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Sample records for metro manila philippines

  1. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  2. High rates of contamination of poultry meat products with drug resistant Campylobacter in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lim, Patrick Wilson N; Tiam-Lee, Daphne C; Paclibare, Phyllis Anne P; Subejano, Ma Socorro Edden P; Cabero-Palma, Juvy Ann S; Penuliar, Gil M

    2016-10-31

    A total of 265 chicken parts were collected from 15 wet markets and 15 supermarkets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Campylobacter spp. was isolated on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar plates and identified through biochemical tests and PCR amplification of genus and species specific genes. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Two hundred seven (78%) Campylobacter spp. were isolated. C. jejuni and C. coli were detected from 170 (64%) and 32 (12%) of the samples, respectively. Liver and skin samples had the greatest level of contamination. Most of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin (98.6%), erythromycin (98.6%), nalidixic acid (98.1%), tetracycline (94.2%), gentamicin (65.2%), and chloramphenicol (52.6%). The results indicated that poultry meat sold in markets in Metro Manila is contaminated with drug resistant Campylobacter.

  3. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  4. The Use of ICT in School Guidance: Attitudes and Practices of Guidance Counselors in Metro Manila, the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinluan, Lorelei R.

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted among a sample of school guidance counselors in Metro Manila, the Philippines, to determine their level of awareness, attitudes, and extent of practice of ICT in the conduct of their work. The respondents showed a higher level of awareness of communication technologies than of information technologies. They spent an average…

  5. The State of Geographic Education in Selected Elementary Schools in Metro Manila, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Yany P.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the state of geographic education in Manila, Philippines by examining the types of approaches in teaching geography in public, private and Montessori schools. As part of the social studies programme in Grade IV elementary education, the types of approaches to teaching geography are examined for their effectiveness and…

  6. Probabilistic storm surge inundation maps for Metro Manila based on Philippine public storm warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-03-01

    A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water over the astronomical tides, generated by an approaching storm. This event poses a major threat to the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013. This hydro-meteorological hazard is one of the main reasons for the high number of casualties due to the typhoon, with 6300 deaths. It became evident that the need to develop a storm surge inundation map is of utmost importance. To develop these maps, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate storm surge heights. The frequency distribution of the maximum storm surge heights was calculated using simulation results of tropical cyclones under a specific public storm warning signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of inundation for a specific PSWS using the probability of exceedance derived from the frequency distribution. Buildings and other structures were assigned a probability of exceedance depending on their occupancy category, i.e., 1% probability of exceedance for critical facilities, 10% probability of exceedance for special occupancy structures, and 25% for standard occupancy and miscellaneous structures. The maps produced show the storm-surge-vulnerable areas in Metro Manila, illustrated by the flood depth of up to 4 m and extent of up to 6.5 km from the coastline. This information can help local government units in developing early warning systems, disaster preparedness and mitigation plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline

  7. The demographic impact of the Philippine family planning program: a tale of two Metro Manilas.

    PubMed

    1993-11-01

    This pamphlet predicts the rates of contraceptive prevalence, total fertility, and population growth in the Philippines during 1970-2000. Contraceptive prevalence was 14.5% in 1970 and is expected to be 50% in 2000. Total fertility was 5.9 in 1970 and is expected to be 3.2 in 2000. Population was 36 million in 1970, 65 million in 1993, and is expected to be 75 million in 2000. If the family planning program had not continued to expand after 1970, population would have been 75 million in 1993 and would rise to 96.7 million in 2000. With expanded family planning, the difference in population for 2000 is 22 million people, or the equivalent of 2 metropolitan Manilas. A projected population that is smaller by 22 million is important for carrying capacity. A summary is given of the world situation proposed by Worldwatch. The projection is for increased demand for food from the 90 million people a year added to total world population. Food output during 1950-84 increased dramatically. However recent trends indicate that fish harvests from oceans have leveled off at 100 million tons a year and fish prices have risen rapidly. Fresh water shortages are now apparent in the United States, Mexico, China, India, and the Middle East. Grain production has slowed. Per capita output of rice, corn, and wheat has declined by 11% since 1984. World stocks of rice are low. Grain prices have doubled on the Chicago Board of Trade. Fertilizer use has declined 12% since 1989. Much crop production has reached maximum yields. Topsoil is disappearing, and cropland expanded only 2% in the last 10 years. Since 1945, 2 million hectares of land have been degraded by overgrazing, deforestation, and agricultural mismanagement.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines.

  9. Geology beneath and beside the notorious Payatas open dump, Metro Manila, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarong, C.; Arcilla, C.; de Sales, L.; Chua, S.; Garcia, E.; Pamintuan, G.

    2003-04-01

    With a minimum of 6000 tonnes/day municipal waste output, and with NO existing operational sanitary landfill and with incineration illegal, Metro Manila has a very serious solid waste disposal problem. Unsorted municipal waste are being piled in open dumps, the most notorious of which is the Payatas open dump. A recent, tragic garbage-slide in this open dump caused dozens of deaths, news of which were broadcast internationally. Political expediency laced with a lot of corruption, rather than sound science, was the main basis for selecting this site as an open dump. As an example, this dump is situated < 1 km from the Novaliches Watershed Reservation, one of the main sources of drinking water for Metro Manila’s 12 million population! Yet, after dumping operations that have lasted more than 10 years, only recently were the preliminary geologic studies begun. Payatas is not a designed landfill and its untreated leachate is openly polluting the headwaters of the Marikina and Pasig Rivers. In addition, during the summer months, there is always the constant threat of fire due to methane induced burning from the dump, aside from the aerial pollution from dioxins and furans derived from incomplete combustion of municipal solid waste. With limited funding from the Quezon City government, a feasibility study was conducted to assess the methane generation potential of Payatas. This interdisciplinary study comprised bedrock geological studies, topographic mapping of the dump, drilling of the dump to obtain stratigraphic solid waste samples for waste characterization, laying of horizontal methane and dewatering pipes, and preliminary methane flow studies. The waste characterization has highlighted the unusually high organic (especially yard waste) component of the solid waste dumped at Payatas. Waste characterization shows that a significant portion of the waste is plastics. Several cross-sections cut across the dump show that the side slopes of the dump are on the average

  10. Detection of Creep Displacement by DInSAR using TerraSAR-X data around Active Fault in the Metro Manila, the Philippine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, T.

    2010-12-01

    Tomonori Deguchi (Nittetsu Mining Consultants Co., Ltd.) Yoshihiro Kinugasa (Association for the Development of Earthquake Prediction) Katsumi Kurita (Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology) Makoto Omura (Kochi Womes's University) Tomoya Oku (Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center) Many ground deformations have been occurred by earthquakes and volcanic activities in the Republic of the Philippines. The monitoring of deformation using InSAR, which is capable to observe a wide area at high spatial resolution, as well as GPS measurement and leveling survey, which are capable to measure the point-based but subtle land displacement less than a centimeter, is actively conducted in this country. The Valley fault exhibits fault creep displacement. It is a north-south trending active fault on the eastern edge of the Metro Manila district, central Luzon. Some buildings and road pavement are damaged by vertical displacement of the ground where the central segment of the fault passes through. Moreover, overpumping of groundwater in the Metro Manila district has occurred huge ground subsidences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of spatial and temporal change on the earth surface around Metro Manila. We measured long-term ground deformation from 2003 until 2010 by means of InSAR and time series analysis using ENVISAT/ASAR data. As a result, it shows that the uplift phenomena in the western part of Valley fault are uniform. On the other hand, the land movement in the eastern part of the Valley fault had reversed from subsidence to uplift in around 2007. It would be difficult to conceive that these tendencies resulted from groundwater pumping. We applied DInSAR using TerraSAR-X data in order to measure the detailed spatial distribution of creep displacement around the Valley fault. Additionally, we tried to detect a steep gradient of interferometric phase using the first differentiation. From this analysis, some segments in the direction

  11. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines.

  12. Impact of metals in surface matrices from formal and informal electronic-waste recycling around Metro Manila, the Philippines, and intra-Asian comparison.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Agusa, Tetsuro; Eguchi, Akifumi; Bekki, Kanae; Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi; Ballesteros, Florencio C

    2012-06-30

    We report concentrations, enrichment factors, and hazard indicators of 11 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soil and dust surface matrices from formal and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites around Metro Manila, the Philippines, referring to soil guidelines and previous data from various e-waste recycling sites in Asia. Surface dust from e-waste recycling sites had higher levels of metal contamination than surface soil. Comparison of formal and informal e-waste recycling sites (hereafter, "formal" and "informal") revealed differences in specific contaminants. Formal dust contained a mixture of serious pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and Cd (polluted modestly), quite high enrichment metals (Ag and In), and crust-derived metals (As, Co, Fe, and Mn). For informal soil, concentration levels of specific metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were similar among Asian recycling sites. Formal dust had significantly higher hazardous risk than the other matrices (p<0.005), excluding informal dust (p=0.059, almost significant difference). Thus, workers exposed to formal dust should protect themselves from hazardous toxic metals (Pb and Cu). There is also a high health risk for children ingesting surface matrices from informal e-waste recycling sites.

  13. Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) ateneo, new species (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) and other aquatic Polyphaga from a small habitat patch in a highly urbanized landscape of Metro Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seven species of Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae and Elmidae are recorded from temporary freshwater habitats at the Ateneo de Manila University Campus in the metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. They were identified as Enochrus (Lumetus) fragiloides d’Orchymont, Helochares (Hydrobaticus) lepidus d’Orchymont, Helochares (Helochares) pallens (MacLeay), Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) scabra d’Orchymont, Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) palawanensis Freitag & Jäch (new record for Luzon Island), Stenelmis sp. A further hydraenid species was unknown to science and is newly described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) ateneo Freitag, sp. n. Aedeagus, gonocoxite, spermatheca, and female tergite X are illustrated by computer-based line drawings. Habitus images of all three Hydraena Kugelann species recorded and a checklist of the Philippine Hydraena are provided. The presence of these seven species in the Ateneo campus is briefly discussed in regard to the area’s history. Measures to maintain and extend semi-natural islands of biodiversity in urban areas are suggested. PMID:24146550

  14. Quantifying the Divide: A Comparison of Ict Usage of Schools in Metro Manila and Iea-Surveyed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The researcher quantified the digital divide that existed between schools in Metro Manila, Philippines and schools in countries surveyed by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. The researcher determined that unlike students in other countries, students in Metro Manila schools had limited access to computers,…

  15. Teacher Burnout in Metro Manila Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Nenita

    1987-01-01

    Explores and defines teacher burnout and lists characteristics; (1) loss of idealism; (2) loss of motivation; (3) loss of concern; and (4) loss of energy. Specifically focuses on secondary teachers attitudes toward burnout in the Metro-Manila School System. Includes a list of responses to selected questions from the survey on burnout and…

  16. Self-Reported Delinquency of High School Students in Metro Manila: Gender and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Filomin C.; Shoemaker, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    Self-report data were gathered from 633 students from public and private schools in metro Manila, Philippines. The study finds overall delinquency prevalence to be higher among males than females but not significantly different from one socioeconomic class to another. Gender and class differentials, however, are found for different types of…

  17. Selected Private Higher Educational Institutions in Metro Manila: A DEA Efficiency Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Maria Corazon Gwendolyn N.; Cabana, Emilyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures the technical efficiency of 16 selected colleges and universities in Metro Manila, Philippines, using academic data for the SY 2001-2005. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), on average, schools posted 0.807 index score and need additional 19.3% efficiency growth to be efficient. Overall, there are top four efficient…

  18. Effect of horizontal and vertical resolution for wind resource assessment in Metro Manila, Philippines using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolentino, Jerome T.; Rejuso, Ma. Victoria; Inocencio, Loureal Camille; Ang, Ma. Rosario Concepcion; Bagtasa, Gerry

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy is one of the best options for renewable energy such that, many researchers work on wind resource assessment, specifically using numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to forecast atmospheric behavior on a given domain. In addition, every combination of parameterization configuration influences wind assessment. At the same time, choosing the optimum vertical and horizontal resolution may affect its output and processing time. Regardless of available researches, most of them focuses on mid-latitude area but not in tropical areas like the Philippines. In the study, sensitivity analysis of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with 4 configurations was performed. The duration of the simulation was from January 1, 2014 00:00 to December 31, 2014 23:00. The parameters involved were horizontal resolution and vertical levels. Also, meteorological input data from NCEP Final Analysis with 1 degree resolution every 6 hours was used. For validation, wind speed measurements at 10 m height from NOAA Integrated Surface Database (ISD) were utilized, of which, the 3 weather stations are located in Manila, Science Garden and Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA). The results show that increasing horizontal resolution from 4 km to 1 km have no significant increase to wind speed accuracy. In majority, higher vertical levels tend to increase its accuracy. Moreover, the model has higher accuracy during the rainy season and months of April and May. Overall, the model overestimated the observed wind speed but the diurnal cycle of wind speed follows all the simulation.

  19. Solid-waste management practices of households in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Eileen C

    2008-10-01

    The experiences and practices of household waste management of people in a barangay (village) in Manila, Philippines are documented. The data were gathered through an interview with household members using open-ended questions. Interviews were also conducted with garbage collectors as well as scavengers. Results showed that the households generated an average of 3.2 kg of solid waste per day, or 0.50 kg/capita/day. The types of wastes commonly generated are food/kitchen wastes, papers, PET bottles, metals, and cans, boxes/cartons, glass bottles, cellophane/plastics, and yard/garden wastes. The respondents segregate their wastes into PET bottles, glass bottles, and other waste (mixed wastes). No respondents perform composting. It is worth noting, however, that burning of waste is not done by the respondents. The households rely on garbage collection by the government. Collection is done twice daily, except Sundays, and household members bring their garbage when the garbage truck arrives. However, there are those who dump their garbage in nondesignated pick-up points, usually in a corner of the street. The dumped garbage becomes a breeding ground for disease-causing organisms. Some household respondents said that it is possible that the dumping in certain areas caused the dengue fever suffered by some of their family members. Mothers and household helpers are responsible for household waste management. Scavengers generally look for recyclable items in the dumped garbage. All of them said that it is their only source of income, which is generally not enough for their meals. They are also aware that their work affects their health. Most of the respondents said that garbage collection and disposal is the responsibility of the government. The results of the study showed that RA 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, is not fully implemented in Metro Manila.

  20. Metro manila transport and traffic management plan (1993-1998)

    SciTech Connect

    Cal, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, former President Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force on Traffic Management to formulate plans and programs to improve the traffic situation in Metro Manila and to address the emerging problem of air pollution and concern on renewable energy sources for transportation. The Task Force formulated the Metro Manila Traffic Improvement Plan (TRIP) which was approved by President Aquino for implementation. TRIP called for the development of a mass urban transport system, which included the expansion of the light rail transit system and the construction and improvement of the Metro Manila road network. Culled mainly from the TRIP proposals, the Updated Transport and Traffic Management Plan for Metro Manila (1993-1998) was developed through interagency discussions, public consultations, data collation and research work. This plan is directed towards the development of a more responsive public transport system, expansion of road network capacity, and improvement of traffic management and enforcement. Constraints may be present along the way but opportunities and potentials exist for the deliverance of daily commuters struggling to make a living.

  1. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  2. Identification of Critical Vulnerable Areas During a Typhoon Haiyan Event in the Metro Manila Area Using Storm Surge Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones, J. B. L. T.; Puno, J. V.; Lapidez, J. P. B.; Muldong, T. M. M.; Ramos, M. M.; Caro, C. V.; Ladiero, C.; Bahala, M. A.; Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Sudden rises in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to an approaching storm are known as storm surges. The development of an early warning system for storm surges is imperative, due to the high threat level of these events; Typhoon Haiyan in 08 November 2013 generated storm surges that caused casualties of over 6,000. Under the Department of Science and Technology, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (DOST - Project NOAH) was tasked to generate storm surge hazard maps for all the coastal areas in the Philippines. The objective of this paper is to create guidelines on how to utilize the storm surge hazard map as a tool for planning and disaster mitigation. This study uses the case of the hypothetical situation in which a tropical storm with an intensity similar to Typhoon Haiyan hits Metro Manila. This site was chosen for various reasons, among them the economic, political, and cultural importance of Metro Manila as the location of the capital of the Philippines and the coastal bay length of the area. The concentration of residential areas and other establishments were also taken into account. Using the Japan Meteorology Association (JMA) Storm Surge Model, FLO-2D flood modelling software and the application of other GIS technology, the impact of Haiyan-strength typhoon passing through Manila was analysed. We were able to identify the population affected, number of affected critical facilities under each storm surge hazard level, and possible evacuation sites. The results of the study can be used as the basis of policies involving disaster response and mitigation by city authorities. The methods used by the study can be used as a replicable framework for the analysis of other sites in the Philippines.

  3. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Manila Bay, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Manila Bay and nearby volcanoes on Luzon Island in the Philippines. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    The city of Manila is on the eastern shore of Manila Bay at the right edge of the image. The large central plain to the north of the bay, irrigated by the Panpanga and Agno rivers, is the most important agricultural region in the Philippines. The Bataan Peninsula and volcanic Mt. Bataan at lower center along with the small island of Corregidor near the bottom edge became famous when the Allied forces made their last stand there during World War II. Dominating the upper left of the scene is 1,600 meter (5,249 foot) high Mt. Pinatubo, whose violent eruption on June 15, 1991, wrought widespread destruction on Luzon as well as injecting dust and gas into the atmosphere, which lowered global average temperatures for over a year.

    The image on the right combines two types of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation measurements. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation

  4. Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Simulation in Metro Manila Using High-Resolution LiDAR Topographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge is the abnormal rise in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to a forthcoming storm. Developing an early warning system for storm surges is vital due to the high level of hazard they might cause. On 08 November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan generated storm surges that killed over 6,000 people in the central part of the Philippines. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology was tasked to create storm surge hazard maps for the country's coastal areas. The research project aims to generate storm surge hazard maps that can be used for disaster mitigation and planning. As part of the research, the team explored a scenario wherein a tropical cyclone hits the Metro Manila with strength as strong as Typhoon Haiyan. The area was chosen primarily for its political, economic and cultural significance as the country's capital. Using Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge model, FLO2D flooding software, LiDAR topographic data, and GIS technology, the effects of a Haiyan-induced tropical cyclone passing through Metro Manila was examined. The population affected, number of affected critical facilities, and potential evacuation sites were identified. The outputs of this study can be used by the authorities as basis for policies that involve disaster risk reduction and management.

  5. Nutrient load estimates for Manila Bay, Philippines using population data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotto, Lara Patricia A.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bouwman, Lex F.; Jacinto, Gil S.

    2015-06-01

    A major source of nutrient load to periodically hypoxic Manila Bay is the urban nutrient waste water flow from humans and industries to surface water. In Manila alone, the population density is as high as 19,137 people/km2. A model based on a global point source model by Morée et al. (2013) was used to estimate the contribution of the population to nitrogen and phosphorus emissions which was then used in a water transport model to estimate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to Manila Bay. Seven scenarios for 2050 were tested, with varying degrees and amounts for extent of sewage treatment, and population growth rates were also included. In scenario 1, the sewage connection and treatment remains the same as 2010; in scenario 2, sewage connection is improved but the treatment is the same; in scenario 3, the sewage connection as well as treatment is improved (70% tertiary); and in scenario 4, a more realistic situation of 70% primary treatment achieved with 100% connection to pipes is tested. Scenarios 5, 6, and 7 have the same parameters as 1, 2, and 3 respectively, but with the population growth rate per province reduced to half of what was used in 1, 2, and 3. In all scenarios, a significant increase in N and P loads was observed (varying from 27% to 469% relative to 2010 values). This was found even in scenario 3 where 70% of the waste water undergoes tertiary treatment which removes 80% N and 90% P. However, the lowest increase in N and P load into the bay was achieved in scenarios 5 to 7 where population growth rate is reduced to half of 2010 values. The results suggest that aside from improving sewage treatment, the continued increase of the human population in Manila at current growth rates will be an important determinant of N and P load into Manila Bay.

  6. Interseismic deformation and moment deficit along the Manila subduction zone and the Philippine Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y. J.; Yu, S. B.; Loveless, J. P.; Bacolcol, T.; Woessner, J.; Solidum, R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Sunda plate converges obliquely with the Philippine Sea plate with a rate of ~100 mm/yr and results in the sinistral slip along the 1300 km-long Philippine fault. Using GPS data from 1998 to 2013 as well as a block modeling approach, we decompose the crustal motion into multiple rotating blocks and elastic deformation associated with fault slip at block boundaries. Our preferred model composed of 8 blocks, produces a mean residual velocity of 3.4 mm/yr at 93 GPS stations. Estimated long-term slip rates along the Manila subduction zone show a gradual southward decrease from 66 mm/yr at the northwest tip of Luzon to 60 mm/yr at the southern portion of the Manila Trench. We infer a low coupling fraction of 11% offshore northwest Luzon and a coupling fraction of 27% near the subduction of Scarborough Seamount. The accumulated strain along the Manila subduction zone at latitudes 15.5°~18.5°N could be balanced by earthquakes with composite magnitudes of Mw 8.7 and Mw 8.9 based on a recurrence interval of 500 years and 1000 years, respectively. Estimates of sinistral slip rates on the major splay faults of the Philippine fault system in central Luzon increase from east to west: sinistral slip rates are 2 mm/yr on the Dalton fault, 8 mm/yr on the Abra River fault, and 12 mm/yr on the Tubao fault. On the southern segment of the Philippine fault (Digdig fault), we infer left-lateral slip of ~20 mm/yr. The Vigan-Aggao fault in northwest Luzon exhibits significant reverse slip of up to 31 mm/yr, although deformation may be distributed across multiple offshore thrust faults. On the Northern Cordillera fault, we calculate left-lateral slip of ~7 mm/yr. Results of block modeling suggest that the majority of active faults in Luzon are fully locked to a depth of 15-20 km. Inferred moment magnitudes of inland large earthquakes in Luzon fall in the range of Mw 7.0-7.5 based on a recurrence interval of 100 years. Using the long-term plate convergence rate between the Sunda plate

  7. A retrospective survey of dengue fever among Japanese individuals staying in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Atsuo; Tada, Yuki; Fukushima, Shinji; Murata, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Hirohisa

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a serious concern for Japanese people staying in Southeast Asia. In order to implement necessary prophylactic measures for dengue fever in this population, we investigated the characteristics of dengue fever among Japanese nationals living in Manila, Philippines. From 2012 to 2015, 175 Japanese expatriates were diagnosed with dengue fever at the medical clinic of the Japanese Association Manila, Inc. Most of the patients were employees of Japanese companies and their families and were long-term residents of Manila. Most patients were either <10 years or in their 30s to 40s. Two patients (1.1 %) were diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. No deaths due to dengue fever were reported. The reported number of patients with dengue fever has shown a decreasing trend: from 55 cases in 2012 to 53 in 2013, 31 in 2014, and 36 in 2015. The results of this survey could be useful for the development of effective dengue fever preventive measures such as health education and provision of information among not only Japanese but also other foreigners residing in endemic areas.

  8. A review of tuberculosis contact investigations in the poor urban areas of Manila, The Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, S.; Querri, A.; Lopez, E.; Agujo, P.; Paulino, M. R.; Medina, A.; Garfin, A. M. C.; Ohkado, A.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Socio-economically underprivileged areas in the Philippines. Objective: To review the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) contact investigations in the urban poor areas of Manila and Quezon City. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study based on a review of data from household contact registries in local government unit (LGU) and non-government organisation (NGO) facilities during January–December 2012 in Manila and Quezon City. Free discussion sessions were also conducted among health-care workers. Results: Of 6161 children and adult household contacts listed in the LGUs and 1893 in the NGOs, 17% (n = 1086) in the LGUs and 95% (n = 1800) in the NGOs were evaluated. The yield of clinically diagnosed TB among children aged <15 years was 10.2% (127/1245) in the LGUs and 8.4% (63/752) in the NGOs. The yield of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for those aged <5 years was 23.1% (124/537) in the LGUs and 28.0% (78/279) in the NGOs. The NGOs produced a high yield of IPT due to a better logistical system that ensured the availability of supplies and systematic home visits. Conclusion: Screening of household contacts in poor urban areas appears to be effective; it increased the number of children aged <15 years eligible for IPT and should be expanded as an intervention strategy for TB control in the Philippines. PMID:28123957

  9. A review of tuberculosis contact investigations in the poor urban areas of Manila, The Philippines.

    PubMed

    Coprada, L; Yoshimatsu, S; Querri, A; Lopez, E; Agujo, P; Paulino, M R; Medina, A; Garfin, A M C; Ohkado, A

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Socio-economically underprivileged areas in the Philippines. Objective: To review the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) contact investigations in the urban poor areas of Manila and Quezon City. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study based on a review of data from household contact registries in local government unit (LGU) and non-government organisation (NGO) facilities during January-December 2012 in Manila and Quezon City. Free discussion sessions were also conducted among health-care workers. Results: Of 6161 children and adult household contacts listed in the LGUs and 1893 in the NGOs, 17% (n = 1086) in the LGUs and 95% (n = 1800) in the NGOs were evaluated. The yield of clinically diagnosed TB among children aged <15 years was 10.2% (127/1245) in the LGUs and 8.4% (63/752) in the NGOs. The yield of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for those aged <5 years was 23.1% (124/537) in the LGUs and 28.0% (78/279) in the NGOs. The NGOs produced a high yield of IPT due to a better logistical system that ensured the availability of supplies and systematic home visits. Conclusion: Screening of household contacts in poor urban areas appears to be effective; it increased the number of children aged <15 years eligible for IPT and should be expanded as an intervention strategy for TB control in the Philippines.

  10. The Sense of Place behind Segregating Practices: An Ethnographic Approach to the Symbolic Partitioning of Metro Manila

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The literature on cities in the developing world equates segregation with the proliferation of enclaves and slums and tends to overlook how the people associated with those places are further segregated in public spaces and enclaves. To account for the symbolic partitioning of Metro Manila, I document the segregating practices of the residents of…

  11. Spatiotemporal variability of hypoxia and eutrophication in Manila Bay, Philippines during the northeast and southwest monsoons.

    PubMed

    Sotto, Lara Patricia A; Jacinto, Gil S; Villanoy, Cesar L

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia in Manila Bay, Philippines was previously reported during the northeast monsoon (dry season) in February 2010. In this study, four more field surveys of the same 31 stations were conducted in July 2010, August 2011 and 2012 (wet season, southwest monsoon), and February 2011 (dry season, northeast monsoon). During the wet season, bottom hypoxia spread northward towards the coast with dissolved oxygen (DO) ranging from 0.12 to 9.22 mg/L and the bay-wide average reaching 2.10 mg/L. Nutrient levels were elevated, especially near the bottom where dissolved inorganic nitrogen reached 22.3 μM (July 2010) and phosphorus reached 5.61 μM (August 2011). High nutrient concentrations often coincided with low near-bottom DO content. Our work builds on the preliminary assessment of hypoxia in Manila Bay, the importance of repeated temporal studies, and shows hypoxia to prevail significantly during the southwest monsoon (wet season) when increased freshwater discharge caused strong water column stratification.

  12. Multiple large earthquakes in the past 1500 years on a fault in metropolitan Manila, the Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.; Personius, S.F.; Rimando, R.E.; Punongbayan, R.S.; Tungol, N.; Mirabueno, H.; Rasdas, A.

    2000-01-01

    The first 14C-based paleoseismic study of an active fault in the Philippines shows that a right-lateral fault on the northeast edge of metropolitan Manila poses a greater seismic hazard than previously thought. Faulted hillslope colluvium, stream-channel alluvium, and debris-flow deposits exposed in trenches across the northern part of the west Marikina Valley fault record two or three surface-faulting events. Three eroded, clay-rich soil B horizons suggest thousands of years between surface faulting events, whereas 14C ages on detrital charcoal constrain the entire stratigraphic sequence to the past 1300-1700 years. We rely on the 14C ages to infer faulting recurrence of hundreds rather than thousands of years. Minimal soil development and modern 14C ages from colluvium overlying a faulted debris-flow deposit in a nearby stream exposure point to a historic age for a probable third or fourth (most recent) faulting event.

  13. Exposure of Jeepney Drivers in Manila, Philippines, to Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    PubMed Central

    LUNGU, Claudiu T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the occupational exposure of jeepney drivers to selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Manila, Philippines. Personal sampling was conducted on 15 jeepney drivers. Area sampling was conducted to determine the background VOC concentration in Manila as compared to that in a rural area. Both personal and area samples were collected for 5 working days. Samples were obtained using diffusive samplers and were analyzed for 6 VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) using gas chromatography. Results showed that the average personal exposure concentration of jeepney drivers was 55.6 (± 9.3), 196.6 (± 75.0), 17.9 (± 9.0), 72.5 (± 21.1) and 88.5 (± 26.5) μg/m3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene, respectively. The urban ambient concentration was 11.8 (± 2.2), 83.7 (± 40.5) and 38.0 (± 12.1) μg/m3 for benzene, toluene and o-xylene, respectively. The rural ambient concentration was 14.0 (± 6.0) and 24.7 (± 11.9) μg/m3 for toluene and o-xylene, respectively. The personal samples had significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations for all selected VOCs than the urban area samples. Among the area samples, the urban concentrations of benzene and toluene were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the rural concentrations. The personal exposures for all the target VOCs were not significantly different among the jeepney drivers. PMID:19218755

  14. Occurrence and sources of bromate in chlorinated tap drinking water in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Genuino, Homer C; Espino, Maria Pythias B

    2012-04-01

    Significant levels of potentially carcinogenic bromate were measured in chlorinated tap drinking water in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, using an optimized ion-chromatographic method. This method can quantify bromate in water down to 4.5 μg l⁻¹ by employing a postcolumn reaction with acidic fuchsin and subsequent spectrophotometric detection. The concentration of bromate in tap drinking water samples collected from 21 locations in cities and municipalities within the 9-month study period ranged from 7 to 138 μg l⁻¹. The average bromate concentration of all tap drinking water samples was 66 μg l⁻¹ (n = 567), almost seven times greater than the current regulatory limit in the country. The levels of bromate in other water types were also determined to identify the sources of bromate found in the distribution lines and to further uncover contaminated sites. The concentration of bromate in water sourced from two rivers and two water treatment plants ranged from 15 to 80 and 12 to 101 μg l⁻¹, respectively. Rainwater did not contribute bromate in rivers but decreased bromate level by dilution. Groundwater and wastewater samples showed bromate concentrations as high as 246 and 342 μg l⁻¹, respectively. Bromate presence in tap drinking water can be linked to pollution in natural water bodies and the practice of using hypochlorite chemicals in addition to gaseous chlorine for water disinfection. This study established the levels, occurrence, and possible sources of bromate in local drinking water supplies.

  15. Effect of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on dengue fever and leptospirosis infections in Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sumi, A; Telan, E F O; Chagan-Yasutan, H; Piolo, M B; Hattori, T; Kobayashi, N

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and leptospirosis are serious public problems in tropical regions, especially in Manila, the Philippines. In attempting to understand the causes of DF and leptospirosis seasonality, meteorological factors have been suspected, but quantitative correlation between seasonality and meteorological factors has not been fully investigated. In this study, we investigated correlation of temporal patterns of reported numbers of laboratory-confirmed cases of both DF and leptospirosis with meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall) in Manila. We used time-series analysis combined with spectral analysis and the least squares method. A 1-year cycle explained underlying variations of DF, leptospirosis and meteorological data. There was a peak of the 1-year cycle in temperature during May, followed by maxima in rainfall, relative humidity and number of laboratory-confirmed DF and leptospirosis cases. This result suggests that DF and leptospirosis epidemics are correlated not only with rainfall but also relative humidity and temperature in the Philippines. Quantifying the correlation of DF and leptospirosis infections with meteorological conditions may prove useful in predicting DF and leptospirosis epidemics, and health services should plan accordingly.

  16. Workshop on the Development of Education and Information Materials on Family Health (Family Planning, Maternal and Child Health, Nutrition). (Manila, Philippines, 8 to 22 February 1972). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    Health and communications experts from Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and South Vietnam met in Manila for two weeks of workshop sessions to discuss communication strategies and to develop educational materials for the promotion of family health. The overall aim of the workshop was to encourage the production of educational…

  17. Interseismic deformation and moment deficit along the Manila subduction zone and the Philippine Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ya-Ju; Yu, Shui-Beih; Loveless, John P.; Bacolcol, Teresito; Solidum, Renato; Luis, Artemio; Pelicano, Alfie; Woessner, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    We examine interseismic coupling of the Manila subduction zone and fault activity in the Luzon area using a block model constrained by GPS data collected from 1998 to 2015. Estimated long-term slip rates along the Manila subduction zone show a gradual southward decrease from 90-100 mm/yr at the northwest tip of Luzon to 65-80 mm/yr at the southern portion of the Manila Trench. We provide two block models (models A and B) to illustrate possible realizations of coupling along the Manila Trench, which may be used to infer future earthquake rupture scenarios. Model A shows a low coupling ratio of 0.34 offshore western Luzon and continuous creeping on the plate interface at latitudes 18-19°N. Model B includes the North Luzon Trough Fault and shows prevalent coupling on the plate interface with a coupling ratio of 0.48. Both models fit GPS velocities well, although they have significantly different tectonic implications. The accumulated strain along the Manila subduction zone at latitudes 15-19°N could be balanced by earthquakes with composite magnitudes of Mw 8.8-9.2, assuming recurrence intervals of 500-1000 years. GPS observations are consistent with full locking of the majority of active faults in Luzon to a depth of 20 km. Inferred moments of large inland earthquakes in Luzon fall in the range of Mw 6.9-7.6 assuming a recurrence interval of 100 years.

  18. Workshop on Education and Training Needs for Philippine Environmental Programs (Manila, Philippines, May 27-31, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    The workshop was designed to bring together Philippine and American scientists, engineers, educators, and administrators for collaborative identification of problems and issues relevant to environmental education and training needs, development of possible alternative solutions to the problems, and consideration of ways to strengthen the host…

  19. 77 FR 40329 - U.S. Renewable Energy Trade Mission Philippines and Thailand, Manila, Philippines and Bangkok...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    .... Target sectors for potential U.S. exports include: Biomass/Waste-to-Energy/Biogas. Geothermal. Hydropower...: 147 MW from hydro applications in Visayas Islands; 4.41 GW from geothermal energy; an annual potential... International Trade Administration U.S. Renewable Energy Trade Mission Philippines and Thailand,...

  20. Global sea-level rise is recognised, but flooding from anthropogenic land subsidence is ignored around northern Manila Bay, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rodolfo, Kelvin S; Siringan, Fernando P

    2006-03-01

    Land subsidence resulting from excessive extraction of groundwater is particularly acute in East Asian countries. Some Philippine government sectors have begun to recognise that the sea-level rise of one to three millimetres per year due to global warming is a cause of worsening floods around Manila Bay, but are oblivious to, or ignore, the principal reason: excessive groundwater extraction is lowering the land surface by several centimetres to more than a decimetre per year. Such ignorance allows the government to treat flooding as a lesser problem that can be mitigated through large infrastructural projects that are both ineffective and vulnerable to corruption. Money would be better spent on preventing the subsidence by reducing groundwater pumping and moderating population growth and land use, but these approaches are politically and psychologically unacceptable. Even if groundwater use is greatly reduced and enlightened land-use practices are initiated, natural deltaic subsidence and global sea-level rise will continue to aggravate flooding, although at substantially lower rates.

  1. Performance Analysis of Digital Los Link, Manila Embassy - Santa Rita, Philippines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    90.2 kin Adriat Mt. Cimone Med/ f erraneon Sea Mi. Sofro Coltoao Fiqure D-2. Line-of-Siqht Milcrowave Links Converging at ’Mt. Corna , Italy D- 6 1 0 0 3...AD-L13 OW DEFNSE COMUN~ICATIONS IMNEERING CENTER RESTON VA F /0 11/2.1 ERORA NC ANALYSIS OF DISITAL. LOS LINK, MANILA EMBASSY - SAN?-4YC(Ul K;CSSPE 8C...FACTOR (K - 0.34, 0.5, AND 0.67) 7 3. PATH PROFILES FOR VARIABLE FRESNEL CLEARANCE AND K - 0.67 8 ( F = 0.3, 1.0, 2.0 and 11.0) 4. PATH PROFILE FOR

  2. Determination of preservative and antimicrobial compounds in fish from Manila Bay, Philippines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Amano, Atsuko; Miller, Todd W; Siringan, Fernando P; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-09-15

    Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of four paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl) and two antimicrobial agents (triclosan and triclocarban) belonging to personal care products (PCPs) in 20 species of fish from Manila Bay (Philippines) was performed. Detection of PCPs with greater frequency indicates the ubiquitous contamination of Manila Bay. Concentrations of total paraben were one order of magnitude higher than the antimicrobials in almost all fish, except in Stolephorus indicus and Leiognathus equulus. A positive correlation was observed between parabens concentration and fish length (r = 0.31-0.49; p<0.05 to <0.001) and fish weight (r = 0.28-0.49; p<0.05 to <0.001), but not for the antimicrobials. The estimated dietary exposure values of the four parabens in the Philippines through fish is four orders of magnitude lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 10mg/kg/day, but the values of antimicrobials are just half of the ADI of TCS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCPs contamination in fish from Philippines.

  3. Oral History in the Philippines: Trends and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foronda, Marcelino A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses oral history in precolonial and more recent times in the Philippines, with particular emphasis on the activities of the Filipino institutions and scholars engaged currently in oral history projects. Projects are classified by geographical location in the Metro Manila area, in the Visayas, and in Mindanao. (DB)

  4. Pacific Armies Management Seminar (5th) Held at manila, Republic of the Philippines on 16-20 November 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Deputy C5, Headquarters, Philippine Constabulary LTC Manuel ESPEJO , Operations Officer, Aviation Security Command, Philippine Air Force LTC Ponciano...Gregorio M. Camiling, Jr., PA, Agenda Coordinator LTC Manuel Espejo , PAF, Airport Reception MAJ Francisco Bodiola, PA, Airport Reception LTC Rodolfo...Hercules G. CATALUNA, Asst M3, Metropolitan Command, Philippine Constabul ary MAJ Manuel FORONA, Chief, Training Branch, A3, Headquarters, Philippine

  5. Evaluating the Effects of Temperature on Mortality in Manila City (Philippines) from 2006-2010 Using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model.

    PubMed

    Seposo, Xerxes T; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Honda, Yasushi

    2015-06-16

    The effect of temperature on the risk of mortality has been described in numerous studies of category-specific (e.g., cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific) mortality in temperate and subtropical countries, with consistent findings of U-, V-, and J-shaped exposure-response functions. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between temperature and mortality in Manila City (Philippines), during 2006-2010 to identify the potential susceptible populations. We collected daily all-cause and cause-specific death counts from the Philippine Statistics Authority-National Statistics Office and the meteorological variables were collected from the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Temperature-mortality relationships were modeled using Poisson regression combined with distributed lag nonlinear models, and were used to perform cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific analyses. The minimum mortality temperature was 30 °C, and increased risks of mortality were observed per 1 °C increase among elderly persons (RR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.31-1.80), women (RR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.27-1.69), and for respiratory causes of death (RR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.23-1.88). Seasonal effect modification was found to greatly affect the risks in the lower temperature range. Thus, the temperature-mortality relationship in Manila City exhibited an increased risk of mortality among elderly persons, women, and for respiratory-causes, with inherent effect modification in the season-specific analysis. The findings of this study may facilitate the development of public health policies to reduce the effects of air temperature on mortality, especially for these high-risk groups.

  6. From Bonding Wires to Banding Women. Proceedings of the International Consultation on Micro-Chips Technology (Manila, Philippines, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Women's Resources, Quezon City (Philippines).

    In October 1986, 40 women from 12 countries gathered in the Philippines for a 10-day meeting of organizers, educators, and workers affected by and confronting the international electronics industry in microchip plants and in automated offices. Participants were from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Japan, the Netherlands,…

  7. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 Carrying blaNDM-7 and ST656 Carrying blaNDM-1 in Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Roa, Marylette; Evangelista, Michael A.; Sulit, Arielle Kae; Lagamayo, Evelina; Torres, Brian C.; Klinzing, David C.; Daroy, Maria Luisa G.; Navoa-Ng, Josephine; Sucgang, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and to investigate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in two teaching hospitals in Manila, Philippines. We screened 364 Enterobacteriaceae for carbapenem resistance between 2012 and 2013 and detected four carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from three different patients. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR. We used multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing to genetically characterize the carbapenem-resistant isolates. The carbapenemase gene blaNDM was detected in K. pneumoniae isolates from two patients. The first patient had ventilator-associated pneumonia and lumbar shunt infection from K. pneumoniae ST273 carrying blaNDM-7. The second patient had asymptomatic genitourinary colonization with K. pneumoniae ST656 carrying blaNDM-1. The third patient had a gluteal abscess with K. pneumoniae ST1 that did not carry a carbapenemase gene, but did carry blaDHA-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV-1. In this study, we report the first cases of blaNDM-carrying pathogens in the Philippines and add to the growing evidence of the worldwide spread of ST273 and NDM-7, a more efficient carbapenem hydrolyzer than NDM-1. PMID:27032000

  8. Vocational Guidance in Manpower Development: Papers Presented at the Asian Regional Conference-Workshop (Manila, Philippines, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The unemployment of youth and adults has surfaced as a problem and a challenge to Asian Third World governments. Industry and business continue to experience a shortage of skilled and technical manpower. A manpower development conference was held in the Philippines on topics which included: (1) the role of private educational institutions in…

  9. Assessment of trace metal bioaccumulation by Avicennia marina (Forsk.) in the last remaining mangrove stands in Manila Bay, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ana Veronica S; Salmo, Severino G

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were evaluated in the sediments, roots and leaves of a mangrove species (Avicennia marina) in Las Piñas-Parañaque Critical Habitat and Ecotourism Area (LPPCHEA), Manila Bay. The concentrations showed a general pattern of Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd in sediments, Cu > Pb > Zn > Cd in roots and Cu > Zn > Pb > Cd in leaves. The trace metal concentrations in both sediments and plant tissues were below contamination threshold levels. Based on computed bioaccumulation indices, A. marina could be used for the phytostabilization and phytoextraction of Cu and Cd. The LPPCHEA mangrove ecosystem is an ecologically important ecosystem that will limit the spread of trace metals to the surrounding environment.

  10. Serologic and Molecular Studies of Leptospira and Leptospirosis among Rats in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Sharon Y. A. M.; Ezoe, Hirokazu; Baterna, Rubelia A.; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Muto, Maki; Koizumi, Nobuo; Fukui, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Cavinta, Lolita L.; Gloriani, Nina G.; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Rats are known to be the most important reservoirs and transmission sources of leptospirosis. However, the status of leptospirosis in the Philippines regarding reservoirs and transmission remains unknown. A survey was conducted in Metro Manila and Laguna that analyzed samples obtained from 106 rats. Using the microscopic agglutination test, we found that 92% of rat serum samples were positive for anti-Leptospira antibodies; the most common infecting serovars were Manilae, Hebdomadis, and Losbanos. On the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gyrase B gene sequence analyses, four groups of rat kidney isolates were found: L. interrogans serovar Manilae, serovar Losbanos, and serogroup Grippotyphosa, and L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica. Most isolates were lethal after experimental infection of golden Syrian hamsters. Results showed that these four Leptospira serovars and serogroups are circulating among rats, and that these animals may be one of the possible transmission sources of leptospirosis in the Philippines. PMID:20439972

  11. Tobacco use among fourth year Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) students of the College of Public Health: University of the Philippines Manila, academic year 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Guevarra, Jonathan P; Cordova, Renerio Q; Mercado, Chris Erwin G; Asaad, Abubakar S

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the prevalence of tobacco use among graduating Public Health students at the College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila. It also describes the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, attitudes, behaviors and smoking cessation training of students. This study used a descriptive cross-sectional study design, adapting a standard questionnaire, pretested and administered to 52 Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) students at the College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila. Data generated from the survey were encoded using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and analyzed using Stata version 12. The prevalence of smoking among 4th year BSPH students was 5.8 % (current smokers). In the past 7 days, respondents have been exposed to secondhand smoke (44 % where they live; 79 % in places other than where they live). Majority were aware of the official policy on smoking ban in school, however, 80 % said that the policy is not enforced. Majority had favorable attitudes in terms of banning tobacco sales to adolescents, banning advertising of tobacco products, banning smoking in restaurants, discos/bars/pubs and enclosed public places. Majority of the respondents also believed that health professionals should get specific training on cessation techniques, that they do serve as role models, and that they have a role in giving advice about smoking cessation. More than three-quarters (76.9 %) of students said that health professionals who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit. Most of the graduating students learned about the dangers of smoking, importance of obtaining tobacco use history, and providing educational support materials in their public health education but only a few received formal training about smoking cessation approaches. The implementation of the no-smoking policy of the university must be revisited. Smoking cessation approaches should be incorporated in the public health curriculum and the role

  12. Philippines.

    PubMed

    1983-09-01

    This discussion of the Philippines focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; economy (agriculture, mining, industry, and foreign trade); defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the Philippines. In 1982 the population was estimated at 51.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. The infant mortality rate was 59/1000 (1982), and life expectancy was 64 years (1981). The Philippine people are mostly of Malay stock, descended from the Indonesians and Malays who migrated to the islands long before the Christian era. The most significant ethnic minority group is the Chinese, who have played an important role in commerce since the 9th century, when they first came to the islands to trade. About 90% of the people are Christian. The Philippine Archipelago extends about 1770 kilometers north to south along the southeastern rim of Asia, forming a land chain between the Pacific Ocean on the east and the South China Sea on the west. The archipelago consists of some 7100 islands and islets. The history of the Philippines may be broken down into 4 distinct phases: the pre Spanish period, the Spanish period (1521-1898); the American period (1898-1946); and the years since independence (1946-present). A new constitution, to replace that of 1935, was completed by a constitutional convention in November 1972 and was proclaimed in effect in January 1973. The 1973 constitution provided for a parliamentary system, initially with extensive powers vested in a prime minister. Major amendments adopted in 1981 revised the system to make the president head of government. From independence of 1972, the Philippines practiced relatively traditional constiutional democracy. In addition to more moderate, legitimate opposition, the government has been opposed by 2 insurgencies, whose roots predated martial law, and by some urban terrorism. The Philippine economy grew rapidly during the period of rehabilitation and expansion

  13. Philippines -- country wide water development projects and funds needed. Water crisis in Manila coincide with parliamentarians seminar on water resources and population.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Philippines' Clean Water Act was developed to protect the country's remaining water resources by institutionalizing mechanisms to monitor, regulate, and control human and industrial activities which contribute to the ongoing environmental degradation of marine and freshwater resources. Approximately 70 participants attended the Philippine Parliamentarians' Conference on Water Resources, Population and Development held December 3-4, 1997, at the Sulo Hotel in Quezon City. Participants included the legislative staff of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate, Committee Secretaries of the House and Senate, and government and nongovernmental organization officials. Following the opening programs, panel discussions were held on the role of nongovernmental organizations as legitimate monitors of governments' activities; the need to evaluate water sector assessment methods, water policy and strategy, and water legislation standards; and waste water treatment and sewerage systems used in households and industries. The following issues were raised during the conference's open forum: the need to implement new methods in water resource management; the handling of water for both economic and social purposes; the need to implement guidelines, policies, and pricing mechanisms on bottled water; regulating the construction of recreational facilities such as golf courses; and transferring watershed rehabilitation from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to local water districts. A declaration was prepared and signed by the participants at the close of the conference.

  14. Review on the occurrence and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Susan A; Wallace, Joshua S; Gross, Michael S; Navarro, Denise D; Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Alaee, Mehran; Montecastro, Doris; Aga, Diana S

    2015-12-01

    The environmental occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been a subject of concern for the past decade because they are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. These compounds have been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention and are expected to disperse in the global environment even after their use and production. While the occurrence of PBDEs has been well characterized in environmental and biological samples from North America, Europe, and some Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan, and Korea), there is a scarcity of available data in developing Asian countries, such as the Philippines. Examination of PBDE contamination in the Philippine environment is particularly important because regulations have only recently been implemented on the production and use of PBDEs in this country. Additionally, the Philippines receives e-waste from Western countries, which is becoming a major source of organic contaminants in the tropical Asian regions. Ultimately, the Philippines may be a hot spot for contributing to on-going global PBDE pollution due to long-range atmospheric transport. This paper presents a review of the available literature on PBDEs in both environmental and biological samples collected from the Philippines. It is also intended to provide an overview on the levels and congener profiles of PBDEs in samples from the Philippines and to compare these data with other Asian countries. New data are presented on PBDE occurrence and congener profiles in fish commonly consumed by Filipinos and in particulate matter samples collected in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Both studies contribute to the available knowledge of PBDEs in the Philippines. We aim to stress the importance of future studies in countries receiving e-wastes, such as the Philippines, and suggest what future directions might be taken to enhance the available data on the presence of PBDEs in the Philippine environment.

  15. 78 FR 22237 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... executive led education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from... the Philippines and Malaysia. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  16. A Community-Based Validation Study of the Short-Form 36 Version 2 Philippines (Tagalog) in Two Cities in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Sison, Olivia T.; Grefal, Mary Lenore; Sy, Rody G.; Alix, Oliver C.; Llanes, Elmer Jasper B.; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Gumatay, Allan Wilbert G.; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R.; Velandria, Felicidad V.; Tai, E. Shyong; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Philippines (Tagalog) Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2®) standard questionnaire among Filipinos residing in two cities. Study Design and Setting The official Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 standard (4-week recall) version was pretested on 30 participants followed by formal and informal cognitive debriefing. To obtain the feedback on translation by bilingual respondents, each SF-36v2 question was stated first in English followed by Tagalog. No revisions to the original questionnaire were needed except that participants thought it was appropriate to incorporate "po" in the instructions to make it more polite. Face-to-face interviews of 562 participants aged 20-50 years living in two barangays (villages) in the highly urbanized city of Makati City (Metro Manila) and in urban and rural barangays in Tanauan City (province of Batangas) were subsequently conducted. Content validity, item level validity, reliability and factor structure of the SF-36v2 (Tagalog) were examined. Results Content validity of the SF-36v2 was assessed to be adequate for assessing health status among Filipinos. Item means of Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 were similar with comparable scales in the US English, Singapore (English and Chinese) and Thai SF-36 version 1. Item-scale correlation exceeded 0.4 for all items except the bathing item in PF (correlation: 0.31). In exploratory factor analysis, the US two-component model was supported. However, in confirmatory factor analysis, the Japanese three-component model fit the Tagalog data better than the US two-component model. Conclusions The Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring health status among residents of Makati City (Metro Manila) and Tanauan City (Province of Batangas). PMID:24386281

  17. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of Commerce... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... FR 22237, April 15, 2013, regarding the education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines...

  18. College Choice in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  19. Report of the Primary Science Planning Workshop (Manila, June 24-28, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (Singapore). Regional Center for Education in Science and Mathematics.

    This publication details the proceedings of a Primary Science Planning Workshop held in Manila, Philippines from June 24-28, 1969. The major goal of this workshop was to develop a course to train teachers and teacher training specialists in elementary education for each country participating. These individuals would play primary roles in…

  20. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  1. The Search for the Manila Galleon Log Books.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Wayne V.

    1990-11-01

    Spanish merchant ships, called Manila Galleons, made the round-trip between the Philippine Islands and the ports on the west coast of what is now Mexico, almost every year for the 250-yr period between 1565 and 1815. The log books of these galleons contained weather information which was thought to be of value in the study of the historical climatology of the tropical and mid-latitude areas of the Pacific Ocean. A search was made for the log books of the Manila Galleons to determine how many are still extant and the nature of the weather data that they contained. The search was made with the assistance of expert historians and paleographers who ware experienced in searching archives where the log books wore thought to be on file. The following archives were searched: the Museo Naval in Madrid, Spain; the Archivo General do Simancas in Simancas, Spain; Archiyo De lndias in Seville, Spain; Archivo General do la Nación in Mexico City, Mexico; and the National Archives in Manila, The Philippine Islands. Only sixteen log books were on file In the archives in Madrid and Seville. All of the logs that wore found ware from the period between 1766 and 1808. The inevitable conclusions that were reached were that log books for some of the earlier voyages may never have been written and that most of the log books that were written were either physically lost or were lost due to the ravages of time, moisture, insects or war.

  2. Enhancement of the Philippines Disaster Response Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-15

    the barangay largely depends on the elected leaders. Aldea (1995)21 identified some deficiencies in the NDCC such as lack of direction...Luzon Earthquake,” (Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Manila, 2001). 21 Elma C. Aldea , Enhancing Disaster Response Capabilities of

  3. 18S ribosomal DNA genotypes of Acanthamoeba species isolated from contact lens cases in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2009-10-01

    This study was carried out to document the genotypes of Acanthamoeba present in contact lens cases from 50 randomly selected contact lens wearers living in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. Acanthamoeba species were isolated from eight (16%) in 50 contact lens cases examined. We analyzed partial 18S ribosomal DNA (Rns) sequences of the eight isolates and found that the sequence differences were sufficient to distinguish the genotypes. After the isolates were genotyped, using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool program, their phylogenetic positions relative to known Acanthamoeba isolates were determined. The model-based (GTR+Gamma+Iota) neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses, as well as the non-model-based maximum parsimony analysis were used. Results showed that of the eight isolates, six were Rns genotype T5 while two were Rns genotype T4. This present study indicates that genotype T5 is also a common contaminant in contact lens storage cases.

  4. New Thoughts on the Origins of Zamboangueno (Philippine Creole Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipski, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to reconcile the similarities and differences among Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS) dialects by suggesting that Zamboangueno was formed gradually in a downward fashion from received Spanish, aided by two components. The first is pidginization that resulted in the Spanish garrison at Zamboanga, and the second was the arrival of Manila Bay…

  5. Communication Apprehension: Its Incidence in the Philippines and Elsewhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordeno, Jose; And Others

    A study investigated communication apprehension in the Philippines and compared its incidence there with that in populations in the United States, Australia, China, Japan, Korea, and Micronesia. The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension for College Students (PRCA) was administered to 312 students in Manila, as well as to comparable numbers…

  6. Higher Education in the Philippines: An Overview and Current Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Daniel H.

    1978-01-01

    Among current problems facing higher education in the Philippines are (1) bilingualism (English and Filipino), (2) accreditation, (3) government regulations, (4) overproduction of graduates, (5) mismatch between graduates and needed skills, (6) imbalance between public and private schools, (7) overconcentration of students in Manila, and (8)…

  7. 75 FR 29654 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal... Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at Manila Municipal Airport, Manila, AR has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  8. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Hlolv Child in the center of metropolitan Manila symbolizes the constancy of the Roman Catholic Church in a changing Philippines. Fourth Edition...occasions. But in asking a friend to become god- parent to a child , a Filipino is also asking that person to become a closer friend. Thus it is common...relatives and servants who functioned as helpers and child caretakers, but the use of servants and relatives has sometimes been denounced as the

  9. Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Philippines, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Malasao, Rungnapa; Okamoto, Michiko; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Imamura, Tadatsugu; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Isolde; Dapat, Clyde; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mayuko; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Aniceto, Rapunzel; Quicho, Reynaldo Frederick Negosa; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children worldwide. We performed molecular analysis of HRSV among infants and children with clinical diagnosis of severe pneumonia in four study sites in the Philippines, including Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, and Metro Manila from June 2012 to July 2013. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened for HRSV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were tested by conventional PCR and sequenced for the second hypervariable region (2nd HVR) of the G gene. Among a total of 1,505 samples, 423 samples were positive for HRSV (28.1%), of which 305 (72.1%) and 118 (27.9%) were identified as HRSV-A and HRSV-B, respectively. Two genotypes of HRSV-A, NA1 and ON1, were identified during the study period. The novel ON1 genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in 2nd HVR of the G gene increased rapidly and finally became the predominant genotype in 2013 with an evolutionary rate higher than the NA1 genotype. Moreover, in the ON1 genotype, we found positive selection at amino acid position 274 (p<0.05) and massive O- and N-glycosylation in the 2nd HVR of the G gene. Among HRSV-B, BA9 was the predominant genotype circulating in the Philippines. However, two sporadic cases of GB2 genotype were found, which might share a common ancestor with other Asian strains. These findings suggest that HRSV is an important cause of severe acute respiratory infection among children in the Philippines and revealed the emergence and subsequent predominance of the ON1 genotype and the sporadic detection of the GB2 genotype. Both genotypes were detected for the first time in the Philippines. PMID:26540236

  10. Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Philippines, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Malasao, Rungnapa; Okamoto, Michiko; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Imamura, Tadatsugu; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Isolde; Dapat, Clyde; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mayuko; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Aniceto, Rapunzel; Quicho, Reynaldo Frederick Negosa; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children worldwide. We performed molecular analysis of HRSV among infants and children with clinical diagnosis of severe pneumonia in four study sites in the Philippines, including Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, and Metro Manila from June 2012 to July 2013. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened for HRSV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were tested by conventional PCR and sequenced for the second hypervariable region (2nd HVR) of the G gene. Among a total of 1,505 samples, 423 samples were positive for HRSV (28.1%), of which 305 (72.1%) and 118 (27.9%) were identified as HRSV-A and HRSV-B, respectively. Two genotypes of HRSV-A, NA1 and ON1, were identified during the study period. The novel ON1 genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in 2nd HVR of the G gene increased rapidly and finally became the predominant genotype in 2013 with an evolutionary rate higher than the NA1 genotype. Moreover, in the ON1 genotype, we found positive selection at amino acid position 274 (p<0.05) and massive O- and N-glycosylation in the 2nd HVR of the G gene. Among HRSV-B, BA9 was the predominant genotype circulating in the Philippines. However, two sporadic cases of GB2 genotype were found, which might share a common ancestor with other Asian strains. These findings suggest that HRSV is an important cause of severe acute respiratory infection among children in the Philippines and revealed the emergence and subsequent predominance of the ON1 genotype and the sporadic detection of the GB2 genotype. Both genotypes were detected for the first time in the Philippines.

  11. Positive and negative contact and attitudes towards the religious out-group: Testing the contact hypothesis in conflict and non-conflict regions of Indonesia and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Agnieszka; Scheepers, Peer; Sterkens, Carl

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between interreligious contact and negative attitudes towards the religious out-group. It uses unique survey data collected by the authors among Christian and Muslim students in Maluku and Yogyakarta (Indonesia) and Mindanao and Metro Manila (the Philippines). Even after taking self-selection effects into account, interreligious friendships reduce negative attitudes towards the religious out-group. However, casual interreligious contact increases negative out-group attitudes. Also individuals who experienced interreligious violence have more negative out-group attitudes than those without such experience. The experience of interreligious violence has no influence on the effect of interreligious friendships but it further deteriorates the relationship between casual interreligious contact and out-group attitudes. Perceived group threat is an important mechanism explaining the effects of both positive and negative interreligious contact. [125].

  12. The Head Side of the Coin: A Smarter Way to Fight the Moro Secessionists in the Southern Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    In Rebels, Warlords and Ulama: A Reader on Muslim Separatism and the War in Southern Philippines. Edited by Eric Gutierrez et al. Quezon City, PI...Philippines and the Malays of Southern Thailand. Quezon City, PI: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990. Corpus, Victor N. Silent War. Quezon City

  13. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-06-01

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  14. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-06-15

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  15. From subduction to collision: results of French POP2 program on Taiwan-Philippine festoon

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, R.; Stephan, J.F.; Rangin, C.; Baladad, D.; Bouysse, Ph.; Chen, M.P.; Chotin, P.; Collot, J.Y.; Daniel, J.; Drouhot, J.M.; Marsset, B.; Pelletier, B.; Richard, M.; Tardy, M.

    1986-07-01

    A sea-beam, seismic, magnetic, and gravimetric survey was conducted with the R/V Jean-Charcot in three key regions off the Taiwan-Philippine festoon in the western Pacific: (1) Ryukyu active margin and its junction with Taiwan; (2) northern part of the Manila Trench and its junction with the Taiwan tectonic prism; and (3) southern termination of Manila Trench in front of Mindoro Island. Transitions between active subduction along the Manila Trench and collision of Taiwan and Mindoro, and relations between active subduction and extension in the Okinawa-Ryukyu and the northeastern Taiwan systems are particularly studied.

  16. 75 FR 12162 - Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at Manila... amending Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface for standard instrument...

  17. Effects of environmental regulations on heavy metal pollution decline in core sediments from Manila Bay.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Siringan, Fernando; Amano, Atsuko; Onodera, Shin-ichi

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the high-resolution heavy metal pollution history of Manila Bay using heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios together with (210)Pb dating to find out the effects of environmental regulations after the 1990 s. Our results suggested that the rate of decline in heavy metal pollution increased dramatically from the end of the 1990 s due to stricter environmental regulations, Administrative Order No. 42, being enforced by the Philippines government. The presented data and methodology should form the basis for future monitoring, leading to pollution control, and to the generation of preventive measures at the pollution source for the maintenance of environmental quality in the coastal metropolitan city of Manila. Although this is the first report of a reduction in pollution in Asian developing country, our results suggest that we can expect to find similar signs of pollution decline in other parts of the world as well.

  18. Using TRMM and GPM precipitation radar for calibration of weather radars in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisologo, Irene; Bookhagen, Bodo; Smith, Taylor; Heistermann, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Torrential and sustained rainfall from tropical cyclones, monsoons, and thunderstorms frequently impact the Philippines. In order to predict, assess, and measure storm impact, it is imperative to have a reliable and accurate monitoring system in place. In 2011, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) established a weather radar network of ten radar devices, eight of which are single-polarization S-band radars and two dual-polarization C-band radars. Because of a low-density hydrometeorological monitoring networks in the Philippines, calibration of weather radars becomes a challenging, but important task. In this study, we explore the potential of scrutinizing the calibration of ground radars by using the observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). For this purpose, we compare different TRMM level 1 and 2 orbital products from overpasses over the Philippines, and compare these products to reflectivities observed by the Philippine ground radars. Differences in spatial resolution are addressed by computing adequate zonal statistics of the local radar bins located within the corresponding TRMM cell in space and time. The wradlib package (Heistermann et al. 2013; Heistermann et al. 2015) is used to process the data from the Subic S-band single-polarization weather radar. These data will be analyzed in conjunction with TRMM data for June to August 2012, three months of the wet season. This period includes the enhanced monsoon of 2012, locally called Habagat 2012, which brought sustained intense rainfall and massive floods in several parts of the country including the most populated city of Metro Manila. References Heistermann, M., Jacobi, S., Pfaff, T. (2013): Technical Note: An open source library for processing weather radar data (wradlib). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 863-871, doi: 10.5194/hess-17-863-2013. Heistermann, M., S. Collis, M. J. Dixon, S. Giangrande, J. J. Helmus, B. Kelley, J

  19. Teaching and Learning Simplification Strategies in a Philippine Classroom: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibayan, Bonifacio P.; And Others

    This paper discusses the use of English as the main language of instruction in higher education in many developing nations, and reports on a pilot study of learning and teaching strategies used in Filipino- and English-language classrooms at De La Salle University in Manila, The Philippines. The study examined the "teacher talk" and…

  20. Far East Air Forces’ Contributions in the Retaking of the Philippines, 1944-1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    Manila ( PLUM ). Their mission was to deter Japanese aggression by presence and, if ordered, conduct offensive operations against the Japanese. However......FEAF Far East Air Forces FG Fighter Group FS Fighter Squadron IGH Imperial General Headquarters LOC Lines of Communication PLUM Philippines

  1. Oceanic Plate Bending Along the Manila Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.

    2014-12-01

    We quantify along-trench variations in plate flexural bending along the Manila trench in the South China Sea. A 3-D interpreted flexural deformation surface of the subducting South China Sea Plate was obtained by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, isostatically-compensated topography based on gravity modeling, age-related lithospheric thermal subsidence, and residual short-wavelength features. We analyzed flexural bending of 21 across-trench profile sections along the Manila trench and then calculated five best-fitting tectonic and plate parameters that control the flexural bending for each of the across-trench profile sections. Results of analysis revealed significant along-trench variations: The trench relief of the Manila trench varies from 0.8 to 2.2 km, trench-axis vertical loading (-V0) from -0.4x1012 to 1.21x1012 N/m, and axial bending moment (-M0) from 0.005x1017 to 0.6x1017 N. The effective elastic plate thickness seaward of the Manila outer-rise region (TeM) ranges from 30 to 40 km, while that trench-ward of the outer-rise (Tem) ranges from 11 to 30 km. This corresponds to a reduction in Te of 26-63% for the Manila trench. The transition from TeM to Tem occurs at a breaking distance of 50-120 km from the Manila trench axis. The axial vertical loading, bending moment, and the effective elastic thickness of the Manila trench are much smaller than the Mariana trench (Zhang et al., 2014). The contrast in the flexural bending between the Mariana and Manila trenches might be related to the difference in the ages of the subducting plates and other tectonic variables. Zhang, F., Lin, J., Zhan, W., 2014. Variations in oceanic plate bending along the Mariana trench, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 206-214. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.032

  2. Detection of antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), typhus group Rickettsia (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii in human febrile patients in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Camer, Gerry Amor; Alejandria, Marissa; Amor, Miguel; Satoh, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Morita, Chiharu

    2003-02-01

    A total of 157 sera from febrile patients in the Philippine General Hospital in Manila, Luzon, and the Northern Samar Provincial Hospital, the Philippines, were used. Serum antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and typhus group Rickettsia (TGR) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence test. Antibody positive rates were 1.3% for SFGR (Rickettsia japonica) and 2.5% for TGR (R. typhus), respectively. Rickettsial antibodies in humans in the Philippines were found for the first time. These results underscore the need for further epidemiological study of clinical rickettsioses in the Philippines.

  3. Sex work and its associations with alcohol and methamphetamine use among female bar and spa workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita

    2014-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population.

  4. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  5. Sex Work and Its Associations With Alcohol and Methamphetamine Use Among Female Bar and Spa Workers in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Schilling, Robert F.; Simbulan, Nymia P.; Estacio, Leonardo R.; Raj, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009–2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%;AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2–3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%;AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1–0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population. PMID:23343641

  6. The buoyancy variation of plate coupling from subduction to collision: an example across the northernmost Manila trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chung-Liang; Doo, Wen-Bin; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Hsu, Shu-Kun

    2015-04-01

    The Manila trench is the boundary between the South China Sea (SCS) of Eurasian Plate (EU) and Philippine Sea Plate (PSP). The east subducting of SCS is a ceased rifting oceanic crust. To the north, the subduction is obscured and transits to collision extended to the Taiwan orogenesis. The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER) project has implemented several offshore multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and wide-angle seismic experiments to model the velocity structure of the incipient arc-continental collision. Amongst, along two trench perpendicular transects (MGL0905_23, 25) are associated with ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployed in the northern Manila trench. The transect MCS data and tomographic velocity structure provide well constraint on the recognition between the crust and mantle lithosphere that helps to reconstruct synthetic density structure to fit the observation gravity data. The synthetic gravity result along two transects also show that there exists an anomalous high density (~2.97 g/cm3) mass beneath the accretionary prism in the leading edge of overriding plate; however, unfortunately, the MCS and OBS data have no resolution there. Meanwhile, the buoyancies of crust (Hc) and mantle lithosphere (Hm) can be calculated associated with the residual topography based on the isostatic equilibrium. According to the contribution of Hm, the estimation of the plate coupling effect can be approached. Combining two transects data across the northern Manila trench and one profile across the Hengchun Peninsula in southern Taiwan (T29-33, TAICRUST project), a sequence from subduction to collision of plate coupling effect can therefore be evaluated, and also offers the opportunity to examine the lithospheric structure variation in the zone between Taiwan and northernmost Manila trench.

  7. Informed Questions Paper: Philippine Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Encyclopedia Britannica Online . "Philippines." Janet Matthew Information Service. Quest Economics Database. 2002. "Philippines: Arroyo...Guia. "Philippine Political System." ii "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . iii Gabriella Montinolo, "Parties and Accountability in the...34 STRATFOR Report. Apr 4, 2002. xi "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . xii Luie Tito F. Guia. "Philippine Political System"

  8. Socio-structural and behavioral risk factors associated with trafficked history of female bar/spa entertainers in the sex trade in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Halterman, Sonja; Raj, Anita; Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore factors associated with trafficking (deceptive/coercive entry to sex trade) among female bar/spa entertainers who traded sex in the Philippines. Method Female bar/spa entertainers who traded sex in the past 6 months were recruited from 25 bar/spa venues in Metro Manila (April 2009–January 2010) and assessed via cross-sectional survey data collection for HIV-risk-related socio-structural factors associated with deceptive/coercive entry into the sex trade. The study employed hierarchical linear modeling. Results Of 166 bar/spa entertainers assessed, 19 (11.4%) reported being deceived/coerced (i.e. trafficked) into their first jobs. Trafficking history was independently associated with current drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–3.97) decreased availability of condoms at venues for entertainers (AOR 0.18; 95% CI 0.05–0.71) and, conversely, increased peer support for practicing safer sex behaviors (AOR 3.08; 95% CI 1.63–5.09). Those deceived/coerced into their positions were more likely than non-trafficked women to have been recruited by an agency who came to their rural province (AOR 12.07; 95% CI 1.77-82.25) as opposed to getting the job from advertisement (AOR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02–0.65) or a friend/acquaintance (AOR 0.02; 95% CI 0.00–0.48). Conclusion The findings have implications for designing interventions to prevent and target trafficked women in the Philippines who may be more vulnerable to substance use and, potentially, HIV infection. PMID:26434671

  9. Guidelines and policies on collection of biological specimens in the Philippines. Philippine Congress, International Convention on Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Madulid, D A

    1996-04-01

    In October, 1993, 16 months after the United Nations approved the International Convention on Biodiversity held in Rio de Janeiro, June, 1992, the Philippine Congress ratified and adopted the Convention. This is a manifestation of the full support of the Philippines for the principles and policies adopted by the UN body on the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable development of biological resources and equitable sharing of benefits between users and owners of biodiversity resources. The Philippine scientific community has long recognized the need for and importance of a national guideline and policy with regard to the collection of plants and animals in the Philippines for scientific or commercial purposes. A series of consultative meetings were held by representatives of government agencies, non-government organizations, private organizations, academic and private persons concerned with biodiversity conservation to formulate national guidelines that regulate the collection of plant and animal specimens in the country. Guidelines were unanimously adopted by various government agencies and academia and a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was signed on September 28, 1990. Very recently a new document was drafted, specifically to serve as a guideline for those who desire to undertake sample collecting in the Philippines for biodiversity prospecting. The document is now being reviewed by government departments and agencies and will be presented to the President of the Philippines for signing as an Executive Order (EO). Once signed, this EO will serve as a national policy for bioprospecting in the country. The Philippines is one of the countries in Southeast Asia that has endorsed the adoption of regional guidelines on the collection of plant and animal organisms for drug development. The ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1985). The Manila Declaration (1992) and lately, the Melaka Accord (1994), all of which were signed by various

  10. Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Methods Female bar/spa workers (N = 498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Results Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment - trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34–49.90), economic environment - sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01–2.30), policy environment - sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49–4.48), and individual risk - substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28–4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Conclusions Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions

  11. LEAP: A Computer Course for Gifted Students. Manila.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Patricia; Johnson, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Learning Enrichment Activities Program (LEAP) is designed to offer intellectually challenging computer activities for gifted and talented children (grades 7-12) in Manila. Computer enrichment activities were designed according to an adaptation of the Enrichment Triad model. (CL)

  12. Tension in the South China Sea: Why the Philippines is Challenging China’s Improved Military Might

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    bases agreement that had been signed by Manila and Washington. After the Senate voted down the agreement and ash from the volcanic eruption of Mount...passing a defense modernization bill, but the Asian financial crisis prevented the government from actually modernizing. During the Estrada and Arroyo...because it simply did not have the military resources to do so. The slow passage and implementation of 7898 prevented the Philippines from upgrading its

  13. Plate convergence measured by GPS across the Sundaland/Philippine Sea Plate deformed boundary: the Philippines and eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, C.; Le Pichon, X.; Mazzotti, S.; Pubellier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Aurelio, M.; Walpersdorf, Andrea; Quebral, R.

    1999-11-01

    The western boundary of the Philippine Sea (PH) Plate in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia corresponds to a wide deformation zone that includes the stretched continental margin of Sundaland, the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB), extending from Luzon to the Molucca Sea, and a mosaic of continental blocks around the PH/Australia/Sunda triple junction. The GPS GEODYSSEA data are used to decipher the present kinematics of this complex area. In the Philippines, the overall scheme is quite simple: two opposing rotations on either side of the left-lateral Philippine Fault, clockwise to the southwest and counterclockwise to the northeast, transfer 55 per cent of the PH/Sundaland convergence from the Manila Trench to the northwest to the Philippine Trench to the southeast. Further south, 80 per cent of the PH/Sunda convergence is absorbed in the double subduction system of the Molucca Sea and less than 20 per cent along both continental margins of northern Borneo. Finally, within the triple junction area between the Sundaland, PH and Australia plates, from Sulawesi to Irian Jaya, preferential subduction of the Celebes Sea induces clockwise rotation of the Sulu block, which is escaping toward the diminishing Celebes Sea oceanic space from the eastward-advancing PH Plate. To the south, we identify an undeformed Banda block that rotates counterclockwise with respect to Australia and clockwise with respect to Sundaland. The kinematics of this block can be defined and enable us to compute the rates of southward subduction of the Banda block within the Flores Trench and of eastward convergence of the Makassar Straits with the Banda block. The analysis made in this paper confirms that this deformation is compatible with the eastward motion of Sundaland with respect to Eurasia determined by the GEODYSSEA programme but is not compatible with the assumption that Sundaland belongs to Eurasia, as was often assumed prior to this study.

  14. The Philippines: Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackford, Julie; Aquino, Belinda A., Ed.

    This book provides readings and student lessons about the Philippines. Lessons and activities follow a chronological sequence and provide a good resource for those interested in the Philippines. The materials begin with prehistoric times and continue to the presidency of Corazon Aquino. Each chapter provides background information along with a…

  15. Family, Child Labour and Migration: Child Domestic Workers in Metro Manila.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Agnes Zenaida V.

    1999-01-01

    Explored the complex interrelationship between the family, child work and migration, the role of the family in decision making and migration process, and the economic benefits of labor migration for the child's family. Found that migrants' family-based contacts in location and recruitment process were important. Determined priorities identified by…

  16. Modeling the Philippine Mobile Belt: Tectonic blocks in a deforming plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; Hamburger, M. W.; McCaffrey, R.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Aurelio, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Philippine Mobile Belt, a seismically active, rapidly deforming plate boundary zone situated along the convergent Philippine Sea/Eurasian plate boundary, is examined using geodetic and seismological data. Oblique convergence between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian plate is accommodated by nearly orthogonal subduction along the Philippine Trench and the Manila Trench, as well as by strike-slip faulting along the Philippine Fault system. We develop a model of active plate boundary deformation in this region, using elastic block models constrained by known fault geometries, published GPS observations and focal mechanism solutions. We then present an estimate of block rotations, fault coupling, and intra-block deformation, based on the best-fit model that minimizes the misfit between observed and predicted geodetic vectors and earthquake slip vectors. Slip rates along the Philippine fault vary from ~22 - 36 mm/yr in the Central Visayas and about 10 to 40 mm/yr in Luzon, trending almost parallel to the fault trace. In northern Luzon, Philippine Fault splays accommodate transpressional strain. The Central Visayas block experiences convergence with the Sundaland block along the Negros Trench and the Mindoro-Palawan collision zone. On the eastern side of Central Visayas, sinistral strike-slip faulting occurs along the NNW-SSE-trending Philippine Fault. Mindanao Island in southern Philippines is dominated by east-verging subduction along the Cotabato Trench, and strain partitioning (strike- slip faulting with west-verging subduction) in eastern Mindanao along the southern Philippine Fault and Philippine Trench, respectively. Oblique active sinistral strike slip faults in Central and Eastern Mindanao that were hypothesized to be responsible for basin formation are obvious boundaries for tectonic blocks. Located south of Mindanao Island we define an adjoining oceanic block defined by the N-S trending complex dual subduction zone of Sangihe and Halmahera

  17. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: Philippine Ethnoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, D. L.

    2009-03-01

    Ethnoastronomy refers to the system of beliefs and practices of ethno-linguistic groups regarding astronomical and meteorological phenomena which form part of the upper world in their three-world view of the universe. For the Philippines, the study is relevant in the investigation of Philippine pre-colonial society and culture. It is also important in showing the diversity, commonality, richness and depth of what would be referred to later on as Philippine cultures. Through this study, various Philippine groups which are usually neglected in the writing of history are brought to the forefront to share in the limelight with mainstream groups in tracing the development of this society and culture. The study focuses on the indigenous world view, beliefs, knowledge and practices regarding the sun, the moon, the eclipse and the stars. It shows how astronomical, as well as meteorological, phenomena influence the way people look at the world and the way they think, behave and live. Beliefs and knowledge regarding these phenomena inform their everyday life then and now as they continuously engage in agriculture, fishing, hunting, and trading, in observing various rituals, in building a house, and even in securing good fortune in any undertaking.

  18. AIDS as a political issue: working with the sexually prostituted in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; De Leon, A; Stoltzfus, B; O'donnell, C

    1989-07-01

    An estimated 200,000-500,000 men, women, and children work in prostitution in the Philippines in a variety of venues, including brothels, nightclubs, pubs, massage parlors, and other legitimate entertainment establishments. Few, however, are voluntary prostitutes. Many people who work as prostitutes have been recruited from the provinces, kept in conditions similar to slavery, and forced to earn money from prostitution to pay for their transportation, board, and lodging. Many prostitutes work in urban centers and tourist resorts in the countryside. During the 1970s, then President Ferdinand Marcos promoted tourism as a major industry, effectively marketing attractive Filipinas to tourists. Sex tourism has flourished in the country ever since. Thousands of prostitutes are also located in Olongapo and Angeles, 2 cities north of Manila, from where they serve the sexual desires of US military personnel. The presence of US military personnel in the Philippines has always been associated with prostitution. The country's social hygiene centers, prostitutes in Manila and Davao, and AIDS education are briefly discussed.

  19. The Philippines in a Changing Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    and southern Luzon, forcibly took over the military "reforms" they had hoped to help institute government-owned Manila Hotel in a coup attempt. did...have urged her to fol- coup attempt at the Manila Hotel six months earlier, low from the start. One of the GMA-7 military mutineers grievances The...so-called Manila Hotel incident, a open an anti-communist publicity campaign nation- military uprising organized by Marcos backers in wide. Soon after

  20. Numerical simulation of earthquake rupture sequences on the Manila thrust fault: Effects of seamount subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Liu, Y.; Ning, J.; He, C.; Zhang, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Manila subduction zone is located at the convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Sunda/Eurasian Plate from offshore Taiwan to northern Luzon of Philippines, where only infrequent M7 earthquakes were observed in modern seismological instrumentation history. The lack of great events (M8+) indicates the subduction fault is either aseismically slipping or is accumulating strain energy toward rapid release in a great earthquake. Here we conduct numerical simulations of earthquake rupture sequences in the framework of rate-state-friction along the 15-19.5ºN segment of the 3D plate boundary with subducted seamounts. Rate-state frictional properties are constrained by laboratory friction experiments conducted on IODP Expedition 349, South China Sea (SCS), drilling samples from the basaltic basement rock under 100ºC - 600ºC, effective normal stress of 50 MPa and pore pressure of 100 MPa. During the modeled 2000-year period, the maximum magnitude of earthquakes is Mw7. Each sequence repeats every ~200 years and is consisted of three sub-events, event 1 (Mw7) that can overcome the barrier, where dip angle changes most rapidly along the strike, to rupture the entire fault. Events 2 (Mw 6.4) and 3 (Mw 5.7) are of smaller magnitudes and result in north-south segmented rupture pattern. We further quantify the potential of earthquake nucleation by the S-ratio (lower S ratio means the initial stress is closer to peak strength, hence more likely to nucleate an earthquake). The subducted seamount shows higher S-ratios than its surroundings mostly, implying an unlikely nucleate area. Our results are qualitatively similar to 2D subduction earthquake modeling by Herrendörfer et al. (2015, 2-3 events per supercycle and median long-term S is 0.5-1). Finally, we plan to use our coseismic rupture model results as inputs for a tsunami propagation model in SCS. Compared to the kinematic seafloor deformation input, our physics-based earthquake source model and its

  1. The Philippines: integrated planning for balanced urban growth.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    During the past 80 years, the proportion of the Philippine population living in urban areas has nearly tripled, from 13% at the beginning of the 20th century to 36% in 1980. The number of people living in urban areas multipled 17-fold over this period. Currently, an estimated 17 million people live in urban areas, and this number is expected to reach 30 million by the year 2000. Migration from rural areas has been an important component of urban growth, but it has not been the principal one. Natural increase accounted for 54% of total urban growth in the 1960s and 1970s. A combination of reclassification and migration accounted for the rest. Big cities did not grow as rapidly as small cities, since their growth was generated largely by urban inmigration. Small cities tended to grow faster due to more natural increase than to inmigration. Philippine urbanization has been marked by increasing primacy. Metropolitan Manila, the largest city, has more than quadrupled in size since 1950. The phenomenon of primacy has been the cumulative consequence of historical, demographic, political, and socioeconomic factors. It may also have resulted from growth policies which unintentionally and indirectly favored the premier city. For national planners, the issue of urbanization in the Philippines is closely intertwined with the country's development objectives, particularly those of reducing poverty and attaining a more equitable distribution of income and wealth. The integration of population growth and distribution trends into the planning process is very important. Efforts to actively advocate this approach at various planning levels have been initiated. More must be learned about population and development dynamics, and planning capabilities at all levels must be improved.

  2. Television in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.

    Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…

  3. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Philippine Sea plate and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    The complex tectonics surrounding the Philippine Islands are dominated by the interactions of the Pacific, Sunda, and Eurasia plates with the Philippine Sea plate (PSP). The latter is unique because it is almost exclusively surrounded by zones of plate convergence. At its eastern and southeastern edges, the Pacific plate is subducted beneath the PSP at the Izu-Bonin, Mariana, and Yap trenches. Here, the subduction zone exhibits high rates of seismic activity to depths of over 600 km, though no great earthquakes (M>8.0) have been observed, likely because of weak coupling along the plate interface. In the northeast, the PSP subducts beneath Japan and the eastern margin of the Eurasia plate at the Nankai and Ryukyu trenches, extending westward to Taiwan. The Nankai portion of this subduction zone has hosted some of the largest earthquakes along the margins of the PSP, including a pair of Mw8.1 megathrust events in 1944 and 1946. Along its western margin, the convergence of the PSP and the Sunda plate is responsible for a broad and active plate boundary system extending along both sides of the Philippine Islands chain. The region is characterized by opposite-facing subduction systems on the east and west sides of the islands, and the archipelago is cut by a major transform structure: the Philippine Fault. Subduction of the Philippine Sea plate occurs at the eastern margin of the islands along the Philippine Trench and its northern extension, the East Luzon Trough. On the west side of Luzon, the Sunda Plate subducts eastward along a series of trenches, including the Manila Trench in the north, the smaller Negros Trench in the central Philippines, and the Sulu and Cotabato trenches in the south. Twentieth and early twentyfirst century seismic activity along the boundaries of the Philippine Sea plate has produced seven great (M>8.0) earthquakes and 250 large (M>7) events. Among the most destructive events were the 1923 Kanto, the 1948 Fukui, and the 1995 Kobe, Japan

  4. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy; Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  5. Evidence-based practice training for health professionals in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Janine Margarita; Dizon, Ryan Joseph; Regino, Jocel; Gabriel, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is integral in the health care system whether in developed or developing countries. Thus, all health professionals need to be trained in EBP. An EBP training program was conducted to health professionals in a developing country, the Philippines. The health professionals (medical doctors and allied health professionals [physical therapists and occupational therapists]) were working in hospitals in Manila, Philippines. The program aimed to build capacity in EBP in terms of knowledge and skills. The EBP training program was conducted as a 1-day face-to-face training. Pre- and post-test measures of EBP knowledge and skills were taken prior to and immediately after the 1-day training, using the Fresno test of evidence-based medicine for the medical doctors and the Adapted Fresno test for the allied health professionals. The EBP training program resulted in significant improvements in knowledge and skills for both the medical doctors (change in pre- and post-Fresno test measures, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.6-23.5; P≤0.05) and the allied health professionals (change in pre- and post-Adapted Fresno test measures, 95% CI: 32.7-38.5; P≤0.05). The EBP training conducted amongst the health professionals is an effective and tested undertaking in introducing EBP in developing countries such as the Philippines.

  6. Estimation of the magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine historical earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Maria Leonila P.; Oike, Kazuo

    2000-02-01

    The magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine earthquakes from 1589 to 1895 are estimated based on the review, evaluation and interpretation of historical accounts and descriptions. The first step involves the determination of magnitude-felt area relations for the Philippines for use in the magnitude estimation. Data used were the earthquake reports of 86, recent, shallow events with well-described effects and known magnitude values. Intensities are assigned according to the modified Mercalli intensity scale of I to XII. The areas enclosed by Intensities III to IX [ A(III) to A(IX)] are measured and related to magnitude values. The most robust relations are found for magnitudes relating to A(VI), A(VII), A(VIII) and A(IX). Historical earthquake data are obtained from primary sources in libraries in the Philippines and Spain. Most of these accounts were made by Spanish priests and officials stationed in the Philippines during the 15th to 19th centuries. More than 3000 events are catalogued, interpreted and their intensities determined by considering the possible effects of local site conditions, type of construction and the number and locations of existing towns to assess completeness of reporting. Of these events, 485 earthquakes with the largest number of accounts or with at least a minimum report of damage are selected. The historical epicenters are estimated based on the resulting generalized isoseismal maps augmented by information on recent seismicity and location of known tectonic structures. Their magnitudes are estimated by using the previously determined magnitude-felt area equations for recent events. Although historical epicenters are mostly found to lie on known tectonic structures, a few, however, are found to lie along structures that show not much activity during the instrumented period. A comparison of the magnitude distributions of historical and recent events showed that only the period 1850 to 1900 may be considered well-reported in terms of

  7. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  8. Space Radar Image of Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the image is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth

  9. Laboratory Diagnosis for Outbreak-Prone Infectious Diseases after Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan), Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Saito-Obata, Mariko; Saito, Mayuko; Tan, Titus C.; Medado, Inez Andrea P.; Dapat, Clyde; Okamoto, Michiko; Tamaki, Raita; Capistrano, Rowena C.; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) hit the central part of the Philippines on November 8, 2013. To identify possible outbreaks of communicable diseases after the typhoon, nasopharyngeal swabs, stool and blood samples were collected from patients who visited the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center due to acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute gastroenteritis (AGE) or other febrile illness (OFI) including suspected dengue fever, between November 28, 2013 and February 5, 2014.   Methods: Samples were tested on-site for selected pathogens using rapid diagnostic tests. Confirmation and further analysis were conducted at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM) in Manila using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Residues of the rapid diagnostic tests and samples collected in the filter papers (FTATM card) were transported to Manila under suboptimal conditions. PCR results were compared between the kit residues and the filter papers.   Results: A total of 185 samples were collected. Of these, 128 cases were ARI, 17 cases were AGE and 40 cases were OFI. For nasopharyngeal swab samples, detection rates for enterovirus and rhinovirus residues were higher than the filter papers. For stool samples, rotavirus positive rate for the filter paper was higher than the kit residues. We also managed to obtain the sequence data from some of the kit residues and filter papers.   Discussion: Our results confirmed the importance of PCR for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases in post-disaster situations when  diagnostic options are limited. PMID:27917305

  10. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  11. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  12. Structure of Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) Microbiota at the Organ Scale in Contrasting Sets of Individuals.

    PubMed

    Meisterhans, Guillaume; Raymond, Natalie; Girault, Emilie; Lambert, Christophe; Bourrasseau, Line; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Garabetian, Frédéric; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrate microbiota has a key function in host physiology and health. To date, knowledge about bivalve microbiota is poorly documented except public health concerns. This study used a molecular approach to characterize the microbiota associated with the bivalve Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) by determining (1) the difference among organs either or not under the influence of host habitat, (2) small-scale variability of microbiota, and (3) the experimental response of the Manila clam microbiota submitted to different lateral transmissions. These questions were investigated by sampling two groups of individuals living in contrasting habitats and carrying out a transplant experiment. Manila clam microbiota (i.e., bacterial community structure) was determined at organ-scale (gills, gut, and a pool of remaining tissues) by capillary electrophoresis DNA fingerprinting (CE fingerprinting). The Manila clam microbiota structure differed among organs indicating a selection of Manila clam microbiota at organ scale. Habitat strongly influenced gill and gut microbiota. In contrast, microbiota associated with remaining tissues was similar between group individuals suggesting that these communities are mostly autochthonous, i.e., Manila clam specific. Transplant experiment showed that improving living condition did not induce any change in microbiota associated with remaining tissues. In contrast, the reduction in individual habitat quality led to individuals in declining health as strongly suggested by the increase in phagocytosis activity and decrease in condition index together with the change in internal organ microbiota. This study provides a first description of the Manila clam holobiont which can withstand disturbance and respond opportunistically to improved environmental conditions.

  13. Ambitious Philippine alternative energy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-07

    The Philippines is to spend $5.4 billion over the next ten years for the development of alternative sources of energy. These would include the development of fuel woods and other biomass, and the commercialization of a coconut/diesel-oil fuel. It is hoped that the Philippines' dependence on imported oil will be reduced from about 80% today to around 50% by the end of the decade.

  14. Ubiquitous Detection of Artificial Sweeteners and Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media in Aquatic Environmental and Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p < 0.001), suggesting that household wastewater is discharged directly into rivers in Vietnam. Acesulfame was frequently detected in northern Vietnamese groundwater, but the concentrations varied spatially by one order of magnitude even though the sampling points were very close together. This implies that poorly performing domestic septic tanks sporadically leak household wastewater into groundwater. High acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose concentrations were found in surface water from Manila, The Philippines. The sucralose concentrations were one order of magnitude higher in the Manila samples than in the Vietnamese samples, indicating that more sucralose is used in The Philippines than in Vietnam. Acesulfame and cyclamate were found in surface water from Pathein (rural) and Yangon (urban) in Myanmar, but no ICMs were found in the samples. The ASs concentrations were two-three orders of magnitude lower in the samples from Myanmar than in the samples from Vietnam and The Philippines, suggesting that different amounts of ASs are used in these countries. We believe this is the first report of persistent ASs and ICMs having ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries.

  15. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huifeng; Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology. Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however, little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology. Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, we found that hypotaurine, malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills, while alanine, arginine, glutamate, succinate, 4-aminobutyrate, taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills. Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn, as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles, but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn. Therefore, we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution, whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  16. Environmental cadmium exposure impacts physiological responses in Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Jian; Xu, Xian; Wang, Hua; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-06-01

    The physiological responses of marine bivalves to chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure at sub-lethal concentrations have been well documented. As of now, few studies have examined the effect of Cd exposure and subsequent recovery period at environmentally realistic concentrations. In this study, environmentally, Cd exposures were performed to assess the physiological responses of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The clams were exposed to waterborne Cd at two environmentally realistic concentrations (4 and 40 μg L(-1)) for 35 days and then allowed to recover for another 35 days. The accumulation and elimination of Cd in R. philippinarum were tissue-specific and dose- and time-dependent. Cd accumulation increased sharply in the digestive gland, and Cd elimination was rapid in the gill. Major physiological responses, including clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, oxygen to nitrogen ratio, and scope for growth, were significantly affected by Cd exposure. Yet, the clams exposed to 4-μg L(-1) Cd were able to quickly recover their normal physiological processes and clearly exhibited catch-up growth once they were transferred to clean seawater. Hence, R. philippinarum can exhibit good physiological plasticity when confronted with moderately environmental Cd exposure. All physiological responses measured exhibited a highly significant and generally predictable correlation with tissue Cd concentration, which in turn, reflected environmentally realistic exposure conditions. Our results further confirm that the measurement of physiological responses is a sensitive method for assessing stress at environmentally realistic metal concentrations.

  17. Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Suplido, M L; Ong, C N

    2000-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were determined in 40 battery repair/recycling shop workers, 16 radiator repair shop workers, and 20 children living in the immediate vicinity of these shops. Unexposed residents with similar socioeconomic status were also investigated. Mean PbB level was significantly higher for battery workers (54.23 microg/dL) when compared to radiator workers (20.04 microg/dL) and unexposed adults (12.56 microg/dL) (P<0.001). Among battery workers, 94% had PbB levels above the WHO permissible exposure limit of 40 microg/dL for males and 30 microg/dL for females. There was no demarcation between workplace and living quarters; therefore, workers' families were similarly exposed to hazards. Children living in the immediate vicinity of battery shops also had significantly higher mean PbB levels (49.88 microg/dL) compared to radiator shop children (11.84 microg/dL) and unexposed children (9.92 microg/dL). For workers with PbB > 40 microg/dL, 90% were anemic (Hb < 13 g/dL for males and <11.5 g/dL for females). Linear regression showed a correlation (r=-0.214; P=0.03) between Hb level and log(10)PbB. There was no significant relationship between anemia and blood lead in children (r=-0.146). We conclude that radiator repair activities appeared to increase the body burden of lead, although not up to a level significantly different from unexposed counterparts. Battery recycling/repair activities, however, significantly increased blood lead levels in workers and their children.

  18. Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Suplido, M.L.; Ong, C.N.

    2000-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were determined in 40 battery repair/recycling shop workers, 16 radiator repair shop workers, and 20 children living in the immediate vicinity of these shops. Unexposed residents with similar socio-economic status were also investigated. Mean PbB level was significantly higher for battery workers when compared to radiator workers and unexposed adults. Among battery workers, 94% had PbB levels above the WHO permissible exposure limit of 40 {micro}g/dL for males and 30 {micro}g/dL for females. There was no demarcation between workplace and living quarters; therefore, workers' families were similarly exposed to hazards. Children living in the immediate vicinity of battery shops also had significantly higher mean PbB levels compared to radiator shop children and unexposed children. For workers with PbB > 40 {micro}g/dL, 90% were anemic. Linear regression showed a correlation between Hb level and log{sub 10}PbB. There was no significant relationship between anemia and blood lead in children. The authors conclude that radiator repair activities appeared to increase the body burden of lead, although not up to a level significantly different from unexposed counterparts. Battery recycling/repair activities, however, significantly increased blood lead levels in workers and their children.

  19. Pacific Armies Management Seminar (5th) Held at Manila, Republic of the Philippines on 16-20 November 1981. Addendum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    are assigned a quality group depending on their educational and physical criteria, namely, highest Educational Standard passes, medical status, colour ...combat oriented, and the eighth largest standing army in the world. It has about 22 brigade size units and 8 combat divisions. ./ The Army Reserve...past the 6-7-8 year mark, he’s going to seek 20 years ser- vice becauselthere is something at the "end of the rainbow ." But, when he reaches 20 years

  20. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41 Section 3.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  1. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41 Section 3.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  2. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41 Section 3.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  3. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41 Section 3.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  4. Seismic Structure Beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, S. H.; Gung, Y.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Lin, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The very active Taal Volcano is situated 60 km south of Metro Manila in the southern part of Luzon Island. Based on its frequent explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of several million, Taal Volcano is chosen as one of the 15 most dangerous "Decade Volcanoes" in the world. We deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of 8 stations since March 2008. The temporal network was operated from late March 2008 to mid March 2010 and recorded over 2270 local earthquakes. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified from ambient noise cross-correlation functions for a number of stations. The drifting rates of all problematic stations were determined as references to correct timing errors prior to further processing. Initial locations of earthquakes were determined from manually picking P- and S-phases arrivals with a general velocity model based on AK135. We used travel times of 305 well-located local events to derive a minimum 1-D model using VELEST. Two major earthquake groups were noticed from refined locations. One was underneath the western shore of Taal Lake with a linear feature, and the other spread at shallower depths showing a less compact feature around the eastern flank of Taal Volcano Island. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal Volcano using a well-established algorithm, LOTOS. Some interesting features are noted in the tomographic results, such as a probable solidified past magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal Volcano Island, characterized by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a potential large hydrothermal reservoir beneath the central of Taal Volcano Island, characterized by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Combining the results of seismicity and tomographic images, we also suggest the potential existence of a magma chamber beneath the southwestern Taal Lake, and a magma conduit or fault extending from there to the

  5. The street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life periodontal infection: description of a treatment modality: sea salt.

    PubMed

    Michel, J F; Michel, M G; Nadan, J; Nowzari, H

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life oral infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a sea-salt mouthrinse solution in street children of Manila affected by mild to severe forms of periodontal disease. These children were all in need of special protection: abandoned, abused, exploited, neglected, orphaned, poor. During 3 oral-health missions in 2003, 2004 and 2005, 617 abandoned children (5 to 13 year-old), received oral examination at a non-sectarian child-caring institution in Metro Manila (Virlanie Foundation) by calibrated examiners. A treatment based on what could be done was proposed: 1. Teaching of a precise tooth brushing technique with sea-salt, controlled and reinforced every two days for one week by calibrated health educators, 2. The application of sea-salt water mouthrinse (2.5 gram in 20 ml). Periodontal measurements were repeated at the end of each mission. All children returned to child-caring institution for the followup examinations. In 2003, 10 male and 11 female (n=21) were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis. In 2009 and 2010, none was affected by aggressive periodontitis. For all patients, the gingival index decreased from 1.08 at the first mission to 1.04 at the end of the second mission and 0.98 at the end of the third mission. The periodontal index decreased from 1.33 at the first mission to 0.98 at the second mission and 0.92 at the last mission. The present investigation confirms that prevention and early diagnosis can result in success with minimum cost. The provided oral health program empowered street children in the most desperate circumstances to be educated and become self-reliant, independent, and responsible. We propose here an antimicrobial approach which has a high degree of efficacy and tolerability, and can be implemented in virtually all parts of the world using low-cost resources.

  6. Spanish Jesuits in the Philippines: geophysical research and synergies between science, education and trade, 1865-1898.

    PubMed

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2014-10-01

    In 1865, Spanish Jesuits founded the Manila Observatory, the earliest of the Far East centres devoted to typhoon and earthquake studies. Also on Philippine soil and under the direction of the Jesuits, in 1884 the Madrid government inaugurated the first Meteorological Service in the Spanish Kingdom, and most probably in the Far East. Nevertheless, these achievements not only went practically unnoticed in the historiography of science, but neither does the process of geophysical dissemination that unfolded fit in with the two types of transmitter of knowledge identified by historians in the missionary diffusion of the exact sciences in colonial contexts. Rather than regarding science as merely a stimulus to their functionary and missionary tasks, Spanish Jesuits used their overseas posting to produce and publish original research--feature that would place them within the typology of the 'seeker' rather than the 'functionary' (in stark contrast to what the standard typology sustains). This paper also analyses examples of synergies between science, education and trade, which denotes, inter alia, the existence of a broad and solid educational structure in the Manila Mission that sustained the strength of research enterprise.

  7. High virulence in hamsters of four dominant Leptospira serovars isolated from rats in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Saito, Mitsumasa; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Segawa, Takaya; Baterna, Rubelia A; Chakraborty, Antara; Asoh, Tatsuma; Miyahara, Satoshi; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Cavinta, Lolita L; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the pathogenicity of four dominant Leptospira isolates prevailing among rats in the Philippines. The isolates were Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae strain K64, L. interrogans serovar Losbanos strain K37, L. interrogans serovar Ratnapura strain K5 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Javanica strain K6. Pathogenicities were studied using hamsters, which reproduce severe human leptospirosis. The minimum lethal doses were 10(0) ( = 1) leptospires for K64, K37 and K5, and 10(1) leptospires for K6. Weight loss amongst the Leptospira-infected hamsters was observed from 1 day before death (K64-, K37- and K5-infected hamsters) to as much as 1 week before death for K6-infected hamsters. Similar and varied gross and microscopic lesions were observed amongst infected hamsters, even for strains belonging to the same species (i.e. L. interrogans). The most significant and common histopathological findings were congestion of the glomerulus, disarrangement of hepatic cords and erythrophagocytosis. Other findings were foamy splenic macrophages for K6, severe petechial pulmonary haemorrhage for K64, and hematuria and severe pulmonary congestion for K37. Immunostaining and culture revealed the presence of leptospires in different organs of the infected hamsters. Based on these results, Leptospira isolates from rats in the Philippines were shown to be highly virulent, causing pulmonary haemorrhage, severe hepato-renal damage and death in hamsters even at lower doses. The present findings on experimental leptospirosis support clinical data showing that patients with severe manifestations of leptospirosis, such as pulmonary haemorrhage, are increasing in the Philippines. These findings may serve as a basis to strengthen the early diagnosis and treatment of human leptospirosis.

  8. Typologies of Risk and Protection in the Lives of Filipino Street Children in Manila

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sta. Maria, Madelene A.; Martinez, Carmelo L.; Diestro, Jose Maria A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group discussions with the youth living and working in the streets of Manila as well as interviews with key informants involved in intervention programs for these youth reveal several ways by which the youth may be protected from engaging in problem behaviors in and out of the streets. Findings reveal that conditions which promote the…

  9. Effect of epinephrine on the settlement and metamorphosis of Manila clam larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sumin; Bao, Zhenmin; Liu, Hui; Fang, Jianguang

    2006-04-01

    Chemical inducement and DDRT-PCR (differential display reverse transcription PCR) are adopted to investigate the effect of epinephrine (EPI) on the settlement and metamorphosis of Manila clam larvae. Chemical inducement shows that EPI has an effect to some extent on the metamorphosis of Manila clam larvae at all concentrations and in all treatments designed. The most significant result of inducement is obtained at the concentration of 10-6 mol L-1 and for 4h. DDRT-PCR using six primer pairs shows that the gene expression pattern is quite different between EPI treatment and the control. Three hundred and forty-three amplification bands are obtained in total, among which, 67 (19.53%) are differentially appeared. Therefore, EPI has an effect on the gene expression of the eye spot larval Manila clam. It can be hypothesized that EPI is a settlement and metamorphosis inducer for Manila clam. EPI may lead to larvae settlement and metamorphosis by binding to the receptors on the membrane and then changing the gene expression of larvae cells.

  10. Alcohol and Hospitalized Road Traffic Injuries in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Lydia R.; Ruiz, Roberto Andres Llanes

    2014-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 1.24 million deaths due to road traffic injuries, the majority of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Since 2008, 35 countries have passed legislation to implement road safety strategies. However, many countries have yet to pass comprehensive legislation while others lack adequate enforcement of current policies. The annual global mortality rate due to road trauma remains unacceptably high and reflects the need for governments to prioritize the passage and implementation of road safety legislation. Alcohol is a leading risk factor for road trauma globally and the leading cause of death and disability in the Western Pacific region. Despite the overwhelming evidence that strict enforcement of drunk-driving policies can lead to a drastic reduction in alcohol-related road incidents, many countries in the Western Pacific lack sufficient data that could facilitate the design of appropriate drunk-driving interventions. This paper provides an analysis of the current status of policies and attitudes related to alcohol and road injuries throughout the Western Pacific region, with a specific focus on the Philippines. Following the passage of drunk-driving legislation in 2013, a medical records review of alcohol-related road trauma patients in Manila Doctors Hospital was conducted. The findings of this pilot project further highlight the pervasive problem of missing or unreliable data regarding alcohol’s role in road trauma. Assessing the burden of drunk driving is an important step in designing effective interventions and systematically changing attitudes about driving under the influence. PMID:25191146

  11. Terrane amalgamation in the Philippine Sea margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robert; Nichols, Gary J.

    1990-09-01

    The Philippine Sea plate includes plateaus of thickened crust interpreted as imbricated ophiolite and arc-related terranes of late Mesozoic-early Tertiary age separated by thinner oceanic crust. The arrival of plateaus at the subducting southwest margin of the Philippine Sea plate has caused the Philippine Trench to propagate southward in increments and caused transfer of terranes to the Philippine margin. New data from the Halmahera region indicate that the position, nature and evolution of plate boundaries have been strongly influenced by the heterogeneous character of the Philippine Sea plate. At present the Philippine Trench terminates at an oceanic plateau which is structurally continuous with an old forearc and ophiolite terrane on Halmahera. The position of this terrane has caused Philippine Sea plate-Eurasia convergence to be transferred from subduction at the Philippine Trench to the Molucca Sea Collision Zone through a broad NE-SW dextral transpressional zone across Halmahera. This plate boundary configuration is unstable and requires the future development of a new subduction zone to the east of Halmahera which will result in amalgamation of the Halmahera ophiolite terrane to the Philippine margin. In the Halmahera region amalgamation of terranes to the evolving Philippine microcontinent is currently in process.

  12. Anti-Communist Vigilantes in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    Ocean." 20 July 1925 Indonesian Communist Leader Tan Malaka, alias Elias Fuentes , arrived In Manila on board the SS Empress of Russia along with 5 or...and Cirilo Bugnot attended Profintern Conference held in Moscow. 26 August 1930 Sixty (60) labor delegates met at the Templo del Trabajo to set up the

  13. Going green: Metro Health starts health commune.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Taking on a total rebranding and environmentally friendly overhaul, Metro Health looks forward as it moves into a new facility. Incorporating green building details, Metro is managing environmental impact to improve its future in its Grand Rapids, MI, community.

  14. Philippine-U.S. relations: The Impasse over Basing American Forces in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-20

    of domination by foreign powers. Many believe this has kept the Philippines from reaching its full potential. Ferdinand Magellan first visited the...between the U.S. and the Philippines in August 1952. Ferdinand Marcos became President of the Philippines in 1965 and continually suppressed Muslim

  15. Stroke education in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Baroque, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K

    2013-10-01

    Education is paramount in effectively reducing the significant burden of stroke in the Philippines. Dedicated academic institutions and dynamic professional organizations in the Philippines have collaborated to involve themselves in the plight against stroke through systematic curriculum development for undergraduates, continuous regulation of quality residency and fellowship training program, hosting up-to-date Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities for local and international audience, and active participation in clinical stroke trials. Most recently, the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Medicine & Surgery and the Department of Neurology & Psychiatry offered a 72-hour Certification Course in Stroke Medicine that commenced in 2011 in anticipation of the Master on Health Sciences in Stroke Medicine course being prepared for 2013.

  16. Communist Insurgency in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    orders came to the country and acquired large tracts of land. Insurgency in the Philippines had its roots during the Spanish rule when the encomienda ...system was established in 1570. The encomienda system was an arrangement for collecting tribute from a group of native Filipinos placed under the...encomendero who had the responsibility to provide temporal and spiritual welfare to the people in his encomienda . The 2 john Leddy Phelan, The

  17. The Philippines geothermal success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsic, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    Geothermal electrical plants currently in operation in the Philippines are presented. Following a brief review of the geographical and energy situation of the nation, attention is given to the first 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi Geothermal Electric Plant, which commenced operation in January 1979, the portable 3,000-kE Leyte Geothermal Pilot Plant, which commenced operation in July, 1977 as the first geothermal power plant in the country, the Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant, the first 55,000-kW unit of which began operation in May, 1979 and the second 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi plant, which came into service in June, 1979, thus making the Philippines the fourth largest producer of geothermal electricity in the world. Factors favoring the use of geothermal plants in developing nations are pointed out, including low capital costs, no foreign exchange costs for fuel, small units, and little environmental impact, and the start-up of two more plants, the second 55,000-kW unit at Mak-Ban in September 1979 and the third Tiwi unit in January 1980, are noted. It is predicted that in 1981, when the Philippines is expected to become the largest user of geothermal energy from hot-water fields, it will have a total capacity of 552 MW from the Mak-Ban, Tiwi and Leyte sites. Further areas with geothermal potential are also pointed out.

  18. Collection-based analysis of selected medical libraries in the Philippines using Doody’s Core Titles

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Efren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the book collection of five selected medical libraries in the Philippines, based on Doodys’ Essential Purchase List for basic sciences and clinical medicine, to compare the match and non-match titles among libraries, to determine the strong and weak disciplines of each library, and to explore the factors that contributed to the percentage of match and non-match titles. Method List checking was employed as the method of research. Results Among the medical libraries, De La Salle Health Sciences Institute and University of Santo Tomas had the highest percentage of match titles, whereas Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health had the lowest percentage of match titles. University of the Philippines Manila had the highest percentage of near-match titles. Conclusion De La Salle Health Sciences Institute and University of Santo Tomas had sound medical collections based on Doody’s Core Titles. Collectively, the medical libraries shared common collection development priorities, as evidenced by similarities in strong areas. Library budget and the role of the library director in book selection were among the factors that could contribute to a high percentage of match titles. PMID:28096742

  19. Battle of Manila: Offensive, Deliberate Attack, MOUT, January-February 1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    facilities, secure the central plain, and capture the city of Manila. With the exception of stiff resistance in the Cabaruan Hills and around Clark Field...military traffic. North of the Pasig, many streets were narrow and not much better than alleys. Streets traversed in all directions from central plaza...the mountains and few routes of entry from the * central Luzon plains. As reported earlier, General Yamishita EtrLIctured his forces into three groups

  20. The Philippine "Hip Hop Stick Dance"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a dance that blends the traditional cultural heritage of the Philippines with modern music and moves. "Hip Hop Stick Dance" incorporates Tinikling (the Philippine national dance) and Arnis (a Filipino style of martial arts) to create a contemporary combination of rhythm, dance, and fitness. It was designed to introduce…

  1. Drama-in-Schools in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pañares, Alice A.; Cabangon, Maria Gloriosa S.

    2016-01-01

    Drama in the Philippines has been an integral part of the lives of Filipinos. Drama-in-schools came about with the establishment of the formal school system during the Spanish and American period of colonisation of the Philippines. With the establishment of the public schools system, the American teachers introduced drama in the schools, as part…

  2. Transcriptomic responses to low temperature stress in the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongtao; Jiang, Liwen; Huo, Zhongming; Liu, Lianhui; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2016-08-01

    The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is an economically important shellfish in marine aquaculture, with a broad thermal tolerance. The ability to cope with cold stress is quite important for the survival of aquatic species under natural conditions. A cold-tolerant clam that can survive the winter at temperatures below 0 °C might extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of the Manila clam to cold stress (-1 °C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. The transcriptomes of a cold-treatment (O) group of clams, which survived under cold stress, and the control group (OC2), which was not subjected to cold stress, were sequenced with the Illumina HiSeq platform. In all, 148,593 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 1760 unigenes were up regulated and 2147 unigenes were down regulated in the O group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, mitochondrial metabolism, cellular component organization or biogenesis, and energy production processes were the most highly enriched pathways among the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following biological functions in the cold-tolerant Manila clam: signal response to cold stress, antioxidant response, cell proliferation, and energy production.

  3. Infection of Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum from Galicia (NW Spain) with a Mikrocytos-like parasite.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; Iglesias, David; Abollo, Elvira; González, Mar; Darriba, Susana; Villalba, Antonio

    2014-07-24

    The name 'microcells' is frequently used to refer to small-sized unicellular stages of molluscan parasites of the genera Bonamia (Rhizaria, Haplosporidia) and Mikrocytos (Rhizaria). Histological examination of Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum revealed microcells in the connective tissue of adductor muscle, foot, mantle, gills, siphon and visceral mass. The clams had been collected from 4 beds on the coast of Galicia, Spain. The prevalence of these microcells ranged from 73 to 93% in surface clams and from 3 to 33% in buried clams. However, the detection of brown ring disease signs in clams from every bed prevented us from making the assumption that the microcells alone were responsible for clam mortality. PCR assays using primer pairs designed to detect Bonamia spp. and haplosporidians gave negative results, whereas positive results were obtained with primers for the genus Mikrocytos. A consensus sequence of 1670 bp of the ribosomal gene complex of the microcells was obtained. It contained a section of the 18S region, the whole first internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S region, the second internal transcribed spacer and a section of the 28S region. Comparison of this sequence with those of M. mackini infecting Crassostrea gigas and Mikrocytos sp. infecting Ostrea edulis showed that the microcells of Galician clams were the most divergent among the compared parasites. This is the first report of a Mikrocytos-like parasite infecting Manila clams. Care must be taken to avoid the spread of this parasite through Manila clam transfers.

  4. Quantitative Study of Seismogenic Potential Along Manila Trench: Effects of Scaborough Seamount Chain Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Liu, Y.; Li, D.; Ning, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shibazaki, B.; Hsu, Y. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern seismicity record along the Manila Trench shows only infrequent Mw7 earthquakes, the lack of great earthquakes may indicate the subduction fault is either aseismically slipping or is accumulating strain energy toward rapid release in a megathrust earthquake. We conduct numerical simulations of the plate coupling, earthquake nucleation and dynamic rupture propagation processes along the Manila subduction fault (15-19.5ºN), taking into consideration the effects of plate geometry (including subducted seamounts), fault strength, rate-state frictional properties and pore pressure variations. Specifically, we use the bathymetry to depict the outline of Manila trench along its strike, 2681 background seismicity (1970/02/13 to 2013/09/06) from Chinese Earthquake Network Center and 540 focal mechanism solutions (1976/01/01 to 2013/01/27) from Global CMT project to constrain the geometry of the subducting Sunda/Eurasian slab. The compilation of seismicity and focal mechanism indicates the plate dipping angle gradually changes from 28º (south of the Scaborough Seamount Chain) to 12º (north of it). This geometric anomaly may due to the subducted part of the seamount chain. Preliminary modeling results using gabbro gouge friction data show that the Scaborough Seamount Chain could be a barrier to earthquake rupture propagation. Only earthquakes larger than Mw7 can overcome the barrier to rupture the entire Manila trench. Smaller earthquakes would cease rupturing when it encounters the seamount chain. Moreover, we propose that Manila trench subduction zone has the potential of rupturing in a Mw8 megathrust earthquake, if the simulation period is long enough for an Mw8 earthquake cycle and dynamic rupture overcomes the subducted Scaborough Seamount Chain. Our model parameters will be further constrained by laboratory rock mechanics experiments conducted on IODP Expedition 349, South China Sea (SCS), drilling samples (work in progress at China Earthquake Administration

  5. Seasonal variation of metals in seawater, sediment, and Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Yuan; Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As) were determined for the first time in seawater, sediment, and Manila clam from Deer Island, Liaoning Province, China. The seawater, sediment, and clam samples were collected seasonally at three clam farming sites around Deer Island during 2010-2011. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the seawater samples were 4.16, 0.72, 5.88, 0.45, 2.51, 0.03, and 1.02 μg/l, respectively. The seasonal variations of trace metals in seawater showed a significant difference in the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, and As among seasons. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the sediment samples were 6.43, 13.80, 53.08, 1.10, 36.40, 0.05, and 4.78 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in sediment seasonally varied significantly except for Cd and Hg. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the clam samples were 11.28, 0.61, 92.50, 0.58, 3.98, 0.03, and 1.98 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and As in Manila clam showed marked seasonal fluctuations with significant difference. Cu and Zn were the metals with the highest mean biosediment accumulation factor values in Manila clam. Besides, significant correlations for the concentrations of Cu and Zn relative to their concentrations in sediment were also found. Such differences in regression analyzes may be explained by differential bioaccumulation of essential and xenobiotic metals. Concentrations of trace metals in Manila clam did not exceed the maximum established regulatory concentrations for human consumption. Moreover, the calculations revealed that the estimated daily intake values for the examined clam samples were below the internationally accepted dietary guidelines and the calculated hazard quotient values were well less than 1, thus strongly indicating that health risk associated with the intake studied metals through the consumption

  6. Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    On June 15, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded in the second largest volcanic eruption on Earth this century. This eruption deposited more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of volcanic ash and rock fragments on the volcano's slopes. Within hours, heavy rains began to wash this material down into the surrounding lowlands in giant, fast-moving mudflows called lahars. In the next four rainy seasons, lahars carried about half of the deposits off the volcano, causing even more destruction in the lowlands than the eruption itself.

  7. The Philippines: a public awakening.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L D

    1990-01-01

    This is the last of a set of three articles concerning "bioethics on the Pacific Rim." In his discussion of bioethical issues in the Philippines, de Castro focuses primarily on: (a) the impact of Roman Catholicism on the public debate over topics such as abortion, contraception, and population policy, and (b) the issue of justice in the allocation of the country's inadequate health resources. He notes progress on two fronts: recently enacted legislation regulating physician prescribing practices will improve access by the poor to prescription drugs, and national guidelines on biomedical research provide for the establishment of a National Ethics Committee dominated by nonphysicians.

  8. The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the volcanic unrest at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines began when steam explosions occurred on April 2, 1991. The unrest culminated ten weeks later in the world's largest eruption in more than half a century. 

  9. Insurgency: A Formidable Threat to Philippine Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    chronicled the existence of a home-grown agrarian slave-serf- tenant system that resembled patterns found in Medieval Europe. When Magellan landed in...PHILIPPINES UNDER MARCOS No other President has had as much impact on the Philippines as President Ferdinand E. Marcos. Elected as president in 1965 he...The University Press of Hawaii, p. 79.) CHAPTER IV 1. Ferdinand E. Marcos, Proclamation 1081, dtd 21 September 1972. 2. Ibid. 3. Raymond Bonner

  10. Exploring the effects of seasonality and chemical pollution on the hepatopancreas transcriptome of the Manila clam.

    PubMed

    Milan, Massimo; Ferraresso, Serena; Ciofi, Claudio; Chelazzi, Guido; Carrer, Claudio; Ferrari, Giorgio; Pavan, Lino; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of marine environmental health is a complex but fundamental task both for ecosystem conservation and food safety related to the human consumption of marine products. Manila clams inhabiting the Venice Lagoon constitute an excellent case study for evaluating the effects of complex mixtures of industrial and urban effluents on aquatic organisms. Clams were collected in different seasons at four locations within the Venice Lagoon. The sampling sites were characterized by a range of pollutant concentrations and included Porto Marghera, a highly polluted industrial area where clam harvesting for human consumption is strictly forbidden. Pooled soft tissues were subjected to mass spectroscopy analysis to measure the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs-DL, PCBs, PBDEs, HCB and PAHs, and pooled digestive gland samples were used for gene expression profiling. While seasonal variation was found to be responsible for the largest proportion of transcriptional changes, significance analysis of microarrays quantitative correlation analysis identified 162 transcripts that were correlated with at least one class of chemicals measured in the samples from the four different sampling sites. Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) identified a minimal set of seven genes that correctly assigned samples collected in the restricted polluted area (Porto Marghera), independent of the season in which they were collected. An integrated approach combining transcriptomics and chemical analyses of the Manila clam provided a global picture of how Manila clams respond to complex mixtures of xenobiotics and their interplay with other biotic and abiotic factors. We were also able to identify gene expression signatures for different classes of chemicals and a set of robust biomarkers of exposure to these chemicals.

  11. Larval and juvenile growth performance of Manila clam hybrids of two full-sib families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Zhao, Liqiang; Liang, Jian; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine whether growth performance could be improved by hybridizing full-sib families of Manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum), crosses between two full-sib families including self and reciprocal crosses were carried out. The effects of heterosis, combining ability and interaction on the growth of shell length were estimated. The results showed that the growth of hybrid larvae was intermediate between parents on days 6 and 9. Heterosis on shell length was observed, which varied at juvenile stage. The cross of ♂A × ♀B ( Hp varied between 10.41% and 68.27%) displayed larger heterosis than ♂B × ♀A ( Hp varied between 1.89% and 32.33%) did, suggesting that ♂A × ♀B was an ideal hatchery method of improving the growth performance of Manila clam. The variances of general combining ability (GCA), special combining ability (SCA) and interaction (I) were significant in shell length (P < 0.05), indicating that both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important contributors to the growth of larvae and juveniles. The GCA for shell length of ♂A × ♀B was higher than that of ♂B × ♀A at both larval and juvenile stages. This confirmed that the cross between ♂A and ♀B showed great growth in shell length. In summary, the growth of Manila clam seeds could be improved by hybridizing selected parents from large numbers of full-sib families.

  12. Cloud Base Height Measurements at Manila Observatory: Initial Results from Constructed Paired Sky Imaging Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrosas, N.; Tan, F.; Antioquia, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Fabricated all sky imagers are efficient and cost effective instruments for cloud detection and classification. Continuous operation of this instrument can result in the determination of cloud occurrence and cloud base heights for the paired system. In this study, a fabricated paired sky imaging system - consisting two commercial digital cameras (Canon Powershot A2300) enclosed in weatherproof containers - is developed in Manila Observatory for the purpose of determining cloud base heights at the Manila Observatory area. One of the cameras is placed on the rooftop of Manila Observatory and the other is placed on the rooftop of the university dormitory, 489m from the first camera. The cameras are programmed to simultaneously gather pictures every 5 min. Continuous operation of these cameras were implemented since the end of May of 2014 but data collection started end of October 2013. The data were processed following the algorithm proposed by Kassianov et al (2005). The processing involves the calculation of the merit function that determines the area of overlap of the two pictures. When two pictures are overlapped, the minimum of the merit function corresponds to the pixel column positions where the pictures have the best overlap. In this study, pictures of overcast sky prove to be difficult to process for cloud base height and were excluded from processing. The figure below shows the initial results of the hourly average of cloud base heights from data collected from November 2013 to July 2014. Measured cloud base heights ranged from 250m to 1.5km. These are the heights of cumulus and nimbus clouds that are dominant in this part of the world. Cloud base heights are low in the early hours of the day indicating low convection process during these times. However, the increase in the convection process in the atmosphere can be deduced from higher cloud base heights in the afternoon. The decrease of cloud base heights after 15:00 follows the trend of decreasing solar

  13. A theoretical individual-based model of Brown Ring Disease in Manila clams, Venerupis philippinarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Christine; Jean, Fred; Ford, Susan E.; Powell, Eric N.; Klinck, John M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    An individual-based mathematical model was developed to investigate the biological and environmental interactions that influence the prevalence and intensity of Brown Ring Disease (BRD), a disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tapetis, in the Manila clam (Venerupis (= Tapes, = Ruditapes) philippinarum). V. tapetis acts as an external microparasite, adhering at the surface of the mantle edge and its secretion, the periostracal lamina, causing the symptomatic brown deposit. Brown Ring Disease is atypical in that it leaves a shell scar that provides a unique tool for diagnosis of either live or dead clams. The model was formulated using laboratory and field measurements of BRD development in Manila clams, physiological responses of the clam to the pathogen, and the physiology of V. tapetis, as well as theoretical understanding of bacterial disease progression in marine shellfish. The simulation results obtained for an individual Manila clam were expanded to cohorts and populations using a probability distribution that prescribed a range of variability for parameters in a three dimensional framework; assimilation rate, clam hemocyte activity rate (the number of bacteria ingested per hemocyte per day), and clam calcification rate (a measure of the ability to recover by covering over the symptomatic brown ring deposit), which sensitivity studies indicated to be processes important in determining BRD prevalence and intensity. This approach allows concurrent simulation of individuals with a variety of different physiological capabilities (phenotypes) and hence by implication differing genotypic composition. Different combinations of the three variables provide robust estimates for the fate of individuals with particular characteristics in a population that consists of mixtures of all possible combinations. The BRD model was implemented using environmental observations from sites in Brittany, France, where Manila clams routinely exhibit BRD signs. The simulated

  14. Satellite data for Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur city growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    This data article presents satellite data related to city growth of Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur cities. The data were collected from NASA and USGS websites. A method has been developed for city built-up density from city center to outward till 50 km by using satellite data. These data sets consists three decade Landsat images. A detailed description is given to show how to use this data to produce urban growth maps. The urban growth maps have been used to know the changes and growth pattern in the Southeast Asia Cities.

  15. Satellite data for Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur city growth analysis

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This data article presents satellite data related to city growth of Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur cities. The data were collected from NASA and USGS websites. A method has been developed for city built-up density from city center to outward till 50 km by using satellite data. These data sets consists three decade Landsat images. A detailed description is given to show how to use this data to produce urban growth maps. The urban growth maps have been used to know the changes and growth pattern in the Southeast Asia Cities. PMID:27222856

  16. Bragg fiber design for transparent metro networks.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bishnu; Dasgupta, Sonali; Shenoy, M

    2005-01-24

    A Bragg fiber design with potential for applications in metro networks is proposed for the first time. The average dispersion of the designed fiber is 10 ps/km.nm in the C-band, and in view of its estimated loss being very low, such a Bragg fiber should enable ultra low-loss DWDM transmission over 100 km at 10 Gbits/s. A Bragg fiber based metro network is an attractive proposition because it would not require any amplifier and dispersion compensator for distances approximately 100 km. This should significantly reduce installation and operational cost, and complexity of a metro network.

  17. Molecular diversity and evolution of defensins in the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Linbao; Yang, Dinglong; Yu, Qian; Li, Fei; Cong, Ming; Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Zhao, Jianmin

    2015-11-01

    Four types of defensins were identified in Manila clam and designated as Rpdef1, Rpdef2, Rpdef3 and Rpdef4, which encoded a polypeptide of 49, 46, 45 and 42 amino acids, respectively. Sequence alignments indicated that Rpdef1 shared 46.9% identity with Rpdef2, 40.8% with Rpdef3, and 34.7% with Rpdef4. Analysis of transcript polymorphism showed that Rpdef3 accounted for about 60% frequency of Rpdefs occurrence in clams from three geographic origins (Dalian, Qingdao and Hangzhou). By quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, the transcripts of Rpdefs were mainly detected in hemocytes and they responded sensitively to bacterial challenge in hemocytes. Evolutionary analysis indicated that all Rpdefs were under positive selection with positively selected basic amino acid residues detected in the C-terminal regions, which perhaps have a functional relevance by modifying the charge distribution of Rpdefs. The results also showed some lineages with dN/dS > 1, suggesting positive selection pressures existed in some lineages of phylogeny tree constructed by mollusk defensins. Overall, our results suggest that Rpdefs perhaps played important roles in host defense and positive selection is the major driving force in generating high diversity of defensins in the Manila clam.

  18. Population genetics of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) introduced in North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Cordero, David; Delgado, Marina; Liu, Baozhong; Ruesink, Jennifer; Saavedra, Carlos

    2017-01-03

    Globally, the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) stands as the second most important bivalve species in fisheries and aquaculture. Native to the Pacific coast of Asia, it is now well-established in North America and Europe, where its on-going management reflects local economic interests. The historic record of transfers spans the 20(th) century and suggests sequential movement from Japan to North America, as a hitch-hiker on oysters, and then intentional introduction in Europe, but global genetic data are missing. We have studied mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers in nine populations from Asia, North America and Europe. The results from the two types of markers indicated a good concordance of present-day genetic structure with the reported history of clam transfers across continents, and no evidence of relevant concealed introductions from continental Asia in Europe and North America. However, European populations showed a loss of genetic variability and significant genetic differentiation as compared to their American counterparts. Our study shows that in spite of the increasing ease for species to spread out of their native range, in the case of the Manila clam this has not resulted in new invasion waves in the two studied continents.

  19. Population genetics of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) introduced in North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, David; Delgado, Marina; Liu, Baozhong; Ruesink, Jennifer; Saavedra, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) stands as the second most important bivalve species in fisheries and aquaculture. Native to the Pacific coast of Asia, it is now well-established in North America and Europe, where its on-going management reflects local economic interests. The historic record of transfers spans the 20th century and suggests sequential movement from Japan to North America, as a hitch-hiker on oysters, and then intentional introduction in Europe, but global genetic data are missing. We have studied mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers in nine populations from Asia, North America and Europe. The results from the two types of markers indicated a good concordance of present-day genetic structure with the reported history of clam transfers across continents, and no evidence of relevant concealed introductions from continental Asia in Europe and North America. However, European populations showed a loss of genetic variability and significant genetic differentiation as compared to their American counterparts. Our study shows that in spite of the increasing ease for species to spread out of their native range, in the case of the Manila clam this has not resulted in new invasion waves in the two studied continents. PMID:28045054

  20. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles <5 mm, are an emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems. Because microplastics are small, they are available to many filter-feeding organisms, which can then be consumed by higher trophic level organisms, including humans. This study documents the quantity of microplastics present in wild and cultured Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum). Three active shellfish farms and three reference beaches (i.e., non-shellfish farm sites) in Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region.

  1. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    PubMed Central

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  2. Clinical innovations in Philippine thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgery in the Philippines followed the development of thoracic surgery in the United States and Europe. With better understanding of the physiology of the open chest and refinements in thoracic anesthetic and surgical approaches, Filipino surgeons began performing thoracoplasties, then lung resections for pulmonary tuberculosis and later for lung cancer in specialty hospitals dealing with pulmonary diseases—first at the Quezon Institute (QI) and presently at the Lung Center of the Philippines although some university and private hospitals made occasional forays into the chest. Esophageal surgery began its early attempts during the post-World War II era at the Philippine General Hospital (PGH), a university hospital affiliated with the University of the Philippines. With the introduction of minimally invasive thoracic surgical approaches, Filipino thoracic surgeons have managed to keep up with their Asian counterparts although the problems of financial reimbursement typical of a developing country remain. The need for creative innovative approaches of a focused multidisciplinary team will advance the boundaries of thoracic surgery in the Philippines. PMID:27651936

  3. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Cañete, Socrates Jose P; Palad, Lorna Jean H; Enriquez, Eliza B; Garcia, Teofilo Y; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2008-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially (226)Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of (226)Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of (226)Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the (226)Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of (226)Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of (226)Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of (226)Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no (226)Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area.

  4. 20 CFR 422.130 - Claim procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Baltimore, MD 21203, or from the Veteran's Administration Regional Office, Manila, Philippines. See § 404... Social Security Administration, and the Veteran's Administration Regional Office, Manila,...

  5. 20 CFR 422.130 - Claim procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Baltimore, MD 21203, or from the Veteran's Administration Regional Office, Manila, Philippines. See § 404... Social Security Administration, and the Veteran's Administration Regional Office, Manila,...

  6. Typhoon Mitag Northeast of the Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Now downgraded to a tropical depression, Typhoon Mitag can be seen at full strength in this true-color image taken on March 6, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The green islands in the lower left-hand corner of the image are the Philippines. The typhoon, which formed to the south, moved northward late last week and skirted dangerously close to the Philippines before turning northwest and dissipating in the Philippine Sea late this week. On Monday, March 4, 2002, the typhoon bore sustained winds of 160 kilometers (99 miles) per hour and gusts of up to 195 kilometers (121 miles) per hour. On average, roughly 20 tropical storms and typhoons pass through this region of the Pacific Ocean each year. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Security Force Assistance in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    34 ~"ř’ "CHINA,..-’ South ChintJ Sea -1:!" Luzon’ Strait ". , 1;:’~ 󈧄 200km 100 200nri Philippine Sea Source: The Central Intelligence Agency, The...tactics. The central Philippine government was generally uninterested because it was preoccupied with economic crises and corruption. is Insurgent Moro...making them extremely adept with speed and " banca " boats.3o The ASG worked with Ramzi Yoesef, mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombings and

  8. The southern termination of the Philippine Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Gary; Hall, Robert; Milsom, John; Masson, Doug; Parson, Lindsay; Sikumbang, Nafrizal; Dwiyanto, Bambang; Kallagher, Helen

    1990-11-01

    Recent studies of the southern end of the Philippine Trench using GLORIA sidescan sonar and single channel seismic data and geological studies on the island of Halmahera suggest that the trench is in the process of propagating south and that some of the ESE-WNW convergence is transferred via a broad NE-SW zone of dextral strike-slip across northern Halmahera into the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. NE-SW ridges and lineaments on the seafloor can be traced into major faults and structural trends on land. The bathymetric expression of the Philippine Trench is lost where it meets an oceanic plateau on the Philippine Sea Plate. This elevated and probably thickened plateau appears to have inhibited any further propagation of the trench southwards. To the north of the plateau there is a well-developed accretionary prism, but to the south deformation of sediments on the seafloor is less intense. A prominent ridge, with sediments passively banked up against it marks the southern limit of deformation associated with the Philippine Trench. To the south lies the eastern Halmahera-Waigeo Ophiolite Terrane, an area of shallow water and islands underlain by ophiolitic basement between Halmahera and the Sorong Fault Zone. There are no bathymetric or structural features to indicate any form of active link between the Philippine Trench and the Sorong Fault through or along the northern side of this ophiolite terrane. There is no earthquake evidence for any form of fault linking the Philippine Trench to either the Palau Trench or the Sorong Fault, but there are numerous earthquake epicentres reported between the southern end of the trench and the Molucca Sea. The island of Halmahera is considered to lie in a diffuse boundary zone at the margin of the Philippine Sea Plate. Continued collision of the opposing arcs in the Molucca Sea will ultimately prevent further E-W convergence between Halmahera and Sulawesi. It is predicted that either the Philippine Trench will propagate south along

  9. The Politics of Pipes: The Persistence of Small Water Networks in Post-Privatization Manila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Deborah

    This project examines the politics of water provision in low-income areas of large, developing cities. In the last two decades, water privatization has become a global paradigm, emerging as a potential means for addressing the urban water crisis. In Manila, the site of the world's largest water privatization project, service to low-income areas has improved significantly in the post-privatization era. But whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges, in part, on the selective inclusion and exclusion of these smaller actors. Based on an ethnography of the private utilities and community-based providers, I use the persistence of small water networks as a lens for exploring the limits of water privatization in Manila. I focus on what I call micro-networks---community-built infrastructure that extends the formal, private utilities into low-income neighborhoods that the utilities do not wish to serve directly. In such a setup, the utility provides water only as far as the community boundary; beyond that, the micro-network operator constructs internal infrastructure, monitors for leakage and theft, and collects bills. But while these communities may gain access to safer water, they are also subject to higher costs and heightened disciplinary measures. By tracing the ways in which the utilities selectively use micro-networks to manage sub-populations, I show how the utilities make low-income spaces more governable. Delegating localized water management to micro-network operators depoliticizes the utilities' roles, shifting the sociopolitical difficulties of water provision to community organizations, while allowing the utilities to claim that these areas are served. This research leads to three related arguments. First, the persistence of small water networks highlights lingering inequities in access to water, for micro

  10. Assessment of immune parameters of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in different physiological conditions using flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Il; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2012-03-01

    Cellular and humoral immune parameters are often used as biomarkers to trace environmental and physiological stresses in marine bivalves. In this study, we compared various immune parameters of Manila clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) under normal conditions and under a high level of desiccation, using flow cytometry. The immune parameters analyzed included, total hemocyte count, hemocyte mortality, hemocyte DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and phagocytosis activity. Total hemocyte count, hemocyte DNA damage, and hemocyte mortality were significantly elevated among clams under high desiccation stress, while phagocytosis activity and spontaneous ROS production were significantly lower compared to those parameters of the control clams ( p<0.05). These data suggest that the immune parameters analyzed in this study well reflect the physiological status of clams.

  11. Brown muscle disease: impact on Manila clam Venerupis (=Ruditapes) philippinarum biology.

    PubMed

    Binias, Cindy; Gonzalez, Patrice; Provost, Margot; Lambert, Christophe; de Montaudouin, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the effect of Brown Muscle Disease (BMD) on Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum fitness. BMD was discovered in 2005. It affects the posterior adductor muscle and leads to clam gaping and eventually death. Three statuses of clams were compared: buried individuals with no signs of BMD (BUR); clams at the surface of the sediment with no signs of BMD (SURF) and clams at the surface of the sediment exhibiting signs of brown muscle disease (BMD). Physiological (condition index), immune (hemocyte parameters) and molecular (gene expressions) parameters collected seasonally were analyzed and compared. Results demonstrated a seasonal pattern in condition index (CI) with peaks in spring/summer and decreases in autumn/winter. At each season, the highest CI was observed in BUR and the lowest CI was observed in BMD. In terms of immune response, phagocytosis rate and capacity were higher in clams with BMD whereas the health status of the clams did not influence the total hemocyte count. Genes involved in the immune system (comp, tnf, inter) were upregulated in clams with BMD. The molecular analysis of gill and posterior muscle showed higher mitochondrial metabolism (cox-1, 16S) in cells of infected clams, suggesting a stronger energetic demand by these cells. Finally, genes involved in oxidative stress response (cat, sod), detoxification (mt) and DNA repair (gadd45) were also overexpressed due to reactive oxygen species production. Most of the studied parameters underlined a cause-effect correlation between Manila clam health status (BUR, SUR, BMD) and physiological parameters. An important stress response was observed in BMD-infected clams at different scales, i.e. condition index, immune parameters and stress-related gene expression.

  12. Zostera marina seed burial can be enhanced by Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum: A microcosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Jun; Li, Wen-Tao; Liu, Jianying; Zhang, Xiumei; Zhang, Peidong

    2017-03-01

    Seagrass seed bank plays a key role in the regeneration of new vegetation when seagrasses are removed by the natural or man-made disaster. Various factors may affect the development of sediment seed bank. We conducted a microcosm experiment to test the effects of burrowing and feeding activities of Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum on the burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediments. The effects of lasting time (3-hour, 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 14-day and 28-day), clam density (0, 2, 4 and 8 clams with shell length of 3 cm in each microcosm) and clam size (shell length of 2, 3 and 4 cm at 4-clam density) on seed burial were examined in plastic microcosm cores (30 cm high × 10 in inner diameter) in a 28-day period. Results showed that the seed burial depth significantly increased with time, the density and the size of clams. No seeds were buried in the sediment in the cores without clams during the whole experiment period. For the 3-cm clams, about 91.61% of the seeds were buried in the sediment at the end of the experiment in the high-density treatment (8 clams at each core); while in the medium and low-density treatments (4 and 2 clams in each core, respectively), about 76.93% and 60.61% of the seeds were buried in the sediment, respectively. For the size treatments, large (4 cm) clams buried 89.56% of the seeds at the end of the experiment, much more than those of medium (3 cm, 76.93%) and small (2 cm, 61.50%) size clams. During the whole experiment period, nearly all of the buried seeds were at a depth of from 0 cm to 5 cm. These results suggested that Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum may play an important positive role in seagrass seed bank dynamics in the field.

  13. Inbreeding depression on growth and survival of full-sib family of Manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhongming; Li, Na; Zhang, Xuekai; Li, Ying; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng

    2017-02-01

    In present study, the inbreeding depression ( ID) of growth and survival of Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) was investigated at larval and juvenile stages. Nine inbred families ( A 2, B 2, C 2, D 2, E 2, F 2, G 2, H 2 and I 2) were established by mating within nine full-sib families with expected inbreeding coefficient of 0.25. Inbred families showed significant differences in shell length and hatching rate of D-larvae (straight-hinged larvae). The larvae of the nine inbred families grew slower than those of control group ( CG), and their ID value ranged from 0.81% ± 6.09% to 16.10% ± 1.49%. The ID value of larval survival rate varied between 27.47% ± 9.36% and 70.50% ± 13.66%. The ID was also detected for juvenile growth in A 2, B 2, C 2, and D 2, which ranged from 4.60 ± 2.21 to 17.71 ± 7.73. The A 2 family maintained the highest juvenile survival rate, whereas the other inbred families exhibited ID values varying between 62.79% ± 4.54% and 96.14% ± 0.87%. The linear relationship of estimated ID between growth and survival was negatively correlated ( R = -0.434, P < 0.05). The results of this study suggested that the ID of growth was common at the larval stage but was less prevalent at juvenile stage. In contrast, the ID of survival increased from larval to juvenile stage. A better understanding of the effect of inbreeding may aid to selective breeding of Manila clam.

  14. The complexity and robustness of metro networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrible, Sybil; Kennedy, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Transportation systems, being real-life examples of networks, are particularly interesting to analyze from the viewpoint of the new and rapidly emerging field of network science. Two particular concepts seem to be particularly relevant: scale-free patterns and small-worlds. By looking at 33 metro systems in the world, this paper adapts network science methodologies to the transportation literature, and offers one application to the robustness of metros; here, metro refers to urban rail transit with exclusive right-of-way, whether it is underground, at grade or elevated. We find that most metros are indeed scale-free (with scaling factors ranging from 2.10 to 5.52) and small-worlds; they show atypical behaviors, however, with increasing size. In particular, the presence of transfer-hubs (stations hosting more than three lines) results in relatively large scaling factors. The analysis provides insights/recommendations for increasing the robustness of metro networks. Smaller networks should focus on creating transfer stations, thus generating cycles to offer alternative routes. For larger networks, few stations seem to detain a certain monopole on transferring, it is therefore important to create additional transfers, possibly at the periphery of city centers; the Tokyo system seems to remarkably incorporate these properties.

  15. Random walks on real metro systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yueying; Zhao, Longfeng; Li, Wei; Wang, Qiuping A.; Cai, Xu

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the random walks on metro systems in 28 cities from worldwide via the Laplacian spectrum to realize the trapping process on real systems. The average trapping time is a primary description to response the trapping process. Firstly, we calculate the mean trapping time to each target station and to each entire system, respectively. Moreover, we also compare the average trapping time with the strength (the weighted degree) and average shortest path length for each station, separately. It is noted that the average trapping time has a close inverse relation with the station’s strength but rough positive correlation with the average shortest path length. And we also catch the information that the mean trapping time to each metro system approximately positively correlates with the system’s size. Finally, the trapping process on weighted and unweighted metro systems is compared to each other for better understanding the influence of weights on trapping process on metro networks. Numerical results show that the weights have no significant impact on the trapping performance on metro networks.

  16. Determinants of Conflict in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    too may prompt violence.10 A. DETERMINANTS OF CONFLICT In the National Unification Commission (NUC) Report to President Fidel V. Ramos in 1993...National Unification Commission (Philippines), National Unification Commission Report to President Fidel V. Ramos on the Pursuit of a Comprehensive...12 National Unification Commission, NUC Report to PRES. FIDEL V. RAMOS on the Pursuit of a Comprehensive Peace Process (Quezon

  17. Hiligaynon Lessons. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motus, Cecile L.

    A collection of 54 lessons in Hiligaynon, one of the major languages of the Philippines, is divided into 12 units, each lesson intended for about 4 to 5 hours of classroom instruction. A brief grammar summary introduces each unit. A structural content note begins each lesson within the units, followed by microdialogues (two to four lines)…

  18. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN THE PHILIPPINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE PHILIPPINES HAVE A POPULATION OF 32 MILLION OF WHICH 60 PERCENT ARE ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. RECENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT HAS INVOLVED INCREASING STABILITY TO PROVIDE A BASIS FOR GROWTH. THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IS BASED ON A 6-YEAR ELEMENTARY AND A 4-YEAR SECONDARY SCHOOL COURSE. SECONDARY EDUCATION IS PROVIDED AT EITHER A GENERAL SCHOOL OR A…

  20. Outbreak of henipavirus infection, Philippines, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ching, Paola Katrina G; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Maria Nemia; Tayag, Enrique; Columna-Vingno, Alah Baby; Malbas, Fedelino F; Bolo, Gilbert C; Sejvar, James J; Eagles, Debbie; Playford, Geoffrey; Dueger, Erica; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kuroda, Makoto; Marsh, Glenn A; McCullough, Sam; Foxwell, A Ruth

    2015-02-01

    During 2014, henipavirus infection caused severe illness among humans and horses in southern Philippines; fatality rates among humans were high. Horse-to-human and human-to-human transmission occurred. The most likely source of horse infection was fruit bats. Ongoing surveillance is needed for rapid diagnosis, risk factor investigation, control measure implementation, and further virus characterization.

  1. Tagalog for Beginners. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresita V.; de Guzman, Videa

    This language textbook is designed for beginning students of Tagalog, the principal language spoken on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The introduction discusses the history of Tagalog and certain features of the language. An explanation of the text is given, along with notes for the teacher. The text itself is divided into nine sections:…

  2. Cryptosporidium from Palawan, Republic of the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    PALAWAN, REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Mare A. Laxer* Alberto K. Alcantara* Marivyl Javato-Laxer" Mene D. Cui* Renato A. Leano* Soiedad Bautista* Natividad ...Marivyl Javato-Laxer, Mere D. Cui, Renato A. Leano, Soledad Bautista, Natividad Rami To, ressie L. Gavina 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVFRED 114 DATE OF

  3. Ethnicity and Education in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    The population of the Republic of the Philippines is largely composed of common racial stock except for a small minority of ethnic Chinese. Ethnic differences are largely on the basis of language and religion. Over 90 percent of the people are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics, approximately 5 percent are Muslims, and the remainder adhere to the…

  4. A WORKBOOK FOR LEARNING PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARQUEZ, ELY J.

    THIS WORKBOOK WAS WRITTEN TO ENABLE PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS LIVING IN THE PHILIPPINES TO ANALYZE AND LEARN THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN IN THEIR REGION. IT WAS ASSUMED THAT THE VOLUNTEER WOULD HAVE SOME TRAINING IN TAGALOG BUT NOT NECESSARILY A KNOWLEDGE OF LINGUISTIC TERMS OR METHODS. THE AUTHOR ALSO ASSUMES THAT THE VOLUNTEER WILL WORK WITH A NATIVE…

  5. Case Study: Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Special Operations units worked with local authorities, host nation military and non- governmental agencies, to ensure unity of effort. Over time...relatively short time, the local population was made sufficiently comfortable with the host nation and US forces that they began to provide useful...Enduring Freedom Philippines 4 local communities by the terrorist group, highlighted by friendly psychological operations, probably facilitated the

  6. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  7. Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Sherri, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures contains the following articles: "Functions of Locatives in Northern Subanen Expository and Hortatory Discourse" (Josephine Sanicas-Daguman); "Functions of Demonstratives in Sama Bangingi' Expository Discourse" (John Blakely); "A Brief Look at Sinama Basic Verbs…

  8. Philippine migration policy: dilemmas of a crisis.

    PubMed

    Battistella, G

    1999-04-01

    Philippine migration policy is traced from the early 1970s to the present. The main migration trends in the 1990s are described. An assessment is made of the efficacy and appropriateness of present migration policy in light of the economic crisis. A regional approach to migration policy is necessary in order to encourage placing migration as a greater priority on national agendas and in bilateral agreements. In the Philippines, migrants are considered better paid workers, which diminishes their importance as a legislative or program priority. Santo Tomas (1998) conducted an empirical assessment of migration policies in the Philippines, but refinement is needed. Although migration is a transnational experience, there is little dialogue and cooperation among countries. Philippine migration policy defines its role as an information resource for migrants. Policy shifted from labor export to migrant management in the public and private sectors. Predeparture information program studies are recommending a multi-stage process that would involve all appropriate parties. There is talk of including migration information in the education curriculum. There are a variety of agendas, competing interests, and information resources between migration networks and officiating agencies. The Asian financial crisis may have a mild impact, but there are still issues of reintegration, protection, and employment conditions

  9. The referral pathway of presumptive drug-resistant tuberculosis in an urban poor setting, The Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, S.; Querri, A.; Coprada, L.; Bermejo, J.; Paulino, M. R.; Medina, A.; Garfin, A. M. C.; Ohkado, A.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Socio-economically underprivileged urban areas in the Philippines. Objectives: To identify gaps in the referral pathway of presumptive drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) patients from initial consultation until initiation of treatment. Design: A retrospective study in which a masterlist of presumptive multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients registered in 18 DOTS facilities in Tondo, Manila and Payatas, Quezon City, from October 2012 to September 2013, was analysed and reviewed. Results: Among 378 presumptive DR-TB patients identified and listed in the masterlist, 97% (368/378) were referred, of whom 90% (333/368) were screened at an MDR-TB treatment centre. Of the 368 patients, 35 (9.5%) were not screened, mainly due to loss to follow-up. Among those screened, 86.4% (288/333) were recommended for anti-tuberculosis treatment, of whom 98.2% (283/288) initiated treatment. The time between sample collection and examination was significantly longer at the laboratories of non-government organisations (NGOs) than at local government units (LGUs) (1 day vs. 0 day; P < 0.001). The time to the release of smear examination results to patients was significantly shorter at the NGOs than at the LGUs (4 days vs. 6 days; P = 0.009). Conclusion: The development of the presumptive MDR-TB masterlist facilitated tracking of patients for diagnosis and treatment. The NGOs should reduce delays in diagnosis and the LGUs should intensify patient follow-up to ensure early initiation of treatment. PMID:28123960

  10. The referral pathway of presumptive drug-resistant tuberculosis in an urban poor setting, The Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lopez, E; Yoshimatsu, S; Querri, A; Coprada, L; Bermejo, J; Paulino, M R; Medina, A; Garfin, A M C; Ohkado, A

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Socio-economically underprivileged urban areas in the Philippines. Objectives: To identify gaps in the referral pathway of presumptive drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) patients from initial consultation until initiation of treatment. Design: A retrospective study in which a masterlist of presumptive multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients registered in 18 DOTS facilities in Tondo, Manila and Payatas, Quezon City, from October 2012 to September 2013, was analysed and reviewed. Results: Among 378 presumptive DR-TB patients identified and listed in the masterlist, 97% (368/378) were referred, of whom 90% (333/368) were screened at an MDR-TB treatment centre. Of the 368 patients, 35 (9.5%) were not screened, mainly due to loss to follow-up. Among those screened, 86.4% (288/333) were recommended for anti-tuberculosis treatment, of whom 98.2% (283/288) initiated treatment. The time between sample collection and examination was significantly longer at the laboratories of non-government organisations (NGOs) than at local government units (LGUs) (1 day vs. 0 day; P < 0.001). The time to the release of smear examination results to patients was significantly shorter at the NGOs than at the LGUs (4 days vs. 6 days; P = 0.009). Conclusion: The development of the presumptive MDR-TB masterlist facilitated tracking of patients for diagnosis and treatment. The NGOs should reduce delays in diagnosis and the LGUs should intensify patient follow-up to ensure early initiation of treatment.

  11. Automatic metro map layout using multicriteria optimization.

    PubMed

    Stott, Jonathan; Rodgers, Peter; Martínez-Ovando, Juan Carlos; Walker, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic mechanism for drawing metro maps. We apply multicriteria optimization to find effective placement of stations with a good line layout and to label the map unambiguously. A number of metrics are defined, which are used in a weighted sum to find a fitness value for a layout of the map. A hill climbing optimizer is used to reduce the fitness value, and find improved map layouts. To avoid local minima, we apply clustering techniques to the map-the hill climber moves both stations and clusters when finding improved layouts. We show the method applied to a number of metro maps, and describe an empirical study that provides some quantitative evidence that automatically-drawn metro maps can help users to find routes more efficiently than either published maps or undistorted maps. Moreover, we have found that, in these cases, study subjects indicate a preference for automatically-drawn maps over the alternatives.

  12. Public higher education in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozier, V. R.

    1984-06-01

    Clearly, the national government of the Philippines has decided to increase the number and comprehensiveness of its public colleges and universities. While private colleges and universities are likely to dominate higher education in the Philippines for the remainer of this century, it appears that public, tax-supported higher education will become increasingly available there. The Philippines is not a wealthy country but it is devoting a substantial portion of its national resources to public higher education. In 1983, higher education received 2.85 percent of the national budget, a figure that has been rising for years. Compared with some highly developed countries, this is not a large percentage, but for a country that has traditionally relied on private higher education, it is a major and growing investment in the public sector. While many of the better universities in the Philippines are private, many other private educational institutions are small and struggling. As their financial resources become more limited, and as less expensive, tax-supported higher education becomes increasingly available, a lot of the struggling private colleges will probably close. This process is also being hastened by actions of the government to upgrade quality, for example in the case of the many private colleges that developed after World War II. In an attempt to improve the academic quality of these marginal institutions, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports has been given extensive authority, and while its intrusion into private institutions has been modest by some measures, its requirements are affecting them all and will speed the demise of some. This is bound to lead to a stronger role for public higher education in the Philippines, a country that is striving diligently to improve the education and hence the quality of life of its people.

  13. Serious fungal infections in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Batac, M C R; Denning, D

    2017-02-21

    The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org ), estimates were derived from data gathered from WHO, UNAIDS, Philippine Health Statistics 2011, Philippine Dermatological Society Health Information System database, HIV/AIDS and ART registry of the Philippines, epidemiological studies such as The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database 2005, and personal communication. Aspergillosis and candidiasis were the top causes of fungal infections in the Philippines. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), drawn from the number of tuberculosis patients, affects 77,172 people. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) frequencies, which were derived from the number of asthmatic patients, affect 121,113 and 159,869 respectively. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) affects 1,481,899 women. Other estimates were cryptococcal meningitis 84, Pneumocystis pneumonia 391, oral candidiasis 3,467, esophageal candidiasis 1,522 (all in HIV-infected people), invasive aspergillosis (IA) 3,085, candidemia 1,968, candida peritonitis 246, mucormycosis 20, fungal keratitis 358, tinea capitis 846 and mycetoma 97 annually. A total of 1,852,137 (1.9% of population) are afflicted with a serious fungal infection. Epidemiological studies are needed to validate these estimates, facilitating appropriate medical care of patients and proper prioritization of limited resources.

  14. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 12th, Manila, Philippines, April 20-26, 1978, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The papers outline the remote sensing activities being carried out in a number of countries throughout the world, and present details on a variety of individual projects. Topics studied include a worldwide approach to remote sensing and mineral exploration, a land use information system based on statistical inference, acoustic radar and remote sensing in the boundary layer, procedure for land-use analysis in developing countries, an airborne geochemical system, remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications, wheat production forecasts based on Landsat data, airborne lidar aerosol measurements over the U.S. and Europe, Landsat inventory of agricultural and forest resources in Bangladesh, application of satellite imagery to flood plain mapping in Thailand, and vegetation mapping of Nigeria from radar.

  15. New Technologies of Training for Technical and Vocational Education. International Expert Group Meeting. (Manila, Philippines, July 3-7, 1995). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Turin (Italy). International Training Centre.

    This report describes a meeting of 31 experts who deliberated on the various aspects of new technologies of training (NTT) and their applications in education and training with reference to Asia-Pacific contexts. Chapter 1 describes the rationale, objectives, inaugural session, meeting agenda, and closing session. Chapter 2 summarizes the country…

  16. International Consultation on Micro-Chip Technology: Its Impact on the Lives of Women Workers. Summary of Proceedings (Manila, Philippines, October 5-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Participatory Research Group, Toronto (Ontario).

    An international consultation was attended by 40 women workers, educators, and organizers who work directly with women affected by the new "global assembly line" that has developed as a part of the microchip technology industry. The women, who represented 12 countries, shared information and organizing experiences and worked to…

  17. Analysis of EST and lectin expressions in hemocytes of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) (Bivalvia: Mollusca) infected with Perkinsus olseni.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Young-Mee; Park, Kyung-Il; Kim Cho, Somi; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Cho, Moonjae

    2006-01-01

    The hemocytes of invertebrates play key roles in both cellular and humoral immune reactions by phagocytosis or delivering immune factors such as lectin and anti-microbial peptides. Bacterial infection causes changes in components such as lectins, anti-bacterial peptides, and lysosomal enzymes of plasma or hemolymph in molluscs. Previously, we found that infection with the protozoan parasite, Perkinsus, increases lectin synthesis in hemocytes. In order to investigate the patterns of genes expressed in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) infected with the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni, we constructed a cDNA library and sequenced 1850 clones (expressed sequence tags). A total of 79 ESTs, were related to 29 functional immune genes such as C-type lectin, lysozyme, and cystatin B, in Manila clams. Lectins were the largest group of immune-function ESTs found in our Manila clams library. Among 7 lectin clones, two full length cDNAs of lectins were cloned. MCL-3, which is a simple C-type lectin composed of 151 amino acids, has a relatively short signal sequence of 17aa and single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 residues. It is highly homologous to eel C-type lectin. The sequence of mc-sialic acid-binding lectin consists of 168 amino acid residues with molecular weight of 19.2 and shows high homology to sialic acid-binding lectin from the snail, Cepaea hortensis. The expression of 7 different lectins in hemocytes was analyzed by RT-PCR using gene-specific primers. Hemocytes from Perkinsus-infected clam expressed different sets of lectins than with Vibrio infection. These results demonstrate that several lectins are involved in Manila clam innate immunity and different challenges induce expression of different lectins.

  18. New polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Korean manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and their application to wild populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, E M; An, H S; Kang, J H; An, C M; Dong, C M; Hong, Y K; Park, J Y

    2014-10-07

    Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is a valuable and intensively exploited shellfish species in Korea. Despite its importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. For the genetic characterization of R. philippinarum, expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers were developed using next-generation sequencing. A total of 5879 tandem repeats containing di- to hexanucleotide repeat motifs were obtained from 236,746 reads (mean = 413 bp). Of the 62 loci screened, 24 (38.7%) were successfully amplified, and 10 were polymorphic in 144 individuals from 2 manila clam populations (Incheon and Geoje, Korea). The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17 in the Incheon population and from 3 to 13 in the Geoje population (overall AR = 7.21). The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were estimated to be 0.402 and 0.555, respectively. Hence, there is less genetic variability in the Geoje population than in the Incheon population, although no significant reductions of genetic diversity were found between the populations (P > 0.05). However, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the populations (FST = 0.064, P < 0.001). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding coefficients (mean FIS = 0.22-0.26) were detected in both populations. The 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci used in this study will be useful for future genetic mapping studies and for characterizing population structures, monitoring genetic diversity for successful aquaculture management, and developing conservation strategies for manila clam populations in Korea.

  19. Estimating sediment accumulation rates in Manila Bay, a marine pollution hot spot in the Seas of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sta Maria, E J; Siringan, F P; Bulos, A dM; Sombrito, E Z

    2009-01-01

    The GEF/UNDP/IMO/PEMSEA project identifies Manila Bay as among the marine pollution hot spots in the Seas of East Asia. (210)Pb dating of its sediment can provide a historical perspective of its pollution loading. However, the validity of (210)Pb dating in a complex dynamic coastal system of Manila Bay may come into question. Land-based sediment input can be high and physical and biological processes can possibly disturb the sediment layers. In this report, the (210)Pb profiles of sediment cores from different parts of the bay are presented. The linear sedimentation rates are shown to be higher in the recent past and are also variable across the bay. The largest change in sedimentation rate, coincided with the occurrence of a volcanic eruption in 1991 and is shown by applying a variant of the CIC model in sedimentation rate calculations. The data suggest that (210)Pb dating can be useful in estimating relative magnitudes of sedimentation rates, even in a complex dynamic coastal system like Manila Bay.

  20. Battelle Education: Metro Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This new district partnership school, slated to open in fall 2015, will serve Columbus, OH students in grades 6-13 in a competency-based, blended learning early college high school model that is focused on both college and career success. The Metro Institute of Technology is designed to solve two problems: (1) capable students may struggle in…

  1. Measuring fractal dimension of metro systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, S.; Li, W.; Gu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhao, L.; Han, J.

    2015-04-01

    We discuss cluster growing method and box-covering method as well as their connection to fractal geometry. Our measurements show that for small network systems, box-covering method gives a better scaling relation. We then measure both unweighted and weighted metro networks with optimal box-covering method.

  2. The Texas Head Start Metro Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mary Tom, Ed.; Flores, Alfredo R., Ed.

    The Texas Metro Network (TMN) is an informal group of Head Start Directors and Executive Directors organized for the purposes of improving the delivery of training and technical assistance and for assisting communication between large scale Head Start programs in the metropolitan areas of Texas. In pursuit of these aims, each member unit of the…

  3. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  4. Current State of the U.S.-Philippines Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    Philippines. Subic Naval Base, Clark Airfield, and several smaller installations were turned over to the Government of the Philippines ( GRP ...Government of the Philippines ( GRP ). Additionally the U.S. Military discontinued approximately $200M in annual Foreign Military Finance, access to spare...on several fronts was a great challenge that many within the ranks viewed as impossible. With combined U.S. and GRP funding, retired U.S. military

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-58 - Bananas from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... M. balbisiana hybrids) may be imported into the continental United States from the Philippines only... mango mealybug. (a) General requirements. (1) The national plant protection organization (NPPO) of...

  6. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  7. Dynamic effects of plate-buoyancy subduction at Manila Trench, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Zhan, W.; Sun, J.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bathymetric map of SCS plate shows two subducting buoyancies, the fossil ridge and the oceanic plateau, which are supposed to impact slab segmentation into the north from Taiwan to 18°N, and the south from 17°N to Mindoro. Hypocenter distribution show that slab dip angle turns lower southwards from 45° to 30° in the north segment, and relatively equals ~45° in the south segment at the depth of 100km. Moreover, volcano distribution can be segmented into Miocene WVC, Quaternary EVC in the north and combined SVC in the south (Fig. A). We found that WVC and SVC mostly locate in a parallel belt ~50km apart to Manila trench, however EVC turn father southwards from 50km to 100km (Fig. B). Above characters congruously indicate that SCS plate kept equal dip angle in Miocene; then the north segment shallowed at 18°N and developed northwards in Quaternary, resulting in lower dip angle than the invariant south segment. To check the transformation of slab dip angle from 45° to 30° between 17~18°N, focal mechanism solution nearby 17°N are found 90° in rake and dip angle, strike parallel to the fossil ridge, indicating a slab tear located coincident with the ridge, where is a weak zone of higher heat flow and lower plate coupling ratio than the adjacent zones and slab can be easily tore as an interface for SCS plate segmentation. Subduction of the two buoyancies within SCS plate is supposed as influential dynamic factor: It caused the trench retreat rate reduced, forming a cusp and a flat convex of Manila trench shape; Moreover, the buoyancies resisted subduction, resulting in shear stress heterogeneity of SCS plate, in consequence the fossil ridge as a fragile belt potentially became stress concentration zone that easily tore; Then the buoyant oceanic plateau might lead to shallowing of the northern SCS plate. To examine the hypothesis, dynamic effects of the two subducting buoyancies are being respectively investigated based on numerical models. (Grt. 41376063, 2013

  8. Characterization of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, have been identified as contributing dissolved solids to Flaming Gorge Reservoir. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, ranged from 35 to 7,410 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids load in seeps and drains in the study area that discharge to Flaming Gorge Reservoir ranged from less than 0.1 to 113 tons per day. The most substantial source of dissolved solids discharging from the study area to the reservoir was Birch Spring Draw. The mean daily dissolved-solids load near the mouth of Birch Spring Draw was 65 tons per day.The estimated annual dissolved-solids load imported to the study area by Sheep Creek and Peoples Canals is 1,330 and 13,200 tons, respectively. Daily dissolved-solid loads discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the period July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005, ranged from 72 to 241 tons per day with a mean of 110 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the same period was 40,200 tons. Of this 40,200 tons of dissolved solids, about 9,000 tons may be from a regional source that is not associated with agricultural activities. The salt-loading factor is 3,670 milligrams per liter or about 5.0 tons of dissolved solids per acre-foot of deep percolation in Lucerne Valley and 1,620 milligrams per liter or 2.2 tons per acre-foot in South Valley.The variation of δ87Sr with strontium concentration indicates some general patterns that help to define a conceptual model of the processes affecting the concentration of strontium and the δ87Sr isotopic ratio in area waters. As excess irrigation water percolates through soils derived from Mancos Shale, the δ87Sr isotopic ratio (0.21 to 0.69 permil) approaches one that is typical of deep percolation from irrigation on Mancos

  9. International nurse migration: lessons from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Brush, Barbara L; Sochalski, Julie

    2007-02-01

    Developed countries facing nursing shortages have increasingly turned to aggressive foreign nurse recruitment, primarily from developing nations, to offset their lagging domestic nurse supplies and meet growing health care demands. Few donor nations are prepared to manage the loss of their nurse workforce to migration. The sole country with an explicit nurse export policy and the world's leading donor of nurse labor - the Philippines - is itself facing serious provider maldistribution and countrywide health disparities. Examining the historical roots of Philippines nurse migration provides lessons from which other nurse exporting countries may learn. The authors discuss factors that have predicated nurse migration and policies that have eased the way. Furthermore, the authors analyze how various stakeholders influence migratory patterns, the implications of migration for nurses and the public in their care, and the challenges that future social policy and political systems face in addressing global health issues engendered by unfettered recruitment of nurses and other health workers.

  10. Restructuring the Philippine electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, S.; Ellis, M.

    1995-06-01

    The Philippine electricity industry has shown it can change, and change quickly. In contrast with the crises and changes imposed on it in the past, the industry now has as opportunity to forge a progressive, forward-looking strategy, This opportunity is enhanced by the force of law - the Department of Energy Act of 1992 mandates privatization of the National Power Corporation (NPC) - and by the easing of the power crisis which has significantly diminished political interference. In order to position the industry for growth and rising investment requirements and to support the growing role of the Philippine economy in international markets, that strategy must address the structural deficiencies that continue to plague the industry. By addressing structural changes that need to be made now, it can build on the impetus gained from its privatization mandate to improve accountability, increase efficiency and reduce government risk.

  11. Accreditation of clinical laboratories in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Maramba, T P

    2002-01-01

    In order to assure the reliability of the results of laboratory services, clinical laboratories are regulated in the Philippines. This started with the passage of the Clinical Laboratory Law in 1965, which required the Licensing of clinical laboratories by the Bureau of Research and Laboratories, Department of Health (BRL, DOH) before they can operate. Standards were set for the various types of laboratory services. In 1988, the minimum standards of laboratory services were formulated for three categories, ie, primary, secondary and tertiary categories. Subsequently, to permit clinical laboratories to offer 'special service', accreditation of clinical laboratories was instituted. In 1968, the Philippine Society of Pathologists (PSP) decided to accredit clinical laboratories for Residency Training Program in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology. The following year after the passage of the Medical Technology Law, the BRL, DOH began accrediting clinical laboratories that trained Medical Technology Interns. A few years later, the BRL, DOH started to accredit clinical laboratories who did Water Analysis. In 1989, after realizing the serious implications of HIV Testing, the DOH mandated the BRL, DOH to set standards for clinical laboratories performing HIV testing. In 1997, upon request of the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), the PSP formulated and submitted standards for the accreditation of clinical laboratories, both hospital and free-standing, for reimbursement of fees for laboratory services rendered to patients enrolled in the PhilHealth social insurance program. In 2000, the Philippine Council for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (PCAHO) approved the Standards for the accreditation of Hospitals for the provision of quality medical services. Included were the standards for the Department of Pathology.

  12. Post Eruption Hazards at Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Our project focused on the investigation of the post-eruption hazards at Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines) using remote sensing data, and field observations of the 1991 eruption deposits. Through the use of multiple satellite images, field work, and the 1996/2000 PacRim data sets, we conducted studies of the co- and post-eruption hazards of the volcano due to erosion and re-deposition of the extensive pyroclastic flow deposits. A major part of this project was the assembly and analysis of a database of over 50 high resolution (1 - 50 m/pixel) images that will facilitate this study. We collected Ikonos, SPOT, SIR-C/X-SAR, Landsat, ERS, RADARSAT, and ASTER images of the area around Mt. Pinatubo. An example of the changes that could be seen in these data is shown. Our investigation focused on a retrospective analysis of the erosion, redeposition, and re-vegetation of the 1991 pyroclastic flow deposits of Mt. Pinatubo. The primary geologic goal of our work was the analysis of the spatial distribution and volume change of the sources and sinks of materials associated with mudflow ('lahar') events. This included the measurement of river valley gradients and cross-sections using TOPSAR digital elevation data, as we are participating in the PacRim 2000 deployment to the Philippines specifically so that we can collect a second set of TOPSAR data that can then be used to create a topographic difference image of the volcano. The main results from this multi-sensor study have been published as Torres et al.. A discussion of the methodology that we used to assemble an appropriate database was included in Mouginis-Mark and Domergue-Schmidt. As part of an educational outreach effort, we also helped the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) in the Philippines to use NASA data to study Mt. Pinatubo and other Filipino volcanoes.

  13. Origins of the 1986 Philippine Constitution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    instituted the encomienda system, similar to the feudal system of old, primarily to reward Spaniards who had rendered service in the conquest of the...Philippines. The encomiendas were large parcels of land including its inhabitants and resources. The encomendero, or owner of the encomienda , ruled...over the inhabitants and kept order by the execution of laws created mostly by decree. The encomienda was abolished after only a few generations of

  14. Joint Special Operations Task Force-Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    conditions of the Philippines operational environment and the regional military objectives established by senior policy makers. The indirect approach...employed by the JSOTF-P offers a model for the U.S. military to combat regional /global terrorism inside a partner nation’s sovereign territory under...American military personnel operating within the country or region ; or the partner nation has a constitutional or otherwise legal prohibition against

  15. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  16. Challenges of Space Education in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sese, Rogel Mari

    The Philippines has recently started in developing and promoting space science education through the Philippine Space Science Education Program (PSSEP) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). However, as a developing country, there are numerous challenges in promoting space education to students and teachers. In this paper, we assessed the recent activities done by the PSSEP and demonstrate their effectiveness. In addition, we will expound on the social, political and logistical challenges of promoting space education in an archipelago such as the Philippines. We will also present the preliminary feedback and assessment of the Space Science Program (SSP), a pilot program which teaches space science as a separate subject in the basic educational system from kindergarten to high school. We will also discuss the various teaching strategies we utilized in the SSP that can be adopted depending on the needs and capabilities of the host school. Finally, we discuss the challenges of instituting a formal astronomy and space science course and the issues that needs to be addressed for an effective and sustainable program.

  17. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Manila).

    PubMed

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Marrufo-Hernández, Norma A; Sampedro, José G; Nájera, Hugo

    2014-10-08

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme widely distributed in the plant kingdom that has been detected in most fruits and vegetables. PPO was extracted and purified from Manila mango (Mangifera indica), and its biochemical properties were studied. PPO was purified 216-fold by hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange chromatography. PPO was purified to homogeneity, and the estimated PPO molecular weight (MW) by SDS-PAGE was ≈31.5 kDa. However, a MW of 65 kDa was determined by gel filtration, indicating a dimeric structure for the native PPO. The isolated PPO showed the highest affinity to pyrogallol (Km = 2.77 mM) followed by 4-methylcatechol (Km = 3.14 mM) and catechol (Km = 15.14 mM). The optimum pH for activity was 6.0. PPO was stable in the temperature range of 20-70 °C. PPO activity was completely inhibited by tropolone, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite, and kojic acid at 0.1 mM.

  18. Investigation of heavy metals in sediments and Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum from Jiaozhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Hongsheng; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shilin

    2010-11-01

    Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and sediments were collected bimonthly during 2007 at five locations in Jiaozhou Bay near Qingdao, China, to determine heavy metal concentrations and to assess the validation of R. philippinarum as a metal biomonitor. Concentrations of heavy metals in clam soft tissues ranged between 0.75 and 3.31, 0.89 and 15.20, 5.70 and 26.03, 52.12 and 110.33, 10.30 and 72.34, 9.64 and 28.60, and 3.15 and 52.75 μg g(-1) dry weight for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Ni, respectively. Most of the highest values occurred at the northeast bay and the lowest values occurred at the western part. Regarding seasonal variation, relatively high tissue metal concentrations were observed during October or December. A similar pattern was also found in habitat sediments. There was a strong correlation between the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Ni in soft tissues and surrounding sediments. It is indicated that R. philippinarum could be used as a biomonitor for heavy metal contamination in Jiaozhou Bay.

  19. The Nd-, Sr- and Pb-isotopic character of lavas from Taal, Laguna de Bay and Arayat volcanoes, southwestern Luzon, Philippines: Implications for arc magma petrogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukasa, S.B.; Flower, M.F.J.; Miklius, Asta

    1994-01-01

    Following the amalgamation of a collage of pre-Neogene terranes largely by strike-slip and convergence mechanisms to form the Philippine islands, volcanic chains, related to oppositely dipping subduction zones, developed along the eastern and western margins of the archipelago. There is ample field evidence that this volcanic activity, predominantly calc-alkaline in chemical character, had commenced by the Oligocene. Volcanoes resulting from subduction along the Manila-Negros trench in the west (e.g. Taal, Laguna de Bay and Arayat) form a high-angle linear array, trending away from the MORE field on Pb-isotopic covariation diagrams; have the highest Sr- and lowest Nd-isotopic compositions, of the two chains (but nevertheless plotting above bulk earth on the 87Sr/86Sr versus 143Nd/144Nd covariation diagram); and exhibit Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr values that are lower and higher, respectively, than the estimated values for bulk earth. While the Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr characteristics are common to both chains, volcanoes associated with the Philippine-East Luzon trench have Pb-isotopic compositions that fall in the Indian Ocean MORB field and that require time-integrated evolution in a high Th/U environment. They also have higher Nd- and lower Sr-isotopic ratios. The source materials of Philippine volcanoes, therefore, have undergone varied recent enrichments in LILE, as indicated by the decoupling of isotopic and elemental ratios. These enrichments, particularly for the western volcanoes, cannot be entirely due to small degrees of partial melting in the mantle wedge, considering that they were accompanied by elevations in radiogenic Pb. Elevated Pb ratios are best explained by the introduction of subducted, continentally derived sediments. The sedimentary component in the western volcanoes is probably the South China Sea sediments derived largely from Eurasia. That this component is not available in the Philippine-East Luzon trench is reflected by the fact that the eastern volcanoes

  20. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  1. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  2. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    During 2011-2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines.

  3. Regulatory and Skills Requirements for Higher Education in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemo, Kolawole Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The provision of public resources to manage the expansion of the higher education system in the Philippines has been inadequate, and this has given rise to many private providers entering the HE domain. The proper regulation of higher education in the country is important if the Philippines is to respond to the challenge of producing the skills it…

  4. US Influence on Military Professionalism in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Manuel R. Carlos Approved by: Gaye Christoffersen Thesis Advisor Harold A. Trinkunas Second Reader James J . Wirtz Chairman, Department...notice, with key leaders in the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP); LTC Harold Cabreros , Philippine Army, who took time off from his job at...positive.168 Applying these concepts, Linz presents the breakdown of democracy 163 Juan J . Linz, The

  5. Plurality in Unity: Challenges toward Religious Education in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges provided by a plural condition toward doing religious education in the Philippines. The problem of Philippine religious education hinges on the fact that the growing plural condition in the educational system remains until now "un-discussed"; or integrated in many schools. Not much is heard about…

  6. The Causes and Prospect of the Southern Philippines Secessionist Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    percent. 37 Jacques Bertrand, “Peace and Conflict in the Southern Philippines: Why the 1996 Peace...Muslim Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1987, 348. 301 Jacques Bertrand, “Peace add Conflict in the Southern Philippines,” Pacific Affairs, University of...

  7. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Philippine and Insular Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... under the law. All enlistments and reenlistments of Philippine Scouts in the Regular Army...

  8. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Philippine and Insular Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... under the law. All enlistments and reenlistments of Philippine Scouts in the Regular Army...

  9. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Philippine and Insular Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... under the law. All enlistments and reenlistments of Philippine Scouts in the Regular Army...

  10. Fictionalized History in the Philippines: Five Narratives of Collective Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Will P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes five historical fictions for children in the Batang Historyador (Young Historian) series which detail five periods in Philippine history. The books discuss the issues of child labor in precolonial Philippines, child labor and the right to education regardless of gender during the Spanish colonial period, child labor during the…

  11. The Philippines in Spanish Rule. Asian Studies Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Marco

    This curriculum outline introduces the components of a Latin America Civilization course which acquaints students with the Philippines and the similarities that exist between the Philippines and Latin America. First, the goals and student objectives of the course, which emphasizes the history, economic, political, religious, ethnic, and social…

  12. U.S. Military Assistance to Philippine Ground Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-02

    were dead in some of the most brutal fighting Americans had seen. 2 O n the other hand, much had been done in terms of nationbuilding, public health ... literacy , and civic action. Nevertheless, the U.S. conquest of the Philippines had been sheer imperialism. In the following years the Philippines was

  13. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro

    2016-01-01

    During 2011–2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. PMID:27088593

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which...

  18. The effects of salinity on the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) using the neutral red retention assay with adapted physiological saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, B M; Moroney, G A; van Pelt, F N A M; O'Brien, N M; Davenport, J; O'Halloran, J

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the internal osmotic regulatory capabilities of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) following in vivo exposure to a range of salinities. A second objective was to measure the health status of the Manila clam following exposure to different salinities using the neutral red retention (NRR) assay, and to compare results using a range of physiological saline solutions (PSS). On exposure to seawater of differing salinities, the Manila clam followed a pattern of an osmoconformer, although they seemed to partially regulate their circulatory haemolytic fluids to be hyperosmotic to the surrounding aqueous environment. Significant differences were found when different PSS were used, emphasizing the importance of using a suitable PSS to reduce additional osmotic stress. Using PSS in the NRR assay that do not exert additional damage to lysosomal membrane integrity will help to more accurately quantify the effects of exposure to pollutants on the organism(s) under investigation.

  19. Mamanwa Texts. Studies in Philippine Linguistics. Supplementary Series: Philippine Texts, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Helen, Comp.; Miller, Jeanne, Comp.

    A group of 28 texts in Mamanwa, an Austronesian language of the Visayan family of the Southern Philippines, is presented. They were told by native speakers and transcribed in Mamanwa and English. Three types of discourse are represented: narrative (both traditional and factual); procedural/explanatory; and hortatory. The main cultural themes…

  20. Philippine laws and policies on the status of women.

    PubMed

    1992-02-01

    A comparative ranking (0-20) of women's status is given for the Philippines and 50 other developed and developing countries on health, education, marriage and children, employment, and social equality. The Philippines is given a rank score of 15.5 on women's health, which places it behind 29 other countries. The score for education was 14.0 for the Philippines, which ties the Philippines with Austria. Marriage and children scores were 14.5 for the Philippines, which places the country lower than 30 other countries. Women's employment scores for the Philippines were 7.5, with the highest score being 14.5 in Sweden. 18 other countries had the same or higher scores. The Philippines had the same score as Japan, Italy, France, and Austria. The Filipino social equality score was 12.5, which was the same score as Japan, Israel, Hong Kong, China, and Benin. 25 countries had the same or higher scores. Women's status is defined as the degree of women's access to and control over material resources and to social resources within the family, the community, and in society at large. Women's status in the Philippines was equitable during the precolonial period and declined under Spanish colonization. The US regime was paternalistic and protective. In 1949 women were again allowed to own property. In 1973 women rights were expanded to include full employment and opportunities. The Philippines endorses completely the UN conventions on the status of women, including special measures to speed up the process of eliminating discrimination against women. A summary is given of various policies and laws in the Philippines pertaining to equality within marriage, family formation, divorce/separation, employment, education, and property ownership.

  1. Following the infection process of vibriosis in Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) larvae through GFP-tagged pathogenic Vibrio species.

    PubMed

    Dubert, Javier; Nelson, David R; Spinard, Edward J; Kessner, Linda; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; da Costa, Fiz; Prado, Susana; Barja, Juan L

    2016-01-01

    Vibriosis represents the main bottleneck for the larval production process in shellfish aquaculture. While the signs of this disease in bivalve larvae are well known, the infection process by pathogenic Vibrio spp. during episodes of vibriosis has not been elucidated. To investigate the infection process in bivalves, the pathogens of larvae as V. tubiashii subsp. europaensis, V. neptunius and V. bivalvicida were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Larvae of Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) were inoculated with the GFP-labeled pathogens in different infection assays and monitored by microscopy. Manila clam larvae infected by distinct GFP-tagged Vibrio spp. in different challenges showed the same progression in the infection process, defining three infection stages. GFP-tagged Vibrio spp. were filtered by the larvae through the vellum and entered in the digestive system through the esophagus and stomach and colonized the digestive gland and particularly the intestine, where they proliferated during the first 2h of contact (Stage I), suggesting a chemotactic response. Then, GFP-tagged Vibrio spp. expanded rapidly to the surrounding organs in the body cavity from the dorsal to ventral region (Stage II; 6-8h), colonizing the larvae completely at the peak of infection (Stage III) (14-24h). Results demonstrated for the first time that the vibriosis is asymptomatic in Manila clam larvae during the early infection stages. Thus, the early colonization and the rapid proliferation of Vibrio pathogens within the body cavity supported the sudden and fatal effect of the vibriosis, since the larvae exhibited the first signs of disease when the infection process is advanced. As a first step in the elucidation of the potential mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis in bivalve larvae the enzymatic activities of the extracellular products released from the wild type V. neptunius, V. tubiashii subsp. europaensis and V. bivalvicida were determined and their cytotoxicity was

  2. Geological evolution of the West Luzon Basin (South China Sea, Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfai, J.; Franke, D.; Gaedicke, C.; Lutz, R.; Schnabel, M.; Ramos, E. G.

    2010-05-01

    Interpretation of new multichannel seismic data sheds insights into the geologic evolution of the West Luzon Basin (WLB), Philippines. The basin stretches for about 200 km in north-south direction and for up to 50 km in east-west direction. The West Luzon Basin is a sediment-filled trough that is located between the island of Luzon and the outer arc high of the eastward directed subduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust at the Manila Trench. However, at the southern end of the Manila Trench, where its trend changes from N-S to NW-SE and projects towards Mindoro, continental collision occurs (e.g. Lewis & Hayes, 1985). In 2008 approximately 1000 line-kilometres of regional multichannel seismic (MCS) data were obtained in the area of the WLB during a cruise with the German research vessel SONNE. In our MCS data six major unconformities in the WLB separate major stratigraphic units. We interpret high-amplitude, low-frequency reflection bands as acoustic basement that is dissected by normal faults. In the deep parts (4.5-5 s; TWT) of our E-W running seismic profiles we can trace a major fault system with a fault offset of 1-1.5 s (TWT). We suggest an initial development of the structure as a normal fault system, which later was inverted locally. A major change in the depositional regime occurs in the lower part of the sedimentary infill. A distinct bottom simulating reflector (BSR) is commonly observed. Grid calculations of the sediment thickness of the lower stratigraphic units give detailed values of deposition shifts and reveal variations in subsidence of the basin. Based on the depth of bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) heat flow values of 35-40 mW/m2 were calculated, which are typical for forearc basins. Two peculiarities of the WLB are not well in accordance with a forearc setting: The acoustic basement was affected by extensional deformation resulting in normal faulting with fault offsets up to 400 ms (TWT) but extension did not affect sedimentary layers

  3. The real stroke burden in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Baroque, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is the Philippines' second leading cause of death. It has a prevalence of 0·9%; ischemic stroke comprises 70% while hemorrhagic stroke comprises 30%. Age-adjusted hypertension prevalence is 20·6%, diabetes 6·0%, dyslipidemia 72·0%, smoking 31%, and obesity 4·9%. The neurologist-to-patient ratio is 1:330·000, with 67% of neurologists practicing in urban centers. Health care is largely private and the cost is borne out-of-pocket by patients and their families. Challenges include delivering adequate support to the rural communities and to the underprivileged sectors.

  4. Problems with filariasis control in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Belizario, V Y

    1993-01-01

    Problems with filariasis control in this country of more than seven thousand islands are presented and discussed according to the political, economic, and socio-behavioral aspects. Discussed are issues relating not only to the recipients of the health services and control programs but also to the people in the control program and disease control managers. Marinduque, a recently described endemic focus of lymphatic filariasis, is used to illustrate the many problems affecting the control efforts in the Philippines. The true impact of the problem has not been described lately, hence the need for epidemiologic, social, and economic impact studies.

  5. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  6. Philippine law on donations of human organs.

    PubMed

    Ancog, Amelia C

    1992-09-01

    The Philippines "Organ Donation Act of 1991" updates the "1949 Act to legalize permissions to use human organs". Under the new legislation, each individual can donate all or any part of his body by way of legacy or will. The members of the family may also authorize such a donation in the absence of contrary intention by the decedent. Donations are only valid when made for therapy, research or medical education. International sharing of organs is recognized but subject to approval by the Department of Health. Regulations are about to be formulated in order to implement the Act which will be largely publicized to encourage donations.

  7. Transcriptional changes in Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) in response to Brown Ring Disease.

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Tanguy, Arnaud; Jeffroy, Fanny; Le Bris, Cedric; Paillard, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Brown Ring Disease (BRD) is a bacterial infection affecting the economically-important clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The disease is caused by a bacterium, Vibrio tapetis, that colonizes the edge of the mantle, altering the biomineralization process and normal shell growth. Altered organic shell matrices accumulate on the inner face of the shell leading to the formation of the typical brown ring in the extrapallial space (between the mantle and the shell). Even though structural and functional changes have been described in solid (mantle) and fluid (hemolymph and extrapallial fluids) tissues from infected clams, the underlying molecular alterations and responses remain largely unknown. This study was designed to gather information on clam molecular responses to the disease and to compare focal responses at the site of the infection (mantle and extrapallial fluid) with systemic (hemolymph) responses. To do so, we designed and produced a Manila clam expression oligoarray (15K Agilent) using transcriptomic data available in public databases and used this platform to comparatively assess transcriptomic changes in mantle, hemolymph and extrapallial fluid of infected clams. Results showed significant regulation in diseased clams of molecules involved in pathogen recognition (e.g. lectins, C1q domain-containing proteins) and killing (defensin), apoptosis regulation (death-associated protein, bcl-2) and in biomineralization (shell matrix proteins, perlucin, galaxin, chitin- and calcium-binding proteins). While most changes in response to the disease were tissue-specific, systemic alterations included co-regulation in all 3 tested tissues of molecules involved in microbe recognition and killing (complement-related factors, defensin). These results provide a first glance at molecular alterations and responses caused by BRD and identify targets for future functional investigations.

  8. Structural Monitoring of Metro Infrastructure during Shield Tunneling Construction

    PubMed Central

    Ran, L.; Ye, X. W.; Ming, G.; Dong, X. B.

    2014-01-01

    Shield tunneling construction of metro infrastructure will continuously disturb the soils. The ground surface will be subjected to uplift or subsidence due to the deep excavation and the extrusion and consolidation of the soils. Implementation of the simultaneous monitoring with the shield tunnel construction will provide an effective reference in controlling the shield driving, while how to design and implement a safe, economic, and effective structural monitoring system for metro infrastructure is of great importance and necessity. This paper presents the general architecture of the shield construction of metro tunnels as well as the procedure of the artificial ground freezing construction of the metro-tunnel cross-passages. The design principles for metro infrastructure monitoring of the shield tunnel intervals in the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are introduced. The detailed monitoring items and the specified alarming indices for construction monitoring of the shield tunneling are addressed, and the measured settlement variations at different monitoring locations are also presented. PMID:25032238

  9. Structural monitoring of metro infrastructure during shield tunneling construction.

    PubMed

    Ran, L; Ye, X W; Ming, G; Dong, X B

    2014-01-01

    Shield tunneling construction of metro infrastructure will continuously disturb the soils. The ground surface will be subjected to uplift or subsidence due to the deep excavation and the extrusion and consolidation of the soils. Implementation of the simultaneous monitoring with the shield tunnel construction will provide an effective reference in controlling the shield driving, while how to design and implement a safe, economic, and effective structural monitoring system for metro infrastructure is of great importance and necessity. This paper presents the general architecture of the shield construction of metro tunnels as well as the procedure of the artificial ground freezing construction of the metro-tunnel cross-passages. The design principles for metro infrastructure monitoring of the shield tunnel intervals in the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are introduced. The detailed monitoring items and the specified alarming indices for construction monitoring of the shield tunneling are addressed, and the measured settlement variations at different monitoring locations are also presented.

  10. Philippine Sea Slab and South-Ryukyu Arc Sliver Accommodation of Arc-Continent Collision East of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallemand, S.; Theunissen, T.; Font, Y.; Schnurle, P.; Lee, C.; Liu, C.

    2011-12-01

    The southern termination of the Ryukyu arc-trench system underwent a complex polyphased and extremely rapid tectonic evolution during the last 5 to 8 My. At first, the relative motion of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) has changed about 5 My ago from a northward to a northwestward motion relative to Eurasia. Secondly, the Ryukyu trench has propagated from east to west during the same time period resulting in a tectonic inversion along the former passive margin of the South China Sea into the active margin of the S-Ryukyu trench. Thirdly, the convergence rate along the neo-formed S-Ryukyu trench dramatically increased from 8 to 13 cm/yr since at least 2 My when the Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) started to rift. At the same time, the oceanic subduction of the South China Sea beneath the northern Manila arc progressively evolved into a continental subduction of the Chinese platform at the origin of the Taiwan orogen. The timing of these various kinematic and tectonic events should have been recorded in the deformed sedimentary basins and fold-and-thrust belts in the region. Unfortunately, a large part is now below the sea-level and no or a few age constraints are available. The recent joint project between Taiwan-USA & France (TAIGER & ACTS) gave us the opportunity to considerably increase the resolution of the seismic imagery around the island and especially in the most highly deformed area east of Taiwan along the S-Ryukyu forearc. We already knew that the seismic activity focussed in this region but we ignored how the converging plates deformed. We can now argue that the PSP strongly deforms in the vicinity of its deep interaction with the root of the Taiwan orogen. The north-dipping PSP slab buckles and tears along two diverging directions with a down-faulted part subducting beneath the SOT.

  11. Differential distribution of hepatitis C virus subtypes in Asia: comparative study among Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan.

    PubMed

    Hotta, H; Kemapunmanus, M; Apichartpiyakul, C; Soetjipto; Handajani, R; Barzaga, N G

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is currently classified into at least six major genotypes, each of which is further divided into a number of subtypes. It has been reported that prevalence of each subtype varies among different geographical regions of the world and that severity of liver disease and sensitivity to interferon treatment varies with different subtypes. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence of each subtype among HCV isolates in different areas in Asia such as southern (Hat Yai) and northern (Chiang Mai) parts of Thailand, Indonesia (Surabaya), the Philippines (Manila) and Japan (Kobe). Sera were obtained from various groups of patients and tested for antibodies against HCV using second and/or third generation ELISA kits. RNA was extracted from anti-HCV-positive sera and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. The cDNA-preparations were subjected to nested PCR to amplify NS5B and 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) sequences. Amplified fragments were sequenced and subtypes of the isolates were determined based on sequence similarities with reported sequences. In Chiang Mai and Hat Yai, Thailand, HCV-3a, HCV-1a and HCV-1b were common in various populations. HCV type 6 variants were commonly found among blood donors and drug addicts in Chiang Mai, but not in Hat Yai. In Surabaya, Indonesia, HCV-2a was frequently detected in blood donors, but less frequently in patients with chronic liver disease. In blood donors, HCV-1a, HCV-1b and HCV-1d were more strongly associated with elevation of serum aminotransferase levels than HCV-2a. HCV-1a was significantly more common in patients on maintenance hemodialysis than in blood donors or patients with chronic liver disease. HCV-1d was detected exclusively in Indonesia. Another unique subtype HCV-3g was found also in Indonesia, though less frequently than HCV-1d. In the Philippines, a vast majority of the isolates were either HCV-1a or HCV-1b. Thus, HCV subtype prevalence varies among different regions of

  12. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    PubMed

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  13. High resolution seismic-reflection imaging of shallow deformation beneath the northeast margin of the Manila high at Big Lake, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.; Worley, D.M.; Guccione, M.J.; Van Arsdale, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    The Manila high, an elliptical area 19 km long (N-S) by 6 km wide (E-W) located west-southwest of Big Lake. Arkansas, has less than 3 m of topographic relief. Geomorphic, stratigraphic and chronology data indicate that Big Lake formed during at least two periods of Holocene uplift and subsequent damming of the south-flowing Little River. Age data of an organic mat located at the base of an upper lacustrine deposit indicates an abrupt, possibly tectonic, formation of the present Big Lake between AD 1640 and 1950. We acquired 7 km of high-resolution seismic-reflection data across the northeastern margin of the Manila high to examine its near-surface bedrock structure and possible association with underlying structures such as the Blytheville arch. Sense of displacement and character of imaged faults support interpretations for either a northwest trending, 1.5 km-wide, block of uplifted strata or a series of parallel northeast-trending faults that bound horst and graben structures. We interpret deformation of the Manila high to result from faulting generated by the reactivation of right-lateral strike-slip fault motion along this portion of the Blytheville arch. The most recent uplift of the Manila high may have occurred during the December 16, 1811, New Madrid earthquake. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Molecular and histological identification of Marteilioides infection in Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum and Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the south coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Limpanont, Yanin; Yanin, Limpanont; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Jeung, Hee-Do; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Le, Thanh Cuong; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    The oyster ovarian parasite Marteilioides chungmuensis has been reported from Korea and Japan, damaging the oyster industries. Recently, Marteilioides-like organisms have been identified in other commercially important marine bivalves. In this study, we surveyed Marteilioides infection in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, Suminoe oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, using histology and Marteilioides-specific small subunit (SSU) rDNA PCR. The SSU rDNA sequence of M. chungmuensis (1716 bp) isolated from C. gigas in Tongyoung bay was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis reported in Japan. Inclusions of multi-nucleated bodies in the oocytes, typical of Marteilioides infection, were identified for the first time in Suminoe oysters. The SSU rDNA sequence of a Marteilioides-like organism isolated from Suminoe oysters was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis. Marteilioides sp. was also observed from 7 Manila clams of 1840 individuals examined, and the DNA sequences of which were 98.2% similar to the known sequence of M. chungmuensis. Unlike Marteilioides infection of Pacific oysters, no remarkable pathological symptoms, such as large multiple lumps on the mantle, were observed in infected Suminoe oysters or Manila clams. Distribution of the infected Manila clams, Suminoe oysters and Pacific oysters was limited to small bays on the south coast, suggesting that the southern coast is the enzootic area of Marteilioides infection.

  15. TIME (Training in a Manila Envelope): A Child Care Plus+ Outreach Project To Expand Care and Education Options for Young Children with Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sandra L.

    This final report summarizes the activities of TIME (Training in a Manila Envelope), a federally funded project designed to replicate the Child Care plus+ model of inservice training by providing: (1) a course on inclusion directly for child care providers and other early childhood professionals in rural areas across the nation; and (2) training…

  16. Molecular analysis of new isolates of Tomato leaf curl Philippines virus and an associated betasatellite occurring in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pradeep; Matsuda, N; Bajet, N B; Ikegami, M

    2011-02-01

    Three new begomovirus isolates and one betasatellite were obtained from a tomato plant exhibiting leaf curl symptom in Laguna, the Philippines. Typical begomovirus DNA components representing the three isolates (PH01, PH02 and PH03) were cloned, and their full-length sequences were determined to be 2754 to 2746 nucleotides. The genome organizations of these isolates were similar to those of other Old World monopartite begomoviruses. The sequence data indicated that PH01 and PH02 were variants of strain B of the species Tomato leaf curl Philippines virus, while PH03 was a variant of strain A of the species Tomato leaf curl Philippines virus. These isolates were designated ToLCPV-B[PH:Lag1:06], ToLCPV-B[PH:Lag2:06], and ToLCPV-A[PH:Lag3:06], respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the present isolates form a separate monophyletic cluster with indigenous begomoviruses reported earlier in the Philippines. A betasatellite isolated from same sample belongs to the betasatellite species Tomato leaf curl Philippines betasatellite and designated Tomato leaf curl Philippines betasatellite-[Philippines:Laguna1:2006], ToLCPHB-[PH:Lag1:06]. When co-inoculated with this betasatellite, tomato leaf curl Philippines virus induced severe symptoms in N. benthamiana and Solanum lycopersicum plants. Using a PVX-mediated transient assay, we found that the C4 and C2 proteins of tomato leaf curl Philippines virus and the βC1 protein of ToLCPHB-[PH:Lag1:06] function as a suppressor of RNA silencing.

  17. Comparison of Research Productivity Between Metro and Non-Metro Cities in a Biomedical Journal from India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, KVS Hari; Aravinda, K

    2013-01-01

    Background: The research productivity of a place depends on doctors, patients and available infrastructure to carry research activities. Aims: We aimed to study the publishing trends and research productivity of metro and non-metro cities in the Journal of the Association of Physi cians of India (JAPI). Materials and Methods: Bibliometric analysis of research articles published in JAPI between 2000 and 2011was undertaken. The four types of articles (original articles including brief reports, case reports, correspondence and pictorial image) were studied for research productivity. They were analyzed according to subspecialty, publication times and type of research work from both places. Comparison between groups was done using Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney U test. Descriptive statistics were used and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of a total of 2977 articles, 1798 were available for analysis. Metros published 46% (825/1798) and non-metros 54% (973/1798). Original articles and case reports constituted 3/4th of the published literature from both places. Pictorial images were seen more from non-metro cities (P = 0.03). Mumbai and Delhi were leading from the metros, whereas Varanasi and Chandigarh were leading from the non-metro places. Endocrinology, Neurology, Cardiology and Infectious Diseases constituted the top four subspecialties from both places. Neurology articles were published more from non-metros (P = 0.03). The timelines from submission to publication varied between 12 and 15 months, and were lesser for articles from the metros (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Metros and non-metro cities are comparable in publishing trends and research productivity. Places with post-graduate institutes contribute majority of the research articles. Faster publication timelines from metros indicate better manuscript content and preparation. PMID:23919186

  18. Enhanced metro MSTP and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangcheng; Qiao, Yang

    2005-02-01

    With the large-scale application of metro MSTP in recent two years, a lot of problems have emerged inevitably. Some more advanced technologies or mechanisms are needed to deal with the application problems of current version MSTP. RPR and MPLS become new focus of enhanced MSTP"s features and the combination of them will boost maturity and further development of enhanced metro MSTP. The MSTP embedded with RPR and MPLS not only find a solution for perfect transport of TDM service, but also improve the support ability for data traffic and bandwidth utilization. With the help of enhanced MSTP, it"s easy for network carriers to provide a reliable, cost-effective, flexible and competitive transport infrastructure delivering various advanced services. RPR firstly solves the conflict between the transport efficiency and QoS of packet service via some mechanisms such as dual counter-rotating ringlet, statistical multiplexing, bandwidth sharing, topology discovery, fairness control etc. Secondly, RPR guarantees the QoS of subscriber by strict service classification and priority. Thirdly, RPR can provide the carrier-class protection within 50ms. On the other hand, MPLS can solve the lack of VLAN ID by LSP labeling and in addition it offers VPN service for different customers then enhances the SLA. Most of all, MPLS provide cross-networking ability, end-to-end service configuration and QoS guarantee, traffic engineering and network optimization. Enhanced MSTP will be applied in convergence or access layer of metro network first. It could have the function of RPR and MPLS at the same time, the reconciliation sub-layer should adopts GFP or LAPS encapsulation, the mapping granularity can be based on VC-12/VC3/VC4-Xc/v and the LCAS should be supported when the transmission channels are configured by virtual concatenation. Enhanced MSTP can be used to build either a single ring network or multi-ring network for improving the ability and quality of Ethernet transportation and

  19. The Impact of American Education in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casambre, Napoleon J.

    1982-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the American educational system in the Philippines and discussions of the impact of American education in that country during its colonial period and in the years following World War II. (JN)

  20. A Success Story of Philippine Counterinsurgency: A Study of Bohol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    the Philippines which serves as the organizational brain of the revolution. It provides the political leadership to the entire revolutionary...China) sisterhood agreement, the Chocolate Hills membership in the Association of World Famous Mountains, and the sisterhood memorandum of

  1. Rainfall Totals from the Tropical Cyclones Passing Over Philippines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Rainfall totals from the TRMM satellite of all tropical cyclones that passed through the Philippines from January through November 11, 2013. Red indicated areas where rainfall totals were greater t...

  2. IMERG Shows Rainfall Totals Over the Philippines from Melor

    NASA Video Gallery

    The highest rainfall totals during this five day period were still found along the typhoon's path in the central Philippines where rainfall totals were now measured by IMERG at over 899 mm (35.4 in...

  3. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BUILDING 23, FORMER LOBBY, SHOWING PHILIPPINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BUILDING 23, FORMER LOBBY, SHOWING PHILIPPINE MAHOGANY PANELING, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Pass over Eastern Asia to Philippine Sea and Guam

    NASA Video Gallery

    This pass begins over Mongolia, looking towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea...

  5. Territorial Disputes in Spratly: An Assessment of the Philippine Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    07 October 2012). 30 Christine Ong, “Philippine tourism industry braced for extended China travel ban,” Channel News Asia Website, May 14, 2012...skirmishes, harassment and detention of fishermen, a series of diplomatic rows, and travel bans, as well as strains on economic relations. The South...exporting their goods to China for over a decade.29 Aside from this, China imposed a tourism ban in 2012 against the Philippines. As a result, it is

  6. Finding the Missing Link to a Successful Philippine Counterinsurgency Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    24. Morales ’ work cites this statement by Rodolfo Salas, originally published in the Philippine Daily Inquirer, 10 Feb 2003. 35 Jose Maria Sison...Internal Security Plan (NISP), 2-4. 12 Ibid, 1. 13 Jose Maria Sison (Joma) aka Amado Guerrero, “Author’s Introduction,” Philippine Society and...split into two main factions, the Reaffirmists who favor Jose Maria Sison’s Maoist strategy of waging revolution in the countryside and the

  7. Philippine Counterinsurgency Success: Implications for the Human Domain of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    defensive success by an indigenous warrior, the modern-day Philippines has been greatly influenced by nearly 350 years of challenging Spanish occupation...against the communist New People’s Army, population relocation was not an option. Muslims have long lived in the Philippines and with indigenous Filipino...including physical, social, demographic, religious, multi-cultural, indigenous , settled, and psychological issues. As 19 a result, and

  8. Insurgency: The Philippine Experience a Way of Life.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-07

    Insurgency and the Philippines have been together ever since the country was introduced to the rest of the world by Portuguese sailor, Ferdinand ... Magellan , who sailed for Spain. The idea that the Europeans brought insurgency to the islands is an idea that this part of the country’s history proves... Magellan and his intrepid sailors are part of this proof. From 1521 up to the present, the Philippines and insurgency are a married couple who are

  9. All Wars are Local: Lessons from the Philippine Insurrection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Philippine Insurrection of 1899-1902 is a little remembered part of US history. The US sent forces halfway...increasingly unpopular at home. The US Army had to cope with a lack of knowledge about the people, the local politics, and the terrain. The Army adapted to...many of the lessons of a century ago slipped away. This paper will look at the events of the Philippine Insurrection and examine what the US military

  10. Life and death in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Dupont, P

    2013-01-01

    In a country in which contraception is controversial, abortion illegal and in which reproductive rights are limited, IVF is an unaffordable dream for most couples. But things are slowly changing in the only Christian democracy in Asia: the Philippines. In December 2012 the Senate passed the Reproductive Health bill and president Benigno Aquino III signed the measure into a law which is still not implemented due to the opposition of the ultra-orthodox Roman Catholic Church. However, the more liberal perspective of pope Francis on sexuality and human reproduction may have an positive impact on this issue. While government funding for contraceptives is still being opposed, the IVF market is estimated to grow considerable. This creates promising opportunities.

  11. Nematode problems affecting agriculture in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Davide, R G

    1988-04-01

    Nematodes are considered major pests on most economic crops in the Philippines, particularly on banana, pineapple, citrus, tomato, ramie, and sugarcane. Radopholus similis is the most destructive nematode on banana, while Meloidogyne spp. are more serious on various vegetable crops such as tomato, okra, and celery and on fiber crops such as ramie. Tylenchulus semipenetrans is a problem on citrus and Rotylenchulus reniformis on pineapple and some legume crops. Hirschmanniella oryzae and Aphelenchoides besseyi are becoming serious on rice, and Pratylenchus zeae is affecting corn in some areas. Lately, Globodera rostochiensis has been causing serious damage on potato in the highlands. Control measures such as crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, chemical nematicide application, and biological control have been recommended to control these nematodes.

  12. Physiological responses of Manila clams Venerupis (=Ruditapes) philippinarum with varying parasite Perkinsus olseni burden to toxic algal Alexandrium ostenfeldii exposure.

    PubMed

    Lassudrie, Malwenn; Soudant, Philippe; Richard, Gaëlle; Henry, Nicolas; Medhioub, Walid; da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Donval, Anne; Bunel, Mélanie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Lambert, Christophe; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Fabioux, Caroline; Hégaret, Hélène

    2014-09-01

    Manila clam stock from Arcachon Bay, France, is declining, as is commercial harvest. To understand the role of environmental biotic interactions in this decrease, effects of a toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, which blooms regularly in Arcachon bay, and the interaction with perkinsosis on clam physiology were investigated. Manila clams from Arcachon Bay, with variable natural levels of perkinsosis, were exposed for seven days to a mix of the nutritious microalga T-Iso and the toxic dinoflagellate A. ostenfeldii, a producer of spirolides, followed by seven days of depuration fed only T-Iso. Following sacrifice and quantification of protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni burden, clams were divided into two groups according to intensity of the infection ("Light-Moderate" and "Moderate-Heavy"). Hemocyte and plasma responses, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant enzyme activities in gills, and histopathological responses were analyzed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes and catalase (CAT) activity in gills increased with P. olseni intensity of infection in control clams fed T-Iso, but did not vary among A. ostenfeldii-exposed clams. Exposure to A. ostenfeldii caused tissue alterations associated with an inflammatory response and modifications in hemocyte morphology. In the gills, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased, and an increase in brown cell occurrence was seen, suggesting oxidative stress. Observations of hemocytes and brown cells in tissues during exposure and depuration suggest involvement of both cell types in detoxication processes. Results suggest that exposure to A. ostenfeldii disrupted the pro-/anti-oxidant response of clams to heavy P. olseni intensity. In addition, depressed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in hemocytes of clams exposed to A. ostenfeldii suggests that mitochondrial functions are regulated to maintain homeostasis of digestive enzyme activity and condition index.

  13. De novo transcriptome assembly of Perkinsus olseni trophozoite stimulated in vitro with Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) plasma.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Abul Farah Md; Robledo, Diego; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Alvarez-Dios, Jose A; Harrison, Peter W; Cao, Asunción; Fernández-Boo, Sergio; Villalba, Antonio; Pardo, Belén G; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-03-01

    The protistan parasite Perkinsus olseni is a deadly causative agent of perkinsosis, a molluscan disease affecting Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), having a significant impact on world mollusc production. Deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms in R. philippinarum-P. olseni interaction is crucial for controlling this parasitosis. The present study investigated the transcriptional expression in the parasite trophozoite using RNA-seq. Control and treatment (in vitro challenged with Manila clam-plasma) P. olseni trophozoite RNA were extracted and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument using a 100-bp paired-end sequencing strategy. Paired reads (64.7 million) were de novo assembled using Trinity, and the resultant transcripts were further clustered using CAP3. The re-constructed P. olseni transcriptome contains 47,590 unique transcripts of which 23,505 were annotated to 9764 unique proteins. A large number of genes were associated with Gene Ontology terms such as stress and immune-response, cell homeostasis, antioxidation, cell communication, signal transduction, signalling and proteolysis. Among annotated transcripts, a preliminary gene expression analysis detected 679 up-regulated and 478 down-regulated genes, linked to virulence factors, anti-oxidants, adhesion and immune-response molecules. Genes of several metabolic pathways such as DOXP/MEP, FAS II or folate biosynthesis, which are potential therapeutic targets, were identified. This study is the first description of the P. olseni transcriptome, and provides a substantial genomic resource for studying the molecular mechanisms of the host-parasite interaction in perkinsosis. In this sense, it is also the first evaluation of the parasite gene expression after challenge with clam extracellular products.

  14. Molecular characterization, expression and antimicrobial activities of two c-type lysozymes from manila clam Venerupis philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dinglong; Wang, Qing; Cao, Ruiwen; Chen, Lizhu; Liu, Yongliang; Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Li, Fei; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin

    2017-03-24

    Lysozymes play an important role in the innate immune responses with which mollusks respond to bacterial invasion through its lytic activity. In the present study, two c-type lysozymes (designed as VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2, respectively) were identified and characterized from the manila clam Venerupis philippinarum. The full-length cDNA of VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2 was of 629 and 736 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 156 and153 amino acid residues, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of VpCLYZs showed high similarity to other known invertebrate c-type lysozymes. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested that VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2 belonged to the c-type lysozyme family. Both VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2 transcripts were constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues with different levels. The VpCLYZ-1 transcript was dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas and hemocytes, while VpCLYZ-2 transcript was mainly expressed in the tissues of hepatopancreas and gills. Both the mRNA expression of VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2 was significantly up-regulated at 12 h post Vibrio anguillarum challenge. The recombinant VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2 (designed as rVpCLYZ-1 and rVpCLYZ-2) exhibited lytic activity against all tested bacteria, and rVpCLYZ-1 showed higher activities than rVpCLYZ-2 in killing Micrococcus luteus and V. anguillarum. Overall, our results suggested that VpCLYZ-1 and VpCLYZ-2 belonged to the c-type lysozyme family, and played important roles in the immune responses of manila clam, especially in the elimination of pathogens.

  15. Intra-specific diet shift in manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) as revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and fatty acid biomarker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Y.; Shin, K.

    2011-12-01

    Manila clams sampled in Seonjae Island, Korea with shell lengths (SL) below 19.76 mm in average showed a significantly depleted carbon and nitrogen isotope values (P<0.05) by 0.80~1.41 %. This size related variation can be caused by either altered carbon and nutrient source or by affected isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors. In order to examine size-related diet shift in manila clams, R. philippinarum with different sizes that were constantly fed on known mixed microalgae for several months were sampled from Incheon Fisheries Hacheries Research Institute (IFRI). These manila clams have shown a high intra-species variation in growth rate with a maximum difference of more or less 2.30 cm. The smallest size groups (3.68±0.17 mm and 6.88±0.21 mm) obtained their nutrition from both P. tricornutum and aggregated organic matter that consists of dead or decomposed microalgae or other detritus. Bigger size groups (10.92±0.34 mm and 14.81±0.25 mm) obtained most of their energy from P.tricorutum and also from other phytoplankton unlike the biggest size group (21.15±1.02 mm) that feeds mainly on fresh microalgae of all diets fed. This variation in diet reveals that smaller clams mostly inhale dead or decomposed microalgae that sinks on the bottom while the bigger clams uptake more fresh ones that are still alive. This variation in feeding behavior could have been caused by morphological constraints such as limited siphon length. The results suggest that manila clams greater than and below 19.76 mm in average have different feeding behavior and P. tricornutum and I. galbana were the two most preferred diets for manila clams cultured in IFHRI. The result of fatty acid composition of manila clams in relation to size or growth rate suggests that fast growing clams would have rapid metabolism of fatty acids not required by the animals and an accumulation of the essential fatty acids (PUFA). In addition, their higher energy requirement and more active state

  16. Metro Optical Networks for Homeland Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, James H.

    Metro optical networks provide an enticing opportunity for strengthening homeland security. Many existing and emerging fiber-optic networks can be adapted for enhanced security applications. Applications include airports, theme parks, sports venues, and border surveillance systems. Here real-time high-quality video and captured images can be collected, transported, processed, and stored for security applications. Video and data collection are important also at correctional facilities, courts, infrastructure (e.g., dams, bridges, railroads, reservoirs, power stations), and at military and other government locations. The scaling of DWDM-based networks allows vast amounts of data to be collected and transported including biometric features of individuals at security check points. Here applications will be discussed along with potential solutions and challenges. Examples of solutions to these problems are given. This includes a discussion of metropolitan aggregation platforms for voice, video, and data that are SONET compliant for use in SONET networks and the use of DWDM technology for scaling and transporting a variety of protocols. Element management software allows not only network status monitoring, but also provides optimized allocation of network resources through the use of optical switches or electrical cross connects.

  17. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States. The... INFORMATION: Background In a proposed rule \\1\\ titled ``Importation of Fresh Bananas from the Philippines...

  18. 75 FR 23318 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines-Taxes on Distilled Spirits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines--Taxes on Distilled Spirits... issue. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits at rates that differ depending on the product from which the spirit is distilled. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits made from certain materials that...

  19. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    PubMed Central

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  20. The skin whitening industry in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2014-05-01

    Skin whitening is a big and booming industry in many developing countries. Its popularity owes mainly to post-colonial, internalized racism. This study examines whether government intervention is necessary and more efficient than market-driven approaches in addressing the health risks and harms associated with skin whitening. We gathered empirical data on the quality and quantity of health-related information about skin whiteners with a multi-stage probability sample of consumers in two cities in the Philippines (n=110; α=0.05). Regardless of their socio-demographic characteristics, we find that cognitive biases and information asymmetries build and sustain consumers' trust in manufacturers and distributors of skin whiteners while, paradoxically, breeding uncertainties over the integrity of these products. The results are product adulteration and misbranding, leading to pricing advantages for toxic whiteners over safer products. This has impeded regulatory efficacy. We recommend anchoring government intervention in transaction cost-reduction, containing the externalities of skin bleaching, and institutionalizing third party partnerships. Failure to do so would leave consumers extremely vulnerable to the forces of supply and demand that favor toxic whiteners, particularly in a market where voluntary collective action is difficult to organize.

  1. Play concepts-northwest Palawan, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Harold H.

    The offshore area of northwest Palawan, Philippines, contains a number of provenexploration plays. These include • pinnacle reefs developed on Nido carbonate platforms (e.g. Nido, Matinloc, Cadlao);• a seaward horst block reef fairway with large pinnacle reefs (e.g. Malampaya—Camago trend);• early Miocene Galoc Clastic Unit turbidites (e.g. Octon, Galoc); and• four-way dip closures (e.g. West Linapacan, Octon). The recent discovery by Fletcher Challenge Petroleum at Calauit Field has shown a potentialexploration play in deep-water Nido Limestone turbidites. The traditional and, to date, only economically productive play in northwest Palawan has been the Nido Limestone reefs. This paper presents a review of the old play types and presents new untested play types. These new play types include • pre-Nido syn-rift plays;• pre-Nido marine turbidite play: and• mid-Miocene reefs. It also presents new insights into factors controlling reef development on the carbonate platforms where four reef types are now recognized. The Galoc Clastic Unit turbidite play is discussed and new play fairways presented.

  2. Leveraging messages and corporations: the Philippine experience.

    PubMed

    Rimon Jg

    1989-12-01

    A project using the entertainment media was developed to promote responsible sexual behavior of young people in the Philippines. Music videos by Lea Salonga and the group Menudo were used to sell the message of responsible sexual behavior and to encourage counseling for discussing and solving their problems. There were 2 parts: a commercial phase to make the songs hits with a social message, and an institutional phase to develop counseling centers and a telephone counseling service. The project was planned to use cost sharing with private corporations, and over $1.4 million was obtained from corporate sponsorship. Surveys after the project began showed that 92% of the young people heard the song and 90% like it. Over 51% stated that it had an impact on them, 44% talked to their parents about it, and 25% asked for contraceptive information. Of those surveyed, 83% said they were aware of the telephone counseling service offered. There were over 8,000 calls answered by the counselors. The lessons learned from this project were that the use of professionals and top materials can help gain corporate support and access to the media. By planning to use cost sharing and cost recovery methods, a challenge is presented to the staff to use creative approaches. The use of the right celebrities can aid visibility, credibility and excitement to the project. This approach can be a useful method to promote a social message and get the interest of the private sector.

  3. Insights into the Establishment of the Manila Clam on a Tidal Flat at the Southern End of an Introduced Range in Southern California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Drew M.; Talley, Theresa Sinicrope; Blanco, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystem modifications have contributed to the spread of introduced species through alterations of historic disturbance regimes and resource availability, and increased propagule pressure. Frequency of occurrence of the Manila clam (Venerupis phillipinarum, Veneridae) in Southern California estuaries has increased from absent or sparse to common since the mid-1990s. Potential invasion vectors include seafood sales and aquaculture, and spread from established northern populations over decades. The clam’s post-settlement habitat preferences are, however, uncertain in this region. Our project aimed to identify factors associated with established patches of the clam within a bay toward the southern end of this introduced range. During summer 2013, we sampled 10 tidal flat sites in Mission Bay, San Diego; each containing an area with and without hard structure (e.g., riprap, boulders). We measured likely environmental influences (e.g., sediment variables, distance to ocean). Manila clam densities across the bay were most strongly associated with site, where highest densities were located in the northern and/or back halves of the bay; and weakly correlated with lower porewater salinities. Within sites, Manila clam density was enhanced in the presence of hard structure in most sites. Prevailing currents and salinity regimes likely contribute to bay wide distributions, while hard structures may provide suitable microhabitats (refuge from predators and physical stress) and larval entrapment within sites. Results provide insights into decisions about future shoreline management efforts. Finally, we identify directions for future study to better understand and therefore predict patterns of establishment of the Manila clam in the southern portion of its introduced range. PMID:25793603

  4. Insights into the establishment of the Manila clam on a tidal flat at the southern end of an introduced range in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Talley, Drew M; Talley, Theresa Sinicrope; Blanco, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystem modifications have contributed to the spread of introduced species through alterations of historic disturbance regimes and resource availability, and increased propagule pressure. Frequency of occurrence of the Manila clam (Venerupis phillipinarum, Veneridae) in Southern California estuaries has increased from absent or sparse to common since the mid-1990s. Potential invasion vectors include seafood sales and aquaculture, and spread from established northern populations over decades. The clam's post-settlement habitat preferences are, however, uncertain in this region. Our project aimed to identify factors associated with established patches of the clam within a bay toward the southern end of this introduced range. During summer 2013, we sampled 10 tidal flat sites in Mission Bay, San Diego; each containing an area with and without hard structure (e.g., riprap, boulders). We measured likely environmental influences (e.g., sediment variables, distance to ocean). Manila clam densities across the bay were most strongly associated with site, where highest densities were located in the northern and/or back halves of the bay; and weakly correlated with lower porewater salinities. Within sites, Manila clam density was enhanced in the presence of hard structure in most sites. Prevailing currents and salinity regimes likely contribute to bay wide distributions, while hard structures may provide suitable microhabitats (refuge from predators and physical stress) and larval entrapment within sites. Results provide insights into decisions about future shoreline management efforts. Finally, we identify directions for future study to better understand and therefore predict patterns of establishment of the Manila clam in the southern portion of its introduced range.

  5. Immune response-related gene expression profile of a novel molluscan IκB protein member from Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum).

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Wickamarachchi, Wickramaarachchige Don Niroshana; Whang, Ilson; Oh, Minyoung; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Jehee

    2013-02-01

    Mollusks lack an adaptive immune system and rely solely on the innate immune response. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway is one of the most important components of the innate immune system and its activity is regulated by physical interaction with the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein. The manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum (Rp), is a key species of the world's aquaculture industry, and recent pathogenic threats, such as the Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-expressing Vibrio tapetis bacteria, have produced severe adverse economic impacts. Here, we describe identification, characterization and immune responses of novel IκB (Rp-IκB) in the manila clam. The Rp-IκB cDNA is comprised of a 1,032 bp open reading frame, which encodes 343 amino acid residues and has a predicted molecular mass of 38 kDa. The Rp-IκB protein exhibits typical structural features of IκB family members, including the IκB degradation motif, PEST sequence, and six ankyrin repeats. Phylogenetic analysis showed that manila clam and other known molluscan IκB proteins grouped together in the invertebrate cluster. Analysis of the tissue expression distribution revealed that Rp-IκB was ubiquitously expressed. However, immune challenge with V. tapetis and purified LPS endotoxin induced significant up-regulation of Rp-IκB expression in gill and hemocytes. These results indicated that Rp-IκB may play an important role in manila clam defense against bacterial infection.

  6. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayo, W. S.; Urrutia, J. D.; Temple, J. M. F.; Sandoval, J. R. D.; Sanglay, J. E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a time series model of the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index and its volatility using the finite mixture of ARIMA model with conditional variance equations such as ARCH, GARCH, EG ARCH, TARCH and PARCH models. Also, the study aimed to find out the reason behind the behaviorof PSEi, that is, which of the economic variables - Consumer Price Index, crude oil price, foreign exchange rate, gold price, interest rate, money supply, price-earnings ratio, Producers’ Price Index and terms of trade - can be used in projecting future values of PSEi and this was examined using Granger Causality Test. The findings showed that the best time series model for Philippine Stock Exchange Composite index is ARIMA(1,1,5) - ARCH(1). Also, Consumer Price Index, crude oil price and foreign exchange rate are factors concluded to Granger cause Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index.

  7. Distribution and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides residues in sediments and Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) from along the Mid-Western coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Young; Yang, Dong Beom; Hong, Gi Hoon; Shin, Kyung Hoon

    2014-08-30

    The distribution and bioaccumulation features of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs were investigated in the sediments and Manila clams collected from along the Mid-Western coast of Korea. The measured concentrations of ΣPCBs, ΣDDTs and ΣHCHs were 1.08-3.5, 0.12-0.35 and 0.090-0.30 ng g(-1) dw in sediment, and 33-390, 7.4-46 and 6.3-27 ng g(-1) lipid in Manila clam, respectively. Their levels were found to be relatively lower than those of other contaminated areas and the consumption of Manila clam from these areas seems to be safe for human health according to calculated lifetime cancer risk and hazard indices. The ΣPCBs and ΣDDTs concentrations in sediments showed a significant relationship to those in clams. The significant correlation was observed between BSAF in clams and Kow for each PCB congeners and DDT metabolites. These findings support that the PCBs and DDTs levels, which are highly hydrophobic chemicals, in clam reflect the sediment pollution through bioaccumulation.

  8. NMR-based metabolomic investigations on the differential responses in adductor muscles from two pedigrees of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Yu, Junbao

    2011-01-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature). In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in "Mussel Watch Programs" and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra) of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc) using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals.

  9. A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    General, David M.; Alpert, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. PMID:22767999

  10. Tectonic geomorphology and paleoseismology of the Surigao segment of the Philippine fault in northeastern Mindanao Island, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jeffrey S.; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    The Philippine fault is a major strike-slip fault that traverses the entire Philippine archipelago for more than 1250 km and has generated at least 10 surface rupturing earthquakes for the past 200 years. To better understand its characteristics, we have conducted review of historical earthquakes, tectonic geomorphic mapping and paleoseismic trenching along the 100-km-long Surigao segment, the northernmost segment of the Philippine fault on Mindanao Island. We mapped the Surigao fault based on aerial photographs and identification of well-defined geomorphic features in the field. Combining this with historical accounts and paleoseismic trenching, we have identified and mapped the surface rupture of the 1879 Mw 7.4 Surigao earthquake. Paleoseismic trenching conducted at two sites also led us to identify evidence of at least four surface-rupturing earthquakes including the 1879 event during the past 1300 years.

  11. SPace Radar Image of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false color L-band and C-band image of the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, centered at about 15 degrees north latitude, 120.5 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 78 on April 13, 1994. The false-color composite is made by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HV return in blue. The area shown is approximately 45 by 68 kilometers (28 by 42 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions, and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano, are easily seen in this image. The red color on the high slopes show the rougher ash deposited during the 1991 eruption. The dark drainages are the smooth mudflows which continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. Radar images such as this one can be used to identify the areas flooded by mudflows, which are difficult to distinguish visually, and to assess the rate at which the erosion and deposition continues. A key aspect of the second SIR-C/X-SAR mission in August 1994 will be to collect a second image of Pinatubo during the summer monsoon season -- new mudflows will have occurred -- and to evaluate the short-term changes. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines is well known for its near-global effects on the atmosphere and climate due to the large amount of sulfur dioxide that was injected into the upper atmosphere. What is less widely known is that even today the volcano continues to be a major hazard to the people who have returned to the area around the volcano. Dangerous mudflows (called 'lahars') are often generated by heavy rains, and these can still sweep down river valleys and wash out roads and villages, or bury low lying areas in several meters of mud and volcanic debris. These mudflows will continue to be a severe hazard around Pinatubo for

  12. Developing the Philippines as a Global Hub for Disaster Risk Reduction - A Health Research Initiative as Presented at the 10th Philippine National Health Research System Week Celebration.

    PubMed

    Banwell, Nicola; Montoya, Jaime; Opeña, Merlita; IJsselmuiden, Carel; Law, Ronald; Balboa, Gloria J; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Murray, Virginia

    2016-10-25

    The recent Philippine National Health Research System (PNHRS) Week Celebration highlighted the growing commitment to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Philippines. The event was lead by the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology and the Department of Health, and saw the participation of national and international experts in DRR, and numerous research consortia from all over the Philippines. With a central focus on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the DRR related events recognised the significant disaster risks faced in the Philippines. They also illustrated the Philippine strengths and experience in DRR. Key innovations in science and technology showcased at the conference include the web-base hazard mapping applications 'Project NOAH' and 'FaultFinder'. Other notable innovations include 'Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters' (SPEED) which monitors potential outbreaks through a syndromic reporting system. Three areas noted for further development in DRR science and technology included: integrated national hazard assessment, strengthened collaboration, and improved documentation. Finally, the event saw the proposal to develop the Philippines into a global hub for DRR. The combination of the risk profile of the Philippines, established national structures and experience in DRR, as well as scientific and technological innovation in this field are potential factors that could position the Philippines as a future global leader in DRR. The purpose of this article is to formally document the key messages of the DRR-related events of the PNHRS Week Celebration.

  13. Developing the Philippines as a Global Hub for Disaster Risk Reduction - A Health Research Initiative as Presented at the 10th Philippine National Health Research System Week Celebration

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Nicola; Montoya, Jaime; Opeña, Merlita; IJsselmuiden, Carel; Law, Ronald; Balboa, Gloria J.; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Murray, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    The recent Philippine National Health Research System (PNHRS) Week Celebration highlighted the growing commitment to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Philippines. The event was lead by the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology and the Department of Health, and saw the participation of national and international experts in DRR, and numerous research consortia from all over the Philippines. With a central focus on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the DRR related events recognised the significant disaster risks faced in the Philippines. They also illustrated the Philippine strengths and experience in DRR. Key innovations in science and technology showcased at the conference include the web-base hazard mapping applications ‘Project NOAH’ and ‘FaultFinder’. Other notable innovations include ‘Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters’ (SPEED) which monitors potential outbreaks through a syndromic reporting system. Three areas noted for further development in DRR science and technology included: integrated national hazard assessment, strengthened collaboration, and improved documentation. Finally, the event saw the proposal to develop the Philippines into a global hub for DRR. The combination of the risk profile of the Philippines, established national structures and experience in DRR, as well as scientific and technological innovation in this field are potential factors that could position the Philippines as a future global leader in DRR. The purpose of this article is to formally document the key messages of the DRR-related events of the PNHRS Week Celebration. PMID:27867737

  14. Annual variations of biogenic element contents of manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) bottom-cultivated in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Binduo; Zhang, Chongliang; Ren, Yiping

    2014-08-01

    Manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) was monthly sampled from its benthic aquaculture area in Jiaozhou Bay from May 2009 to June 2010. The annual variations of major elemental composition, organic content, fatness and element ratio of Manila clam were examined. The element removal effect of clam farming in Jiaozhou Bay was analyzed based on natural mortality and clam harvest. The results indicated that the variation trend of carbon content in shell ( C shell) was similar to that in clam ( C clam). Such a variation was higher in summer and autumn than in other seasons, which ranged from 9.10 ± 0.13 to 10.38 ± 0.09 mmol g-1 and from 11.28 ± 0.29 to 12.36 ± 0.06 mmol g-1, respectively. Carbon content of flesh ( C flesh) showed an opposite variation trend to that of shell in most months, varying from 29.42 ± 0.05 to 33.64 ± 0.62 mmol g-1. Nitrogen content of shell ( N shell) and flesh ( N flesh) changed seasonally, which was relatively low in spring and summer. N shell and N flesh varied from 0.07 ± 0.009 to 0.14 ± 0.009 mmol g-1 and from 5.46 ± 0.12 to 7.39 ± 0.43 mmol g-1, respectively. Total nitrogen content of clam ranged from 0.50 ± 0.003 to 0.76 ± 0.10 mmol g-1 with a falling tend except for a high value in March 2010. Phosphorus content of clam ( N clam) fluctuated largely, while phosphorus content of shell ( P shell) was less varied than that of flesh ( P flesh). P shell varied from 0.006 ± 0.001 to 0.016 ± 0.001 mmol g-1; while P flesh fluctuated between 0.058 ± 0.017 and 0.293 ± 0.029 mmol g-1. P clam ranged from 0.015 ± 0.002 to 0.041 ± 0.006 mmol g-1. Carbon and nitrogen content were slightly affected by shell length, width or height. Elemental contents were closely related to the reproduction cycle. The removal amounts of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from clam harvest and natural death in Jiaozhou Bay were 2.92×104t, 1420 t and 145 t, respectively. The nutrient removal may aid to reduce the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus

  15. Contextual Realities of Teacher Education in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarao-Fernandez, Editha; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching might not be the most popular profession in the world but it is undoubtedly the most populated. There are indeed some 57 million teachers in the world, about two thirds of whom work in the developing world. Over the years, the teacher and the teaching profession in the Philippines have been confronted by various issues and concerns that…

  16. Studies in Philippine Linguistics. Vol. 1, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edrial-Luzares, Casilda, Ed.; Hale, Austin, Ed.

    This volume is devoted to papers on an empirical or theoretical nature contributing to the study of language and communicative behavior in the Philippines. Articles included are: (1) "The Phonemic Consequences of Two Morphophonemic Rules in Molbog," by H. Arnold Thiessen; (2) "A Look at a Northern Kankanay Text (a syntactic…

  17. Social Equity and Access to a Philippine STEM School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talaue, Frederick Toralballa

    2014-01-01

    Like most developing countries in the world, there is a huge gap in opportunities to access quality science education between students from the high- and low-socioeconomic strata of Philippine society. In establishing its own science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high school, despite limited public funding in 1964, the…

  18. A System within a System: The Philippine Schools Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regis, Czarina Valerie A.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2006-01-01

    The Philippine school system is considered as one of the largest in the world with 41,989 public elementary and secondary schools and 7,790 private schools under the supervision and regulation of the Department of Education [DepEd Fact Sheet, 2005]. On top of this statistics are 40 duly-registered educational institutions called the Philippine…

  19. A Brief History of Educational Assessment in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The report presents a primer on the history of educational assessment in the Philippines. The history of educational assessment is described by the different pillars that contributed to its development. These factors include timelines of government mandates, studies done in the national level, universities that shape experts in the field,…

  20. Philippine geothermal resources: General geological setting and development

    SciTech Connect

    Datuin, R.T.; Troncales, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Phillippine Archipelago has a composite geologic structure arising from the multi-stage development of volcanic-tectonic events evidenced by volcanism and seismic activity occurring along the active blocks of the major structural lines which traverse most of the major islands of the Phillipines. The widespread volcanic activity located along the active tectonic block has generated regions of high heat flow, where a vast number of potential rich geothermal resources could be exploited as an alternative source of energy. As part of a systematic geothermal development program launched by the Philippine government after the successful pilot study at the Tiwi geothermal field in 1967 by the Commission on Volcanology (now called the Philippine Institute of Volcanology-PIV), the Philippines developed four geothermal fields in the period 1972-84. These four areas, Tiwi in Albay, Mak-Ban in Laguna, Tongonan in Leyte, and Palinpinon in Southern Negros, have already contributed 891 MW installed capacity to the total electrical power supply of the country, which is mainly dependent on oil resources. The Philippines envisaged that, with its accelerated geothermal energy programme, it would be able to achieve its target of reducing the country's dependence on imported fossil fuel by about 20% within the next decade through the utilization of its vast geothermal energy resources.

  1. Women's Participation in Higher Education: China, Nepal, and the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    These studies of the involvement of women in higher education in China, Nepal, and the Philippines provide a common framework for analysis. Each study is organized around five broad areas: socio-cultural factors, politico-economic factors, ideological factors, legal factors, and infrastructural factors. An analysis of the progress of women's…

  2. The Impact of Globalization on Teacher Education: The Philippine Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; dela Rosa, Praxedes S. M.; Arcangel, Clotilde N.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study is an attempt to describe how administrators, teachers and researchers in a select group of teacher education institutions (TEIs) in the capital of the Philippines collectively view globalization. Specifically, concepts of a globalized teacher education, impact of globalization in teacher education, and problems of teacher…

  3. Advancing Low Emission Growth in the Philippines (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines, an island nation of nearly 100 million people and one of the world?s 15 most populous nations, is grappling with the challenge of expanding economic opportunities for its people. At the same time, it is one of the nations at greatest risk from climate change impacts, including rising sea levels and more frequent and intense floods and storms.

  4. Organ donation in the Philippines: should the dead do more?

    PubMed

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Philippines should focus on ways of dealing with end-stage renal disease by getting more transplantable kidneys from the dead. Would it be more ethical to put the burden to donate on the dead (who have already lost their chance to consent) than on the living (who can consent)? Given the risks involved in undergoing nephrectomy and the lack of benefits arising from the procedure to donors, the dead should be the first to put their kidneys on the line. In the Philippines, unfortunately, living donors have had to bear the greater burden in this regard. Starting with a brief account of developments surrounding the impact of the Declaration of Istanbul on the situation in the Philippines as well as in other countries, the paper examines what the living have been expected to do, what they have actually done, and what lessons the experience with living donors offers for the understanding of cadaver transplants. The paper then looks at possible ways of increasing the sources of kidneys for transplantation and asks if these ways could be implemented successfully and ethically in the Philippines.

  5. Skills for the Labor Market in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gropello, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    The Philippines has experienced overall growth over these last twenty years, but the growth of the manufacturing sector has been sluggish and the country has lost innovation capacity. Re-gaining momentum will depend on many factors, but skills have a key role to play to support the growing service sector, help improve the competitiveness of the…

  6. Features and Historical Aspects of the Philippines Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Sajid; Ziatdinov, Rushan

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the features of the Philippine educational system. Additionally, brief and concise information will be given on how the educational system came into existence, the organization and the structure of the system itself. This paper also tackles the obstacles and problems observed in the past and up to the present, and gives…

  7. A Composite Dictionary of Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riego de Rios, Maria Isabelita

    1989-01-01

    This dictionary is a composite of four Philippine Creole Spanish dialects: Cotabato Chabacano and variants spoken in Ternate, Cavite City, and Zamboanga City. The volume contains 6,542 main lexical entries with corresponding entries with contrasting data from the three other variants. A concluding section summarizes findings of the dialect study…

  8. The Philippine Press after Marcos: Restored Freedoms and New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimary, Donald L.

    With the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos from his 20-year rule of the Philippines, the news media regained its freedom and its voice, and now faces a new set of problems: low circulation, questionable ethical standards of reporters and their lack of experience, and ominous indications from the Corazon Aquino government that the administration might…

  9. Complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus isolated in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Kent D; Suarez, Lady-Anne C; Labayo, Hannah Karen M; Liles, Veni R; Salvoza, Noel C; Klinzing, David C; Daroy, Maria Luisa G; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F

    2014-06-26

    Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, which causes a febrile illness with arthralgia in humans. We report here on the complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus strain CHIKV-13-112A isolated from a patient in the Philippines who was suspected to have dengue virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain is of the Asian genotype.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Chikungunya Virus Isolated in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Kent D.; Suarez, Lady-Anne C.; Labayo, Hannah Karen M.; Liles, Veni R.; Salvoza, Noel C.; Klinzing, David C.; Natividad, Filipinas F.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, which causes a febrile illness with arthralgia in humans. We report here on the complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus strain CHIKV-13-112A isolated from a patient in the Philippines who was suspected to have dengue virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain is of the Asian genotype. PMID:24970822

  11. Quo Vadis? LIS Postgraduate Education in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dizon, Fernan R.; Sagun, Karryl Kim A.; Alfiler-Macalalad, Ana Grace P.

    2011-01-01

    The paper intends to shed light on the predicament faced by many Filipino. Librarians: the lack of local institutions offering a library and information science (LIS) postgraduate degree. The paper aims to reveal the state of Philippine LIS postgraduate education by considering the number of librarians who have pursued and are still pursuing…

  12. International Briefing 26: Training and Development in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udani, Zenon Arthur S.; Sunio, Varsolo C.; Dado, Raul H.; Udani, Delia S.

    2012-01-01

    The Philippines has a population of more than 94 million. In addition, 10 million Filipinos work and live overseas. Filipino talent is ubiquitous overseas, working in offices, universities, hotels and restaurants, factories, shopping malls, theaters and arenas, and private homes around the world. The country's projected high rate of economic…

  13. Forensic DNA evidence and the death penalty in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    De Ungria, M C A; Sagum, M S; Calacal, G C; Delfin, F C; Tabbada, K A; Dalet, M R M; Te, T O; Diokno, J I; Diokno, M S I; Asplen, C A

    2008-09-01

    The death penalty remains a contentious issue even though it has been abolished in countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, European Union member nations and some Asian countries such as Cambodia, East Timor and Nepal. Many argue that the irrevocability of the death penalty, in the face of potential erroneous convictions, can never justify its imposition. The Philippines, the first Asian country that abolished the death penalty in 1987, held the record for the most number of mandatory death offenses (30 offenses) and death eligible offenses (22 offenses) after it was re-imposed in 1994. Majority of death penalty convictions were decided based on testimonial evidence. While such cases undergo automatic review by the Supreme Court, the appellate process in the Philippines is not structured to accept post-conviction evidence, including DNA evidence. Because of the compelling nature of post-conviction DNA evidence in overturning death penalty convictions in the United States, different groups advocated its use in the Philippines. In one such case, People v Reynaldo de Villa, the defendant was charged with raping his 13-year-old niece that supposedly led to birth of a female child, a situation commonly known as 'criminal paternity'. This paper reports the results of the first post-conviction DNA test using 16 Short Tandem Repeat (STR) DNA markers in a criminal paternity case (People v Reynaldo de Villa) and discusses the implications of these results in the Philippine criminal justice system.

  14. Government officials' representation of nurses and migration in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Masselink, Leah E; Daniel Lee, Shoou-Yih

    2013-01-01

    During the past few decades, the nursing workforce has been in crisis in the United States and around the world. Many health care organizations in developed countries recruit nurses from other countries to maintain acceptable staffing levels. The Philippines is the centre of a large, mostly private nursing education sector and an important supplier of nurses worldwide, despite its weak domestic health system and uneven distribution of health workers. This situation suggests a dilemma faced by developing countries that train health professionals for overseas markets: how do government officials balance competing interests in overseas health professionals' remittances and the need for well-qualified health professional workforces in domestic health systems? This study uses case studies of two recent controversies in nursing education and migration to examine how Philippine government officials represent nurses when nurse migration is the subject of debate. The study finds that Philippine government officials cast nurses as global rather than domestic providers of health care, implicating them in development more as sources of remittance income than for their potential contributions to the country's health care system. This orientation is motivated not simply by the desire for remittance revenues, but also as a way to cope with overproduction and lack of domestic opportunities for nurses in the Philippines.

  15. Understanding Student Attitudes toward Bible Reading: A Philippine Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting from the Philippine experience, this article explores an emerging picture that characterizes contemporary Bible reading attitudes of college students. Six new attitude factor definitions are developed following the development of the Bible Reading (BR) attitude scale for college students constructed by this author in a separate study.…

  16. Longfellow's Legacy: Education and the Shaping of Philippine Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Isabel Pefianco

    2004-01-01

    Filipinos are cultural clones of Americans. This was the perception for decades after the 1946 Philippine independence from the United States. What specific strategies did the American colonizers use to create these brown Americans? The answer may be found in the language and literature education imposed by the colonial educators. The success of…

  17. Counseling in the Philippines: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuason, Ma. Teresa G.; Galang Fernandez, Karina Therese; Catipon, Maria Aurora D. P.; Trivino-Dey, Louise; Arellano-Carandang, Ma. Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    The history of colonization and persistent attempts at self-governance in the Philippines parallel the beginnings of counseling in the country, which were largely influenced by the United States. Because of the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004 and the Psychology Act of 2009, counseling is on its way to professionalization and regulation.…

  18. Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    View of Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands. Subic Bay is at the lower left corner, with the sea at the left and Clark Air Force Base (abandoned after the eruption) is to the lower right of the volcano. A turquoise lake occupies the caldera just below the center of the photograph. Mount Pinatubo erupted in June, 1991 after several hundred years of quiet.

  19. Exercise Science Academic Programs and Research in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    MADRIGAL, NORBERTO; REYES, JOSEPHINE JOY; PAGADUAN, JEFFREY; ESPINO, REIL VINARD

    2010-01-01

    In this invited editorial, professors from leading institutions in the Philippines, share information regarding their programs relating to Exercise Science. They have provided information on academic components such as entrance requirements, progression through programs, and professional opportunities available to students following completion; as well as details regarding funding available to students to participate in research, collaboration, and specific research interests. PMID:27182343

  20. Geographies of Social Exclusion: Education Access in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symaco, Lorraine Pe

    2013-01-01

    Despite the massive education sector of the country, the Philippines--being located in the Pacific Ring of Fire and the typhoon belt--is home to a number of natural instabilities that frequently disrupt the school calendar. Conflict areas in selected parts of the island of Mindanao and the remote geographic features of the country also pose…

  1. Philippines: Mobile Tent School for Selected Communities. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasam, Gloria Z.

    The Philippines received the literacy award from Unesco in the 1986 International Literacy Day competition. The award was for the mobile tent school (MTS), an alternative school that can reach out to the most remote and deprived areas where groups of ethnic minorities exist whose cultures have resisted the lure of civilization. The nongraded MTS…

  2. Chikungunya Virus Infections among Patients with Dengue-Like Illness at a Tertiary Care Hospital in the Philippines, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, John Mark; Valderama, Maria Theresa; Lopez, Maria Nila; Chua, Domingo; Latog, Rene; Roque, Vito; Corpuz, June; Klungthong, Chonticha; Rodpradit, Prinyada; Hussem, Kittinun; Poolpanichupatam, Yongyuth; Macareo, Louis; Fernandez, Stefan; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) often co-circulates with dengue virus (DENV). A cross-sectional surveillance study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Manila, Philippines, to describe the prevalence and characteristics of DENV and CHIKV infections among patients seeking care for dengue-like illness. Acute blood samples from patients ≥ 6 months of age clinically diagnosed with dengue from November 2012 to December 2013 underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect DENV and CHIKV RNA. A total of 118 patients with clinically diagnosed dengue (age range = 1–89 years, mean = 22 years; male-to-female ratio = 1.51) were tested by DENV RT-PCR; 40 (34%) were DENV PCR-positive (age range = 1–45 years, mean = 17 years). All DENV serotypes were detected: 11 (28%) DENV-1, 6 (15%) DENV-2, 6 (15%) DENV-3, and 17 (42%) DENV-4. Of 112 patients clinically diagnosed with dengue and tested by CHIKV RT-PCR, 11 (10%) were CHIKV PCR-positive (age range = 2–47 years, mean = 20.3 years). No coinfections were detected. Presenting signs/symptoms did not differ between DENV- and CHIKV-positive cases. Sequencing of envelope 1 gene from two CHIKV PCR-positive samples showed Asian genotype. This study highlights the potential for misdiagnosis of medically attended CHIKV infections as DENV infection and the difficulty in clinically differentiating dengue and chikungunya based on presenting signs/symptoms alone. This underscores the necessity for diagnostic laboratory tests to distinguish CHIKV infections in the background of actively co-circulating DENV. PMID:26416109

  3. Pulmonary paragonimiasis and tuberculosis in Sorsogon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Belizario, V; Guan, M; Borja, L; Ortega, A; Leonardia, W

    1997-01-01

    The clinical epidemiology of pulmonary paragonimiasis and tuberculosis was investigated in a known endemic municipality of Sorsogon, Philippines. Records of diagnosed tuberculosis patients on treatment and follow up at the local Rural Health Unit over a two year period from 1993 to 1994 were reviewed to provide an overview of pulmonary tuberculosis in the area, specifically to describe the population at risk, the basis for diagnosis and the proportion of case notification who were sputum negative. Patients from the same group of individuals as well as undiagnosed tuberculosis patients with productive cough, fever with chest and/or back pain, or hemoptysis were examined to look into clinical manifestations, duration of symptoms, history of crab-eating and sputum examination results for acid-fast bacilli and Paragonimus. There was difficulty in determining the number of non-responders as the records did not have any provision for the recording of such. Annual tuberculosis case notification rates for the two years (374 and 401 per 100,000 population) were higher than the national figure in 1991 (325 per 100,000 population) indicating that tuberculosis is still a major health problem in the area and tuberculosis control efforts may have to be more aggressive to better contain the disease. Twenty-six out of 160 individuals surveyed were sputum smear positive for Paragonimus. Paragonimiasis rates were not significantly different in the two groups (15.6% vs 16.9%, respectively) indicating that there is a need for routine sputum examination for Paragonimus which is not available at present. Only six patients surveyed were sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose paragonimiasis and to be able to differentiate it from tuberculosis. The diagnosis may be suggested by a patient's place of origin being a known endemic area, a long period of chronic cough and the habit of eating raw or insufficiently cooked crabs or crayfish

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the digestive gland of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to BDE-47.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jingjing; Pan, Luqing; Zhang, Wenhao; Liu, Dong; Cai, Yuefeng; Li, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify alterations in gene transcription of the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to 5μg/L 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) for 15days. The ability to accumulate BDE-47 in digestive gland and gill was also evaluated in order to provide information for food safety. Analysis of tissue extracts indicated that digestive gland had the higher BDE-47 levels (12,463.1±1334.8 ng/g d.w.) compared to gill (6368.6±738.7ng/g d.w.) after a 15-day exposure period. Forward and reverse SSH libraries were made from pooled digestive glands of R. philippinarum, from which 75 high quality sequences were obtained by BLAST analysis. The expression of 39 genes with significant homology (E-value<10(-5)) out of the 75 sequences was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Among the 39 genes, 27 genes were found up-regulated while 12 genes were found down-regulated after the BDE-47 exposure. The 39 genes were involved in cellular cycle, cytoskeleton, substance and energy metabolism, stress response, innate immunity and cell signaling and transport which were extensively discussed. This study provides a preliminary basis for studying the response of marine bivalves upon exposure to PBDEs in terms of regulated gene expression.

  5. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in coastal lagoons of the Po River delta: sediment contamination, bioaccumulation and effects on Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Casatta, Nadia; Stefani, Fabrizio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia; Marziali, Laura; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    The large estuary that the River Po forms at its confluence into the Adriatic Sea comprises a multitude of transitional environments, including coastal lagoons. This complex system receives the nutrients transported by the River Po but also its load of chemical contaminants, which may pose a substantial (eco)toxicological risk. Despite the high ecological and economic importance of these vulnerable environments, there is a substantial lack of information on this risk. In light of the recent amendments of the European Water Framework Directive (2013/39/EU), the present study investigated the sediment contamination of six coastal lagoons of the Po delta and its effects on Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), exposed in situ for 3 months. Sediment contamination and clam bioaccumulation of a wide range of chemicals, i.e. trace metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, As), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols (APs), organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organotins (TPhT, TBT), suggested a southward increase related to the riverine transports. Where the River Po influence was more direct, the concentrations of contaminants were higher, with nonylphenol and BDE-209 exceeding sediment quality guidelines. Biometric indicators suggested the influence of contamination on organism health; an inverse relationship between PBDEs in sediments and clam condition index has been found, as well as different biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) in the lagoons.

  6. Physiological performance of the intertidal Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) to long-term daily rhythms of air exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xuwang; Chen, Peng; Chen, Hai; Jin, Wen; Yan, Xiwu

    2017-01-01

    Intertidal organisms, especially the sessile species, often experience long-term periodic air exposure during their lives. Learning the biochemical and physiological responses of intertidal organisms to long-term periodic air exposure and the relationship to duration of air exposure provides insight into adaptation to this variably stressful environment. We studied the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, an important species in world aquaculture, as a model to evaluate survival, growth, lipid composition, oxygen consumption, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity in relation to the duration of air exposure in a long-term (60 days) laboratory study of varying durations of periodic emersion and re-immersion. Our results show: (1) clams undergoing a longer period of air exposure had lower survival and growth compared to those given a shorter exposure, (2) levels of oxidative damage and activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in all air exposure treatments, but did not increase with duration of air exposure, and (3) the content of docosahexaenoic acid increased with duration of air exposure. Our results can largely be interpreted in the context of the energy expenditure by the clams caused by aerobic metabolism during the daily cycle of emersion and re-immersion and the roles of docosahexaenoic acid against oxidative stress. PMID:28128354

  7. Growth performance of larval and juvenile manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) from divergently selected individuals of a full-sib family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhongming; Li, Xiaotong; Sun, Qian; Li, Yongren; Zhang, Xuekai; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the method of divergent selection was employed to test the larval and juvenile growth performance within a full-sib family of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The 10% largest and 10% smallest clam individuals (on the basis of shell length) of a full-sib family were selected as parents for the fast and slow growing lines, respectively. The difference in shell length was significant among the three lines (fast, control, and slow) tested. The sequence of shell length were fast line > control line > slow line. The responses to selection, realized heritability, and genetic gain were 0.06%-0.81%, 0.04%-0.47% and 0.58%-18.89% in the fast direction, respectively; and were 0.14%-1.27%, 0.08%-0.73%, and 0.31%-49.03% in the slow direction, respectively. The results suggested that there was a large portion of additive genetic variance affecting the growth in the full-sib family. Selection in the fast direction within the full-sib family would greatly improve the growth of R. philippinarum.

  8. Protein expression profiling in haemocytes and plasma of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in response to infection with Perkinsus olseni.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Boo, S; Villalba, A; Cao, A

    2016-11-01

    The protein expression profiling in clam haemocytes and plasma in response to Perkinsus olseni was addressed. Adult Manila clams from a P. olseni-free bed were experimentally challenged with parasite zoospores to analyse immune response. In another experiment, the effects of longer term infection were assessed in adult clams collected from a P. olseni-affected bed, by comparing moderate to very heavily infected clams with non-infected ones. Haemocyte and plasma proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis; spot patterns were qualitatively compared between treatments within each experiment and the spots indicating differential protein expression associated with P. olseni challenge or with field infection were processed for protein identification. Fifteen clam proteins (four in haemocytes and eleven in plasma) of which expression was markedly affected by P. olseni were identified. Some of the identified proteins have a well-known role in clam immune response against the parasite, such as lysozyme and lectins. Rho GTPase-activating protein 6 could be a marker of resistance against P. olseni, which should be further studied.

  9. Epidemiology of drowning deaths in the Philippines, 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Go, John Juliard; Guevarra, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Drowning kills 372 000 people yearly worldwide and is a serious public health issue in the Philippines. This study aims to determine if the drowning death rates in the Philippine Health Statistics (PHS) reports from 1980 to 2011 were underestimated. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to describe the trend of deaths caused by drowning in the Philippines from official and unofficial sources in the period 1980 to 2011. Information about deaths related to cataclysmic causes, particularly victims of storms and floods, and maritime accidents in the Philippines during the study period were reviewed and compared with the PHS drowning death data. An average of 2496 deaths per year caused by drowning were recorded in the PHS reports from 1980 to 2011 (range 671–3656). The average death rate was 3.5/100 000 population (range 1.3–4.7). An average of 4196 drowning deaths were recorded from 1980 to 2011 (range 1220 to 8788) when catacylsmic events and maritime accidents were combined with PHS data. The average death rate was 6/100 000 population (range 2.5–14.2). Our results showed that on average there were 1700 more drowning deaths per year when deaths caused by cataclysms and maritime accidents were added to the PHS data. This illustrated that drowning deaths were underestimated in the official surveillance data. Passive surveillance and irregular data management are contributing to underestimation of drowning in the Philippines. Additionally, deaths due to flooding, storms and maritime accidents are not counted as drowning deaths, which further contributes to the underestimation. Surveillance of drowning data can be improved using more precise case definitions and a multisectoral approach. PMID:28246575

  10. Water quality mapping of Laguna de Bay and its watershed, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Nakano, T.; Shin, K.; Maruyama, S.; Miyakawa, C.; Yaota, K.; Kada, R.

    2011-12-01

    Laguna de Bay (or Laguna Lake) is the largest lake in the Philippines, with a surface area of 900 km2 and its watershed area of 2920 km2 (Santos-Borja, 2005). It is located on the southwest part of the Luzon Island and its watershed contains 5 provinces, 49 municipalities and 12 cities, including parts of Metropolitan Manila. The water quality in Laguna de Bay has significantly deteriorated due to pollution from soil erosion, effluents from chemical industries, and household discharges. In this study, we performed multiple element analysis of water samples in the lake and its watersheds for chemical mapping, which allows us to evaluate the regional distribution of elements including toxic heavy metals such as Cd, Pb and As. We collected water samples from 24 locations in Laguna de Bay and 160 locations from rivers in the watersheds. The sampling sites of river are mainly downstreams around the lake, which covers from urbanized areas to rural areas. We also collected well water samples from 17 locations, spring water samples from 10 locations, and tap water samples from 21 locations in order to compare their data with the river and lake samples and to assess the quality of household use waters. The samples were collected in dry season of the study area (March 13 - 17 and May 2 - 9, 2011). The analysis was performed at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN), Japan. The concentrations of the major components (Cl, NO3, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na, and K) dissolved in the samples were determined with ion chromatograph (Dionex Corporation ICS-3000). We also analyzed major and trace elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn Ga, Ge, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, W, Pb and U) with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Agilent Technologies 7500cx). The element concentrations of rivers are characterized by remarkable regional variations. For

  11. Geologic evolution of Western Mindoro Island and the Mindoro Suture Zone, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R.; Karig, Daniel E.

    On Mindoro Island, Philippines, two tectonostratigraphic terranes—the North Palawan and Mindoro blocks—are separated by a steeply-dipping lithospheric boundary, here called the Mindoro Suture Zone. The North Palawan block, which constitutes much of the southern end of the South China Sea, is a continental fragment that was rifted off Eurasia when the South China Basin opened in the mid Tertiary. In the region of western Mindoro and the Mindoro Straits, rocks show evidence of crustal stretching starting in upper Eocene time or earlier. Steep dips displayed by Jurassic strata in southwest Mindoro were acquired prior to the onset of extension, but unconformably overlying upper Eocene through lower Miocene rocks were deposited in an environment of active extension and basin formation, probably associated with major transcurrent faulting. Large volumes of basalt were extruded in the mid Oligocene, at about the time that sea-floor spreading began in the South China Basin. Basalts were differentially uplifted and eroded by upper Oligocene time. Detritus derived from mafic and other source terrains was shed into actively extending grabens and half-grabens, some of which were floored by basalts. Grabens in this area trend NW, oblique to regional N-S extension indicated by magnetic anomalies in the adjacent South China Basin. Field relations on southwest Mindoro indicate that basin genesis was punctuated by local pulses of compression. Timing and patterns of extension and basin evolution suggest that the North Palawan block was bounded on the east by an extensional strike-slip (transtensional) plate boundary. The Mindoro block records a history of shortening that bears no similarity to the structural evolution of the North Palawan block. The pre-upper Cretaceous Mindoro Metamorphics, which constitute the basement of the Mindoro block, underwent intense deformation prior to upper Eocene time that led to at least one transposition of layering, and was accompanied by

  12. The Philippines, the East Asian "Developmental States" and Education: A Comparative Analysis of Why the Philippines Failed to Develop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maca, Mark; Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    After WWII, the economic prospects of the Philippines, then the second-largest economy in Asia, were viewed positively, but by the mid-1970s it had become Asia's developmental puzzle for its failure to sustain economic growth. In contrast during the same period, regional neighbours, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore, achieved previously…

  13. Re-examine the business case for metro optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ted D.

    2004-04-01

    Ethernet is the next big thing in the telecom industry. In the metro network, access capacity is always an issue - not enough bandwidth to offer broadband services which will generate new revenue for service providers. Ethernet has been identified as one of the technologies that can break this spell in the next few years. Then why have we not seen large scale metro Ethernet deployment from any carriers? This article examines the issues in optical Ethernet technology, and the strengths and weakness of works in progress trying to solve them.

  14. Southern Philippines and the Policy of the Second Front in the Global War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    remote parts of the southern Philippines as bases to conduct training and operations. Past attempts by the Government of the Philippines (GRP) to...several camps throughout the province of Magindanao, with the main base located in Camp Abubakar As-Siddique. According to Tiglao, the MILF had...ASG55 is the smallest and the most radical of the three Islamic separatist organizations in the southern Philippines. Based in the Basilan Islands

  15. Lansdale, Magsaysay, America and the Philippines: A Case Study of Limited Intervention Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    chronological analysis of the situation in the Philippines in the context of Lansdale and Magsaysay’s characteristics. Each chapter will analyze a particular...113Joseph T. Hart, The Huk Insurgency in the Philippines, 1946-1954, Conflict Analysis Division, Strategic Studies Counterinsurgency Series (Bethesda, MD...Research Analysis Corporation, 1963), 8. 114Isaacs, “The Danger in the Philippines, Part 2.” 41 Luis Taruc believed that “the Huks can only hold

  16. Racial Equity and Opportunity in Metro Boston Job Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    People of color make up a vital and growing part of Metro Boston's workforce, yet they face substantial challenges in obtaining employment (especially in faster-growing and higher-paying sectors), in reaching locations of rapid job growth, and in earning a livable income. Latinos and blacks face the greatest hurdles, yet certain Asian populations…

  17. METRO-APEX Volume 10.1: Developer's Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Developer's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air Pollution Exercise…

  18. METRO-APEX Volume 5.1: Planner's Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Planner's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air Pollution Exercise…

  19. EVA Metro Sedan Electric Propulsion System Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    This report provides the procedure and results of the performance evaluation of an EVA Metro Sedan propulsion system. Data is provided for the automatic transmission, solid state dc motor controller and the dc motor as well as the entire propulsion system. Algorithms used on the automatic data acquisition system are included. (Author)

  20. Pathologic survey on the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850) from Haeju off the western coastal Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Park, Kwang-Jae; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-06-01

    Pathologic condition of Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum collected from Haeju off the west coast of North Korea in February and March 2007 was investigated in this study. The diagnostics included a protozoan parasite, Perkinsus olseni, the brown ring disease (BRD) caused by bacteria Vibrio tapetis and metazoan parasites Trematod and Cestod. P. olseni infection was examined using histology and Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) assay along with Choi’s NaOH digestion technique. Trematode and cestode infection was also examined from the histology. A total of 140 clams with 35-45 mm in shell length (2-3 years old) were analyzed. Condition factor (CF), a ratio of the wet tissue weight to the shell dry weight, ranged from 0.445±0.074 (February) to 0.544±0.132 (March). Total body burden of P. olseni (i.e. infection intensity) ranged from 18,644±37,755 (February) to 26,933±80,611 cells/g wet tissue (March) with the prevalence of 76.7-43.3% (March) respectively. Prevalence of trematode and cestode infection in February and March varied 22.5-25.0 and 15.0-22.5% respectively. Infection intensity of V. tapetis ranged 1-2 and the prevalence was 1.4 (February) and 5.7% (March). Prevalence and infection intensity of P. olseni in clams from Haeju was comparatively lower than those of clams reported on the west coast of Korea. BRD and the other metazoan parasite infection were also relatively lower or similar to the condition of the clams reported previously. CF of Haeju clams was also relatively higher than the clams in Gyeonggi Bay and Taean, suggesting that Haeju clams had relatively better pathologic and health condition.

  1. Commercial Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) culture in British Columbia, Canada: The effects of predator netting on intertidal sediment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Daphne; McKinley, R. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Quantifying risks posed by aquaculture to adjacent coastal ecosystems is necessary to ensure long term stability of coastal systems and the sustainability of industries that exist therein. Research has demonstrated that the use of predator netting in shellfish aquaculture increases sedimentation rates and productivity; here we examine the influence of netting on the west coast of Canada. Changes in percent silt (sediment particles <63 μm), percent gravel (sediment particles >2 mm), organic and inorganic carbon levels and temperature, and differences in clam populations were monitored on paired netted and non-netted Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) plots on four farmed beaches at Baynes Sound, British Columbia in 2003 and 2004. There were no significant differences in the levels of silt ( p = 0.129, n = 8), gravel ( p = 0.723, n = 8), or inorganic carbon ( p = 0.070, n = 8) between netted and non-netted plots. However, the level of organic carbon was significantly higher on netted plots ( p = 0.014, n = 8) and a slight temperature buffering effect of the netting during low-tide events over the period of study. There were significantly more T. philippinarum on netted plots compared to non-netted plots ( p = 0.001, n = 8) and the length frequency distribution of the populations also differed ( p < 0.00001) with non-netted plots containing slightly smaller clams. The observed increase in organic carbon levels beneath netting is possibly due to biodeposition by T. philippinarum beneath nets and removal of organics by the deposit feeding Nuttallia obsurata on non-netted plots; however that was not tested here. For the locations and parameters monitored in this study, it appears that netting and clam farming in Baynes Sound British Columbia, has limited effect on the sediment.

  2. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Faleri, Claudia; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato

    2013-08-01

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5mgl(-1) HgCl2 and incubated at 30°C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills.

  3. Combined Effects of Temperature and Seston Concentration on the Physiological Energetics of the Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Yoon; Lee, Young-Jae; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Park, Hyun Je; Yun, Sung-Gyu; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2016-01-01

    The suspension-feeding Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is a native species of the western Pacific that is now widely distributed around the globe because of its commercial importance. To determine the adaptive physiological responses to changing thermal and nutritional conditions, clearance, filtration, feces production, ammonium excretion, respiration rates, and scope for growth (SFG) were measured in adult clams. The clams were exposed to 24 treatments involving the combination of four water temperatures (8, 13, 18, and 23°C) and six concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM: 9.5 to 350.5 mg L–1). Physiological rates were standardized by using the mean (480 mg) of tissue dry weights of experimental clams using allometric equations between physiological variables and tissue dry weight. Higher clearance rates were recorded at higher temperatures and lower SPM concentrations, and these rates decreased with increasing SPM concentration at individual temperatures. Consumed energy increased with increasing temperature and SPM concentration, peaking at around 100–200 mg L–1 at 18–23°C. Whereas fecal energy was largely determined by SPM concentration, ammonia excretion was mainly governed by temperature. Respiration rate studies revealed a predominant quadratic effect of temperature on the metabolism, indicating a lack of acclimatory adjustment of metabolic rate to rising temperature. SFG values were positive under almost all the treatment conditions and were much higher at higher SPM concentrations (> 45 mg L–1), with the highest level being recorded at 18°C and 100–200 mg L–1 SPM. Increased filtration rate offset the increased metabolic cost at warm temperatures. Our holistic findings suggest that a high degree of physiological plasticity allows R. philippinarum to tolerate the wide range of temperatures and SPM concentrations that are found in tidal flats, accounting in part for the successful distribution of this species over a wide

  4. Seawater acidification affects the physiological energetics and spawning capacity of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum during gonadal maturation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xian; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Liqiang; Yan, Xiwu

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have widespread implications for marine bivalve mollusks. While our understanding of its impact on their physiological and behavioral responses is increasing, little is known about their reproductive responses under future scenarios of anthropogenic climate change. In this study, we examined the physiological energetics of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to CO2-induced seawater acidification during gonadal maturation. Three recirculating systems filled with 600 L of seawater were manipulated to three pH levels (8.0, 7.7, and 7.4) corresponding to control and projected pH levels for 2100 and 2300. In each system, temperature was gradually increased ca. 0.3°C per day from 10 to 20°C for 30days and maintained at 20°C for the following 40days. Irrespective of seawater pH levels, clearance rate (CR), respiration rate (RR), ammonia excretion rate (ER), and scope for growth (SFG) increased after a 30-day stepwise warming protocol. When seawater pH was reduced, CR, ratio of oxygen to nitrogen, and SFG significantly decreased concurrently, whereas ammonia ER increased. RR was virtually unaffected under acidified conditions. Neither temperature nor acidification showed a significant effect on food absorption efficiency. Our findings indicate that energy is allocated away from reproduction under reduced seawater pH, potentially resulting in an impaired or suppressed reproductive function. This interpretation is based on the fact that spawning was induced in only 56% of the clams grown at pH 7.4. Seawater acidification can therefore potentially impair the physiological energetics and spawning capacity of R. philippinarum.

  5. Toxicological responses to acute mercury exposure for three species of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Linbao; You, Liping; Cong, Ming; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng; Li, Chenghua; Liu, Dongyan; Yu, Junbao

    2011-03-01

    The Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) has been considered a good sentinel species for metal pollution monitoring in estuarine tidal flats. Along the Bohai coast of China, there are dominantly distributed three species of clams (White, Liangdao Red and Zebra in Yantai population) endowed with distinct tolerances to environmental stressors. In this study, adductor muscle samples were collected from both control and acute mercury exposed White, Liangdao Red and Zebra clams, and the extracts were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics to compare the metabolic profiles and responses to the acute mercury exposure to determine the most sensitive clam species capable of acting as abioindicator for heavy metal pollution monitoring. The major abundant metabolites in the White clam sample were branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine), lactate, arginine, aspartate, acetylcholine, homarine and ATP/ADP, while the metabolite profile of Zebra clam sample comprised high levels of glutamine, acetoacetate, betaine, taurine and one unidentified metabolite. For the Liangdao Red clam sample, the metabolite profile relatively exhibited high amount of branched-chain amino acids, arginine, glutamate, succinate, acetylcholine, homarine and two unassigned metabolites. After 48h exposure of 20μgL(-1) Hg(2+), the metabolic profiles showed significant differences between three clam species, which included increased lactate, succinate, taurine, acetylcholine, betaine and homarine and decreased alanine, arginine, glutamine, glutamate, acetoacetate, glycine and ATP/ADP in White clam samples, and elevated succinate, taurine and acetylcholine, and declined glutamine, glycine, and aspartate in Liangdao Red clam samples, while the increased branched-chain amino acids, lactate, succinate, acetylcholine and homarine, and reduced alanine, acetoacetate, glycine and taurine were observed in the Zebra clam samples. Overall, our findings showed that White clams could be a preferable

  6. Predicting coexistence and predominance patterns between the introduced Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and the European native clam (Ruditapes decussatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidegain, Gorka; Bárcena, Javier Francisco; García, Andrés; Juanes, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In several European estuaries, the introduced Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) has become a widespread and predominating species supplanting the native carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) whereas in other estuaries such as the Bay of Santander (Gulf of Biscay) this pattern has not been detected. Using this estuary as a case study, the potential coexistence/predominance patterns between these two species were explored with the objective of providing insight into the capacity of expansion of R. philippinarum. Firstly, the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) was applied to determine the niches of both species, using seven contemporary environmental variables, i.e. salinity, water depth, current velocity, and sediment sand, gravel, silt and organic matter content. Secondly, ENFA-derived habitat-suitability (HS) maps were simultaneously treated, using geospatial techniques and following HS index-based criteria, to determine the potential distribution patterns. Both species models performed well according to the cross-validation evaluation method. The environmental variables that most determined the presence of both clams were depth, current velocity and salinity. ENFA factors showed that R. philippinarum habitat differs more from the mean environmental conditions over the estuary (i.e. higher marginality) and has less narrow requirements (i.e. lower specialization). R. philippinarum dominated areas, determined by relatively lower current velocities and percentages of sand, higher organic matter contents and slightly shallower depths, were very reduced (i.e. 2.0% of the bay surface) compared to coexistence (47%) and R. decussatus predominance areas (7.4%). These results suggest that HS may regulate the expansion of R. philippinarum. ENFA, together with geospatial analysis of HS index, seems to be a valuable approach to explore the expansion potential of estuarine invasive or introduced species and thus support conservation decisions regarding native species.

  7. Evaluation of the potential impact of polluted sediments using Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum: bioaccumulation and biomarker responses.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Hong, Seongjin; Ra, Kongtae; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2011-08-01

    An assessment was made to monitor the short-term impact of heavily polluted sediments that may move out from the brackish man-made Lake Shihwa outside of the sea dike due to operations of a tidal power plant. Here, we exposed the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected from the western coast of Korea to natural sediment under lab condition for 96 h. Sediments were collected from Lake Shihwa and outside of the sea dike representing polluted and reference conditions, respectively. The results of chemical analysis revealed that the concentrations of nonylphenol and heavy metals in water and sediment from the inner region of Lake Shihwa were significantly higher than those of reference sediments. After 48 and 96 h of exposure, 30 specimens of clams were sampled from each experimental condition, and concentrations of nonylphenol and metals were measured in clams, water, and sediments. Several biomarkers, including concentrations of metallothionein-like proteins, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase and catalase were determined in clams to characterize the effects of polluted sediments to clams. After 96 h of exposure, R. philippinarum assimilated nonylphenol up to 71 times compared to initial concentrations. However, there was no apparent uptake of heavy metals into the clams. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes exhibited higher activities in clams exposed to the polluted sediment. The results of the present study with physiological responses in R. philippinarum suggest that sediment transportation caused by the operation of a tidal power plant in Lake Shihwa will have striking effects on benthic organisms in the adjacent coastal area.

  8. Transcriptomics of In Vitro Immune-Stimulated Hemocytes from the Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Rebeca; Balseiro, Pablo; Planas, Josep V.; Fuste, Berta; Beltran, Sergi; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background The Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is a worldwide cultured bivalve species with important commercial value. Diseases affecting this species can result in large economic losses. Because knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the immune response in bivalves, especially clams, is scarce and fragmentary, we sequenced RNA from immune-stimulated R. philippinarum hemocytes by 454-pyrosequencing to identify genes involved in their immune defense against infectious diseases. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput deep sequencing of R. philippinarum using 454 pyrosequencing technology yielded 974,976 high-quality reads with an average read length of 250 bp. The reads were assembled into 51,265 contigs and the 44.7% of the translated nucleotide sequences into protein were annotated successfully. The 35 most frequently found contigs included a large number of immune-related genes, and a more detailed analysis showed the presence of putative members of several immune pathways and processes like the apoptosis, the toll like signaling pathway and the complement cascade. We have found sequences from molecules never described in bivalves before, especially in the complement pathway where almost all the components are present. Conclusions This study represents the first transcriptome analysis using 454-pyrosequencing conducted on R. philippinarum focused on its immune system. Our results will provide a rich source of data to discover and identify new genes, which will serve as a basis for microarray construction and the study of gene expression as well as for the identification of genetic markers. The discovery of new immune sequences was very productive and resulted in a large variety of contigs that may play a role in the defense mechanisms of Ruditapes philippinarum. PMID:22536348

  9. Assessment of Predictability of Philippine Rice Production with Climate Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, N.; Robertson, A. W.; Qian, J.; Ines, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation is the most influential factor on the Philippine climate and has measurable impacts on rice production. The previous studies suggested potential of climate information for prediction of the rice production. For example, Roberts et al. (2009) showed the statistically significant relationship of dry-season rice production in Luzon with Niño sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) averaged over the Niño 3.4 region (5°N-5°S, 120°-170°W) for July to September of the year before the harvest. However, the predictive skills of climate information for rice production have not been previously analyzed yet. Thus, we have conducted the assessment of predictive skills of one uncoupled general circulation models (GCMs) (ECHAM-CA) and two coupled GCMs (ECHAM-MOM, and ECHAM-CFS), as well as those of Niño 3.4 SSTAs and the volume of water warmer than 20°C (WWV) in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (5°N-5°S, 120°E to 80°W), based on cross validation with MLR, PCR, CCA. The result clearly shows high potential of these climate information as a tool for prediction of rice production with sufficient lead time for decision makers. Detailed results are as below. Dry Season Dry season rice production of the Philippines of both irrigation and rainfed systems significantly depend on rainfall in OND of the year before the harvest (same results were found by Roberts et al. (2009)). Two coupled GCMs have high predictive skills for dry-season rice production of the Philippines with six months lead time (six months before the beginning of the harvest). In addition, we found that WWV plus zonal wind anomalies over an equatorial west Pacific also has similar predictive skills to those of these coupled GCMs. On the other hand, the uncoupled GCM has high predictive skills only with a few months lead time similar to predictive skills of Niño 3.4 SSTAs. Predictive skills at regional levels are generally lower than that for the Philippines. Many regions in Mindanao

  10. The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    The second-largest volcanic eruption of this century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. The eruption produced high-speed avalanches of hot ash and gas, giant mudflows, and a cloud of volcanic ash hundreds of miles across. The impacts of the eruption continue to this day.

  11. Nematomorpha from the Philippines, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Schwarz, Christian J

    2016-08-29

    With the exception of one species, no horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) were known to date from the Philippines. We report here several records, almost all from Panay Island. Two species, Gordius jorriti and Acutogordius finni, are described as new species. Two species of Chordodes, C. caledoniensis and C. cf. moutoni, were found. In addition, further specimens from the genera Gordius, Acutogordius and Chordodes could not be determined to species level.

  12. Performance of Passive and Active Sonars in the Philippine Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Philippine Sea Arthur B. Baggeroer Massachusetts Institute of Technology Departments of Mechanical and Ocean Engineering Cambridge, MA 02139 phone: (617...to model the features of a CZ which we observed in the PhilSea09 experiment. The data from this found very abrupt transitions and into the CZ’s and...The CZ is one of the most notable features of deep ocean sound propagation. Several models for the sound speed profile have been used to model the

  13. Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey Exploration and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-31

    tourism , security, etc. It is home to Western Mindanao Command and some of the Philippine Air Forces. It also enjoys reliable power most of the time...variable structure. We will subsequently show the results of the factor analysis for each conflict affected area and demonstrate how the factor scores ...to determine the local population’s level of support to either the insurgency or the government. The factor scores are the result of multiplying each

  14. Diplycosia platyphylla (Ericaceae), a new species from Mindanao, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Peter W.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diplycosia platyphylla P.W.Fritsch, a new species from Mindanao Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the Bornean Diplycosia urceolata but differs by its green or slightly flushed pink petioles 4–7 mm long, wider leaf blades, acute calyx lobe apices, and lavender mature fruiting calyx. The new species is known only from a single collection made from Mount Apo in North Cotabato Province, southern Mindanao. PMID:27698582

  15. Structurally controlled hazard mapping of Southern Leyte, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzon, P. K.; Montalbo, K. P.; Galang, J. A. M.; Sabado, J. M.; Escape, C. M.; Felix, R. P.; Lagmay, A. M. F.

    2015-10-01

    The 2006 Guinsaugon landslide in St. Bernard, Southern Leyte is one of the largest known landslides in the Philippines in recent history. It consists of a 15-20 million m3 rockslide-debris avalanche from an approximately 675 m high mountain weakened by continuous movement of the Philippine fault. The catastrophic Guinsaugon landslide killed 1221 people and displaced 19 000 residents over its 4.5 km path. To investigate the present day morphology of the scar and potential failure that may occur, analysis of a 5 m resolution IfSAR-derived Digital Elevation Model was conducted using Coltop3D and Matterocking software, leading to the generation of a landslide hazard map for the province of Southern Leyte in Central Philippines. The dip and dip-direction of discontinuity sets that contribute to gravitational failure in mountainous areas of the province were identified and measured using a lower Schmidt-Lambert color scheme. After measurement of the morpho-structural orientations, potential sites of failure were analyzed. Conefall was then utilized to compute the extent of rock mass runout. Results of the analysis show instability in the scarp area of the 2006 Guinsaugon landslide and in adjacent slopes because of the presence of steep discontinuities that range from 45-60°. Apart from the 2006 Guinsaugon landslide site, runout models simulated farther rock mass extent in its adjacent slopes, revealing a high potential for fatal landslides to happen in the municipality of St. Bernard. Concerned agencies may use maps produced in the same manner as this study to identify possible sites where structurally-controlled landslides can occur. In a country like the Philippines, where fractures and faults are common, this type of simulated hazard maps would be useful for disaster prevention and facilitate disaster risk reduction efforts for landslide-susceptible areas.

  16. The Spanish Pacification of the Philippines, 1565-1600

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    conquistadores, the role of the encomienda and other colonial administrative systems in the pacification, how the Philippine conquest and subsequent colonial...of the encomienda system condemned by the missionaries. 2 Also in 1594 the king of Spain exempted the native chieftains from paying the yearly tribute... encomienda (literally meaning territories entrusted to one’s care). Each encomienda was administered by a comendador appointed by the Grand Master of the

  17. Multiple infections of Anaplasma platys variants in Philippine dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Anaplasma platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infection was confirmed by sequencing of positive amplicons. Second round PCR targeting a longer 16S rRNA fragment was subsequently performed on the first round PCR amplicons of the positive samples. Further characterization using the heat-shock operon (groEL) gene was also performed on the A. platys-positive samples. Results: 10 16S rRNA sequences were obtained and found 99.6-100% identical to each other and 99.6-99.7% identical to the closest registered A. platys sequences. On the other hand, 36 groEL clone sequences were obtained and found to be 85.1-99.8% identical with each other and 85.0-88.9% identical to the closest previously registered A. platys sequences. Four dogs were found coinfected with 2-3 groEL variant sequences. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the detected A. platys in the Philippines may represent unique variants. Conclusion: A. platys variants were detected in Philippine dogs. Coinfection of different A. platys variants in dogs was also demonstrated. The present study may indicate the potential genetic diversity of A. platys in the country. PMID:28096621

  18. Who are the Philippine negritos? Evidence from language.

    PubMed

    Reid, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the linguistic evidence from which details about Philippine "negritos" can be inferred. This evidence comes from the naming practices of both negrito and non-negrito peoples, from which it can be inferred that many negrito groups have maintained a unique identity distinct from other groups since the dispersal of Malayo-Polynesian languages. Other names, such as Dupaningan and Dumagat, reference locations, from which it is assumed the negritos left after contact with Malayo-Polynesian people. Evidence also comes from the relative positions of negrito groups vis-à-vis other groups within the subfamily with which their current language can be grouped. Many of these languages can be shown to be first order branches, suggesting early separation from the people whose languages they first acquired. The geospatial distribution of the northern languages of the Philippines closely matches the proposed dispersal routes of early Malayo-Polynesian peoples into the Cagayan River Valley and up the Chico and Magat tributaries from which negrito groups were displaced. One lexical item that is discussed is the word for the traditionally widespread practice of head-hunting, the term for which is reconstructible to Proto-Austronesian with reflexes throughout the Philippines and countries to the south. The practice was probably associated with agriculture and not only may have contributed to the early rapid spread south of Malayo-Polynesian languages through the Philippines and ultimately into the Pacific but also was later a major factor in the long periods of isolation of negrito peoples, during which the languages they had first acquired became very different from that of their former neighbors.

  19. Polychaete species (Annelida) described from the Philippine and China Seas.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Carrera-Parra, Luis F; Muir, Alexander I; De León-González, Jesús Angel; Piotrowski, Christina; Sato, Masanori

    2014-07-30

    The South China and Philippine Seas are among the most diverse regions in the Western Pacific. Although there are several local polychaete checklists available, there is none comprising the whole of this region. Presented herein is a comprehensive list of the original names of all polychaete species described from the region. The list contains 1037 species, 345 genera and 60 families; the type locality, type depository, and information regarding synonymy are presented for each species. 

  20. PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR AN IMPROVED INFORMATION TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR METRO LIBRARIES. METRO MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION SERIES, NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORCHAND, CHARLES A.

    THIS PRELIMINARY STUDY OF A COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AMONG THE APPROXIMATELY FIFTY AFFILIATES OF THE NEW YORK METROPOLITAN REFERENCE AND RESEARCH LIBRARY AGENCY, INC. (METRO) PROVIDES AN OUTLINE FOR AN INITIAL INFORMATION TRANSFER NETWORK WITHIN A FIFTY MILE RADIUS OF TIMES SQUARE. THE TECHNIQUE OFFERED IS THE MORCHAND INFORMATION…

  1. Trends of Pesticide Exposure and Related Cases in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z.; Del mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies. PMID:25649374

  2. Economic cost and burden of dengue in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Edillo, Frances E; Halasa, Yara A; Largo, Francisco M; Erasmo, Jonathan Neil V; Amoin, Naomi B; Alera, Maria Theresa P; Yoon, In-Kyu; Alcantara, Arturo C; Shepard, Donald S

    2015-02-01

    Dengue, the world's most important mosquito-borne viral disease, is endemic in the Philippines. During 2008-2012, the country's Department of Health reported an annual average of 117,065 dengue cases, placing the country fourth in dengue burden in southeast Asia. This study estimates the country's annual number of dengue episodes and their economic cost. Our comparison of cases between active and passive surveillance in Punta Princesa, Cebu City yielded an expansion factor of 7.2, close to the predicted value (7.0) based on the country's health system. We estimated an annual average of 842,867 clinically diagnosed dengue cases, with direct medical costs (in 2012 US dollars) of $345 million ($3.26 per capita). This is 54% higher than an earlier estimate without Philippines-specific costs. Ambulatory settings treated 35% of cases (representing 10% of direct costs), whereas inpatient hospitals served 65% of cases (representing 90% of direct costs). The economic burden of dengue in the Philippines is substantial.

  3. Assessment of Satellite Precipitation Products in the Philippine Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. D.; Tendencia, E.; Espana, K.; Sabido, J.; Bagtasa, G.

    2016-06-01

    Precipitation is the most important weather parameter in the Philippines. Made up of more than 7100 islands, the Philippine archipelago is an agricultural country that depends on rain-fed crops. Located in the western rim of the North West Pacific Ocean, this tropical island country is very vulnerable to tropical cyclones that lead to severe flooding events. Recently, satellite-based precipitation estimates have improved significantly and can serve as alternatives to ground-based observations. These data can be used to fill data gaps not only for climatic studies, but can also be utilized for disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study characterized the statistical errors of daily precipitation from four satellite-based rainfall products from (1) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (2) the CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH) of NOAA and (3) the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP) and (4) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). Precipitation data were compared to 52 synoptic weather stations located all over the Philippines. Results show GSMAP to have over all lower bias and CMORPH with lowest Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In addition, a dichotomous rainfall test reveals GSMAP and CMORPH have low Proportion Correct (PC) for convective and stratiform rainclouds, respectively. TRMM consistently showed high PC for almost all raincloud types. Moreover, all four satellite precipitation showed high Correct Negatives (CN) values for the north-western part of the country during the North-East monsoon and spring monsoonal transition periods.

  4. Economic Cost and Burden of Dengue in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Edillo, Frances E.; Halasa, Yara A.; Largo, Francisco M.; Erasmo, Jonathan Neil V.; Amoin, Naomi B.; Alera, Maria Theresa P.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Alcantara, Arturo C.; Shepard, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue, the world's most important mosquito-borne viral disease, is endemic in the Philippines. During 2008–2012, the country's Department of Health reported an annual average of 117,065 dengue cases, placing the country fourth in dengue burden in southeast Asia. This study estimates the country's annual number of dengue episodes and their economic cost. Our comparison of cases between active and passive surveillance in Punta Princesa, Cebu City yielded an expansion factor of 7.2, close to the predicted value (7.0) based on the country's health system. We estimated an annual average of 842,867 clinically diagnosed dengue cases, with direct medical costs (in 2012 US dollars) of $345 million ($3.26 per capita). This is 54% higher than an earlier estimate without Philippines-specific costs. Ambulatory settings treated 35% of cases (representing 10% of direct costs), whereas inpatient hospitals served 65% of cases (representing 90% of direct costs). The economic burden of dengue in the Philippines is substantial. PMID:25510723

  5. Geology of the Zambales ophiolite, Luzon, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rossman, D.L.; Castanada, G.C.; Bacuta, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Zambales ophiolite of western Luzon, Philippines, exposes a typical succession of basalt flows, diabasic dikes, gabbro and tectonized harzburgite. The age established by limiting strata is late Eocene. Lack of evidence of thrust faulting and the general domal disposition of the lithologie units indicate that the ophiolitic rocks are exposed by uplift. Highly complex internal layered structures within the complex are related to processes developed during formation of the ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite may be one of the least disturbed (by emplacement) ophiolitic masses known. The exposed mass trends north and the upper surface plunges at low angles (a few degrees) to the north and south. The chemistry and composition of the rocks in the northwest part of the Zambales area (Acoje block) is distinct from that in the southeastern segment (Coto block). The Acoje block, according to Evans (1983) and Hawkins and Evans (1983), resembles (on a chemical basis) arc-tholeiite series rocks from intra-island arcs and the rocks in the Coto block are typical back-arc basin rock series. The present writer believes that the ophiolite composes a single genetic unit and that the changes in composition are the result of changes that took place during the initial formation. The gabbro probably formed below a spreading center in an elongate, in cross section, V-shaped, magma chamber. The gabbro is estimated by the writer to be less than 2 km thick and may be less than 1 km in places. Numerous erosional windows through the gabbro in the northern and eastern side of the Zambales area show that the gabbro remaining in those areas is likely to be only a few hundred meters thick. Harzburgite is exposed to a depth of about 800 m in the Bagsit River area and this may be the deepest part of the ophiolite accessible for study on which there is any control on depth. A transitional zone, about 200 m thick lying between the gabbro and harzburgite, is composed of serpentinized dunite

  6. Reactivity of seismicity rate to static Coulomb stress changes of two consecutive large earthquakes in the central Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianala, J. D. B.; Aurelio, M.; Rimando, J. M.; Taguibao, K.

    2015-12-01

    In a region with little understanding in terms of active faults and seismicity, two large-magnitude reverse-fault related earthquakes occurred within 100km of each other in separate islands of the Central Philippines—the Mw=6.7 February 2012 Negros earthquake and the Mw=7.2 October 2013 Bohol earthquake. Based on source faults that were defined using onshore, offshore seismic reflection, and seismicity data, stress transfer models for both earthquakes were calculated using the software Coulomb. Coulomb stress triggering between the two main shocks is unlikely as the stress change caused by Negros earthquake on the Bohol fault was -0.03 bars. Correlating the stress changes on optimally-oriented reverse faults with seismicity rate changes shows that areas that decreased both in static stress and seismicity rate after the first earthquake were then areas with increased static stress and increased seismicity rate caused by the second earthquake. These areas with now increased stress, especially those with seismicity showing reactivity to static stress changes caused by the two earthquakes, indicate the presence of active structures in the island of Cebu. Comparing the history of instrumentally recorded seismicity and the recent large earthquakes of Negros and Bohol, these structures in Cebu have the potential to generate large earthquakes. Given that the Philippines' second largest metropolitan area (Metro Cebu) is in close proximity, detailed analysis of the earthquake potential and seismic hazards in these areas should be undertaken.

  7. Deployed Analyst History Report, Volume 2. Analytic Support to Combat Operations in the Philippines (2011-2014)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    assessments and end of tour assessments, commissioned the Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey, and conducted other analytic tasks as...23 5.2 Public Perception Data...Concept for collecting social data via the Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey

  8. Prediction of High Incidence of Dengue in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Buczak, Anna L.; Baugher, Benjamin; Babin, Steven M.; Ramac-Thomas, Liane C.; Guven, Erhan; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Koshute, Phillip T.; Velasco, John Mark S.; Roque, Vito G.; Tayag, Enrique A.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Lewis, Sheri H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate prediction of dengue incidence levels weeks in advance of an outbreak may reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this neglected disease. Therefore, models were developed to predict high and low dengue incidence in order to provide timely forewarnings in the Philippines. Methods Model inputs were chosen based on studies indicating variables that may impact dengue incidence. The method first uses Fuzzy Association Rule Mining techniques to extract association rules from these historical epidemiological, environmental, and socio-economic data, as well as climate data indicating future weather patterns. Selection criteria were used to choose a subset of these rules for a classifier, thereby generating a Prediction Model. The models predicted high or low incidence of dengue in a Philippines province four weeks in advance. The threshold between high and low was determined relative to historical incidence data. Principal Findings Model accuracy is described by Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV), Sensitivity, and Specificity computed on test data not previously used to develop the model. Selecting a model using the F0.5 measure, which gives PPV more importance than Sensitivity, gave these results: PPV = 0.780, NPV = 0.938, Sensitivity = 0.547, Specificity = 0.978. Using the F3 measure, which gives Sensitivity more importance than PPV, the selected model had PPV = 0.778, NPV = 0.948, Sensitivity = 0.627, Specificity = 0.974. The decision as to which model has greater utility depends on how the predictions will be used in a particular situation. Conclusions This method builds prediction models for future dengue incidence in the Philippines and is capable of being modified for use in different situations; for diseases other than dengue; and for regions beyond the Philippines. The Philippines dengue prediction models predicted high or low incidence of dengue four weeks in advance of

  9. Empirical measurement of illicit tobacco trade in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Abola, Victor; Sy, Deborah; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling reduces the price of cigarettes, thwarts youth access restrictions, reduces government revenue, and undercuts the ability of taxes to reduce consumption. The tobacco industry often opposes increases to tobacco taxes on the claim that greater taxes induce more smuggling. To date, little is known about the magnitude of smuggling in the Philippines. his information is necessary to effectively address illicit trade and to measure the impacts of tax changes and the introduction of secure tax markings on illicit trade. This study employs two gap discrepancy methods to estimate the magnitude of illicit trade in cigarettes for the Philippines between 1994 and 2009. First, domestic consumption is compared with tax-paid sales to measure the consumption of illicit cigarettes. Second, imports recorded by the Philippines are compared with exports to the Philippines by trade partners to measure smuggling. Domestic consumption fell short of tax-paid sales for all survey years. The magnitude of these differences and a comparison with a prevalence survey for 2009 suggest a high level of survey under-reporting of smoking. In the late 1990s and the mid 2000s, the Philippines experienced two sharp declines in trade discrepancies, from a high of $750 million in 1995 to a low of $133.7 million in 2008. Discrepancies composed more than one-third of the domestic market in 1995, but only 10 percent in 2009. Hong Kong, Singapore, and China together account for more than 80 percent of the cumulative discrepancies over the period and 74 percent of the discrepancy in 2009. The presence of large discrepancies supports the need to implement an effective tax marking and tobacco track and trace system to reduce illicit trade and support tax collection. The absence of a relation between tax changes and smuggling suggests that potential increases in the excise tax should not be discouraged by illicit trade. Finally, the identification of specific trade partners as primary sources

  10. Empirical measurement of illicit tobacco trade in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Abola, Victor; Sy, Deborah; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smuggling reduces the price of cigarettes, thwarts youth access restrictions, reduces government revenue, and undercuts the ability of taxes to reduce consumption. The tobacco industry often opposes increases to tobacco taxes on the claim that greater taxes induce more smuggling. To date, little is known about the magnitude of smuggling in the Philippines. his information is necessary to effectively address illicit trade and to measure the impacts of tax changes and the introduction of secure tax markings on illicit trade. This study employs two gap discrepancy methods to estimate the magnitude of illicit trade in cigarettes for the Philippines between 1994 and 2009. First, domestic consumption is compared with tax-paid sales to measure the consumption of illicit cigarettes. Second, imports recorded by the Philippines are compared with exports to the Philippines by trade partners to measure smuggling. Domestic consumption fell short of tax-paid sales for all survey years. The magnitude of these differences and a comparison with a prevalence survey for 2009 suggest a high level of survey under-reporting of smoking. In the late 1990s and the mid 2000s, the Philippines experienced two sharp declines in trade discrepancies, from a high of $750 million in 1995 to a low of $133.7 million in 2008. Discrepancies composed more than one-third of the domestic market in 1995, but only 10 percent in 2009. Hong Kong, Singapore, and China together account for more than 80 percent of the cumulative discrepancies over the period and 74 percent of the discrepancy in 2009. The presence of large discrepancies supports the need to implement an effective tax marking and tobacco track and trace system to reduce illicit trade and support tax collection. The absence of a relation between tax changes and smuggling suggests that potential increases in the excise tax should not be discouraged by illicit trade. Finally, the identification of specific trade partners as primary sources

  11. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: Program Offerings in Astronomy in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. R. F.

    2009-03-01

    The formal academic programs in Astronomy of the Rizal Technological University are the first such programs in the Philippines. The Master of Science in Astronomy program is envisioned to provide the student with a wide range of knowledge in many areas of Astronomy, leaning towards the descriptive aspects of knowledge. The student will choose the field or research most suitable to his or her interests. Three of these researches done while enrolled in the program, and even researches completed before the student actually enrolled in the program, may be considered as his or her thesis. The program suits professionals in all persuasions who wish to study Astronomy either for professional advancement or plainly for the love of the science or for intellectual satisfaction. Non-science majors can enroll. In 2008, the RTU Graduate School decided to ladderize the MS program and the Graduate Diploma in Astronomy was designed. This program is suited for science educators, astronomy lecturers and entrepreneurs, members of astronomical societies, and plain astronomy enthusiasts who like to gain in-depth knowledge in the most important aspects of astronomy. A bachelor's degree in any field is required. The program can be finished in two semesters and one summer. If the student opts to continue in the MS in Astronomy program, all the courses he or she has earned in the Diploma will be credited. The Bachelor of Science in Astronomy Technology is an intensive baccalaureate degree program designed to prepare students to become future research scientists and technologists in the field of Astronomy. The BS in Astronomy Technology is a cross-fertilized program, integrating interrelated sciences, such as engineering, geology, remote sensing, physics, atmospheric and environmental science, biology and biochemistry, and even philosophy and entrepreneurship into the study. Thus, the B.S. in Astronomy Technology program gives the student excellent job opportunities in many fields.

  12. Effect of some habitual cooking processes on the domoic acid concentration in the cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum).

    PubMed

    Vidal, A; Correa, J; Blanco, J

    2009-07-01

    The effect of cooking on the concentration and burden of domoic acid in two bivalve molluscs was studied. The Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and cockle (Cerastoderma edule) were subjected to steaming and boiling, respectively. In both cases, factorial plans were used to evaluate the effects of common cooking methods and the variations likely to take place during the cooking procedure (cooking time and salt concentration in both species, in addition to ethanol percentage in Manila clam). The domoic acid concentration and toxin content were affected by cooking in very different ways in the two species studied. The cockle lost a significant part of its domoic acid content, while the clam did not. Since the weight of the soft tissues in cooked bivalves was lower than in the raw samples in both species, the toxin concentration decreased less than the toxin burden in the cockle, while it increased in the clam, where the toxin burden did not change significantly. Among the cooking variables tested, only cooking time had a noticeable effect on the domoic acid content in the clam and cockle, with the bivalves that were cooked for a longer time having smaller amounts of toxin. It is clear that cooking affects the toxin concentration in bivalves in a way that is species specific. This characteristic must be taken into account when evaluating epidemiological information, establishing allowable toxin levels and in cases where pre-processing treatments such as cooking or similar methods are used in monitoring systems.

  13. 76 FR 28661 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone... the Sacramento Metro 1- hour Ozone nonattainment area (Sacramento Metro Area) to satisfy anti- backsliding requirements for the 1-hour Ozone standard. DATES: This interim final determination is...

  14. Origin and motion history of the Philippine Sea Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robert; Ali, Jason R.; Anderson, Charles D.; Baker, Simon J.

    1995-12-01

    The Philippine Sea Plate is the one major plate whose Tertiary motion is poorly constrained and whose origin is problematical. Its southern boundary is the Sorong Fault system which is part of a major left-lateral fault system at the northern margin of the Australian plate. The southern part of the plate in eastern Indonesia has been neglected in most syntheses but includes some of the oldest rocks within the plate which are separated from remnant arcs of the Daito Ridge province of the northern Philippine Sea by the West Philippine Central Basin. The east Indonesian islands of the Halmahera-Waigeo region contain a good Mesozoic and Tertiary stratigraphic record indicating a long arc history for the southern part of the plate. New palaeomagnetic data from these islands define two sub-areas: an area forming part of the Philippine Sea Plate north of the Sorong Fault, and an area within the Sorong Fault system. The area north of the fault records a long-term clockwise rotation history whereas that within the fault zone records local rotations interpreted as due to deformation at the plate edge. Rocks of Philippine Sea Plate origin within both areas record similar latitudinal shifts. The rotation of the area north of the Sorong Fault is considered to represent the motion of the southern part of the Philippine Sea Plate. The new data indicate large Tertiary clockwise rotations similar to earlier suggestions for other parts of the plate but record a discontinuous and more complex motion history than previously suggested. For the southern part of the plate there was 40° rotation with northward translation between 0 and 25 Ma, no significant rotation between 25 and 40 Ma, and there was 50° rotation with southward translation between 40 and 50 Ma. We show that the new palaeomagnetic data form part of a single set with earlier palaeomagnetic data from elsewhere in the plate. The translation history of the southern part of the plate in eastern Indonesia can be reconciled

  15. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including Cabras Island... Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including Cabras Island... Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including Cabras Island... Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including Cabras Island... Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including... Geodetic Datum (1984), are regulated navigation areas (RNAs). (1) Philippine Sea, Guam—All waters from...

  19. The Development of Relevant Indicators for Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation of Country Efforts for Promoting Youth's Role in Development. Report of the Expert Group Meeting (Manila, Philippines, December 13-20, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    The report of a United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Expert Group meeting, involving 13 experts from 10 countries, discusses planning national efforts to promote youth's role in development. Current systems and indicators used to assess the situation of rural and urban youth and their contribution to…

  20. Future Directions of Population Education. Report of a Regional Consultative Seminar organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania in co-operation with the Government of the Philippines (Manila, 14-21, August 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The document presents objectives and proceedings of a population education seminar involving representatives from 12 non Western nations. Major purposes of the seminar were to provide a forum where population experts from Asian and Oceanic nations could exchange ideas, cooperate in improving population education programs, and explore how to…

  1. Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  2. Collaborative Philippine-Canadian Action Cycles for Strategic International Coastal Ecohealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Paul David; Pajaro, Marivic Gosamo

    2014-01-01

    Canadian-Philippine linkages on multi-year coastal Action Research and learning cycles are detailed within established participatory development strategies. Philippine sustainable development is further considered as a function of inter-jurisdictional considerations, and reflexive role shifts for academe. An organizational process is outlined to…

  3. Effect of Internal Solitary Waves on Mine Detection in the Western Philippine Sea East of Taiwan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Philippine Sea, Internal Waves, Internal Solitary Waves, Mine Detection, Multi- Fractal Characteristics, Power Spectra, Structure Function, Singular...4 Figure 4. The geography and bathymetry of East Asia and the western Pacific Area...........7 Figure 5. Topography of the western...formed. Figure 4. The geography and bathymetry of East Asia and the western Pacific Area. The composition of the water in the Philippine

  4. Two new species of Eneopterinae crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) from Luzon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Baroga, Jessica B; Yap, Sheryl A; Robillard, Tony

    2016-07-19

    Luzon Island is considered as the largest island in the Philippines and is characterized by a considerable biodiversity encompassing many endemic plant and animal species. In this paper, two new species of Eneopterinae crickets: (1) Lebinthus polillensis n. sp., and (2) Paranisitra septentria n. sp. are described and an updated key to the Philippines species of the subfamily Eneopterinae is provided.

  5. Higher Education in the Philippines. Bulletin, 1961, No. 29. OE-14065. [Chapter VI - Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Arthur L.

    1961-01-01

    Because of close relations between the Philippines and the United States in the earlier years of this century, developments in the Philippines since that country achieved its independence in 1946 are of particular interest to Americans. An important aspect of the island nation's efforts in its first 15 years of complete self-government is the…

  6. Countering Transnational Terrorism in Southeast Asia with Respect to Terrorism in Indonesia and the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    domination of provincial administration by outsiders (typically Javanese ) with disregard for local culture (especially in Papua), and anger at...ASIA WITH RESPECT TO TERRORISM IN INDONESIA AND THE PHILIPPINES by Asep Chaerudin December 2003 Thesis Advisor: Gaye Christofferson...Transnational Terrorism in Southeast Asia with Respect to Terrorism in Indonesia and the Philippines 6. AUTHOR(S) Asep Chaerudin 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7

  7. Continental Shelf Embayments of the Eastern Margin of the Philippines: Lamon Bay Stratification & Circulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    activity. RESULTS The cruise plan and mooring sites [still tentative] are shown in Figure 2. We will pick up the Philippine research team in Tabaco ...June 2011. The Philippine researchers will be embark and disembark the R/V Revelle during a brief personnel exchange stop in Tabaco City. 4 The

  8. A Tale of Two Countries: Comparing Civic Education in the Philippines and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baildon, Mark; Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Paculdar, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of citizenship education in the Philippines and Singapore. Through an analysis of historical contexts, citizenship education policy and curriculum, it examines "Makabayan" in the Philippines and "National Education" in Singapore. It identifies particular policy and curriculum…

  9. Rare Social Marketing for Sustainable Fishing in Cortes, Surigao Del Sur, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Brian A.; DeWan, Amielle; Cadiz, Fel Ceasar; Jakosalem-Balane, Joy; Dueñas, Vincent; Trinidad, Pedro M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Rare's approach to promoting sustainable fishing through social marketing in the Philippines is exemplified in the Cortes Pride campaign. The Cortes Pride campaign is a social marketing behavior change program that was part of a cohort of 12 similar sustainable fishing campaigns in the Philippines, all of which used a unique blend of social…

  10. Statistics Education Research in Malaysia and the Philippines: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reston, Enriqueta; Krishnan, Saras; Idris, Noraini

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of statistics education research in Malaysia and the Philippines by modes of dissemination, research areas, and trends. An electronic search for published research papers in the area of statistics education from 2000-2012 yielded 20 for Malaysia and 19 for the Philippines. Analysis of these papers showed…

  11. Higher Education in the Philippines. Bulletin, 1961, No. 29. OE-14065. [Foreword - Chapter V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Arthur L.

    1961-01-01

    Because of close relations between the Philippines and the United States in the earlier years of this century, developments in the Philippines since that country achieved its independence in 1946 are of particular interest to Americans. An important aspect of the island nation's efforts in its first 15 years of complete self-government is the…

  12. Reconnaissance Report: Flooding Resulting from Typhoon Uring in Ormoc City, Leyte Province, The Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Jr., Chairman, Republic of the Philippines, p 66. Second Leyte Engineering District. 1991. Pictures of Damages caused by Typhoon "Uring" and Flash ... Flood 2nd LED Ormoc City, 5 November 1991, Republic of the Philippines. Yolo, Vicente A. Jr., (Submitted by). 1991. Typhoon Damages Reports with

  13. Grass Roots Networking for Primary Education: Case Studies: Thailand, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This monograph describes inter-institutional network structures in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Japan, and the Philippines which were implemented to improve educational delivery systems at the primary level. Chapter 1, an overview, discusses the similarities and differences in three examples of networks in Thailand, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. In the…

  14. Arguing in L2: Discourse Structure and Textual Metadiscourse in Philippine Newspaper Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrayo, Veronico N.; Duque, Marie Claire T.

    2011-01-01

    This study described the discourse structure and textual metadiscourse in newspaper editorials in the Philippines where English is used as a second language or L2. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: (1) What discourse features characterize the structure of the following parts of Philippine newspaper editorials--orientation…

  15. U.S. Special Operations Forces in the Philippines, 2001-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    6 CHAPTER TWO U.S.-Philippine Relations in Historical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9...planners to use for future long-duration special operations missions and in professional military education. This report is the most comprehensive and...Philippines. In 2001, the U.S. government embarked on a 14-year effort to address transnational terrorist threats in the historically restive south- ern

  16. Care of the Postcolonial Self: Cultivating Nationalisms in "The Philippine Readers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the cultivation of revolutionary nationalisms and the construction of postcolonial subjectivities under a foreign regime. The analysis centers on "The Philippine Readers," one of the longest published and most widely adopted reading series for elementary students in grades 1 to 7 in the Philippines from the 1920s to…

  17. The Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Schamel, Wynell

    1998-01-01

    Provides background information on the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection. Presents teaching activities that focus on the background information and Commodore George Dewey's response to Assistant Secretary Roosevelt's telegram that ordered Dewey to take up offensive operations in the Philippines. (CMK)

  18. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Faleri, Claudia; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified

  19. Radar imagery interpretation to assess the hydrocarbon potential of four sites in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nationwide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential petroleum and geothermal prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 29 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Radar imagery interpretation to provide information about several geothermal sites in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nation-wide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential geothermal and petroleum prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 7 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. New records of Caligidae (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Maran, Balu Alagar Venmathi; Cruz-Lacierda, Erlinda R; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-11

    Parasitic copepods, especially sea lice (Caligidae) are causing economic problems in both aquaculture and to wild fishes around the world, but their study in at least some of the southeastern Asian countries, is still scanty. Here we provide new information on the distribution of 11 known species of parasitic copepods collected from 11 marine fish hosts from Iloilo, central part of the Philippines. Two species of the genus Anuretes Heller, 1865 and nine species of the genus Caligus Müller, 1785 were found to infest these hosts, i.e. Anuretes branchialis Rangnekar, 1953 from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775); A. plectorhynchi Yamaguti, 1936 from P. orbicularis and Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese, 1936); Caligus absens Ho, Lin et Chen, 2000 from Priacanthus macracanthus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829; C. asymmetricus Kabata, 1965 and C. coryphaenae (Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861) from Auxis thazard (Lacepède, 1800); C. bonito Wilson, 1905 from Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758; C. cordyla Pillai, 1963 from Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758); C. cornutus Heegaard, 1962 from Sphyraena jello Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829; C. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 from Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède, 1801; C. kanagurta Pillai, 1961 from Decapterus kurroides Bleeker, 1855, D. macarellus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833) and C. hippurus; and C. rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933 from Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766). Attachment sites included the gill filaments and the body surface. Prevalence and mean intensity of caligids are provided in addition to an update on the checklist of caligids of the Philippines. Although reports on caligids in the Philippines are few, the published records indicate that sea lice are widely distributed throughout the archipelago.

  2. Dancing to distraction: mediating 'docile bodies' in 'Philippine Thriller video'.

    PubMed

    Mangaoang, Áine

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the conditions behind the 'Philippine Prison Thriller' video, a YouTube spectacle featuring the 1,500 inmates of Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Centre (CPDRC) dancing to Michael Jackson's hit song 'Thriller'. The video achieved viral status after it was uploaded onto the video-sharing platform in 2007, and sparked online debates as to whether this video, containing recorded moving images of allegedly forced dancing, was a form of cruel and inhumane punishment or a novel approach to rehabilitation. The immense popularity of the video inspired creative responses from viewers, and this international popularity caused the CPDRC to host a monthly live dance show held in the prison yard, now in its seventh year. The essay explores how seemingly innocuous products of user-generated-content are imbued with ideologies that obscure or reduce relations of race, agency, power and control. By contextualising the video's origins, I highlight current Philippine prison conditions and introduce how video-maker/programme inventor/prison warden Byron Garcia sought to distance his facility from the Philippine prison majority. I then investigate the 'mediation' of 'Thriller' through three main issues. One, I examine the commodification and transformation from viral video to a thana-tourist destination; two, the global appeal of 'Thriller' is founded on public penal intrigue and essentialist Filipino tropes, mixed with a certain novelty factor widely suffused in YouTube formats; three, how dance performance and its mediation here are conducive to creating Foucault's docile bodies, which operate as a tool of distraction for the masses and ultimately serve the interests of the state far more than it rehabilitates(unconvicted and therefore innocent) inmates.

  3. DNA barcoding of commercially important catfishes in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Quilang, Jonas P; Yu, Shiny Cathlynne S

    2015-06-01

    Many species of catfish are important resources for human consumption, for sport fishing and for use in aquarium industry. In the Philippines, some species are cultivated and some are caught in the wild for food and a few introduced species have become invasive. In this study, DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was done on commercially and economically important Philippine catfishes. A total of 75 specimens belonging to 11 species and 5 families were DNA barcoded. The genetic distances were computed and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees were constructed based on the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) method. The average K2P distances within species, genus, family and order were 0.2, 8.2, 12.7 and 21.9%, respectively. COI sequences clustered according to their species designation for 7 of the 11 catfishes. DNA barcoding was not able to discriminate between Arius dispar and A. manillensis and between Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P. pardalis. The morphological characters that are used to distinguish between these species do not complement molecular identification through DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding also showed that Clarias batrachus from the Philippines is different from the species found in India and Thailand, which supports earlier suggestions based on morphology that those found in India should be designated as C. magur and those in mainland Southeast Asia as C. aff. batrachus "Indochina". This study has shown that DNA barcoding can be used for species delineation and for tagging some species for further taxonomic investigation, which has implications on proper management and conservation strategies.

  4. Turmoil, Transition - Triumph? The Democratic Revolution in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    opposition. (>ver the last five years, however, he had become more and more outspoken in his criticism. Under his leadership the so-called " Jesuit Mafia" in...Corporation, and a great Indonesia scholar. * Drew Pearson, the producer of the Philippine documentary that Stan Karnow is making. * Edith Coliver, ex- of...revolution started. "But I don’t have .a habit", he explained to Father Bernas. "We’ll look for a Jesuit habit in the house", replied Bernas. The

  5. Studies of cholera El Tor in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, P. R.; Tamayo, J. F.; Mosley, W. H.; Alvero, M. G.; Dizon, J. J.; Henderson, D. A.

    1965-01-01

    The introduction of cholera into many of the islands of the Philippines in 1961 often occurred in an explosive manner. The disease was introduced into Bacolod City and Talisay in Negros Occidental Province in such a manner in November 1961. The authors describe the results of an analysis of hospital and health department records in Bacolod City and Talisay and the results of interviews conducted with adult patients 10 months after the explosive outbreak. The results suggest that infection during the initial explosive wave of cases in Bacolod City and Talisay in November 1961 was transmitted principally by shrimp that were consumed raw. PMID:5295144

  6. Employment of Natives in Counterinsurgency Operations in the Philippines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-03

    discription of the bravery of the Filipino natives especially the Igorots is this stirring tribute from General ".’acArthur: "Many desperate acts of...stopping despera- tion, X have never known the equal of those Igorots riding the tanks.ŕ^ This tribute of Gen. iacArthur was given •••hen a com- pany...of Igorot soldiers completely annihilated the 20th Japanese Infantry Regiment in Bataan. ^ After the war, tho Philippines was again confronted with

  7. Determination of Watershed Lag Equation for Philippine Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriano, F. R.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.; Uichanco, C.; Mendoza, J.; Sabio, G.; Punay, K. N.; Oquindo, M. R.; Horritt, M.

    2014-12-01

    Widespread flooding is a major problem in the Philippines. The country experiences heavy amount of rainfall throughout the year and several areas are prone to flood hazards because of its unique topography. Human casualties and destruction of infrastructure are some of the damages caused by flooding and the country's government has undertaken various efforts to mitigate these hazards. One of the solutions was to create flood hazard maps of different floodplains and use them to predict the possible catastrophic results of different rain scenarios. To produce these maps, different types of data were needed and part of that is calculating hydrological components to come up with an accurate output. This paper presents how an important parameter, the time-to-peak of the watershed (Tp) was calculated. Time-to-peak is defined as the time at which the largest discharge of the watershed occurs. This is computed by using a lag time equation that was developed specifically for the Philippine setting. The equation involves three measurable parameters, namely, watershed length (L), maximum potential retention (S), and watershed slope (Y). This approach is based on a similar method developed by CH2M Hill and Horritt for Taiwan, which has a similar set of meteorological and hydrological parameters with the Philippines. Data from fourteen water level sensors covering 67 storms from all the regions in the country were used to estimate the time-to-peak. These sensors were chosen by using a screening process that considers the distance of the sensors from the sea, the availability of recorded data, and the catchment size. Values of Tp from the different sensors were generated from the general lag time equation based on the Natural Resource Conservation Management handbook by the US Department of Agriculture. The calculated Tp values were plotted against the values obtained from the equation L0.8(S+1)0.7/Y0.5. Regression analysis was used to obtain the final equation that would be

  8. United States-Philippines Bases Agreements: Prospect for its Renewal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    peninsula; - "Serves as main US base support for Diego Garcia." . .. .... -,... -,i a m~ i - mm.. i im il m ; ma .. . San Miguel Naval Communications...can 5 "’J.. be used for tourism and major conference sites. The San Miguel station can be the center for communications for the Philippines run either...Rizal 14 7,533,525.51 Cavi te 40 8,210,727.45 Laguna 46 7,977,665.96 Batangas 54 40,335,032.68 Mindoro Occ. 49 7,905,839.50 Mindoro Or. 31 7,983,018.01

  9. Effects of offshore oil drilling on Philippine reef corals.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, J.H.; Shinn, E.A.; Robbin, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    An offshore drilling site in an area of extensive live-coral bottom off NW Palawan Island, Philippines, was examined 15 months after well completion. Porites lutea growth rates showed that little suppression of head coral growth could be attributed to drilling. Diver observation, however, together with analysis of sampling transect photomosaics, revealed 70-90% reduction in foliose, branching, and plate-like corals in an iron-stained area that extended out from the wellheads in a 115 X 85-m ellipse.-from Authors

  10. Predicting the Distribution of Yellowfin Tuna in Philippine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Leonardo, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Philippines is considered as a major tuna producer in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, both for domestic consumption and on industrial scale. However, with the ever-increasing demand of growing population, it has always been a challenge to achieve sustainable fishing. The creation of satellite-derived potential fishing zone maps is a technology that has been adopted by advanced countries for almost three decades already and has led to reduction in search times by up to 40%. In this study, a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) is developed to predict the distribution of the Yellowfin tuna species in seas surrounding the Philippines based on the Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) index. Level 3 gridded chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the main input parameters of the model. Chlorophyll-a is linked with the presence of phytoplankton, which indicates primary productivity and suggests potential regions of fish aggregation. Fish also prefers to stay in regions where the temperature is stable, thus the sea surface temperature fronts serve as a guide to locate concentrations of fish school. Historical monthly tuna catch data from Western and Central Pacific Commissions (WCPFC) is used to train the model. The resulting predictions are converted to potential fishing zone maps and are evaluated within and beyond the historical time range of the training data used. Diagnostic tests involving adjusted R2 value, GAM residual plots and root mean square error value are used to assess the accuracy of the model. The generated maps were able to confirm locations of known tuna fishing grounds in Mindanao and other parts of the country, as well us detect their seasonality and interannual variability. To improve the performance of the model, ancillary data such as surface winds reanalysis from National Centers for

  11. Forecasting coconut production in the Philippines with ARIMA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Cristina Teresa

    2015-02-01

    The study aimed to depict the situation of the coconut industry in the Philippines for the future years applying Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method. Data on coconut production, one of the major industrial crops of the country, for the period of 1990 to 2012 were analyzed using time-series methods. Autocorrelation (ACF) and partial autocorrelation functions (PACF) were calculated for the data. Appropriate Box-Jenkins autoregressive moving average model was fitted. Validity of the model was tested using standard statistical techniques. The forecasting power of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was used to forecast coconut production for the eight leading years.

  12. Indole alkaloids from the leaves of Philippine Alstonia scholaris.

    PubMed

    Macabeo, Allan Patrick G; Krohn, Karsten; Gehle, Dietmar; Read, Roger W; Brophy, Joseph J; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Franzblau, Scott G; Aguinaldo, Alicia M

    2005-05-01

    The first seco-uleine alkaloids, manilamine (1) (18-hydroxy-19,20-dehydro-7,21-seco-uleine) and N4-methyl angustilobine B (2), were isolated from the (pH 5) alkaloid extract of Philippine Alstonia scholaris leaves together with the known indole alkaloids 19,20-(E)-vallesamine (3), angustilobine B N4-oxide (4), 20(S)-tubotaiwine (5), and 6,7-seco-angustilobine B (6). The structure of the alkaloids was established from MS and NMR experiments.

  13. Post Eruption Hydrology and Hydraulics of Mount Pinatubo, The Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    S~Technical RepMd GL-94-13 May 1994 US Army Corpsof Engineers AD-A281 068 Waterways Experiment StationII hII_ I Post Eruption Hydrology and...Hydraulics of Mount Pinatubo, The Philippines by Hilaire W. Peck, Karl W. Eriksen U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland Monte L. Pearson K. Malcolm Leytham...U.S.Anny Engineer District, Portland P.O. Box 2946 Ac".eson For Portland, OR 97208-2%45 NTIS CRA&I Monte L Pearson DTUC TAB Unannouritad 0 U.S. " Corps of

  14. The geology and geochemistry of Philippine Porphyry copper deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divis, Allan F.

    Porphyry copper deposits and their relationship to felsic intrusions are of considerable economic as well as academic interest. They generally occur near continental margins and in island arcs. Although some conjecture exists as to the ultimate source of transition metals associated with the deposits, a growing body of evidence suggests the metals are principally derived from a magmatic source: the porphyry intrusions. These intrusions may also give rise to adjacent vein and precious metal deposits. Over 40 potential deposits have been reported in the Philippine island arc and approximately nine are or have been in production. The known and inferred reserves from these deposits exceed three billion metric tons of ore— approximately 10 to 20 million tons of metallic copper. Several deposits may ultimately have more than a billion tons of ore reserves. There appears to be a remarkable correlation between the timing of porphyry intrusions in the Philippines and that in other areas, particularly New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. These intrusions also show a close relationship to the timing of oceanic plate tectonic processes. Periods of increased subduction rate and accompanying dilation and/or shearing within the arc may be conducive to the generation of porphyry magmas on an episodic rather than continuous basis. Ultimately, the development of an economically significant ore body requires the presence of a hydrous magma and may be associated with other primary compositional characteristics. However, anomalous high primary magmatic concentrations of copper do not appear to be required for the formation of the porphyry deposits. The Philippine porphyry intrusions differ somewhat from `continental' porphyries and are chemically similar to mineralized island arc intrusions of the Carribean and the southwest Pacific. The Philippine intrusions generally range from diorites and quartz diorites to low potassium granodiorites. Initial 87-Sr/86-Sr ratios are low, ranging

  15. Explaining Intervention in Southeast Asia: A Comparison of the Muslim Insurgencies in Thailand and the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    state of Sabah and the Spratly Islands. Despite the strained relationship between Kuala Lumpur and Manila, GRP officials invited Malaysian diplomats...at Bangkok’s request, Kuala Lumpur allowed the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to interview and screen the group. The effort...Muslims, and how this relationship intersects with the broader political realities faced by Kuala Lumpur to produce policies averse to intervention

  16. Philippine mitochondrial DNA diversity: a populated viaduct between Taiwan and Indonesia?

    PubMed

    Tabbada, Kristina A; Trejaut, Jean; Loo, Jun-Hun; Chen, Yao-Ming; Lin, Marie; Mirazón-Lahr, Marta; Kivisild, Toomas; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of the Philippine population, and this is an important gap in our understanding of Southeast Asian and Oceanic prehistory. Here we describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in 423 Philippine samples and analyze them in the context of the genetic diversity of other Southeast Asian populations. The majority of Philippine mtDNA types are shared with Taiwanese aboriginal groups and belong to haplogroups of postglacial and pre-Neolithic origin that have previously been identified in East Asian and Island Southeast Asian populations. Analysis of hypervariable segment I sequence variation within individual mtDNA haplogroups indicates a general decrease in the diversity of the most frequent types (B4a1a, E1a1a, and M7c3c) from the Taiwanese aborigines to the Philippines and Sulawesi, although calculated standard error measures overlap for these populations. This finding, together with the geographical distribution of ancestral and derived haplotypes of the B4a1a subclade including the Polynesian Motif, is consistent with southward dispersal of these lineages "Out of Taiwan" via the Philippines to Near Oceania and Polynesia. In addition to the mtDNA components shared with Taiwanese aborigines, complete sequence analyses revealed a minority of lineages in the Philippines that share their origins--possibly dating back to the Paleolithic--with haplogroups from Indonesia and New Guinea. Other rare lineages in the Philippines have no closely related types yet identified elsewhere.

  17. Latency causes and reduction in optical metro networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs; Spolitis, Sandis; Ivanovs, Girts

    2013-12-01

    The dramatic growth of transmitted information in fiber optical networks is leading to a concern about the network latency for high-speed reliable services like financial transactions, telemedicine, virtual and augmented reality, surveillance, and other applications. In order to ensure effective latency engineering, the delay variability needs to be accurately monitored and measured, in order to control it. This paper in brief describes causes of latency in fiber optical metro networks. Several available latency reduction techniques and solutions are also discussed, namely concerning usage of different chromatic dispersion compensation methods, low-latency amplifiers, optical fibers as well as other network elements.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in transplanted Manila clams (Tapes philippinarum) from the Lagoon of Venice as assessed by PAHs/shell weight index: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Rossella; Cacciatore, Federica; Giovanardi, Otello

    2007-01-01

    Variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels was assessed in Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. Clams were transplanted from a polluted area next to Porto Marghera to two rearing areas of the Southern Lagoon. Analyses of PAHs were made in sediments and clams by GC/MS at first sampling and after 30, 60 and 180 days. Principal component analysis was performed to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration pattern and input sources. Biota-Sediment-Accumulation-Factor (BSAF) was applied to evaluate the PAHs input sources from sediment. Condition index was calculated to compare the seasonal variation of clam tissue to PAHs levels. To propose results not affected by seasonal changes in flesh weight of clams, the approach based on the calculation of PAHs/SW index was applied. From the results, it was concluded that PAHs/SW index is more recommendable to asses temporal variation of PAHs levels in Manila clams.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments and Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) from the Dalian coast, China after the Dalian port oil spill.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu; Huo, Zhongming; Zhang, Guofan

    2012-11-01

    We conducted an investigation of heavy metal concentrations in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and surface sediments after the Dalian Port oil spill. Samples were collected from three mariculture zones (Jinshitan, Dalijia, and Pikou) along the Dalian coast. Heavy metal concentrations in R. philippinarum were consistent and ranked in decreasing order of Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg, while concentrations in surface sediments were ranked as Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Zn, Cd, and Hg had obviously occurred in R. philippinarum. Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Hg in R. philippinarum and in surface sediments were observed. Except for Cr and As, heavy metal concentrations in R. philippinarum were well within the legal limits for human consumption.

  20. Forecasting and Monitoring Agricultural Drought in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G. J.; Macapagal, M.; Olivares, R.; Macapagal, E. M.; Comiso, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    A monitoring and forecasting sytem is developed to assess the extent and severity of agricultural droughts in the Philippines at various spacial scales and across different time periods. Using Earth observation satellite data, drought index, hazard and vulnerability maps are created. The drought index, called Standardized Vegetation-Temperature Ratio (SVTR), is derived using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST). SVTR is evaluated by correlating its values with existing agricultural drought index, particulary Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). Moreover, the performance of SVTR in detecting drought occurrences was assessed for the 2015-2016 drought event. This period is a strong El Niño year and a large portion of the country was affected by drought at varying degrees, making it a good case study for evaluating drought indices. Satellitederived SVTR was validated through several field visits and surveys across different major agricultural areas in the country, and was found to be 73% accurate. The drought hazard and vulnerability maps are produced by utilizing the evapotranspration product of MODIS, rainfall climatology from the Tropical Rainfall Microwave Mission (TRMM) and ancillary data, including irrigation, water holding capacity and land use. Finally, we used statistical techniques to determine trends in NDVI and LST and generate a sixmonth forecast of drought index. Outputs of this study are being assessed by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) and the Department of Agriculture Bureau of Soils and Water Management (DABSWM) for future integration in their operations.

  1. Women in media in the Philippines: from stereotype to liberation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, D G

    1987-01-01

    The success of women in the Philippine print and electronic media is contrasted with the negative image in which they are presented in mass media such as television, radio, comics, tabloids and magazines. Philippine women began entering journalism early in the century, becoming established in the female oriented press by the 1960s. As the repression of the Marcos regime intensified, women journalists excelled in writing vanguard pieces, using allusion, allegory, indirection or metaphor, interviewing prisoners, founding alternative newspapers and even initiating the successful boycott of the 3 major crony papers when Aquino was killed. The participation of women in television journalism is parallel, but more limited due to the nature of the medium. Women's cultural role as multi-track organizers of family, finance and work is credited for this success. Dozens of names with titles and paper names are cited, as well as tabulated in an appendix. In contrast, women's image in the popular publications and electronic media is that of sex object, victim, ideal submissive wife-mother, or gracious lady shows little evidence of improving. This deleterious, backward and inaccurate image is likely due to all-male ownership, management and profit motive of these popular, vernacular mass media.

  2. Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancies in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Abada, Teresa; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2012-11-01

    To date, very few studies have examined what contributes to unwanted and mistimed births in the Philippines. In a country where women have higher educational levels than their male counterparts, and their status is among the highest in Asia, it is expected that unwanted births will be low. The evidence, however, points to the contrary as 44% of births reported in the last five years were unintended. Using the 2003 Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey, this article focuses on married women who are currently pregnant and those who had given birth in the last five years. Multinomial logistic regression is employed to ascertain the risks of a recent birth/pregnancy being unwanted, mistimed or wanted. Regardless of women's status, having a final say in household and sexual matters with husbands lowers the risk of unwanted births but not mistimed births, calling into question the use of status variables such as education and wealth as indicators of women's autonomy. The success of implementing family planning programmes and policies in reducing unintended pregnancies underscores the importance of understanding how women are able (or unable) to make decisions surrounding their reproductive intentions.

  3. Determinants of breastfeeding in the Philippines: a survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Abada, T S; Trovato, F; Lalu, N

    2001-01-01

    This study examines modern and traditional factors that may lengthen or shorten the duration of breastfeeding. Specifically, health sector, socio-economic, demographic, and supplementary food variables are analysed among a large representative sample of women in the Philippines. It is proposed that while modernisation can lead to the adoption of western behaviours, traditional cultural values can also prevail, resulting in the rejection of certain aspects of modernity. The Cox Proportional Hazards model is employed for the analysis of breastfeeding. The results show that traditional factors associated with breastfeeding (use of solid foods such as porridge and applesauce, and prenatal care by a traditional nurse/midwife) do not play a significant role in the mother's decision to continue breastfeeding. Factors associated with modernity are significant in explaining early termination of breastfeeding (respondent's education, prenatal care by a medical doctor, delivery in a hospital and use of infant formula). The findings of this study suggest that health institutions and medical professionals can play a significant role in promoting breastfeeding in the Philippines; and educational campaigns that stress the benefits of lactation are important strategies for encouraging mothers to breastfeed longer.

  4. Reservoir analysis of the Palinpinon geothermal field, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Amistoso, A.E.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Jordan, O.T.; Ana, F.X.M.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Doughty, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Philippine National Oil Company and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have conducted an informal cooperative project on the reservoir evaluation of the Palinpinon geothermal field in the Philippines. The work involved the development of various numerical models of the field in order to understand the observed data. A three-dimensional porous medium model of the reservoir has been developed that matches well the observed pressure declines and enthalpy transients of the wells. Submodels representing the reservoir as a fractured porous medium were developed for the analysis of chemical transport of chlorides within the reservoir and the movement of the cold water front away from injection wells. These models indicate that the effective porosity of the reservoir varies between 1 and 7% and the effective permeability between 1 and 45 millidarcies. The numerical models were used to predict the future performance of the Palinpinon reservoir using various possible exploitation scenarios. A limited number of make-up wells were allocated to each sector of the field. When all the make-up wells had been put on line, power production gradually began to decline. The model indicates that under the assumed conditions it will not be possible to maintain the planned power production of 112.5 MWe at Palinpinon I and 80 MWe at Palinpinon II for the next 30 years, but the decline in power output will be within acceptable normal operating capacities of the plants.

  5. Radiation sterilization of medical products in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singson, C.; Carmona, C.; de Guzman, Z.; Barrun, W.; Lanuza, L.

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the biological, microbiological, physico-chemical, and dosimetry aspects of using gamma irradiation for the sterilization of locally manufactured medical products and pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study is to determine the technological feasibility of radiation sterilization for the said products in the Philippines. Hence, the materials used were directly obtained from local manufacturers. They are polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene based medical plastic disposables namely: absorbent cotton, surgical gauze, bandage, visceral packs, and some antibiotics and opthalmic ointments. The gamma facility of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission was used for the irradiation. Result of biological studies indicate no signs of toxicity on experimental mice injected with extracts from irradiated samples. The contaminants are identified as Pseudomonas Sp. Staphyloccocus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis. The D 10 values of survivors of higher doses ranged below 0.235 Megarad suggesting that these contaminants can be eliminated by the generally used sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrads. The physico-chemical tests did not indicate any significant degradation of the irradiated products. Opthalmic and topical antibiotic ointments showed no marked decrease in potency. Fading tests on dosimeters used showed that red perspex is a more efficient dosimeter than clear perspex when irradiation time is prolonged. These studies indicated that radiation sterilization is technically feasible for locally manufactured medical products.

  6. Studies on Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Pesigan, T. P.; Farooq, M.; Hairston, N. G.; Jauregui, J. J.; Garcia, E. G.; Santos, A. T.; Santos, B. C.; Besa, A. A.

    1958-01-01

    The geographical location and physical features of the island of Leyte in the Philippines, where bilharziasis is endemic and where the studies reported here were conducted, are described in the first part of this paper. An account is also given of the climate, soils, vegetation, population and rural structure, and public health of the island. The second part opens with a brief historical review of bilharziasis japonica in the Philippines up to 1953, when a control project was started. The objectives of this project, the areas selected, the census data and sampling used, and the techniques adopted are described. There follows a discussion of the prevalence of bilharziasis and its relationship to age, sex, occupation and environment; the prevalence of other common helminthic infections is also considered. In a section on the natural history and public health significance of bilharziasis, an approach to quantitative assessment of disease and disability and a method for evaluating the economic burden of bilharziasis are suggested. The incidence of disease in children of 5-9 years is reviewed in the same section. An analysis is made of possible strain differences of S. japonicum in Leyte, and the relative role of human and other animal hosts is assessed. The last section deals with the egg-laying habits of S. japonicum. ImagesFIG. 9FIG. 13FIG. 15FIG. 28 PMID:13536797

  7. Home gardening in urban poor communities of the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shoko; Kunii, Osamu; Wakai, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    The deficiencies of micronutrients, in particular iron and vitamin A, are common in the Philippines, but their control measures through supplementation and fortification have shown several weaknesses. The present study examines the outcomes of a community-based approach including promotion of home gardening and a diversified dietary practice. A total of 152 mothers in two poor urban communities in Davao City, the Philippines were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Participants were also asked to keep a brief 7-day self-administered household food record. Focus group discussions were conducted to obtain in-depth information on their attitudes toward home gardening and vegetable consumption. Home garden produce contributed to the diversification of carbohydrate consumed among participants. However, home garden produce reduced the consumption of protein-rich food. There was therefore no discernible improvement in the diets of participants from the consumption of home garden produce. In communities where there was no greengrocer, respondents shared the produce from home gardens. The community-based diet improvement program facilitated home gardening practices, which influenced the dietary practices of the urban poor. The monitoring of food consumption together with community-based programs needs to be expanded in urban poor communities. Our focus group discussion revealed that there was a cognition linking home gardening and vegetable consumption to poverty among some of the participants. More study is necessary on this finding.

  8. Migration of women from the Philippines: implications for healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Lourdes Marie S; Fowler, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Filipinos have been an important part of the global workforce since the first half of the twentieth century. The initial migration of primarily men has shifted to an increasing numbers of women in recent decades. These changes are primarily attributed to a high demand for domestic workers, nurses and occupations that are female dominated. In 2005, about 70% of the international Labour migrants are women from the Philippines. Living in a foreign land, these women face challenges that affect their physical, emotional and social well being. Especially on their first year living abroad, these women experience significant stress which affects their health as they adjust to a new work environment, culture, social norms, diet, and weather. The emotional strain can be greater for those who have left their families behind in the Philippines and aggravated by the financial need to send money to them. Striking examples, such as the homicide rate of Filipino women married to Australian men being 5.6 times higher than that of Australian-born women, underscores the importance of supportive health care environments and appreciating socio-cultural factors. In the delivery of healthcare services to migrant women, it is critical to consider the unique socio-cultural background of women as well as health beliefs and practices.

  9. Canned rice products as Philippine military food ration.

    PubMed

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2003-05-01

    Canned prototypes of rice (CR) and rice meal with pork sausage (CRM) were developed as military food ration models for evaluation by personnel in the Bonifacio Naval Station, Fort Bonifacio, Makati, Philippines. The prototypes were produced based on the assumption that a serving size equivalent to 400 g cooked rice and a meat-based viand using a 1:4 (wt/wt) viand to rice ratio was adequate as a single-serve meal for a typical Philippine military personnel. The CR and CRM prototypes were low acid products with pH values of 4.9 and 5.5, respectively. The processed rice portions of the prototypes showed about 200% volume and weight increases, moderate clumpiness and low percentage breakage. More than 90% of the respondents agreed that CR and CRM were suitable military food rations. Majority of the panelists indicated preference for meat-based and poultry-based viands. Bulk and weight portativity problems, however, were raised with the 400 g serving size of cooked products in cans.

  10. Volcanic disaster mitigation in the Philippines: experience from Mt. Pinatubo.

    PubMed

    Tayag, J C; Punongbayan, R S

    1994-03-01

    Considerable progress has been made in volcanic disaster mitigation in the Philippines during the last four decades, since the devastating Hibok-Hibok eruption in 1951 and the establishment of the Commission on Volcanology (COMVOL), the forerunner of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) in 1952. The management of the Pinatubo Volcano eruption crisis of 1991-92 marks the highest point in the development of volcanic disaster mitigation in the country. State-of-the-art volcano monitoring techniques and instruments were applied; the eruption was accurately predicted; hazards zonation maps were prepared and disseminated a month before the violent explosions; an alert and warning system was designed and implemented; and the disaster response machinery was mobilized on time. The unprecedented magnitude and lingering nature of the hazards, however, and their widespread, long-term impacts have sorely tested the capability of the country's volcanic disaster mitigation systems. In particular, the lahar threat has triggered controversies and put decision makers in a dilemma of choosing between adaptive versus confrontational/control approaches. At least three strategies have been articulated and adopted in varying degrees and forms: (1) the establishment of a lahar monitoring-warning-evacuation system to deal with the lahar problem on an emergency basis; (2) relocation of settlements from the hazard zones; and (3) installation of engineering countermeasures to control/divert the lahar flows and protect settlements. A combination of the three appears to be the best, but the most effective and least costly mix remains to be determined.

  11. Mapping the Philippines' mangrove forests using Landsat imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Jordan; Giri, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Current, accurate, and reliable information on the areal extent and spatial distribution of mangrove forests in the Philippines is limited. Previous estimates of mangrove extent do not illustrate the spatial distribution for the entire country. This study, part of a global assessment of mangrove dynamics, mapped the spatial distribution and areal extent of the Philippines’ mangroves circa 2000. We used publicly available Landsat data acquired primarily from the Global Land Survey to map the total extent and spatial distribution. ISODATA clustering, an unsupervised classification technique, was applied to 61 Landsat images. Statistical analysis indicates the total area of mangrove forest cover was approximately 256,185 hectares circa 2000 with overall classification accuracy of 96.6% and a kappa coefficient of 0.926. These results differ substantially from most recent estimates of mangrove area in the Philippines. The results of this study may assist the decision making processes for rehabilitation and conservation efforts that are currently needed to protect and restore the Philippines’ degraded mangrove forests.

  12. Experimental infection of Philippine Taenia in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Lin, C Y; Chung, W C

    1992-04-01

    In the present study, six 34-44-day-old Small-Ear-Miniature pigs and one 14-day-old Holstein calf were each fed 10,000 Philippine Taenia eggs and sacrificed 27-43 days after inoculation. The infection rate was 100% for both pigs and calf with cysticerci recovery rates of 11 and 6%, respectively. A total of 6431 cysticerci were recovered only from the livers of the six pigs and 597 only from the liver of the calf; more occurred in the parenchyma (pigs 75%, calf 83%) than on the surface (pigs 25%, calf 17%). Mature cysticerci were found in four of the six pigs. A total of 317 cysticerci recovered from the pig livers were mature and the rest were either immature (926), degenerate or calcified (5188). All 597 cysticerci recovered from the liver of the calf were degenerate or calcified. Measurements of length, width, diameter of protoscolex, rostellum, and sucker and hooklet pattern indicated that Philippine Taenia is very similar to Taenia from Taiwan, Korea, Indonesia and Thailand and very different from classical T. saginata and T. solium.

  13. On the Paleomagnetism and Paleogeography of the Philippine Sea Plate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.; Fuller, M.

    2002-12-01

    Lying to the west of the Pacific Plate and surrounded by subduction zones, the Philippine Sea Plate has an enigmatic plate tectonic history. However, there are plentiful paleomagnetic data from DSDP and ODP studies as well from conventional surveys on many of the islands within the plate. There is broad agreement between these studies indicating clockwise rotation about a pole in the vicinity of 10°N and 160°E. This interpretation has been questioned because many of the sites lie close to the eastern margin of the plate and hence may have been affected by deformation at the plate margin. However, results from Halmahera come from a very different tectonic setting and yet agree with the earlier work. Models incorporating the interpretation from paleomagnetic data have a number of favourable consequences. For example, such models are consistent with the subduction and deformation within the Philippine mobile belt to the west. To the south, the model is consistent with the history of docking of New Guinea terranes and the subsequent left lateral shear zone.

  14. Serpentinization of the fore-arc mantle along the Taiwan arc-continent collision of the northern Manila subduction zone inferred from gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Brown, Dennis; Lo, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Huang, Yin-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Serpentinized peridotite in the fore-arc has been observed in a number of subduction zones, including the northern Manila subduction zone which terminates northward in the Taiwan arc-continent collision. How this zone of serpentinization changes northward from the subduction of thinned continental lithosphere to full arc-continent collision in the Taiwan orogeny is not well known. In this paper we present 2-D gravity modeling along three P-wave (Vp) transects across the Taiwan orogeny. Two of these transects were collected with ocean-bottom seismometers. These two transects provide good constraints on the velocity structure to the west of, and on land, southern Taiwan. Conversion of Vp to density in this area allows us to model the gravity anomaly with very little misfit. Along the subduction zone, however, the velocity models are poorly constrained in the upper mantle, where an anomalous density unit has to be used in order to model the short wavelength gravity anomaly in this area. A third transect across central Taiwan that is derived from the TAIGER local tomography data, provides good control on the crust and upper mantle Vp structure that we use to place provide density constraints for modeling the gravity anomaly in this part of the collision zone. In order to model the short wavelength gravity anomaly across the Longitudinal Valley and the southern Longitudinal trough, an anomalous density block is required beneath the fore-arc region. We interpret that the source of this anomalous density material could be serpentinized fore-arc mantle, similar to what is interpreted for the northern Manila subduction zone farther south. Water released from the subduction of the extended crust of the continental margin results in the serpentinization of the fore-arc area and may be driving the uplifting of the high-pressure rocks.

  15. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-02-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  16. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  17. The oribatid mite subgenus Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Corpuz-Raros, Leonila; Tolstikov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the subgenus Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) are registered in the Philippine oribatid mite fauna. A new species, Galumna (Galumna) makilingensis sp. n., is described; it is most similar morphologically to Galumna (Galumna) tokyoensis Aoki, 1966, but differs from the latter by the morphology of porose areas Aa and Ap, rostral setae, and length of interlamellar setae. Three species, Galumna (Galumna) crenata Deb & Raychaudhuri, 1975, Galumna (Galumna) cf. exigua Sellnick, 1925 and Galumna (Galumna) khoii Mahunka, 1989, are recorded in the Philippines for the first time. The species Galumna (Galumna) crenata is redescribed. An identification key to the Philippine species of Galumna (Galumna) is given. PMID:25493051

  18. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, S.N.; Miyasaka, T.; Polat, M.; Kikuya, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mingala, C.N.; Villanueva, M.A.; Salces, A.J.; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

  19. Integrating the Interagency in the Armed Forces of the Philippines Approach to Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-23

    Forces of the Philippines N/A Approach to Counterinsurgency Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER...LIEUTENANT COLONEL CHARLTON SEAN M GAERLAN N/A PHILIPPINE 1\\JAVY-(MABINES) ·- ~ ··----- -· -·- -·~--· . -~-.... Se.-TASK NUMBER - -·. T"o•• --- N/A...and the resiliency of the Communist Party of the Philippines /New People’s Army demonstrates the inadequacy of the military in dealing with

  20. Calcutta metro: is it safe from noise pollution hazards?

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Bandyopadhyay, P; Kashyap, S K

    1996-01-01

    A modest assessment of noise was made in Calcutta Metro, India's first ever underground tube rail system, to examine if the range of noise levels present could endanger the hearing sensitivity of workers for the Metro. Sound measuring instruments of a sound level meter, an octave band analyzer, and a sound level calibrator were used for measuring the sound pressure levels in platforms of three stations: Esplanade, Kalighat and Tollygunge. The results indicated that the averaged A-weighted SPLs in these stations were in the range of 84-87 dBA. In the coaches of the moving train the Leq values ranged 92-99 dBA and LNP 105-117 dBA, all exceeding the safe limit of day time noise exposure of 55 dBA and 85 dBA of ACGIH. The SPLs at 4,000 Hz in the coaches were also in excess of safe exposure limit of 79 dB. The findings thus posed a potential threat to the workers.

  1. First molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks from dogs in Cebu, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Perez, Zandro O; Gabotero, Shirleny R; Yandug, Ryan T; Kotaro, Matsumoto; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    Ehrlichia canis infection of dogs in the Philippines has been detected by serological and peripheral blood smear examination methods, but not by molecular means. Anaplasma platys infection in dogs has not yet been officially reported, although it is suspected to occur in the country. Thus, sensitive and specific molecular techniques were used in this study to demonstrate the presence of both E. canis and A. platys in the Philippines. A total of 164 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was collected from 36 dogs. Seven tick samples were found positive with E. canis and one sample with A. platys. To further characterize these pathogens, molecular analyses based on citrate synthase and heat-shock operon genes were also performed. Philippine strains were found to be not divergent from strains from other countries. The present results are the first molecular detection and analyses of E. canis and A. platys in ticks from dogs in the Philippines.

  2. [Researches on virology at the Tohoku University Research Center in the Philippines].

    PubMed

    Oshitani, Hitoshi; Saito, Mariko; Okamoto, Michiko; Tamaki, Raita; Kamigaki, Taro; Suzuki, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine has established the Tohoku-RITM Collaborative Research Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases at Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM) in the Philippines in 2008. Our aim of the center is to conduct operational researches, which can contribute to control of infectious diseases in the Philippines. Therefore most of our researches in the Philippines are being conducted in the fields. Main research themes include severe acute respiratory infections in children, influenza disease burden study, molecular epidemiology of rabies, and viral etiology of acute diarrhea. The study on severe acute respiratory infections in children in Leyte Island has recruited hospitalized cases with severe pneumonia. We showed that enterovirus 68 was one of important causative agents in severe pneumonia cases. We also conducted other analyses including molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pathogenesis of human rhinoviruses (HRV). Based on these studies, we initiated more comprehensive researches in the Philippines since 2010.

  3. A new fish species of the subfamily Serraninae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Carpenter, Kent E

    2015-01-19

    A new species of serranine fish is described from the Philippine Islands. A single specimen of a new species, Chelidoperca santosi, captured by fishermen working in Palawan waters was discovered in the public fish market in Iloilo City, Panay, Philippines. Two additional specimens of the new species, also from the Philippines, were subsequently discovered in the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia. The new species is currently known only from the Philippines and is characterized by its distinctive coloration with a row of four small dark spots on the snout (two in front of each eye) and two dark spots on the chin (one on each side of the symphysis of the dentaries), a white anal fin with six large yellow spots separated by broad white interspaces and a narrow yellow distal border, caudal fin with narrow yellow bars and a yellowish distal margin and no dark spots, and a combination of meristic and morphological characters. 

  4. The potent lever of toil: nursing development and exportation in the postcolonial Philippines.

    PubMed

    Brush, Barbara L

    2010-09-01

    Although the colonial relationship between the Philippines and the United States precipitated nurse education and migration patterns that exist today, little is known about the factors that sustained them. During the first half of the twentieth century, for example, the Philippines trained its nurse workforce primarily for domestic use. After the country's independence in 1946, however, that practice reversed. Nurse education in the Philippines was driven largely by US market demand in tandem with local messages linking work and nationalism and explicit policies to send nurses abroad. As these ideologies and practices became firmly entrenched, nurse production not only exceeded the country's numerical requirements but focused largely on preparing practitioners for the health care needs of developed nations rather than the public health needs of the indigenous population. This historical trend has important present-day ramifications for the Philippines, whose continued exodus of nurses threatens its public health.

  5. Addressing the tobacco epidemic in the Philippines: progress since ratification of the WHO FCTC

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, M.; Limpin, M.; Alzona, L.; Trinidad, F.; Dorotheo, U.; Yapchiongco, R.; Garcia, R.; Anden, A.; Alday, J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, and is estimated to kill more than 5 million persons each year worldwide. Tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke pose a major public health problem in the Philippines. Effective tobacco control policies are enshrined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a legally binding international treaty that was ratified by the Philippines in 2005. Since 2007, Bloomberg Philanthropies has supported the accelerated reduction of tobacco use in many countries, including the Philippines. Progress in the Philippines is discussed with particular emphasis on the period since ratification of the WHO FCTC, and with particular focus on the grants programme funded by the Bloomberg Initiative. Despite considerable progress, significant challenges are identified that must be addressed in future if the social, health and economic burden from the tobacco epidemic is to be alleviated. PMID:26393010

  6. Addressing the tobacco epidemic in the Philippines: progress since ratification of the WHO FCTC.

    PubMed

    Bellew, B; Antonio, M; Limpin, M; Alzona, L; Trinidad, F; Dorotheo, U; Yapchiongco, R; Garcia, R; Anden, A; Alday, J

    2013-06-21

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, and is estimated to kill more than 5 million persons each year worldwide. Tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke pose a major public health problem in the Philippines. Effective tobacco control policies are enshrined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a legally binding international treaty that was ratified by the Philippines in 2005. Since 2007, Bloomberg Philanthropies has supported the accelerated reduction of tobacco use in many countries, including the Philippines. Progress in the Philippines is discussed with particular emphasis on the period since ratification of the WHO FCTC, and with particular focus on the grants programme funded by the Bloomberg Initiative. Despite considerable progress, significant challenges are identified that must be addressed in future if the social, health and economic burden from the tobacco epidemic is to be alleviated.

  7. The Potent Lever of Toil: Nursing Development and Exportation in the Postcolonial Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although the colonial relationship between the Philippines and the United States precipitated nurse education and migration patterns that exist today, little is known about the factors that sustained them. During the first half of the twentieth century, for example, the Philippines trained its nurse workforce primarily for domestic use. After the country's independence in 1946, however, that practice reversed. Nurse education in the Philippines was driven largely by US market demand in tandem with local messages linking work and nationalism and explicit policies to send nurses abroad. As these ideologies and practices became firmly entrenched, nurse production not only exceeded the country's numerical requirements but focused largely on preparing practitioners for the health care needs of developed nations rather than the public health needs of the indigenous population. This historical trend has important present-day ramifications for the Philippines, whose continued exodus of nurses threatens its public health. PMID:20634458

  8. An urban metabolism and ecological footprint assessment of Metro Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jennie; Kissinger, Meidad; Rees, William E

    2013-07-30

    As the world urbanizes, the role of cities in determining sustainability outcomes grows in importance. Cities are the dominant form of human habitat, and most of the world's resources are either directly or indirectly consumed in cities. Sustainable city analysis and management requires understanding the demands a city places on a wider geographical area and its ecological resource base. We present a detailed, integrated urban metabolism of residential consumption and ecological footprint analysis of the Vancouver metropolitan region for the year 2006. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the application of a bottom-up ecological footprint analysis using an urban metabolism framework at a metropolitan, regional scale. Our specific objectives are: a) to quantify energy and material consumption using locally generated data and b) to relate these data to global ecological carrying capacity. Although water is the largest material flow through Metro Vancouver (424,860,000 m(3)), it has the smallest ecological footprint (23,100 gha). Food (2,636,850 tonnes) contributes the largest component to the ecological footprint (4,514,400 gha) which includes crop and grazing land as well as carbon sinks required to sequester emissions from food production and distribution. Transportation fuels (3,339,000 m(3)) associated with motor vehicle operation and passenger air travel comprises the second largest material flow through the region and the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (7,577,000 tonnes). Transportation also accounts for the second largest component of the EF (2,323,200 gha). Buildings account for the largest electricity flow (17,515,150 MWh) and constitute the third largest component of the EF (1,779,240 gha). Consumables (2,400,000 tonnes) comprise the fourth largest component of the EF (1,414,440 gha). Metro Vancouver's total Ecological Footprint in 2006 was 10,071,670 gha, an area approximately 36 times larger than the region itself. The EFA reveals that

  9. Resilience and Disaster Trends in the Philippines: Opportunities for National and Local Capacity Building

    PubMed Central

    Alcayna, Tilly; Bollettino, Vincenzo; Dy, Philip; Vinck, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Philippines is one of the top countries in the world at risk of climate-related disasters. For populations subsisting at the poverty line in particular, but also the nation as a whole, daily lives and wellbeing are routinely challenged. The Philippines government takes disaster risk seriously and has devoted significant resources to build disaster capacity and reduce population exposure and vulnerability, nationally and locally. This paper explores the policy and institutional mechanisms for disaster risk reduction management and research which have been conducted in the Philippines related to disaster preparedness, management and resilience.   Methods: This study draws on direct observations of and conversations with disaster management professionals, in addition to a review of the extant literature on resilience and disaster preparedness, in the Philippines. This is a descriptive study based on a search of mainly peer-reviewed studies but also articles, reports, and disaster risk reduction and response projects in the Philippines. Search words used in various combinations included: Resilience, Philippines, Disaster Preparedness, Community-based, Disaster Risk Reduction, Capacity-building. Results: Numerous activities in community based resilience and DRR have been identified across the whole disaster continuum. Yet, important gaps in research and practice remain. Discussion: The Philippines, is a leading regional actor in disaster risk management. However, a full picture of who is doing what, how, where and when on resilience and disaster preparedness does not exist. Consequently there is no single study that compares the impacts and results that different preparedness measures are having in the Philippines. We recommend further research focussed on mapping the network of actors, understanding community perceptions of disaster risk preparedness and resilience, and investigation into the socio-ecological systems of different communities. PMID

  10. Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the Philippine Sea Experiment (OBSAPS) Cruise Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Event #5, 250km Long Line, are overlain on the bathymetry . The azimuth is N15degE and is roughly parallel to the DVLA to T1 line on Phil Sea 󈧎, but...WHOI-2011-04 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the Philippine Sea Experiment (OBSAPS) Cruise Report by...release; distribution unlimited. WHOI-2011-04 Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the Philippine Sea Experiment (OBSAPS) Cruise Report by

  11. Natives in Blue: The Employment of Armed Auxiliaries in the Philippines, 1899-1913

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    Philippine Scouts have been addressed in few modern treatments: James R. Woolard, “The Philippine Scouts: The Development of America’s Colonial Army...for the Future Employment of Indigenous Forces,” (masters thesis: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1995); James D. Campbell, “Making...Riflemen from the Mud: Restoring the Army’s Culture of Irregular Warfare,” (masters thesis: U.S. Army War College, 2007); James D. Campbell, Matthew A

  12. Assessing the Parameters for Determining Mission Accomplishment of the Philippine Marine Corps in Internal Security Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the Philippine Marine Corps in Internal Security Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...It is worthy to note that the Marine Corps perceive" s ISO primarily as a mere force on force employment (combat operations) against armed internal ...Virginia 22134-5068 MASTERS OF MILITARY STUDIES ASSESSING THE PARAMETERS FOR DETERMINING MISSION ACCOMPLISHMENT 011 THE PHILIPPINE MARINE CORPS IN INTERNAL

  13. Enduring Rivalry in the Philippines and the Application of Amnesty, Reintegration and Reconciliation (AR2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Enduring Rivalry in the Philippines and the Application of Amnesty, Reintegration and Reconciliation (AR2) A Monograph by MAJ Gary J Morea...NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enduring Rivalry in the Philippines and the Application of Amnesty, Reintegration and Reconciliation (AR2) 5c...of force, diplomacy and economic programs that are necessary in initiating and sustaining peace. While the elements of amnesty, reintegration and

  14. Access Issues Associated with U.S. Military Presence in Thailand and the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    on democracy issues arose from the American support of the military regimes in Thailand and President Marcos ’ authoritarian regime in the Philippines...Forces Movement (RAM) and the Marcos -loyalists’ 34 The history of the United States relationship with Thailand and the Philippines had shaped the...from the Filipinos. A revolutionary Filipino general Antonio Luna quipped, ""people are not to be bought and sold like horses and houses. If the aim

  15. The Integrated National Police in Philippine Counterinsurgency Operations -- The Great Difference.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Continued) 7-. I Recent developments in the Philippine local police system have proved the police has a significant role in the overall government...administrativ operational and logistical support, training, and the proper leadership at all levels of command, the local police as a national organization...against Communist insurgency. F, Recent developments in the Philippine local police system have proved the police has a significant role in the overall

  16. A new species of Lienardia (Gastropoda: Conoidea) from the Philippines and the Spratly Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Gary; Stahlschmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Lienardia (Conoidea: Clathurellidae) is described from the Philippines and Spratly Islands and compared to L. giliberti Souverbie, 1874, with which it has been confused. The species is routinely found in lumun-lumun nets in the southern Philippines, particularly in the Panglao area, in depths of 50 and 110 m. Correlations between radular morphology and shell coloration support maintaining Lienardia and Clathurella as distinct genera. PMID:23913992

  17. Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products.

    PubMed

    Azanza, P; Cariaso, K; Dela Cerna, M C; de Ocampo, C; Galvez, F; Moises, M; Pujanes, K

    1998-06-01

    The effects of iodized salt use on the quality of processed Philippine food products were evaluated. Samples for the study included dried-salted and smoked fish products, nitrite-cured pork, and fermented plain and flavored shrimp pastes. Generally, no significant differences were detected between the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the test products prepared with iodized and unfortified NaCl salts. The salting process in each food operation significantly increased the iodine content of the test products. However, subsequent losses in the absorbed iodine were recorded due to the boiling, smoking, drying, fermenting and heating processes in the different operations. It was recommended that studies be undertaken on the addition of iodine to semi-processed or completely processed food products to lessen iodine losses.

  18. Engineering analysis of ERTS data for rice in the Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnair, A. J. (Principal Investigator); Heydt, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Rice is an important food worldwide. Worthwhile goals, particularly for developing nations, are the capability to recognize from satellite imagery: (1) areas where rice is grown, and (2) growth status (irrigation, vigor, yield). A two-step procedure to achieve this is being investigated. Ground truth, and ERTS-1 imagery (four passes) covering 80% of a rice growth cycle for some Philippine sites, have been analyzed. One-D and three-D signature extraction, and synthesis of an initial site recognition/status algorithm have been performed. Results are encouraging. but additional passes and sites must be analyzed. Good position information for extracted data is a must.

  19. Aiding the poorest. The Philippines: Children and Youth Foundation.

    PubMed

    Marozzi, J

    1998-01-30

    "Tuloy sa Don Bosco," one of the programs supported by the Children and Youth Foundation of the Philippines (CYFP), gives a number of Filipino street children the chance to escape a life of exploitation. The project covers 118 boys between the ages of 8 and 18 years, with a further 100 that arrive for their classes daily. These children come from a variety of problem backgrounds, including domestic violence and abuse. CYFP operates by identifying effective partners such as the "Tuloy sa Don Bosco" project, arranging funds, and enhancing the partner's capabilities to implement programs. In northern Luzon, CYFP supports projects dealing with child labor, prostitution, out-of-school girls, and entrepreneurial training. CYFP aims to place children and youth on the government agenda, international funding institutions, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

  20. DNA barcodes for dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) of Mindanao, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Casas, Princess Angelie S; Sing, Kong-Wah; Lee, Ping-Shin; Nuñeza, Olga M; Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T; Wilson, John-James

    2017-02-03

    Reliable species identification provides a sounder basis for use of species in the order Odonata as biological indicators and for their conservation, an urgent concern as many species are threatened with imminent extinction. We generated 134 COI barcodes from 36 morphologically identified species of Odonata collected from Mindanao Island, representing 10 families and 19 genera. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0 to 6.7% with four species showing more than 2%, while interspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0.5 to 23.3% with seven species showing less than 2%. Consequently, no distinct gap was observed between intraspecific and interspecific DNA barcode divergences. The numerous islands of the Philippine archipelago may have facilitated rapid speciation in the Odonata and resulted in low interspecific sequence divergences among closely related groups of species. This study contributes DNA barcodes for 36 morphologically identified species of Odonata reported from Mindanao including 31 species with no previous DNA barcode records.

  1. Report on the geology of the Philippine Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, George F.; Martin, K.

    1901-01-01

    An attempt will be made in the following paper to bring together, so far as is practicable, all that is known of the geology of the Philippine Islands. The report is intended as a vade mecum for geologists in the field and a guide to the literature in the office. Doubtless something has escaped which should have been included, especially among the shrewd remarks of early Spanish travelers, but research in that direction is curious rather than profitable. If here and there they caught a glimpse of truth, with which it would be pleasant to credit them, most of their views on geological matters were of a grotesque falsity, with which it would be unkind to reproach them.

  2. Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Lasco, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

  3. Science guides search and rescue after the 2006 Philippine landslide.

    PubMed

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar A; Tengonciang, Arlene Mae P; Rodolfo, Raymond S; Soria, Janneli Lea A; Baliatan, Eden G; Paguican, Engielle R; Ong, John Burtkenley T; Lapus, Mark R; Fernandez, Dan Ferdinand D; Quimba, Zareth P; Uichanco, Christopher L

    2008-09-01

    A rockslide-debris avalanche destroyed the remote village of Guinsaugon in Southern Leyte, Philippines, on 17 February 2006. Although search and rescue procedures were implemented immediately, the scale of the landslide and a lack of information about its nature resulted in unfocused and imprecise efforts in the early days of the operation. Technical support was only introduced five days after the event, provided by a team of volunteer geologists, geophysicists, and meteorologists. By the time search and rescue operations were transferred to specific target sites, however, the chances of finding survivors trapped under the rubble had diminished. In such critical situations, speed, accuracy, and the maximum appropriation of resources are crucial. We emphasise here the need for a systematic and technically informed approach to search and rescue missions in large-scale landslide disaster contexts, and the formulation of better disaster management policies in general. Standard procedures must be developed and enforced to improve how civil authorities respond to natural calamities.

  4. The Philippine Insurrection: The U.S. Navy in a Military Operation Other Than War, 1899-1902

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Parañaque. Outnumbered and overwhelmed, the small gunboat Barcelo was sent to assist the army in their retreat. The Barcelo’s efforts drove the...Helena, Barcelo , Mindoro, Gardoqui, Manila, Callao, and Basco, the expedition steamed up the Orani River to the wreck of the Urdaneta. Gunfire from

  5. The Philippine Population Program strategic plan (1981-1985).

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the population problem is to effectively mobilize the country's population for productive activity. Rather than simply concern with controlling numbers, emphasis is on human resource management, the structure of employment, labor productivity and income distribution. The long-term Philippine Development Plans reflect recognition of the dynamic interaction between fertility, productivity and welfare. Objectives of the 5-Year Philippine Development Plan 1978-1982, the 10-Year Plan 1978-1987, and the Long-Term Plan to year 2000 integrate population concerns and socioeconomic goals. These objectives include the following: promotion of social development and social justice; attainment of self-sufficiency in food and greater self-reliance in energy; increased development of lagging regions, especially rural areas; improvements of habitat through the development of human settlements and proper management of the environment; and maintenance of population growth at levels conducive to national welfare. Some population concerns that are directly relevant to welfare (in addition to those related to productivity) are distribution patterns of social goods and services, access to services by sectors of the population, and buying power of families. As a total population policy should establish closer linkages, operationally, between the demographic aspects and the productivity and welfare aspects of development, the mission of the National Population Program encompasses 3 areas: fertility; productivity; and welfare. Strategic policies include the following: abortion is unacceptable as a contraceptive method; the population program shall be non-coercive; and the program shall view individual and family welfare in the context and as the main objective of national socioeconomic programs.

  6. Urban policy engagement with social sustainability in metro Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Holden, Meg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of social sustainability in comparative theoretical context and as a challenge to the post-political interpretation of sustainability in policy practice at the urban and regional scales. Metro Vancouver provides a case study for improving our understanding of the meaning of social sustainability as a framework for social policy in that it is among the handful of cities around the world currently working to define and enact social sustainability in governance terms. Results of this participant research provide evidence that some cities are politically engaging alternative development pathways using the concept of social sustainability. For sustainable development to retain its promise as an alternative policy framework for cities, social sustainability must be at the forefront.

  7. Using a Metro Map Metaphor for Organizing Web-Based Learning Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Tove; Gronbaek, Kaj; Hansen, Per Steen

    This paper briefly describes the WebNize system and how it applies a Metro Map metaphor for organizing guided tours in Web based resources. Then, experiences in using the Metro Map based tours in a Knowledge Sharing project at the library at Aarhus School of Business (ASB) in Denmark, are discussed. The Library has been involved in establishing a…

  8. 77 FR 64566 - Market Test of Experimental Product-Metro Post

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Market Test of Experimental Product--Metro Post AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a market test involving the product called Metro Post. This document describes the proposed test, addresses...

  9. Population Change in the Midwest: Nonmetro Population Growth Lags Metro Increase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudy, Willis

    2002-01-01

    Midwest population gains in the 1990s were eclipsed by other regions, and nonmetro areas fared worse than metro counties. Less populous and more isolated counties were more likely to lose residents and to lose youth. The Midwest gained Hispanic residents in the 1990s, but numerical increases were much larger in metro counties. Implications for…

  10. Racial Segregation and Educational Outcomes in Metropolitan Boston. Metro Boston Equity Initiative. Issue Summary No.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chungmei

    2004-01-01

    This report takes a look at the issues concerning racial segregation and educational outcomes in Metropolitan Boston. Despite the fact that metro Boston is overwhelmingly white, its public schools are highly segregated by race and language. Segregated minority schools in metro Boston are profoundly unequal, with high poverty levels, with lower…

  11. Environmental and human exposure assessment monitoring of communities near an abandoned mercury mine in the Philippines: a toxic legacy.

    PubMed

    Maramba, Nelia P C; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Dioquino, Carissa; Dando, Nerissa; Timbang, Rene; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Castillo, Ma Teresa; Quitoriano, Carmela; Afuang, Maredith; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Youko

    2006-10-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose real or potential threats to human safety and health including environmental damage/s. Very few countries had government mine regulation and reclamation policies until the latter part of the century where legal, financial and technical procedures were required for existing mining operations. Major reasons for mine closure may be mainly due to poor economies of the commodity making mining unprofitable, technical difficulties and national security. If the mine is abandoned, more often than not it is the government that shoulders the burden of clean-up, monitoring and remediation. The topic of abandoned mines is complex because of the associated financial and legal liability implications. Abandoned mercury mines have been identified as one of the major concerns because of their significant long-term environmental problems. Primary mercury production is still ongoing in Spain, Kyrgzystan, China, Algeria, Russia and Slovakia while world production declined substantially in the late 1980s. In the Philippines, the mercury mine located southeast of Manila was in operation from 1955 to 1976, before ceasing operation because of the decline in world market price for the commodity. During this time, annual production of mercury was estimated to be about 140,000 kg of mercury yearly. Approximately 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining and roughly 1,000,000 t of these calcines were dumped into nearby Honda Bay to construct a jetty to facilitate mine operations where about 2000 people reside in the nearby three barangays. In October, 1994 the Department of Health received a request from the Provincial Health Office for technical assistance relative to the investigation of increasing complaints of unusual symptoms (e.g. miscarriages, tooth loss, muscle weakness, paralysis, anemia, tremors, etc.) among residents of three barangays. Initial health reports revealed significant

  12. Genetic relations between the central and southern Philippine Trench and the Sangihe Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallemand, Serge E.; Popoff, Michel; Cadet, Jean-Paul; Bader, Anne-Gaelle; Pubellier, Manuel; Rangin, Claude; Deffontaines, Benoã®T.

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed the junction between the central and southern Philippine Trench and the Sangihe Trench near 6°N using swath bathymetry, gravity, and magnetics. These data, along with seismicity, allow us to discuss the genetic relations between these trenches and the forces acting on converging plates. Our final model favors the northern extension of the Halmahera Arc up to 8°N, with three segments offset left-laterally along NW-SE transform faults. Accretion of the northern segment to Mindanao Island 4 to 5 m.y. ago resulted in the failure within the Philippine Sea Plate east of the arc. Initiation of the Philippine Trench between 7°N and 10°N agrees with the maximum recorded depth of the Philippine Trench floor (10,000 m below sea-level) and Philippine Sea slab (200 km). South of 6°N (trench junction), another segment of the arc is being subducted beneath the Sangihe margin, while south of 3°N, the southern segment of the Halmahera Arc is still active. The rapid southward shallowing of the trench floor along the southern Philippine Trench, the type of faulting affecting both sides of the trench, the lack of significant interplate seismicity, and the concentration of the seismicity beneath the Miangas-Talaud Ridge are interpreted as a slowing down of the subduction along this branch of the Philippine Trench compared with the rest of the subduction zone. The Sangihe deformation front has been recognized up to 7°N but seems active only south of 6°N.

  13. Manpower export and economic development: evidence from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1988-06-01

    The Philippines has actively pursued a policy of labor export with the expectation that it would relieve unemployment, augment the supply of skills, and relieve pressure on the balance of payments. It was also anticipated that the inflow of overseas workers' remittances would translate into increased investment, the sine qua non for economic development. However, recent evidence casts some doubt on the extent to which these goals have been achieved. Particularly in the areas of skill formation, there appears to be a significant discrepancy between anticipated and actual outcomes. Indeed, it appears that the labor export may reduce the supply of skills available since 1) many skilled and educated workers are taking jobs requiring skill levels lower than they possess, and 2) a large majority of returning workers do not want to take up employment in those occupations reliant on the skills they used abroad. There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of labor export on Philippine industries. There is some anecdotal evidence that a few industries have suffered because of a loss of key workers. In general, however, it appears that unemployment is still quite significant in those occupations most heavily represented in labor export. Despite this observation, it may still be true that labor emigration is selective of only the best workers, implying a decline in quality of the work force and possibly productivity in certain industries. The export of professional, technical, and managerial workers is another issue. Unless it can be shown that these workers are in excess supply, it is not advisable to expand the number going abroad. Although their salaries may be higher, and hence their remittances greater, their loss can impose costs on indigenous industries well in excess of a any marginal gains. Remittances from overseas workers do constitute a relatively significant source of foreign exchange. However, the translation of remittances into investment has been

  14. Target organs of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum for studying metal accumulation and biomarkers in pollution monitoring: laboratory and in-situ transplantation experiments.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Eun-Soo; Ra, Kongtae

    2016-08-01

    To characterize the target organs of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum for use in environmental study, the accumulation of trace metals and three biomarkers was measured in different organs. Exposure with Cu and Pb carried out under laboratory conditions revealed a linear uptake of metals throughout the experimental period in each tissue. In particular, significant increase was observed in gills and mantle. The increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species showed the great potential of gills as a target tissue for both Cu and Pb exposure. The highest activity of glutathione S-transferase and their relative increase in activity were also observed in gills. Metallothionein-like protein levels, however, increased greatly in the digestive gland and mantle during Cu and Pb exposure, respectively, although all tissues, except the foot, showed significant changes after 24 h of metal exposure. In the field study, the highest concentration of metals was recorded in the gills and mantle, accounting for over 50 % of the total accumulated metal in all sites. Additionally, Cu and Pb increased significantly in these two organs, respectively. However, the order of accumulation rate in laboratory exposure was not concomitant with those of the lab-based study, suggesting that different routes of metal uptake and exposure duration induce distinct partitioning of metals and regulating system in R. philippinarum. These series of exposure studies demonstrated that gills, mantle, and digestive gland in R. philippinarum are potential target tissues in environmental monitoring study using metal concentrations and biomarkers.

  15. An immune-enriched oligo-microarray analysis of gene expression in Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) haemocytes after a Perkinsus olseni challenge.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alejandro; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Moreira, Rebeca; Milan, Massimo; Bargelloni, Luca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2015-03-01

    Parasites of the genus Perkinsus cause high mortality and economic losses in bivalves commonly produced in global aquaculture. Although the immune responses of oysters and clams naturally infected with Perkinsus marinus or Perkinsus olseni have been extensively studied, there is not much information on host response at the early stages of infection. In this study, we analysed how P. olseni influences the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from the Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) using temporal experimental infections and an immune-enriched microarray. We identified an early phase of infection that was characterised by no mortality and by the increased expression of genes associated with pathogen recognition, production of nitrogen radicals and antimicrobial activity. Cellular processes such as inhibition of serine proteases and proliferation were also involved in this early response. This phase was followed by an intermediate stage, when the pathogen was most likely multiplying and infecting new areas of the body, and animals began to die. In this stage, many genes related to cell movement were over-expressed. Thirty days after infection metabolic pathway genes were the most affected. Apoptosis appears to be important during pathogenesis. Our results provide novel observations of the broader innate immune response triggered by P. olseni at different infection stages.

  16. Deep Tunnel's twists and turns -- CSO control in metro Chicago

    SciTech Connect

    Farnan, J.C.; Lue-Hing, C.; O'Connor, T.K.; Rakoczy, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    Metro-Chicago began its search for a comprehensive solution to its severe and then-worsening combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution and flooding problems even before enactment of the 1972 Federal Clean Water Act. Many studies and extensive interagency cooperation singled out the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) as the best means of cost-effectively achieving three anti-pollution and anti-flooding objectives: protect Chicagoland's main drinking water supply--Lake Michigan--from raw sewage backflows; clean up polluted streams; and alleviated basement sewage backups. Owing to TARP's uniqueness, initially there was little or no design, construction or operations experience to draw upon to help implement the project. But since TARP's four systems operate independently, and new tunnel segments are placed into operation as soon as completed, the District has been able to continuously monitor performance and obtain operations feedback. This has enabled ongoing refinement of design, construction, and operational strategy on successive TARP tunnel contracts. Herein is a brief discussion of TARP's development--an evolutionary process with many twists and turns--and of problems and opportunities encountered which resulted in design or operations changes.

  17. St. Louis Metro East region sediment and geomorphic study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, T.D.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Judy's Branch, a small basin (8.64 mi2) near Glen Carbon, Illinois, is selected as a pilot site to determine sediment yield and channel erosion of streams draining the bluffs of the American Bottoms in the Metro East area of Illinois. This paper presents results of an on-going sediment and geomorphic study in Judy's Branch. The average suspended-sediment yield from two upland sub-basins (drainage area equals 0.23 and 0.40 miles2) is 851 tons/mile2-year between October 2000 and September 2003. The suspended-sediment yield at the Route 157 gage (2,188 tons/mile 2-year) (near outlet of the watershed; drainage area = 8.33 miles2) is approximately 1300 tons/mile2-year greater than the average of the upland gages for the same time period. This result is unexpected in that generally the suspended-sediment yield decreases as the watershed area increases because of sediment being stored in the channel and floodplain. The difference indicates a possible increase in yield from a source, such as streambank erosion, and supports the theory that land-use changes increase streamflows that may result in higher rates of streambank erosion. The best estimate of sediment yield from streambank erosion is 1,009 tons/mile 2-year at Route 157. This value is obtained utilizing both bank-rod data and resurveyed cross-section data.

  18. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang; Lu, Chung-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O3), airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO2, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan’s Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA). However, elevated PM10 and PM2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations. PMID:27918460

  19. Challenges of future converged access and metro networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, D.; Hülsermann, R.; Lange, C.; Weis, E.

    2010-01-01

    Steadily increasing customer demand for more and more bandwidth in excess of 100 Mbit/s per subscriber, new technical options and a strong competitive environment drive the evolution of today's telecommunication networks, particularly in the access network. The physical properties of fibers such as very low loss and almost unlimited bandwidth allow for high bit rate long distance transmission in future access networks compared to the conventional copper based access networks in place today. In future this is expected to lead to much larger service areas which are served from one central office and to a significant reduction of central offices of today's infrastructure facilitating a converged metro-access architecture. One driver for this network consolidation is the need for significant operational expenditure (OpEx) savings which are expected due to reduction of active equipment and footprint. But also the changes from today's "service oriented" network design, where each service is almost realized on a new platform, towards an open standardized multi-layer Next Generation Network where all services will be delivered over a common infrastructure will lead to significant challenges in the network infrastructure.

  20. The Moro Problem: An Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Contemporary Problems (Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House, 1974), p. 187. 1 2 Majul, Cesar Adib., Muslims in the Philippines (Manila: St. Mary’s Publishing...Rcbert D. McAmis (eds.), The Muslim Filipinos: Their History, Society and Contemporary Problems (Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House, 1974), p. 271. 17...Filipinos: Their History, Society, and Contemporary Problems (Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House, 1974), p. 246. 117 :4 S. N N I , •..- t 2 9 Wulff

  1. Anthropology and GIS: temporal and spatial distribution of the Philippine negrito groups.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Sabino G

    2013-01-01

    The Philippine "negrito" groups comprise a diverse group of populations speaking over 30 different languages, who are spread all over the archipelago, mostly in marginal areas of Luzon Island in the north, the central Visayas islands, and Mindanao in the south. They exhibit physical characteristics that are different from more than 100 Philippine ethnolinguistic groups that are categorized as non-negritos. Given their numbers, it is not surprising that Philippine negritos make up a major category in a number of general ethnographic maps produced since the nineteenth century. Reports from various ethnological surveys during this period, however, have further enriched our understanding regarding the extent and distribution of negrito populations. Using the data contained in these reports, it is possible to plot and create a map showing the historical locations and distribution of negrito groups. Using geographic information systems (GIS), the location and distribution of negrito groups at any given time can be overlaid on historical or current maps. In the present study, a GIS layer was compiled and extracted from the 2000 Philippine Census of population at the village level and overlaid on existing complement ongoing anthropological and genetic studies of negrito groups that inhabit different locations within the Philippine archipelago.

  2. Rs-Based Water Resources Inventory of the Philippines: Capacity Building Efforts for Nationwide Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. M. C.; De La Cruz, R. M.; Olfindo, N. T.; Borlongan, N. J. B.; Felicen, M. M.; Blanco, A. C.

    2016-06-01

    Considering that the Philippines is archipelagic in nature and is exposed to disasters accentuated by climate change, water resource monitoring and management has been an important concern in the country. The design and implementation of an effective management scheme relies heavily on accurate, complete, and updated water resource inventories, usually in the form of maps and geodatabases. With the aim of developing a detailed and comprehensive database of all water resources in the Philippines, a 3-year project entitled "Development of the Philippine Hydrologic Dataset (PHD) for Watersheds from LiDAR Surveys", has been initiated by the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD) and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Various workflows has been developed to extract inland hydrologic features in the Philippines using accurate Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and LiDAR point cloud data obtained through other government-funded programs, supplemented with other remotely-sensed imageries and ancillary information. Since the project covers national-scale mapping and inventory, the implementation was structured to be a collaborative effort between fifteen (15) State Universities/Colleges (SUCs) and Higher Education Institutes (HEIs), along with multiple National Government Agencies (NGAs) and Local Government Units (LGUs). This paper presents the project's general structure, focusing mainly on its attempts and accomplishments in strengthening individual capacities of all involved SUCs, HEIs, and stakeholders utilizing hydrologic data for different applications.

  3. Development potential of the Dauin geothermal prospect, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrante, L.F.; Hermoso, D.Z.; Candelaria, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Dauin geothermal prospect, situated 5 km southeast of the Palinpinon I and II sectors, was drilled between 1982 and 1983 to test its viability for development. Drilling results indicated that DN-1 was drilled closer to the source region than DN-2 where permeability, temperature, and alteration mineralogy were generally unpromising. DN-1 encountered temperatures of at least 240{degrees}C and a neutral-pH fluid with reservoir chloride of 3000 mg/kg. In particular, the presence of sulphur in the DN-1 discharge provoked debates and many speculation on the nature of the fluid in the area. The area was re-evaluated in 1996 for the following reasons: (1) Renewed interests on other geothermal prospects within Negros Island from an economic point of view and the success of modular plant developments are Pal II and other areas in the Philippines; (2) Reinterpretation of the genesis of sulphur contained in the DN-1 discharge fluid; (3) Encouraging temperature, permeability and neutral-pH alterations at depth and the neutral character of DN-1 discharge fluid; and (4) Reinterpretation of the hydrological model from a geochemical and geological point of view. The study indicates good potential for modular power development.

  4. Updating national standards for drinking-water: a Philippine experience.

    PubMed

    Lomboy, M; Riego de Dios, J; Magtibay, B; Quizon, R; Molina, V; Fadrilan-Camacho, V; See, J; Enoveso, A; Barbosa, L; Agravante, A

    2017-04-01

    The latest version of the Philippine National Standards for Drinking-Water (PNSDW) was issued in 2007 by the Department of Health (DOH). Due to several issues and concerns, the DOH decided to make an update which is relevant and necessary to meet the needs of the stakeholders. As an output, the water quality parameters are now categorized into mandatory, primary, and secondary. The ten mandatory parameters are core parameters which all water service providers nationwide are obligated to test. These include thermotolerant coliforms or Escherichia coli, arsenic, cadmium, lead, nitrate, color, turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, and disinfectant residual. The 55 primary parameters are site-specific and can be adopted as enforceable parameters when developing new water sources or when the existing source is at high risk of contamination. The 11 secondary parameters include operational parameters and those that affect the esthetic quality of drinking-water. In addition, the updated PNSDW include new sections: (1) reporting and interpretation of results and corrective actions; (2) emergency drinking-water parameters; (3) proposed Sustainable Development Goal parameters; and (4) standards for other drinking-water sources. The lessons learned and insights gained from the updating of standards are likewise incorporated in this paper.

  5. Evaluating the impacts of mangrove rehabilitation in Cogtong Bay, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Maliao, Ronald J; Polohan, Bernice B

    2008-03-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been hailed worldwide as vehicles toward sustainable development (SD) in coastal zones. The prominent model by which MPAs operate is through a comanagement approach, a shift from traditional top-down management. This paradigm shift must be reviewed continuously to evaluate its social and ecological impacts, thereby allowing adaptive management. We evaluated the perceived impacts of the Cogtong Bay Mangrove Rehabilitation Project (CBMRP; Philippines) by using 12 perception indicators categorized into 3 comanagement impact criteria (equity, efficiency, and sustainability). We also collected 16 contextual attributes of each respondent to determine the correlates of perceived impacts. Our results showed that there were significant improvements in all indicators under the efficiency criterion but mixed impacts in the equity and sustainability criteria. Access to resource and household income (equity) and fisheries abundance (sustainability) were perceived to have decreased during the last 15 years and were not expected to improve in the future. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the asymmetries of the perceived impacts of the CBMRP were principally caused by disparities in perceptions by gender and by location (Candijay and Mabini). This highlighted the importance of cross-scale institutional linkages between Cogtong Bay municipalities to systematically address baywide management issues. Our results further demonstrated the necessity of integrating gender issues into the evaluation of MPA impacts to ensure a robust evaluation. Finally, we recommend that a rigorous evaluation of MPAs using a common set of impact indicators should be encouraged to allow comparison of studies both spatially and temporally.

  6. Coastal Habitat Restoration and Hydrodynamics in Panguil Bay, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxas, P. G.; Gorospe, J. G.

    2007-03-01

    Hydrobiological studies indicate the deterioration of the coastal ecosystems in Panguil Bay, Philippines despite interventions that started more than a decade ago. Mangrove ecosystems that filter land run offs and act as pollutant sinks are converted to fishponds that discharge toxic materials into the bay. Monsoon winds continue to erode mangrove-dominated coastlines. Water movements, nutrient transport and influx of freshwater from rivers and saline waters from the sea are altered by proliferating fishing structures and boats that use sea lanes for navigation. The reduction of current velocities increased siltation rates that caused shallowing of the bay. Failure in interventions to restore ecosystems is partly attributed to use of methods that failed to consider the bay's hydrodynamics. But sustaining the bay is a must because it is a major source of fishery resources hence strategies to arrest its further deterioration and to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystems based on the bay's hydrodynamics are explored. Timing, selection of appropriate species, and use of encasements are considered relative to the water dynamics of the bay. Zoning and regulation of barrier structures are implemented in some parts of the bay. Bioremediating agricultural run offs and discharges from fishponds, boats, and factories that accumulate in the inner part of the bay remains a challenge.

  7. Hydrodynamics and eutrophication in a mariculture site in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, M. T.; San Diego-McGlone, M. L.; Martin, M.; Villanoy, C.

    2014-12-01

    Bolinao, Pangasinan in the Philippines is a site for extensive and intensive culture of Chanos chanos. The proliferation of fish farm structures coupled with excessive feeding caused the deterioration of water quality in the area that lead to hypoxic condition (<2mg/L) and fish kills. A hydrodynamic model of the area, developed using DELFT3D, showed a residence time of 5-15 days in the northern channel and 25 to 28 days in the southern end. The complex configuration of the coast, which includes narrow channels that serve as bottlenecks, result to the inefficient flushing of the area. This was further aggravated by the presence of fish farm structures that restricted the natural flow of water. Water quality was monitored in the mariculture site and a nearby seagrass reserve. Nitrate+nitrite concentration ranged from 0.34 - 4.1 µM, 0.13 - 2.7 µM for phosphate, and 1.7 - 8.8 µM for ammonia. Highest nutrient concentrations were seen near the fish farms. Analysis of nutrients, chlorophyll-a and tss for a tidal cycle showed that these substances were inadequately flushed from the coastal waters. Long residence times and high nutrient loading in the area were ideal conditions for the development of hypoxia.

  8. Studies of cholera El Tor in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, W. H.; Alvero, M. G.; Joseph, P. R.; Tamayo, J. F.; Gomez, C. Z.; Montague, T.; Dizon, J. J.; Henderson, D. A.

    1965-01-01

    As part of a broad study on the epidemiology of cholera El Tor in the Philippines, the authors conducted bacteriological surveys among the community contacts of suspect cholera patients hospitalized in the Negros Occidental Provincial Hospital from August through October 1962. Fourteen (2%) of 698 community contacts of persons with confirmed cholera patients were found on initial culture to be infected. Intensive studies in two communities suggested that infection was spread primarily by close personal contact; in a third community, contamined well-water presumably served as a vehicle for the transmission of infection. Diagnosed and undiagnosed cases, undiagnosed cholera deaths and asymptomatic infections all played a role in cholera transmission. The studies tend to confirm that the second or recurrent epidemic in Negros Occidental was primarily caused by person-to-person spread. Although the seemingly isolated or sporadic cases were sometimes associated with a more general distribution of the cholera vibrio, the cholera infections invariably were highly localized among close contacts even within densely populated areas with poor sanitation. PMID:5295146

  9. Women of Apelo Cruz. Organizing for change: the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bolido, L

    1995-01-01

    In the Philippines, the Apelo Women's Health Association (AWHA) was organized in 1991 to help economically depressed women take control of their lives, their health, and their fertility. One woman being helped by AWHA is 17-year-old Vilma, who was married and separated at 13, became a bar girl at 14, miscarried at 15, bore a son at 16, and had an abortion. Because of AWHA, Vilma is now using oral contraceptives and insisting that her customers use condoms. AWHA was set up by GABRIELA (the General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership, and Action) to replace the free, occasional medical care formerly available in the slum area of Apelo Cruz, in Pasay City. The free medical care fostered dependency instead of self-reliance among the women. AWHA, therefore, is a health cooperative which requires members to pay a minimal amount for services. AWHA also runs monthly educational activities to inform women of their rights, duties, and responsibilities. It provides a forum for the women in the neighborhood to speak their minds freely. The women are also grateful for the ability to control their fertility through the use of contraception.

  10. Studies on Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Pesigan, T. P.; Hairston, N. G.; Jauregui, J. J.; Garcia, E. G.; Santos, A. T.; Santos, B. C.; Besa, A. A.

    1958-01-01

    This study of the molluscan host (Oncomelania quadrasi) of bilharziasis in the Philippines is divided into two parts, the first dealing with the biology of the host and the second with the interrelationship between the host and Schistosoma japonicum. In the first part, the snail's distribution and habitat are considered in some detail, and then field and laboratory studies on its behaviour and activity are reported on. A section on the life history of O. quadrasi covers its growth, reproduction, egg-laying and survival. This is followed by a study of the population dynamics of the snail. In the second part, the laboratory procedures used for infecting snails and for obtaining cercariae are described, and the finding that more female than male snails are seen infected is discussed. A section is devoted to the effect of infection on the reproduction, growth and longevity of the snail, and an account is given of cercarial output, of the distribution of cercariae in a snail colony and of their presence downstream from snail colonies. The final section deals with natural fluctuations in snail infection rates, which appear to show a cycle related to rainfall. ImagesFIG. 27FIG. 35 PMID:13536804

  11. Studies on Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Pesigan, T. P.; Farooq, M.; Hairston, N. G.; Jauregui, J. J.; Garcia, E. G.; Santos, A. T.; Santos, B. C.; Besa, A. A.

    1958-01-01

    Among the measures used in attempts to control the snail host of S. japonicum in Leyte Province, Philippines, where the terrain is unsuited to the application of molluscicides, have been removal of vegetation in and around infested streams, drainage of water-logged areas, filling low-lying areas with earth or flooding them, and digging fishponds in sluggish streams. Each of these measures is described in detail. Experiments carried out in rice-fields, which harbour great numbers of snails, have shown that improvements in rice-growing methods will not only markedly reduce the snail population but also double the rice yield. A campaign to promote the use of pit latrines encountered the serious difficulty that such latrines were not acceptable to the people. However, there is evidence that use of pit latrines does bring about a reduction in snail infection rates. No single control measure is recommended for all snail habitats, the choice of method depending on local circumstances; in many areas a combination of methods proved advantageous. It is felt that mass treatment of infected persons would not be fully effective until transmission is more thoroughly under control. PMID:13585073

  12. Sex linked recessive dystonia parkinsonism of Panay, Philippines (XDP)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L V; Munoz, E L; Tan, K T; Reyes, M T

    2001-01-01

    Sex linked dystonia parkinsonism (XDP), also referred to as “lubag” in American literature, was described in 1975 occurring endemically in Panay, Philippines. It is an adult onset, sex linked, predominantly male, severe, progressive movement disorder with high penetrance and a high frequency of generalisation. The movement disorder is characterised by dystonic movements, usually starting in the 3rd or 4th decade, spreading to generalisation within two to five years. The dystonia coexists or is replaced by parkinsonism usually beyond the 10th year of illness. No treatment has been found to be effective. Neuroimaging shows caudate and putamenal atrophy in patients reaching the parkinsonian stage. Neuropathology reveals pronounced atrophy of the caudate and putamen, mostly in the cases with long standing illness. The sex linked pattern of inheritance has been established. Genetic studies have located the affected gene (DYT3) to Xq13.1, with one group mapping the XDP gene to a < 350 kb locus in the DXS 7117–DXS 559 region. PMID:11724910

  13. Underwater Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea: Intensity Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew W.

    In the spring of 2009, broadband transmissions from a ship-suspended source with a 284 Hz center frequency were received on a moored and navigated vertical array of hydrophones over a range of 107 km in the Philippine Sea. During a 60-hour period over 19 000 transmissions were carried out. The observed wavefront arrival structure reveals four distinct purely refracted acoustic paths: one with a single upper turning point near 80 m depth, two with a pair of upper turning points at a depth of roughly 300 m, and one with three upper turning points at 420 m. Individual path intensity, defined as the absolute square of the center frequency Fourier component for that arrival, was estimated over the 60-hour duration and used to compute scintillation index and log-intensity variance. Monte Carlo parabolic equation simulations using internal-wave induced sound speed perturbations obeying the Garrett-Munk internal-wave en- ergy spectrum were in agreement with measured data for the three deeper-turning paths but differed by as much as a factor of four for the near surface-interacting path. Estimates of the power spectral density and temporal autocorrelation function of intensity were attempted, but were complicated by gaps in the measured time-series. Deep fades in intensity were observed in the near surface-interacting path. Hypothesized causes for the deep fades were examined through further acoustic propagation modeling and analysis of various available oceanographic measurements.

  14. New endemic foci of schistosomiasis infections in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Antonio Solon, Juan; Chigusa, Yuichi; Villacorte, Elena; Christoper Chua, James; Moendeg, Kharleezelle; Manalo, Daria; Crisostomo, Bobby; Sunico, Louie; Boldero, Nicasio; Payne, Lara; Hernandez, Leda; Velayudhan, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects 28 provinces in the Philippines found along the southeastern part where there is continuous rainfall throughout the year. In 2002 and 2005 respectively, two new endemic foci were reported in the northernmost (Gonzaga, Cagayan) and central (Calatrava, Negros Occidental) parts of the country. This study conducted in March 2008-March 2009 confirmed the presence of the disease by determining its prevalence using four diagnostic tests - Kato-Katz, circumoval precipitin test (COPT), ELISA and ultrasonography. Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi was identified through snail surveys conducted in possible snail habitats in the seven new endemic villages. Animal surveys through stool examination confirmed the presence of schistosomiasis infection in animals in Gonzaga but not in Calatrava. Compared to Calatrava, Gonzaga demonstrated markedly higher prevalence of schistosomiasis using all four diagnostic methods. Proximity of snail habitats to human habitation including higher snail density and snail infection rate could be responsible for the high prevalence. Snail sites were more widespread in Gonzaga whereas those in Calatrava were confined only in areas not frequented by the general population except by farmers. GIS maps showing spatial distribution of snails in Gonzaga and Calatrava indicated differences in elevation among the snail sites. It is hypothesized that the snail intermediate host has been in these sites for sometime but discovered only lately. Migration of people from endemic provinces into Gonzaga and Calatrava brought in cases and in the presence of snail intermediate hosts, emergence of disease was just a matter of time.

  15. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of Poro Point and vicinity, Luzon Island, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worts, George Frank

    1964-01-01

    In 1961 a reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water hydrology of Poro Point, on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, was made on behalf of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Poro Point, which marks the northern end of Lingayen Gulf, is about half a mile wide and projects northwestward about 2 miles into the China Sea. The point is underlain by coralline limestone of probable Pleistocene age. The aquifer system consists of a fresh-water lens floating on salt water within the coralline limestone. Several tube wells obtain fresh water from the lens, but in May, at the end of the 6-month dry season during which rainfall totals only 40 inches, the water becomes brackish. 'Skimming wells' are considered the best method of obtaining fresh water from the lens, whose annual range in average thickness is probably 25 to 40 feet. Recharge is about 2,000-3,000 acre-feet per year and is derived wholly from precipitation during the 6-month wet season in which rainfall totals about 92 inches. The approximate amount of ground water stored in the fresh-water lens ranges from about 3,000 acre-feet at the end of the dry season to about 5,000 acre-feet at the end of the wet season. Most of the ground water is discharged through seeps and submarine springs around Poro Point; pumpage in 1961 was only about 100 acre-feet.

  16. Evaluating the Impacts of Mangrove Rehabilitation in Cogtong Bay, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliao, Ronald J.; Polohan, Bernice B.

    2008-03-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been hailed worldwide as vehicles toward sustainable development (SD) in coastal zones. The prominent model by which MPAs operate is through a comanagement approach, a shift from traditional top-down management. This paradigm shift must be reviewed continuously to evaluate its social and ecological impacts, thereby allowing adaptive management. We evaluated the perceived impacts of the Cogtong Bay Mangrove Rehabilitation Project (CBMRP; Philippines) by using 12 perception indicators categorized into 3 comanagement impact criteria (equity, efficiency, and sustainability). We also collected 16 contextual attributes of each respondent to determine the correlates of perceived impacts. Our results showed that there were significant improvements in all indicators under the efficiency criterion but mixed impacts in the equity and sustainability criteria. Access to resource and household income (equity) and fisheries abundance (sustainability) were perceived to have decreased during the last 15 years and were not expected to improve in the future. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the asymmetries of the perceived impacts of the CBMRP were principally caused by disparities in perceptions by gender and by location (Candijay and Mabini). This highlighted the importance of cross-scale institutional linkages between Cogtong Bay municipalities to systematically address baywide management issues. Our results further demonstrated the necessity of integrating gender issues into the evaluation of MPA impacts to ensure a robust evaluation. Finally, we recommend that a rigorous evaluation of MPAs using a common set of impact indicators should be encouraged to allow comparison of studies both spatially and temporally.

  17. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  18. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to...

  19. Review of Doctoral Research in English Language Education in the Philippines, Singapore and Malaysia (2007-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubdy, Rani; Tupas, T. Ruanni F.; Villareal, Corazon D.; David, Maya Khemlani; Dumanig, Francisco Perlas

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights recent doctoral research in English language education and related areas completed between 2007 and 2010 in three countries in Southeast Asia: Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines. Out of sixty dissertations initially chosen from major universities in these countries, five from the Philippines, four from Malaysia and…

  20. Diversity of the cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori strains from patients with gastroduodenal diseases in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Maria Celeste C; Yamakawa, Akiyo; Casingal, Cristine R; Fajardo, Lindsay Sydney N; Juan, Ma Luisa G; De Guzman, Blanquita B; Bondoc, Edgardo M; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamazaki, Yukinao; Yoshida, Masaru; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Natividad, Filipinas F; Azuma, Takeshi

    2010-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori CagA protein is considered a major virulence factor associated with gastric cancer. There are two major types of CagA proteins: the Western and East Asian CagA. The East Asian CagA-positive H. pylori infection is more closely associated with gastric cancer. The prevalence of gastric cancer is quite low in the Philippines, although Philippine populations are considered to originate from an East Asia source. This study investigates the characteristics of the cagA gene and CagA protein in Philippine H. pylori strains and compares them with previously characterized reference strains worldwide. The full-length cagA gene was sequenced from 19 Philippine isolates and phylogenetic relationships between the Philippine and 40 reference strains were analyzed. All Philippine strains examined were cagA positive, and 73.7% (14/19) strains were Western CagA-positive. The phylogenetic tree based on the deduced amino acid sequence of CagA indicated that the Philippine strains were classified into the two major groups of CagA protein: the Western and the East Asian group. These findings suggest that the modern Western influence may have resulted in more Western type H. pylori strains in the Philippines. Therefore, H. pylori-infected Filipinos can be considered to be at a low risk of developing gastric cancer.