests with several biochemical identification steps are negligible. The work load for bathing water monitoring would not be justified in this case. Due to the occurrence of Aeromonas, the values for total coliforms compared to a determination with biochemical identification are higher in some cases. A high contamination with Aeromonas indicates a high polluted surface water with a high degree of eutrophication. This is an important additional criterion for the evaluation of bathing waters, even when a direct dependence on faecal contamination does not exist in every case. The degree of an up-to-date faecal contamination can be estimated by the pollution with faecal coliforms.

  7. Metrology process waste assessment: Fluorinert bath temperature calibration Z951-421-1

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, G.V.

    1993-09-01

    Fluorinert, FC-40 and FC-72, was chosen for this pilot Process Waste Assessment (PWA) because it is the most frequently used chemical in Metrology. Fluorinert has been used since 1986 as a substitute for trichloroethylene. Although it is much safer than trichloroethylene, it still has disadvantages. If Fluorinert is taken above its boiling point it will produce toxic chemicals, creating a health hazard rating of 4. To prevent this occurrence, over-temperature controls are installed on the bath and a fume hood is provided for the vapors. Fluorinert is used in a Rosemount Temperature Bath, CE 64138, as a stirred temperature medium which provides a stable temperature environment to compare readings of a Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer to readings obtained from thermocouples, thermistors, and other types of thermometers. Fluorinert is used primarily to provide a safe liquid medium that can be varied from {minus}120 to 200{degrees}F. When temperature devices are removed from the bath, the excess Fluorinert is removed by wiping with a KayDry. Contaminated KayDrys are disposed of as step can waste.

  8. Tunable optoelectronic properties of CBD-CdS thin films via bath temperature alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumarage, W. G. C.; Wijesundera, R. P.; Seneviratne, V. A.; Jayalath, C. P.; Dassanayake, B. S.

    2016-03-01

    The tunability of the band-gap value and electron affinity of the n-CdS by adjusting the growth parameters is very important as it paves the way to improve the efficiency of CdS-based solar cells by adjusting the band lineup with other p-type semiconductors. In this respect, polycrystalline n-CdS thin films were grown on FTO glass substrates at different bath temperatures (40-80 °C) by the chemical bath deposition technique. The structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties of CdS thin films were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrometry, profilometry, atomic force microscopy, photoelectrochemical and Mott-Schottky measurements. Absorption measurements reveal that an energy-gap value of n-CdS can be adjusted from 2.27 to 2.57 eV and Mott-Schottky measurements indicate that the flat-band potential is increased from  -699 to  -835 V with respect to a Ag/AgCl electrode by decreasing the deposition bath temperature from 60 to 40 °C. This tunability of optoelectronic properties of n-CdS is very useful for applications in thin film solar cells and other devices.

  9. Enzymatic decolorization of spent textile dyeing baths composed by mixtures of synthetic dyes and additives.

    PubMed

    Ciullini, Ilaria; Gullotto, Antonella; Tilli, Silvia; Sannia, Giovanni; Basosi, Riccardo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2012-10-01

    The effects of different components of real dyeing bath formulations, such as the equalizing and fixing additives-acids, salts, and surfactants-on the decolorization catalyzed by Funalia trogii enzymatic extracts, were investigated to understand their influence on the recalcitrance to biodegradation of this type of wastewater. The decolorization of selected dyes and dye mixtures after tissue dyeing was performed in the presence/absence of auxiliary compounds. All spent dyeing baths were enzymatically decolorized to different extents, by the addition of extracts containing laccase only or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Whereas surfactant auxiliaries, in some instances, inhibit the decolorization of spent dyeing baths, in several occurrences the acid/salt additives favor the enzymatic process. In general, the complete spent dyeing formulations are better degraded than those containing the dyes only. The comparison of extracellular extracts obtained from spent straws from the commercial growth of Pleurotus sp. mushrooms with those from F. trogii reveals similar decolorization extents thus allowing to further reduce the costs of bioremediation.

  10. Modulation of active Cr(III) complexes by bath preparation to adjust Cr(III) electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Ming-yong; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    The preparation process of the Cr(III) bath was studied based on a perspective of accelerating the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The results of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and electrodeposition showed that active Cr(III) complexes in the bath prepared at room temperature in several days were rare for depositing chromium. The increase of heating temperature, time, and pH value during the bath preparation promoted the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The chromium deposition rate increased with the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increasing. Increasing the heating temperature from 60 to 96°C, the chromium deposition rate increased from 0.40 to 0.71 μm/min. When the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increased, the grain size of Cr coatings increased, and the carbon content of the coating decreased. It is deduced that Cr(H2O)4(OH)L2+ (L is an organic ligand, and its valence is omitted) is a primary active Cr(III) complex.

  11. Safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath canning method.

    PubMed

    McKee, L H; Remmenga, M D; Bock, M A

    1998-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath processing method. In the first study, plain tomatillos were processed for 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5 min. In the second study, five tomatillo/onion combinations were prepared while five tomatillo/green chile combinations were prepared in the third study. pH evaluations were conducted to determine safety in all studies using pH 4.2 as the cut-off value. No differences in the pH of plain tomatillos were detected due to processing time. All jars of plain tomatillos had pH values below 4.1. All combinations of tomatillos/onions and tomatillos/green chile containing more than 50% tomatillo had pH values below the 4.2 cut-off value. Results of the three studies indicate (1) acidification of plain tomatillos is probably unnecessary for canning by the water-bath processing method and (2) combinations of acidic tomatillos and low-acid onions or green chile must contain more than 50% tomatillos to have a pH low enough for safe water-bath processing.

  12. Colonization of Legionella species in Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of Legionella species in water samples collected from Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey, from August 2003 to September 2013. Water samples were collected in 100-mL sterile containers and then concentrated by filtration. Heat treatment was used to eliminate other microorganisms from the samples, which were then spread on Legionella-selective-buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE-α) agar and on BCYE-α agar supplemented with glycine, vancomycin, polymyxin, and cycloheximide. Cysteine-dependent colonies were identified by latex agglutination. In total, 135 samples from 52 hotels with Turkish baths were evaluated. Legionella species were identified in 11/52 (21.2%) hotels and 18/135 (13.3%) samples. The most frequently isolated species was Legionella pneumophila, with most isolates belonging to serogroups 6 (55.6%) and 1 (22.2%). The colony count was <100 colony-forming units (CFU) mL(-1) in nine samples, from 100 to 1000 CFU mL(-1) in six samples, and >1000 CFU mL(-1) in three samples. These findings suggest that the hot water systems of Turkish baths in hotels must be viewed as a possible source of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease, and preventative measures should be put in place.

  13. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain

    PubMed Central

    Chekhovich, E.A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M.S.; Tartakovskii, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear–nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2–4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging. PMID:25704639

  14. Electrodeposition of single gamma phased Zn-Ni alloy coatings from additive-free acidic bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaziof, Soroor; Gao, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Zn-Ni alloy coatings were electrodeposited on mild steel substrate from acidic sulphate bath. The effect of different electrodeposition parameters including temperature, current density, agitation speed and Ni2+/Zn2+ ion ratio on the Zn-Ni coating's physical, chemical and mechanical properties has been studied. Results show that Ni content of coatings has a strong effect on the structure, morphology and microhardness of coatings. Increasing Ni2+/Zn2+ ratio in the bath, higher temperature and higher deposition current density increased the Ni content of coatings. However, higher agitation speed increased the Zn electrodeposition and the anomaly of deposits. The phase structure of the coatings was strongly affected by the Ni content in the coatings. It changed from Zn rich η phase to Ni5Zn21 γ phase. Weak signal of δ-Ni3Zn22 phase was rarely observed for some coatings deposited at different parameters. Single γ phase coatings with optimum properties were electrodeposited at 40 °C and 80 mA/cm2, under 600 rpm agitation speed from the bath with Ni2+/Zn2+ ratio equals 1. Wear resistance of coatings were also improved by Ni doping.

  15. Chromium recovery from exhausted baths generated in plating processes and its reuse in the tanning industry.

    PubMed

    Torras, Josep; Buj, Irene; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan

    2012-03-30

    Chromium plating used for functional purposes provides an extremely hard, wear and corrosion resistant layer by means of electrolytic deposition. Typical layer thicknesses range between 2.5 and 500 μm. Chromium electroplating baths contain high concentrations of Cr(VI) with chromium trioxide (CrO(3)) as the chromium source. When because of technical or economic reasons a bath gets exhausted, a waste containing mainly chromium as dichromate as well as other heavy metals is generated. Chromium may then be purified for use in other industrial processes with different requirements. In this work, a sustainable system for using galvanic wastes as reagents in the leather tanning industry, thus reducing quantity of wastes to be treated, is presented. Metal cations present in the chromium exhausted bath were precipitated with NaOH. Then, the solution containing mainly soluble Cr(VI) was separated. By means of sodium sulphite in acidic conditions, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) as chromium (III) sulphate. From chromium (III) sulphate a basic Cr(III) sulphate may be obtained, which is one of most used compounds in the tanning industry. Cr(III) concentration in the final solution allows its reuse without concentration, but with a slight dilution.

  16. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  17. Thermal equilibrium properties of surface hopping with an implicit Langevin bath

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2015-01-14

    The ability of fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) approach, where the classical degrees of freedom are coupled to an implicit Langevin bath, to establish and maintain an appropriate thermal equilibrium was evaluated in the context of a three site model for electron transfer. The electron transfer model consisted of three coupled diabatic states that each depends harmonically on the collective bath coordinate. This results in three states with increasing energy in the adiabatic representation. The adiabatic populations and distributions of the collective solvent coordinate were monitored during the course of 250 ns FSSH-Langevin (FSSH-L) simulations performed at a broad range of temperatures and for three different nonadiabatic coupling strengths. The agreement between the FSSH-L simulations and numerically exact results for the adiabatic population ratios and solvent coordinate distributions was generally favorable. The FSSH-L method produces a correct Boltzmann distribution of the solvent coordinate on each of the adiabats, but the integrated populations are slightly incorrect because FSSH does not rigorously obey detailed balance. The overall agreement is better at high temperatures and for high nonadiabatic coupling, which agrees with a previously reported analytical and simulation analysis [J. R. Schmidt, P. V. Parandekar, and J. C. Tully, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 044104 (2008)] on a two-level system coupled to a classical bath.

  18. Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified.

  19. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  20. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene; Martinazzo, Rocco

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  1. Sliding bubbles on a hot horizontal wire in a subcooled bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Dubois, Charles; Caps, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    When a wire is heated up to the boiling point in a liquid bath some bubbles will nucleate on the wire surface. Traditional nucleate boiling theory predicts that bubbles generate from active nucleate site, grow up and depart from the heating surface due to buoyancy and inertia. However, an alternative scenario is presented in the literature for a subcooled bath: bubbles slide along the horizontal wire before departing. New experiments were performed by using a constantan wire and different liquids, varying the injected power. Silicone oil, water and even liquid nitrogen were tested in order to vary wetting conditions, liquid viscosities and surface tensions. We explored the influence of the wire diameter and of the subcooled bath temperature. We observed, of course, sliding motion, but also a wide range of behaviors from bubbles clustering to film boiling. We noticed that bubbles could change moving sense, especially when encountering with another bubble. The bubble speed is carefully measured and can reach more than 100 mm/s for a millimetric bubble. We investigated the dependence of the speed on the different parameters and found that this speed is, for a given configuration, quite independent of the injected power. We understand these phenomena in terms of Marangoni effects. This project has been financially supported by ARC SuperCool contract of the University of Liège.

  2. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain.

    PubMed

    Chekhovich, E A; Hopkinson, M; Skolnick, M S; Tartakovskii, A I

    2015-02-23

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging.

  3. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ /ωb<0.26 ), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength (up to ˜10 % ) within the

  4. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ/ω_{b}<0.26), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength

  5. Dynamics of quantum dissipation systems interacting with fermion and boson grand canonical bath ensembles: hierarchical equations of motion approach.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jinshuang; Welack, Sven; Luo, JunYan; Li, Xin-Qi; Cui, Ping; Xu, Rui-Xue; Yan, YiJing

    2007-04-07

    A hierarchical equations of motion formalism for a quantum dissipation system in a grand canonical bath ensemble surrounding is constructed on the basis of the calculus-on-path-integral algorithm, together with the parametrization of arbitrary non-Markovian bath that satisfies fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The influence functionals for both the fermion or boson bath interaction are found to be of the same path integral expression as the canonical bath, assuming they all satisfy the Gaussian statistics. However, the equation of motion formalism is different due to the fluctuation-dissipation theories that are distinct and used explicitly. The implications of the present work to quantum transport through molecular wires and electron transfer in complex molecular systems are discussed.

  6. Quasiclassical trajectory study of collisional energy transfer in toluene systems. I. Argon bath gas: Energy dependence and isotope effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kieran F.

    1994-05-01

    Experimental studies of collisional energy transfer from highly vibrationally excited toluene to various bath gases have recently been reported [Toselli and Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1809 (1992), and references therein]. A quasiclassical trajectory investigation for toluene in argon bath gas at 300 K for initial internal energies E'=41 000, 30 000, and 15 000 cm-1 is reported here. Collisional energy transfer is almost linearly dependent on E'. Predictions of energy transfer quantities are very sensitive to the average well depth of the assumed individual pairwise potentials, but is less sensitive to the detailed shape. Qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained where the overall well depth is physically realistic. Isotope studies using 40Ar and pseudohelium (4Ar) bath gases indicate that energy transfer is independent of the mass of the bath-gas collider, but perdeuteration increases <ΔE2>1/2 by 13% over the undeuterated values.

  7. Surface modification of 2205 duplex stainless steel by low temperature salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Runbo; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Si; Li, Mingxing; Xiong, Ji; Fan, Hongyuan

    2013-04-01

    2205 stainless steel was modified by salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C in this study. The microstructure, surface hardness and erosion-corrosion resistance were systematically evaluated. Salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C can form a nitrocarburized layer, and with the treated time prolong, the thickness of the layer increased. By nitrocarburizing within 8 h, only expanded austenite (S phase) formed. With treated time increased, CrN gradually diffused from the places where there were ferrite grains in the layer before nitrocarburizing. Besides, the depth increased with the nitrocarburized time and the layer grew approximately conforms to the parabolic rate law. Salt bath nitrocarburizing can effectively improve the surface hardness of 2205 DSS. The erosion-corrosion resistance was improved by salt bath nitrocarburizing and the 16 h treated sample had the best erosion-corrosion behavior.

  8. The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1712-3 - Minimum requirements of surface bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-3 Minimum requirements of surface bathing... personal belongings during and between shifts. (ii) Change rooms shall be provided with ample space...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1712-3 - Minimum requirements of surface bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-3 Minimum requirements of surface bathing... personal belongings during and between shifts. (ii) Change rooms shall be provided with ample space...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1712-3 - Minimum requirements of surface bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-3 Minimum requirements of surface bathing... personal belongings during and between shifts. (ii) Change rooms shall be provided with ample space...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1712-3 - Minimum requirements of surface bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-3 Minimum requirements of surface bathing... personal belongings during and between shifts. (ii) Change rooms shall be provided with ample space...

  13. [Effects of hot water bath or sauna on patients with congestive heart failure: acute hemodynamic improvement by thermal vasodilation].

    PubMed

    Tei, C; Horikiri, Y; Park, J C; Jeong, J W; Chang, K S; Tanaka, N; Toyama, Y

    1994-01-01

    The acute hemodynamic effects of thermal vasodilation caused by exposure to hot water bath or sauna in chronic congestive heart failure were investigated in 32 patients (mean age 57 +/- 15 years old) with dilated cardiomyopathy (25 idiopathic and 7 ischemic). The clinical symptoms were New York Heart Association Class II in 2 patients, III in 17 and IV in 13, and the mean ejection fraction was 25 +/- 9% (9-44%). Exposure to hot water bath was for 10 minutes at 41 degrees C in a semi-sitting position, and to sauna for 15 minutes at 60 degrees C in a supine position using a special far infrared ray sauna chamber. Blood pressure, electrocardiogram, two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiograms, expiration gas, and intracardiac pressure tracings were recorded before (control), during, and 30 minutes after hot water bath or sauna. 1. The increase in oxygen consumption was only 0.3 Mets during hot water bath or sauna, and returned to the control level 30 minutes later. 2. The deep temperature in the main pulmonary artery increased by 1.0-1.2 degrees C on average at the end of hot water bath or sauna. 3. Heart rate increased significantly (p < 0.01) by 20-25/min during bathing and still increased 30 min later. 4. Systolic blood pressure did not change significantly during and after hot water bath or sauna, while, diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly during (p < 0.05) and after sauna (p < 0.01), and after hot water bath (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. [Effectiveness of differential application of sodium chloride baths for the treatment of early forms of cerebrovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kholmogorov, N A; Shprakh, V V; Miriutova, N F

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of patients at the early stages of cerebrovascular diseases with the use of sodium chloride baths resulted in the improvement of morphological and functional characteristics of brain vessels. Combination of sodium chloride baths with impulse currents and magnetic fields caused regression of neurologic and neuropsychotic disturbances in 80% of the patients. Beneficial therapeutic effects persisted especially long when the patients received the above treatment during 21-24 days.

  15. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... these drugs are every bit as dangerous as cocaine , meth , and LSD — and could be even more ... to Cope When a Loved One Dies Amphetamines Cocaine GHB Ketamine Methamphetamine (Meth) Rohypnol Contact Us Print ...

  16. FTIR spectroscopic analysis and STM studies of electroluminescent Eu(DBM) 3 bath thin films vacuum deposited onto Au surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbeshko, G.; Fesenko, O.; Fedorovich, R.; Gavrilko, T.; Marchenko, A.; Puchkovska, G.; Viduta, L.; Naumovets, A.; Chubich, D.; Vitukhnovskii, A.; Fichou, D.

    2006-07-01

    Molecular organization and morphology of vacuum deposited (VD) thin films of the europium complex of europium(dibenzoylmethanato) 3(bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM) 3 bath) from metal-organic planar light-emitting nanocomposites consisting of gold island films and VD Eu(DBM) 3 bath film were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). It has been found that thermal evaporation in vacuum does not cause chemical decomposition of Eu(DBM) 3 bath, and that the obtained films are essentially amorphous. Reflection-absorption IR spectra show no predominant orientation of Eu(DBM) 3 bath molecules in the films with respect to the substrate. With the STM method, the morphology and structure of the near-surface layers of Eu(DBM) 3 bath films were characterized, and it was found that they consist of self-assembled molecular dimers closely packed along the Au [110] steps on the Au(111) terrace. With increase of the Eu(DBM) 3 bath film thickness, the ordered structure is lost.

  17. Influence of Ti and La Additions on the Formation of Intermetallic Compounds in the Al-Zn-Si Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Gu, Qin-Fen; Li, Qian; Lu, Hu-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    The effect of Ti and La additions on the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the galvalume (55Al-Zn-1.6Si wt pct) bath was investigated experimentally and further studied with first-principles calculation. The studied baths contain: 1 wt pct Fe, with Ti content ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 wt pct and La content ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 wt pct. Combination of the experimental results with the thermodynamic analysis shows that the solubility of Fe in the alloy bath decreases with an increase of Ti content, which results in the formation of mass dross. Compared with the Ti-containing alloy, La promotes the formation of τ 5 phase (Fe2Al8Si). When both Ti and La are added, Fe4Al13, τ 5, τ 6 (β-Al4.5FeSi), TiAl3, and Ti2Al20La phases were observed. Since these IMCs would consume more Si in the bath, the decrease of Si content with Ti and La additions is more significant than that of the bath without these additions. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of Ti/TiAl3/Ti2La20La core-shell structure in the coating bath is proposed. This study has implications for strategic design of industry hot-dip production with exceptional mechanical properties of Al alloy coating.

  18. Evaluating a microbial water quality prediction model for beach management under the revised EU Bathing Water Directive.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; Corkery, Aisling; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2016-02-01

    The revised Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) requires EU member states to minimise the risk to public health from faecal pollution at bathing waters through improved monitoring and management approaches. While increasingly sophisticated measurement methods (such as microbial source tracking) assist in the management of bathing water resources, the use of deterministic predictive models for this purpose, while having the potential to provide decision making support, remains less common. This study explores an integrated, deterministic catchment-coastal hydro-environmental model as a decision-making tool for beach management which, based on advance predictions of bathing water quality, can inform beach managers on appropriate management actions (to prohibit bathing or advise the public not to bathe) in the event of a poor water quality forecast. The model provides a 'moving window' five-day forecast of Escherichia coli levels at a bathing water compliance point off the Irish coast and the accuracy of bathing water management decisions were investigated for model predictions under two scenarios over the period from the 11th August to the 5th September, 2012. Decisions for Scenario 1 were based on model predictions where rainfall forecasts from a meteorological source (www.yr.no) were used to drive the rainfall-runoff processes in the catchment component of the model, and for Scenario 2, were based on predictions that were improved by incorporating real-time rainfall data from a sensor network within the catchment into the forecasted meteorological input data. The accuracy of the model in the decision-making process was assessed using the contingency table and its metrics. The predictive model gave reasonable outputs to support appropriate decision making for public health protection. Scenario 1 provided real-time predictions that, on 77% of instances during the study period where both predicted and E. coli concentrations were available, would correctly inform a

  19. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced more

  20. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced

  1. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  2. Modeling and Investigation of the Wear Resistance of Salt Bath Nitrided Aisi 4140 via ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Şerafettin; Akdemir, Ahmet; Kahramanli, Humar

    2013-05-01

    Nitriding is usually used to improve the surface properties of steel materials. In this way, the wear resistance of steels is improved. We conducted a series of studies in order to investigate the microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of salt bath nitrided AISI 4140 steel. The present study has two parts. For the first phase, the tribological behavior of the AISI 4140 steel which was nitrided in sulfinuz salt bath (SBN) was compared to the behavior of the same steel which was untreated. After surface characterization using metallography, microhardness and sliding wear tests were performed on a block-on-cylinder machine in which carbonized AISI 52100 steel discs were used as the counter face. For the examined AISI 4140 steel samples with and without surface treatment, the evolution of both the friction coefficient and of the wear behavior were determined under various loads, at different sliding velocities and a total sliding distance of 1000 m. The test results showed that wear resistance increased with the nitriding process, friction coefficient decreased due to the sulfur in salt bath and friction coefficient depended systematically on surface hardness. For the second part of this study, four artificial neural network (ANN) models were designed to predict the weight loss and friction coefficient of the nitrided and unnitrided AISI 4140 steel. Load, velocity and sliding distance were used as input. Back-propagation algorithm was chosen for training the ANN. Statistical measurements of R2, MAE and RMSE were employed to evaluate the success of the systems. The results showed that all the systems produced successful results.

  3. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, C.A.; Sandoval-Paz, M.G.; Cabello, G.; Flores, M.; Fernández, H.; Carrasco, C.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  4. A continued fraction resummation form of bath relaxation effect in the spin-boson model

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Zhihao; Tang, Zhoufei; Wu, Jianlan; Mukamel, Shaul; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-02-28

    In the spin-boson model, a continued fraction form is proposed to systematically resum high-order quantum kinetic expansion (QKE) rate kernels, accounting for the bath relaxation effect beyond the second-order perturbation. In particular, the analytical expression of the sixth-order QKE rate kernel is derived for resummation. With higher-order correction terms systematically extracted from higher-order rate kernels, the resummed quantum kinetic expansion approach in the continued fraction form extends the Pade approximation and can fully recover the exact quantum dynamics as the expansion order increases.

  5. Pb"1"-"xFe"xS nanoparticle films grown from acidic chemical bath [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Rakesh K.; Subbaraju, G. V.; Sharma, Renu; Sehgal, H. K.

    2004-12-01

    Pb 1- xFe xS ( x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75) films were grown from an acidic chemical bath. Nanoparticle films were structurally characterized by XRD and TEM. Optical band gap of films is observed to vary from 1.65 to 1.42 eV with increase in their iron concentration from x=0.25 to 0.75 in the films. Increased optical band gap of the ternary films compared to the estimated bulk value is attributed to quantum confinement in the nanocrystals deposited on solid substrates.

  6. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  7. Water bath synthesis of tin oxide nanostructure coating for a molecular sensor.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yoshitake; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2014-03-01

    Tin oxide nanostructures were fabricated using a water bath technique. The structures were modified with dye-labeled DNAs for a molecular sensor. Sensing mechanism of the sensor was based on a photoelectric conversion effect. Photoluminescence intensities from the tin oxide nanostructures reached to 16 times larger than that from SnO2:F films. High photocurrent of 5.5 x 10(-6) A and high signal-to-noise ratio of 29 were achieved in this system. Photoelectric conversion on a combination of the dye-labeled DNA and the tin oxide was an essence of the sensing system. Surface nanospaces were effectively utilized to increase photoluminescence and photocurrent.

  8. Use of carbon-bearing materials in two-bath furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Omes', N.M.; Pisarenko, V.G.; Porkhun, V.G.; Shalimov, V.D.; Isaenko, V.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Krivorozhstal combine developed a technology for using anthracite in the cold charge on two-bath furnaces in order to conserve pig iron. A feature of this technology is the order of the cold-charging of scrap, anthracite, and lime or limestone. The new technology was compared with conventional techniques to determine its efficiency. The saving in pig iron was 10-11 kg/ton steel. This technology was found to be effective for making ordinary-grade steels. Anthracite characteristics and technology parameters are given.

  9. Synthesis of CuFeS2 thin films from acidic chemical baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonpe, Dipak; Gattu, Ketan; More, Ganesh; Upadhye, Deepak; Mahajan, Sandip; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    The growth of Copper iron sulfide nanocrystalline thin films onto glass substrates has been achieved by chemical bath deposition at acidic values of pH. The deposited thin films were characterized for their optoelectronic properties using Raman, UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Raman analysis confirms the formation of CuFeS2 thin film. The thin film with nanosized crystallites of CuFeS2 showed a bandgap of 0.7eV from UV-vis absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Direct determination of discrete harmonic bath parameters from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Walters, Peter L; Allen, Thomas C; Makri, Nancy

    2017-01-15

    We present a direct procedure for determining the parameters of a discrete harmonic bath modeling the influence of a complex condensed phase environment on the system of interest. The procedure employs an efficient discretization of the spectral density into modes that correspond to equal fractions of the reorganization energy. The new procedure uses directly the classical correlation function (available from molecular dynamics calculations) as input, avoiding numerical computation of the spectral density by means of a discrete Fourier transform. Convergence is obtained using a shorter time length of the correlation function, leading to significant computational savings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Emergence of on-off intermittency in systems nonlinearly coupled to a nonequilibrium bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, J.

    1999-11-01

    Approximate analytic solutions are presented for the dynamics of a classical oscillator nonlinearly coupled to a nonequilibrium bath. It is shown that as a result of the combined effect of the nonlinear coupling, which leads to nonlinear friction and multiplicative noise in the description of the reduced system, and the nonthermal properties of the reservoir, which give a specific self-sustained character to the coarse-grained oscillator, on-off intermittency can occur. Properties of this phenomenon, such as the universality in the length distribution of the laminar phase and the qualitative changes caused by the presence of additive noise, can be traced back to characteristics of the starting microscopic model.

  12. The effect of additives on the Cu 2O crystal morphology in acetate bath by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fang; Guo, Yupeng; Tian, Yumei; Zhang, Jidong; Lv, Xiaotang; Li, Minggang; Zheng, Yunhui; Wang, Zichen

    2008-01-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) thin films were formed on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) covered glass substrates by cathodic deposition of cupric acetate. The influence of additives on crystal morphology of Cu 2O was studied in acetate bath. We found that the simple salts contained Cl - ions in electrolyte could change the crystal morphology. It was shown that the morphology evolved from star like to cube like by increasing the concentration of Cl - ions of the capping agents, which indicated that Cu 2O crystal morphology varied with the Cl - ions concentration.

  13. NiS/ZnS multilayer thinfilm prepared by chemical bath deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvaloshini, J.; Ravi, G.; Shanmugavadivu, Ra.

    2013-06-01

    NiS/ZnS multilayer thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique by successive coatings of nickel, zinc and sulphur. The X-ray diffraction was used to obtain structural characterization for the multilayer thinfilms, the crystalline size of 50 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope techniques were employed to study the internal structure and indentified as of hexagonal structure. An EDAX spectrum confirms the compositional analysis of nickel, zinc and sulphur in nominal composition. The photoluminescence behaviour of NiS/ZnS multilayered system consists in the superposition independent photoluminescence emission in blue shift.

  14. Nitride precipitation in salt-bath nitrided interstitial-free steel

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Oh, Chang-Seok; Lee, Min-Ku; Han, Sang-Won

    2010-10-15

    Nitride precipitation and its effect on microstrain in salt-bath nitrided interstitial-free steel were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. As the cooling rate after nitriding decreased, two nitrides, {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N and {alpha}{sup -}Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}, were identified in diffusion zone. Combined analyses using Rietveld whole-profile fitting and size-strain analysis revealed that the microstrain in the nitrided specimen increased due to nitrogen supersaturation and then decreased after nitride precipitation, whereas the effective particle size continuously decreased. It was found that microstrain is the dominant factor in peak broadening of the nitrided specimen.

  15. Annealing effect on Cu2S thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Pawan; Dhanayat, Swapnali; Gattu, Ketan; Mahajan, Sandeep; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    In present work Cu2S thin film fabricated on glass substrate by simple, cost effective chemical bath deposition method subsequently it annealed at 150°c.These films were studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties using X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer and I-V system. The results show successful synthesis of Cu2S thin films and improvement in crystalline nature of the thin film which resulted in reduced bad gap and resistance of the film. Thus these thinfilms prove to be a promising candidate for solar cell application.

  16. Nucleation, Growth, and Morphological Properties of Electrodeposited Nickel Films from Different Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahari, A.; Azizi, A.; Schmerber, G.; Dinia, A.

    The processes of nickel electrodeposition on Pt/Si(100) substrate from an aqueous sulfate, Watts, and chloride solution have been studied using electrochemical techniques and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was shifted more cathodically and the nickel electrodeposition obeys to inhibition process, caused by adsorbed species in surface substrate. At early stage of the deposition chronoamperometric results were compared with Sharifker and Hills theoretical model. The nucleation was in agreement with progressive mode followed by 3D diffusion growth mechanism. The nucleation is generally slow at low over potentials, in all studied baths. AFM images show distribution nickel clusters, with different sizes.

  17. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  18. Ion beam analysis of copper selenide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.; Zavala, E. P.; Huerta, L.; Rocha, M. F.

    2000-03-01

    Analyses of Rutherford back scattered (RBS) 4He+-particle spectra of copper selenide thin films deposited on glass slides by chemical bath were carried out to determine the changes brought about in the thin film by annealing processes. The atomic density per unit area and composition of the films were obtained from these measurements. This analysis shows that annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400°C leads to the conversion of Cu xSe thin film to Cu 2Se. Results of X-ray diffraction, optical, and electrical characteristics on the films are presented to supplement the RBS results.

  19. Characterization of copper selenide thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    2004-11-01

    A low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films onto glass substrates and deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Good quality thin films of smooth surface of copper selenide thin films were deposited using sodium selenosulfate as a source of selenide ions. The structural and optical behaviour of the films are discussed in the light of the observed data.

  20. Quantum heat transport of a two-qubit system: Interplay between system-bath coherence and qubit-qubit coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akihito Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-08-14

    We consider a system consisting of two interacting qubits that are individually coupled to separate heat baths at different temperatures. The quantum effects in heat transport are investigated in a numerically rigorous manner with a hierarchial equations of motion (HEOM) approach for non-perturbative and non-Markovian system-bath coupling cases under non-equilibrium steady-state conditions. For a weak interqubit interaction, the total system is regarded as two individually thermostatted systems, whereas for a strong interqubit interaction, the two-qubit system is regarded as a single system coupled to two baths. The roles of quantum coherence (or entanglement) between the two qubits (q-q coherence) and between the qubit and bath (q-b coherence) are studied through the heat current calculated for various strengths of the system-bath coupling and interqubit coupling for high and low temperatures. The same current is also studied using the time convolutionless (TCL) Redfield equation and using an expression derived from the Fermi golden rule (FGR). We find that the HEOM results exhibit turnover behavior of the heat current as a function of the system-bath coupling strength for all values of the interqubit coupling strength, while the results obtained with the TCL and FGR approaches do not exhibit such behavior, because they do not possess the capability of treating the q-b and q-q coherences. The maximum current is obtained in the case that the q-q coherence and q-b coherence are balanced in such a manner that coherence of the entire heat transport process is realized. We also find that the heat current does not follow Fourier’s law when the temperature difference is very large, due to the non-perturbative system-bath interactions.