Science.gov

Sample records for methylpropanol 2

  1. Liquid-vapor phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties of 2-methylpropanol- n-alkyl propanoate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntsov, Yu. K.; Goryunov, V. A.; Chuikov, A. M.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The boiling points of solutions of five binary systems are measured via ebulliometry in the pressure range of 2.05-103.3 kPa. Equilibrium vapor phase compositions, the values of the excess Gibbs energies, enthalpies, and entropies of solution of these systems are calculated. Patterns in the changes of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of solutions are established, depending on the compositions and temperatures of the systems. Liquid-vapor equilibria in the systems are described using the equations of Wilson and the NRTL (Non-Random Two-Liquid Model).

  2. Analysis of volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for growth promotion effects on tobacco.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    We extracted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-3 by gas chromatography and identified them by mass spectrometry. All of the identified compounds belonged to C4-C8 hydrocarbons. Volatiles varied in number and quantity by the culture period of the fungus (in days). 2-Methyl-propanol and 3-methyl-butanol formed the main components of the volatile blends for all the culture periods of fungus. Growth-promoting effects of the identified synthetic compounds were analyzed individually and in blends using tobacco plants. We found that the mixture of volatiles extracted from 3-day-old culture showed significant growth promotion in tobacco in vitro. The volatile blend showed better growth promotion at lower than higher concentrations. Our results confirm the potential role of volatile organic compounds in the mechanism of growth enhancement by GS8-3.

  3. Evaluation of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on the profile of volatile compounds and polyphenols in cherry wines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu Yang; Jiang, Wen Guang; Zhao, Yu Ping

    2011-07-15

    Tart cherries of 'Early Richmond', widely grown in Shandong (China), were fermented with six different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (BM4×4, RA17, RC212, D254, D21 and GRE) to elucidate their influence on the production of volatiles and polyphenols. Acetic acid and 3-methylbutanol were found in the highest concentrations among all identified volatiles with all six yeast strains, followed by 2-methylpropanol and ethyl lactate. RA17 and GRE cherry wines were characterised by a higher amount of esters and acids. D254 wine contained a higher concentration of alcohols. With respect to polyphenols, five phenolic acids and four anthocyanins were identified among all tested samples, with chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside being the major compounds. When using principal component analysis to classify the cherry wines according to the volatiles and polyphenols, they were divided into three groups: (1) RA17 and GRE, (2) RC212 and D254 and (3) BM4×4 and D21. PMID:23140699

  4. CIRCE2/DEKGEN2

    2007-09-28

    CIRCE2 is a computer code for modeling the optical performance of three-dimensional dish-type and trough-type solar energy concentrators (possibly made up of several separate reflecting surfaces or "facets" of various curvatures and projected shapes). Statistical methods are used to evaluate the directional distribution of reflected rays from any given point on the conventrator. Given concentrator and receiver geometries, sunshape (angular distribution of incident rays from the sun), and concentrator imperfections such as surface roughness andmore » random deviation in slope, the code predicts the flux spatio-angular distribution and total power incident upon the flat or volumetric receiver. Great freedom exists in the variety of concentrator and receiver configurations that can be modeled. Additionally, provisions for shading, blocking, and receiver aperturing are included. DEKGEN2 is a preprocessor designed to facilitate input of sun models and concentrator geometry and surface imperfections.« less

  5. E=2mc^2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dompreh, Kwadwo

    2008-03-01

    The Albert Einstein mass-energy equation E=mc^2 which is used primarily in the estimation of the amount of energy in fission reaction can be can be modified to give an equation which is used calculate the amount of energy in a fusion reaction. This theory is deduced using the Gedenken experiment used in special relativity and a computer simulation using the Matrix laboratory. The energy harnessed is non -- radioactive and can be used to power our homes, industries and even our automobiles. When the equation is applied to cosmological bodies such as the Suns, Starts and others gives a better understanding of their origin.

  6. E=2mc^2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dompreh, Kwadwo

    2008-04-01

    The Albert Einstein mass-energy equation E=mc^2 which is used primarily in the estimation of the amount of energy in fission reaction can be can be modified to give an equation which is used calculate the amount of energy in a fusion reaction. This theory is deduced using the Gedenken experiment used in special relativity and a computer simulation using the Matrix laboratory. The energy harnessed is non -- radioactive and can be used to power our homes, industries and even our automobiles. When the equation is applied to cosmological bodies such as the Suns, Starts and others gives a better understanding of their origin.

  7. Neurofibromatosis 2

    MedlinePlus

    NF2; Bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis; Central bilateral acoustic NF ... NF2 include: Brain and spinal tumors Hearing-related (acoustic) tumors Skin tumors Tests include: Genetic testing Medical ...

  8. 2p2 Team News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, H.

    2000-06-01

    The 2p2 Team continued towards the implementation at the 2.2-m of the same BOB (Broker for Observation Blocks) observing interface as seen at other ESO telescopes. This requires an interface to be written between the existing BOB software and the non-VLT compatible control software for the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) and 2.2-m. Cristian Urrutia, Tatiana Paz and Eduardo Robledo are heading its development. With this software in place, observers can use the VLT Phase 2 Proposal Preparation System (P2PP) for definition of their exposures, whether they are for Visitor or Service Mode.

  9. Novel Cholesteric Glassy Liquid Crystals Comprising Benzene Functionalized with Hybrid Chiral-Nematic Mesogens

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C; Marshall, K L; Wallace, J U; Ou, J J; Chen, S H

    2010-03-12

    With 4-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl benzoate nematogens chemically bonded to a benzene core via enantiomeric 2-methylpropyl spacers, a new series of cholesteric glassy liquid crystals has been synthesized for an investigation of structure-property relationships. Glass-forming ability, phase-transition temperatures, and stability against crystallization are affected by both the number and the position of substituent groups on the benzene ring with 1,3,5-trisubstituted system possessing the most favorable set of properties, Tg at 73 °C and Tc at 295 °C. With (S)-3-bromo-2-methylpropanol as the chiral precursor, left-handed helical stacking was observed for all the cholesteric GLCs reported herein. Films of the 1,3,5-trisubstituted and meta-disubstituted systems show a selective reflection wavelength, λR, at 413 and 422 nm, respectively, whereas that of the ortho-isomer exhibits a λR at 860 nm. Replacing one of the hybrid chiral-nematic mesogen in the 1,3,5-trisubstituted system by a nematogen loosens the helical pitch to yield a λR at 630 nm, still shorter than that of the ortho-isomer despite the dilution by a nematogen. This observation suggests the importance of regioisomerism to helical twisting. The difference in λR was interpreted in terms of molecular packing involving chiral spacers through computational chemistry. The susceptibility of cholesteric GLCs to photoalignment was tested using the ortho-isomer. The degree of photoalignment improves with an increasing rotational mobility of pendant coumarin monomers to an extent comparable to mechanical alignment on conventional rubbed polyimide films.

  10. zoltan2

    2012-09-11

    Zoltan2 is a refactoring of the open-source Zoltan library that enables Zoltan users to take better advantage of current and emerging high performance computing architectures and software tools. Like Zoltan, Zoltan2 is a toolkit of combinatorial scientific computing algorithms that enable better performance of scientific codes via improved data locality and parallel scalability. Specifically Zoltan2 partitions data, colors graphs, and orders matrices. Zoltan2 is a software library written in template C++; it supports a widermore » range of data types and problem sizes than Zoltan. It will be available as part of Sandia's Trilinos framework of scientific computing packages.« less

  11. zoltan2

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    Zoltan2 is a refactoring of the open-source Zoltan library that enables Zoltan users to take better advantage of current and emerging high performance computing architectures and software tools. Like Zoltan, Zoltan2 is a toolkit of combinatorial scientific computing algorithms that enable better performance of scientific codes via improved data locality and parallel scalability. Specifically Zoltan2 partitions data, colors graphs, and orders matrices. Zoltan2 is a software library written in template C++; it supports a wider range of data types and problem sizes than Zoltan. It will be available as part of Sandia's Trilinos framework of scientific computing packages.

  12. DIY2

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Peterka, Tom

    2015-05-01

    DIY2 is a data parallel out-of-core library, written in C++. It provides facilities for domain decomposition into blocks and abstracts both neighborhood and global communication patterns to the level of blocks. DIY2 supports automatic threading. It also provides a data serialization mechanism, using which it allows for automatic movement of blocks in and out of core.

  13. Robonaut 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    Almost 200 people from 15 countries have visited the International Space Station, but so far it has had only human crew members -- until now. Meet Robonaut 2, the latest generation of the Robonaut ...

  14. 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,2,4 - Trimethylpentane ; CASRN 540 - 84 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  15. ATF2 Proposal Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, B.I.; Logachev, P.; Podgorny, F.; Telnov, V.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.; Kalinin, A.; Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; Braun, H.H.; Schulte, D.; Zimmermann, F.; Appleby, R.; Barlow, R.; Bailey, I.; Jenner, L.; Jones, R.; Kourevlev, G.; Elsen, E.; Vogel, V.; Walker, N.; /DESY /Fermilab /Hiroshima U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Oxford U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Orsay, LAL /Valencia U. /Annecy, LAPP /LBL, Berkeley /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /Chiba, Natl. Inst. Rad. Sci. /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oregon U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /SLAC /Tokyo U.

    2006-02-27

    For achieving the high luminosity required at the International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS), and to maintain the beam collision with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, it has been proposed to implement an ILC-like final focus optics in an extension of the existing extraction beamline of ATF at KEK. The ATF is considered to be the best platform for this exercise, since it provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam in a manner dedicated to the development of ILC. The two major goals for this facility, called ATF2, are: (A) Achievement of a 37 nm beam size, and (B) control of beam position down to 2 nm level. The scientific justification for the ATF2 project and its technical design have been described in Volume 1 of the ATF2 Proposal [1]. We present here Volume 2 of the ATF2 Proposal, in which we present specifics of the construction plans and the group organization to execute the research programs at ATF2. The sections in this report have been authored by relevant ATF2 subgroups within the International ATF Collaboration. The time line of the project is described in Section 2. Section 3 discuss the structure of the international collaboration. Sections 4 and 5 discuss budget considerations, which are presented as well as the design and construction tasks to be shared by the international collaboration at ATF2. Concluding remarks have been contributed by Dr. Ewan Paterson, Chair of the International Collaboration Board of the ATF collaboration.

  16. Prosa2

    1984-02-21

    PROSA2 is an implementation of the probalistic response surface technique developed for use with accident analysis programs to conduct probability studies of hypothetical accidents. PROSA2 determines the distribution of a random variale that is a function of many other random variables when this functionality is not known analytically and can be obtained only through parametric studies with a deterministic computer code. The program first systematically provides input parameter combinations, multivariate quadratic response surfaces are generatedmore » approximating the functionality between the input and output of the deterministic code. Using these response surfaces PROSA2 calculates probability histograms and joint histograms for the output variables. Special features of the code generate or treat sensitivities, statistical moments of the input and output variables regionwise response surfaces, correlated input parameters, and conditional distribution.« less

  17. 2.2-m Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germany, L.

    2002-09-01

    Welcome to the last (very short) installment of 2p2team news from La Silla. This is mostly just a farewell message, as in October we cease to operate as a separate entity and join with the old NTT and 3.6 teams under the new guise of Sci-Ops. Never fear though, the next Messenger will see this section expanded to include all the telescopes and instruments on La Silla.

  18. Meraculous2

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    meraculous2 is a whole genome shotgun assembler for short-reads that is capable of assembling large, polymorphic genomes with modest computational requirements. Meraculous relies on an efficient and conservative traversal of the subgraph of the k-mer (deBruijn) graph of oligonucleotides with unique high quality extensions in the dataset, avoiding an explicit error correction step as used in other short-read assemblers. Additional features include (1) handling of allelic variation using "bubble" structures within the deBruijn graph, (2) gap closing of repetitive and low quality regions using localized assemblies, and (3) an improved scaffolding algorithm that produces more complete assemblies without compromising on scaffolding accuracy

  19. Robonauta 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    Casi 200 personas de 15 países han visitado la Estación Espacial Internacional, pero, hasta ahora, la órbita sólo tuvo humanos como miembros de la tripulación. Robonauta 2, la última generación de ...

  20. 2-Methylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Methylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 48 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  1. 2-Nitropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Nitropropane ; CASRN 79 - 46 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  2. 2-Hexanone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Hexanone ; CASRN 591 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  3. 2-Chlorobutane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Chlorobutane ; CASRN 78 - 86 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  4. 2-Chloroacetophenone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Chloroacetophenone ; CASRN 532 - 27 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  5. 2-Chlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Chlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  6. 2-Methylnaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Methylnaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 57 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  7. 2-Ethoxyethanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Ethoxyethanol ; CASRN 110 - 80 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. 2-Methoxyethanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Methoxyethanol ; CASRN 109 - 86 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  9. Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Sims, M. R.; Pullan, D.; Whitehead, S.; Thatcher, J.; Clemmet, J.; Linguard, S.; Underwood, J.; Richter, L.

    2000-07-01

    Beagle 2 is the British-led lander of the ESA Mars Express mission. The prime objectives of Beagle 2 are to (1) search for criteria relating to past life on Mars, (2) seek trace atmospheric species indicative of extant life, (3) measure the detailed atmospheric composition to establish the geological history of the planet and to document the processes involved in seasonal climatic changes or diurnal cycling, (4) investigate the oxidative state of the Martian surface, rock interiors and beneath boulders, (5) examine the geological nature of the rocks, their chemistry, mineralogy, petrology and age, (6) characterise the geomorphology of the landing site, and (7) appraise the environmental conditions including temperature, pressure, wind speed, UV flux, etc. The entry system comprises a front shield/aeroshell, a back cover/bioshield and release mechanisms. The descent system depends on a mortar, pilot chute, main parachute and main parachute release mechanism. The Lander itself has a clam-like structure and lands cocooned within gas-filled airbags. The outer shell provides energy absorption and thermal insulation within a casing that must spread the impact loads and resists tearing. Many of the Beagle 2 science instruments are integrated with a robotic arm that transports them to deploy them in positions where they can study or obtain samples of the rocks and soil. Sub-surface samples are obtained using a Pluto (PLanetary Undersurface TOol) which has the ability to crawl across, and burrow below the planetary surface. The constraints placed on Beagle 2 by mass restrictions of the Mars Express mission has meant that many innovations are necessary to ensure delivery of a sufficient science payload mass capable of the full range of measurements necessary to achieve the mission objectives. In particular a highly integrated approach to lander sytems and science instruments has been essential. This approach and the necessary technology developments have important

  10. Robonaut 2 (R2) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and uses of the second robot designed to work in space. The presentation reviews the motivation for developing Robonaut, the cooperative commercial relationship with General Motors, the evolution design of Robonaut Robonaut 2 improvements over the first robonaut (R1), Robonaut 2's hand dexterity, finger impedance control, tactile system, finger haptics, arm control, strength, neck movement and head sensors, human interaction, and the controller. Also the plans for use on board the International Space Station are reviewed. The patent for the Phalange Tactile Load Cell is included.

  11. HEAT2

    SciTech Connect

    Charman, C. )

    1993-08-01

    HEAT2 is a finite element program for the transient and steady-state, thermal analysis of two-dimensional solids. Calculates detailed temperature distributions in MHTGR prismatic fuel elements side reflector and core support blocks. Non-linear effects of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions, and heat source generation and material properties are included with user supplied subroutines NPBC, QAREA, SOURCE, and MPROP.

  12. Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The most promising new technology for scientific research is America's Space Transportation System; the space shuttle and its companion facility, Spacelab. Spacelab is a versatile laboratory designed specifically to accommodate scientists and their instruments in low-Earth orbit. In a space laboratory, scientists can perform experiments that are impossible on Earth. They can also use very large instruments aboard the Shuttle, with the added benefit of bringing all their equipment, experiment samples, and data home for analysis. Spacelab 2 is one in a series of missions that gives the world's scientists a chance to do research in a well-equipped laboratory in space.

  13. TRUSTBUILDER2

    2007-05-15

    In trust negotiation, resource providers specify access control policies in terms of the attributes that should be possessed by authorized users, rather than the identities of these users. Users can prove ownership of certain attributes through the use of digital credentials issued by trusted entities. For example, the Department of Motor Vehicles might issue vehicle owners X.509 driver’s licenses that can be used to demonstrate proof of their current age, address, or ability to drive.more » These types of digital credentials may also be protected by user-specified policies controlling their release to remote parties; for example, Alice might only be willing to show her VISA card credential to members of the Better Business Bureau. In this way, a request to access a given resource can result in a bilateral and iterative exchange of policies and credentials that represents a negotiation between the participating parties. To date, research interest in trust negotiation has been primarily theoretical and any implementations have been largely proofs of concept; experimenting with these prototypes is often not a straightforward task. TrustBuilder2 is a flexible framework for supporting research in the area trust negotiation protocols, designed to allow researchers to quickly prototype and experiment with various approaches to trust negotiation. In TrustBuilder2, the primary components of a trust negotiation system are represented using abstract interfaces.« less

  14. 43 CFR 3190.2-2 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Funding. 3190.2-2 Section 3190.2-2 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-2 Funding. (a) States and Tribes shall provide adequate funding... 100 percent for a cooperative agreement. (c) Funding shall be subject to the availability of funds....

  15. 43 CFR 3190.2-2 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Funding. 3190.2-2 Section 3190.2-2 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-2 Funding. (a) States and Tribes shall provide adequate funding... 100 percent for a cooperative agreement. (c) Funding shall be subject to the availability of funds....

  16. 43 CFR 3190.2-2 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Funding. 3190.2-2 Section 3190.2-2 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-2 Funding. (a) States and Tribes shall provide adequate funding... 100 percent for a cooperative agreement. (c) Funding shall be subject to the availability of funds....

  17. 43 CFR 3190.2-2 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Funding. 3190.2-2 Section 3190.2-2 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-2 Funding. (a) States and Tribes shall provide adequate funding... 100 percent for a cooperative agreement. (c) Funding shall be subject to the availability of funds....

  18. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code....

  19. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  20. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  1. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  2. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  3. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  4. A Simple Pythagorean Interpretation of E2 = p2 c2 + (mc2)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, J. A.; Guillen, C. I.; Vargas, E. L.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    We are considering the relationship between the relativistic energy, the momentum, and the rest energy, E2 =p2c2 + (mc2)2 , and using geometrical means to analyze each individual portion in a spatial setting. The aforementioned equation suggests that pc and mc2 could be thought of as the two axis of a plane. According to de Broglie's hypothesis λ = h / p therefore suggesting that the pc-axis is connected to the wave properties of a moving object, and subsequently, the mc2-axis is connected to the particle properties such as its moment of inertia. Consequently, these two axes could represent the particle (matter) and wave properties of the moving object. An overview of possible models and meaningful interpretations, which agree with Dirac's prediction of the electron's magnetic moment, will be presented. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate in Angwin, California, for their financial support.

  5. A Simple Pythagorean Interpretation of E2 = p2c2 + (mc2)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, J. A.; Vargas, E. L.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.

    2015-03-01

    We are considering the relationship between the relativistic energy, the momentum, and the rest energy, E2 =p2c2 + (mc2)2 , and using geometrical means to analyze each individual portion in a spatial setting. The aforementioned equation suggests that pc and mc2 could be thought of as the two axis of a plane. According to de Broglie's hypothesis λ = h / p therefore suggesting that the pc-axis is connected to the wave properties of a moving object, and subsequently, the mc2-axis is connected to the particle properties. Consequently, these two axis could represent the particle and wave properties of the moving object. An overview of possible models and meaningful interpretations will be presented. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate in Angwin, California, for their financial support.

  6. 2+2+2 Dissemination Project Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Diana; And Others

    An overview is provided in this three-part final report of a project designed to disseminate information to assist California high schools, Regional Occupation Programs, and colleges in developing and strengthening 2+2+2 programs. Part I reviews the following project objectives: (1) hire a project coordinator and technical assistant; (2) develop a…

  7. Superconductivity in 2-2-3 system Y2Ba2Cu2O(8+delta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, H. H.; Baldha, G. J.; Jotania, R. B.; Joshi, S. M.; Mohan, H.; Pandya, P. B.; Pandya, H. N.; Kulkarni, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers synthesized a new high T(sub c) 2-2-3 superconductor Y2Ba2Cu3O(8+delta) by a special preparation technique and characterized it by ac-susceptibility measurements. Diamagnetism and Meissner effect sets in at low fields and superconducting transition onsets at 90 K. The systematic investigation of the real and imaginary components of ac-susceptibility as a function of temperature and applied ac magnetic field reveals that the magnetic behavior is that of a granular type superconductor.

  8. rac-(Z)-2-(2-Thienylmethylene)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-ol.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Venkatraj, M; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2007-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the racemic form of the title compound, C(12)H(15)NOS, contains four crystallographically independent molecules. The olefinic bond connecting the 2-thienyl and 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-ol moieties has Z geometry. Strong hydrogen bonding occurs in a directed co-operative O-H...O-H...O-H...O-H R(4)(4)(8) pattern that influences the conformation of the molecules. Co-operative C-H...pi interactions between thienyl rings are also present. The average dihedral angle between adjacent thienyl rings is 87.09 (4) degrees.

  9. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  10. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  11. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  12. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  13. 43 CFR 3105.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.2-2 Section 3105.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  14. 43 CFR 3105.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.2-2 Section 3105.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  15. 43 CFR 3105.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.2-2 Section 3105.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  16. 22 CFR 2.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 2.2 Section 2.2 Foreign Relations.... Section 1116(b)(2) of title 18 of the United States Code, as added by Pub. L. 92-539, An Act for the.... 1116(b)(2), 1116(c)(4); sec. 4 of the Act of May 26, 1949, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2658))...

  17. 22 CFR 2.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 2.2 Section 2.2 Foreign Relations.... Section 1116(b)(2) of title 18 of the United States Code, as added by Pub. L. 92-539, An Act for the.... 1116(b)(2), 1116(c)(4); sec. 4 of the Act of May 26, 1949, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2658))...

  18. H2O2: A Dynamic Neuromodulator

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intra- and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H2O2 can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H2O2 activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H2O2 generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via KATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H2O2 is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H2O2 provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via KATP channels. Additional targets of H2O2 include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 acting via KATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H2O2 as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and other basal ganglia neurons. PMID:21666063

  19. H2O2: a dynamic neuromodulator.

    PubMed

    Rice, Margaret E

    2011-08-01

    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an intracellular and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H(2)O(2) can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H(2)O(2) activates ATP-sensitive K(+) (K-ATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H(2)O(2) generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via K-ATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H(2)O(2) is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H(2)O(2) provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via K-ATP channels. Additional targets of H(2)O(2) include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) acting via K-ATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H(2)O(2) as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and basal ganglia neurons.

  20. Vibrational analyses of vinylsulfonamide CH2CHSO2NH2.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Hassan M

    2005-05-01

    The structure and conformational stability of vinylsulfonamide CH2CHSO2NH2 were investigated by DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G** and ab initio MP2/6-311+G** calculations. From the calculations the molecule was predicted to exist predominantly in the gauche-syn (vinyl group nearly eclipses one of the SO bonds and the NH2 and the SO2 moieties eclipse each other) conformation with the possibility of low abundance of the cis-syn and the gauche-anti forms. The asymmetric potential function for the internal rotation about CS bond was determined for the molecule. The vibrational frequencies were computed at DFT-B3LYP level for the gauche-syn conformer of the molecule and its d2(C2H3SO2ND2) and d3(C2D3SO2NH2) deuterated species. Normal coordinate calculations were then carried out and the potential energy distributions were calculated for the molecule. PMID:15820877

  1. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and...

  2. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and...

  3. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and...

  4. Novel thioarsenates {[Mn(2,2'-bipy)2(SCN)][Mn(2,2'-bipy)](As(V)S4)}2 and {[Mn(2,2'-bipy)2(SCN)]2[As(III)2(S2)2S2]}: introducing an anionic second ligand to modify MnII complex cations of 2,2'-bipyridine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Ning; Guo, Guo-Cong; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Shun

    2014-03-14

    Two novel manganese thioarsenates, {[Mn(2,2'-bipy)2(SCN)][Mn(2,2'-bipy)](As(V)S4)}2 (1, 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and {[Mn(2,2'-bipy)2(SCN)]2[As(III)2(S2)2S2]} (2), containing thiocyanate-modified Mn-2,2'-bipy complex cations were synthesized. They feature two terminal [Mn(2,2'-bipy)2(SCN)](+) complex cations bridged by a polyanion {[Mn(2,2'-bipy)]2(As(V)S4)2}(2-) for 1 and a cyclic thioarsenate anion (As(III)2S6)(2-) for 2. In 2, the [As(III)2(S2)2S2](2-) anion can be described as two (As(III)S3)(3-) trigonal-pyramids interlinked through S-S bonds. The method to obtain new metal complex cations shown here, introducing an anionic second ligand to modify the number of coordination sites and the charges of the metal complex cations simultaneously, is different from the traditional methods, varying either the TM center or the organic ligand or employing mixed neutral organic ligands, and may open up a new route for preparing novel chalcogenidometalates. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit wide optical gaps of 2.20 and 2.67 eV, respectively, and photoluminescence with the emission maxima occurring around 440 nm. Magnetic measurements show the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions between Mn(II) centers in the two compounds.

  5. 2,2'-dipyridyl induces pexophagy.

    PubMed

    Jin, AiLin; Lee, Joon No; Kim, Min Soo; Kwak, SeongAe; Kim, Se-Jin; Song, Kyung; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2016-01-22

    Pexophagy is the selective degradation of peroxisomes for maintaining peroxisome homeostasis within cells. Peroxisome dynamics and pexophagy are important events required to maintain the quality control of peroxisomes, thereby preventing peroxisome-associated diseases. To identify novel pexophagy modulators, we developed a cell-based screening system and selected 2,2'-dipyridyl (2,2-DP) as a candidate molecule. 2,2-DP treatment induced peroxisome degradation as evidenced by an increased number of low-pH autolysosomes originating from peroxisomes and a decrease in the expression of peroxisomal proteins such as catalase, Pex14, and PMP70. The phenotype was defined as pexophagy, because 2,2-DP induced autophagy and inhibition of autophagy significantly reduced the degree of peroxisome degradation. Mechanistically, 2,2-DP-dependent pexophagy seemed to be mediated by iron chelation, since another iron chelator displayed a similar effect on pexophagy, but a copper chelator did not. Notably, iron replenishment prevented 2,2-DP-mediated pexophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that 2,2-DP treatment disrupts peroxisome dynamics and promotes pexophagy through iron depletion.

  6. Magnetic Anisotropy in UMn2Ge2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Morgann; de Lozanne, Alex; Baumbach, Ryan; Kim, Jeehoon; Bauer, Eric; Thompson, Joe; Ronning, Filip

    2015-03-01

    UMn2Ge2, a permanent magnet, is a ternary intermetallic compound with a tetragonal crystal structure of type ThCr2Si2 and with space group I4/mmm. Local U and Mn moments in UMn2Ge2 order on their respective sublattices at temperatures near 100 and 380 K, respectively. Previous x-ray diffraction, Kerr rotation angle, and SQUID magnetometry data support the commonly accepted notion that U moments order at low temperature and align Mn moments along the c-axis, introducing anisotropy. Previous results obtained using a multi-mode atomic force microscope in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) mode indeed confirmed that UMn2Ge2 displays uniaxial anisotropy with an easy axis coinciding with the c-axis of the material. However, the branching domains in UMn2Ge2 consistent with uniaxial anisotropy were observed all the way up to room temperature by MFM. This indicates that the effect of uranium moments on the magnetic microstructure of UMn2Ge2 is not limited to low temperatures near the ordering temperature of the uranium sublattice. We further investigate closure domains in the surface of UMn2Ge2 and report on characteristics and signatures of anisotropy revealed by the orientation and periodic structures of closure domains. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0810119.

  7. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-02-06

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  8. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-30

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N) News:  TES News ... L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.2 x 8.5 km nadir ... Subset Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data ...

  9. ITOUGH2 user`s guide version 2.2

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1993-08-01

    ITOUGH2 is a program to estimate hydrogeologic model parameters for the numerical simulator TOUGH2. TOUGH2 was developed by Karsten Pruess at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for simulating non-isothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. ITOUGH2 solves the inverse problem by automatic model calibration based on an indirect approach, in which some function of the difference between observed and model-predicted system response and appropriately weighted prior information about the parameters is minimized using standard optimization techniques. ITOUGH2 also provides a detailed error analysis of the estimated parameter set, and employs some procedures to study error propagation for prediction runs. This report includes a review of the inverse modeling theory, and a detailed description of the program architecture, input language, and the various user features provided by ITOUGH2. A sample problem is given to illustrate code application.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and...

  11. Status of the T2L2/Jason2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exertier, Pierre; Samain, Etienne; Bonnefond, Pascal; Guillemot, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) project, developed by CNES and OCA will permit the synchronization of remote ultra stable clocks and the determination of their performances over intercontinental distances. The principle of the experiment derives from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology with dedicated space equipment. T2L2 was accepted in 2005 to be on board the Jason2 altimetry satellite. The payload consists of both event timer and photo detection modules. The system uses the ultra-stable quartz oscillator of DORIS as on-board reference clock on one hand, and the Laser Reflector Array, making T2L2 a real two-way time transfer system on the other hand. The expected time stability of the T2L2 instrument (detection and timing), referenced by the DORIS oscillator and including all internal error sources should be at the level of 10-12 ps at 1 s and <1 ps at 1000 s. The metrological specifications of T2L2 should permit to maintain a precision of 1 to a few ps when measuring the phase of a clock during around 1000 seconds. First analysis of T2L2 data permitted to validate some important characteristics of the experiment such as the sensitivity of the instrument to laser pulse amplitude (from single to multi-photon detection mode), data noises (of different sources, SLR and T2L2), and first error budget and time stability of ground to space time transfers. The paper describes the space experiment and highlights the different steps of the data processing after a first year of operations (between July 2008 and June 2009). We show the time stability which can be reached when a laser station is equipped with an Hydrogen Maser or a Cesium clock as a time reference; thus, the first estimations give 7 ps over 30 s. We conclude by presenting the campaigns of ground to ground time transfers already planned between the Paris Observatory and different places in Europe.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  14. ex1ex2v2 Version 2.10

    SciTech Connect

    SJAARDEMA, GREGORY; SMITH, MARILYN; YARBERRY, VICTOR

    2007-09-12

    ex1ex2v2 is a translator program which will convert a database in exodus1 format to exodusII format. The exodus 1 format is a defined series of Fortran unformatted writes/reads; the exodusII format is defined by the ExodusII API.

  15. Antiferromagnetism of UO22H2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T.; Senftle, F.E.; Cuttitta, F.

    1963-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on UO2⋅xH2O for x=1.78 to x=2.13, and from 77° to 375°K. As the value of x decreased the susceptibility increased. Both these data and structural arguments imply that the formula of this compound is U(OH)4 rather than the dihydrate form. Based on this concept the data have been corrected for diamagnetism and also small amounts of UO2 and H2O which were present. The molar susceptibility of U4+ in U(OH)4 is nearly an order of magnitude less than in other uranium compounds, and it is suggested that this is probably due to superexchange between adjacent uranium atoms through intervening oxygen atoms.

  16. RASCAL Version 2.1 workbook. Volume 2, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G.F.; Sjoreen, A.L.; McKenna, T.J.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) was developed for use by the NRC personnel who respond to radiological emergencies. This workbook complements the RASCAL 2.1 User`s guide (NUREG/CR-5247, Vol. 1, Rev. 2). The workbook contains exercises designed to familiarize the user with the computer-based tools of RASCAL through hands-on problem solving. The workbook contains four major sections. The first is a RASCAL familiarization exercise to acquaint the user with the operation of the forms, menus, online help, and documentation. The latter three sections contain exercises in using the three tools of RASCAL Version 2.1: DECAY, FM-DOSE, and ST-DOSE. A discussion section describing how the tools could be used to solve the problems follows each set of exercises.

  17. ECO2N V2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Lehua; Spycher, Nicolas; Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    ECO2N V2.0 is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.1) that was designed for applications to geologic sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers and enhanced geothermal reservoirs. ECO2N V2.0 is an enhanced version of the previous ECO2N V1.0 module (Pruess, 2005). It expands the temperature range up to about 300oC whereas V1.0 can only be used for temperatures below about 110oC. V2.0 includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of H2O - NaCl - CO2 mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for the temperature, pressure and salinity conditions 10 °C < T < 300 °C, P < 600 bar, and salinity up to halite saturation. This includes density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition, as well as partitioning of mass components H2O, NaCl and CO2 among the different phases. In particular, V2.0 accounts for the effects of water on the thermophysical properties of the CO2-rich phase, which was ignored in V1.0, using a model consistent with the solubility models developed by Spycher and Pruess (2005, 2010). In terms of solubility models, V2.0 uses the same model for partitioning of mass components among the different phases (Spycher and Pruess, 2005) as V1.0 for the low temperature range (<99oC) but uses a new model (Spycher and Pruess, 2010) for the high temperature range (>109oC). In the transition range (99-109oC), a smooth interpolation is applied to estimate the partitioning as a function of the temperature. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO2-rich) phase, as well as two-phase (brine-CO2) mixtures. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. Note that the model cannot be applied to subcritical conditions that involves both liquid and gaseous CO2 unless

  18. [Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2)].

    PubMed

    Vialettes, Bernard; Dubois-Leonardon, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2) are the most frequent disorders associating several organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Their high prevalence is due to the fact that the main manifestations of APS-2, such as thyroidal autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune gastric atrophy and vitiligo, are common diseases. APS-2 represents a clinical model that can serve to help unravel the mechanisms underlying autoimmunity. Diagnosis of APS-2 is a challenge for the clinician, especially in poorly symptomatic forms, and may require systematic screening based on measurement of autoantibodies and functional markers.

  19. ECO2N V2.0

    2015-02-01

    ECO2N V2.0 is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.1) that was designed for applications to geologic sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers and enhanced geothermal reservoirs. ECO2N V2.0 is an enhanced version of the previous ECO2N V1.0 module (Pruess, 2005). It expands the temperature range up to about 300oC whereas V1.0 can only be used for temperatures below about 110oC. V2.0 includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamic and thermophysical propertiesmore » of H2O - NaCl - CO2 mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for the temperature, pressure and salinity conditions 10 °C < T < 300 °C, P < 600 bar, and salinity up to halite saturation. This includes density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition, as well as partitioning of mass components H2O, NaCl and CO2 among the different phases. In particular, V2.0 accounts for the effects of water on the thermophysical properties of the CO2-rich phase, which was ignored in V1.0, using a model consistent with the solubility models developed by Spycher and Pruess (2005, 2010). In terms of solubility models, V2.0 uses the same model for partitioning of mass components among the different phases (Spycher and Pruess, 2005) as V1.0 for the low temperature range (<99oC) but uses a new model (Spycher and Pruess, 2010) for the high temperature range (>109oC). In the transition range (99-109oC), a smooth interpolation is applied to estimate the partitioning as a function of the temperature. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO2-rich) phase, as well as two-phase (brine-CO2) mixtures. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. Note that the model cannot be applied to subcritical conditions that involves both liquid and gaseous CO2

  20. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. 721.10001 Section 721.10001 Protection of...-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. (a) Chemical substances and significant...-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and...

  1. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-30

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS) News:  TES News ... L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... Subset Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data ...

  2. Does lambda sub 2,2 vary?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt has been made to find a secular drift in lambda sub 2,2, or the phase of the low order and degree portion of the geogravity field. This portion may be associated with mass anomalies near the core-mantle boundary. From the geomagnetic evidence, such anomalies might have westward drifts on the order of 0.5 degrees/year. Tracking data on 8 synchronous satellite over a period of 6 years were examined for residual accelerations which might be explained by a drift of the lambda sub 2,2 gravity phase angle. No conclusive movement of lambda sub 2,2 was detected. But a measured upper bound on the drift of less than 0.05 degrees/year is still compatible with possible slow moving irregularities in the region of the core-mantle boundary.

  3. Telecom 2-A (TC2A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Latour, J.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-A (TC2A) are summarized. The Telecom 2-A will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  4. The JARID2-PRC2 duality.

    PubMed

    Herz, Hans-Martin; Shilatifard, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Polycomb group proteins (PcG) are required for proper developmental regulation and cell fate commitment in metazoans. Recently, four studies reported the identification of JARID2, a JmjC domain-containing protein, as a component of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which is involved in implementing histone H3 Lys 27 methylation and transcriptional repression during development. Here, we discuss the implications of these studies for an improved understanding of PcG function in development.

  5. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-30

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  6. K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction) models instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. It enables the user to remove both position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability (e.g., for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution timescale of the variability for periodic variables and can be run on ASCII and FITS light curve files. Written in Python, this pipeline requires NumPy, SciPy, MPI4Py, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and George (ascl:1511.015).

  7. Electronic states of BP, BP +, BP -, B 2P 2, B2P2- and B2P2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Oswald, Rainer; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander; Rosmus, Pavel

    2008-05-01

    Using augmented sextuple zeta basis sets and internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions, potential energy, electric dipole and transition moments have been computed for the X 3Π, a 1Σ +, b 1Π and A 3Σ - states of BP, X 2Σ + and A 2Π states of BP - and X 4Σ - and A 4Π states of BP +. From these data spectroscopic constants, radiative transition probabilities and photoelectron spectra of BP - and BP have been evaluated. The non-vanishing spin-orbit coupling elements between the four low lying triplet and singlet states of the neutral BP have also been calculated from MRCI wavefunctions. The treatment of the corresponding perturbations in the manifold of dense rovibrational states in the three lowest states would require a precise knowledge of the electronic excitation energies. Our best singlet-triplet separations (X-a) are calculated to be 2412 cm -1 (MRCI) and 2482 cm -1 (restricted coupled cluster with perturbative triples (RCCSD(T))) with an estimated error bound of about ±200 cm -1. All three states have long radiative lifetimes with cascading among the rovibrational levels of different states. The ionization energy IE e of BP is calculated to be 9.22 eV (MRCI) and 9.48 eV (RCCSD(T)), the electron affinity EA e 2.51 eV (MRCI) and 2.74 eV (RCCSD(T)). The photoelectron spectra of BP and BP - have been obtained from the Franck-Condon factors of the MRCI potentials. For the UV spectroscopy the dipole allowed radiative transition probabilities are given for A 3Σ - ↔ X 3Π, b 1Π ↔ a 1Σ + of BP, A 2Π ↔ X 2Σ + of BP - and A 4Π ↔ X 4Σ - of BP +. The ionization energy IE e of B 2P 2 of 8.71 eV and the electron affinity EA e of 2.34 eV have been calculated by the RCCSD(T)/aVQZ approach. Also the harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the electronic ground states of the ions B2P2+ and B2P2- are given.

  8. TOUGH2 User's Guide Version 2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Moridis, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulator for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one, two, and three-dimensional porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, environmental assessment and remediation, and unsaturated and saturated zone hydrology. TOUGH2 was first released to the public in 1991; the 1991 code was updated in 1994 when a set of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers was added to allow a more efficient solution of large problems. The current Version 2.0 features several new fluid property modules and offers enhanced process modeling capabilities, such as coupled reservoir-wellbore flow, precipitation and dissolution effects, and multiphase diffusion. Numerous improvements in previously released modules have been made and new user features have been added, such as enhanced linear equation solvers, and writing of graphics files. The T2VOC module for three-phase flows of water, air and a volatile organic chemical (VOC), and the T2DM module for hydrodynamic dispersion in 2-D flow systems have been integrated into the overall structure of the code and are included in the Version 2.0 package. Data inputs are upwardly compatible with the previous version. Coding changes were generally kept to a minimum, and were only made as needed to achieve the additional functionalities desired. TOUGH2 is written in standard FORTRAN77 and can be run on any platform, such as workstations, PCs, Macintosh, mainframe and supercomputers, for which appropriate FORTRAN compilers are available. This report is a self-contained guide to application of TOUGH2 to subsurface flow problems. It gives a technical description of the TOUGH2 code, including a discussion of the physical processes modeled, and the mathematical and numerical methods used. Illustrative sample problems are presented along with detailed instructions for preparing input data.

  9. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  10. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 34 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  11. 2,4-/2,6-Dinitrotoluene mixture

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - / 2,6 - Dinitrotoluene mixture ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  12. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulard, P.; Tremblay, B.

    2015-12-01

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  13. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.2 Definitions. (a) Bank means a national banking association. (b) Credit life insurance means credit life, health, and accident insurance, sometimes referred to as credit life and disability insurance, and mortgage life...

  14. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B

    2015-12-14

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed. PMID:26671379

  15. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B

    2015-12-14

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  16. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations... are not within the licensing authority of the Commission, and directed that future applications...

  17. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations... are not within the licensing authority of the Commission, and directed that future applications...

  18. Spectroscopic properties of gallium arsenide tetramers: Ga2As2, Ga2As2+ and Ga2As2-.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei

    2005-09-01

    Spectroscopic properties of the low-lying electronic states of Ga2As2 and its ions are studied using the complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and density function theory (DFT) followed by the coupled-cluster single and double substitutions (including triple excitations) (CCSD(T)) calculations. The stability of low-lying electronic states is examined by computing vibrational frequency. The energies of the ground states and a number of excited electronic states have been computed to predict the spectra of Ga2As2 and its ions. The ionization energy, electronic affinity, and atomization energy are estimated at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d) level and compared with the available experimental results.

  19. H2O2: a Ca(2+) or Mg(2+)-sensing function in statin passive diffusion.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Yves Claude; Lethier, Lydie; André, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In a previous paper Guillaume's group demonstrated that magnesium (Mg(2+) concentration range 0.00-2.60 mm) increased the passive diffusion of statins and thus played a role in their potential toxicity. In order to confirm an increase in this passive diffusion by divalent salt cations, the role of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the statin-immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) association was studied. It was demonstrated that calcium supplementation (Ca(2+) concentration range 0.00-3.25 mm) increases the statin passive diffusion. In addition, it was shown that the Ca(2+) effect on the statin-IAM association is higher than that of Mg(2+). These results show that Ca(2+) enhances the passive diffusion of drugs into biological membranes and thus their potential toxicity. Also, addition of H2O2 to the medium showed a hyperbolic response for the statin passive diffusion and this effect was enhanced for the highest Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) concentrations in the medium. H2O2 is likely to interact with the polar head groups of the IAM through dipole-dipole interactions. The conformational changes in H2O2-IAM result in a higher degree of exposure of hydrophobic areas, thus explaining why the binding of pravastatin, which showed the lowest logP value, was less affected by H2O2. This result shows the significant contribution of H2O2 and thus the oxidative stress on the statin passive diffusion. Much of the sensitivity derives from the action of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+), in turn supported the idea that H2O2 may serve a Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) sensing function in statin passive diffusion.

  20. Calcium-catalyzed formal [2+2+2] cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Vera J; Ascheberg, Christoph; Niggemann, Meike

    2015-04-20

    A formal intermolecular [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction of enynes to aldehydes is presented, which can be realized in the presence of a simple and benign calcium catalyst. The reaction proceeds with excellent chemo, regio- and diastereoselectivity and leads to a one-step assembly of highly interesting bicyclic building blocks containing up to three stereocenters from simple precursors via a new type of skeletal rearrangement of enynes. The observed diastereoselectivity is accounted for by two different mechanistic proposals. The first one engages mechanistic prospects arising from a gold catalyzed reaction in the absence of the stabilizing gold substituent. The second proposal involves an unprecedented cyclization-carbonyl allene ene reaction-hydroalkoxylation cascade.

  1. NASA Now: Robonaut 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 is a machine that will help humans work and explore in space. R2 will work side by side with humans or go where the risks are too great for astronauts. R2 will expand construction capabi...

  2. H2 blockers

    MedlinePlus

    Peptic ulcer disease - H2 blockers; PUD - H2 blockers; Gastroesophageal reflux - H2 blockers ... used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a condition where food ...

  3. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Lite Nadir (TL2CO2LN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-24

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Lite Nadir (TL2CO2LN) News:  TES News ... L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir Spatial ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data ...

  4. Electronic structure of U2PtC2 and U2RhC2

    DOE PAGES

    Ronning, F.; Zhu, J. -X.

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we present density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation of U2RhC2 and U2PtC2. We find the calculated density of states are significantly less than that measured by specific heat indicating the need for electronic correlations. The mass enhancement found for U2PtC2 is m*/mband ≈ 4.

  5. Polymerizable 2(2-hydroxynaphthyl)2H-benzotriazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Gomez, Peter M.; Neidlinger, Hermann H.

    1991-01-01

    Benzotriazole compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is H, Cl, or OCH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is a hydroxynaphthyl group; and R.sub.3 is a vinyl unsaturated polymerizable group. Homopolymers or copolymers thereof are effective as UV light stabilizers and absorbers.

  6. Polymerizable 2(2-hydroxynaphthyl)2H-benzotriazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Gomez, P.M.; Neidlinger, H.H.

    1991-07-16

    Benzotriazole compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is H, Cl, or OCH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is a hydroxynaphthyl group; and R.sub.3 is a vinyl unsaturated polymerizable group. Homopolymers or copolymers thereof are effective as UV light stabilizers and absorbers.

  7. Peculiarity of aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol.

    PubMed

    Burakowski, Andrzej; Gliński, Jacek; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogusława; Kwoka, Paulina; Baranowski, Andrzej; Jerie, Kazimierz; Pfeiffer, Helge; Chatziathanasiou, Nikos

    2012-01-12

    Aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol appear to show a structural transition at alcohol mole fraction equal to x(TFE) = 0.05, which can be concluded from a discontinuity of the speed of sound. At the same concentration, a discontinuity was observed in the parameters of the long-living component of the positron annihilation spectrum. Moreover, the partial molar volumes of components show transition-like behavior in the range of low solute contents, which is significantly different from nonsubstituted ethanol. The peculiarities of the low concentration system correlate with minor infrared spectra changes assigned to a mode composed of the CH(2) bending and CF(3) stretching internal vibrations being sensitive to polarity of the hydration shell surrounding the solute. The majority of the spectral changes arise from a gradual shift of the equilibrium between trans ↔ gauche isomers when the composition of the solution is changing. A possible explanation for the peculiar behavior of the system is a thermodynamic equilibrium between hydrated monomers and dimers at that respective mole number. PMID:22142252

  8. Sc(2)MgGa(2) and Y(2)MgGa(2).

    PubMed

    Sahlberg, Martin; Andersson, Yvonne

    2009-03-01

    Scandium magnesium gallide, Sc(2)MgGa(2), and yttrium magnesium gallide, Y(2)MgGa(2), were synthesized from the corresponding elements by heating under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in the tetragonal Mo(2)FeB(2)-type structure. All three crystallographically unique atoms occupy special positions and the site symmetries of (Sc/Y, Ga) and Mg are m2m and 4/m, respectively. The coordinations around Sc/Y, Mg and Ga are pentagonal (Sc/Y), tetragonal (Mg) and triangular (Ga) prisms, with four (Mg) or three (Ga) additional capping atoms leading to the coordination numbers [10], [8+4] and [6+3], respectively. The crystal structure of Sc(2)MgGa(2 )was determined from single-crystal diffraction intensities and the isostructural Y(2)MgGa(2) was identified from powder diffraction data. PMID:19265212

  9. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  10. Sc(2)MgGa(2) and Y(2)MgGa(2).

    PubMed

    Sahlberg, Martin; Andersson, Yvonne

    2009-03-01

    Scandium magnesium gallide, Sc(2)MgGa(2), and yttrium magnesium gallide, Y(2)MgGa(2), were synthesized from the corresponding elements by heating under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in the tetragonal Mo(2)FeB(2)-type structure. All three crystallographically unique atoms occupy special positions and the site symmetries of (Sc/Y, Ga) and Mg are m2m and 4/m, respectively. The coordinations around Sc/Y, Mg and Ga are pentagonal (Sc/Y), tetragonal (Mg) and triangular (Ga) prisms, with four (Mg) or three (Ga) additional capping atoms leading to the coordination numbers [10], [8+4] and [6+3], respectively. The crystal structure of Sc(2)MgGa(2 )was determined from single-crystal diffraction intensities and the isostructural Y(2)MgGa(2) was identified from powder diffraction data.

  11. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) interact to promote triacylglycerol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Youzhi; McFie, Pamela J; Banman, Shanna L; Brandt, Curtis; Stone, Scot J

    2014-10-10

    Acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. DGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but when cells are incubated with fatty acids, DGAT2 interacts with lipid droplets presumably to catalyze localized TG synthesis for lipid droplet expansion. Previous studies have shown that DGAT2 interacts with proteins that synthesize its fatty acyl CoA substrates. In this study, we provide additional evidence that DGAT2 is present in a protein complex. Using a chemical cross-linker, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), we demonstrated that DGAT2 formed a dimer and was also part of a protein complex of ∼ 650 kDa, both in membranes and on lipid droplets. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and an in situ proximity ligation assay, we found that DGAT2 interacted with monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the interaction with MGAT2 was dependent on the two transmembrane domains of DGAT2. No significant interaction of DGAT2 with lipin1, another enzyme that synthesizes diacylglycerol, could be detected. When co-expressed in cells, DGAT2 and MGAT2 co-localized in the ER and on lipid droplets. Co-expression also resulted in increased TG storage compared with expression of DGAT2 or MGAT2 alone. Incubating McArdle rat hepatoma RH7777 cells with 2-monoacylglycerol caused DGAT2 to translocate to lipid droplets. This also led to the formation of large cytosolic lipid droplets, characteristic of DGAT2, but not DGAT1, and indicated that DGAT2 can utilize monoacylglycerol-derived diacylglycerol. These findings suggest that the interaction of DGAT2 and MGAT2 serves to channel lipid substrates efficiently for TG biosynthesis.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. ITOUGH2 software qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.; Fraser, P.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of ITOUGH2. ITOUGH2 is a computer program providing inverse modeling capabilities for TOUGH2. TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media.

  15. Does dinitrogen hydrogenation follow different mechanisms for [(eta5-C5Me4H)2Zr]2(mu2,eta2,eta2-N2) and {[PhP(CH2SiMe2NSiMe2CH2)PPh]Zr}2(mu2,eta2,eta2-N2) complexes? A computational study.

    PubMed

    Bobadova-Parvanova, Petia; Wang, Qingfang; Quinonero-Santiago, David; Morokuma, Keiji; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2006-09-01

    The mechanisms of dinitrogen hydrogenation by two different complexes--[(eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)H)(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)), synthesized by Chirik and co-workers [Nature 2004, 427, 527], and {[P(2)N(2)]Zr}(2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)), where P(2)N(2) = PhP(CH(2)SiMe(2)NSiMe(2)CH(2))(2)PPh, synthesized by Fryzuk and co-workers [Science 1997, 275, 1445]--are compared with density functional theory calculations. The former complex is experimentally known to be capable of adding more than one H(2) molecule to the side-on coordinated N(2) molecule, while the latter does not add more than one H(2). We have shown that the observed difference in the reactivity of these dizirconium complexes is caused by the fact that the former ligand environment is more rigid than the latter. As a result, the addition of the first H(2) molecule leads to two different products: a non-H-bridged intermediate for the Chirik-type complex and a H-bridged intermediate for the Fryzuk-type complex. The non-H-bridged intermediate requires a smaller energy barrier for the second H(2) addition than the H-bridged intermediate. We have also examined the effect of different numbers of methyl substituents in [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(n)H(5)(-)(n))(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)) for n = 0, 4, and 5 (n = 5 is hypothetical) and [(eta(5)-C(5)H(2)-1,2,4-Me(3))(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)) and have shown that all complexes of this type would follow a similar H(2) addition mechanism. We have also performed an extensive analysis on the factors (side-on coordination of N(2) to two Zr centers, availability of the frontier orbitals with appropriate symmetry, and inflexibility of the catalyst ligand environment) that are required for successful hydrogenation of the coordinated dinitrogen.

  16. Electrochemical Synthesis of 2,2-dinitropropanol (2)

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, Tedd E.; Fox, Robert V.

    2008-12-01

    Bench-scale electrochemical synthesis of 2,2-dinitropropanol (DNPOH) was performed to evaluate scale-up potential. The synthesis scheme employs a reversible chemical mediator Fe(CN)6-3/-4 couple to perform oxidative nitration of nitroethane using the anode of the electrochemical cell as the oxidant source. The flow-cell based system operated in a continuous fashion with the intermediate product (1,1-dinitroethanate K-salt) precipitated and removed from reaction, and starting materials (nitroethane and potassium nitrate) added as consumed in the reaction. The intermediate product was condensed with formaldehyde to produce DNPOH. A discussion of the waste reduction over the chemical route is presented.

  17. CO2 laser modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) CO2 laser kinetics modeling; (2) gas lifetimes in pulsed CO2 lasers; (3) frequency chirp and laser pulse spectral analysis; (4) LAWS A' Design Study; and (5) discharge circuit components for LAWS. The appendices include LAWS Memos, computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications, discharge circuit considerations for pulsed CO2 lidars, and presentation made at the Code RC Review.

  18. The reactions of CCl2FO2 with NO and NO2 and the thermal decomposition of CCl2FO2NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonaitis, R.; Heicklen, J.; Glavas, S.

    1979-01-01

    CCl2FO2 radicals are produced in the stratosphere from the oxidation of CCl2F radicals produced from the photodissociation of CCl3F. The reactions of CCl2FO2 with NO and NO2 were studied by steady state photolysis at 1 atm and 286-305 K. The reactions were CCl2FO2 + NO yields CCl2FO + NO2 and CCl2FO2 + NO2 (+M) yields CCl2FO2NO2 (+M) with k3/k4 = 0.58 plus or minus 0.10 over this temperature range.

  19. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  20. Hastatic Order in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Premala

    2013-03-01

    The development of collective long-order via phase transitions occurs by the spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries. Magnetism is a consequence of broken time-reversal symmetry while superfluidity results from broken gauge invariance. The broken symmetry that develops below 17.5 K in the heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 has long eluded such identification. In this talk we show that the recent observation of Ising quasiparticles in URu2Si2 results from a spinor order parameter that breaks double time-reversal symmetry, mixing states of integer and half-integer spin. Such ``hastatic order'' hybridizes conduction electrons with Ising 5f2 states of the uranium atoms to produce Ising quasiparticles; it accounts for the large entropy of condensation and the magnetic anomaly observed in torque magnetometry. Hastatic order also results in a number of predictions for future experiment: a tiny transverse moment in the conduction sea, a collosal Ising anisotropy in the nonlinear susceptbility and a resonant energy-dependent nematicity in the tunneling density of states. Work done in collaboration with Piers Coleman and Rebecca Flint

  1. POL-2: The SCUBA-2 Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, P.; Bissonnette, E.; Simon, A.; Coudé, S.; Ade, P.; Savini, G.; Pisano, G.; Leclerc, M.; Bernier, S.; Landry, J.; Houde, M.; Hezareh, T.; Naylor, D. A.; Gom, B. G.; Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B. C.

    2011-11-01

    The SCUBA-2 polarimeter is expected to be the most sensitive instrument for the detection of polarized radiation in the submillimeter regime. This will be possible by taking advantage of the extra sensitivity, imaging speed and improved image fidelity of the new SCUBA-2 camera which is being commissioned now for use on the James-Clerk-Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). POL-2 construction is now complete and the instrument has been delivered and installed on the telescope. A general update of the instrument and its capabilities are presented. Its optical and mechanical characteristics are summarized and the expected performance is compared to previous polarimetry experiments on the JCMT. Rapid modulation to eliminate atmospheric effects is being implemented.

  2. Redetermination of Hg2I2

    PubMed Central

    Kars, Mohammed; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent; Rebbah, Allaoua; L. Carlos, Otero-Diáz

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of mercurous iodide, Hg2I2, has been determined previously from X-ray powder diffraction data [Havighurst (1926 ▶). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 48, 2113–2125]. The results of the current redetermination based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data provide more precise geometrical data and also anisotropic displacement parameters for the Hg and I atoms, which are both situated on positions with site-symmetry 4mm. The structure consists of linear dimers I—Hg—Hg—I extending along the c axis with an Hg—Hg distance of 2.5903 (13) Å. The overall coordination sphere of the Hg+ atom is a considerably distorted octa­hedron. The crystal specimen under investigation was twinned by non-merohedry with a refined twin domain fraction of 0.853 (14):0.147 (14). PMID:22346788

  3. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  4. Ciencias 2 (Science 2). [Student's Workbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raposo, Lucilia

    Ciencias 2 is the second in a series of elementary science textbooks written for Portuguese-speaking students. The text develops the basic skills that students need to study their surroundings and observe natural facts and phenomena by following scientific methods. The book is composed of 10 chapters and includes 57 lessons. Topics included are…

  5. Unified Modern Mathematics, Course 2, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    Topics included in Part 2 of Course II are: real functions; descriptive statistics; transformations in the plane; length, area, and volume; combinatorics; and mass points. The chapter on real functions includes a discussion of properties of functions, composition of functions, inverses of functions and other topics. The chapter on descriptive…

  6. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disability insurance. (c) Owning an interest includes: (1) Ownership through a spouse or minor child; (2) Ownership through a broker, nominee, or other agent; or (3) Ownership through any corporation, partnership... spouse and minor children of an officer, director, employee, or principal shareholder. (e)...

  7. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disability insurance. (c) Owning an interest includes: (1) Ownership through a spouse or minor child; (2) Ownership through a broker, nominee, or other agent; or (3) Ownership through any corporation, partnership... spouse and minor children of an officer, director, employee, or principal shareholder. (e)...

  8. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disability insurance. (c) Owning an interest includes: (1) Ownership through a spouse or minor child; (2) Ownership through a broker, nominee, or other agent; or (3) Ownership through any corporation, partnership... spouse and minor children of an officer, director, employee, or principal shareholder. (e)...

  9. Modified Aladdin lattice L2V2

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.; Cho, Y.

    1985-04-05

    The N30 lattice discussed in a previous note showed that a nearly matched lattice could be produced by separating four of the present quadrupole from their present power supplies and powering them separately. Although having significantly higher dynamic aperture, less closed orbit distortion and improved natural emittance compared to the present Aladdin lattice, the proximity of the {nu}{sub x} = 5.24 tune was felt to be too close to the 3{nu}{sub x} = 16 (a structure resonance) and the tune should be raised. In order to demonstrate the tunability of this modified lattice, Yang Cho found a new tune ({nu}{sub x} = 6.27, {nu}{sub y} = 6.23), hereafter called L2V2 lattice. This lattice, although not as nicely matched as the N30 lattice, has a 10% lower natural emittance and considerably more dynamic aperture. The L2V2 lattice has not been fully optimized, but is sufficient to demonstrate the advantages of this modified Aladdin lattice.

  10. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra. PMID:25621533

  11. Diagnosis of NF2

    MedlinePlus

    ... information about sound to the brain, and the vestibular nerve, which carries balance information to the brain. ... following clinical features have confirmed (definite) NF2: Bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) or Family history of NF2 (first ...

  12. Movie Trailer: 'Robonaut 2'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 will become the first humanoid robot in space when it arrives at the International Space Station aboard shuttle Discovery on STS-133. This video spotlighting R2 is one in a series of six...

  13. CO2 -Responsive polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaojian; Theato, Patrick

    2013-07-25

    This Review focuses on the recent progress in the area of CO2 -responsive polymers and provides detailed descriptions of these existing examples. CO2 -responsive polymers can be categorized into three types based on their CO2 -responsive groups: amidine, amine, and carboxyl groups. Compared with traditional temperature, pH, or light stimuli-responsive polymers, CO2 -responsive polymers provide the advantage to use CO2 as a "green" trigger as well as to capture CO2 directly from air. In addition, the current challenges of CO2 -responsive polymers are discussed and the different solution methods are compared. Noteworthy, CO2 -responsive polymers are considered to have a prosperous future in various scientific areas.

  14. CO2 blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  15. Specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rubin, B R

    1999-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are currently among the most widely prescribed drugs worldwide. Their therapeutic benefits and their side effects in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, as well as in hemostasis, are of great importance in modern medicine. Within the past decade, new insights into how NSAIDs produce both their therapeutic benefits and their serious side effects have been discovered. It is now known that there are two froms of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme that metabolize arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Drugs that specifically inhibit the COX-2 enzyme were formulated and put into clinical trials during the past 5 years. These drugs are now available to treat patients in the United States. Specific COX-2 inhibitors offer the benefit of being able to treat the pain and inflammation of arthritis with potentially little risk of serious gastrointestinal injury.

  16. Communications satellite no. 2 (CS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Japanese CS-2 satellite is to provide national communications and industrial communications, such as special emergency and remote communications, and to contribute to the development of technology pertaining to communications satellites. Description and operating parameters of the following satellite components are presented: structure, communications system, telemetry/command system, electric power system, attitude and antenna control system, secondary propulsion system, apogee motor, framework, and heat control system.

  17. Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Alvarez, H.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C) are summarized. These Telecom missions will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories as a follow-on to TC2A. Mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  18. BSM Delta Qualification 2, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report, presented in three volumes, provides the results of a two-motor Delta Qualification 2 program conducted in 1993 to certify the following enhancements for incorporation into booster separation motor (BSM) flight hardware: vulcanized-in-place nozzle aft closure insulation; new iso-static ATJ bulk graphite throat insert material; adhesive EA 9394 for bonding the nozzle throat, igniter grain rod/centering insert/igniter case; deletion of the igniter adapter insulator ring; deletion of the igniter adapter/igniter case interface RTV; and deletion of loctite from igniter retainer plate threads. The enhancements above directly resulted from (1) the BSM total quality management (TQM) team initiatives to enhance the BSM producibility, and (2) the necessity to qualify new throat insert and adhesive systems to replace existing materials that will not be available. Testing was completed at both the component and motor levels. Component testing was accomplished to screen candidate materials (e.g., throat materials, adhesive systems) and to optimize processes (e.g., aft closure insulator vulcanization approach) prior to their incorporation into the test motors. Motor tests -- consisting of two motors, randomly selected by USBI's on-site quality personnel from production lot AAY, which were modified to accept the enhancements -- were completed to provide the final qualification of the enhancements for incorporation into flight hardware. Volume 2 details the environmental testing (vibration and shock) conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to which the motors were subjected prior to static tests.

  19. BSM Delta Qualification 2, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-11-01

    This report, presented in three volumes, provides the results of a two-motor Delta Qualification 2 program conducted in 1993 to certify the following enhancements for incorporation into booster separation motor (BSM) flight hardware: vulcanized-in-place nozzle aft closure insulation; new iso-static ATJ bulk graphite throat insert material; adhesive EA 9394 for bonding the nozzle throat, igniter grain rod/centering insert/igniter case; deletion of the igniter adapter insulator ring; deletion of the igniter adapter/igniter case interface RTV; and deletion of loctite from igniter retainer plate threads. The enhancements above directly resulted from (1) the BSM total quality management (TQM) team initiatives to enhance the BSM producibility, and (2) the necessity to qualify new throat insert and adhesive systems to replace existing materials that will not be available. Testing was completed at both the component and motor levels. Component testing was accomplished to screen candidate materials (e.g., throat materials, adhesive systems) and to optimize processes (e.g., aft closure insulator vulcanization approach) prior to their incorporation into the test motors. Motor tests -- consisting of two motors, randomly selected by USBI's on-site quality personnel from production lot AAY, which were modified to accept the enhancements -- were completed to provide the final qualification of the enhancements for incorporation into flight hardware. Volume 2 details the environmental testing (vibration and shock) conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to which the motors were subjected prior to static tests.

  20. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM. PMID:26362302

  1. (0, 2) trialities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei; Putrov, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by the connection between 4-manifolds and 2d = (0, 2) theories, we study the dynamics of a fairly large class of 2d = (0, 2) gauge theories. We see that physics of such theories is very rich, much as the physics of 4d = 1 theories. We discover a new type of duality that is very reminiscent of the 4d Seiberg duality. Surprisingly, the new 2d duality is an operation of order three: it is IR equivalence of three different theories and, as such, is actually a triality. We also consider quiver theories and study their triality webs. Given a quiver graph, we find that supersymmetry is dynamically broken unless the ranks of the gauge groups and flavor groups satisfy stringent inequalities. In fact, for most of the graphs these inequalities have no solutions. This supports the folklore theorem that generic 2d = (0, 2) theories break supersymmetry dynamically.

  2. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-01

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs. PMID:27537619

  3. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  4. P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377721

  5. Deletion (2)(q37)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; Tolworthy, J.A.; Young, R.S.

    1994-06-01

    We report on a 5-month-old girl with widely spaced nipples, redundant nuchal skin, coarctation of the aorta, anal atresia with distal fistula, postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia, and sparse scalp hair. Initial clinical assessment suggested the diagnosis of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Chromosome analysis showed a 46,XX,del(2)(q37) karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes. We compare her findings to those of other reported patients with terminal deletions of 2q. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of Thin Sheet Titanium Alloy Ti 6-2-2-2-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth rates of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 as a function of stress ratio, temperature (24 or 177 C), tensile orientation and environment (laboratory air or ultrahigh vacuum) are presented. Fatigue crack growth rates of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 are also compared with two more widely used titanium alloys (Timetal 21S and Ti 6Al-4V). The fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 in laboratory air is dependent upon stress ratio (R), particularly in the near-threshold and lower-Paris regimes. For low R (less than approximately 0.5), da/dN is influenced by crack closure behavior. At higher R (> 0.5), a maximum stress-intensity factor (K(sub max)) dependence is observed. Fatigue crack growth behavior is affected by test temperature between 24 and 177 C. For moderate to high applied cyclic-stress-intensity factors (delta-K), the slope of the log da/dN versus log delta-K curve is lower in 177 C laboratory air than 24 C laboratory air. The difference in slope results in lower values of da/dN for exposure to 177 C laboratory air compared to room temperature laboratory air. The onset of this temperature effect is dependent upon the applied R. This temperature effect has not been observed in ultrahigh vacuum. Specimen orientation has been shown to affect the slope of the log da/dN versus log delta-K curve in the Paris regime.

  7. The Delta 2 launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousley, Gilbert W., Sr.

    1991-12-01

    The utilization of the Delta 2 as the vehicle for launching Aristoteles into its near Sun synchronous orbit is addressed. Delta is NASA's most reliable launch vehicle and is well suited for placing the present Aristoteles spacecraft into a 400 m circular orbit. A summary of some of the Delta 2 flight parameters is presented. Diagrams of a typical Delta 2 two stage separation are included along with statistics on delta reliability and launch plans.

  8. (Z)-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-one.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2003-11-01

    Crystals of the title compound, C(15)H(17)NO(3), were obtained from a condensation reaction of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde with 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-one and subsequent crystallization of the product from methanol. The title compound, containing a double bond that connects the azabicyclic ring system to the 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene group, was obtained with Z geometry.

  9. Spotlight: India (Part 2 of 2).

    PubMed

    Zheng, J

    1991-10-01

    Population growth and fertility trends in India are presented with speculation for the future. Overall, fertility in India declined for the period 1970-97. Population growth, however, continues now at the annual rate of 2%, fueled by the country's sheer size and the large proportion of women childbearing age. The population increased by 161 millions for the period 1981-1991, representing an increase of 23.5%, less than the growth of 25% over the period 1961-71. The crude birth rate declined 25% over the period 1961-86, while the total fertility rate fell from 5.8 to 4.2. A national family planning (FP) program supported by an increased proportion of the national budget played a role in these trends. The crude birth rate, however, remains above 30/1,000 even though use of FP services and marriage age have increased. March, 1987, estimates indicate that 40% of married women age 15-44 employed modern methods of contraception. Fertility must decline further in India. Were fertility to reach replacement level by 2015, the World Bank predicts the population to still climb to 1.9 billion. With 36% of the population under 15 years old, high rates of marriage, and social and cultural norms which encourage large families, accelerated FP programs targeting young couples will play important roles in reducing fertility in India

  10. (±)-trans-3-Benzoyl-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Roger A; Thompson, Hugh W; Brunskill, Andrew P J

    2008-01-01

    The title keto acid, C(16)H(18)O(3), displays significant twisting of all three ethyl-ene bridges in its bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane structure owing to steric inter-actions; the bridgehead-to-bridgehead torsion angles are 13.14 (12), 13.14 (13) and 9.37 (13)°. The compound crystallizes as centrosymmetric carboxyl dimers [O⋯O = 2.6513 (12) Å and O-H⋯O = 178°], which have two orientations within the cell and contain no significant carboxyl disorder. PMID:21201657

  11. The RTS2 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubánek, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; French, John; Prouza, Michal; Vítek, Stanislav; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Reglero, Victor

    2008-07-01

    Remote Telescope System 2nd version (RTS2) is an open source project aimed at developing a software environment to control a fully robotic observatory. RTS2 consists of various components, which communicate via an ASCII based protocol. As the protocol was from the beginning designed as an observatory control system, it provides some unique features, which are hard to find in the other communication systems. These features include advanced synchronisation mechanisms and strategies for setting variables. This presentation describes the protocol and its unique features. It also assesses protocol performance, and provides examples how the RTS2 library can be used to quickly build an observatory control system.

  12. CRAC2 model description

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  13. EPR of Cu 2+ and VO 2+ in a cobalt saccharin complex, [Co(sac) 2(H 2O) 4]·2H 2O, single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerli, Y.; Köksal, F.; Karadag, A.

    2003-09-01

    Cu 2+ and VO 2+ doped single crystals of [Co(sac) 2(H 2O) 4]·2H 2O (Cosacaqua) complex were investigated using EPR technique at ambient temperature. Detailed investigation of the EPR spectra indicated that the Cu 2+ and VO 2+ substitute the Co 2+. Two sites were observed for Cu 2+ and VO 2+. But each site of V 4+ corresponds two different orientations of VO 2+. The principal values of the g and the hyperfine tensors were obtained. The spectra indicate that the ground state for Cu 2+ is mainly 3 dx2- y2. The covalent bonding parameters for Cu 2+ and VO 2+ and Fermi contact terms were obtained.

  14. Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion-2 (FSDC-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Renato; Dietrich, Daniel; Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental results for the burning characteristics of fiber supported, liquid droplets in ambient Shuttle cabin air (21% oxygen, 1 bar pressure) were obtained from the Glove Box Facility aboard the STS-94/MSL-1 mission using the Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion - 2 (FSDC-2) apparatus. The combustion of individual droplets of methanol/water mixtures, ethanol, ethanol/water azeotrope, n-heptane, n-decane, and n-heptane/n-hexadecane mixtures were studied in quiescent air. The effects of low velocity, laminar gas phase forced convection on the combustion of individual droplets of n-heptane and n-decane were investigated and interactions of two droplet-arrays of n-heptane and n-decane droplets were also studied with and without gas phase convective flow. Initial diameters ranging from about 2mm to over 6mm were burned on 80-100 micron silicon fibers. In addition to phenomenological observations, quantitative data were obtained in the form of backlit images of the burning droplets, overall flame images, and radiometric combustion emission measurements as a function of the burning time in each experiment. In all, 124 of the 129 attempted experiments (or about twice the number of experiments originally planned for the STS-94/MSL-1 mission) were conducted successfully. The experimental results contribute new observations on the combustion properties of pure alkanes, binary alkane mixtures, and simple alcohols for droplet sizes not studied previously, including measurements on individual droplets and two-droplet arrays, inclusive of the effects of forced gas phase convection. New phenomena characterized experimentally for the first time include radiative extinction of droplet burning for alkanes and the "twin effect" which occurs as a result of interactions during the combustion of two-droplet arrays. Numerical modeling of isolated droplet combustion phenomenon has been conducted for methanol/water mixtures, n-heptane, and n-heptane/n-hexadecane mixtures, and results

  15. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  16. 2π or not 2π

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olley, Robert; McGovern, Iggy

    2008-04-01

    Robert Crease's article "Constant failure" (February p18) struck a chord with me - even after many years, I remember the feeling of "cognitive dissonance" I experienced when being taught that the formula for the circumference of a circle was 2πr rather than πD. Suggesting that Archimedes might have been wrong to have defined π as the ratio of circumference to diameter rather than radius, is, however, going a bit too far. In those days, the fundamental dichotomy was between the geometers who thought in terms of circumference, diameter and their ratio; and the astronomers, who used the radius in their calculation of chord tables. Hipparchus used a circle of radius of 3438 for his chord tables, since this is the nearest integer to the number of minutes in one radian, but Ptolemy preferred 3600 as it is easier to calculate with in the sexagesimal system. The geometers, however, did not think of their ratio as a number.

  17. EnergyPlus 1.2.2

    2005-05-01

    EnergyPlus (E+) is a new whole-building energy analysis program that combines the best capabilities and features from BLAST and DOE-2 along with new capabilities. E+ modular implementation facilitates extending the program and adding links to other programs. The fluid loops and HVAC components support a "manager-interface" simulation protocol that allows for the independent simulation of subsystems, each possibly using a customized solution procedure. Thus, the E+ program structure allows the solution to a particular subsystemmore » to be computed without affecting the solution schemes used for the other subsystems. This fundamental requirement enables the integration of external models in the El+ building systems simulation.« less

  18. CIRCUIT2. 4. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, R.A. ); Anderson, J.V. )

    1987-12-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using the most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.

  19. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  20. 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dichlorophenol ; CASRN 120 - 83 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  1. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dinitrotoluene ; CASRN 121 - 14 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  2. Douglas RD-2 Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    Douglas RD-2 Dolphin: Originally purchased with the presumed use as a Presidential aircraft, this Douglas RD-2 was turned over to the NACA in December 1939 without ever fulfilling its intended role. The Dolphin was a type familiar to the NACA, who were testing a Army version of the Douglas amphibian, an OA-4V with a nosewheel.

  3. Diabetes Type 2

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  4. Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A NASA News Release is presented which contains the following: (1) general release; (2) two views of Voyager 2 flight past Jupiter; (3) Voyager mission summary; (4) Voyager 1 science results; (5) Jupiter science objectives; (6) Jupiter the planet and its satellites; (7) Voyager experiments; (8) planet comparison; (9) a list of Voyager science investigators and (10) the Voyager team.

  5. HET2 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence W.; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Diftler, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    2015 mid-year review charts of the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 project that describe the Astrobee free-flying robot and the Robonaut 2 humanoid robot. A planned replacement for Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellite (SPHERES), which is currently in use in the International Space Station (ISS).

  6. Web 2 Nowhere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Web 2.0 seems to be all the rage these days. One cannot go to a library conference and attend presentations or stroll down the halls without hearing some mention of it in magical tones reserved for some great discovery. The excitement surrounding Web 2.0 reminds the author of the frenzy that gripped the country between 1848 and 1855, when…

  7. Preparation of 2-Bromopentane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, B. A.; Kohrman, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the preparation of 2-bromopentane from 2-pentanol might represent an instructive addition to a published description of pheromone synthesis in that it is economical, extends the synthetic nature of the problem, and amplifies the mechanistic vagaries of the substitution reaction. Theory, procedures used, and safety considerations are…

  8. AIRS Level 2 Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Manning, Evan; Olsen, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument onboard EOS Aqua. Major level 2 products are highlighted including temperature profile; water vapor profile; surface skin temperature and other surface parameters; and, cloud friction and top cloud pressure. Level 2 files and data availability are discussed.

  9. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC's. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  10. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC`s. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  11. Strangeness -2 hypertriton.

    PubMed

    Garcilazo, H; Valcarce, A

    2013-01-01

    We solve for the first time, the Faddeev equations for the bound state problem of the coupled ΛΛN-ΞNN system to study whether or not a hypertriton with strangeness -2 may exist. We make use of the interactions obtained from a chiral quark model describing the low-energy observables of the two-baryon systems with strangeness 0, -1, and -2 and three-baryon systems with strangeness 0 and -1. The ΛΛN system alone is unbound. However, when the full coupling to ΞNN is considered, the strangeness -2 three-baryon system with quantum numbers (I,J(P)) = (1/2,1/2(+)) becomes bound, with a binding energy of about 0.5 MeV. This result is compatible with the nonexistence of a stable (Λ)(3)H with isospin one.

  12. THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

  13. Selective fluorescence quenching of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene by nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Cesar; Pischel, Uwe; Nau, Werner M

    2003-10-16

    [reaction: see text] The fluorescence quenching of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) by nucleotides has been studied. The quenching mechanism was analyzed on the basis of deuterium isotope effects, tendencies for exciplex formation, and the quenching efficiency in the presence of a molecular container (cucurbit[7]uril). Exciplex-induced quenching appears to prevail for adenosine, cytidine, and uridine, while hydrogen abstraction becomes competitive for thymidine and guanosine. Compared to other fluorescent probes, DBO responds very selectively to the type of nucleotide.

  14. Substituted 1,1,1-Triaryl-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are described for tetraalkyls, tetraacids and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2,-trifluoroethanes.

  15. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  16. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  17. Neurofibromatosis type 2.

    PubMed

    Evans, D G R

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene NF2 on chromosome 22. Around 1 in 33000 people are born with an NF2 mutation although more than one-third of the 60% of de novo cases are not conceived with the mutation but this develops later in embryogenesis (mosaics). NF2 has a substantial effect on life expectancy and individuals with a constitutional truncating mutation have the worst prognosis. The vast majority of people with NF2 will develop bilateral vestibular schwannomas with many developing schwannomas on other cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves. Cranial and spinal meningiomas and intraspinal low grade indolent ependymomas are the other major tumor features. Cutaneous features can be subtle with only 70% having evidence of intracutaneous plaque-like schwannomas or subcutaneous lesions on peripheral nerves. Café-au-lait patches are more frequent than in the general population but in only around 1% will meet NIH criteria for NF1. PMID:26564072

  18. Rate constant and thermochemistry for K + O2 + N2 = KO2 + N2.

    PubMed

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; Viljanen, Jan; Toivonen, Juha; Marshall, Paul; Glarborg, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The addition reaction of potassium atoms with oxygen has been studied using the collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy (CPFAAS) method. KCl vapor was photolyzed with 266 nm pulses and the absorbance by K atoms at 766.5 nm was measured at various delay times with a narrow line width diode laser. Experiments were carried out with O2/N2 mixtures at a total pressure of 1 bar, over 748-1323 K. At the lower temperatures single exponential decays of [K] yielded the third-order rate constant for addition, kR1, whereas at higher temperatures equilibration was observed in the form of double exponential decays of [K], which yielded both kR1 and the equilibrium constant for KO2 formation. kR1 can be summarized as 1.07 × 10(-30)(T/1000 K)(-0.733) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1). Combination with literature values leads to a recommended kR1 of 5.5 × 10(-26)T(-1.55) exp(-10/T) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) over 250-1320 K, with an error limit of a factor of 1.5. A van't Hoff analysis constrained to fit the computed ΔS298 yields a K-O2 bond dissociation enthalpy of 184.2 ± 4.0 kJ mol(-1) at 298 K and ΔfH298(KO2) = -95.2 ± 4.1 kJ mol(-1). The corresponding D0 is 181.5 ± 4.0 kJ mol(-1). This value compares well with a CCSD(T) extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, with all electrons correlated, of 177.9 kJ mol(-1). PMID:25775408

  19. COLLIDE-2: Collisions Into Dust Experiment-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Joshua E.

    2002-01-01

    The Collisions Into Dust Experimental (COLLIDE-2) was the second flight of the COLLIDE payload. The payload performs six low-velocity impact experiments to study the collisions that are prevalent in planetary ring systems and in the early stages of planet formation. Each impact experiment is into a target of granular material, and the impacts occur at speeds between 1 and 100 cm/s in microgravity and in a vacuum. The experiments are recorded on digital videotape which is later analyzed. During the period of performance a plan was developed to address some of the technical issues that prevented the first flight of COLLIDE from being a complete success, and also to maximize the scientific return based on the science results from the first flight. The experiment was modified following a series of reviews of the design plan, and underwent extensive testing. The data from the experiment show that the primary goal of identifying transition regimes for low-velocity impacts based on cratering versus accretion was achieved. Following a brief period of storage, the experiment flew regimes for low-velocity impacts based on cratering versus accretion was achieved. as a Hitchhiker payload on the MACH-1 Hitchhiker bridge on STS-108 in December 2001. These data have been analyzed and submitted for publication. That manuscript is attached to this report. The experiment was retrieved in January 2002, and all six impact experiments functioned nominally. Preliminary results were reported at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

  20. ATF2 Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A.; Christian, G.; Parker, B.; Schulte, D.; Delahaye, J.-P.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Wolski, A.; Elsen, E.; Sanuki, T.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Ross, M.; Wendt, M.; Takahashi, T.; Bai, S.; Gao, J.; Bolzon, B.; Geffroy, N.; Jeremie, A.; Apsimon, R.; Burrows, P.; /Oxford U., JAI /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Orsay, LAL /Phang Accelerator Lab /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SLAC /Daresbury /University Coll. London /Manchester U. /Univ. of Tokyo U.

    2009-10-30

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line that aims to focus the low-emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a beam size of about 37 nm, and at the same time to demonstrate nm beam stability, using numerous advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools. The construction has been finished at the end of 2008 and the beam commissioning of ATF2 has started in December of 2008. ATF2 is constructed and commissioned by ATF international collaborations with strong US, Asian and European participation.

  1. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  2. Optical response of the Cu2 S2 diamond core in Cu2II(NGuaS)2 Cl2.

    PubMed

    Witte, Matthias; Grimm-Lebsanft, Benjamin; Goos, Arne; Binder, Stephan; Rübhausen, Michael; Bernard, Martin; Neuba, Adam; Gorelsky, Serge; Gerstmann, Uwe; Henkel, Gerald; Gero Schmidt, Wolf; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja

    2016-09-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations are presented for the dicopper thiolate complex Cu2 (NGuaS)2 Cl2 [NGuaS=2-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidino) benzenethiolate] with a special focus on the bonding mechanism of the Cu2 S2 Cl2 core and the spectroscopic response. This complex is relevant for the understanding of dicopper redox centers, for example, the CuA center. Its UV/Vis absorption is theoretically studied and found to be similar to other structural CuA models. The spectrum can be roughly divided in the known regions of metal d-d absorptions and metal to ligand charge transfer regions. Nevertheless the chloride ions play an important role as electron donors, with the thiolate groups as electron acceptors. The bonding mechanism is dissected by means of charge decomposition analysis which reveals the large covalency of the Cu2 S2 diamond core mediated between Cu dz2 and S-S π and π* orbitals forming Cu-S σ bonds. Measured resonant Raman spectra are shown for 360- and 720-nm excitation wavelength and interpreted using the calculated vibrational eigenmodes and frequencies. The calculations help to rationalize the varying resonant behavior at different optical excitations. Especially the phenylene rings are only resonant for 720 nm. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27362786

  3. DM-2 Chilling

    NASA Video Gallery

    How do you chill down 1.4 million pounds of solid rocket fuel in the hot Utah desert? Lots of air conditioning! Learn how ATK chilled down DM-2, the second Ares first stage development motor in adv...

  4. Vibrational analysis of 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and 1,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsend

    1982-02-01

    Liquid-state IR and Raman spectra and solid-state IR spectra have been obtained for 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and l,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane. Carbon-halogen stretching bands are observed in the liquid-state spectrum of the dichloro compound at 751, 725, 624 and 574 cm -1 and at 677, 640, 551 and 507 cm -1 in the liquid-state spectrum of the dibromo compound. Both compounds exist as P CTt HHH and P XT XHH conformations in the liquid, but only the P XT XHH conformer is present for each in the crystalline solid. Further Interpretation of the spectra was aided by normal coordinate calculations.

  5. N = 2 string amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Ooguri, H.

    1995-08-01

    In physics, solvable models have played very important roles. Understanding a simple model in detail teaches us a lot about more complicated models in generic situations. Five years ago, C. Vafa and I found that the closed N = 2 string theory, that is a string theory with the N = 2 local supersymmetry on the worldsheet, is classically equivalent to the self-dual Einstein gravity in four spacetime dimensions. Thus this string theory is solvable at the classical level. More recently, we have examined the N = 2 string partition function for spacial compactifications, and computed it to all order in the string perturbation expansion. The fact that such computation is possible at all suggests that the N = 2 string theory is solvable even quantum mechanically.

  6. Type 2 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the ... stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored ...

  7. Mystery #2 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #2: Lake Constance     View Larger ... wastewater and fertilizers. This leads to overproduction of algae and aquatic plants, exhaustion of available oxygen, loss of some fish ...

  8. Terrestrial photovoltaic measurements, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following major topics are discussed; (1) Terrestrial solar irradiance; (2) Solar simulation and reference cell calibration; and (3) Cell and array measurement procedures. Numerous related subtopics are also discussed within each major topic area.

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectral study of [Mn(acs)2(2-pic)2(H2O)2] single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocakoç, Mehpeyker; Tapramaz, Recep

    2016-03-01

    Acesulfame potassium salt is a synthetic and non-caloric sweetener. It is also important chemically for its capability of being ligand in coordination compounds, because it can bind over Nitrogen and Oxygen atoms of carbonyl and sulfonyl groups and ring oxygen. Some acesulfame containing transition metal ion complexes with mixed ligands exhibit solvato and thermo chromic properties and these properties make them physically important. In this work single crystals of Mn+2 ion complex with mixed ligand, [Mn(acs)2(2-pic)2(H2O)2], was studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR parameters were determined. Zero field splitting parameters indicated that the complex was highly symmetric. Variable temperature studies showed no detectable chance in spectra.

  10. Mat2exo

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    MAT2EXO is a program which translates mesh data from Matlab mat-file format to Exodus II format. This tool is the inverse of the commonly used tool exo2mat which translates Exodus II data to the Matlab mat-file format. These tools provide a means for preprocessing an Exodus II model file or postprocessing an Exodus II results file using Matlab

  11. MERRA-2: File Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Lucchesi, R.; Suarez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) is a NASA atmospheric reanalysis that begins in 1980. It replaces the original MERRA reanalysis (Rienecker et al., 2011) using an upgraded version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. The file collections for MERRA-2 are described in detail in this document, including some important changes from those of the MERRA dataset (Lucchesi, 2012).

  12. Pseudodominant AOA2.

    PubMed

    Newrick, Laurence; Taylor, Malcolm; Hadjivassiliou, Marios

    2015-01-01

    We report a mother and daughter with autosomal recessive ataxia with occulomotor apraxia in whom sequence analysis of senataxin revealed a dignosis of AOA2 (ataxia with occulomotor apraxia type 2) in both individuals. The apparent dominant inheritance pattern (pseudodominant) was the result of the unusual coincidence of both mother and daughter being compound heterozygotes for senataxin mutations. Our case exemplifies the challenges of diagnosis in hereditary ataxias, and the limitations of genetic testing guided solely by patterns of inheritance. PMID:26331048

  13. PISCES 2 users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment and set of extensions to Fortran 77 for parallel programming. It is intended to provide a basis for writing programs for scientific and engineering applications on parallel computers in a way that is relatively independent of the particular details of the underlying computer architecture. This user's manual provides a complete description of the PISCES 2 system as it is currently implemented on the 20 processor Flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley Research Center.

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2...

  17. MD-2 binds cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I

    2016-02-19

    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  18. Neurofibromatosis type 2

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D; Sainio, M; Baser, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an often devastating autosomal dominant disorder which, until relatively recently, was confused with its more common namesake neurofibromatosis type 1. Subjects who inherit a mutated allele of the NF2 gene inevitably develop schwannomas, affecting particularly the superior vestibular branch of the 8th cranial nerve, usually bilaterally. Meningiomas and other benign central nervous system tumours such as ependymomas are other common features. Much of the morbidity from these tumours results from their treatment. It is now possible to identify the NF2 mutation in most families, although about 20% of apparently sporadic cases are actually mosaic for their mutation. As a classical tumour suppressor, inactivation of the NF2 gene product, merlin/schwannomin, leads to the development of both NF2 associated and sporadic tumours. Merlin/schwannomin associates with proteins at the cell cytoskeleton near the plasma membrane and it inhibits cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration.


Keywords: NF2; vestibular schwannomma; meningioma; mosaic PMID:11106352

  19. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Horner, Jacob A.; Owen, Antionette T.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-05-01

    Sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) containing minor amounts of co-contaminants in geologic formations was investigated in the laboratory through the use of high pressure static experiments. Five different basalt samples were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical CO2 containing 1wt% sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 1wt% oxygen (O2) at reservoir conditions (~100 bar, 90°C) for 49 and 98 days. Gypsum (CaSO4) was a common precipitate, occurred early as elongated blades with striations, and served as substrates for other mineral products. Bimodal pulses of water released during dehydroxylation were key indicators along with X-ray diffraction for verifying the presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals. Well-developed pseudocubic jarosite crystals formed surface coatings, and in some instances mixtures of natrojarosite and natroalunite aggregated into spherically shaped structures measuring 100 μm in diameter. Reaction products were also characterized using infrared spectroscopy, which indicated OH and Fe-O stretching modes. The presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals were found in the lower wavenumber region from 700–400 cm-1. A strong preferential incorporation of Fe(III) into natrojarosite was attributed to the oxidation potential of O2. Evidence of CO2 was detected during thermal decomposition of precipitates, suggesting the onset of mineral carbonation.

  20. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Lite Nadir (TL2H2OLN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-16

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Lite Nadir (TL2H2OLN) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir ... HDFView Read Software Level 2 Google Earth Visualizations Related Data:  Level 2 Lite Survey ...

  1. KCNQ2 encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Millichap, John J.; Park, Kristen L.; Tsuchida, Tammy; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Carmant, Lionel; Flamini, Robert; Joshi, Nishtha; Levisohn, Paul M.; Marsh, Eric; Nangia, Srishti; Narayanan, Vinodh; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Xilma R.; Patterson, Marc C.; Pearl, Phillip L.; Porter, Brenda; Ramsey, Keri; McGinnis, Emily L.; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Tracy, Molly; Tran, Baouyen; Venkatesan, Charu; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To advance the understanding of KCNQ2 encephalopathy genotype–phenotype relationships and to begin to assess the potential of selective KCNQ channel openers as targeted treatments. Methods: We retrospectively studied 23 patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy, including 11 treated with ezogabine (EZO). We analyzed the genotype–phenotype relationships in these and 70 previously described patients. Results: The mean seizure onset age was 1.8 ± 1.6 (SD) days. Of the 20 EEGs obtained within a week of birth, 11 showed burst suppression. When new seizure types appeared in infancy (15 patients), the most common were epileptic spasms (n = 8). At last follow-up, seizures persisted in 9 patients. Development was delayed in all, severely in 14. The KCNQ2 variants identified introduced amino acid missense changes or, in one instance, a single residue deletion. They were clustered in 4 protein subdomains predicted to poison tetrameric channel functions. EZO use (assessed by the treating physicians and parents) was associated with improvement in seizures and/or development in 3 of the 4 treated before 6 months of age, and 2 of the 7 treated later; no serious side effects were observed. Conclusions: KCNQ2 variants cause neonatal-onset epileptic encephalopathy of widely varying severity. Pathogenic variants in epileptic encephalopathy are clustered in “hot spots” known to be critical for channel activity. For variants causing KCNQ2 channel loss of function, EZO appeared well tolerated and potentially beneficial against refractory seizures when started early. Larger, prospective studies are needed to enable better definition of prognostic categories and more robust testing of novel interventions. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that EZO is effective for refractory seizures in patients with epilepsy due to KCNQ2 encephalopathy.

  2. KCNQ2 encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Millichap, John J.; Park, Kristen L.; Tsuchida, Tammy; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Carmant, Lionel; Flamini, Robert; Joshi, Nishtha; Levisohn, Paul M.; Marsh, Eric; Nangia, Srishti; Narayanan, Vinodh; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Xilma R.; Patterson, Marc C.; Pearl, Phillip L.; Porter, Brenda; Ramsey, Keri; McGinnis, Emily L.; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Tracy, Molly; Tran, Baouyen; Venkatesan, Charu; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To advance the understanding of KCNQ2 encephalopathy genotype–phenotype relationships and to begin to assess the potential of selective KCNQ channel openers as targeted treatments. Methods: We retrospectively studied 23 patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy, including 11 treated with ezogabine (EZO). We analyzed the genotype–phenotype relationships in these and 70 previously described patients. Results: The mean seizure onset age was 1.8 ± 1.6 (SD) days. Of the 20 EEGs obtained within a week of birth, 11 showed burst suppression. When new seizure types appeared in infancy (15 patients), the most common were epileptic spasms (n = 8). At last follow-up, seizures persisted in 9 patients. Development was delayed in all, severely in 14. The KCNQ2 variants identified introduced amino acid missense changes or, in one instance, a single residue deletion. They were clustered in 4 protein subdomains predicted to poison tetrameric channel functions. EZO use (assessed by the treating physicians and parents) was associated with improvement in seizures and/or development in 3 of the 4 treated before 6 months of age, and 2 of the 7 treated later; no serious side effects were observed. Conclusions: KCNQ2 variants cause neonatal-onset epileptic encephalopathy of widely varying severity. Pathogenic variants in epileptic encephalopathy are clustered in “hot spots” known to be critical for channel activity. For variants causing KCNQ2 channel loss of function, EZO appeared well tolerated and potentially beneficial against refractory seizures when started early. Larger, prospective studies are needed to enable better definition of prognostic categories and more robust testing of novel interventions. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that EZO is effective for refractory seizures in patients with epilepsy due to KCNQ2 encephalopathy. PMID:27602407

  3. ABCG2: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Robert W.; To, Kenneth K. K.; Polgar, Orsolya; Dohse, Marius; Fetsch, Patricia; Dean, Michael; Bates, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    ABCG2, or Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP), is an ABC transporter that has been the subject of intense study since its discovery a decade ago. With high normal tissue expression in the brain endothelium, gastrointestinal tract, and placenta, ABCG2 is believed to be important in protection from xenobiotics, regulating oral bioavailability, forming part of the blood-brain barrier, the blood-testis barrier, and the maternal-fetal barrier. Notably, ABCG2 is often expressed in stem cell populations, where it likely plays a role in xenobiotic protection. However, clues to its epigenetic regulation in various cell populations are only beginning to emerge. While ABCG2 overexpression has been demonstrated in cancer cells after in vitro drug treatment, endogenous ABCG2 expression in certain cancers is likely a reflection of the differentiated phenotype of the cell of origin and likely contributes to intrinsic drug resistance. Notably, research into the transporter’s role in cancer drug resistance and its development as a therapeutic target in cancer has lagged. Substrates and inhibitors of the transporter have been described, among them chemotherapy drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antivirals, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, carcinogens, and flavonoids. This broad range of substrates complements the efficiency of ABCG2 as a transporter in laboratory studies and suggests that, while there are redundant mechanisms of xenobiotic protection, the protein is important in normal physiology. Indeed, emerging studies in pharmacology and toxicology assessing polymorphic variants in man, in combination with murine knockout models have confirmed its dynamic role. Work in pharmacology may eventually lead us to a greater understanding of the physiologic role of ABCG2. PMID:19135109

  4. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  5. Formation of HO2/+/ by reaction of metastable O2/+/ ions with H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; Huntress, W. T.; Lane, A. L.; Lebreton, P. R.; Williamson, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The photoionization efficiency curves of H2(+), O2(+), and HO2(+) have been studied in a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen over the wavelength range from 650 to 810 A. The HO2(+) ion appears at 804 A, the threshold for ionization of H2, by the reaction H2(+) + O2 yields HO2(+) + H. The relative photoionization efficiency curves of H2(+) and HO2(+) are the same from 804 to 764 A. Below 764 A production of the 4 Pi u metastable electronic state of O2(+) leads to the formation of HO2(+) by the reaction O2(+)(a 4 Pi u) + H2 yields HO2(+) + H.

  6. Theoretical study on the photolysis mechanism of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Li, Shuhua

    2005-09-28

    A CASPT2/CASSCF study has been carried out to investigate the mechanism of the photolysis of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) under direct and triplet-sensitized irradiation. By exploring the detailed potential energy surfaces including intermediates, transition states, conical intersections, and singlet/triplet crossing points, for the first excited singlet (S(1)) and the low-lying triplet states (T(1), T(2), and T(3)), we provide satisfactory explanations of many experimental findings associated with the photophysical and photochemical processes of DBO. A key finding of this work is the existence of a significantly twisted S(1) minimum, which can satisfactorily explain the envelope of the broad emission band of DBO. It is demonstrated that the S(1) (n-pi*) intermediate can decay to the T(1) (n-pi*) state by undergoing intersystem crossing (rather inefficient) to the T(2) (pi-pi*) state followed by internal conversion to the T(1) state. The high fluorescence yield and the extraordinarily long lifetime of the singlet excited DBO are due to the presence of relatively high barriers, both for intersystem crossing and for C-N cleavage. The short lifetime of the triplet DBO is caused by fast radiationless decay to the ground state.

  7. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS... Assignments and Exceptions for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.115 Class 2, Divisions..., a flammable gas (Division 2.1) means any material which is a gas at 20 °C (68 °F) or less and...

  8. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS... Assignments and Exceptions for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.115 Class 2, Divisions..., a flammable gas (Division 2.1) means any material which is a gas at 20 °C (68 °F) or less and...

  9. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... °F), is a liquefied gas or is a cryogenic liquid, and (2) Does not meet the definition of Division 2... pressure for transportation is partially liquid at temperatures above −50 °C (−58 °F), is considered to be... which is dissolved in a solvent. (g) Cryogenic liquid. A cryogenic liquid means a refrigerated...

  10. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... °F), is a liquefied gas or is a cryogenic liquid, and (2) Does not meet the definition of Division 2... pressure for transportation is partially liquid at temperatures above −50 °C (−58 °F), is considered to be... which is dissolved in a solvent. (g) Cryogenic liquid. A cryogenic liquid means a refrigerated...

  11. TrustBuilder2

    2007-07-20

    TrustBuilder2 is a flexible framework for supporting research in the area trust negotiation protocols, designed to allow researchers to quickly prototype and experiment with various approaches to trust negotiation. In Trustbuilder2, the primary components of a trust negotiation system are represented using abstract interfaces. Any or all of these components can be implemented or extended by users of the TrustBuilder2 system, thereby making the system's functionality easily extensible. The TrustBuilder2 configuration files can be modifiedmore » to load these custom components in place of the default system components; this facilitates the use of new features without modifications to the underlying runtime system. In our implementation, we provide support for one negotiation strategy, a policy compliance checker based on Jess (the Java Expert System Shell), query interfaces enabling access to disk-based credential and policy repositories, a credential chain construction algorithm, two credential chain verification routines, and both graphical and text-based logging facilities. Trustbuilder2 also supports the interposition of user-defined plug-ins at communication points between system components to allow for easy monitoring of system activity or the modification of messages passed between components.« less

  12. SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ragge, Nicola K; Lorenz, Birgit; Schneider, Adele; Bushby, Kate; de Sanctis, Luisa; de Sanctis, Ugo; Salt, Alison; Collin, J Richard O; Vivian, Anthony J; Free, Samantha L; Thompson, Pamela; Williamson, Kathleen A; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; van Heyningen, Veronica; Fitzpatrick, David R

    2005-05-15

    Heterozygous, de novo, loss-of-function mutations in SOX2 have been shown to cause bilateral anophthalmia. Here we provide a detailed description of the clinical features associated with SOX2 mutations in the five individuals with reported mutations and four newly identified cases (including the first reported SOX2 missense mutation). The SOX2-associated ocular malformations are variable in type, but most often bilateral and severe. Of the nine patients, six had bilateral anophthalmia and two had anophthalmia with contralateral microphthalmia with sclerocornea. The remaining case had anophthalmia with contralateral microphthalmia, posterior cortical cataract and a dysplastic optic disc, and was the only patient to have measurable visual acuity. The relatively consistent extraocular phenotype observed includes: learning disability, seizures, brain malformation, specific motor abnormalities, male genital tract malformations, mild facial dysmorphism, and postnatal growth failure. Identifying SOX2 mutations from large cohorts of patients with structural eye defects has delineated a new, clinically-recognizable, multisystem disorder and has provided important insight into the developmental pathways critical for morphogenesis of the eye, brain, and male genital tract.

  13. Healthwatch-2 System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barszcz, Eric; Mosher, Marianne; Huff, Edward M.

    2004-01-01

    Healthwatch-2 (HW-2) is a research tool designed to facilitate the development and testing of in-flight health monitoring algorithms. HW-2 software is written in C/C++ and executes on an x86-based computer running the Linux operating system. The executive module has interfaces for collecting various signal data, such as vibration, torque, tachometer, and GPS. It is designed to perform in-flight time or frequency averaging based on specifications defined in a user-supplied configuration file. Averaged data are then passed to a user-supplied algorithm written as a Matlab function. This allows researchers a convenient method for testing in-flight algorithms. In addition to its in-flight capabilities, HW-2 software is also capable of reading archived flight data and processing it as if collected in-flight. This allows algorithms to be developed and tested in the laboratory before being flown. Currently HW-2 has passed its checkout phase and is collecting data on a Bell OH-58C helicopter operated by the U.S. Army at NASA Ames Research Center.

  14. GRIN2A

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samantha J.; Mayes, Angela K.; Verhoeven, Andrea; Mandelstam, Simone A.; Morgan, Angela T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To delineate the specific speech deficits in individuals with epilepsy-aphasia syndromes associated with mutations in the glutamate receptor subunit gene GRIN2A. Methods: We analyzed the speech phenotype associated with GRIN2A mutations in 11 individuals, aged 16 to 64 years, from 3 families. Standardized clinical speech assessments and perceptual analyses of conversational samples were conducted. Results: Individuals showed a characteristic phenotype of dysarthria and dyspraxia with lifelong impact on speech intelligibility in some. Speech was typified by imprecise articulation (11/11, 100%), impaired pitch (monopitch 10/11, 91%) and prosody (stress errors 7/11, 64%), and hypernasality (7/11, 64%). Oral motor impairments and poor performance on maximum vowel duration (8/11, 73%) and repetition of monosyllables (10/11, 91%) and trisyllables (7/11, 64%) supported conversational speech findings. The speech phenotype was present in one individual who did not have seizures. Conclusions: Distinctive features of dysarthria and dyspraxia are found in individuals with GRIN2A mutations, often in the setting of epilepsy-aphasia syndromes; dysarthria has not been previously recognized in these disorders. Of note, the speech phenotype may occur in the absence of a seizure disorder, reinforcing an important role for GRIN2A in motor speech function. Our findings highlight the need for precise clinical speech assessment and intervention in this group. By understanding the mechanisms involved in GRIN2A disorders, targeted therapy may be designed to improve chronic lifelong deficits in intelligibility. PMID:25596506

  15. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section 3107.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation...

  16. 43 CFR 3582.2-2 - Excepted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excepted areas. 3582.2-2 Section 3582.2-2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.2-2 Excepted areas. The following areas shall not be opened to mineral leasing: (a) Lake...

  17. 43 CFR 3582.2-2 - Excepted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excepted areas. 3582.2-2 Section 3582.2-2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.2-2 Excepted areas. The following areas shall not be opened to mineral leasing: (a) Lake...

  18. 43 CFR 3582.2-2 - Excepted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excepted areas. 3582.2-2 Section 3582.2-2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.2-2 Excepted areas. The following areas shall not be opened to mineral leasing: (a) Lake...

  19. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2 Section 3410.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the...

  20. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2 Section 3410.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the...

  1. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2 Section 3410.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the...

  2. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2 Section 3410.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the...

  3. (2,2‧-bipy)[In2(OH)2(H2O)](SO4)2: The first indium sulfate with a layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhenfen; Wang, Li; Song, Tianyou; Wang, Ying; Huang, Liangliang; Zhang, Lirong; Shi, Suhua

    2008-04-01

    The first indium sulfate coordination complex, (2,2'-bipy)[In 2(OH) 2(H 2O)](SO 4) 2 (2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridyl) was hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), the powder XRD, elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), IR spectroscopy and fluorescent spectroscopy. It is noteworthy that this compound exhibits a novel two-dimensional layer structure, which is built up from two distinct motifs, a butlerite-type chain and a single 4-ring (S4R) unit. The adjacent layers are stably packed together and extended into three-dimensional supramolecular arrays via π- π stacking interactions of the 2,2'-bipy ligands. Additionally, this compound shows strong fluorescent property at room temperature, which may be assigned to ligand-centered π*- π transitions.

  4. TOUGH2 software qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Simmons, A.; Wu, Y.S.; Moridis, G.

    1996-02-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media. It belongs to the MULKOM ({open_quotes}MULti-KOMponent{close_quotes}) family of codes and is a more general version of the TOUGH simulator. The MULKOM family of codes was originally developed with a focus on geothermal reservoir simulation. They are suited to modeling systems which contain different fluid mixtures, with applications to flow problems arising in the context of high-level nuclear waste isolation, oil and gas recovery and storage, and groundwater resource protection. TOUGH2 is essentially a subset of MULKOM, consisting of a selection of the better tested and documented MULKOM program modules. The purpose of this package of reports is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of TOUGH2.

  5. Computational Investigation of the Oxidative Deboronation of Boroglycine, H2N-CH2-B(OH)2, Using H2O and H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Joseph D.; Markham, George D.; Milkevitch, Matt; Brooks, Bernard R.; Bock, Charles W.

    2009-09-01

    We report results from a computational investigation of the oxidative deboronation of boroglycine, H2N-CH2-B(OH)2, using H2O and H2O2 as the reactive oxygen species (ROS) to yield aminomethanol, H2N-CH2-OH; these results complement our study on the protodeboronation of boroglycine to produce methylamine, H2N-CH3 (Larkin et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 6489-6500). Second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory with Dunning-Woon correlation-consistent (cc) basis sets were used for the calculations with comparisons made to results from density functional theory (DFT) at the PBE1PBE/6-311++G(d,p)(cc-pVDZ) levels. The effects of a bulk aqueous environment were also incorporated into the calculations employing PCM and CPCM methodology. Using H2O as the ROS, the reaction H2O + H2N-CH2-B(OH)2 → H2N-CH2-OH + H-B(OH)2 was calculated to be endothermic; the value of ΔH2980 was +12.0 kcal/mol at the MP2(FC)/cc-pVTZ computational level in vacuo and +13.7 kcal/mol in PCM aqueous media; the corresponding value for the activation barrier, ΔH‡, was +94.3 kcal/mol relative to the separated reactants in vacuo and +89.9 kcal/mol in PCM aqueous media. In contrast, the reaction H2O2 + H2N-CH2-B(OH)2 → H2N-CH2-OH + B(OH)3 was calculated to be highly exothermic with an ΔH2980 value of -100.9 kcal/mol at the MP2(FC)/cc-pVTZ computational level in vacuo and -99.6 kcal/mol in CPCM aqueous media; the highest-energy transition state for the multistep process associated with this reaction involved the rearrangement of H2N-CH2-B(OH)(OOH) to H2N-CH2-O-B(OH)2 with a ΔH‡ value of +23.2 kcal/mol in vacuo relative to the separated reactants. These computational results for boroglycine are in accord with the experimental observations for the deboronation of the FDA approved anticancer drug bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), where it was found to be the principle deactivation pathway (Labutti et al. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2006, 19, 539-546).

  6. ATF2 Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, Boris Ivanovich; Logachev, Pavel; Podgorny, Fedor; Telnov, Valery; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Appleby, Robert; Jones, James; Kalinin, Alexander; Napoly, Olivier; Payet, Jacques; Braun, Hans-Heinrich; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank; Barlow, Roger; Bailey, Ian; Jenner, Leo; Jones, Roger; Kourevlev, German; Walker, Nick; Takahasi, Tohru; Gao, Jie; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Oxford U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /Chiba, Natl. Inst. Rad. Sci. /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oregon U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /SLAC /Tokyo U.

    2005-08-23

    This document is the first of two volumes describing the ATF2 project. The present volume discusses the technical justification for ATF2 and presents a design description. Since the International Committee for Future Accelerator (ICFA) decision on the choice of technology, a world-wide collaboration on the design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) has rapidly progressed [1]. The formation of the Global Design Effort (GDE) will accelerate the work towards a final design. An important technical challenge is obviously the high gradient acceleration but what is similarly challenging is the collision of extremely small beams of a few nanometer size. The latter challenge has three distinct issues: creating small emittance beams, preserving the emittance during acceleration and transport, and focusing the beams to nanometers. Most studies have been done using computer simulations but many issues still remain that require experimental verification. Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK was built to create small emittance beams, and succeeded in obtaining an emittance that almost satisfies the ILC requirements [2]. In this proposal we present a project, ATF2, which addresses the focusing of the beam into a nanometer spot. The ATF2 project will extend the extraction beamline of the ATF with an ILC-type final focus system to create a tightly focused, stable beam by making use of the small emittance of the ATF. The layout is shown in Figure 1.1. In the longer term, the ATF2 project would also provide invaluable input for the CLIC design of a future multi-TeV collider.

  7. Science 2.0.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, M Mitchell

    2008-05-01

    Science 2.0 generally refers to new practices of scientists who post raw experimental results, nascent theories, claims of discovery and draft papers on the Web for others to see and comment on. Proponents say these "open access" practices make scientific progress more collaborative and therefore more productive. Critics say scientists who put preliminary findings online risk having others copy or exploit the work to gain credit or even patents. Despite pros and cons, Science 2.0 sites are beginning to proliferate; one notable example is the OpenWetWare project started by biological engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PMID:18444327

  8. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  9. '2' much mitral tissue.

    PubMed

    Barriales-Villa, Roberto; Pérez-Martínez, Fernando; Alvarez-Juárez, Ana I; Vázquez-Rey, Eugenia; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2010-03-01

    A 73-year-old female patient was referred for evaluation after suffering an atypical chest pain. Physical examination and ECG were normal. The echocardiogram showed a normal ventricular function. Attached to the anterior leaflet an accessory mitral valve tissue was identified. In systole, this mitral tissue creates an image that looks like the 'number 2'.

  10. Technology 2004, Vol. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2004 Conference, November 8-10, 1994, Washington, DC. Volume 2 features papers on computers and software, virtual reality simulation, environmental technology, video and imaging, medical technology and life sciences, robotics and artificial intelligence, and electronics.

  11. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  12. 2,6-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,6 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 576 - 26 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. 2,4-Diaminotoluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Diaminotoluene ; CASRN 95 - 80 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  15. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  16. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  17. 2,4-Dinitrophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dinitrophenol ; CASRN 51 - 28 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  18. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromoethane ; CASRN 106 - 93 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  19. 2,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 105 - 67 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  20. Medusae Fossae #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This southern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.0 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  1. Cray 2 Supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Center's Cray 2 supercomputer is capable of performing a half-billion calculations per second and allows researchers to conduct studies in three dimensions rather than two. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 112), by James Schultz.

  2. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  3. More2books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Mathematics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Reach for the Stars is AAMT's data-collection activity for National Literacy and Numeracy Week, funded by the Australian Government. This year's activity was on the theme "More2books" and many thousands of students and their teachers explored the mathematics of the books in their classrooms. This article presents a version of the findings which…

  4. Towards 2D nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.

  5. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  6. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  7. Meatcutting Testbook, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This document contains objective tests for each topic in the Meatcutting Workbook, Part 2, which is designed for apprenticeship meatcutting programs in California. Each of the 30 tests consists of from 5 to 65 multiple-choice items with most tests containing approximately 10 items. The tests are grouped according to the eight units of the…

  8. Marketing 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that today's student is much more savvy with using computers than the students of years gone by. This tech generation eagerly embraces the Internet, online searching, and the newer Web 2.0 technologies. This latter platform provides users with the ability to interact in a large virtual world, share/take (upload/download)…

  9. Albany 2.0

    2012-10-29

    New to version 2.0 of Albany is the development of equations sets for specific application areas. These are independent research and development efforts that have chosen to use Albany as their software deployment vehicle. Because of synergies between the projects, they remain in the same code repository and are all releasing together as the Albany software.

  10. Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, P.; Murdin, P.

    2002-04-01

    The second in the series of HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORIES was launched by an Atlas-Centaur rocket on 13 November 1978. Soon after its insertion into a 470 km circular orbit inclined at 23.5° to the equator, HEAO-2 was named the Einstein Observatory, in celebration of the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth....

  11. Fragment Separator ACCULINNA-2

    SciTech Connect

    Krupko, S. A.; Fomichev, A. S.; Chudoba, V.; Daniel, A. V.; Golovkov, M. S.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sidorchuk, S. I.; Slepnev, R. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Wolski, R.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Tarasov, O. B.; Ershov, S. N.; Lukyanov, V. K.; Danilin, B. V.; Korsheninnikov, A. A.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukha, I. G.

    2010-04-30

    Project of a new in-flight fragment separator is proposed as a part of the third generation DRIBs facilities in Dubna. As compared to the existing separator ACCULINNA, beam intensity should be increased by a factor 10-15, the beam quality improved and the RIB assortment should broaden considerably at ACCULINNA-2. Research program and structure are outlined for the new instrument.

  12. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  13. The GLACE-2 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal

    2009-01-01

    A major motivation for the study of the coupled land-atmosphere system is the idea that soil moisture anomalies may affect future meteorological variables through their effects on future surface energy and water budgets. If true, the accurate initialization of soil moisture in a subseasonal or seasonal forecast system may improve forecast skill, making the forecast products more valuable to society. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE-2) project is examining, with a wide variety of models, the degree to which subseasonal (out to two months) precipitation and air temperature forecasts improve through the realistic initialization of soil moisture. For the first time ever, a global consensus should emerge regarding the value of land initialization for forecasts, perhaps motivating national forecast centers to make full use of land moisture initialization in their operations. Participants in GLACE-2 perform two series of forecasts, each consisting of 100 2-month forecast ensembles (10 members per ensemble) covering ten boreal spring and summer start-dates in each of the years 1986-1995. Series 1 utilizes realistic land surface state initialization, provided through a decadal offline simulation using realistic meteorological forcing, as provided by the Global Soil Wetness Project - Phase 2 (GSWP-2), a research activity of the Global Land-Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) of GEWEX. Series 2 is identical to Series 1 in every way except for the fact that it does not benefit from realistic land state initialization. Through the comparison of Series 1 and 2, we isolate the impact of land initialization on the forecasts. Optional extensions to these base runs include forecasts covering additional years, using alternative meteorological forcing for the land initialization. To date, GLACE-2 has garnered participation from eleven modeling groups, covering 13 atmospheric models. Analysis of available results is already well underway, both at the individual

  14. Structural transformations of Li2C2 at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiopoulos, Ilias; Benson, Daryn E.; Konar, Sumit; Nylén, Johanna; Svensson, Gunnar; Häussermann, Ulrich; Liebig, Stefan; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Vazhenin, Grigory V.; Loa, Ingo; Hanfland, Michael; Syassen, Karl

    2015-08-01

    Structural changes of Li2C2 under pressure were studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell under hydrostatic conditions and by using evolutionary search methodology for crystal structure prediction. We show that the high-pressure polymorph of Li2C2 , which forms from the I m m m ground-state structure (Z =2 ) at around 15 GPa, adopts an orthorhombic P n m a structure with Z =4 . Acetylide C2 dumbbells characteristic of I m m m Li2C2 are retained in P n m a Li2C2 . The structure of P n m a Li2C2 relates closely to the anticotunnite-type structure. C2 dumbbell units are coordinated by nine Li atoms, as compared to eight in the antifluorite structure of I m m m Li2C2 . First-principles calculations predict a transition of P n m a Li2C2 at 32 GPa to a topologically identical phase with a higher C m c m symmetry. The coordination of C2 dumbbell units by Li atoms is increased to 11. The structure of C m c m Li2C2 relates closely to the Ni2 In-type structure. It is calculated that C m c m Li2C2 becomes metallic at pressures above 40 GPa. In experiments, however, P n m a Li2C2 is susceptible to irreversible amorphization.

  15. Measurement of the 2 sup 2 S sub 1/2 -2 sup 2 P sub 3/2 fine structure interval in muonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kettell, S.H.

    1990-08-01

    The (2{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} {minus} 2{sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) fine structure transition in muonium has been observed for the first time. The measured value is 9895 {sub {minus}30}{sup {plus}35}MHz. This measurement, when included with the theoretical value for the 2{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {minus} 2{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} fine structure interval, gives a value for the Lamb shift (2{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} {minus} 2{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) independent of previous direct measurements. From the theoretical value for the fine structure interval, 10921.833(3) MHz, the value for the Lamb shift determined from this experiment is 1027{sub {minus}35}{sup {plus}30} MHz and is in agreement with the prediction of quantum electrodynamics (QED) of 1047.5(3) MHz. Previous experimental values for the Lamb shift (2{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} {minus}2{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) in muonium are 1070{sub {minus}15}{sup {plus} 12} MHz and 1042{sub {minus}23}{sup {plus}21} MHz. Combining this result with these previous results gives a new experimental value of 1058{sub {minus}12}{sup {plus}10} for the Lamb shift in muonium. Muonium, the bound state of two structureless leptons ({mu}{sup +}e{sup {minus}}), is an ideal system for testing bound state QED because of the lack of hadronic structure as exists in the hydrogen system. The measurement makes use of the techniques of atomic beam microwave spectroscopy. Muonium atoms ({mu}{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) in the 2S states are produced by the beam-foil technique at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility with a low momentum, sub-surface muon beam. A variable frequency microwave field is applied to drive the atoms from the 2S to the 2P states, with the subsequent observation of the Lyman alpha photon from the decay of the 2P state to the 1S ground state. The frequency is varied from 9.0--11.0 GHz, driving the F = 0 {yields} F = 1, F = 1, F = 1 and F = 1 {yields} F = 2 transitions.

  16. [2.2]Paracyclophane derivatives containing tetrathiafulvalene moieties

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Laura G; Bahrin, Lucian G; Jones, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives containing tetrathiafulvalene units has been accomplished by the coupling reaction of 4-([2.2]paracyclophan-4-yl)-1,3-dithiol-2-thione in the presence of trimethylphosphite. The 1,3-dithiol-2-thione derivative was in turn synthesized by the regioselective bromination of 4-acetyl[2.2]paracyclophane, then through the corresponding dithiocarbamates and 1,3-dithiolium salts. PMID:26664611

  17. [2.2]Paracyclophane derivatives containing tetrathiafulvalene moieties.

    PubMed

    Sarbu, Laura G; Bahrin, Lucian G; Jones, Peter G; Birsa, Lucian M; Hopf, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives containing tetrathiafulvalene units has been accomplished by the coupling reaction of 4-([2.2]paracyclophan-4-yl)-1,3-dithiol-2-thione in the presence of trimethylphosphite. The 1,3-dithiol-2-thione derivative was in turn synthesized by the regioselective bromination of 4-acetyl[2.2]paracyclophane, then through the corresponding dithiocarbamates and 1,3-dithiolium salts. PMID:26664611

  18. Biosphere2 and Earthbuzz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburne, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to reach a broader audience, Biosphere 2, near Tucson, AZ, is participating in a network of science centers thanks to new funding through the Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth System Dynamics (NCED). Each of these centers will be tied together through an Earthbuzz kiosk, basically a networked web site that allows visitors to learn more about the work of leading local scientists in a very personal and captivating format. Content is currently being developed by Biosphere 2 researchers, staff, and graduate students that range from a public question and answer forum called “Scientist on the Spot” to science blogs by Biosphere 2 Fellows. It is hoped that this project will help educate the public about the Anthropocene, that is, the current geologic period that is so greatly affected by humankind’s impact on the health of the planet. Biosphere 2 provides a unique location to engage the public in this conversation for several reasons. First, no other destination on Earth gives the public such a physical immersion into what climate change might mean as does Biosphere 2. On the regular walking tour, visitors are guided through scaled down versions of an African savannah, a semi-arid thorn scrub, a coastal fog desert and a tropical rainforest. Digital displays of temperature and humidity confirm what your body is feeling - conditions ranging from desert aridity to tropical humidity. As one passes through the biomes of Biosphere 2, climate change is a whole body experience. Second, Biosphere 2 is also an active ecological research site - part of a unique network of sites run by the University of Arizona that allow scientists to study ecosystem processes across a range of scales - from microscopic root studies to studies encompassing large watersheds. In particular, a group of researchers is studying why large stands of pinion-juniper forests across the southwest have died in recent years. Biosphere2’s role in this

  19. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  20. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  1. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  2. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  3. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  4. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.2-2 Section 1220.2-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With respect to a part-time volunteer, ACTION will reimburse a sponsor for the reasonable expenses it...

  5. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.2-2 Section 1220.2-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With respect to a part-time volunteer, ACTION will reimburse a sponsor for the reasonable expenses it...

  6. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.2-2 Section 1220.2-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With respect to a part-time volunteer, ACTION will reimburse a sponsor for the reasonable expenses it...

  7. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.2-2 Section 1220.2-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With respect to a part-time volunteer, ACTION will reimburse a sponsor for the reasonable expenses it...

  8. 45 CFR 1220.2-2 - Part-time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.2-2 Section 1220.2-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With respect to a part-time volunteer, ACTION will reimburse a sponsor for the reasonable expenses it...

  9. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Additional time. (a) If the applicant has timely submitted some, but not all, of the...

  10. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Additional time. (a) If the applicant has timely submitted some, but not all, of the...

  11. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Additional time. (a) If the applicant has timely submitted some, but not all, of the...

  12. 41 CFR 51-2.2 - Powers and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Powers and responsibilities. 51-2.2 Section 51-2.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.2 Powers and responsibilities. The...

  13. 43 CFR 3585.2-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3585.2-2 Section 3585.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.2-2 Hardrock minerals. Expect as otherwise specifically provided in §§...

  14. 43 CFR 3585.2-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3585.2-2 Section 3585.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.2-2 Hardrock minerals. Expect as otherwise specifically provided in §§...

  15. 43 CFR 3585.2-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3585.2-2 Section 3585.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.2-2 Hardrock minerals. Expect as otherwise specifically provided in §§...

  16. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  17. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  18. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  19. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  20. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  1. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  2. 17 CFR 2.2 - Authority to affix seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority to affix seal. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.2 Authority to affix seal. (a) The following officials of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  3. 17 CFR 2.2 - Authority to affix seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to affix seal. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.2 Authority to affix seal. (a) The following officials of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  4. 17 CFR 2.2 - Authority to affix seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority to affix seal. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.2 Authority to affix seal. (a) The following officials of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  5. 17 CFR 2.2 - Authority to affix seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority to affix seal. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.2 Authority to affix seal. (a) The following officials of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  6. 17 CFR 2.2 - Authority to affix seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority to affix seal. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.2 Authority to affix seal. (a) The following officials of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  7. Photoluminescence and long after glow in Ba2MgSi2O7: Eu2+ and Ba2ZnSi2O7: Eu2+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, Gurjeet J.; Moharil, S. V.; Joshi, C. P.

    2016-05-01

    Silicate phosphors doped with Eu2+ find application in solid state lighting, plasma display panel, liquid crystal display and long after glow. In present work long lasting silicate phosphors are prepared by a modified combustion synthesis. The photoluminescence spectra and long lasting decay curves are measured. The Emission wavelength of Ba2MgSi2O7: Eu2+ is observed at 500 nm for excitation 345 nm.The emission wavelength of Ba2ZnSi2O7: Eu2+ is obtained at 496 nm at excitation 350 nm. Decay constants are calculated for both the phosphors.

  8. 75 FR 79990 - Airworthiness Directives; B-N Group Ltd. Model BN-2, BN-2A, BN-2A-2, BN-2A-3, BN-2A-6, BN-2A-8...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or.... Model BN-2, BN-2A, BN- 2A-2, BN-2A-3, BN-2A-6, BN-2A-8, BN-2A-9, BN-2A-20, BN-2A-21, BN-2A-26, BN-2A-27, BN-2B-20, BN-2B-21, BN-2B-26, BN-2B-27, BN-2T, and BN-2T-4R Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...

  9. Mode 2 fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, Robert J.; Ghosn, Louis

    1988-01-01

    Current development of high-performance rolling element bearings for aircraft engines (up to 3 million DN, where DN is the product of shaft diameter in millimeters and speed in revolutions per minute) has aroused concern about fatigue crack growth in the inner bearing race that leads to catastrophic failure of the bearing and the engine. A failure sequence was postulated by Srawley, and an analytical program was undertaken to simulate fatigue crack propagation in the inner raceway of such a bearing. A fatigue specimen was developed at NASA by which fatigue data may be obtained relative to the cracking problems. The specimen may be used to obtain either mode 2 data alone or a combination of mixed-mode (1 and 2) data as well and was calibrated in this regard. Mixed-mode fracture data for M-50 bearing steel are presented, and a method for performing reversed-loading tests is described.

  10. GASCan 2 payload integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, Dennis J.; Concepcion, Allan G.; Watras, Edward C., III

    1995-01-01

    This project, conducted in cooperation with the NASA Advanced Space Design Program, is part of an ongoing effort to place an experiment package into space. The goal of this project is to build and test flight-ready hardware that can be launched from the Space Shuttle. Get Away Special Canister 2 (GASCan 2) consists of three separate experiments. The Ionospheric Properties and Propagation Experiment (IPPE) determines effects of the ionosphere on radio wave propagation. The Microgravity Ignition experiment (MGI) tests the effects of combustion in a microgravity environment. The Rotational Fluid Flow experiment (RFF) examines fluid behavior under varying levels of gravity. This year the following tasks were completed: design of the IPPE antenna, X- and J-cell battery boxes, J-cell battery box enclosure, and structural bumpers; construction of the MGI canisters, MGI mounting brackets, IPPE antenna, and battery boxes; and the selection of the RFF's operating fluid and the analysis of the fluid behavior under microgravity test conditions.

  11. HYSHOT-2 Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.

    2005-02-01

    The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.

  12. J-2 Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Smokeless flame juts from the diffuser of a unique vacuum chamber in which the upper stage rocket engine, the hydrogen fueled J-2, was tested at a simulated space altitude in excess of 60,000 feet. The smoke you see is actually steam. In operation, vacuum is established by injecting steam into the chamber and is maintained by the thrust of the engine firing through the diffuser. The engine was tested in this environment for start, stop, coast, restart, and full-duration operations. The chamber was located at Rocketdyne's Propulsion Field Laboratory, in the Santa Susana Mountains, near Canoga Park, California. The J-2 engine was developed by Rocketdyne for the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. SCUBA 2 Nears Completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, I.; Holland, W.; Fairley, A.; MacIntosh, M.; Walton, A.; Parker, W.; Irwin, K.; Hilton, G.; Peter, A.; Halpern, M.; Fich, M.

    2005-12-01

    The second generation submillimetre camera for the JCMT, SCUBA-2, is now in the Assembly-Integration-Test phase in the lab at the UK ATC Edinburgh. The prototype 850 and 450 micron arrays have both been tested at Cardiff and are well within specification. The cryogenic performance of the instrument has been verified with sub 100mK performance achieved and the prototype arrays will receive first light in the instrument before Christmas 2005. The science grade arrays are currently under production from NIST, University of Edinburgh and Raytheon and the first devices will arrive in the UK in November 2005. Testing of the complete system with the Multi-Channel-Electronics from UBC will commence in January and SCUBA-2 will be delivered to the JCMT in August 2006.

  14. Spacelab 2 - A preview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    The Spacelab 2 mission, which is scheduled for Space Shuttle Challenger launch in July of 1985, will carry four telescopes for solar study, a dual X-ray telescope for observation of galaxy clusters, and a helium-cooled IR telescope for studies of interstellar clouds and other extended sources. The largest cosmic ray detector carried to space thus far will also be part of the payload. Life science experiment packages will examine the vitamin D chemistry of human blood under zero-G conditions, and the manner in which pine tree seedlings sense gravity and respond to it. Spacelab 2 will carry a crew of seven, including three mission specialists and two payload specialists.

  15. Frozen Frozen CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    2 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar residual cap of Mars. Much of the south polar residual cap exhibits terrain that resembles stacks of sliced Swiss cheese, but this portion of the cap lacks the typical, circular depressions that characterize much of the region. Carbon dioxide on Mars freezes at a temperature of around 148 Kelvins, which is -125oC or about -193oF.

    Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  16. Strategic Plan. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Mission of the NSBRI will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. To carry out this mission, the NSBRI focuses its activities on three Strategic Programs: Strategic Program 1: Countermeasure Research Strategic Program 2: Education, Training and Outreach Strategic Program 3: Cooperative Research and Development. This document contains the detailed Team Strategic Plans for the 11 research teams focused on Strategic Program 1, and the Education and Outreach Team focused on Strategic Program 2. There is overlap and integration among the Programs and Team Strategic Plans, as described in each of the Plans.

  17. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  18. COX-2 chronology

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, C J

    2005-01-01

    The role of selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors in medical practice has become controversial since evidence emerged that their use is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Selective COX-2 inhibitors were seen as successor to non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in turn successors to aspirin. The importance of pain relief means that such drugs have always attracted attention. The fact that they work through inhibition of cyclooxygenase, are widespread, and have multiple effects also means that adverse effects that were unanticipated (even though predictable) have always emerged. In this paper I therefore present an historical perspective so that the lessons of the past may be applied to the present. PMID:16227351

  19. STS-2 medical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    All medially related activities of the Space Transportation System 2 flight are described, ranging from preflight to postflight. Several medical problems occured during the flight. Their was marginal operation on-board potable water system caused by a malfunctioning fuel cell. Work and rest cycles by the crew were altered to maximize the scientific data acquisition. Inadequate time was allocated for food preparation and consumption. There was low water intake by the crew because of the water shortage.

  20. GETO2FAC

    2005-05-01

    An implementation of a model that accounts for diffusion limited oxidation effects [Ref.1] in the chemical aging response of butyl o-ring seals. Given the oxygen concentration, this model calculates a chemical aging parameter that regulates how the butyl material relaxes with time [Ref.2] inside a chemical aging constitutive model. This implementation is in the form of a subroutine that is called by a Sandia developed multi-strategy iterative code for solid mechanics analysis code called JAS3D.

  1. NCSMV2EFF

    2007-04-15

    NCSMV2EFF is a program to calculate an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for several realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The code outputs two-nucleon matrix elements in a form suitable as input into typical shell model codes. it handles nucleon-nucleon potentials both coordinate-space local and nonlocal and momentum-space. The primary use of these effective interactions is as input for the ab initio no-core shell model calculations.

  2. SSCMAG2. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, B.J.; Orrell, D.J.; Snitchler, G.L. )

    1992-08-05

    SSCMAG is an integrated design package for designing the two dimensional magnetic cross section of superconducting particle accelerator magnets. SSCMAG consists of three functional sections. One function determines placement of the conductors to provide an optimized 2-D cross section, whereas, the second function examines the effects of non-optimal conductor placement and the effects of persistent currents and AC-losses. The last function integrates the first two functions and provides output suitable for input by other engineering design packages.

  3. UPSS and G2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dito, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The Universal Propellant Servicing System (UPSS) is a dedicated mobile launcher propellant delivery method that will minimize danger and complexity in order to allow vehicles to be serviced and ultimately launched from a variety of locations previously not seen fit for space launch. The UPPS/G2 project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to the rocket for testing purposes. To accomplish this, the project is using the programming language/environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. We have learned G2 through classes and trial-and-error, and are now in the process of building the application that will soon be able to be tested on apparatuses here at Kennedy Space Center, and eventually on the actual unit. The UPSS will bring near-autonomous control of launches to those that need it, as well it will be a great addition to NASA and KSC's operational viability and the opportunity to bring space launches to parts of the world, and in time constraints, once not thought possible.

  4. Formaldehyde from GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comyn-Platt, Edward; Hewson, Will; Bösch, Hartmut; Barkley, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emitted into the atmosphere with emissions roughly equal to global methane emissions from all sources. Isoprene strongly influences the oxidation capacity in the troposphere hence influences levels of methane and tropospheric ozone, and is also a precursor to secondary organic aerosol. Isoprene, therefore, plays a significant role in radiative forcing and determining Earth's climate trends. However, the exact mechanisms of isoprene emission from vegetation are poorly understood and current land-surface models often use different parameterisation and meteorological fields to drive such schemes. Furthermore, isoprene emissions measurements are rare and are difficult to extrapolate to regional and continental scales thus resulting in large uncertainties in the total global emissions. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is formed as an intermediate product during the isoprene oxidation process and can be used as a proxy for isoprene emission. Global satellite observations of formaldehyde are now available from a number of satellite sensors which offer a unique ability to study isoprene emissions over large regions. Here, we use formaldehyde observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) instrument retrieved with the University of Leicester retrieval (Hewson et al. 2013) to: 1) test state-of-the-art model calculations using the GEOS-CHEM global transport model; 2) investigate the key drivers for regional year-to-year anomalies in formaldehyde (or isoprene) emissions and 3) assess the ability of current land surface models (MEGAN, JULES) to reproduce the observed anomalies and their dependence on climate variations.

  5. Parsivel2 Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, MJ

    2014-06-13

    In order to improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the ARM program has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. ARM purchased Parsivel2 laser disdrometers with America Recovery Act funds and they have proven to be robust in the field. They make observations of the particle size distribution over the range of 0.06mm to 24mm and classify precipitation type. To date they have been deployed on board the Spirit Horizon during the MAGIC Field Campaign and one will be permanently deployed at East North Atlantic (ENA). ARM initially deployed impact disdrometers (TWPC1, TWPC3 and SGPC1). Each of the three units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were upgraded to weighing buckets. Subsequently five video disdrometers were purchased. The purchase of the 6th video disdrometer is pending. The video disdrometers are permanently deployed at SGPC1, TWPC1, TWPC3 and in the near future at ENA. One video disdrometer is assigned to the ARM2. What follows is a detailed description of the Parsivel2 laser disdrometers and their datastreams.

  6. CPLOAS_2 User Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Helton, Jon C.

    2015-05-01

    Weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems are important parts of the overall operational design of high - consequence systems. In such designs, the SL system is very robust and is intended to permit operation of the entire system under, and only under, intended conditions. In contrast, the WL system is intended to fail in a predictable and irreversible manner under accident conditions and render the entire system inoperable before an accidental operation of the SL system. The likelihood that the WL system will fail to d eactivate the entire system before the SL system fails (i.e., degrades into a configuration that could allow an accidental operation of the entire system) is referred to as probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS). This report describes the Fortran 90 program CPLOAS_2 that implements the following representations for PLOAS for situations in which both link physical properties and link failure properties are time - dependent: (i) failure of all SLs before failure of any WL, (ii) failure of any SL before f ailure of any WL, (iii) failure of all SLs before failure of all WLs, and (iv) failure of any SL before failure of all WLs. The effects of aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty in the definition and numerical evaluation of PLOAS can be included in the calculations performed by CPLOAS_2. Keywords: Aleatory uncertainty, CPLOAS_2, Epistemic uncertainty, Probability of loss of assured safety, Strong link, Uncertainty analysis, Weak link

  7. Solar Eagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberto, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    During a 22-month period from February 1991 to December 1993, a dedicated group of students, faculty, and staff at California State University, Los Angeles completed a project to design, build, and race their second world class solar-powered electric vehicle, the Solar Eagle 2. This is the final report of that project. As a continuation of the momentum created by the success of the GM-sponsored Sunrayce USA in 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) picked up the banner from General Motors as sponsors of Sunrayce 93. In February 1991, the DOE sent a request for proposals to all universities in North America inviting them to submit a proposal outlining how they would design, build, and test a solar-powered electric vehicle for a seven-day race from Arlington, Texas to Minneapolis, Minnesota, to be held in June 1993. Some 70 universities responded. At the end of a proposal evaluation process, 36 universities including CSLA were chosen to compete. This report documents the Solar Eagle 2 project--the approaches take, what was learned, and how our experience from the first Solar Eagle was incorporated into Solar Eagle 2. The intent is to provide a document that would assist those who may wish to take up the challenge to build Solar Eagle 3.

  8. Interleukin-2 carbohydrate recognition modulates CTLL-2 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, K; Yamashita, K

    2001-03-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) specifically recognizes high-mannose type glycans with five or six mannosyl residues. To determine whether the carbohydrate recognition activity of IL-2 contributes to its physiological activity, the inhibitory effects of high-mannose type glycans on IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cell proliferation were investigated. Man(5)GlcNAc(2)Asn added to CTLL-2 cell cultures inhibited not only phosphorylation of tyrosine kinases but also IL-2-dependent cell proliferation. We found that a complex of IL-2, IL-2 receptor alpha, beta, gamma subunits, and tyrosine kinases was formed in rhIL-2-stimulated CTLL-2 cells. Among the components of this complex, only the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit was stained with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin which specifically recognizes high-mannose type glycans. This staining was diminished after digestion of the glycans with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H or D, suggesting that at least a N-glycan containing Man(5)GlcNAc(2) is linked to the extracellular portion of the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit. Our findings indicate that IL-2 binds the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit through Man(5)GlcNAc(2) and a specific peptide sequence on the surface of CTLL-2 cells. When IL-2 binds to the IL-2Ralpha subunit, this may trigger formation of the high affinity complex of IL-2-IL-2Ralpha, -beta, and -gamma subunits, leading to cellular signaling.

  9. Regulation of RYR2 by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joe Z; Waddell, Helen M M; Jones, Peter P

    2015-06-01

    Ca(2+) is arguably the most important ion involved in the contraction of the heart. The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), the major Ca(2+) release channel located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane, is responsible for releasing the bulk of Ca(2+) required for contraction. Moreover, RyR2 is also crucial for maintaining SR Ca(2+) homeostasis by releasing Ca(2+) from the SR when it becomes overloaded with Ca(2+) . During normal contraction, RyR2 is activated by cytosolic Ca(2+) , whereas during store overload conditions, the opening of RyR2 is governed by SR Ca(2+) . Although the process of the cytosolic control of RyR2 is well established, the molecular mechanism by which SR luminal Ca(2+) regulates RyR2 has only recently been elucidated and remains controversial. In addition to the activation of RyR2, SR luminal Ca(2+) also determines when the RyR2 channel closes. RyR2-mediated Ca(2+) release from the SR does not continue until the SR is completely depleted. Rather, it ceases when SR luminal Ca(2+) falls below a certain level. Given the importance of SR Ca(2+) , it is not surprising that the SR luminal Ca(2+) level is tightly controlled by SR Ca(2+) -buffering proteins. Consequently, the opening and closing of RyR2 is heavily influenced by the presence of such proteins, particularly those associated with RyR2, such as calsequestrin and the histidine-rich Ca(2+) -binding protein. These proteins appear to indirectly alter RyR2 activity by modifying the microdomain SR Ca(2+) level surrounding RyR2. PMID:25603835

  10. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination . (May still have ...

  11. 1-(Fluoren-2-yl)-2-(2-azafluoren-3-yl)ethene and 1-(fluoren-2-yl)-2-(2H,2-methylindeno(2,3-c)pyridine)ethene

    SciTech Connect

    Prostakov, N.S.; Obynochnyi, A.A.; Murugova, L.A.

    1987-11-01

    Condensation of 3-methyl-2-azafluorene with 2-formylfluorene results in the formation of a compound containing a polyconjugated system and two acidic CH centers, namely, 1-(fluoren-2-yl)-2-(2-azafluoren-3-yl)ethene. The conversions of this compound upon treatment with alkali have been studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The methyl iodide derivative of this base was used as an intermediate in the preparation of a pseudo-azulene, 1-(fluoren-2-yl)-2-(2H,2-methylindeno(2,3-c)pyridine)ethene.

  12. Investigations on the fluorescence quenching of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene by certain flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, V; Kalaiselvan, A; Jaccob, M; Venuvanalingam, P; Renganathan, R

    2008-05-29

    The fluorescence quenching of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) by seven flavonoids namely flavone, flavanone, quercetin, rutin, genistein, diadzein and chrysin has been investigated in acetonitrile and dichloromethane solvents. The bimolecular quenching rate constants lie in the range of 0.09-5.75 x 10(9)M(-1)s(-1) and are explained in terms of structure of the flavonoids studied. The reactivity of flavonoids are in the order: quercetin>rutin>genistein>diadzein>chrysin>flavone>flavanone. The quenching rate constants (k(q)) increase with increase in the number of -OH groups. The endergonic thermodynamic values of DeltaG(et) reveal that electron transfer quenching mechanism can be ruled out. Bond dissociation enthalpy calculations reveal that the position of -OH is important. Further in vitro-antioxidant activities of flavonoids were evaluated with rat liver catalase by gel electrophoresis. The deuterium isotope effect thus observed in this work provides evidence for hydrogen abstraction involved in the quenching process of singlet excited DBO by flavonoids. The data suggest the involvement of direct hydrogen atom transfer (radical scavenging) in the fluorescence quenching of DBO. Bond dissociation enthalpy calculation performed at B3LYP/6-31G(p')//B3LYP/3-21G level are in excellent agreement with the above observations and further reveal that the number OH groups and position of them decide the quenching ability of the flavonoids.

  13. Luminescence and Site Occupancy of Eu2+ in Ba2 Ca(BO3)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pan-Lai; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Guo, Qing-Lin

    2011-01-01

    A green phosphor Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Eu2+ was synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction method under a reductive atmosphere. The luminescence and site occupancy of Eu2+ in Ba2Ca(BO3)2 are investigated. Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Eu2+ shows one green band (537 nm) under 400 nm near ultraviolet excitation which is suitable for UV LED. Ca2+ and Ba2+ ions in Ba2Ca(BO3)2 are replaced by Eu2+ ions, the Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Eu2+ shows a dissymmetrical emission band. The influence of Eu2+ doping concentrations on the emission intensity of Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Eu2+ is studied. It is found that the emission intensity is influenced by the Eu2+ concentration and reaches the maximum value at 2% Eu2+. According to the Dexter theory, the concentration quenching mechanisms of Eu2+ in Ba2Ca(BO3)2 are the d-dinteraction.

  14. 2-DPMP (desoxypipradrol, 2-benzhydrylpiperidine, 2-phenylmethylpiperidine) and D2PM (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-methanol, diphenylprolinol): A preliminary review.

    PubMed

    Corkery, John M; Elliott, Simon; Schifano, Fabrizio; Corazza, Ornella; Ghodse, A Hamid

    2012-12-01

    2-DPMP (desoxypipradrol, 2-benzhydrylpiperidine, 2-phenylmethylpiperidine) and D2PM (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-methanol, diphenylprolinol) are psychoactive substances, sold primarily over the Internet and in 'head' shops as 'legal highs', 'research chemicals' or 'plant food'. Originally developed in the 1950s for the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD, 2-DPMP's use soon became very limited. Recreational use of 2-DPMP and D2PM appears to have started in March 2007, but only developed slowly. However, in the UK their popularity grew in 2009, increasing rapidly during summer 2010. At this time, there were many presentations to UK Emergency Departments by patients complaining of undesirable physical and psychiatric effects after taking 2-DPMP. In spring 2011 there were similar presentations for D2PM. Recreational use of these drugs has been reported only occasionally in on-line user fora. There is little scientifically-based literature on the pharmacological, physiological, psychopharmacological, toxicological and epidemiological characteristics of these drugs. Here we describe what is known about them, especially on their toxicity, including what we believe to be the first three deaths involving the use of 2-DPMP in August 2010. There are no international controls imposed on 2-DPMP or D2PM. However, a ban on their UK importation was imposed in November 2011 and they became Class C drugs on 13 June 2012. It is critical that any other cases, including non-fatal overdoses, are documented so that a scientific evidence-base can be established for them.

  15. Electron-impact excitation of the Rb 7 2S1/2, 8 2S1/2, 5 2D3/2, and 6 2D3/2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zuyi; Flynn, Connor; Redd, Aaron; Stumpf, Bernhard

    1993-03-01

    Electron-impact cross sections for excitation of the 7 2S1/2, 8 2S1/2, 5 2D3/2, and 6 2D3/2 states of rubidium have been measured from threshold to 1000 eV. The optical-excitation-function method has been employed in a crossed atom- and electron-beam apparatus. Relative, total (cascade including) experimental cross sections are made absolute by comparison with the known total cross section of the Rb D1 line. Total excitation cross sections are compared with theoretical calculations employing first Born approximation and theoretical branching ratios. Born cross sections for the 7 2S1/2 and 8 2S1/2 states are obtained from the literature, while Born cross sections for the 5 2D3/2, 6 2D3/2, and all cascading states are calculated in this paper. At high energies, the measured total 2D3/2 state cross sections show 1/E behavior and converge to first Born theory; for E>100 eV, experiment and theory agree within 6.7% for 5 2D3/2 and within 3.7% for 6 2D3/2. The total cross sections for the 2S1/2 states do not converge to Born theory even at 1000 eV, and it is shown that this cannot be attributed to cascading. At low energies, 2S1/2 and 2D3/2 state total excitation cross sections have similar shapes with sharply peaked maxima at about 0.9 eV above threshold. After cascading is corrected using first Born theory, estimated experimental cross sections for direct excitation of higher fine-structure states of rubidium are given.

  16. GATA2 and Lmo2 control angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis via direct transcriptional regulation of neuropilin-2

    PubMed Central

    Coma, Silvia; Allard-Ratick, Marc; Akino, Tomoshige; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Mammoto, Akiko; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2013-01-01

    GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2) and LIM domain only 2 (Lmo2) form common transcription complexes during hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that these two transcription factors also play a key role in endothelial cells (EC) and lymphatic EC (LEC) function. Primary EC and tumor-associated blood vessels expressed GATA2 and Lmo2. VEGF-induced sprouting angiogenesis in both differentiating embryonic stem cells (embryoid bodies) and primary EC increased GATA2 and Lmo2 levels. Conversely, silencing of GATA2 and Lmo2 expression in primary EC inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic activity, including EC migration and sprouting in vitro, two key steps of angiogenesis in vivo. This inhibition of EC function was associated with downregulated expression of neuropilin-2 (NRP2), a co-receptor for VEGF, at the protein, mRNA and promoter levels. NRP2 overexpression partially rescued the impaired angiogenic sprouting in the GATA2/Lmo2 knockdown EC, confirming that GATA2 and Lmo2 mediated EC function, at least in part, by directly regulating NRP2 gene expression. Furthermore, it was found that primary LEC expressed GATA2 and Lmo2 as well. Silencing of GATA2 and Lmo2 expression in LEC inhibited VEGF-induced LEC sprouting, also in a NRP2-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GATA2 and Lmo2 cooperatively regulate VEGF-induced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis via NRP2. PMID:23892628

  17. Regulation of phospholipase D2 by H(2)O(2) in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, S O; Hong, J H; Kim, Y R; Yoo, H S; Lee, S H; Lim, K; Hwang, B D; Exton, J H; Park, S K

    2000-12-01

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is expressed in brain and inhibited by synuclein, which is involved in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. However, the activation mechanism of PLD2 in neuronal cells has not been defined clearly. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) plays roles in the neurodegenerative diseases and also acts as a second messenger of various molecules such as nerve growth factor. To study regulation mechanisms of PLD2 by H(2)O(2) in neuronal cells, we have made stable PC12 cell lines expressing PLD2 (PLD2-PC12 cells). H(2)O(2) treatment stimulated PLD activity in PLD2-PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This activation was inhibited by the treatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors or by depletion of PKCalpha, -delta, and -epsilon. Phorbol ester markedly activated PLD2. Co-treatment with phorbol ester and H(2)O(2) did not show an additive effect. Chelation of extracellular calcium substantially blocked the H(2)O(2)-induced activation of PLD2. A calcium ionophore induced PLD2 activation in a PKC-dependent manner. Protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced PLD activation slightly. These data indicate that H(2)O(2) can activate PLD2 in PC12 cells and that this activation is largely dependent on PKC and Ca(2+) ions and minimally dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation.

  18. Recurrent Loss of NFE2L2 Exon 2 Is a Mechanism for Nrf2 Pathway Activation in Human Cancers.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Leonard D; Lee, James; Gnad, Florian; Klijn, Christiaan; Schaub, Annalisa; Reeder, Jens; Daemen, Anneleen; Bakalarski, Corey E; Holcomb, Thomas; Shames, David S; Hartmaier, Ryan J; Chmielecki, Juliann; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Gentleman, Robert; Stokoe, David

    2016-09-01

    The Nrf2 pathway is frequently activated in human cancers through mutations in Nrf2 or its negative regulator KEAP1. Using a cell-line-derived gene signature for Nrf2 pathway activation, we found that some tumors show high Nrf2 activity in the absence of known mutations in the pathway. An analysis of splice variants in oncogenes revealed that such tumors express abnormal transcript variants from the NFE2L2 gene (encoding Nrf2) that lack exon 2, or exons 2 and 3, and encode Nrf2 protein isoforms missing the KEAP1 interaction domain. The Nrf2 alterations result in the loss of interaction with KEAP1, Nrf2 stabilization, induction of a Nrf2 transcriptional response, and Nrf2 pathway dependence. In all analyzed cases, transcript variants were the result of heterozygous genomic microdeletions. Thus, we identify an alternative mechanism for Nrf2 pathway activation in human tumors and elucidate its functional consequences. PMID:27568559

  19. Gas-Phase Coordination Complexes of UVIO{2/2+}, NpVIO{2/2+}, and PuVIO{2/2+} with Dimethylformamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Philip X.; Rios, Daniel; Gibson, John K.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.

    2011-11-01

    Electrospray ionization of actinyl perchlorate solutions in H2O with 5% by volume of dimethylformamide (DMF) produced the isolatable gas-phase complexes, [AnVIO2(DMF)3(H2O)]2+ and [AnVIO2(DMF)4]2+, where An = U, Np, and Pu. Collision-induced dissociation confirmed the composition of the dipositive coordination complexes, and produced doubly- and singly-charged fragment ions. The fragmentation products reveal differences in underlying chemistries of uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl, including the lower stability of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) compared with U(VI).

  20. Banff Challenge 2

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Experimental particle physics collaborations constantly seek newer and better ideas for improving the sensitivity of their searches for new particles and phenomena. Statistical techniques are the last step in interpreting the results of an experiment; they are used to make discoveries (hypothesis testing), and to measure parameters (point estimation). They are also used in the first step - experiment and analysis design. Banff Challenge 2 asks participants to test their methods of discovering hidden signals in simulated datasets and of measuring the properties of these signals. The Challenge problems are described, and the performances of the submitted entries is summarized, for datasets with and without simulated signals present.

  1. SLS-2 involvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to support Russian space flight experiments carried out on rats flown aboard Space Shuttle Mission SLS-2. The Russian experiments were designed to determine the effects of space flight on immunological parameters. The Russian experiment included the first in-flight dissection of rodents that allowed the determination of kinetics of when space flight affected immune responses. The support given the Russians by this laboratory was to carry out assays for immunologically important cytokines that could not readily be carried out in their home laboratories. These included essays of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma and possibly other cytokines.

  2. X-33 Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In response to Clause 17 of the Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. Contract award was announced on July 2, 1996 and the first milestone was hand delivered to NASA MSFC on July 17, 1996. The first year has been one of growth and progress as all team members staffed up and embarked on the technical adventure of the 20th century... the ultimate goal . . a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Reuseable Launch Vehicle (RLV).

  3. (Z)-2-(3-methoxybenzylidene)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-one.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2005-11-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C(15)H(17)NO(2), contains two nearly identical but crystallographically independent molecules, each with a double bond connecting an azabicyclic ring system to a 3-methoxybenzylidene moiety. The space group is triclinic P-1. The benzene ring is twisted by 18.44 (5) and 22.35 (4) degrees with respect to the plane of the double bond connected to the azabicyclic ring system for the two molecules. In addition to C-H...pi interactions, molecules are held together in the solid state by van der Waals interactions.

  4. Triton 2 (1B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michelle L.; Meiss, A. G.; Neher, Jason R.; Rudolph, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a detailed design analysis on a conceptually designed preliminary flight trainer. The Triton 2 (1B) must meet the current regulations in FAR Part 23. The detailed design process included the tasks of sizing load carrying members, pulleys, bolts, rivets, and fuselage skin for the safety cage, empennage, and control systems. In addition to the regulations in FAR Part 23, the detail design had to meet established minimums for environmental operating conditions and material corrosion resistance.

  5. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  6. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  7. The irradiation effects of Gd2Hf2O7 and Gd2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. H.; Wen, J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z. G.; Tang, M.; Valdez, J. A.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2012-09-01

    In this report, we present dramatically different behavior between isostructural Gd2Hf2O7 and Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore using 400 keV Ne2+ irradiation under cryogenic conditions (˜77 K), in which the lattice volume of the irradiated layer of Gd2Ti2O7 increased with ion fluence up to 1 × 1015 ions/cm2, whereas, the lattice volume of the irradiated layer of Gd2Hf2O7 decreased with increasing fluence from 1 × 1015 to 6 × 1016 ions/cm2. The cation radius ratio rA/rB, the bond-type of A-O and B-O bonds, the order-to-disorder transition energy of Gd2Hf2O7 and Gd2Ti2O7, temperature-composition (T-C) phase diagrams of HfO2-Gd2O3 and TiO2-Gd2O3 mixtures were used to explain the response of Gd2Hf2O7 and Gd2Ti2O7 to ion irradiation-induced structure transformation.

  8. Structures of nitrato-(2-hydroxybenzaldehydo) (2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper and nitrato-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper

    SciTech Connect

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Paladi, L. G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Gulea, A. P.; Ginju, D.; Palomares-Sanchez, S. A.

    2011-03-15

    Nitrato-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper (I) and nitrato-(2-hydroxybenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper (II) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom in complex I can be described as a distorted tetragonal pyramid whose base is formed by the phenol and carbonyl oxygen atoms of the monodeprotonated 2-hydroxy-5nitrobenzaldehyde molecule and the nitrogen atoms of the 2,2 Prime -bipyridyl ligand and whose apex is occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group. In the crystal structure, complexes I are linked by the acido ligands and the NO{sub 2} groups of the aldehyde molecule into infinite chains. In complex II, the central copper atom is coordinated by 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2,2 Prime -bipyridyl, and the nitrato group, resulting in the formation of centrosymmetric dimers. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom can be described as a bipyramid (4 + 1 + 1) with the same base as in complex I. The axial vertices of the bipyramid are occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group and the bridging phenol oxygen atom of the adjacent complex related to the initial complex by a center of symmetry. In the crystal structure, complexes II are hydrogen bonded into infinite chains.

  9. Structures of nitrato-(2-hydroxybenzaldehydo) (2,2'-bipyridyl)copper and nitrato-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehydo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Paladi, L. G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Gulea, A. P.; Ginju, D.; Palomares-Sanchez, S. A.

    2011-03-01

    Nitrato-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehydo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)copper ( I) and nitrato-(2-hydroxybenzaldehydo)(2,2'-bipyridyl)copper ( II) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom in complex I can be described as a distorted tetragonal pyramid whose base is formed by the phenol and carbonyl oxygen atoms of the monodeprotonated 2-hydroxy-5nitrobenzaldehyde molecule and the nitrogen atoms of the 2,2'-bipyridyl ligand and whose apex is occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group. In the crystal structure, complexes I are linked by the acido ligands and the NO2 groups of the aldehyde molecule into infinite chains. In complex II, the central copper atom is coordinated by 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2,2'-bipyridyl, and the nitrato group, resulting in the formation of centrosymmetric dimers. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom can be described as a bipyramid (4 + 1 + 1) with the same base as in complex I. The axial vertices of the bipyramid are occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group and the bridging phenol oxygen atom of the adjacent complex related to the initial complex by a center of symmetry. In the crystal structure, complexes II are hydrogen bonded into infinite chains.

  10. Antiferromagnetism in CaAl2Si2-type CaMn2As2 and SrMn2As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, N. S.; Pandey, Abhishek; Benson, Zackery A.; Johnston, D. C.

    Magnetic susceptibility versus temperature χ (T) measurements of CaMn2As2 and SrMn2As2 crystals show clear antiferromagnetic (AFM) transitions at TN ~ 65 K and 120 K,1 respectively. The anisotropic behaviors in χ (T <=TN) suggest that both compounds are noncollinear antiferromagnets which may result either from an intrinsic noncollinear structure or from multiple collinear AFM domains that are not aligned collinearly.2 The χ (T) data at T >TN reveal that both compounds exhibit strong short-range AFM ordering, evidently associated with quasi-two-dimensional spin lattices. The electrical resistivities show insulating ground states with activation energies of ~ 63 meV in CaMn2As2 and 44 meV in SrMn2As2 . The experimental results thus reveal that both (Ca , Sr) Mn2As2 materials are AFM insulators at low temperatures and in analogy with the high Tc cuprates, may be potential parent compounds for CaAl2Si2-type superconductors. Work was supported by the USDOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  11. Superconductivity in KCa2Fe4As4F2 with Separate Double Fe2As2 Layers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Cheng; He, Chao-Yang; Wu, Si-Qi; Tang, Zhang-Tu; Liu, Yi; Ablimit, Abduweli; Feng, Chun-Mu; Cao, Guang-Han

    2016-06-29

    We report the synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of a quinary iron arsenide fluoride, KCa2Fe4As4F2. The new compound crystallizes in a body-centered tetragonal lattice (space group I4/mmm, a = 3.8684(2) Å, c = 31.007(1) Å, Z = 2) that contains double Fe2As2 conducting layers separated by insulating Ca2F2 layers. Our measurements of electrical resistivity, direct-current magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity demonstrate bulk superconductivity at 33 K in KCa2Fe4As4F2. PMID:27321364

  12. COSMICFLOWS-2: THE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Hélène M.; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Wu, Po-Feng; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Fisher, J. Richard; Héraudeau, Philippe; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Makarov, Dmitry; Makarova, Lidia; Mitronova, Sofia; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.; Sorce, Jenny G.

    2013-10-01

    Cosmicflows-2 is a compilation of distances and peculiar velocities for over 8000 galaxies. Numerically the largest contributions come from the luminosity-line width correlation for spirals, the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR), and the related fundamental plane relation for E/S0 systems, but over 1000 distances are contributed by methods that provide more accurate individual distances: Cepheid, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), surface brightness fluctuation, Type Ia supernova, and several miscellaneous but accurate procedures. Our collaboration is making important contributions to two of these inputs: TRGB and TFR. A large body of new distance material is presented. In addition, an effort is made to ensure that all the contributions, both our own and those from the literature, are on the same scale. Overall, the distances are found to be compatible with a Hubble constant H {sub 0} = 74.4 ± 3.0 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. The great interest going forward with this data set will be with velocity field studies. Cosmicflows-2 is characterized by a great density and high accuracy of distance measures locally, falling to sparse and coarse sampling extending to z = 0.1.

  13. CO2 laser preionisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1991-01-01

    The final report for work done during the reporting period of January 25, 1990 to January 24, 1991 is presented. A literature survey was conducted to identify the required parameters for effective preionization in TEA CO2 lasers and the methods and techniques for characterizing preionizers are reviewed. A numerical model of the LP-140 cavity was used to determine the cause of the transverse mode stability improvement obtained when the cavity was lengthened. The measurement of the voltage and current discharge pulses on the LP-140 were obtained and their subsequent analysis resulted in an explanation for the low efficiency of the laser. An assortment of items relating to the development of high-voltage power supplies is also provided. A program for analyzing the frequency chirp data files obtained with the HP time and frequency analyzer is included. A program to calculate the theoretical LIMP chirp is also included and a comparison between experiment and theory is made. A program for calculating the CO2 linewidth and its dependence on gas composition and pressure is presented. The program also calculates the number of axial modes under the FWHM of the line for a given resonator length. A graphical plot of the results is plotted.

  14. CPLOAS_2 user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie.; Helton, Jon Craig

    2012-10-01

    Weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems are important parts of the overall operational design of high-consequence systems. In such designs, the SL system is very robust and is intended to permit operation of the entire system under, and only under, intended conditions. In contrast, the WL system is intended to fail in a predictable and irreversible manner under accident conditions and render the entire system inoperable before an accidental operation of the SL system. The likelihood that the WL system will fail to deactivate the entire system before the SL system fails (i.e., degrades into a configuration that could allow an accidental operation of the entire system) is referred to as probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS). This report describes the Fortran 90 program CPLOAS_2 that implements the following representations for PLOAS for situations in which both link physical properties and link failure properties are time-dependent: (i) failure of all SLs before failure of any WL, (ii) failure of any SL before failure of any WL, (iii) failure of all SLs before failure of all WLs, and (iv) failure of any SL before failure of all WLs. The effects of aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty in the definition and numerical evaluation of PLOAS can be included in the calculations performed by CPLOAS_2.

  15. Zmspds2 maize gene

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, growing evidence has arisen referring the importance of the proper regulation of plant polyamine metabolism in the response to stress conditions. Being the activation of signaling pathways, the stabilization of anionic molecules and prevention of their degradation, as well as the free radical scavenger properties of polyamines some possible mechanisms exerted by these amines. Accumulation of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) has been associated to plant tolerance to a wide array of environmental stresses. The synthesis of spermidine and spermine is mediated by aminopropyltransferases (spermidine and spermine synthases) which constitute a class of widely distributed enzymes that use decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as an aminopropyl donor, and putrescine or spermidine as an amino acceptor. We recently reported the effect of salt stress on the expression of aminopropyltransferase genes in maize seedlings. Our data revealed a time and NaCl dependent regulation of the Zmspds2 and Zmspds1 genes, possibly mediated by abscisic acid, since these genes were regulated at the transcriptional level by this plant hormone. In this addendum, we show that the Zmspds2 gene initially classified as spermidine synthase might encode a spermine synthase based on an in silico analysis. This is discussed in terms of protein homologies and specific amino acid substitutions between aminopropyltransferase enzymes. PMID:19704464

  16. MELCOR-H2

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-10

    Before this LDRD research, no single tool could simulate a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) that is coupled to a secondary system and the sulfur iodine (SI) thermochemistry. Furthermore, the SI chemistry could only be modeled in steady state, typically via flow sheets. Additionally, the MELCOR nuclear reactor analysis code was suitable only for the modeling of light water reactors, not gas-cooled reactors. We extended MELCOR in order to address the above deficiencies. In particular, we developed three VHTR input models, added generalized, modular secondary system components, developed reactor point kinetics, included transient thermochemistry for the most important cycles [SI and the Westinghouse hybrid sulfur], and developed an interactive graphical user interface for full plant visualization. The new tool is called MELCOR-H2, and it allows users to maximize hydrogen and electrical production, as well as enhance overall plant safety. We conducted validation and verification studies on the key models, and showed that the MELCOR-H2 results typically compared to within less than 5% from experimental data, code-to-code comparisons, and/or analytical solutions.

  17. UPVG phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG), supported by member dues and a grant from the US Department of Energy, has as its mission the acceleration of the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging large-scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. Formed in October, 1992, with the support of the American Public Power Association, Edison Electric Institute, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the UPVG currently has 90 members from all sectors of the electric utility industry. The UPVG`s efforts as conceived were divided into four phases: Phase 0--program plan; Phase 1--organization and strategy development; Phase 2--creating market assurance; and Phase 3--higher volume purchases. The Phase 0 effort developed the program plan and was completed early in 1993. The Phase 1 goal was to develop the necessary background information and analysis to lead to a decision as to which strategies could be undertaken by utilities to promote greater understanding of PV markets and achieve increased volumes of PV purchases. This report provides the details of the UPVG`s Phase 2 efforts to initiate TEAM-UP, its multiyear, 50-MW hardware initiative.

  18. MELCOR-H2

    2009-11-10

    Before this LDRD research, no single tool could simulate a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) that is coupled to a secondary system and the sulfur iodine (SI) thermochemistry. Furthermore, the SI chemistry could only be modeled in steady state, typically via flow sheets. Additionally, the MELCOR nuclear reactor analysis code was suitable only for the modeling of light water reactors, not gas-cooled reactors. We extended MELCOR in order to address the above deficiencies. In particular,more » we developed three VHTR input models, added generalized, modular secondary system components, developed reactor point kinetics, included transient thermochemistry for the most important cycles [SI and the Westinghouse hybrid sulfur], and developed an interactive graphical user interface for full plant visualization. The new tool is called MELCOR-H2, and it allows users to maximize hydrogen and electrical production, as well as enhance overall plant safety. We conducted validation and verification studies on the key models, and showed that the MELCOR-H2 results typically compared to within less than 5% from experimental data, code-to-code comparisons, and/or analytical solutions.« less

  19. Production of N2O/+/ by reaction of metastable O2/+/ ions with N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; Rayermann, P.

    1975-01-01

    Photoionization mass spectrometry examination of the production of N2O(+) was undertaken to determine whether N2(+) or O2(+) ions are responsible for onset of N2O(+). It appears that the N2(+) ion does not contribute significantly to the production of N2O(+) in this experiment. Therefore, it is clear that excited O2(+) is responsible for the formation of N2O(+) near the appearance potential of these ions.

  20. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because...

  1. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because...

  2. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because...

  3. 43 CFR 2916.2-2 - Assignments and subleases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assignments and subleases. 2916.2-2 Section 2916.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm §...

  4. 43 CFR 2916.2-2 - Assignments and subleases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignments and subleases. 2916.2-2 Section 2916.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm §...

  5. 43 CFR 2916.2-2 - Assignments and subleases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignments and subleases. 2916.2-2 Section 2916.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm §...

  6. 43 CFR 2916.2-2 - Assignments and subleases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignments and subleases. 2916.2-2 Section 2916.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm §...

  7. Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsu-Sheng; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Kitakawa, Kyoko; Ogawa, Masanori; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2009-11-01

    Acetaldehyde is an intermediate of ethanol oxidation. It covalently binds to DNA, and is known as a carcinogen. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is an important enzyme that oxidizes acetaldehyde. Approximately 45% of Chinese and Japanese individuals have the inactive ALDH2 genotypes (ALDH2*2/*2 and ALDH2*1/*2), and Aldh2 knockout mice appear to be a valid animal model for humans with inactive ALDH2. This review gives an overview of published studies on Aldh2 knockout mice, which were treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde. According to these studies, it was found that Aldh2 -/- mice (Aldh2 knockout mice) are more susceptible to ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced toxicity than Aldh2 +/+ mice (wild type mice). When mice were fed with ethanol, the mortality was increased. When they were exposed to atmospheres containing acetaldehyde, the Aldh2 -/- mice showed more severe toxic symptoms, like weight loss and higher blood acetaldehyde levels, as compared with the Aldh2 +/+ mice. Thus, ethanol and acetaldehyde treatment affects Aldh2 knockout mice more than wild type mice. Based on these findings, it is suggested that ethanol consumption and acetaldehyde inhalation are inferred to pose a higher risk to ALDH2-inactive humans. These results also support that ALDH2-deficient humans who habitually consume alcohol have a higher rate of cancer than humans with functional ALDH2. PMID:19874182

  8. Interleukin 2 activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) stimulated activation of the 42-kD extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (Erk2) in murine IL-3-dependent cells, expressing either high or intermediate affinity IL-2 receptors. Activation was both rapid, occurring within 5 min of IL-2 addition, and prolonged, remaining elevated for 30 min. Activation of Erk2 appeared to be necessary for IL-2 stimulation of proliferation, as deletion of a region of the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-2 receptor beta chain, essential for IL-2 stimulation of proliferation, abolished Erk2 activation by IL-2. Furthermore, cells that had been deprived of cytokine for 24 h were then refractory to IL-2 stimulation of both Erk2 activity and proliferation. However, elevation of Erk2 activity was not sufficient to stimulate proliferation, as protein kinase C activation stimulated Erk2 activity but not DNA synthesis. Also, cells exposed to IL-2 in the presence of rapamycin showed full Erk2 activation but not DNA synthesis. These data suggest that IL-2 must stimulate both Erk2 activity and a further pathway(s) to trigger cell proliferation. PMID:8376945

  9. 43 CFR 3862.2-2 - Citizenship of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Citizenship of individuals. 3862.2-2... Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-2 Citizenship of individuals. (a) In case of an individual or an... which his certificate of citizenship issued, and present residence....

  10. 43 CFR 3862.2-2 - Citizenship of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Citizenship of individuals. 3862.2-2... Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-2 Citizenship of individuals. (a) In case of an individual or an... which his certificate of citizenship issued, and present residence....

  11. 43 CFR 3862.2-2 - Citizenship of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Citizenship of individuals. 3862.2-2... Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-2 Citizenship of individuals. (a) In case of an individual or an... which his certificate of citizenship issued, and present residence....

  12. 43 CFR 3862.2-2 - Citizenship of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Citizenship of individuals. 3862.2-2... Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-2 Citizenship of individuals. (a) In case of an individual or an... which his certificate of citizenship issued, and present residence....

  13. 43 CFR 3585.2-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3585.2-2 Section 3585.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains...

  14. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases §...

  15. Blackbody pumped N2-CO2 transfer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Young, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The power and intrinsic efficiency of a small N2-CO2 fluid mixing transfer laser has been measured. Powers of 1.4 watts and intrinsic efficiencies for 0.7 percent were found for N2 oven temperatures of 1473 K. Laser output was optimized for He, CO2 and N2 partial pressures, output mirror reflectivity, nozzle diameter and oven temperature.

  16. (E)-2-Methyl-3-(2-methyl-2-nitrovinyl)-1H-indole and (E)-3-(2-methyl-2-nitrovinyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indole.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2005-08-01

    In the title compounds, C12H12N2O2, (I), and C17H14N2O2, (II), respectively, the indole rings are planar and the vinyl groups lie out of the indole planes, making dihedral angles of 33.48 (5) and 41.31 (8) degrees , respectively. In (II), the dihedral angle between the phenyl and indole ring planes is 32.06 (6) degrees . In both molecules, the double bond connecting the methylnitrovinyl group and the indole nucleus adopts an E configuration. Notwithstanding the differences in space group [C2/c for (I) and P2(1)2(1)2(1) for (II)], the mode of packing of compounds (I) and (II) is determined by similar intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming chains that run parallel to [101] in (I) and [001] in (II).

  17. Halogen-bonded adduct of 1,2-dibromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane.

    PubMed

    Brisdon, Alan K; Muneer, Abeer M T; Pritchard, Robin G

    2015-10-01

    Halogen bonding is an intermolecular interaction capable of being used to direct extended structures. Typical halogen-bonding systems involve a noncovalent interaction between a Lewis base, such as an amine, as an acceptor and a halogen atom of a halofluorocarbon as a donor. Vapour-phase diffusion of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) with 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane results in crystals of the 1:1 adduct, C2Br2F4·C6H12N2, which crystallizes as an infinite one-dimensional polymeric structure linked by intermolecular N...Br halogen bonds [2.829 (3) Å], which are 0.57 Å shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii.

  18. The reaction of H2O2 with NO2 and NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D.; Lissi, E.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The reactions of NO and NO2 with H2O2 have been examined at 25 C. Reaction mixtures were monitored by continuously bleeding through a pinhole into a monopole mass spectrometer. NO2 was also monitored by its optical absorption in the visible part of the spectrum. Reaction mixtures containing initially 1.5 - 2.5 torr of NO2 and 0.8 - 1.4 torr of H2O2 or 1 - 12 torr of NO and 0.5 - 1.5 torr of H2O2 were studied. The H2O2 - NO reaction was complex. There was an induction period followed by a marked acceleration in reactant removal. The final products of the reaction, NO2, probably H2O, and possibly HONO2 were produced mainly after all the H2O2 was removed. The HONO intermediate was shown to disproportionate to NO2 + NO + H2O in a relatively slow first order reaction. The acceleration in H2O2 removal after the NO - H2O2 reaction is started is caused by NO2 catalysis.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  6. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  7. Crystal Structure, Electronic Structure, and Photocatalytic Activity of Oxysulfides: La2Ta2ZrS2O8, La2Ta2TiS2O8, and La2Nb2TiS2O8.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yosuke; Seo, Jeongsuk; Kumamoto, Kazunori; Hisatomi, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Kamihara, Yoichi; Katayama, Masao; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Domen, Kazunari

    2016-04-01

    The novel oxysulfides La2Ta2ZrS2O8 (LTZSO), La2Ta2TiS2O8 (LTTSO), and La2Nb2TiS2O8 (LNTSO) were synthesized, and their crystal structures, electronic structures, and photocatalytic activities for water splitting under visible light were investigated. Density functional theory calculations showed that these compounds are direct-band-gap semiconductors. Close to the conduction band minimum, the main contribution to the band structure comes from the d orbitals of Zr or Ti ions, while the region near the valence band maximum is associated with the 3p orbitals of S ions. The absorption-edge wavelength was determined to be 540 nm for LTZSO and 700 nm for LTTSO and LNTSO. An analysis of the crystal structure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction revealed that these compounds contained antisite defects at transition metal ion sites, and these were considered to be the origin of the broad absorption at wavelengths longer than that corresponding to band-gap excitation. LTZSO was revealed to be active in the oxygen evolution reaction from aqueous solution containing a sacrificial electron acceptor under visible-light illumination. This result was supported by the band alignment and flat-band potential determined by photoelectron spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky plots.

  8. Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the C II Transitions 2s(exp 2)2p P-2(exp 0) yields 2s2p(exp 2) P-4, D-2, and S-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Zuo, M.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Williams, I. D.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 2s(exp 2) 2p-2(exp 0) yield 2s2p(exp 2)P-4, D-2, and S-2 in C II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 2324 A (5.34 eV), 1335 x (9.29 eV), and 1036 A (11.97 eV), respectively. Use is made of electron energy-loss and merged beams methods. The energy range covered is from below each threshold (4 - 11 eV) to 15-24 eV. As in previous work with O II, care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction in the C II beam, to account for contributions from nearby energy-loss features, and to collect the full angular range of inelastically scattered electrons. A comparison is made for each transition between experiment and new 8-state R-matrix calculations. Subject headings: atomic data ultraviolet: general

  9. Decrease of H2O2 plasma membrane permeability during adaptation to H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Branco, Miguel R; Marinho, H Susana; Cyrne, Luisa; Antunes, Fernando

    2004-02-20

    Contrary to what is widely believed, recent published results show that H2O2 does not freely diffuse across biomembranes. The fast removal of H2O2 by antioxidant enzymes is able to generate a gradient if H2O2 is produced in a different compartment from that containing the enzymes (Antunes, F., and Cadenas, E. (2000) FEBS Lett. 475, 121-126). In this work, we extended these studies and tested whether an active regulation of biomembranes permeability characteristics is part of the cell response to oxidative stress. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we showed that: (a) H2O2 gradients across the plasma membrane are formed upon exposure to external H2O2; (b) there is a correlation between the magnitude of the gradients and the resistance to H2O2; (c) there is not a correlation between the intracellular capacity to remove H2O2 and the resistance to H2O2; (d) the plasma membrane permeability to H2O2 decreases by a factor of two upon acquisition of resistance to this agent by pre-exposing cells either to nonlethal doses of H2O2 or to cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (e) erg3Delta and erg6Delta mutants, which have impaired ergosterol biosynthesis pathways, show higher plasma membrane permeability to H2O2 and are more sensitive to H2O2. Altogether, the regulation of the plasma membrane permeability to H2O2 emerged as a new mechanism by which cells respond and adapt to H2O2. The consequences of the results to cellular redox compartmentalization and to the origin and evolution of the eukaryotic cell are discussed.

  10. Enamide-benzyne-[2 + 2] cycloaddition: stereoselective tandem [2 + 2]-pericyclic ring-opening-intramolecular N-tethered [4 + 2] cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Feltenberger, John B; Hayashi, Ryuji; Tang, Yu; Babiash, Eric S C; Hsung, Richard P

    2009-08-20

    Benzyne-[2 + 2] cycloadditions with enamides are described. This effort led to the development of a highly stereoselective tandem [2 + 2] cycloaddition-pericyclic ring-opening-intramolecular-N-tethered-[4 + 2] cycloaddition for rapid assembly of nitrogen heterocycles.

  11. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are given for tetraalkyl, tetraacid and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethane; (2) 1,1-bis (dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethane; or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  12. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are disclosed for tetraalkyls, tetraacids, and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis (dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethane, or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by the oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or aklyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  13. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic procedures to tetraalkyls, tetraacids, and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane, or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  14. Substituted 1,1,1-Triaryl-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanes and Processes for their Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic procedures to tetraalkyls. tetraacids and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1.1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1-aryl-2,2,2 -trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl)-1-aryl-2.2,2- trifluoroethane or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1-aryl-2,2,2- trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anihnes. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  15. Jarid2 and PRC2, partners in regulating gene expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Margueron, Raphael; Ku, Manching; Chambon, Pierre; Bernstein, Bradley E; Reinberg, Danny

    2010-02-15

    The Polycomb group proteins foster gene repression profiles required for proper development and unimpaired adulthood, and comprise the components of the Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) including the histone H3 Lys 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase Ezh2. How mammalian PRC2 accesses chromatin is unclear. We found that Jarid2 associates with PRC2 and stimulates its enzymatic activity in vitro. Jarid2 contains a Jumonji C domain, but is devoid of detectable histone demethylase activity. Instead, its artificial recruitment to a promoter in vivo resulted in corecruitment of PRC2 with resultant increased levels of di- and trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me2/3). Jarid2 colocalizes with Ezh2 and MTF2, a homolog of Drosophila Pcl, at endogenous genes in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Jarid2 can bind DNA and its recruitment in ES cells is interdependent with that of PRC2, as Jarid2 knockdown reduced PRC2 at its target promoters, and ES cells devoid of the PRC2 component EED are deficient in Jarid2 promoter access. In addition to the well-documented defects in embryonic viability upon down-regulation of Jarid2, ES cell differentiation is impaired, as is Oct4 silencing.

  16. The Vaporization of B2O3(l) to B2O3(g) and B2O2(g)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2011-01-01

    The vaporization of B2O3 in a reducing environment leads to formation of both B2O3(g) and B2O2(g). While formation of B2O3(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B2O2(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B2O3(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that after heating, B(s) and B2O3(l) appear to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B2O2(g). To circumvent this problem, an activity of boron is fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe2B. Both second and third law enthalpies of formation were measured for B2O2(g) and B2O3(g). From these the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are calculated to be -479.9 +/- 41.5 kJ/mol for B2O2(g) and -833.4 +/- 13.1 kJ/mol for B2O3(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B2O2(g) and B2O3(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and show good agreement with the experimental values.

  17. 41 CFR 51-2.2 - Powers and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.2 Powers and responsibilities. The...

  18. IDH2 mutations in patients with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    PubMed

    Kranendijk, Martijn; Struys, Eduard A; van Schaftingen, Emile; Gibson, K Michael; Kanhai, Warsha A; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Amiel, Jeanne; Buist, Neil R; Das, Anibh M; de Klerk, Johannis B; Feigenbaum, Annette S; Grange, Dorothy K; Hofstede, Floris C; Holme, Elisabeth; Kirk, Edwin P; Korman, Stanley H; Morava, Eva; Morris, Andrew; Smeitink, Jan; Sukhai, Rám N; Vallance, Hilary; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2010-10-15

    Heterozygous somatic mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 and -2 (IDH1 and IDH2) were recently discovered in human neoplastic disorders. These mutations disable the enzymes' normal ability to convert isocitrate to 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) and confer on the enzymes a new function: the ability to convert 2-KG to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). We have detected heterozygous germline mutations in IDH2 that alter enzyme residue Arg(140) in 15 unrelated patients with d-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), a rare neurometabolic disorder characterized by supraphysiological levels of D-2-HG. These findings provide additional impetus for investigating the role of D-2-HG in the pathophysiology of metabolic disease and cancer. PMID:20847235

  19. 2. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH OLD MILL LOOKING DOWN JACOBS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH OLD MILL LOOKING DOWN JACOBS CREEK. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Historic Roadway No. 2, West flank Florida Mountain, East of Rich Gulch Mine & Mill, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  20. Hormetic Effect of H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Valishkevych, Bohdana V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between target of rapamycin (TOR) and H2O2-induced hormetic response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose or fructose. In general, our data suggest that: (1) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces hormesis in a TOR-dependent manner; (2) the H2O2-induced hormetic dose–response in yeast depends on the type of carbohydrate in growth medium; (3) the concentration-dependent effect of H2O2 on yeast colony growth positively correlates with the activity of glutathione reductase that suggests the enzyme involvement in the H2O2-induced hormetic response; and (4) both TOR1 and TOR2 are involved in the reciprocal regulation of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1. PMID:27099601

  1. 2. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Generator Building No. 1, South end of base, southwest of Generator Building No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. SACALC2B

    2007-02-08

    SACALC2B calculates the average solid angle subtended by a rectangular or circular detector window to a coaxial or non-coaxial rectangular, circular or point source, including where the source and detector planes are not parallel. SACALC_CYL calculates the average solid angle subtended by a cylinder to a rectangular or circular source, plane or thick, at any location and orientation. This is needed, for example, in calculating the intrinsic gamma efficiency of a detector such as amore » GM tube. The program also calculates the number of hits on the cylinder side and on each end, and the average path length through the detector volume (assuming no scattering or absorption). Point sources can be modelled by using a circular source of zero radius.« less

  3. (0,2) elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Plesser, M. Ronen

    2012-01-01

    We enumerate massless E6 singlets for (0,2)-compactifications of the heterotic string on a Calabi-Yau threefold with the "standard embedding" in three distinct ways. In the large radius limit of the threefold, these singlets count deformations of the Calabi-Yau together with its tangent bundle. In the "small-radius" limit we apply Landau-Ginzburg methods. In the orbifold limit we use a combination of geometry and free field methods. In general these counts differ. We show how to identify states between these phases and how certain states vanish from the massless spectrum as one deforms the complex structure or Kähler form away from the Gepner point. The appearance of extra singlets for particular values of complex structure is explored in all three pictures, and our results suggest that this does not depend on the Kähler moduli.

  4. 2-Colour photolithography.

    PubMed

    Fourkas, John T; Petersen, John S

    2014-05-21

    Photolithography is a crucial technology for both research and industry. The desire to be able to create ever finer features has fuelled a push towards lithographic methods that use electromagnetic radiation or charged particles with the shortest possible wavelength. At the same time, the physics and chemistry involved in employing light or particles with short wavelengths present great challenges. A new class of approaches to photolithography on the nanoscale involves the use of photoresists that can be activated with one colour of visible or near-ultraviolet light and deactivated with a second colour. Such methods hold the promise of attaining lithographic resolution that rivals or even exceeds that currently sought by industry, while at the same time using wavelengths of light that are inexpensive to produce and can be manipulated readily. The physical chemistry of 2-colour photolithography is a rich area of science that is only now beginning to be explored.

  5. [JAK2 inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Hernández Boluda, Juan Carlos; Gómez, Montse; Pérez, Ariadna

    2016-07-15

    Pharmacological inhibition of the kinase activity of JAK proteins can interfere with the signaling of immunomodulatory cytokines and block the constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT pathway that characterizes certain malignancies, including chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. JAK inhibitors may, therefore, be useful to treat malignancies as well as inflammatory or immune disorders. Currently, the most significant advances have been made in the treatment of myelofibrosis, where these drugs may lead to a remarkable improvement in the control of hyperproliferative manifestations. However, available data suggest that this treatment is not curative of myelofibrosis. In general, JAK2 inhibition induces cytopaenias, with this being considered a class side-effect. By contrast, the extrahaematologic toxicity profile varies significantly among the different JAK inhibitors. At present, there are several clinical trials evaluating the combination of ruxolitinib with other drugs, in order to improve its therapeutic activity as well as reducing haematologic toxicity. PMID:27033437

  6. Cr2 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Cr2 is studied at the coupled cluster singles and doubles level of theory, including a perturbational estimate of the connected triples [CCSD(T)]. Both spin restricted, RCCSD(T), and spin unrestricted, UCCSD(T), approaches are used. The UCCSD(T) bond length is much longer than the experimental value, while the RCCSD(T) bond length is shorter. This difference is due to the inability of the spin restricted Hartree-Fock reference to describe the antiferromagnetic coupling at larger r values. In contrast with the results obtained using density functional theory in conjunction with older functionals, the results obtained with recently developed functionals are in agreement with the UCCSD(T) results.

  7. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using themore » most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.« less

  8. CO2 Laser Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  9. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Baltich, L. K.

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using the most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.

  10. PARTNERWORKSV2.0

    SciTech Connect

    George Longmire, SNL 4212; David Skousen, SNL 4212.

    2000-04-12

    PartnerWorks Ver. 2.0 uses MAPI and OLE to tightly integrate the information system into the user's desktop. The applications are mail and fax enabled, and data can be linked or exported to and from all popular desktop applications at the push of a button. PartnerWorks converts financial data from Project Year to Fiscal Year. PartnerWorks also makes use of off-the-shelf software (Microsoft NT) encryption. PartnerWorks Ver, 2.0 automates the management of laboratory agreements with industry. PartnerWorks is a three-tier client server system. It uses MS SQL server (480 tables) as the central data repository for agreement information and document objects. The front-end applications consist of various MS Access applications. Data in remote systems is queried live or imported on a fixed schedule depending on the data type and volatility. All data is accessed via ODBC. This multi-front end application, multi-back end data source provides the end user with the illusion that all data exists in his or her custom application. PartnerWorks manages: Managing laboratory-partner agreement life cycle including contract and funding details (16 agreement-specific modules); Pending laboratory partnership agreements; Partner details for existing and potential partners; Potential agreement sources and partnership opportunities; Automating and warehousing the agreement documentation (document warehousing module); Automating standardized email communication for agreements; Enforcing business rules and work flow (action tracking module); Automated reporting including demand print, and schedule delivery (reporting module); Marketing intellectual property and past successes (Web module).

  11. Io in Eclipse 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Io eclipsed by Jupiter's shadow is a combination of several images taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) between 09:35 and 09:41 Universal Time on February 27, 2007, about 28 hours after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. North is at the top of the image.

    In the darkness, only glowing hot lava, auroral displays in Io's tenuous atmosphere and the moon's volcanic plumes are visible. The brightest points of light in the image are the glow of incandescent lava at several active volcanoes. The three brightest volcanoes south of the equator are, from left to right, Pele, Reiden and Marduk. North of the equator, near the disk center, a previously unknown volcano near 22 degrees north, 233 degrees west glows brightly. (The dark streak to its right is an artifact.)

    The edge of Io's disk is outlined by the auroral glow produced as intense radiation from Jupiter's magnetosphere bombards the atmosphere. The glow is patchy because the atmosphere itself is patchy, being denser over active volcanoes. At the 1 o'clock position the giant glowing plume from the Tvashtar volcano rises 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the edge of the disk, and several smaller plumes are also visible as diffuse glows scattered across the disk. Bright glows at the edge of Io on the left and right sides of the disk mark regions where electrical currents connect Io to Jupiter's magnetosphere.

    New Horizons was 2.8 million kilometers (1.7 million miles) from Io when this picture was taken, and the image is centered at Io coordinates 2 degrees south, 238 degrees west. The image has been heavily processed to remove scattered light from Jupiter, but some artifacts remain, including a horizontal seam where two sets of frames were pieced together. Total exposure time for this image was 56 seconds.

  12. PARTNERWORKSV2.0

    2000-04-12

    PartnerWorks Ver. 2.0 uses MAPI and OLE to tightly integrate the information system into the user's desktop. The applications are mail and fax enabled, and data can be linked or exported to and from all popular desktop applications at the push of a button. PartnerWorks converts financial data from Project Year to Fiscal Year. PartnerWorks also makes use of off-the-shelf software (Microsoft NT) encryption. PartnerWorks Ver, 2.0 automates the management of laboratory agreements with industry.more » PartnerWorks is a three-tier client server system. It uses MS SQL server (480 tables) as the central data repository for agreement information and document objects. The front-end applications consist of various MS Access applications. Data in remote systems is queried live or imported on a fixed schedule depending on the data type and volatility. All data is accessed via ODBC. This multi-front end application, multi-back end data source provides the end user with the illusion that all data exists in his or her custom application. PartnerWorks manages: Managing laboratory-partner agreement life cycle including contract and funding details (16 agreement-specific modules); Pending laboratory partnership agreements; Partner details for existing and potential partners; Potential agreement sources and partnership opportunities; Automating and warehousing the agreement documentation (document warehousing module); Automating standardized email communication for agreements; Enforcing business rules and work flow (action tracking module); Automated reporting including demand print, and schedule delivery (reporting module); Marketing intellectual property and past successes (Web module).« less

  13. The Tetracyanopyridinide Dimer Dianion, σ-[TCNPy]2 (2.).

    PubMed

    Hao, Jingjun; Rheingold, Arnold L; Kavand, Marzieh; van Schooten, Kipp J; Boehme, Christoph; Capdevila-Cortada, Marçal; Novoa, Juan J; Wöss, Eva; Knör, Günther; Miller, Joel S

    2016-08-22

    The reaction of 2,3,5,6-tetracyanopyridine (TCNPy) and Cr(C6 H6 )2 forms diamagnetic σ-[TCNPy]2 (2-) possessing a 1.572(3) Å intrafragment sp(3) -sp(3) bond. This is in contrast to the structurally related 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene and 1,2,4,5-tetracyanopyrazine that form π-dimer dianions possessing long, multicenter bonds.

  14. The Tetracyanopyridinide Dimer Dianion, σ-[TCNPy]2 (2.).

    PubMed

    Hao, Jingjun; Rheingold, Arnold L; Kavand, Marzieh; van Schooten, Kipp J; Boehme, Christoph; Capdevila-Cortada, Marçal; Novoa, Juan J; Wöss, Eva; Knör, Günther; Miller, Joel S

    2016-08-22

    The reaction of 2,3,5,6-tetracyanopyridine (TCNPy) and Cr(C6 H6 )2 forms diamagnetic σ-[TCNPy]2 (2-) possessing a 1.572(3) Å intrafragment sp(3) -sp(3) bond. This is in contrast to the structurally related 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene and 1,2,4,5-tetracyanopyrazine that form π-dimer dianions possessing long, multicenter bonds. PMID:27465486

  15. Copper-Catalyzed 2,2,2-Trifluoroethylthiolation of Aryl Halides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shouxiong; Zhang, Mengjia; Liao, Xuebin; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-01

    Herein, a copper-catalyzed 2,2,2-trifluoroethylthiolation reaction of aryl bromides and iodides with elemental sulfur, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-iodoethane is described. The reaction showed excellent functional group tolerance and allowed the synthesis of various substituted aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl thioethers with good to excellent yields. This transformation constitutes a one-pot synthesis of 2,2,2-trifluoroethylthiolated compounds from inexpensive, readily available starting materials. Utility of the protocol was further demonstrated in the late-stage synthesis of the pirfenidone derivative. The copper thiolate species were prepared and proposed as key intermediates in the catalytic cycle. PMID:27477255

  16. Spectroscopic and structural study of Y 2C 2 carbide encapsulating endohedral metallofullerene: (Y 2C 2)@C 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Tomiyama, Tetsuo; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2003-12-01

    The first di-yttrium carbide endohedral metallofullerene has been produced and spectroscopically and structurally characterized. 13C NMR structural analyses reveal that di-yttrium endohedral metallofullerene having a molecular formula of Y 2C 84 has been found to possess an endohedral yttrium carbide structure, (Y 2C 2)@C 82, in which a Y 2C 2 species is encaged by a C 82-C 3v(8) fullerene. The encaged Y 2C 2 species should rapidly rotate in order to maintain the entire (Y 2C 2)@C 82 molecular symmetry unchanged at room temperature.

  17. LATS2 Positively Regulates Polycomb Repressive Complex 2.

    PubMed

    Torigata, Kosuke; Daisuke, Okuzaki; Mukai, Satomi; Hatanaka, Akira; Ohka, Fumiharu; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Yabuta, Norikazu; Kondo, Yutaka; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    LATS2, a pivotal Ser/Thr kinase of the Hippo pathway, plays important roles in many biological processes. LATS2 also function in Hippo-independent pathway, including mitosis, DNA damage response and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, the physiological relevance and molecular basis of these LATS2 functions remain obscure. To understand novel functions of LATS2, we constructed a LATS2 knockout HeLa-S3 cell line using TAL-effector nuclease (TALEN). Integrated omics profiling of this cell line revealed that LATS2 knockout caused genome-wide downregulation of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and H3K27me3. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that downregulation of PRC2 was not due to cell cycle aberrations caused by LATS2 knockout. Not LATS1, a homolog of LATS2, but LATS2 bound PRC2 on chromatin and phosphorylated it. LATS2 positively regulates histone methyltransferase activity of PRC2 and their expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings reveal a novel signal upstream of PRC2, and provide insight into the crucial role of LATS2 in coordinating the epigenome through regulation of PRC2. PMID:27434182

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer March 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer March 2, 1940 GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Fort Smith, Commissary Building, 100 South Garrison Avenue, Fort Smith, Sebastian County, AR

  19. LATS2 Positively Regulates Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Torigata, Kosuke; Daisuke, Okuzaki; Mukai, Satomi; Hatanaka, Akira; Ohka, Fumiharu; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Yabuta, Norikazu; Kondo, Yutaka; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    LATS2, a pivotal Ser/Thr kinase of the Hippo pathway, plays important roles in many biological processes. LATS2 also function in Hippo-independent pathway, including mitosis, DNA damage response and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, the physiological relevance and molecular basis of these LATS2 functions remain obscure. To understand novel functions of LATS2, we constructed a LATS2 knockout HeLa-S3 cell line using TAL-effector nuclease (TALEN). Integrated omics profiling of this cell line revealed that LATS2 knockout caused genome-wide downregulation of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and H3K27me3. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that downregulation of PRC2 was not due to cell cycle aberrations caused by LATS2 knockout. Not LATS1, a homolog of LATS2, but LATS2 bound PRC2 on chromatin and phosphorylated it. LATS2 positively regulates histone methyltransferase activity of PRC2 and their expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings reveal a novel signal upstream of PRC2, and provide insight into the crucial role of LATS2 in coordinating the epigenome through regulation of PRC2. PMID:27434182

  20. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. 721...+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated (PMN P-09-388; CAS...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. 721...+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated (PMN P-09-388; CAS...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. 721...+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated (PMN P-09-388; CAS...

  4. Redetermination of ruizite, Ca2Mn3+ 2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O

    PubMed Central

    Fendrich, Kim V.; Downs, Robert T.; Origlieri, Marcus J.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of ruizite, ideally Ca2Mn3+ 2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2O [dicalcium dimanganese(III) tetra­silicate tetra­hydroxide dihydrate] was first determined in space group A2 with an isotropic displacement parameter model (R = 5.6%) [Hawthorne (1984 ▸). Tschermaks Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 33, 135–146]. A subsequent refinement in space group C2/m with anisotropic displacement parameters for non-H atoms converged with R = 8.4% [Moore et al. (1985 ▸). Am. Mineral. 70, 171–181]. The current study reports a redetermination of the ruizite structure by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data of a natural sample from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Our data (R 1 = 3.0%) confirm that the space group of ruizite is that of the first study rather than C2/m. This work improves upon the structure reported by Hawthorne (1984 ▸) in that all non-H atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters and all hydrogen atoms were located. The crystal structure consists of [010] chains of edge-sharing MnO6 octa­hedra flanked by finite [Si4O11(OH)2] chains. The Ca2+ cations are situated in the cavities of this arrangement and exhibit a coordination number of seven. PMID:27555940

  5. Theoretical study of the C-H bond dissociation energies of CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and H2C2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The successive C-H bond dissociation energies of CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and H2C2O (ketene) are determined using large-basis sets and a high level of correlation treatment. For CH4, C2H2, and C2H4 the computed values are in excellent agreement with experiment. Using these results, the values 107.9 + or - 2.0 and 96.7 + or - 2.0 kcal/mol are recommended for the C-H bond dissociation energies of H2C2O and HC2O, respectively.

  6. Degradation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and 2,2 prime -dihydroxybiphenyl by Pseudomonas sp. strain HBP1

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, H.P.E.; Kohler-Staub, D.; Focht, D.D. )

    1988-11-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain HBP1 was found to grow on 2-hydroxy- and 2,2{prime}-dihydroxy-biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy sources. The first step in the degradation of these compounds was catalyzed by an NADH-dependent monooxygenase. The enzyme inserted a hydroxyl group adjacent to the already existing hydroxyl group to form 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl when acting on 2-hydroxybiphenyl and to form 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxybiphenyl when acting on 2,2{prime}-dihydroxybiphenyl. To be substrates of the monooxygenase, compounds required a 2-hydroxyphenyl-R structure, with R being a hydrophobic group (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, sec-butyl, phenyl, or 2-hydroxyphenyl). Several chlorinated hydroxybiphenyls served as pseudosubstrates by effecting consumption of NADH and oxygen without being hydroxylated. Further degradation of 2,3-dihydroxy- and 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxybiphenyl involved meta cleavage, with subsequent formation of benzoate and salicylate, respectively.

  7. Cycloaddition of benzyne to armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes: [2 + 2] or [4 + 2]?

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Nagase, Shigeru

    2013-12-01

    The reaction mechanism and regioselectivity of cycloaddition reactions of benzyne to armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes were investigated with quantum chemical methods. The [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction follows the diradical mechanism, whereas the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction adopts the concerted mechanism. More importantly, the [2 + 2] product is always more stable thermodynamically than the [4 + 2] ones, regardless of the diameter, while the [4 + 2] cycloaddition becomes kinetically more favored as the diameter goes up.

  8. Three-dimensional WS2 nanosheet networks for H2O2 produced for cell signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Quan, Yingzhou; Zhang, Yueyu; Jiang, Min; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Kong, Biao; An, Tiance; Wang, Wenshuo; Xia, Limin; Gong, Xingao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in living RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and neurons. First-principles calculations further demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of probing H2O2 is attributed to the efficient and spontaneous H2O2 adsorption on WS2 nanosheet edge sites. The combined features of 3D WS2 nanosheet networks suggest attractive new opportunities for exploring the physiological roles of reactive oxygen species like H2O2 in living systems.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in

  9. Viking Lander 2 Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This portion of a daytime IR image covers the Viking 2 landing site (shown with the X). The second landing on Mars took place September 3, 1976 in Utopia Planitia. The exact location of Lander 2 is not as well established as Lander 1 because there were no clearly identifiable features in the lander images as there were for the site of Lander 1. The Utopia landing site region contains pedestal craters, shallow swales and gentle ridges. The crater Goldstone was named in honor of the Tracking Station in the desert of California. The two Viking Landers operated for over 6 years (nearly four martian years) after landing. This one band IR (band 9 at 12.6 microns) image shows bright and dark textures, which are primarily due to differences in the abundance of rocks on the surface. The relatively cool (dark) regions during the day are rocky or indurated materials, fine sand and dust are warmer (bright). Many of the temperature variations are due to slope effects, with sun-facing slopes warmer than shaded slopes. The dark rings around several of the craters are due to the presence of rocky (cool) material ejected from the crater. These rocks are well below the resolution of any existing Mars camera, but THEMIS can detect the temperature variations they produce. Daytime temperature variations are produced by a combination of topographic (solar heating) and thermophysical (thermal inertia and albedo) effects. Due to topographic heating the surface morphologies seen in THEMIS daytime IR images are similar to those seen in previous imagery and MOLA topography.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected

  10. New SrAl 2B 2O 7:Eu 2+, Mn 2+ phosphors for white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liya; Yi, Linghong; Feng, Xiaoming

    2011-12-01

    A series of Eu 2+ and Mn 2+ co-doped SrAl 2B 2O 7 phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence excitation and emission were employed to characterize the phosphors. The results show that energy transfers between Eu 2+and Mn 2+ ions. As the content of Ca 2+ ions in Ca xSr 0.92- xAl 2B 2O 7:Eu 2+0.06, Mn 2+0.02 phosphors increased, the CIE coordinates decreased and close to the white color standard mandated by the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC). Meanwhile, a white LED (light-emitting diode) was fabricated by combining the Ca 0.5Sr 0.42Al 2B 2O 7:Eu 2+0.06, Mn 2+0.02 phosphors with a 370 nm InGaN chip. The color coordinate of the fabricated white LED was also close to the white color standard, indicating that the Ca 0.5Sr 0.42Al 2B 2O 7:Eu 2+0.06, Mn 2+0.02 phosphor is a promising single-host phosphor that can be used in white LEDs.

  11. New SrAl2B2O7:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphors for white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liya; Yi, Linghong; Feng, Xiaoming

    2011-12-01

    A series of Eu(2+) and Mn(2+) co-doped SrAl(2)B(2)O(7) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence excitation and emission were employed to characterize the phosphors. The results show that energy transfers between Eu(2+)and Mn(2+) ions. As the content of Ca(2+) ions in Ca(x)Sr(0.92-x)Al(2)B(2)O(7):Eu(2+)(0.06), Mn(2+)(0.02) phosphors increased, the CIE coordinates decreased and close to the white color standard mandated by the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC). Meanwhile, a white LED (light-emitting diode) was fabricated by combining the Ca(0.5)Sr(0.42)Al(2)B(2)O(7):Eu(2+)(0.06), Mn(2+)(0.02) phosphors with a 370 nm InGaN chip. The color coordinate of the fabricated white LED was also close to the white color standard, indicating that the Ca(0.5)Sr(0.42)Al(2)B(2)O(7):Eu(2+)(0.06), Mn(2+)(0.02) phosphor is a promising single-host phosphor that can be used in white LEDs. PMID:21920803

  12. Luminescence characteristics of Dy3+ activated Na 2Sr 2Mg (BO 3)2F 2: Dy 3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Javaid A.; Dhoble, N. S.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we have reported a new Na 2Sr 2Mg (BO 3)2F 2:Dy 3+ thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor prepared via the wet chemical method. Prepared phosphor was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), TL and scanning electronmicroscopy techniques. The scanning electronmicroscopic image of Na 2Sr 2Mg (BO 3)2F 2:Dy 3+ phosphor confirms the micron size of particles. Under the PL study, the characteristic emission spectrum of Dy 3+ corresponding to 4F 9/2→6H 15/2 (481 nm) and 4F 9/2→6H 13/2 (576 nm) transitions was observed. The TL property of the as prepared phosphor was also found to be good. TL intensity of Na 2Sr2Mg(BO 3)F 2:Dy 3+ phosphors at 0.99 kGy exposure of γ-irradiations was compared with standard CaSO 4:Dy phosphor. It was seen that TL intensity of Na 2Sr 2Mg (BO 3)2F 2: Dy 3+ phosphors is 1.1 times less compared with the standard CaSO 4:Dy TL dosimeter phosphor. The kinetic parameters are also discussed in detail. The values of activation energy E (eV) and frequency factor S (s -1) were found to be 0.57 eV and 1.25×106 s-1, respectively.

  13. Scavenging of H2O2 by mouse brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Andreyev, Alexander Yu; Zhang, Steven F; Starkova, Natalia N; Korneeva, Maria; Syromyatnikov, Mikhail; Popov, Vasily N

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is unique in that mitochondria both generate and scavenge ROS. Recent estimates of ROS scavenging capacity of brain mitochondria are surprisingly high, ca. 9-12 nmol H2O2/min/mg, which is ~100 times higher than the rate of ROS generation. This raises a question whether brain mitochondria are a source or a sink of ROS. We studied the interaction between ROS generation and scavenging in mouse brain mitochondria by measuring the rate of removal of H2O2 added at a concentration of 0.4 μM, which is close to the reported physiological H2O2 concentrations in tissues, under conditions of low and high levels of mitochondrial H2O2 generation. With NAD-linked substrates, the rate of H2O2 generation by mitochondria was ~50-70 pmol/min/mg. The H2O2 scavenging dynamics was best approximated by the first order reaction equation. H2O2 scavenging was not affected by the uncoupling of mitochondria, phosphorylation of added ADP, or the genetic ablation of glutathione peroxidase 1, but decreased in the absence of respiratory substrates, in the presence of thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin, or in partially disrupted mitochondria. With succinate, the rate of H2O2 generation was ~2,200-2,900 pmol/min/mg; the scavenging of added H2O2 was masked by a significant accumulation of generated H2O2 in the assay medium. The obtained data were fitted into a simple model that reasonably well described the interaction between H2O2 scavenging and production. It showed that mitochondria are neither a sink nor a source of H2O2, but can function as both at the same time, efficiently stabilizing exogenous H2O2 concentration at a level directly proportional to the ratio of the H2O2 generation rate to the rate constant of the first order scavenging reaction.

  14. Pressure induced structural transformation in Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H. Y.; Weber, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio total energy calculations have been performed to study the phase stability of Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores over the pressure range from 0 to 60 GPa. Both compounds are unstable under pressure, and phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are predicted. The phase transformation pressure of 43.6 GPa for Gd2Ti2O7 is considerably larger than the value of 13 GPa for Gd2Zr2O7, in good agreement with experiments. The decreased structural stability of Gd2Zr2O7 under pressure, relative to Gd2Ti2O7, is a consequence of the lower compressibility of the langZr-Orang bond and the higher compressibility of the langGd-Orang bond. In addition, the Gd 4f electrons are found to have only a small effect in determining the pressure induced phase transformation.

  15. [Universal electrogustometer EG-2].

    PubMed

    Wałkanis, Andrzej; Czesak, Michał; Pleskacz, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Electrogustometry is a method for taste diagnosis and measurement. The EG-2 project is being developed in cooperation between Warsaw University of Technology and Military institute of Medicine in Warsaw. The device is an evolution of the recent universal electrogustometer EG-1 prototype. Due to considerations and experiences acquired during prototype usage, many enhancements have been incorporated into device. The aim was to create an easy-to-use, portable, battery powered device, enabled for fast measurements. Developed electrogustometer is using innovative, low-power microprocessor system, which control whole device. User interface is based on 5.7" graphical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and touchscreen. It can be directly operated by finger or with optional stylus. Dedicated GUI (Graphical User Interface) offers simple, predefined measurements and advance settings of signal parameters. It is also possible to store measurements results and patients data in an internal memory. User interface is multilanguage. Signals for patients examinations, supplied with bipolar electrode, are generated by an on-board circuit using DDS (Direct-Digital Synthesis) and DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter). Electrogustometer is able to generate DC, sinus, triangle or rectangle signals with current amplitude from 0 to 500 pA and frequency form 0 to 500 Hz. Device is designed for manual and automeasurement modes. By using USB (Universal Serial Bus) port it is possible to retrieve data stored in internal memory and charging of built-in Li-lon battery as a source of power.

  16. MIRADS-2 Implementation Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Marshall Information Retrieval and Display System (MIRADS) which is a data base management system designed to provide the user with a set of generalized file capabilities is presented. The system provides a wide variety of ways to process the contents of the data base and includes capabilities to search, sort, compute, update, and display the data. The process of creating, defining, and loading a data base is generally called the loading process. The steps in the loading process which includes (1) structuring, (2) creating, (3) defining, (4) and implementing the data base for use by MIRADS are defined. The execution of several computer programs is required to successfully complete all steps of the loading process. This library must be established as a cataloged mass storage file as the first step in MIRADS implementation. The procedure for establishing the MIRADS Library is given. The system is currently operational for the UNIVAC 1108 computer system utilizing the Executive Operating System. All procedures relate to the use of MIRADS on the U-1108 computer.

  17. TMIST-2 Transport Test

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2008-02-01

    In anticipation of the TMIST-2 experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor, there was a need to determine if the tritium that is expected to be observed at the outlet of the experiment would be seen or if it may be lost on its way from the experiment in the core to the measurement station. To assist in resolving that issue, a bench-scale experiment was conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility using deuterium and a mass spectrometer in lieu of tritium with ion chambers, bubblers, and scintillation counting. The experiment replicated the concentration of the hydrogen isotope, the flow rates anticipated, and the residence times. It was found that there was initial uptake on tubing walls, presumably due to oxidation of the hydrogen isotopes to water and adsorption or isotopic exchange, but that saturates relatively quickly, and once saturated, the concentration of deuterium at the outlet of the tubing system was essentially the same as it was at the experiment inlet under the conditions modeled in the experiment.

  18. Cardiovascular Health, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Baman, Timir S.; Gupta, Sanjaya; Day, Sharlene M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: An athlete’s health may be endangered if he or she continues to compete after diagnosis of certain cardiovascular conditions. The most worrisome risk is sudden cardiac death; the annual rate in US athletes is 1 in 50 000 to 200 000. Evidence Acquisition: Part 2 of this review highlights the current guidelines and controversies surrounding compatibility of participation with a variety of cardiac conditions in competitive and recreational athletics. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications from 1984 to the April 2009. Results: The guidelines published by the American College of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology provide a framework for safe competitive and recreational sports participation in athletes with a broad spectrum of inherited and acquired cardiovascular disorders. These guidelines are necessarily conservative because it is not currently possible to individualize risk prediction. Few data are available in many areas, particularly in the noncompetitive arena or in older athletes. Conclusions: Published national guidelines are currently the foundation governing return-to-play decisions in athletes with cardiovascular conditions. Further studies are needed to refine risk stratification algorithms to allow athletes with cardiovascular conditions to reap the health benefits of regular exercise and sports participation without undue risk. PMID:23015920

  19. Transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 is a regulator of macroautophagy genes

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, Marta; Jiménez-Moreno, Natalia; García-Yagüe, Ángel J.; Escoll, Maribel; de Ceballos, María L.; Van Leuven, Fred; Rábano, Alberto; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Rojo, Ana I.; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a highly coordinated process that is controlled at several levels including transcriptional regulation. Here, we identify the transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) as a regulator of autophagy gene expression and its relevance in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD) that reproduces impaired APP (amyloid β precursor protein) and human (Hs)MAPT/TAU processing, clearance and aggregation. We screened the chromatin immunoprecipitation database ENCODE for 2 proteins, MAFK and BACH1, that bind the NFE2L2-regulated enhancer antioxidant response element (ARE). Using a script generated from the JASPAR's consensus ARE sequence, we identified 27 putative AREs in 16 autophagy-related genes. Twelve of these sequences were validated as NFE2L2 regulated AREs in 9 autophagy genes by additional ChIP assays and quantitative RT-PCR on human and mouse cells after NFE2L2 activation with sulforaphane. Mouse embryo fibroblasts of nfe2l2-knockout mice exhibited reduced expression of autophagy genes, which was rescued by an NFE2L2 expressing lentivirus, and impaired autophagy flux when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. NFE2L2-deficient mice co-expressing HsAPPV717I and HsMAPTP301L, exhibited more intracellular aggregates of these proteins and reduced neuronal levels of SQSTM1/p62, CALCOCO2/NDP52, ULK1, ATG5 and GABARAPL1. Also, colocalization of HsAPPV717I and HsMAPTP301L with the NFE2L2-regulated autophagy marker SQSTM1/p62 was reduced in the absence of NFE2L2. In AD patients, neurons expressing high levels of APP or MAPT also expressed SQSTM1/p62 and nuclear NFE2L2, suggesting their attempt to degrade intraneuronal aggregates through autophagy. This study shows that NFE2L2 modulates autophagy gene expression and suggests a new strategy to combat proteinopathies. PMID:27427974

  20. Structure of human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 G2 (UBE2G2/UBC7)

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Ryoichi; Yoshikawa, Seiko; Murayama, Kazutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2006-04-01

    The crystal structure of human UBE2G2/UBC7 was solved at 2.56 Å resolution. The superimposition of UBE2G2 on UbcH7 in a c-Cbl–UbcH7–ZAP70 ternary complex suggested that the two loop regions of UBE2G2 interact with the RING domain in a similar way as UbcH7. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 G2 (UBE2G2/UBC7) is involved in protein degradation, including a process known as endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). The crystal structure of human UBE2G2/UBC7 was solved at 2.56 Å resolution. The UBE2G2 structure comprises a single domain consisting of an antiparallel β-sheet with four strands, five α-helices and two 3{sub 10}-helices. Structural comparison of human UBE2G2 with yeast Ubc7 indicated that the overall structures are similar except for the long loop region and the C-terminal helix. Superimposition of UBE2G2 on UbcH7 in a c-Cbl–UbcH7–ZAP70 ternary complex suggested that the two loop regions of UBE2G2 interact with the RING domain in a similar way to UbcH7. In addition, the extra loop region of UBE2G2 may interact with the RING domain or its neighbouring region and may be involved in the binding specificity and stability.

  1. Inhibitor-1 and -2 of PP2A have preference between PP2A complexes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Hirotsugu; Takaki, Kaori; Mochida, Satoru

    2015-11-13

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) forms tens of kinds of complexes with different substrate specificity and functions by using various regulatory B subunits. But how these complexes' activities are regulated separately is not well understood. Here we showed unequal enzyme inhibition of each form by two proteinous PP2A inhibitors, I1(PP2A) and I2(PP2A). Immunoprecipitation assay using Xenopus egg extract showed that I1(PP2A) bound B″/PR48, and I2(PP2A) bound B56γ and B″/PR48 among four B subunits analyzed. Thus I1(PP2A) and I2(PP2A) seem to have B-subunit specificity. These results support the hypothesis that PP2A complexes containing common catalytic subunit are individually regulated for their separate functions in vivo. PMID:26449453

  2. Inhibitor-1 and -2 of PP2A have preference between PP2A complexes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Hirotsugu; Takaki, Kaori; Mochida, Satoru

    2015-11-13

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) forms tens of kinds of complexes with different substrate specificity and functions by using various regulatory B subunits. But how these complexes' activities are regulated separately is not well understood. Here we showed unequal enzyme inhibition of each form by two proteinous PP2A inhibitors, I1(PP2A) and I2(PP2A). Immunoprecipitation assay using Xenopus egg extract showed that I1(PP2A) bound B″/PR48, and I2(PP2A) bound B56γ and B″/PR48 among four B subunits analyzed. Thus I1(PP2A) and I2(PP2A) seem to have B-subunit specificity. These results support the hypothesis that PP2A complexes containing common catalytic subunit are individually regulated for their separate functions in vivo.

  3. Transcriptional Regulation of Endothelial Arginase 2 by HDAC2

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Deepesh; Sikka, Gautam; Bergman, Yehudit; Kim, Jae Hyung; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Arginase 2 is a critical target in atherosclerosis as it controls endothelial NO, proliferation, fibrosis, and inflammation. Regulators of Arg2 transcription in the endothelium have not been characterized. The goal of the current study is to determine the role of specific HDACs in the regulation of endothelial Arg2 transcription and endothelial function. Approach and Results The HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) increased levels of Arg2 mRNA, protein, and activity in both HAEC and mouse aortic rings. These changes occurred with both time- and dose-dependent patterns, and resulted in Arg2-dependent endothelial dysfunction. TSA and the atherogenic stimulus OxLDL enhanced the activity of common promoter regions of Arg2. HDAC inhibition with TSA also decreased endothelial NO and these effects were blunted by arginase inhibition. Non-selective class I HDAC inhibitors enhanced Arg2 expression, while the only selective inhibitor that increased Arg2 expression was mocetinostat (MGCD) – a selective inhibitor of HDACs 1 and 2. Additionally, mouse aortic rings pre-incubated with MGCD exhibited dysfunctional relaxation. Overexpression of HDAC2 (but not HDAC 1, 3 or 8) cDNA in HAEC suppressed Arg2 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, and siRNA knockdown of HDAC2 enhanced Arg2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated direct binding of HDAC2 to the Arg2 promoter, and HDAC2 overexpression in HAEC blocked OxLDL-mediated activation of the Arg2 promoter. Finally, overexpression of HDAC2 blocked OxLDL-mediated vascular dysfunction. Conclusions HDAC2 is a critical regulator of Arg2 expression and thereby endothelial NO and endothelial function. Overexpression or activation of HDAC2 represents a novel therapy for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:24833798

  4. Atomic parameters for the 2{p}^{5}3p\\;{}^{2}{[3/2]}_{2}-2{p}^{5}3s\\;{}^{2}{[3/2]}_{2}^{o} transition of Ne I relevant in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiguang; Godefroid, Michel; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-06-01

    We calculated the magnetic dipole hyperfine interaction constants and the electric field gradients of 2{p}53p{}2{[3/2]}2 and 2{p}53s{}2[3/2{]}2o levels of Ne I by using the multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock method. The electronic factors contributing to the isotope shifts were also estimated for the λ =614.5 {{nm}} transition connecting these two states. Electron correlation and relativistic effects including the Breit interaction were investigated in detail. Combining with recent measurements, we extracted the nuclear quadrupole moment values for 20Ne and 23Ne with a smaller uncertainty than the current available data. Isotope shifts in the 2{p}53p{}2{[3/2]}2-2{p}53s{}2[3/2{]}2o transition based on the present calculated field- and mass-shift parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values. However, the field shifts in this transition are two or three orders of magnitude smaller than the mass shifts, making rather difficult to deduce changes in nuclear-charge mean-square radii. According to our theoretical predictions, we suggest using instead transitions connecting levels arising from the 2p53s configuration to the ground state, for which the normal mass shift and specific mass shift contributions counteract each other, producing relatively small mass shifts that are only one order of magnitude larger than relatively large field shifts, especially for the 2{p}53s{}2[1/2{]}1o-2{p}6{}1{S}0 transition.

  5. Atomic parameters for the 2{p}^{5}3p\\;{}^{2}{[3/2]}_{2}-2{p}^{5}3s\\;{}^{2}{[3/2]}_{2}^{o} transition of Ne I relevant in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiguang; Godefroid, Michel; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-06-01

    We calculated the magnetic dipole hyperfine interaction constants and the electric field gradients of 2{p}53p{}2{[3/2]}2 and 2{p}53s{}2[3/2{]}2o levels of Ne I by using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The electronic factors contributing to the isotope shifts were also estimated for the λ =614.5 {{nm}} transition connecting these two states. Electron correlation and relativistic effects including the Breit interaction were investigated in detail. Combining with recent measurements, we extracted the nuclear quadrupole moment values for 20Ne and 23Ne with a smaller uncertainty than the current available data. Isotope shifts in the 2{p}53p{}2{[3/2]}2-2{p}53s{}2[3/2{]}2o transition based on the present calculated field- and mass-shift parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values. However, the field shifts in this transition are two or three orders of magnitude smaller than the mass shifts, making rather difficult to deduce changes in nuclear-charge mean-square radii. According to our theoretical predictions, we suggest using instead transitions connecting levels arising from the 2p53s configuration to the ground state, for which the normal mass shift and specific mass shift contributions counteract each other, producing relatively small mass shifts that are only one order of magnitude larger than relatively large field shifts, especially for the 2{p}53s{}2[1/2{]}1o-2{p}6{}1{S}0 transition.

  6. High-temperature heat capacity of stannates Pr2Sn2O7 and Nd2Sn2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. T.; Irtyugo, L. A.; Beletskii, V. V.; Denisov, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    Oxide compounds Pr2Sn2O7 and Nd2Sn2O7 have been obtained by solid-phase synthesis. The effect of temperature on the heat capacity of Pr2Sn2O7 (360-1045 K) and Nd2Sn2O7 (360-1030 K) has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The thermodynamic properties of the compounds (changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the reduced Gibbs energy) have been calculated by the experimental data of C p = f( T).

  7. Solubility of anthracene in ternary 2-alkoxyethanol + cyclohexane + heptane and 2-alkoxyethanol + cyclohexane + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, T.; Childress, S.D.; Fina, K.M. de; Hernandez, C.E.; Roy, L.E.; Sharp, T.L.; Acree, W.E. Jr.

    1999-03-01

    Experimental solubilities are reported for anthracene dissolved in ternary 2-ethoxyethanol + cyclohexane + heptane, 2-ethoxyethanol + cyclohexane + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, 2-butoxyethanol + cyclohexane + heptane, and 2-butoxyethanol + cyclohexane + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane solvent mixtures at 25 C. Nineteen compositions were studied for each of the four solvent systems. Results of these measurements are used to test the predictive ability of the ternary solvent form of the combined NIMS/Redlich-Kister equation. Computations showed that the model predicted the observed solubility behavior to within an overall average absolute deviation of about 1.42%.

  8. Heat capacity of the frustrated magnetic pyrochlores Gd2Zr2O7 and Gd2Hf2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Alice M.; Klavins, Peter; Corruccini, L. R.

    2008-06-01

    The heat capacities of Gd2Zr2O7 and Gd2Hf2O7 both show sharp peaks in the vicinity of 0.77 K, consistent with the existence of long range magnetic order. They are superimposed in both cases on broader maxima centered at approximately 1 K, presumably due to short range spin correlations. Both compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions, with Weiss constants of approximately -7 K. Comparisons are made to earlier results for the isomorphic compounds Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Sn2O7.

  9. Isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubova, N. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Shabaev, V. M.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Plunien, G.; Brandau, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-05-01

    Isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions are evaluated for a wide range of the nuclear charge number: Z =8 -92 . The calculations of the relativistic nuclear recoil and nuclear size effects are performed using a large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm method. The corresponding QED corrections are also taken into account. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods. The accuracy of the isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions is significantly improved.

  10. Web 2.0, Meet Literacy 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Literacy 2.0 is defined in terms of Web 2.0 influences. Literacy 2.0 encompasses several major characteristics that distinguish it from traditional literacy practices (Literacy 1.0). For educational technology professionals, Literacy 2.0 skills become a critical means for developing lifelong learning.

  11. Amorphous Li2 O2 : Chemical Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yelong; Cui, Qinghua; Zhang, Xinmin; McKee, William C; Xu, Ye; Ling, Shigang; Li, Hong; Zhong, Guiming; Yang, Yong; Peng, Zhangquan

    2016-08-26

    When aprotic Li-O2 batteries discharge, the product phase formed in the cathode often contains two different morphologies, that is, crystalline and amorphous Li2 O2 . The morphology of Li2 O2 impacts strongly on the electrochemical performance of Li-O2 cells in terms of energy efficiency and rate capability. Crystalline Li2 O2 is readily available and its properties have been studied in depth for Li-O2 batteries. However, little is known about the amorphous Li2 O2 because of its rarity in high purity. Herein, amorphous Li2 O2 has been synthesized by a rapid reaction of tetramethylammonium superoxide and LiClO4 in solution, and its amorphous nature has been confirmed by a range of techniques. Compared with its crystalline siblings, amorphous Li2 O2 demonstrates enhanced charge-transport properties and increased electro-oxidation kinetics, manifesting itself a desirable discharge phase for high-performance Li-O2 batteries. PMID:27486085

  12. 10 CFR 960.4-2-2 - Geochemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geochemistry. 960.4-2-2 Section 960.4-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... requirements specified in 10 CFR 60.113 for radionuclide releases from the engineered-barrier system...

  13. 10 CFR 2.502-2.504 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2.502-2.504 Section 2.502-2.504 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Additional Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be...

  14. 10 CFR 2.502-2.504 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2.502-2.504 Section 2.502-2.504 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Additional Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be...

  15. 10 CFR 2.502-2.504 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2.502-2.504 Section 2.502-2.504 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Additional Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be Operated at Sites Not Identified in...

  16. 10 CFR 2.502-2.504 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2.502-2.504 Section 2.502-2.504 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Additional Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be...

  17. 10 CFR 2.502-2.504 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2.502-2.504 Section 2.502-2.504 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Additional Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be Operated at Sites Not Identified in...

  18. 32 CFR 2.2 - Statutory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting on a defense acquisition program may be waived. (c) The requirements in section 809 of Public Law... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory relief for participating programs. 2.2... PROGRAM POLICY § 2.2 Statutory relief for participating programs. (a) Within the limitations...

  19. 32 CFR 2.2 - Statutory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting on a defense acquisition program may be waived. (c) The requirements in section 809 of Public Law... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Statutory relief for participating programs. 2.2... PROGRAM POLICY § 2.2 Statutory relief for participating programs. (a) Within the limitations...

  20. Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1): Serving as the prototype for the F2B-1 shipboard fighter, the XF2B-1 differed visually in having a pointed spinner and an unbalanced rudder. Like many aircraft of its day, the Boeing model 69 was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  1. 50 CFR 2.2 - Locations of regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locations of regional offices. 2.2 Section 2.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... and addresses of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife regional offices are as follows: (a) Pacific...

  2. 45 CFR 1210.2-2 - Procedure for deselection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for deselection. 1210.2-2 Section 1210.2-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA...

  3. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  4. 10 CFR 960.4-2-2 - Geochemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Geochemistry. 960.4-2-2 Section 960.4-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... requirements specified in 10 CFR 60.113 for radionuclide releases from the engineered-barrier system...

  5. Conformational analysis of (CH 3) 2CCl(CH 2) xCH(CH 3) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsend

    Liquid and solid-state i.r. spectra and liquid-state Raman spectra were obtained for three compounds in a family of compounds with the general formula (CH 3) 2CCl(CH 2) xCH(CH 3) 2 with x = 0, 1 and 2. Two carbon—chlorine stretching bands were observed in the liquid-state spectra of each of the three: 2-chloro-2,3-dimethylbutane, 569 and 611 cm -1; 2-chloro-2,4-dimethypentane, 573 and 628 cm -1; 2-chloro-2,5-dimethylhexane, 561 and 626 cm -1. It was determined that two conformers ( TCHH and THHH) exist in the liquid state of 2-chloro-2,3-dimethylbutane and that only the THHH conformer was present in the crystalline solid. For both 2-chloro-2,4-dimethylpentane and 2-chloro-2,5-dimethylhexane, the liquid is composed of the TCHH conformer and at least one of the two possible THHH conformers. The crystalline solid exists as one of the two possible THHH conformers. Normal coordinate calculations were made for all three compounds and a force field was developed for the family. It was not possible to distinguish between the two THHH forms of 2-chloro-2,4-dimethylpentane and 2-chloro-2,5-dimethylhexane.

  6. In2O3/Bi2Sn2O7 heterostructured nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yonglei; Que, Wenxiu; Yin, Xingtian; He, Zuoli; Liu, Xiaobin; Yang, Yawei; Shao, Jinyou; Kong, Ling Bing

    2016-11-01

    In2O3/Bi2Sn2O7 composite photocatalysts with various contents of cubic In2O3 nanoparticles were fabricated by using impregnation method. A thriving modification of Bi2Sn2O7 by an introduction of In2O3 was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples composed of hybrids of In2O3 and Bi2Sn2O7 exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light, as compared with pure In2O3 and Bi2Sn2O7 nanoparticles. Optimized composition of the composite photocatalysts was 0.1In2O3/Bi2Sn2O7, which shows a rate constant higher than those of pure In2O3 and Bi2Sn2O7 by 4.06 and 3.21 times, respectively. Based on Mott-Schottky analysis and active species detection, the photoexcited electrons in the conduction band of In2O3 and the holes in the valence band of Bi2Sn2O7 participated in reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. Hence, rad OH, rad O2- and h+ were the main active species involved in the photocatalytic reaction of the In2O3/Bi2Sn2O7 composite photocatalysts. The effective separation process of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs was testified by photocurrent test.

  7. A new room-temperature ultraviolet emission material: K2[Ni(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narsimhulu, M.; Raju, B.; Saritha, A.; Narayana Rao, D.; Hussain, K. A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the crystal structure, ultraviolet (UV) luminescence, and magnetic properties of potassium bis oxalate nickel(II) tetrahydrate {K2[Ni(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·4H2O} crystals. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with a P21/c space group and exhibits a one-dimensional (1D) chain structure. The Ni(II) metal center possesses an octahedral environment, with four oxygen atoms from two bidentate oxalate ligands and two oxygen atoms from water molecules. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational modes of the compound. Interestingly, the complex exhibits intense UV emission at 364 nm when excited at 323 nm. Furthermore, the luminescence lifetime is approximately 50 μs. The magnetic susceptibility and field dependent magnetization measurements revealed a paramagnetic behavior above 20 K and antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures.

  8. Dipyridinium 2,2′-dithio­dinicotinate

    PubMed Central

    Yehye, Wagee A.; Ariffin, Azhar; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Ng, Seik Weng

    2009-01-01

    The dianion of the title salt, 2C5H6N+·C12H6N2O4S2 2−, lies on a special position of 2 site symmetry that relates one thio­nicotinate part to the other, and the dihedral angle between the niotinate planes is 89.2 (2)°. The pyridinium cations are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate group by way of N—H⋯O links. PMID:21583884

  9. Peroxy and cyclic isomers of NO2 and NO2(-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Cynthia; Davy, Randall D.; Quelch, Geoffrey E.; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from ab initio theoretical calculations on possible isomers of NO2 and NO2(-), both of interest for studies of atmospheric chemistry and synthetic fuels. The techniques applied are discussed, and the results are presented in extensive tables. Minima corresponding to the C2v open chain, the Cs peroxy, and the C2v ring forms of both NO2 and NO2(-) are located. The electron affinity of NOO(-) is estimated as 2.11 eV on the basis of the present calculations and experimental results on ONO(-) obtained by Herbst et al. (1974).

  10. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  11. Targeting HER2

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Karen J; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Nayak, Tapan K; Regino, Celeste AS; Garmestani, Kayhan; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab as a radioimmunoconjugate useful for both imaging and therapy was investigated. Conjugation of trastuzumab with the acyclic bifunctional chelator CHX-A″-DTPA yielded a chelate:protein ratio of 3.4 ± 0.3; the immunoreactivity of the antibody unaffected. Radiolabeling was efficient, routinely yielding a product with high specific activity. Tumor targeting was evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c.) xenografts of colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian and prostate carcinomas. High uptake of the radioimmunoconjugate, injected intravenously (i.v.), was observed in each of the models and the highest tumor %ID/g (51.18 ± 13.58) was obtained with the ovarian (SKOV-3) tumor xenograft. Specificity was demonstrated by the absence of uptake of 111In-trastuzumab by melanoma (A375) s.c. xenografts and 111In-HuIgG by s.c. LS-174T xenografts. Minimal uptake of i.v. injected 111In-trastuzumab in normal organs was confirmed in non-tumor-bearing mice. The in vivo behavior of 111In-trastuzumab in mice bearing intraperitoneal (i.p.) LS-174T tumors resulted in a tumor %ID/g of 130.85 ± 273.34 at 24 h. Visualization of tumor, s.c. and i.p. xenografts was achieved by γ-scintigraphy and PET imaging. Blood pool was evident as expected but cleared over time. The blood pharmacokinetics of i.v. and i.p. injected 111In-trastuzumab was determined in mice with and without tumors. The data from these in vitro and in vivo studies supported advancement of radiolabeled trastuzumab into two clinical studies, a Phase 0 imaging study in the Molecular Imaging Program of the National Cancer Institute and a Phase 1 radioimmunotherapy study at the University of Alabama. PMID:20716957

  12. Raman spectroscopic study of (Ph 2P) 2CCH 2 and [(Ph 2P) 2CCH 2]W(CO) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickert, C.; Posset, U.; Kiefer, W.

    1997-06-01

    The Raman and IR spectra of 1,1-bis[diphenylphosphino]ethene (Ph 2P) 2CCH 2 (vdpp) and the tetracarbonyl tungsten complex (vdpp)W(CO) 4 have been recorded. Vibrational assignments are proposed based on local symmetry considerations. For the vinylidene stretching mode a coordination shift is observed from 1588 cm -1 in polycrystalline vdpp to 1581 cm -1 in its tetracarbonyl tungsten complex. From a comparison of the v(CO) splitting pattern with those of related complexes monoclinic structure with factor group C2h and four formula units per unit cell is concluded.

  13. VIBRATIONAL RELAXATION OF D2O ( v2)

    SciTech Connect

    Miljanic, Scepan S.; Moore, C.Bradley

    1980-01-01

    The method of laser-excited vibrational fluorescence has been used to measure vibrational relaxation rates for the bending mode of D{sub 2}O in collisions with D{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}, HD, H{sub 2}, He, and Ar. The rate constants at 295 K are found to be (3.2 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -11}, (3.6 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -13}, (1.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -12}, (3.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -12}, (7.1 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -14}, and (3.0 {+-} 1.2) x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} sec{sup -1}, respectively. Relaxation times have been measured for two D{sub 2}O-HDO-H{sub 2}O mixtures and relaxation probabilities, PD{sub 2}O-HDO and PD{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}O were estimated to be not very different from PD{sub 2}O-D{sub 2}O. The temperature dependence of the relaxation was measured for pure D{sub 2}O. The rates are (1.80 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -11} at 400, (2.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -11} at 350 and (4.0 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} sec{sup -1} at 260 K. The corresponding probabilities are fit by P(T) = C exp({epsilon}/kT) with {epsilon} = (778 {+-} 34) K and C = 1.1 x 10{sup -2}.

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of 2'-Deoxy-2'-Spirodiflurocyclopropyl Nucleoside Analogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Xia, Xueliang; Sun, Chenghai; Lin, Cai; Zhou, Yiqian; Hussain, Muzammal; Tang, Fei; Liu, Lu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of 2'-deoxy-2'-siprodifluorocyclopropany-lnucleoside analogs has been achieved from α-d-glucose in several steps. The key step in the synthesis was the introduction of the difluorocyclopropane through a difluorocarbene type reaction at the 2'-position. Then, a series of novel 2'-deoxy-2'-spirodifluorocyclopropanyl nucleoside analogs were synthesized using the Vorbrüggen method. All the synthesized nucleosides were characterized and subsequently evaluated against hepatitis C and influenza A virus strains in vitro. PMID:27556785

  15. High-temperature resistivity of URh 2Ge 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otop, A.; Maksimov, I.; Scheidt, E.-W.; Mydosh, J. A.; Süllow, S.

    2006-05-01

    We present a study of the anomalous resistivity, with a large ρ and negative temperature coefficient dρ/dT, of the moderately disordered uranium heavy fermion compound URh 2Ge 2. We establish that the anomalous behavior persist up to high temperatures, i.e., 620 K ≈2ΘD, with ΘD as the Debye temperature. Our finding reinforces the clear comparison of the transport behavior of URh 2Ge 2 to that of metallic glasses.

  16. Alkyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes.

    PubMed

    Lidster, Benjamin J; Kumar, Dharam R; Spring, Andrew M; Yu, Chin-Yang; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James; Turner, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    [2.2]Paracyclophane-1,9-dienes substituted with n-octyl chains have been synthesised from the corresponding dithia[3.3]paracyclophanes using a benzyne induced Stevens rearrangement. The use of 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride as the in situ benzyne source gave significantly improved yields over traditional sources of benzyne and enabled the preparation of n-octyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes on a multi-gram scale.

  17. Luminescence in Li2BaP2O7.

    PubMed

    Hatwar, L R; Wankhede, S P; Moharil, S V; Muthal, P L; Dhopte, S M

    2015-09-01

    The photo-, thermo- and optically stimulated luminescence in Li2BaP2O7 activated with Eu(2+) /Cu(+) are reported. Strong thermoluminescence, which is about two times greater than LiF-TLD 100 was observed in the Eu(2+) -activated sample. It also exhibited optically stimulated luminescence sensitivity of ~20% that of commercial Al2O3:C phosphor. PMID:25351563

  18. Synthesis of Co2+ and Ni2+ stabilized beta alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; White, D.R.; Sato, H.; Sandberg, C.J.; Harrison, H.R.

    1983-10-01

    By using a skull melting technique, both single crystalline Ni(2+) and Co(2+) stabilized beta double prime-aluminas and doped beta-aluminas have been synthesized. Both Ni(2+) and Co(2+) beta-aluminas are blue in color, although the Co(2+) material has a deeper hue. Analysis of their visible absorption spectra indicated that the divalent transition metal ions are situated in tetrahedral sites of the spinel blocks.

  19. Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) Enhances Cellular Uptake of Aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meiyan; Wang, Qi; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Koo, Ja-Won; Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, continue to be clinically essential worldwide to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. Yet, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects of these drugs remain serious complications. A major site of gentamicin uptake and toxicity resides within kidney proximal tubules that also heavily express electrogenic sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) in vivo. We hypothesized that SGLT2 traffics gentamicin, and promotes cellular toxicity. We confirmed in vitro expression of SGLT2 in proximal tubule-derived KPT2 cells, and absence in distal tubule-derived KDT3 cells. D-glucose competitively decreased the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analog of glucose, and fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) by KPT2 cells. Phlorizin, an SGLT2 antagonist, strongly inhibited uptake of 2-NBDG and GTTR by KPT2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GTTR uptake was elevated in KDT3 cells transfected with SGLT2 (compared to controls); and this enhanced uptake was attenuated by phlorizin. Knock-down of SGLT2 expression by siRNA reduced gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, SGLT2 was robustly expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells of heterozygous, but not null, mice. Phlorizin decreased GTTR uptake by kidney proximal tubule cells in Sglt2+/− mice, but not in Sglt2−/− mice. However, serum GTTR levels were elevated in Sglt2−/− mice compared to Sglt2+/− mice, and in phlorizin-treated Sglt2+/− mice compared to vehicle-treated Sglt2+/− mice. Loss of SGLT2 function by antagonism or by gene deletion did not affect gentamicin cochlear loading or auditory function. Phlorizin did not protect wild-type mice from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. We conclude that SGLT2 can traffic gentamicin and contribute to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25268124

  20. Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Modulates TLR2 Signaling in Synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, Randi M.; Feuerherm, Astrid J.; Skuland, Trine; Johansen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis leading to destruction of cartilage and bone. PLA2 enzymes are key players in inflammation regulating the release of unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA), a precursor of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Several lines of evidence point to toll-like receptors (TLRs) as drivers of synovitis and joint destruction in RA. However, few studies have addressed the implication of PLA2 activity downstream TLR activation in the synovium. Here, we aimed to characterize PLA2 enzyme involvement in TLR2-induced signaling in synovial fibroblast-like cells. TLRs1-7 and a range of sPLA2, iPLA2 and cPLA2 enzymes were found to be transcriptionally expressed in cultured synoviocytes. Activation of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 led to phosphorylation of cPLA2α at Ser505, and induced AA release and PGE2 production; effects that were attenuated by cPLA2α inhibitors. In contrast, sPLA2 inhibitors did not affect AA or PGE2 release. cPLA2α inhibitors furthermore attenuated TLR-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8 and COX2. COX1/2 inhibitors attenuated TLR2/6-induced IL-6 transcription and protein production comparable to cPLA2α inhibition. Moreover, exogenously PGE2 added alone induced IL-6 production and completely rescued IL-6 transcription when added simultaneously with FSL-1 in the presence of a cPLA2α inhibitor. Our results demonstrate for the first time that cPLA2α is involved in TLR2/1- and TLR2/6-induced AA release, PGE2 production and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in synoviocytes, possibly through COX/PGE2-dependent pathways. These findings expand our understanding of cPLA2α as a modulator of inflammatory molecular mechanisms in chronic diseases such as RA. PMID:25893499

  1. TOUGH V2.1

    2011-06-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulator for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one-, two-, and three-dimensional porous and fracture media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, environmental assessment and remediation, geologic carbon sequestration, and unsaturated and saturated zone hydrology. The TOUGH2 V2.1 package is an upgrade of TOUGH2 V2.0 (CR-1574) and includes the following improvements and enhancements relative to TOUGH2 V2.0: - Includes allmore » known bug fixes - The module TMVOC (CR-1820) is fully integrated - The module ECO2N (CR-2202) is fully integrated - A fluid property module ECO2M has been added, that can seamlessly model CO2 storage and leakage scenarios, including transitions between super- and sub-critical fluids, and phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO2. The TOUGH2 V2.1 package also supports all legacy fluid property modules, i.e., those packaged into TOUGH2 V2.0 (CR-1574), which includes T2VOC (CR-1254).« less

  2. Simultaneous conversion of CHClF(2) and CH(3)Br to CH(2)CF(2).

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai; Kennedy, Eric M; Mackie, John C; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2007-08-01

    Gas phase reaction of CHClF(2) with CH(3)Br in an alumina tube reactor at 773-1123 K as a function of various input ratios of CH(3)Br to CHClF(2) is presented. The major products detected include C(2)F(4), CH(2)CF(2), and CH(4). Minor products include CH(3)Cl, CHF(3), C(2)H(4), C(2)H(2), CH(2)CF-CF(3), and C(2)H(3)F. The reaction produces a high yield of CH(2)CF(2) (53% based on CHClF(2) feed) at 1123 K and an input molar ratio of CH(3)Br to CHClF(2) of 1.8, suggesting that the reaction potentially can be developed as a process to convert two ozone depleting substances (CHClF(2) and CH(3)Br) to a highly valuable chemical, CH(2)CF(2). The reaction of CHClF(2) with CH(3)Cl and CH(3)I was also investigated under similar reaction conditions, to assist in understanding the reaction chemistry involved in the reaction of CHClF(2) with CH(3)Br.

  3. Three-dimensional WS2 nanosheet networks for H2O2 produced for cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Quan, Yingzhou; Zhang, Yueyu; Jiang, Min; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Kong, Biao; An, Tiance; Wang, Wenshuo; Xia, Limin; Gong, Xingao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-03-14

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in living RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and neurons. First-principles calculations further demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of probing H2O2 is attributed to the efficient and spontaneous H2O2 adsorption on WS2 nanosheet edge sites. The combined features of 3D WS2 nanosheet networks suggest attractive new opportunities for exploring the physiological roles of reactive oxygen species like H2O2 in living systems.

  4. Synthesis and reactivity of NHC-supported Ni2(μ(2)-η(2),η(2)-S2)-bridging disulfide and Ni2(μ-S)2-bridging sulfide complexes.

    PubMed

    Olechnowicz, Frank; Hillhouse, Gregory L; Jordan, Richard F

    2015-03-16

    The (IPr)Ni scaffold stabilizes low-coordinate, mononuclear and dinuclear complexes with a diverse range of sulfur ligands, including μ(2)-η(2),η(2)-S2, η(2)-S2, μ-S, and μ-SH motifs. The reaction of {(IPr)Ni}2(μ-Cl)2 (1, IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) with S8 yields the bridging disulfide species {(IPr)ClNi}2(μ(2)-η(2),η(2)-S2) (2). Complex 2 reacts with 2 equiv of AdNC (Ad = adamantyl) to yield a 1:1 mixture of the terminal disulfide compound (IPr)(AdNC)Ni(η(2)-S2) (3a) and trans-(IPr)(AdNC)NiCl2 (4a). 2 also reacts with KC8 to produce the Ni-Ni-bonded bridging sulfide complex {(IPr)Ni}2(μ-S)2 (6). Complex 6 reacts with H2 to yield the bridging hydrosulfide compound {(IPr)Ni}2(μ-SH)2 (7), which retains a Ni-Ni bond. 7 is converted back to 6 by hydrogen atom abstraction by 2,4,6-(t)Bu3-phenoxy radical. The 2,6-diisopropylphenyl groups of the IPr ligand provide lateral steric protection of the (IPr)Ni unit but allow for the formation of Ni-Ni-bonded dinuclear species and electronically preferred rather than sterically preferred structures. PMID:25742125

  5. A Measurement of g2p at Low Q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, M.

    2016-02-01

    Jefferson Lab has been at the forefront of a program to study the polarized structure of nucleons using electron scattering. Measurements of the spin dependent structure functions, g1 and g2, have proven to be powerful tools in testing and understanding QCD. The neutron structure function g2n has been measured extensively in Hall A at Jefferson Lab over a wide range of Q2, but data for g2p remains scarce. This docment will discuss the g2p experiment, which ran in Hall A at Jefferson Lab in the spring of 2012, and will provide the first measurement of g2p in the resonance region; covering 0.02 < Q2 < 0.2 GeV2. The 0th moment of g2 provides a test of the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule, which states that the integral of g2 over the Bjorken scaling variable x goes to zero. This sum rule, valid for all values of Q2, has been satisfied for the neutron, but a violation is suggested for the proton at high Q2. The 2nd moment allows for a benchmark test of χPT at low Q2. Specifically, the behavior of the longitudinally-transverse spin polarizability (δLT), as χPT calculations of this quantity deviate significantly from the measured neutron data. This document will discuss the current status of the analysis along with preliminary results.

  6. Oxidation mechanisms of CF2Br2 and CH2Br2 induced by air nonthermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Schiorlin, Milko; Marotta, Ester; Dal Molin, Marta; Paradisi, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation mechanisms in air nonthermal plasma (NTP) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure were investigated in a corona reactor energized by +dc, -dc, or +pulsed high voltage.. The two bromomethanes CF(2)Br(2) and CH(2)Br(2) were chosen as model organic pollutants because of their very different reactivities with OH radicals. Thus, they served as useful mechanistic probes: they respond differently to the presence of humidity in the air and give different products. By FT-IR analysis of the postdischarge gas the following products were detected and quantified: CO(2) and CO in the case of CH(2)Br(2), CO(2) and F(2)C ═ O in the case of CF(2)Br(2). F(2)C ═ O is a long-lived oxidation intermediate due to its low reactivity with atmospheric radicals. It is however removed from the NTP processed gas by passage through a water scrubber resulting in hydrolysis to CO(2) and HF. Other noncarbon containing products of the discharge were also monitored by FT-IR analysis, including HNO(3) and N(2)O. Ozone, an important product of air NTP, was never detected in experiments with CF(2)Br(2) and CH(2)Br(2) because of the highly efficient ozone depleting cycles catalyzed by BrOx species formed from the bromomethanes. It is concluded that, regardless of the type of corona applied, CF(2)Br(2) reacts in air NTP via a common intermediate, the CF(2)Br radical. The possible reactions leading to this radical are discussed, including, for -dc activation, charge exchange with O(2)(-), a species detected by APCI mass spectrometry. PMID:23190335

  7. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. i2b2t2: Unlocking Visualization for Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Daniel R.; Henderson, Darren W.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a tool that extracts clinical data sets and provides visualizations from clinical data warehouses that use the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) query tool. Our tool, i2b2t2 (i2b2 to Tableau), can extract and visualize any i2b2 query into a portable format that researchers can easily explore without needing a highly technical or statistical background. This user-friendly format provides a quick visual summary of the queried population and is easily extendable to develop more intricate and robust visualizations. Extraction and visualization can be provided as a service by clinical data warehouses to expedite the release of data sets for research. i2b2t2 also encourages visualization as a self-service; a motivated researcher can develop custom visualizations for exploration or publication. PMID:27570658

  9. i2b2t2: Unlocking Visualization for Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Harris, Daniel R; Henderson, Darren W

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a tool that extracts clinical data sets and provides visualizations from clinical data warehouses that use the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) query tool. Our tool, i2b2t2 (i2b2 to Tableau), can extract and visualize any i2b2 query into a portable format that researchers can easily explore without needing a highly technical or statistical background. This user-friendly format provides a quick visual summary of the queried population and is easily extendable to develop more intricate and robust visualizations. Extraction and visualization can be provided as a service by clinical data warehouses to expedite the release of data sets for research. i2b2t2 also encourages visualization as a self-service; a motivated researcher can develop custom visualizations for exploration or publication. PMID:27570658

  10. Xenopatients 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Javier A; Alarcón, Tomás; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Martin, Ángel G; Vellon, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    stemness factors following the activation of phenotypic copies of specific cancer diseases might crucially evaluate a “reprogramming cure” for cancer. A new era of xenopatients 2.0 generated via nuclear reprogramming of the epigenetic landscapes of patient-derived cancer genomes might revolutionize the current personalized translational platforms in cancer research. PMID:24406535

  11. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    created a balance in between the “developed” and developing countries. If India was producing the same amounts of emissions per capita as the it would have a total of 20 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

  12. AGC-2 Disassembly Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2014-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite Research and Development (R&D) Program is currently measuring irradiated material properties for predicting the behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades available for use within the cores of new very high temperature reactor designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, consisting of six irradiation capsules, will generate irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. The AGC experiment is designed to determine the changes to specific material properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, elastic modulus, mechanical strength, irradiation induced dimensional change rate, and irradiation creep for a wide variety of nuclear grade graphite types over a range of high temperature, and moderate doses. A series of six capsules containing graphite test specimens will be used to expose graphite test samples to a dose range from 1 to 7 dpa at three different temperatures (600, 900, and 1200°C) as described in the Graphite Technology Development Plan. Since irradiation induced creep within graphite components is considered critical to determining the operational life of the graphite core, some of the samples will also be exposed to an applied load to determine the creep rate for each graphite type under both temperature and neutron flux. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). AGC-1 and AGC-2 will be irradiated in the south flux trap and AGC-3–AGC-6 will be irradiated in the east flux trap. The change in flux traps is due to NGNP irradiation priorities requiring the AGC experiment to be moved to accommodate Fuel irradiation experiments. After irradiation, all six AGC capsules will be cooled in the ATR Canal, sized for shipment, and shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) where the capsule will be disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). During disassembly, the metallic

  13. Thermodynamic Study of UO3(g), UO2(OH)2(g), UO2Cl2(g), and UO2F2(g)

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Krikorian, O H; Fleming, D L

    2002-11-07

    Using the transpiration method, the volatility of uranium oxide in the presence of oxygen and water vapor has been measured at temperatures ranging from 1173 to 1573 K and the volatility of uranium oxide in the presence of oxygen and chlorine has been measured at 1175 K. The major vapor species in the presence of oxygen and water vapor are found to be UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(0H){sub 2}(g). Third law treatment of the vaporization data yields {Delta}H{sub f}{sup o}(298) values of -790.52 {+-} 7.32 and -1199.94 {+-} 10.25 kJ/mol, respectively. The major vapor species in the presence of oxygen and chlorine is found to be UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(g). Third law treatment of the vaporization data yields a {Delta}H{sub f}{sup o}(298) value of -1002.04 {+-} 3.26 kJ/mol. From an assessment of all the thermodynamic data available for UO{sub 3}(g), UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(g), and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(g), the best {Delta}H{sub f{sup o}}(298) values for each of these species are calculated to be -796.74 {+-} 3.52, -1199.94 {+-} 10.25, -999.64 {+-} 2.40, and -1369.22 {+-} 2.87 kJ/mol, respectively. From these, the {Delta}H{sub f{sup o}} (298) values for UO{sub 2}ClOH(g), UO{sub 2}FOH(g), and UO{sub 2}FCl(g) are estimated to be -1099.79, -1284.58, and -1184.43 kJ/mol, respectively. The thermodynamic data for all the vapor species are then applied to conditions one might expect in a thermal oxidation processor for mixed waste to estimate the amount of uranium volatility.

  14. Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) signaling in oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, James W; Niture, Suryakant K; Jaiswal, Anil K

    2009-11-01

    Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) are cellular sensors of chemical- and radiation-induced oxidative and electrophilic stress. Nrf2 is a nuclear transcription factor that controls the expression and coordinated induction of a battery of defensive genes encoding detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins. This is a mechanism of critical importance for cellular protection and cell survival. Nrf2 is retained in the cytoplasm by an inhibitor, INrf2 which functions as an adapter for Cul3/Rbx1-mediated degradation of Nrf2. In response to oxidative/electrophilic stress, Nrf2 is switched on and then off by distinct early and delayed mechanisms. Oxidative/electrophilic modification of INrf2 cysteine 151 and/or protein kinase C phosphorylation of Nrf2 serine 40 results in the escape or release of Nrf2 from INrf2. Nrf2 is stabilized and translocates to the nucleus, forms heterodimers with unknown proteins, and binds the antioxidant response element, which leads to coordinated activation of gene expression. It takes less than 15 min from the time of exposure to switch on nuclear import of Nrf2. This is followed by activation of a delayed mechanism that controls the switching off of Nrf2 activation of gene expression. GSK3beta phosphorylates Fyn at an unknown threonine residue(s), leading to the nuclear localization of Fyn. Fyn phosphorylates Nrf2 tyrosine 568, resulting in the nuclear export of Nrf2, binding with INrf2, and degradation of Nrf2. The switching on and off of Nrf2 protects cells against free radical damage, prevents apoptosis, and promotes cell survival.

  15. Crystal and molecular structure of 2,2'-(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)dipyridinium dinitrate (H2 L)(NO3)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, O. A.; Polyakova, I. N.; Sergienko, V. S.; Davydov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The crystal structure of 2,2'-(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)dipyridinium dinitrate (H2 L)(NO3)2 is studied by X-ray diffraction ( T = 150 K, R1 = 0.0467). The H2 L 2+ cation is located on the twofold rotation axis and connected with two NO3 - anions by strong N-H···O hydrogen bonds. Planar quinoxaline fragments of cations form stacks with the interplanar spacing of 3.308 Å. The structure of the diprotonated H2 L 2+ cation is compared with those of the monoprotonated H2 L 2+ cation and neutral L molecule.

  16. Internet 2 Health Sciences Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Internet 2 (I2) health sciences initiative (I2HSI) involves the formulation of applications and supporting technologies, and guidelines for their use in the health sciences. Key elements of I2HSI include use of visualization, collaboration, medical informatics, telemedicine, and educational tools that support the health sciences. Specific…

  17. Above Room Temperature Organic Ferroelectrics: Diprotonated 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Shifts between Two 2-Chlorobenzoates.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Cai, Hong-Ling; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Sato, Osamu

    2016-09-21

    A pure organic single crystal, [H2dabco]·[2CB]2 ([H2dabco](2+) = diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 2CB(-) = 2-chlorobenzoate), which undergoes a ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition above room temperature (∼323 K upon heating), was prepared and characterized. This ferroelectric crystal possesses a distinctive supramolecular architecture composed of discrete H-bonded trimeric units (two 2CB(-) anions bridged by one [H2dabco](2+) cation through N-H···O hydrogen bond interactions). In the paraelectric phase, the [H2dabco](2+) cation is rotationally disordered and lies at the symmetric center of the trimer. Upon cooling, it is frozen in an ordered state and deviates toward a 2CB(-) anion at one end along the H-bond. The collective displacement of the cations leads to a polarization of the single crystal along the crystallographic c axis, which is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the second harmonic generation and spontaneous polarization. A significant increase in the phase transition temperature of the deuterated analogue suggests that the proton plays an important role in the ferroelectric phase transition. PMID:27580377

  18. Metal-Free [2 + 2 + 2] Cycloaddition of Ynamides with Nitriles to Construct 2,4-Diaminopyridines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyi; Zhang, Qingshuang; Xia, Biao; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Na; Chang, Junbiao

    2016-07-15

    We present a metal-free [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition of ynamides with nitriles that enables highly efficient access to 2,4-diaminopyridines. This catalytic protocol is more environmentally friendly and allows for a concomitant construction of C-C and C-N bonds between ynamides and nitriles, exhibiting excellent chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and wide functional groups tolerance. PMID:27366955

  19. Above Room Temperature Organic Ferroelectrics: Diprotonated 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Shifts between Two 2-Chlorobenzoates.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Cai, Hong-Ling; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Sato, Osamu

    2016-09-21

    A pure organic single crystal, [H2dabco]·[2CB]2 ([H2dabco](2+) = diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 2CB(-) = 2-chlorobenzoate), which undergoes a ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition above room temperature (∼323 K upon heating), was prepared and characterized. This ferroelectric crystal possesses a distinctive supramolecular architecture composed of discrete H-bonded trimeric units (two 2CB(-) anions bridged by one [H2dabco](2+) cation through N-H···O hydrogen bond interactions). In the paraelectric phase, the [H2dabco](2+) cation is rotationally disordered and lies at the symmetric center of the trimer. Upon cooling, it is frozen in an ordered state and deviates toward a 2CB(-) anion at one end along the H-bond. The collective displacement of the cations leads to a polarization of the single crystal along the crystallographic c axis, which is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the second harmonic generation and spontaneous polarization. A significant increase in the phase transition temperature of the deuterated analogue suggests that the proton plays an important role in the ferroelectric phase transition.

  20. Dehydrogenative [2 + 2 + 2] Cycloaddition of Cyano-yne-allene Substrates: Convenient Access to 2,6-Naphthyridine Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Haraburda, Ewelina; Lledó, Agustí; Roglans, Anna; Pla-Quintana, Anna

    2015-06-19

    A rhodium-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition of cyano-yne-allene scaffolds followed by a dehydrogenative process enabling the direct synthesis of unsaturated pyridine-containing compounds that can be conveniently converted to 2,6-naphthyridine derivatives is reported.

  1. VO2 responses to running speeds above VO2max.

    PubMed

    Duffield, R; Bishop, D

    2008-06-01

    This study compared VO2, heart rate (HR) and electromyographic (iEMG) responses to speeds above the velocity associated with VO2max (v-VO2max). Eight male, middle-distance runners performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2max and v-VO2max and runs to fatigue at 100 % and 110 % v-VO2max. Breath-by-breath VO2 and HR were continuously recorded; lactate [La (-)] measured pre- and post-run and iEMG measures of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis were recorded during the first and last 20 s of each run. Analysis indicated longer time to fatigue in the 100 % v-VO2max run with no differences between conditions for VO2 or HR amplitudes or post-run [La (-)] (p > 0.05). There were significantly faster tau values (p < 0.05) in the 110 % condition in VO2 and HR. No significant correlations were observed between VO2 or HR tau values and time to fatigue. RF iEMG was significantly larger in 110 % compared to 100 % run in the first 20 s (p < 0.05). While no association between treadmill performance and VO2 response was evident, faster running speeds resulted in faster VO2 and HR responses, with no difference in amplitude or % VO2max attained. This may potentially be as a result of an increased muscle fibre recruitment stimulus during the faster running velocity resulting in faster cardiodynamic responses.

  2. Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Chin, W H; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2009-09-01

    Greywater treatment by UVC/H(2)O(2) was investigated with regard to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A COD reduction from 225 to 30 mgl(-1) (overall removal of 87%) was achieved after settling overnight and subsequent irradiation for 3h with 10mM H(2)O(2). Most of the contaminants were removed by oxidation since only 13% COD was removed by settlement. The removal of COD in the greywater followed a second-order kinetic equation, r=0.0637[COD][H(2)O(2)], up to 10mM H(2)O(2). A slightly enhanced COD removal was observed at the initial pH of 10 compared with pH 3 and 7. This was attributed to the dissociation of H(2)O(2) to O(2)H(-). The treatment was not affected by total concentration of carbonate (c(T)) of at least 3 mM, above which operation between pH 3 and 5 was essential. The initial biodegradability of the settled greywater (as BOD(5):COD) was 0.22. After 2h UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment, a higher proportion of the residual contaminants was biodegradable (BOD(5):COD=0.41) which indicated its potential as a pre-treatment for a biological process. PMID:19656542

  3. Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Chin, W H; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2009-09-01

    Greywater treatment by UVC/H(2)O(2) was investigated with regard to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A COD reduction from 225 to 30 mgl(-1) (overall removal of 87%) was achieved after settling overnight and subsequent irradiation for 3h with 10mM H(2)O(2). Most of the contaminants were removed by oxidation since only 13% COD was removed by settlement. The removal of COD in the greywater followed a second-order kinetic equation, r=0.0637[COD][H(2)O(2)], up to 10mM H(2)O(2). A slightly enhanced COD removal was observed at the initial pH of 10 compared with pH 3 and 7. This was attributed to the dissociation of H(2)O(2) to O(2)H(-). The treatment was not affected by total concentration of carbonate (c(T)) of at least 3 mM, above which operation between pH 3 and 5 was essential. The initial biodegradability of the settled greywater (as BOD(5):COD) was 0.22. After 2h UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment, a higher proportion of the residual contaminants was biodegradable (BOD(5):COD=0.41) which indicated its potential as a pre-treatment for a biological process.

  4. Exploring (NH2F)2, H2FP:NFH2, and (PH2F)2 potential surfaces: hydrogen bonds or pnicogen bonds?

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Elguero, José; Del Bene, Janet E

    2013-01-10

    An ab initio MP2/aug'-cc-pVTZ study has been carried out to identify local minima on the (NH(2)F)(2), H(2)FP:NFH(2), and (PH(2)F)(2) potential surfaces, to characterize the types of interactions which stabilize the complexes found at these minima, and to evaluate their binding energies. With one exception, (NH(2)F)(2) complexes are stabilized by N-H···N or N-H···F hydrogen bonds. Only one complex, that with the smallest binding energy, has a pnicogen N···N bond. In contrast, (PH(2)F)(2) complexes are stabilized by P···P or P···F pnicogen bonds or by an antiparallel alignment of the dipole moment vectors of the two monomers, but not by hydrogen bonds. The most stable complex has an F-P···P-F alignment which approaches linearity. Both hydrogen-bonded and pnicogen-bonded complexes exist on the H(2)FP:NFH(2) surface, with the most stable being the pnicogen-bonded complex with F-P···N-F approaching a linear arrangement. Charge transfer transitions from a lone pair on a P, N, or F atom in one molecule to an antibonding σ* orbital of the other stabilize these complexes. These transitions are most important for complexes with pnicogen bonds. Although net charge transfer occurs in complexes in which the two monomers are inequivalent, charges on N and P do not correlate with N and P absolute chemical shieldings. Rather, these shieldings also reflect charge distributions and overall bonding patterns. EOM-CCSD two-bond spin-spin coupling constants (2h)J(X-Y) across X-H···Y hydrogen bonds tend to be small, due in part to the nonlinearity of many of the hydrogen bonds. (1p)J values across a particular kind of pnicogen bond are relatively large and vary significantly but do not correlate with corresponding distances.

  5. A new barium titanium (III) pyrophosphate: BaTi 2(P 2O 7) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shumin; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    1991-01-01

    The new barium titanium (III) pyrophosphate BaTi 2(P 2O 7) 2 has been prepared by conventional high temperature solid state reaction at 900°C in a fused silica tube. BaTi 2(P 2O 7) 2 crystallizes with four formula units in a cell with dimensions a = 10.680(3) Å, b = 10.564(4) Å, c = 9.834(4) Å/, β = 102.88(3)° and V = 1081.6(6) Å 3 in space group C 62h  C {2}/{c} (No. 15) of the monoclinic system. The single crystal structure refinement gives a final structure solution with R index on F2o of 0.018 for 99 variables and GOF = 1.05. BaTi 2(P 2O 7) 2 displays a new layered type structure which consists of layers of slightly distorted TiO 6 octahedra with (P 2O 7) and (BaO 10) polyhedra between the layers. The structural framework is built up from corner-sharing TiO 6 octahedra and P 2O 7 pyrophosphate groups, to give rise to [Ti 2(P 2O 7) 2] 2- units and to form tunnels where the barium cations reside. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on selected single crystals confirm the presence of Ti 3+ ( d1) ions with spin S = {1}/{2}. The high oxidative thermal stability of BaTi 2(P 2O 7) 2 versus the stabilities of other trivalent titanium cation-containing compounds, including Ti 2O 3, TiPO 4, and BaTi 2(PO 4) 3, owing to possible anion matrix effects are discussed.

  6. By Regulating Mitochondrial Ca2+-Uptake UCP2 Modulates Intracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Gebing, Tina; Reda, Sara; Schwaiger, Astrid; Leitner, Johannes; Wolny, Martin; Eckardt, Lars; Hoppe, Uta C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible role of UCP2 in modulating mitochondrial Ca2+-uptake (mCa2+-uptake) via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is highly controversial. Methods Thus, we analyzed mCa2+-uptake in isolated cardiac mitochondria, MCU single-channel activity in cardiac mitoplasts, dual Ca2+-transients from mitochondrial ((Ca2+)m) and intracellular compartment ((Ca2+)c) in the whole-cell configuration in cardiomyocytes of wild-type (WT) and UCP2-/- mice. Results Isolated mitochondria showed a Ru360 sensitive mCa2+-uptake, which was significantly decreased in UCP2-/- (229.4±30.8 FU vs. 146.3±23.4 FU, P<0.05). Single-channel registrations confirmed a Ru360 sensitive voltage-gated Ca2+-channel in mitoplasts, i.e. mCa1, showing a reduced single-channel activity in UCP2-/- (Po,total: 0.34±0.05% vs. 0.07±0.01%, P<0.05). In UCP2-/- cardiomyocytes (Ca2+)m was decreased (0.050±0.009 FU vs. 0.021±0.005 FU, P<0.05) while (Ca2+)c was unchanged (0.032±0.002 FU vs. 0.028±0.004 FU, P>0.05) and transsarcolemmal Ca2+-influx was inhibited suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism. Additionally, we observed an inhibitory effect of ATP on mCa2+-uptake in WT mitoplasts and (Ca2+)m of cardiomyocytes leading to an increase of (Ca2+)c while no ATP dependent effect was observed in UCP2-/-. Conclusion Our results indicate regulatory effects of UCP2 on mCa2+-uptake. Furthermore, we propose, that previously described inhibitory effects on MCU by ATP may be mediated via UCP2 resulting in changes of excitation contraction coupling. PMID:26849136

  7. VENUS-2 Experimental Benchmark Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    The VENUS critical facility is a zero power reactor located at SCK-CEN, Mol, Belgium, which for the VENUS-2 experiment utilized a mixed-oxide core with near-weapons-grade plutonium. In addition to the VENUS-2 Core, additional computational variants based on each type of fuel cycle VENUS-2 core (3.3 wt. % UO{sub 2}, 4.0 wt. % UO{sub 2}, and 2.0/2.7 wt.% MOX) were also calculated. The VENUS-2 critical configuration and cell variants have been calculated with MCU-REA, which is a continuous energy Monte Carlo code system developed at Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' and is used extensively in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The calculations resulted in a k{sub eff} of 0.99652 {+-} 0.00025 and relative pin powers within 2% for UO{sub 2} pins and 3% for MOX pins of the experimental values.

  8. Crystal structure of 2-[2-(2,5-di­chloro­benz­yloxy)-2-(furan-2-yl)eth­yl]-2H-indazole

    PubMed Central

    Özel Güven, Özden; Türk, Gökhan; Adler, Philip D. F.; Coles, Simon J.; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H16Cl2N2O2, the indazole ring system is approximately planar [maximum deviation = 0.033 (1) Å], its mean plane is oriented at dihedral angles of 25.04 (4) and 5.10 (4)° to the furan and benzene rings, respectively. In the crystal, pairs of C—Hind⋯Obo (ind = indazole and bo = benz­yloxy) hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers with graph-set motif R 2 2(12). Weak C—H⋯π inter­actions is also observed. Aromatic π–π stacking between the benzene and the pyrazole rings from neighbouring mol­ecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8894 (7) Å] further consolidates the crystal packing. PMID:27746922

  9. Comparative study of the ab initio potential curves for Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Sr2+ molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sandipan; Montgomery, John; Côté, Robin

    2013-05-01

    We perform a comparative study of the X 2Σu+, A 2Πu and B 2Σg+ states in the homonuclear alkaline-earth family of molecular ions -- Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Sr2++. A qualitative comparison of the ``double-well'' in the B 2Σg+ state and interaction with the excited 2 2Σg+ state is made for all the molecular ions. Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations are performed with a complete active space (CAS) wavefunction as reference. Spectroscopic constants, bound vibrational levels, transition moments and radiative lifetimes are calculated. The static dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities, and the leading order van der Waals coefficients are also reported. We also show preliminary results for corrections to the Born-Oppenheimer Hamiltonian -- non-adiabatic couplings and and hyperfine structure due to nuclear spins and electric quadrupoles. We perform a comparative study of the X 2Σu+ , A 2Πu and B 2Σg+ states in the homonuclear alkaline-earth family of molecular ions -- Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Sr2+. A qualitative comparison of the ``double-well'' in the B 2Σg+ state and interaction with the excited 2 2Σg+ state is made for all the molecular ions. Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations are performed with a complete active space (CAS) wavefunction as reference. Spectroscopic constants, bound vibrational levels, transition moments and radiative lifetimes are calculated. The static dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities, and the leading order van der Waals coefficients are also reported. We also show preliminary results for corrections to the Born-Oppenheimer Hamiltonian -- non-adiabatic couplings and and hyperfine structure due to nuclear spins and electric quadrupoles. This work was funded in part by the Air Force Office for Scientific Research MURI and the Department of Energy Office of Basic Sciences.

  10. Quasi-periodic Solutions to the K(-2, -2) Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lihua; Geng, Xianguo

    2016-07-01

    With the help of the characteristic polynomial of Lax matrix for the K(-2, -2) hierarchy, we define a hyperelliptic curve 𝒦n+1 of arithmetic genus n+1. By introducing the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function, the K(-2, -2) hierarchy is decomposed into Dubrovin-type differential equations. Based on the theory of hyperelliptic curve, the explicit Riemann theta function representation of meromorphic function is given, and from which the quasi-periodic solutions to the K(-2, -2) hierarchy are obtained.

  11. Legumes, N2 fixation and the H2 cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layzell, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    Legume plants such as soybean or pea can form symbiotic, N2 fixing associations with bacteria that exist in root nodules. For every N2 fixed, 1 to 3 H2 are produced as a by-product of the nitrogenase reaction. Therefore, a typical N2 fixing legume crop produces about 200,000 L H2 gas (at STP) per hectare per crop season. This paper will summarize our current understanding of the processes leading to H2 production in legumes, the magnitude of H2 production associated with global cropping systems, and the implications for its production and oxidation on both the legumes and the soils in which they grow. Specific points may include: ˜ In symbioses lacking uptake hydrogenase (HUP) activity (thought to be the majority of crop legumes), the H2 diffuses into the soil where it is oxidized by soil microbes that grow up around the legume nodules. The kinetic properties of these microbes are very different (higher Km and Vmax) from that of microbes in soils exposed to normal air (ca. 0.5 ppm H2); ˜ Laboratory studies indicate that 60% of the reducing power from H2 is coupled to O2 uptake, whereas 40% is coupled to autotrophic CO2 fixation. The latter process should increase soil carbon stocks by about 25 kg C/ha/yr; ˜ At the site of the nitrogenase enzyme, H2 production is autocatalytic such that the higher the H2 concentration, the more H2 is produced and the less N2 fixed. The variable O2 diffusion barrier in legumes can act to restrict H2 diffusion from the nodule, thereby increasing the relative magnitude of H2 production versus N2 fixation; ˜ Studies to understand why legume symbioses make such an energy investment in H2 production have led to the discovery that H2 treated soils have improved fertility, supporting the growth and yield of legume and non-legume crops. This observation may account for the benefits of legumes when used in rotation with cereal crops, a phenomenon that has been used by farmers for over 2000 years, but which has remained unexplained. An

  12. Pb2+ Modulates Ca2+ Membrane Permeability In Paramecium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Martínez, Juan; Ortega Soto, Arturo

    2004-09-01

    Intracellular recording experiments in current clamp configuration were done to evaluate whether Pb2+ modulates ionic membrane permeability in the fresh water Paramecium tetraurelia. It was found that Pb2+ triggers in a dose-dependent manner, a burst of spontaneous action potentials followed by a robust and sustained after hyper-polarization. In addition, Pb2+ increased the frequency of firing the spontaneous Ca2+-Action Potential and also, the duration of Ca2+-Action Potential, in a dose and reversibly-dependent manner. These results suggest that Pb2+ increases calcium membrane permeability of Paramecium and probably activates a calcium-dependent-potassium conductance in the ciliate.

  13. Synthesis of UO2 and ThO2 doped with Gd2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baena, Angela; Cardinaels, Thomas; Vos, Benedict; Binnemans, Koen; Verwerft, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Uranium dioxide (urania, UO2) and thorium dioxide (thoria, ThO2) doped with gadolinium oxide (gadolinia, Gd2O3) were prepared via solid-state synthesis. For Gd2O3-doped ThO2, also an alternative, semi-dry process ("suspension coating") was applied in which Gd2O3-coated ThO2 powder was produced via suspension drying followed by calcination. The microstructure and homogeneity of the materials were investigated by ceramography, EPMA and XRD. Solid-state synthesis is a convenient method to produce Gd2O3-doped UO2. However, this route was found to be inappropriate to obtain Gd2O3-doped ThO2 with an acceptable microstructure and homogeneity. The suspension coating process reported in this work is a simple and practical method to overcome these issues.

  14. High-performance acousto-optic materials - Hg2Cl2 and PbBr2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, Milton; Goutzoulis, Anastasios P.; Singh, N. B.

    1992-01-01

    New results achieved with recently grown Hg2Cl2 and PbBr2 crystals are described. With an optimized crystal growth technique Hg2Cl2 crystals were grown that show a significantly reduced acoustic attenuation compared to prior crystals, from 13.4 to 8 dB/microsec-GHz-squared. These crystals allow the development of Hg2Cl2 Bragg cells with time-bandwidth product figures in the 5100 to 6900 range, frequency operation as high as that for TeO2, and resolution about 25 percent higher than TeO2 for similar crystal lengths. PbBr2 crystals were also grown that exhibit a large figure of merit (M2 = 550) with an attenuation coefficient of 12 dB/microsec-GHz-squared. This material may be the choice for infrared devices where large diffraction efficiencies are needed.

  15. Selenoprotein X Gene Knockdown Aggravated H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in Liver LO2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiayong; Cao, Lei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Longqiong; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Cai, Jingyi; Shang, Haiying; Zhao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    To determine the roles of selenoprotein X gene (Selx) in protecting liver cells against oxidative damage, the influences of Selx knockdown on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human normal hepatocyte (LO2) cells were studied. pSilencer 3.1 was used to develop knockdown vector targeting the 3'-UTR of human Selx. The Selx knockdown and control cells were further exposed to H2O2, and cell viability, cell apoptosis rate, and the expression levels of mRNA and protein of apoptosis-related genes were detected. The results showed that vector targeting the 3'-UTR of Selx successfully silenced mRNA or protein expression of SelX in LO2 cells. Selx knockdown resulted in decreased cell viability, increased percentage of early apoptotic cells, decreased Bcl2A1 and Bcl-2 expression, and increased phosphorylation of P38 in LO2 cells. When Selx knockdown LO2 cells were exposed to H2O2, characteristics of H2O2-induced cell dysfunctions were further exacerbated. Taken together, our findings suggested that SelX played important roles in protecting LO2 cells against oxidative damage and reducing H2O2-induced apoptosis in liver cells.

  16. 2Q NMR of 2H2O ordering at solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivokhizhina, Tatiana V.; Wittebort, R. J.

    2014-06-01

    Solvent ordering at an interface can be studied by multiple-quantum NMR. Quantitative studies of 2H2O ordering require clean double-quantum (2Q) filtration and an analysis of 2Q buildup curves that accounts for relaxation and, if randomly oriented samples are used, the distribution of residual couplings. A pulse sequence with absorption mode detection is extended for separating coherences by order and measuring relaxation times such as the 2Q filtered T2. Coherence separation is used to verify 2Q filtration and the 2Q filtered T2 is required to extract the coupling from the 2Q buildup curve when it is unresolved. With our analysis, the coupling extracted from the buildup curve in 2H2O hydrated collagen was equivalent to the resolved coupling measured in the usual 1D experiment and the 2Q to 1Q signal ratio was in accord with theory. Application to buildup curves from 2H2O hydrated elastin, which has an unresolved coupling, revealed a large increase in the 2Q signal upon mechanical stretch that is due to an increase in the ordered water fraction while changes in the residual coupling and T2 are small.

  17. Calculation and evaluation of energy levels and radiative rates for 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}-2s2p{sup 6}np and 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}-2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}nd(4{<=}n{<=}20) transitions in Cu XX

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.R.; Cheng, X.L.; Li, H.F.; Liu, Z.J.; Sun, X.W.

    2012-07-15

    Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and radiative rates have been calculated for 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}-2s2p{sup 6}np and 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}-2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}nd transitions with 4{<=}n{<=}20 in Cu XX ions. In the calculations, the Flexible Atomic Code has been used, and systematic analysis and evaluation of the accuracy of the calculated results for the two types of transitions are also given with different indicators. It is shown that the results for the transitions with a 2s hole are greatly improved by using the present method comparing to those from RELAC code. Furthermore, our results show that the energy levels of the 2s2p{sup 6}(n+1)l and 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}(n+2)l configurations closely interact with those of the 2s2p{sup 6}np series and it is essential to include the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}(n+1)l configurations in the calculations for the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}nd series.

  18. Gas-phase CO2, C2H2, and HCN toward Orion-KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonman, A. M. S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Lahuis, F.; Doty, S. D.; Wright, C. M.; Rosenthal, D.

    2003-03-01

    The infrared spectra toward Orion-IRc2, Peak 1 and Peak 2 in the 13.5-15.5 mu m wavelength range are presented, obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The spectra show absorption and emission features of the vibration-rotation bands of gas-phase CO2, HCN, and C2H2, respectively. Toward the deeply embedded massive young stellar object IRc2 all three bands appear in absorption, while toward the shocked region Peak 2 CO2, HCN, and C2H2 are seen in emission. Toward Peak 1 only CO2 has been detected in emission. Analysis of these bands shows that the absorption features toward IRc2 are characterized by excitation temperatures of ~ 175-275 K, which can be explained by an origin in the shocked plateau gas. HCN and C2H2 are only seen in absorption in the direction of IRc2, whereas the CO2 absorption is probably more widespread. The CO2 emission toward Peak 1 and 2 is best explained with excitation by infrared radiation from dust mixed with the gas in the warm component of the shock. The similarity of the CO2 emission and absorption line shapes toward IRc2, Peak 1 and Peak 2 suggests that the CO2 is located in the warm component of the shock (T ~ 200 K) toward all three positions. The CO2 abundances of ~ 10-8 for Peak 1 and 2, and of a few times 10-7 toward IRc2 can be explained by grain mantle evaporation and/or reformation in the gas-phase after destruction by the shock. The HCN and C2H2 emission detected toward Peak 2 is narrower (T ~ 50-150 K) and originates either in the warm component of the shock or in the extended ridge. In the case of an origin in the warm component of the shock, the low HCN and C2H2 abundances of ~ 10-9 suggest that they are destroyed by the shock or have only been in the warm gas for a short time (t <~ 104 yr). In the case of an origin in the extended ridge, the inferred abundances are much higher and do not agree with predictions from current chemical models at low temperatures. Based on

  19. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  20. A computational study of [2.2]cyclophanes.

    PubMed

    Caramori, Giovanni F; Galembeck, Sérgio E; Laali, Kenneth K

    2005-04-15

    A computational study of isomeric [2.2]cyclophanes, namely [2.2]paracyclophane 1, [2.2]metacyclophane 2, and [2.2]metaparacyclophane 3, has been carried out. For 1, geometry optimizations performed by various methods at different basis sets showed that MP2/6-31+G(d,p) and B3PW91/6-31+G(d,p) provide the best results in comparison to the X-ray data. Compound 1 has D(2) symmetry with distorted bridges. A conformational search was performed for [2.2]cyclophanes 2 and 3. Each cyclophane exists in two conformations which have different energies in the case of 3 but are degenerate in the case of 2. Relative energies and strain energies at the bridges follow the same order, indicating that the relief of bridge tension and repulsion between pi clouds are determining factors for the stability of [2.2]cyclophanes. Through a decomposition of strain energy, it can be concluded that both the rings or the bridges can absorb strain, but it depends on the conformer of butane that is considered in the calculation of SE(br). Changes in aromaticity of these compounds were evaluated by NICS and HOMA and were compared with benzene and xylenes dimers as models. Despite distortions from planarity and shortening and lengthening of the C-C bonds relative to the mean, the phenyl rings are aromatic. NICS suggests a concentration of electronic density between the rings as a result of bridging process. Computed MK, NPA, and GAPT charges were compared for the isomeric cyclophanes. The GIAO chemical shifts were calculated and indicate that 1 has a larger diamagnetic anisotropy than the other isomers.