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Sample records for metropolitan bus garages

  1. SCHOOL BUS GARAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PALLIDINO, STEVE; STRIPLING, CHARLES W.

    COUNTY BOARDS, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS, SCHOOL PERSONNEL, AND ARCHITECTS PLANNING BUS GARAGE FACILITIES WILL FIND THIS PUBLICATION USEFUL. DECISIONS NEED TO BE MADE IN REGARD TO WHO WILL USE THE GARAGE, WHAT PURPOSE IT SHOULD SERVE, AND WHAT KIND OF SPACES ARE NEEDED. SITE SELECTION FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED ARE LOCATION, PARKING SPACE, MANEUVERING…

  2. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  3. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    PubMed Central

    Shimotsu, Scott T; French, Simone A; Gerlach, Anne F; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management-related items were observed and recorded on a structured form. Inter-rater reliability was computed at the item level using a simple percentage agreement. Results The WEM showed high inter-rater reliability for the number and presence of food-related items. All garages had vending machines, microwaves and refrigerators. Assessment of the physical activity environment yielded similar reliability for the number and presence/absence of fitness items. Each garage had a fitness room (average of 4.3 items of fitness equipment). All garages had at least one stationary bike and treadmill. Three garages had at least one weighing scale available. There were no designated walking areas inside or outside. There were on average < 1 food stores or restaurants within sight of each garage. Few vending machine food and beverage items met criteria for healthful choices (15% of the vending machine foods; 26% of the vending machine beverages). The garage environment was perceived to be not supportive of healthy food choices, physical activity and weight management; 52% reported that it was hard to get fruits and vegetables in the garages, and 62% agreed that it was hard to be physically active in the garages. Conclusion The WEM is a reliable measure of the worksite nutrition, physical activity, and weight management environment that can be used to assess changes in the work environment. PMID:17498308

  4. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  5. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  6. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  7. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: chronic effects of diesel exhaust on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Minshall, S.

    1987-10-01

    Two hundred and eighty-three (283) male diesel bus garage workers from four garages in two cities were examined to determine if there was excess chronic respiratory morbidity related to diesel exposure. The dependent variables were respiratory symptoms, radiographic interpretation for pneumoconiosis, and pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and flow rates). Independent variables included race, age, smoking, drinking, height, and tenure (as surrogate measure of exposure). Exposure-effect relationships within the study population showed no detectable associations of symptoms with tenure. There was an apparent association of pulmonary function and tenure. Seven workers (2.5%) had category 1 pneumoconiosis (three rounded opacities, two irregular opacities, and one with both rounded and irregular). The study population was also compared to a nonexposed blue-collar population. After indirect adjustment for age, race, and smoking, the study population had elevated prevalences of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but there was no association with tenure. Dyspnea showed a dose-response trend but no apparent increase in prevalence. Mean percent predicted pulmonary function of the study population was greater than 100%, i.e., elevated above the comparison population. These data show there is an apparent effect of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function but not chest radiographs. Respiratory symptoms are high compared to blue-collar workers, but there is no relationship with tenure.

  8. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: acute effects of NO2 and respirable particulate on the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Gamble, J; Jones, W; Minshall, S

    1987-02-01

    Personal samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and respirable particulate (RP) were collected over the shift on 232 workers in four diesel bus garages. Response was assessed by an acute respiratory questionnaire and before and after shift spirometry. Measures of exposure to NO2 and RP were associated with work-related symptoms of cough; itching, burning, or watering eyes; difficult or labored breathing; chest tightness; and wheeze. The prevalence of burning eyes, headaches, difficult or labored breathing, nausea, and wheeze experienced at work were higher in the diesel bus garage workers than in a comparison population of battery workers, while the prevalence of headaches was reduced. Mean reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), peak flow, and flows at 50 and 75% of FVC were not obviously different from zero. There was no detectable association of exposure to NO2 or respirable particulate and acute reductions in pulmonary function. Workers who often had respiratory work-related symptoms generally had a slightly greater mean acute reduction in FEV1 and FEF50 than did those who did not have these symptoms, but these differences were not statistically significant.

  9. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: acute effects of NO/sub 2/ and respirable particulate on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Minshall, S.

    1987-02-01

    Personal samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and respirable particulate (RP) were collected over the shift on 232 workers in four diesel bus garages. Response was assessed by an acute respiratory questionnaire and before and after shift spirometry. Measures of exposure to NO/sub 2/ and RP were associated with work-related symptoms of cough; itching, burning, or watering eyes; difficult or labored breathing; chest tightness; and wheeze. The prevalence of burning eyes, headaches, difficult or labored breathing, nausea, and wheeze experienced at work were higher in the diesel bus garage workers than in a comparison population of battery workers, while the prevalence of headaches was reduced. Mean reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), peak flow, and flows at 50 and 75% of FVC were not obviously different from zero. There was no detectable association of exposure to NO/sub 2/ or respirable particulate and acute reductions in pulmonary function. Workers who often had respiratory work-related symptoms generally had a slightly greater mean acute reduction in FEV1 and FEF50 than did those who did not have these symptoms, but these differences were not statistically significant.

  10. Twenty-First Century Garage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The experiences of several school bus garages around the country show that it is possible to modernize equipment and upgrade training while also holding the line on costs. Computer software is used to track servicing, inventory, and other information about a bus fleet. Related factors in improved bus maintenance are the quality of the vehicles and…

  11. Thermal discomfort and hypertension in bus drivers and chargers in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between perception of temperature inside the bus and hypertension among 1126 collective transportation workers in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Thermal discomfort was determined based on the perception of temperature inside the bus. Hypertension was determined if participant had a medical diagnosis of this disease. Prevalence ratios (PR) for hypertension and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were adjusted using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The perceptions of temperature inside the bus were tolerable (26.5%), disturbs a little (28.6%), disturbs a lot (34.8%) and unbearable (10.2%). The prevalence of hypertension was 14.3%. The thermal discomfort categories of disturbs a lot (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.02-1.95) and unbearable (PR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.16-2.63) were independently related to hypertension. Thermal discomfort was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. This finding should be considerate in new policies for public transportation.

  12. 4. TENSTALL GARAGE. GARAGE DOOR DETAIL. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TEN-STALL GARAGE. GARAGE DOOR DETAIL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  13. Exposure of motorcycle, car and bus commuters to carbon monoxide on a main road in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, Israel.

    PubMed

    Potchter, Oded; Oz, Meirav; Brenner, Shmuel; Yaakov, Yaron; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    Short-term personal exposure of passengers in different types of motor vehicles to carbon monoxide was investigated in an intensively used main road in Israel's Tel Aviv metropolitan area. According to monitoring stations of the Ministry for Environmental Protection (MEP), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) along the road, at a height of 3 m above pedestrian level, in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, are currently very low. However, these measurements do not reflect the actual exposure of commuters, which were the main objective of this study. Four vehicle types/travel modes were investigated: private cars with closed windows, private cars with open windows, motorcycles, and buses. The commuter CO average exposure was the accumulative exposure divided by the duration of the sampling taken along the route, for each type of vehicles. The results showed that commuters in cars with closed windows were exposed to the highest mean CO level, 27.2 ppm, for a period of 38 min; those in a car with open windows, to 19.7 ppm for 38 min; motorcycle riders, to 12.8 ppm, for 17 min; and bus users were exposed to the lowest mean pollution level, of only 3.6 ppm, for 25 min. Thus, CO values of 1 to 3 ppm, as measured at an MEP adjacent monitoring station, may indicate the exposure to CO pollution of area residents, but do not represent the actual exposure of commuters on the congested main road.

  14. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  15. Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) Presidio ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 1. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF OPERATOR'S CAMP SHOWING MECHANIC'S GARAGE AT RIGHT, 4-CAR GARAGE AT CENTER, AND 3-CAR GARAGE AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  17. 3. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF OPERATOR' CAMP SHOWING MECHANIC'S GARAGE NO. 48 AT LEFT, 4-CAR GARAGE AT CENTER, AND 3-CAR GARAGE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHWEST - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  18. 2. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF OPERATOR'S CAMP SHOWING MECHANIC'S GARAGE AT RIGHT, 4-CAR GARAGE AT CENTER, AND 3-CAR GARAGE AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  19. Good-bye Garage, Hello CCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augur, Eleanor

    1977-01-01

    The idea of having a religious education center in a four car garage may sound ridiculous to some but to the parishioners of Saint George's Church in Guilford, Connecticut, it was heaven-sent. (Author/RK)

  20. PLANAR VIEW OF REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE OF GARAGE, SHOWING FLAMMABLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANAR VIEW OF REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE OF GARAGE, SHOWING FLAMMABLES LOCKER AND ADDITION ON RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Moore Haven Lock, Garage, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  1. 2. THREESTALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-STALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  2. 3. THREESTALL GARAGE. NORTHWEST AND SOUTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. THREE-STALL GARAGE. NORTHWEST AND SOUTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO EAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. 1. THREESTALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. THREE-STALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  4. 3. TENSTALL GARAGE. NORTH AND WEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TEN-STALL GARAGE. NORTH AND WEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  5. 1. TWOSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TWO-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. 3. TWOSTALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TWO-STALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  7. View of front of garage, bays 14, facing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 1-4, facing northeast - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. View of front of garage, bays 37, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 3-7, facing south - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. View of front of garage, detail of building number over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, detail of building number over bay 4. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Interior view of garage showing roof, post and beam, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of garage showing roof, post and beam, and stored materials. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. View of back of garage, windows of bays 13, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of back of garage, windows of bays 1-3, facing southwest. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. View of front of garage bays 57, facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage bays 5-7, facing northeast. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. View of front and side of garage, bays 67, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front and side of garage, bays 6-7, facing northeast. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. View of front and side of garage, bay 7, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front and side of garage, bay 7, facing east. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 4. MECHANIC'S GARAGE. SOUTHWEST CORNER, AND WEST AND SOUTH SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MECHANIC'S GARAGE. SOUTHWEST CORNER, AND WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF ADDITION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, Mechanic's Garage, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  17. O1 DETACHED GARAGE FRONT ELEVATION. Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    O-1 DETACHED GARAGE FRONT ELEVATION. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Garage for Building O, Sixty-sixth Street between Constitution & Amberjack Streets, behind Building O, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. O1 DETACHED GARAGE FRONT AND SIDE VIEW. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    O-1 DETACHED GARAGE FRONT AND SIDE VIEW. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Garage for Building O, Sixty-sixth Street between Constitution & Amberjack Streets, behind Building O, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. View to the east of the Garage's primary elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to the east of the Garage's primary elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Four Transmitter Garage, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  20. 2. View looking south, showing house, service wing, garage, connection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking south, showing house, service wing, garage, connection to blacksmith shop/garage, setting - Lamprey House, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 mile east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  1. Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, Golda

    2012-01-23

    The main objective of the Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic (PV) Panel project is to install a PV System that will promote the use of renewable energy. This project will also help sustain Bexar County ongoing greenhouse gas emissions reduction and energy efficiency goals. The scope of this project includes the installation of a 100-kW system on the top level of a new 236,285 square feet parking garage. The PV system consists of 420 solar panels that covers 7,200 square feet and is tied into the electric-grid. It provides electricity to the office area located within the garage. The estimated annual electricity production of the PV system is 147,000 kWh per year.

  2. Garage Sale Finds = Equal = Classroom Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Payne, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Offers tips for using garage sales and other community sources for obtaining inexpensive classroom materials. Lists potential finds at yard sales and thrift shops. Suggestions include setting up a budget before shopping, recognizing the educational value of real objects for young children, and taking health and safety precautions before…

  3. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  4. GARDEN (FOREGROUND), GARAGE (CENTER), AND PUMPHOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARDEN (FOREGROUND), GARAGE (CENTER), AND PUMPHOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  5. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF STATION GARAGE SHOWING SOUTHEAST FACADE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF STATION GARAGE SHOWING SOUTHEAST FACADE WITH WATER SOFTENER BUILDING (BUILDING NO. 42) TO LEFT AND ANIMAL HOUSE (BUILDING NO. 26) TO REAR. VIEW TO WEST. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Station Garage, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  7. 2. GARAGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ORIGINAL DOOR IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GARAGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ORIGINAL DOOR IN THE SOUTHEND HAS BEEN INFILLED. THE DARK RECTANGLE (AT RIGHT OF WINDOW) IS A PIECE OF PLYWOOD WITH AN ELECTRICAL RECEPTACLE ITS PURPOSE WAS NOT DETERMINED. - Tonto Ranger Station, Garage, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  8. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  9. 2. TENSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND PARTIAL NORTH SIDES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TEN-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND PARTIAL NORTH SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  10. 1. TENSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH SIDES. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEN-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH SIDES. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. 2. TWOSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TWO-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO EAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  13. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  14. Field evaluation of ventilation system performance in enclosed parking garages

    SciTech Connect

    Ayari, A.M.; Grot, D.A.; Krarti, M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a field study to determine the ventilation requirements and the contaminant levels in existing enclosed parking garages. The testing was conducted in seven parking garages with different sizes, traffic flow patterns, vehicle types, and locations. In particular, the study compares the actual ventilation rates measured using the tracer gas technique with the ventilation requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. In addition, the field test evaluated the effectiveness of the existing ventilation systems in maintaining acceptable contaminant levels within enclosed parking garages.

  15. Bus Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorny, Audrea; Cole, ChiKay

    This manual presents guidelines for teaching students with disabilities necessary skills for safe and independent travel on public buses. Six guidelines for teachers include: (1) participate in bus training; (2) use wise and intelligent judgment; (3) utilize the bus checklist; (4) know and teach bus rules; (5) know bus routes; and (6) know bus…

  16. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  17. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 2. FIRST FLOOR, FIRE ENGINE GARAGE, VIEW SHOWING STAIRWAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FIRST FLOOR, FIRE ENGINE GARAGE, VIEW SHOWING STAIRWAY AND FIRE POLE (NOTE THE STAMPWORK ON WALL AND CEILING) - Hoboken Fire Engine Company Number Two, 1313 Washington Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1925 AUTO GARAGE AND SALES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1925 AUTO GARAGE AND SALES BUILDING LOCATED AT 200-214 SECOND STREET NORTHWEST. - Corvallis Downtown Historic District, Bounded by First & Sixth Streets, Van Buren & Western Avenues, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  20. 8. VIEW EAST, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS GARAGE, MODERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW EAST, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS GARAGE, MODERN SHED, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS BLACKSMITH SHOP, AND MODERN SHED. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  1. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT), LOOKING WEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  2. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  3. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT) AND WEST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  4. GARAGE (L) IN RELATION TO TENANT HOUSE (R), LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE (L) IN RELATION TO TENANT HOUSE (R), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  5. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, SOUTH SIDE AND WEST (REAR) FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  6. 6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  7. 19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION OF ADDITION. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  8. 9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT RIGHT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  9. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. DATAC bus monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III; Thomas, Robert J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) bus is a multiple transmitter data bus developed to interconnect various aircraft systems. A typical DATAC bus installation for the NASA B-737 aircraft is shown. A bus monitor unit was developed for the DATAC data bus. The bus monitor unit consists of two systems: A Zilog Z8002 based S100 bus microcomputer system that connects to a DATAC terminal and receives data appearing on the bus, and an IMB PC-compatible computer used to display and interpret that data. Test results of the existing bus monitor have indicated areas for improvement. The most obvious improvement is to increase the speed of the data transfers between the S100 and the MS-DOS systems.

  11. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability of FTA state of good repair bus and bus facilities...) announces the availability of discretionary Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities grant funds in support...

  12. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Bus and Bus Facilities Livability program announcement of project selections... selection of projects funded with Bus and Bus Facilities program funds in support of DOT's...

  13. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of FTA State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities...) announces the availability of discretionary Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities grant funds in support...

  14. The Bus Stops Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Explores some of the factors to consider before school planners decide to buy new school buses. Provides a checklist to help build and maintain a bus fleet. Concludes by addressing bus safety and advertising. (GR)

  15. 1. VIEW OF CHICKEN COOP (FEATURE C7), FACING NORTHWEST. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CHICKEN COOP (FEATURE C-7), FACING NORTHWEST. GARAGE (FEATURE C-8) IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Bell Family Residence, Chicken Coop & Garage, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  16. O1 DETACHED GARAGE FRONT ELEVATION W/POLE. Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    O-1 DETACHED GARAGE FRONT ELEVATION W/POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Garage for Building O, Sixty-sixth Street between Constitution & Amberjack Streets, behind Building O, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 1. View looking south, showing blacksmith house/garage connecting to residential ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking south, showing blacksmith house/garage connecting to residential garage and setting - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  18. Concentrations and emissions of gasoline and other vapors from residential vehicle garages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Hatzivasilis, Gina; Jia, Chunrong

    High concentrations of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be present in residential garages due to emissions from vehicles, lawnmowers, storage containers, and many other items stored in the garage. VOC emissions will ultimately be transported into ambient air and, if the garage is attached to a residence or other building, into living spaces. This study reports on VOC concentrations and emissions at 15 residential garages in Michigan that varied in type, size, use and other characteristics. VOCs were measured in garages and in outside air using 4-day passive sampling, thermal desorption, and GC-MS analysis. Effective air exchange rates (AERs) were determined using a perfluorocarbon tracer gas and the constant injection method. A modeling analysis shows the effect of time-varying ventilation. To estimate temporal and spatial variability, concentrations were measured on 7 subsequent occasions at multiple locations in one garage. This garage was well-mixed, and the temporal variation in AERs and concentrations was modest. Across the 15 garages, 36 different VOCs in garage air, and 20 in ambient air, were quantified. Source groups identified and attributed to garage emissions included evaporated gasoline, solvents, paints, oils, and cleaners. Concentrations of gasoline-related VOCs in most garages were high, e.g., benzene levels reached 159 μg m -3 in one garage. TVOC emissions per garage averaged 3.0±4.1 g day -1, and AERs averaged 0.77±0.51 h -1. VOC concentrations and AERs were not strongly correlated to observed house, garage or meteorological factors, but appeared largely dependent on occupant activities (opening of the garage door) and VOC sources present. This study quantifies the importance of attached garages as VOC sources, and the results are significant for understanding and mitigating indoor exposures, and for estimating emissions for source inventory purposes.

  19. High-Tech Garage to Showcase Strategies for Reducing Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    NREL's new parking garage structure is proving that large garages can be designed and built sustainably at no extra cost. This fact sheet describes the garage's energy and water-saving measures, renewable energy technologies, sustainable and durable building materials, another campus improvements.

  20. EDUCATION IN METROPOLITAN AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAVIGHURST, ROBERT J.

    THIS BOOK DISCUSSES THE EFFECT OF METROPOLITANISM ON EDUCATION. METROPOLITANISM IS VIEWED BOTH AS A SET OF "EVENTS" AND AS A SET OF "GOALS" OR "TASKS" WHICH CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY SHOULD ACHIEVE. ONE PART OF THE BOOK DISCUSSES THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF METROPOLITAN AREAS AND THE OPERATION OF METROPOLITAN SCHOOL SYSTEMS. SUCH ISSUES AS…

  1. 7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM TAPE CONTROL SYSTEM (TECHNOLOGY CIRCA 1910) AT CENTER, AND ENTRY TO OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 3. FOREMAN'S HOUSE, TENSTALL GARAGE, AND STEPS TO SWIMMING POOL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOREMAN'S HOUSE, TEN-STALL GARAGE, AND STEPS TO SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. 4. ROOF OF TWOSTALL GARAGE, SURGE TANK, HOUSE No. 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ROOF OF TWO-STALL GARAGE, SURGE TANK, HOUSE No. 16, RELIEF TANK IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  4. General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the twentieth century, this building dates from very early in the Lazaretto's history and is believed to have once functioned as a summer kitchen or bake house. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Kitchen/Bake House, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  5. 1. Postandbeam garage (far left), oneroom log cabin (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Post-and-beam garage (far left), one-room log cabin (left of center), house (right of center), garden shed and outhouse (far right). View to west-southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  6. Learning in the Workplace for Garage Mechanics and Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jans, Ruben, Bollen, Ria,

    2008-01-01

    Employees in technical firms, like garages, need more and more formations. Due to the very fast innovation in technology, lifelong learning is a real need for these labour forces. On the other hand, there are the needed formations very specialized and expensive. Another problem employers faced in these economical sectors in Western Europe is the…

  7. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  8. Creative Bus Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  9. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains why fewer school students are injured are killed while being transported in school buses than any other mode of transportation. Political and community action in school bus transportation safety is addressed. (GR)

  10. Bus.py

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy; Palmintier, Bryan; Hale, Elaine; Jones, Wesley

    2014-07-21

    GridLAB-D is an agent? based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. GridLAB-D addresses the lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator.

  11. SCSI Communication Test Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chanh V.; D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Halula, Elaine M.; Thornton, David N.; Heligman, Robert L.; Turner, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) communication test bus provides high-data-rate, standard interconnection enabling communication among International Business Machines (IBM) Personal System/2 Micro Channel, other devices connected to Micro Channel, test equipment, and host computer. Serves primarily as nonintrusive input/output attachment to PS/2 Micro Channel bus, providing rapid communication for debugger. Opens up possibility of using debugger in real-time applications.

  12. Savannah River bus project

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  13. View of McKenzieRichey garage showing front opening, the false front, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey garage showing front opening, the false front, metal roofing and horizontal plank siding, facing northeast - McKenzie Property, Garage, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  14. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4552, dated October 25, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 1-G, 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 2G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 2-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4553, dated October 21, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 2-G, 30611 and 30621 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  16. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  17. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. An evaluation of a lane support system for bus rapid transit on narrow shoulders and the relation to bus driver mental workload.

    PubMed

    Ward, Nicholas J; Shankwitz, Craig; Gorgestani, Alec; Donath, Max; De Waard, Dick; Boer, Erwin R

    2006-07-15

    The use of dedicated bus shoulders is a key method for implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) in areas that do not have the space for additional infrastructure. However, the narrow width of the bus shoulder and the need to anticipate traffic hazards in the adjacent lane can both be significant stressors for bus drivers. Bus driver mental workload and stress in response to these conditions should be a significant concern both for operational safety and driver health. This pilot study evaluated the potential stressors of traffic density and shoulder width in the context of an express BRT service in a large US metropolitan area. In addition, the study considered the potential role of a prototype lane support system (LSS) to support vehicle control within the narrow shoulder boundaries. Ten experienced bus drivers drove an actual route with an instrumented bus equipped with and without LSS. Self-reported effort was recorded along with performance measures of speed and position control relevant to mobility and safety objectives. Bus drivers did note stressors in the BRT environment and the prototype LSS. However, the use of the shoulder during high-density traffic conditions did improve mobility. Moreover, the LSS did enhance safety on the shoulder when there was high-density traffic in the adjacent lane. However, there was no evidence that the LSS reduced bus driver workload while operating in the narrow shoulder. Future research should consider the impact of BRT operations and support systems on bus driver mental workload and stress, and support the deployment of such devices for bus operations on shoulders during high traffic volumes.

  20. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  1. Bus-Programmable Slave Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Slave microprocessors in multimicroprocessor computing system contains modified circuit cards programmed via bus connecting master processor with slave microprocessors. Enables interactive, microprocessor-based, single-loop control. Confers ability to load and run program from master/slave bus, without need for microprocessor development station. Tristate buffers latch all data and information on status. Slave central processing unit never connected directly to bus.

  2. School Bus Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

    A summary is presented of a study to determine the building needs of the school transportation operation and to suggest possible uses of aluminum. The report outlines the magnitude of school transportation systems as an indication of buildings necessary to house and maintain equipment. The types of areas needed to fulfill the bus housing and…

  3. Bully on the Bus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Mary M.

    2005-01-01

    Across the U.S., more than 24 million students begin and end their school days on buses. In most cases, the driver is the only adult on board. To transport students safely, the driver must watch the road, not the riders, during most of the trip. Although bus drivers have mirrors and usually see fights, they can easily miss pushing, shoving, and…

  4. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  5. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  6. [Prediction and influence factors of the ramp's noise of the entrance or exit of garages].

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Bang-Jun

    2005-09-01

    Some typical entrances/exits of the underground garages are chosen in urban residential areas. On the basis of the optimization of the positions of the noise sampling points and the groupings of the synchronous sampling points, by means of the acoustical analysis of the noise samples, the relation of the correlative factors, among the ramps' noise of the entrances or exits of the garages, the structure, grade, shape of the ramps, upgrade and downgrade, is studied. The prediction model of the ramp's noise influence of the entrance or exit of the garage is established through amending the noise influence of the entrance or exit of the even concrete road. PMID:16366500

  7. 75 FR 71181 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... (FTA) for the following projects: (1) Fredericksburg Road Bus Rapid Transit, VIA Metropolitan Transit...-Modal Bus Transfer Center, The City of Fayetteville, Fayetteville, NC; (5) Second Avenue Subway... parking garage, public open space, new and relocated bus stops, a drop-off and pick up area, a new...

  8. Multiplex data bus simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Garbo, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A multiplex data-bus simulator for analyzing multiprocessor designs is presented. The simulator was designed to be user-friendly, thus allowing a multiprocessor designer to enter various configuration inputs in a concise and orderly fashion through the use of menus. The designer is also provided a method of visualizing a message traffic flow through the use of graphical representation of events. 3 references.

  9. Pumphouse/garage and shed, looking southwest Thomas Murphy Homestead, North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pumphouse/garage and shed, looking southwest - Thomas Murphy Homestead, North of John Moulton Homestead, approximately 1,000 feet west of Mormon Row Road, and .25 mile north of Antelope Flats Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  10. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1925 AUTO SALES/GARAGE STRUCTURE LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1925 AUTO SALES/GARAGE STRUCTURE LOCATED AT 205-209 SECOND STREET NORTHWEST. - Corvallis Downtown Historic District, Bounded by First & Sixth Streets, Van Buren & Western Avenues, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  11. 2. View looking east, showing west elevation of blacksmith shop/garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking east, showing west elevation of blacksmith shop/garage and change in slope - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  12. 75 FR 5847 - Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative and Urban Circulator Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative and Urban... Application Deadline for the Bus and Bus Facilities and Urban Circulator Livability Initiative Programs... discretionary Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities grant and New Starts funds in support of the Department...

  13. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  14. Improving School Bus Driver Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    This reference source is intended to assist the school bus driver training instructor in course preparation. Instructional units for program planning each contain pertinent course questions, a summary, and evaluation questions. Unit 1, "Introduction to the School Bus Driver Training Program," focuses on basic course objectives and requirements and…

  15. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  16. Data bus system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Two data bus systems were designed fabricated, Data Bus System I and Data Bus System II. The technical features of the delivered hardware include the following: (1) 5 MHz selfclocking data bus; (2) bidirectional communications utilizing Manchester Code at data rates in excess of 20,000 words per second; (3) utilization of MSI COS/MOS technology (4) probability of accepting an erroneous data bit less than 1 in 10 to the 25th power (5) low power consumption (50 to 1 reduction in quiescent current over P/MOS) (6) compatibility with projected high density packaging. Three distinct types of data bus remote terminals were developed: the subsystem interface unit, the combination of an electronic interface unit and a standard interface unit-serial, and an SIU/Preprocessor.

  17. Standard satellite data bus initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinney, Timothy; Yousef, Hassan

    The USAF Space Technology Center manages programs to reduce satellite costs through the appropriate use of microelectronics standardization. Ongoing programs such as the Standard Spacecraft Memory Module and Generic VHSIC Spaceborne Computer have provided an insight into the value of standardization and led to an initiative to coordinate microelectronics development around a standard satellite data bus, which should reduce costs by eliminating program- and contractor-unique interfaces, increasing production runs, and developing generic test equipment. Current efforts focus on the satellite housekeeping functions, and it is expected that the mission payload would also use this data bus. Based on existing housekeeping data-traffic requirements, several candidates have been identified for the standard data bus. The two candidates selected for further work are the ANSI X3T9.5 data bus and the linear token-passing data bus being proposed as part of the Advanced Tactical Fighter effort.

  18. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  19. Policing Metropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  20. [Mortality in metropolitan regions].

    PubMed

    Simoes Ccds

    1980-01-01

    Data from the 1970 census and a 1974-1975 survey carried out in Brazil by the Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica are used to examine recent mortality trends in urban areas. Specifically, life expectancy in nine metropolitan areas is analyzed in relation to income, diet, and sanitary facilities in the home.

  1. Reforming Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.; And Others

    After presenting an overview of metropolitan schools, described as not successful in providing an adequate education for economically disadvantaged students, the authors examine four critical issues: compensatory education, educational accountability, decentralization and community control, and desegregation. While compensatory education has not…

  2. Set of Comparable Carbon Footprints for Highway Travel in Metropolitan America

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Sonnenberg, Anthon

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a set of carbon dioxide emissions estimates for highway travel by automobile, truck, bus and other public transit vehicle movements within the nation s 100 largest metropolitan areas, in calendar year 2005. Considerable variability is found to exist across metropolitan areas when these greenhouse gas emissions are measured on a per capita and a per gross metropolitan product (GMP) basis. Least square regression modeling shows a relationship between emissions per capita and per GMP with truck traffic share, transit share, employment density, population dispersion within the metro area, and GMP per capita. As a result many of the nation s largest metropolitan areas tend to have lower CO2 emissions per capita and per GMP than smaller and more recently developed metro areas.

  3. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  4. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  5. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M., Jr.; Beale, David; Killinc-Balci, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: VectranTM, NextelTM, Gore PTFE FabricTM, ZylonTM TwaronTM and NomexTM. Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of KevlarTM and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelty mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  6. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Federal Transit Administration State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities... Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of projects funded with Section 5309 Bus and...

  7. 75 FR 74134 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities... Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of projects funded with Section 5309 Bus and...

  8. High-Speed Ring Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  9. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  10. Ring Buffered Network Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the research effort to demonstrate the integration of a data sharing technology, Ring Buffered Network Bus, in development by Dryden Flight Research Center, with an engine simulation application, the Java Gas Turbine Simulator, in development at the University of Toledo under a grant from the Glenn Research Center. The objective of this task was to examine the application of the RBNB technologies as a key component in the data sharing, health monitoring and system wide modeling elements of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) [Golding, 1997]. System-wide monitoring and modeling of aircraft and air safety systems will require access to all data sources which are relative factors when monitoring or modeling the national airspace such as radar, weather, aircraft performance, engine performance, schedule and planning, airport configuration, flight operations, etc. The data sharing portion of the overall AVSP program is responsible for providing the hardware and software architecture to access and distribute data, including real-time flight operations data, among all of the AVSP elements. The integration of an engine code capable of numerically "flying" through recorded flight paths and weather data using a software tool that allows for distributed access of data to this engine code demonstrates initial steps toward building a system capable of monitoring and modeling the National Airspace.

  11. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  12. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  13. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  14. Some Questions to Ask about Your School Bus Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balousek, Marvin

    1980-01-01

    Questions based on observations of a Chicago (Illinois) school bus program deal with driver capability, procedures for bus evacuation in an emergency, bus comfort for passengers, safety, fuel efficiency, and creative use of students' bus time. (MLF)

  15. Metropolitan Desegregation Remedies: Interdistrict Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Kelly

    Chapter 21 of a book on school law traces the development of metropolitan interdistrict school desegregation. Historically, the first multidistrict cases were filed to secure the desegregation of intentionally segregated school districts. Subsequently, multidistrict cases were filed in metropolitan areas where there were so few white students…

  16. The Principal in Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A., Ed.; Reller, Theodore L., Ed.

    This collection of articles is designed to help metropolitan school principals meet the challenges of their positions. It is especially concerned with how principals can contribute to effective education for students of markedly heterogenous backgrounds. The authors deal with such issues as the principalship and metropolitan administration, the…

  17. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  18. How to Computerize School Bus Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    School systems will soon be using microcomputers to design their school bus routes and aid in the management of transportation programs. Offers guidelines to bring microcomputer bus management to school systems. (MLF)

  19. Multi-purpose satellite bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakoda, Daniel; Agrawal, Brij N.

    1991-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Satellite bus (MPS) can be used for a number of payloads which may require different orbits, pointing accuracy, and electrical power consumption. Specifically, it was designed to accommodate the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and an EHF communication payload, both of which have a three-year life. The estimated beginning-of-life weight of the MPS bus is 150 kg. It can be launched by either the Pegasus ALV or the Taurus SSLV. Configuration requirements for the different missions are discussed.

  20. School Bus Alert System Reduces Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleasnick, Stephen G.

    1985-01-01

    The school bus alert monitor is a computerized school bus alert and warning sytem that notifies parents of school bus arrival via radio frequency technology. The system also has been shown to enhance the self esteem of disabled transportation users. (CL)

  1. How To Decrease School Bus Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddlemire, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Suggestions for principals to decrease school bus vandalism are presented. Guidelines are offered for the improvement of bus conditions, reorganization of the transportation system, establishment of a bus driver training program, and student involvement in an antivandalism campaign. Cooperation and regular meetings between students, parents,…

  2. Data Bus Adapts to Changing Traffic Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Eugene; Deruiter, John; Varga, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Access becomes timed when collisions threaten. Two-mode scheme used to grant terminals access to data bus. Causes bus to alternate between random accessibility and controlled accessibility to optimize performance and adapt to changing data-traffic conditions. Bus is part of 100-Mb/s optical-fiber packet data system.

  3. The NASA bus communications listening device software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the bus listener is presented. Special software was developed to control the 'bus interface units' (BIU) connecting each of these devices to a communications cable to form the bus communication network. The code used in the BTU is described.

  4. Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, although there are numerous small-scale and medium industries which use lead-based raw materials that may pose health risks to workers, there are no workplace regulations for lead exposure. Moreover, there are no studies carried out on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of workers or on the contribution of common workplace practices to lead poisoning. Method A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis) were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16). The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10 μg/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20 μg/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20 μg/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage. Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58%) of those with the highest BLLs (≥ 20 μg/dL). Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects. Conclusion The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the BLLs of automotive-garage

  5. Low-inductance bus lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kernick, A.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated bus strips and bifilar litz cable connectors for high-power rectifiers, thrisistors, and transistors provide low inductance and eliminate electromagnetic interference in high-power circuits. These techniques offer significant cost advantages because of ease of assembly and consistent high quality of product. Effectiveness makes general usage in static power conversion likely.

  6. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  7. Synchronizing Data-Bus Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    Adapter allows communications among as many as 30 data processors without central bus controller. Adapter improves reliability of multiprocessor system by eliminating point of failure that causes entire system to fail. Scheme prevents data collisions and eliminates nonessential polling, thereby reducing power consumption.

  8. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  9. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  10. Concentrations of vehicle-related air pollutants in an urban parking garage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung R; Dominici, Francesca; Buckley, Timothy J

    2007-11-01

    There is growing evidence that traffic-related air pollution poses a public health threat, yet the dynamics of human exposure are not well understood. The urban parking garage is a microenvironment that is of concern but has not been characterized. Using time-resolved measurement methods, we evaluated air toxics levels within an urban parking garage and assessed the influence of vehicle activity and type on their levels. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) were measured with direct-reading instruments. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in 30 min intervals using a sorbent tube loaded sequential sampler. Vehicle volume and type were evaluated by video recording. Sampling was conducted from June 24 to July 17, 2002. We observed garage traffic median volumes of 71 counts/h on weekdays and 6 counts/h on weekends. The 12-fold reduction in traffic volume from weekday to weekend corresponded with a decrease in median air pollution that varied from a minimum 2- (CO) to a maximum 7 (pPAH)-fold. The actual 30-min median weekday and weekend values were: CO--2.6/1.2 ppm; pPAH--19/2.6 ng/m(3); 1,3-butadiene-0.5/0.2 microg/m(3), MTBE-7.4/0.4 microg/m(3); and benzene-2.7/0.3 microg/m(3). The influence of traffic was quantified using longitudinal models. The pollutant coefficients provide an indication of the average air pollution vehicle source contribution and ranged from 0.31 (CO) to 1.08 (pPAH) percent increase/vehicle count. For some pollutants, a slightly higher (0.5-0.6%) coefficient was observed for light-trucks relative to cars. This study has public health relevance in providing a unique assessment of air pollution levels and source contribution for the urban parking garage.

  11. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  12. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  13. The Calcutta metropolitan district.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    11 million residents in 1450 square kilometers make the Calcutta Metropolitan District the world's most densely packed metropolis and the world's 6th largest urban agglomeration. But even though Calcutta is India's largest city, it is growing at a much slower pace than other Indian cities. Its annual growth rate between 1971 and 1981 was 2.65%, well below the 3.8% growth rate for India's urban population as a whole. Even at this relatively slow growth rate, however, Calcutta's population will still grow to 11.7 million residents in 1990 and 15.9 million in 2000. Calcutta's failure to create urban jobs quickly enough to accommodate its vast population increase has led to widespread evidence of unemployment and extreme poverty. Many in Calcutta complain that the central goverment has thwarted development and international aid to Calcutta. Industrial stagnation has slowed the area's urbanization and rural-urban migration. As greater numbers of new job seekers enter the labor force and the dropout rate diminishes due to dramatic inprovement in health, relentless pressure is put on Calcutta's already strained economy. Calcutta's job seekers will be partly absorbed by the informal sector; one study estimates that 40-50% of Calcutta's labor force is employed in the informal sector. In 1971, 6% of Calcutta's work force was employed in agriculture, 40% in manufacturing, and 54% in services. 2/3 of the population make less than $35 a month, and about 10% are officially unemployed. Despite great improvements in public works, Calcutta's slums are still India's worst. Living standards have gone down compared to India as a whole. Most of the middle class has moved to the suburbs; what is left in the central core is the rich and the poor. However, despite widening income disparities, Calcutta is still a peaceful city--especially so at a time when India is marked with so much violence.

  14. Bus/rail interface design guideline manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The document provides a guide for the design and placement of bus-related facilities and amenities when integrated with rail operation. It presents criteria for station location and delineates functions to be provided for bus/rail interface stations. Rationale for revising existing bus routes to serve rail stations is also presented and types of amenities to be furnished along with rationale that justify provision are discussed. Design criteria that indicate minimum specifications for acceptable operations are included.

  15. Standard NIM digital bus (NIM/GPIE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-08-01

    A standard digital data bus for nuclear instrument module (NIM) instruments as defined in DOE Publication TID-20893 utilizes the General Purpose Instrumentation Bus (GPIB) of ANSI/IEEE Std 488-1978 and the Code and Format conventions of ANSI/IEEE Std 728-1982 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Additional requirements and recommendations are included to maximize compatibility of NIM instruments utilizing the bus.

  16. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of ventilation using tracer gas techniques and VOC concentrations in homes, garages and vehicles.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Jia, Chunrong; Hatzivasilis, Gina; Godwin, Chris

    2006-02-01

    Air exchange rates and interzonal flows are critical ventilation parameters that affect thermal comfort, air migration, and contaminant exposure in buildings and other environments. This paper presents the development of an updated approach to measure these parameters using perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gases, the constant injection rate method, and adsorbent-based sampling of PFT concentrations. The design of miniature PFT sources using hexafluorotoluene and octafluorobenzene tracers, and the development and validation of an analytical GC/MS method for these tracers are described. We show that simultaneous deployment of sources and passive samplers, which is logistically advantageous, will not cause significant errors over multiday measurement periods in building, or over shorter periods in rapidly ventilated spaces like vehicle cabins. Measurement of the tracers over periods of hours to a week may be accomplished using active or passive samplers, and low method detection limits (<0.025 microg m(-3)) and high precisions (<10%) are easily achieved. The method obtains the effective air exchange rate (AER), which is relevant to characterizing long-term exposures, especially when ventilation rates are time-varying. In addition to measuring the PFT tracers, concentrations of other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are simultaneously determined. Pilot tests in three environments (residence, garage, and vehicle cabin) demonstrate the utility of the method. The 4 day effective AER in the house was 0.20 h(-1), the 4 day AER in the attached garage was 0.80 h(-1), and 16% of the ventilation in the house migrated from the garage. The 5 h AER in a vehicle traveling at 100 km h(-1) under a low-to-medium vent condition was 92 h(-1), and this represents the highest speed test found in the literature. The method is attractive in that it simultaneously determines AERs, interzonal flows, and VOC concentrations over long and representative test periods. These measurements are

  18. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  19. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  20. Metropolitan population growth in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, K E

    1977-01-01

    A study or urban population growth in Arab countries has 3 objectives: 1) examination at the micro level of recent demographic trends in selected metropolitan areas of the Arab world and their relationship to changes in the total and urban populations in the respective countries; 2) estimation of net migration by sex and broad age groups for each metropolitan area; and 3) analysis of the pattern of variation in the metropolitan growth rates and their components, migration and natural increase. The study covers the cities proper or urban agglomerations, which includes the suburbs, whose population exceeded 100,000 in the most recent census. Altogether, the study covers 49 metropolitan areas from 9 Arab countries--Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt; Sudan; Syria; Iraq; and Kuwait. Analysis revealed that metropolitan growth rates do follow geographic patterns. In countries with an oil-based economy, metropolitan growth rates are high; in countries with unexploited resources they are slightly below the 1st group; and countries which have pressure on land have low metropolitan growth rates. Population size of the metropolitan area appears to be an important factor associated with variations in metropolitan growth rates and net migration rates. Natural increase emerges as the predominant factor in metropolitan growth, but the differentials in the growth rates are more clearly associated with variations in net migration rates. As all the possibilities of analysis of relationships of metropolitan growth have not been exhausted, it is proposed to examine additional variables as possible factors associated with the speed of metropolitan growth.

  1. Education, Demand, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Berube, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This report examines education gaps and industry demand in the nation's 100 largest metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas are a natural unit of analysis given that they offer the best approximation of a regional labor market. Moreover, the wide variation in metropolitan area economic performance, as documented by the Brookings MetroMonitor…

  2. Neurosimulation modeling of a scheduled bus route

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Khoo, L.P.

    1997-05-01

    In a densely built-up urban society, operators of public bus services are faced with the recurrent problem of providing timely and reliable service. Wile they have no control over dynamically changing extraneous factors (such as passenger loads or road conditions) that may suddenly degrade the quality of the service provided, it is nonetheless desirable for management to study the extent to which these factors affect their business, and what measures, if any, can be adopted to neutralize them. This paper discusses how a simulation model of a bus route, embellished by a neural network, was created to model the historical pattern of the inputs (namely, passenger loads and road conditions) that affect the overall scheduled terminus-to-terminus time. Thus, in a case study of a bus route running from a suburb to the city center, it was found that the neurosimulation model could predict the cumulative terminus-to-terminus times better than a conventional simulation model could. A software module, embedded into the neurosimulation model for the purposes of speed regulation, was able to minimize the deviation of the bus service from schedule. When intentional delays were further introduced into the bus route, it was discovered that the speed regulator was more effective the longer the delay, and the further the bus traveled into the bus route. There is potential in applying neural computing in a dynamic bus scheduling problem such as the one discussed here.

  3. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge needed by the school bus driver instructor, as well as those supplemental skills and knowledge…

  4. Who's Driving This Bus Anyway? Empowering Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In 1977, a school transportation director developed a policy giving school bus drivers authority to discipline unruly student behavior via a system of graduated warnings and suspension of riding privileges. Most parents have been supportive and expect their kids to behave on the bus. In the interest of safety, school administrators should support…

  5. California's Bus Driver's Training Course. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This instructor's manual was designed to help graduates of the California Bus Driver Instructor Course provide effective instruction to school bus driver trainees. It contains enough material for 20-30 hours of classroom training. The information is organized in 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to the course;…

  6. School Bus Maintenance. Bulletin, 1948, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherston, E. Glenn

    1948-01-01

    This bulletin is one in the series on pupil transportation issued by the Office of Education. Its purpose is to furnish information and guidance for local school administrators and others who are concerned with school bus maintenance. Programs of school bus maintenance vary among the 48 States. Presumably all contract vehicles are maintained by…

  7. Hidden Savings in your Bus Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    School transportation industry statistics show the annual average costs for operating and maintaining a single school bus range from $34,000 to $38,000. Operating a school bus fleet at high efficiency has a real impact on the dollars saved for a school district and the reliability of transportation service to students. In this article, the author…

  8. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Robert; Fischler, Mark S.; Husby, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

  9. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Town Garage Radio Beacon, Londonderry, NH. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    The Town Garage Radio Beacon, NH, site includes the Holton Circle residential development of 23 homes, a town garage area, and an undeveloped hillslope and wetlands area in Londonderry, New Hampshire. From 1940 to 1968, the area was owned by the Department of Defense (DOD), who reportedly used it as a radio beacon facility from 1940 to 1947. The ROD provides a final remedy for the contaminated onsite ground water. No further remedial actions are anticipated for the site. The primary contaminants affecting the ground water are VOCs; and metals, including chromium.

  11. The Arts in Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Elizabeth M.

    A consideration of the arts and cultural life is indispensable to any study of the quality of life in U.S. metropolitan areas. However, literature reviews reveal that the arts are often omitted in quality of life studies, and, if included, the assessment may not be derived from sound empirical analysis. This document describes and evaluates "The…

  12. Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, John Dean, Ed.

    Two major objectives of the Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study were: (1) to produce a directory of sites around Columbus, Ohio, having fieldtrip potential; and (2) to test the validity of the concept that field trips are a useful method in aiding student educational growth. The first section of this document relates the history…

  13. Employment Expansion and Metropolitan Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Richard Victor

    Through empirical investigations of the 1940-50 and 1950-60 decades, the author has developed a framework for analyzing metropolitan trade and determining the employment-related consequences of changes in trade activity. One major trend of this period, especially the second decade, has been the increasing self-sufficiency of all metropolitan…

  14. Analog bus driver and multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    For a source-follower signal chain, the ohmic drop in the selection switch causes unacceptable voltage offset, non-linearity, and reduced small signal gain. For an op amp signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise rises rapidly with increasing the array format due to a rapid increase in the effective capacitance caused by the Miller effect boosting up the contribution of the bus capacitance. A new switched source-follower signal chain circuit overcomes limitations of existing op-amp based or source follower based circuits used in column multiplexers and data readout. This will improve performance of CMOS imagers, and focal plane read-out integrated circuits for detectors of infrared or ultraviolet light.

  15. High speed bus technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrow, Marlan B.; Hatfield, Donald W.

    1989-09-01

    The development and demonstration of the High Speed Data Bus system, a 50 Million bits per second (Mbps) local data network intended for avionics applications in advanced military aircraft is described. The Advanced System Avionics (ASA)/PAVE PILLAR program provided the avionics architecture concept and basic requirements. Designs for wire and fiber optic media were produced and hardware demonstrations were performed. An efficient, robust token-passing protocol was developed and partially demonstrated. The requirements specifications, the trade-offs made, and the resulting designs for both a coaxial wire media system and a fiber optics design are examined. Also, the development of a message-oriented media access protocol is described, from requirements definition through analysis, simulation and experimentation. Finally, the testing and demonstrations conducted on the breadboard and brassboard hardware is presented.

  16. Prevalence of hypertension in bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Ragland, D R; Winkleby, M A; Schwalbe, J; Holman, B L; Morse, L; Syme, S L; Fisher, J M

    1987-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional study conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in 1500 black and white male bus drivers from a large urban transit system in the US. Data for this study were compiled from the files of an occupational health clinic which conducts biennial medical examinations for drivers' license renewal. To test whether prevalence of hypertension was higher among bus drivers than among employed individuals in general, drivers were compared to three groups: individuals from both a national and local health survey and individuals undergoing baseline health examinations prior to employment as bus drivers. After adjustment for age and race, hypertension rates for bus drivers were significantly greater than rates for each of the three comparison groups. These findings support previous results from international studies of bus drivers suggesting that exposure to the occupation of driving a bus may carry increased health risk. This research has expanded into an on-going study which has the goals of clarifying the extent of hypertension in bus drivers and identifying specific behavioural and occupational factors that may be responsible for increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Can We Afford These Affordances? GarageBand and the Double-Edged Sword of the Digital Audio Workstation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of computers, tablets, and smartphones has resulted in digital audio workstations (DAWs) such as GarageBand in being some of the most widely distributed musical instruments. Positing that software designers are dictating the music education of DAW-dependent music-makers, I examine the fallacy that music-making applications such…

  18. A Case Study Exploring the Use of GarageBand[TM] and an Electronic Bulletin Board in Preservice Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vratulis, Vetta; Morton, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research study is an exploration of the merit and shortcomings of using a combination of the music software GarageBand[TM] and an electronic bulletin board to facilitate musical and peer learning in a 3-month elementary music methods curriculum and instruction course. A pedagogical objective of this assignment was to increase the…

  19. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  20. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school bus... the administrator to private school bus operators required to be notified under § 605.16. (e) Private school bus operators who receive notice under paragraph (d) of this section may within 20 days...

  1. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor bus on Wake Island shall— (a) Keep its doors closed while the bus is moving with passengers on...

  2. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  3. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor bus on Wake Island shall— (a) Keep its doors closed while the bus is moving with passengers on...

  4. Analysis and simulation of a city bus route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-12-01

    Public transport in crowded cities, in particular bus services play an essential role in the mobility of its citizenry. However, an efficient, reliable and safe bus system is still a distant dream of many cities. This paper uses a simulation approach to provide some insight into the factors that contribute to the service quality of a bus system. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a city bus route. The simulation model consists of a bus depot, bus stops, terminal station and a bus route. Parameters used in the simulation include the number of buses serving the route, maximum bus capacity, inter departure time of buses, travel time between stops, number of passengers boarding and alighting. The simulation is applied to a real bus route in Kuala Lumpur city center and a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate how the different variables affect the service quality of the bus system.

  5. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  6. Health effects caused by primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted from buses in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland.

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Hänninen, Otto; Aarnio, Päivi; Koistinen, Kimmo J; Jantunen, Matti J; Pekkanen, Juha

    2005-02-01

    Fine particle (PM(2.5)) emissions from traffic have been associated with premature mortality. The current work compares PM(2.5)-induced mortality in alternative public bus transportation strategies as being considered by the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Finland. The current bus fleet and transportation volume is compared to four alternative hypothetical bus fleet strategies for the year 2020: (1) the current bus fleet for 2020 traffic volume, (2) modern diesel buses without particle traps, (3) diesel buses with particle traps, and (4) buses using natural gas engines. The average population PM(2.5) exposure level attributable to the bus emissions was determined for the 1996-1997 situation using PM(2.5) exposure measurements including elemental composition from the EXPOLIS-Helsinki study and similar element-based source apportionment of ambient PM(2.5) concentrations observed in the ULTRA study. Average population exposure to particles originating from the bus traffic in the year 2020 is assumed to be proportional to the bus emissions in each strategy. Associated mortality was calculated using dose-response relationships from two large cohort studies on PM(2.5) mortality from the United States. Estimated number of deaths per year (90% confidence intervals in parenthesis) associated with primary PM(2.5) emissions from buses in Helsinki Metropolitan Area in 2020 were 18 (0-55), 9 (0-27), 4 (0-14), and 3 (0-8) for the strategies 1-4, respectively. The relative differences in the associated mortalities for the alternative strategies are substantial, but the number of deaths in the lowest alternative, the gas buses, is only marginally lower than what would be achieved by diesel engines equipped with particle trap technology. The dose-response relationship and the emission factors were identified as the main sources of uncertainty in the model. PMID:15787764

  7. The Impact on Traffic Safety in Bus Stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kailun; Guang, Xiaoping; Qian, Yongsheng

    The article improves the attraction of public transportation system when the safety is taken into account during the selection of bus stops. In this paper, the characteristics of traffic conflict at bus stops is analyzed from various types of bus stops and the applicability of bus stations is proposed in comply with provisions of security. It has a certain reference value on selection of bus stops.

  8. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  9. Computerized Bus Routing in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Peter J.; Jungherr, J. Anton

    1979-01-01

    A computerized routing and scheduling system for the San Francisco Public Schools includes the batch processing of bus route assignments and schedules for all schools and the online terminal processing of daily changes. (Author/MLF)

  10. The high speed bus technology development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludvigson, M. T.; Modrow, M. B.; Goldman, P. C.

    The current development status of a high-speed data bus to link MIL-STD-1750A computers in avionics applications is reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. The bus requirements include data rate 50 Mb/s, a linear token-passing scheme permitting both electronic and fiber-optic implementation, up to 64-terminal capacity, maximum terminal separation 300 ft, latency control via token-rotation-timer priority, self-test and bus-loop test capability, and automatic clock synchronization. The design concept and performance of a breadboard wire bus tested in July 1986 are discussed in detail, with particular attention to the redundancy manager, the output controller, the input controller, the ringmaster topology manager, and typical initial-placement problems.

  11. A software bus for thread objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Li, Dehuai

    1995-01-01

    The authors have implemented a software bus for lightweight threads in an object-oriented programming environment that allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in discrete-event simulation experiments. While previous research in object-oriented, parallel programming environments has focused on direct communication between threads, our lightweight software bus, called the MiniBus, provides a means to isolate threads from their contexts of execution by restricting communications between threads to message-passing via their local ports only. The software bus maintains a topology of connections between these ports. It routes, queues, and delivers messages according to this topology. This approach allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in other systems without making changes to the specifications or source code. A layered approach that provides the needed transparency to developers is presented. Examples of using the MiniBus are given, and the value of bus architectures in building and conducting simulations of discrete-event systems is discussed.

  12. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  13. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  14. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  15. School Bus and School Pupil Activity Bus Inspection and Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowash, Fred W.

    This publication deals with suggested maintenance standards that apply to vehicles used for pupil transportation in California and covers all the safety-related systems that are common to most buses. The guide has been prepared to help all school bus and school pupil activity bus operators set up an inspection and preventive maintenance program…

  16. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  17. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  18. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  19. Where Is the Metropolitan U.S.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, Kimberly A.

    1987-01-01

    A Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) may be comprised of one or more counties, can cross state lines, and must contain a city or urbanized area of 50,000 or more people. The population of the whole county (or counties) is included in the MSA even if part of the county is rural. A Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) must have over…

  20. Schools, Housing, Jobs, Transportation: Interlocking Metropolitan Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, William G.

    1978-01-01

    The interrelationships among income, health, education, employment, and crime in metropolitan areas are explored within the context of current trends in housing, transportation, and urban growth policy. The role of inner city schools in these phenomena is assessed. Alternative metropolitan strategies for central city investment or disinvestment…

  1. Schools, Housing, Jobs, Transportation: Interlocking Metropolitan Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, William G.

    In this paper the interrelationships among income, health, education, employment and crime in the nation's metropolitan areas are explored in the context of recent and current trends in housing, transportation and urban growth policy. The central role of inner city schools in these phenomena is assessed. Alternative metropolitan strategies for…

  2. Metropolitan Areas as Redistributors of Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Curtis C.; McHugh, Kevin E.

    This paper reports on a demographic study that focuses on the patterns of migration to and from specific metropolitan areas which contribute to nonmetropolitan growth and decline. For background, the paper examines some general properties of the United States migration system. Then the concept of metropolitan areas as redistributors of population…

  3. The health bus: healthcare for marginalized populations.

    PubMed

    Daiski, Isolde

    2005-02-01

    The Health Bus, an innovative outreach program, serves the marginalized population of a large Canadian city. In this article, a needs assessment/evaluation study of its services is discussed. Barriers to mainstream healthcare and solutions are examined. This study was qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory and surveyed 58 client volunteers of the program through semistructured interviews and focus groups. Thematic analysis of data was carried out. The Health Bus was found to provide basic healthcare and supplies effectively. Clients value respectful treatment, competency of healthcare professionals, and accessibility, whereas disrespectful treatments and lack of transportation are barriers to mainstream healthcare. A conclusion of this study is that Health Bus services should be expanded with clients' input. Mainstream institutions need flexibility and a change in attitudes toward the marginalized.

  4. High speed data bus design validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    The SAE Linear Implementation Task Group has developed the SAE Linear Token Passing Multiplex Data Bus Standard (AS4074.1) and is currently working on a validation plan. This validation plan will define the test requirements for determining that an implementation of the standard meets the requirements of SAE AS4074.1. Once completed, the test requirements contained in this plan will be executed on bus interface units (BIUs) for validation purposes. In the present work, the author describes the use of a validation model that incorporates many of the capabilities of the validation test plan. This model can also be thought of as a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) behavioral representation of the SAE Linear Token Passing Multiplex Data Bus Standard. It is tightly coupled to the standard and provides a model that can be used during the BIU development to validate the design.

  5. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  6. Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers.

  7. Geohydrology and contamination at the Michigan Department of Transportation maintenance garage area, Kalamazoo County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, E.A.; Huffman, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A leaking underground storage tank was removed from the Michigan Department of Transportation maintenance garage area in Kalamazoo County., Mich., in 1985. The tank had been leaking unleaded gasoline. Although a remediation system was operational at the site for several years after the tank was removed, ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells in the area consistently showed high concentrations of benzene, toluene. ethylbenzene, and xylenes--indicators of the presence of gasoline. The U.S. Geological Survey did a study in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Transportation, to define the geology, hydrology, and occurrence of gasoline contamination in the maintenance garage area. The aquifer affected by gasoline contamination is an unconfined glaci'a.l sand and gravel aquifer. The average depth to water in the study area is about 74.7 feet. Water-level fluctuations are small; maximum fluctuation was slightly more than 1 foot during August 1993-August 1994. Hydraulic conductivities based on aquifer-test data collected for the study and estimated by use of the Cooper-Jacob method of solution ranged from 130 to 144 feet per day. Ground water is moving in an east-southeasterly direction at a rate of about I foot per day. Leakage from perforated pipes leading from the underground storage tanks to the pump station was identified as a second source of gasoline contamination to saturated and unsaturated zones. The existence of this previously unknown second source is part of the reason that previous remediation efforts were ineffective. Residual contaminants in the unsaturated zone are expected to continue to move to the water table with recharge, except in a small area covered by asphalt at the land surface. The gasoline plume from the perforated pipe source has merged with that from the leaking underground storage tank, and the combined plume in the saturated zone is estimated to cover an area of 30,000 square feet. The combined plume is in the upper 20

  8. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers.

  9. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  10. The crew activity planning system bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware and software designs used to implement a high speed parallel communications interface to the MITRE 307.2 kilobit/second serial bus communications system are described. The primary topic is the development of the bus interface unit.

  11. Research in bus and rail transit operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Wegmann, F.J.; Ceder, A.; Levinson, H.S.; Hollander, A.

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Private Sector Involvement in Sponsoring Sunday Bus Service; Optimal Design of Transit Short-Turn Trips; New York City's Unfranchised Buses: Case Study in Deregulation; Critical Factors in Planning Multimodal Passenger Terminals; Use of Travelers' Attitudes in Rail Service Design; Driven, Attended, and Fully Automated Transit; Qualitative Comparison; Impact on Transit Patronage of Cessation or Inauguration of Rail Service; Use of Productivity Factors in Estimating LRT Operating Costs; Simulation Study To Evaluate Spare Ratios in Bus Transit Systems; Statistical Evaluation of Spare Ratio in Transit Rolling Stock.

  12. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Ahlheim, M.C.

    1993-08-01

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  13. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  14. Developing a Computer Program for Bus Routing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rita M.; Thomas, Warren H.

    A computer-based method was developed that can translate available data about schools, students, and bus facilities into a set of bus routes and schedules prior to the start of the school year. Each route can be so designed via the computer model that student riding time and bus capacity constraints are satisfied at the same time that total bus…

  15. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  16. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  17. The Geography of Metropolitan Carbon Footprints

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Southworth, Frank; Sarzynski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The world s metropolitan carbon footprints have distinct geographies that are not well understood or recognized in debates about climate change, partly because data on greenhouse gas emissions is so inadequate. This article describes the results of the most comprehensive assessment of carbon footprints for major American metropolitan areasavailable to date, focusing on residential and transportation carbon emissions for the largest 100 metropolitan areas in the United States. These findings are put into the context of effortsacross the country and the globe to characterize carbon impacts and policy linkages.

  18. Bus Maintenance is a Sound Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Preventive school bus maintenance to reduce long-term costs should include daily visual inspections by drivers, frequent checks by mechanics, and comprehensive inspections every 5,000 miles. Mechanics recommend checking tail lights, batteries, brakes, lug nuts, leaf springs, tail pipes, and exhaust pipe hangers. (RW)

  19. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  20. Inrush-Current Limiter And Bus Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, Carlisle R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic circuit protects electrical power bus and source of power against excessive current demands. Circuit intended for use with power-consuming electronic system drawing pulsed currents and including capacitor bank as low-impedance secondary source from which pulsed currents drawn.

  1. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  2. Energy DataBus (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    NREL has developed the Energy DataBus, an open-sourced software that collects massive amounts of energy-related data at second-to-second intervals; stores it in a massive, scalable database; and turns it into useful information.

  3. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  4. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  5. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  6. Priorities for an age-friendly bus system.

    PubMed

    Broome, Kieran; Worrall, Linda; McKenna, Kryss; Boldy, Duncan

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the barriers and facilitators to bus use for people aged 60 or older. Two complementary methodologies, nominal group technique and focussed ethnography, were used to identify barriers and facilitators and rank their importance. Two sample sites from Queensland, Australia, were selected, with 227 people participating in the nominal group technique and 40 people participating in the focussed ethnography component. Seven priorities for age-friendly bus systems emerged from the data: vehicle entrance/exit; bus driver friendliness and helpfulness; timetables and scheduling of buses; bus stop locations; pedestrian infrastructure; information and training for older people; and bus routes and destinations. These findings will assist researchers, policy makers, and transport providers to set evidence-based strategic directions for creating age-friendly bus systems. Both methods provide complementary perspectives on bus usability, which could not be gained from either method alone.

  7. 58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER THE CONTROL ROOM MEZZANINE IN THE SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM. BUS IS A HEAVY COPPER BAR APPROXIMATELY 1/2" BY 4" WHICH CONDUCTS POWER THROUGHOUT THE POWER PLANT. BUS ARE PROTECTED BY A BRICK AND SOAPSTONE HOUSING. OPENINGS FOR INSPECTION AND ACCESS WOULD NORMALLY BE PROTECTED BY GLASS DOORS. THE BUS WOULD BE SUPPORTED ON INSULATORS WITHIN THE BRICK CHAMBER. BUS WAS REMOVED AND SALVAGED WHEN THE STATION WAS ABANDONED. THE OBJECT IN THE TOP CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER USED TO REDUCE BUS POTENTIAL OF 2200 VOLTS TO LOW VOLTAGES SAFE FOR USE IN CONTROL ROOM CIRCUITRY. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS ARE PRECISION DEVICES WHICH PRODUCE AN ACCURATE LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG OF THE HIGH VOLTAGE ON THE BUS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. CAN Bus on ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortosa López, F.; Furano, G.; Winton, A.; Montagna, M.; Caramia, M.; Dean, B.; Bhana, M.

    2009-05-01

    This paper focuses on the implementation of CAN Bus for the EXOMars project, both on the technical aspects of the physical layer, the CAN protocol, and the higher layer protocol, and on the methodology aspects related to the procurement of multiple heterogeneous units, which need to provide a standard interface to the CAN Bus. We will present the ExoMars tailoring and technical choices using the current draft of the CAN ECSS-E50- xx-v2_1 ([5]), and we will present our conclusions regarding the use of CANopen and the draft standard. The Exomars project has successfully applied the previous efforts of CAN WG, and has established a clear implementation methodology that will provide very useful inputs for the finalization of the ECSS standardization process within next year.

  9. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Suharjito; Gunawan, Alexander A. S.

    2014-03-01

    Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  10. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  11. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  12. Communication design for multi-boards based on VME bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Song, Fazhi; Wei, Kai; Fu, Zhenxian

    2015-02-01

    As a widely used open-architecture computer bus ,VME bus is increasingly applied in military, aerospace, transportation and other large-scale control systems. Lithography, a very delicate and complicated integrated circuit manufacturing equipment, uses many circuit boards with VME interface in its control system, including one single-board computer, many movement control boards and one data acquisition board. This paper designs communication modules which include VME bus module and VME user-defined bus module for multi-boards in Lithography control system. VME bus module is designed for the communication between the single-board computer and movement control boards and VME user-defined bus is designed for the communication between movement control boards and data acquisition board. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  13. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  14. Public health assessment for Tinkham Garage, Londonderry, Rockingham County, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD062004569. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-09

    The Tinkham Garage site is located south of Route 102, off of McAllister Drive, in Rockingham County, approximately 1 mile southeast of the center of Londonderry, New Hampshire. Liquid hazardous wastes were apparently disposed at the site in the field to the southeast of the Tinkham Garage building. Subsequent investigations determined that additional disposal of liquid wastes had occurred in several other areas of the site including a soil pile to the north of the condominium complex, a solvent swale area inside of the condominium complex, and the septic leachfields associated with the condominium complex. Contaminants at the site include a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), acid and base/neutral extractable compounds (ABNs), and metals. There is concern that consumers drinking water from contaminated on-site wells may have been exposed to a variety of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic VOCs for about 4-6 years. Exposure pathways of potential concern include direct contact with contaminated soil; inhalation of contaminated soil as fugitive dust; and incidental ingestion of contaminated soil. Potential environmental pathways of contaminant migration included past direct discharge of contaminants into soils; leaching of contaminants from soils into the overburden and bedrock groundwater; and contamination of area surface waters and sediment by migration of contaminants from soil, groundwater, and surface water runoff from the site.

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Tinkham's Garage Site, Londonderry, New Hampshire. (First remedial action), March 10, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-10

    The Tinkham's Garage site includes 375 acres of residential and undeveloped land in Londonderry, New Hampshire. EPA site investigations in 1981 revealed onsite soil and ground water contaminated with VOCs resulting from onsite surface dumping of liquids and sludge in 1978 and 1979. The major contaminated soil area is in a field behind Tinkham's Garage. The first remedial action selected for the site was documented in a 1986 Record of Decision (ROD), which included excavation of approximately 10,800 cubic yards of contaminated soil with onsite treatment using either thermal aeration, composting or soil washing. Local wetlands impacted by soil excavating activities and contaminated ground water were also to be remediated. Information generated during a pre-design study led EPA in 1988 to propose the amendment to the 1986 ROD. As a result of the pre-design study findings, the remedial action selected in the 1986 ROD was never implemented. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including TCE and PCE. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  16. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  17. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  18. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  19. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale. PMID:27220506

  20. A comparison of metropolitan and non-metropolitan employment characteristics: Indications of the size of non-metropolitan mobile communication services user classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The similarities and differences between areas inside and outside U.S. metropolitan areas were evaluated in terms of their commercial/industrial and government employment characteristics. The comparison focuses on the levels, shares, and composition of employment in the commercial/industrial and government sectors that represent potential classes of land mobile communications users. The major findings of the analysis are as follows: (1) non-metropolitan commercial/industrial user classes of land mobile communication services exist in significant numbers; (2) the compositions of non-metropolitan and metropolitan commercial/industrial user classes of land mobile communication services closely resemble each other; (3) non-metropolitan areas have significant levels of the government user classes that represent potential markets for land mobile communication services; and (4) non-metropolitan local governments have a significantly larger proportion of their employment in the primary user classes of private land mobile radio service than do metropolitan local governments.

  1. School bus pollution and changes in the air quality at schools: a case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlei; Nguyen, Quyen; Ryan, Patrick H; Lemasters, Grace K; Spitz, Henry; Lobaugh, Megan; Glover, Samuel; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2009-05-01

    Millions of children attending US schools are exposed to traffic-related air pollutants, including health-relevant ultrafine aerosols generated from school buses powered with diesel fuel. This case study was established in a midwestern (USA) metropolitan area to determine the concentration and elemental composition of aerosol in the vicinity of a public school during morning hours when the bus traffic in and out of the adjacent depot was especially intense. Simultaneous measurements were performed at a control site. The ambient aerosol was first characterized in real time using a particle size selective aerosol spectrometer and then continuously monitored at each site with a real-time non-size-selective instrument that detected particles of 20 nm to >1 microm. In addition, air samples were collected with PM2.5 Harvard Impactors and analyzed for elemental composition using the X-ray fluorescence technique (for 38 elements) and thermal-optical transmittance (for carbon). The measurements were conducted during two seasons: in March at ambient temperature around 0 degrees C and in May when it ranged mostly between 10 and 20 degrees C. The particle number concentration at the test site exhibited high temporal variability while it was time independent at the control site. Overall, the aerosol particle count at the school was 4.7 +/- 1.0 times (March) and 2.2 +/- 0.4 times (May) greater than at the control site. On some days, a 15 min-averaged particle number concentration showed significant correlation with the number of school bus arrivals and departures during these time intervals. On other days, the correlation was less than statistically significant. The 3 h time-averaged particle concentrations determined in the test site on days when the school buses operated were found to be more than two-fold greater (on average) than those measured on bus-free days at the same location, and this difference was statistically significant. Overall, the data suggest a possible

  2. Reliable Fiber Sensor System with Star-Ring-Bus Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peng-Chun; Wang, Jun-Bo; Huang, Kuan-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a novel star-ring-bus sensor system and demonstrates its effectiveness. The main trunk of the proposed sensor system is a star topology and the sensing branches comprise a series of bus subnets. Any weakness in the reliability of the sensor system is overcome by adding remote nodes and switches to the ring and bus subnets. To construct the proposed star-ring-bus sensor system, a fiber ring laser scheme is used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor system. The proposed system increases the reliability and capacity of fiber sensor systems. PMID:22399876

  3. Reliable fiber sensor system with star-ring-bus architecture.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng-Chun; Wang, Jun-Bo; Huang, Kuan-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a novel star-ring-bus sensor system and demonstrates its effectiveness. The main trunk of the proposed sensor system is a star topology and the sensing branches comprise a series of bus subnets. Any weakness in the reliability of the sensor system is overcome by adding remote nodes and switches to the ring and bus subnets. To construct the proposed star-ring-bus sensor system, a fiber ring laser scheme is used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor system. The proposed system increases the reliability and capacity of fiber sensor systems.

  4. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  5. Quantum-information processing via a lossy bus

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, S. D.; Milburn, G. J.

    2006-12-15

    We describe a method to perform two-qubit measurements and logic operations on pairs of qubits which each interact with a harmonic oscillator degree of freedom (the bus), but do not directly interact with one another. Our scheme uses only weak interactions between the qubit and the bus, homodyne measurements, and single-qubit operations. In contrast to earlier schemes, the technique presented here is extremely robust to photon loss in the bus mode, and can function with high fidelity even when the rate of photon loss is comparable to the strength of the qubit-bus coupling.

  6. 36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, DECEMBER 1909. Aperture card 6611-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. When the Wheels on the Bus Go Round: Social Interactions on the School Bus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliger, Courtney C.; Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John

    2009-01-01

    Children's social interactions are often dependent upon the setting or context in which they occur. The current study explored the school bus as a unique context for social interaction. One hundred and fifty-seven elementary school students (78 males and 79 females), in grades 3, 4, and 5, completed a questionnaire concerning the rate and types of…

  8. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  9. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  10. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  11. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  12. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  13. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  14. Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretthauer, Joy W.; Chalfant, Chuck H.; Orlando, Fred J.; Parkerson, P.; Rezek, Ed; Sawyer, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB) is an IEEE 1393 compliant, gigabit per second, fiber optic network specifically designed to support the real-time, on-board data handling requirements of remote sensing spacecraft. The network is fault tolerant highly reliable, and capable of withstanding the rigors of launch and the harsh space environment. SFODB achieves this operational and environmental performance while maintaining the small size, light weight, and low power necessary for spaceborne applications. On December 9, 1998, SFODB was successfully demonstrated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  15. The Changing Character of Metropolitan Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conzen, Michael P.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews some of the key changes affecting the Chicago region and examines the degree to which they have or have not altered the evolving spatial structure of metropolitan Chicago. Traces the historical legacy, economic matrix, and shifting social patterns, concluding Chicago has more human/urban depth than most western metropolises. (TRS)

  16. Metropolitan Edison Company switching and tagging procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, H.J.

    1980-05-01

    Metropolitan Edison Company provides service to over 350,000 customers in an area diagonally across Southeastern Pennsylvania from North of Stroudsburg near the New York State line to the Maryland border South of Gettysburg. This area encompasses 3300 square miles, 7% of Pennsylvania, and includes all or part of 14 counties. Dispatching organization, safety factors, tagging list and switching are discussed.

  17. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  18. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide--Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    Geared to behavioral objectives, the instruction is organized into programed units on emergency driving techniques, first aid, field trips, transporting exceptional students, detecting hazards, controlling the position of the bus, driving under special conditions, and preventive maintenance of the bus. Each unit is constructed around content…

  19. Parents' Perceptions of the Rural School Bus Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Rob; Howley, Aimee

    2005-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study of the perceptions of parents about the experience of long bus rides on their children. Twenty-six parents, whose homes were located on the longest bus route in a rural Midwestern school district, provided interviews regarding the experiences of a total of 37 students. In the analysis of the interview…

  20. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  1. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  2. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  3. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.17 Driver and bus monitor... records as necessary. (c) Drivers must also receive instruction on the topics listed in 45 CFR...

  4. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  5. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  6. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  7. 16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view to the southeast. An air circuit breaker compressor (visible in photograph number 2) was once attached to the main bus relay visible in the background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  8. Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…

  9. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  10. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  11. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  12. Genetic algorithm for multiple bus line coordination on urban arterial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuyan; Ding, Haoyang; Li, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  13. Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects.

    PubMed

    Bamiedakis, N; Hashim, A; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2012-05-21

    A scalable multi-channel optical regenerative bus architecture based on the use of polymer waveguides is presented for the first time. The architecture offers high-speed interconnection between electrical cards allowing regenerative bus extension with multiple segments and therefore connection of an arbitrary number of cards onto the bus. In a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 4-channel 3-card polymeric bus module is designed and fabricated on standard FR4 substrates. Low insertion losses (≤ -15 dB) and low crosstalk values (< -30 dB) are achieved for the fabricated samples while better than ± 6 µm -1 dB alignment tolerances are obtained. 10 Gb/s data communication with a bit-error-rate (BER) lower than 10(-12) is demonstrated for the first time between card interfaces on two different bus modules using a prototype 3R regenerator.

  14. Genetic algorithm for multiple bus line coordination on urban arterial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuyan; Ding, Haoyang; Li, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority. PMID:25663837

  15. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  16. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  17. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  18. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  19. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  20. Changing racial composition of metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of Hispanics and Asians or Pacific Islanders residing in the largest metropolitan areas increased by a remarkable 60 percent and 127 percent, respectively. In April 1990, there were 4.9 million persons of Asian or Pacific Islander origin and 14.1 million of Hispanic background living in the 25 most populous urban centers; they constituted roughly two-thirds of the nation's total population of these ethnic groups. For the most part, the destinations of these newcomers were primarily the big metropolitan areas of the West and Southwest regions of the country, although the urban centers of the Northeast and North Central attracted large numbers. By contrast, in this period the number of blacks--the largest minority group--rose by only one-seventh.

  1. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  2. The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation

    PubMed Central

    REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O’SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales. PMID:18939658

  3. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion. PMID:22321902

  4. Classroom Activities in School Bus and Pedestrian Safety Education. Bulletin No. 93138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Transportation, Madison.

    School bus and related pedestrian safety education is prevention-oriented so that students will learn how to avoid bus-related accidents. This manual provides lesson plans emphasizing the school bus stop, loading and unloading zones, emergency evacuation drills, and appropriate behavior on the school bus. The guide also recognizes demographic…

  5. Analysis of Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problems

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews. PMID:24526890

  6. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Spin-bus concept of spin quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mehring, Michael; Mende, Jens

    2006-05-15

    We present a spin-bus concept of quantum computing where an electron spin S=1/2 acts as a bus qubit connected to a finite number N of nuclear spins I=1/2 serving as client qubits. Spin-bus clusters are considered as local processing units and may be interconnected with other spin-bus clusters via electron-electron coupling in a scaled up version. Here we lay the ground for the basic functional unit with long qubit registers, provide the theory and experimental verification of correlated qubit states, and demonstrate the Deutsch algorithm. Experiments were performed on a qubyte plus one nuclear spin in a solid state system.

  8. State Bus Fleet Study Documents Fuel-Saving Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, Amy

    1990-01-01

    A demonstration program conducted in 12 New Jersey school districts identified 18 fuel cost-saving opportunities for school bus operation that could save the state an estimated $1.6 million in fuel costs. (MLF)

  9. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  10. These New Devices Aim to Enhance School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1988-01-01

    Describes school bus safety products currently on the market, such as motion-sensing alarms, automatic breaking shields, front-mounted crossing gates, and strobe lights. Gives price information and evaluates products' usefulness and necessity. (MLH)

  11. Study on USB Based CAN Bus for Data Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weibin; Hong, Tiansheng; Zhu, Yuqing; He, Guangbin; Ye, Cheng; Li, Haobiao; Chen, Chuwen

    Control area network (CAN) is an international protocol of field bus and universal serial bus (USB) is developing more and more widely. On the other hand, the USB technology combined with the CAN application is still in the development stage, so this research has broad prospects. The USB-based CAN bus system hardware consists of a CAN module, a USB communication module and a micro controller. It has been designed for real-time display and can save the CAN bus message. In addition it has been debugged in actual measurement accompanied by the Kvaser USB CAN II. The test results show that the system can correctly receive all messages frame from Kvaser CanKing. Finally the system has been applied to the project of citrus orchard for transmission of data of the citrus and tree parameters.

  12. View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within the former transformer building. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  13. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conformity rule (40 CFR part 93). The agreement shall address policy mechanisms for resolving conflicts... PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  14. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conformity rule (40 CFR part 93). The agreement shall address policy mechanisms for resolving conflicts... PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  15. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conformity rule (40 CFR part 93). The agreement shall address policy mechanisms for resolving conflicts... PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  16. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conformity rule (40 CFR part 93). The agreement shall address policy mechanisms for resolving conflicts... PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  17. Final Report for the H2Fuel Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, W.D.

    1998-11-25

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world's first hydrogen-fueled electric hybrid transit bus. It was a project developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technological and industrial organizations, with primary funding by the Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen fueled buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies.

  18. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  19. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  20. Multipurpose bus interface utilizing a digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlberg, Christian L.

    1994-09-01

    A multi-purpose bus interface comprising a digital signal processor which receives a clock signal and control signals from a Manchester type encoder/decoder and then processes the clock and control signals allowing for the serial transfer of data to and from the 1553 multiplex data bus, the encoder/decoder and the digital signal processor into an IC memory card for storage in or retrieval from the IC memory card. Software stored in an electrically erasable programmable read only memory controls how the data is transferred and interpreted making it easier to modify the digital signal processor's operation to accommodate its use with different bus standards and data protocols/formats. The encoder/decoder of the present invention formats and protocols data transferred from the electrically erasable programmable read only memory to the 1553 multiplex data bus as well data transferred from the 1553 multiplex data bus to the memory, as appropriate. The multipurpose bus interface of the present invention also includes an RS-232 interface and an RS-422 interface controlled by the digital signal processor which provides for data transfer to and from a host computer or the like into the IC memory card.

  1. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the

  2. Observations of working postures in garages using the Ovako Working posture Analysing System (OWAS) and consequent workload reduction recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kant, I; Notermans, J H; Borm, P J

    1990-02-01

    The working postures of mechanics (n = 84) in 42 garages were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and work activities were recorded. A computer program was developed for the data analyses. Using this program it is possible to calculate the working posture load for each work activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This is a substantial extension of the original OWAS method. Five out of 19 observed postures of the body members were classified as Action Category 2, which suggests they were slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system and likely to cause discomfort. Of the so-called typical working postures, 31.9% was classified in Action Category 2, suggesting that during a substantial part of the working day typical working postures occur which are at least slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system. Moreover, those work activities principally causing the workload to fall in OWAS' higher Action Categories were identified. For each of these three work activities an alternative work method was observed. The data show that in all three work activities the use of a vehicle lift reduces the number of poor working postures thereby reducing the load on the musculoskeletal system.

  3. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Commercial Garage Lights In the Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-11

    This U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Demonstration project studied the applicability of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires for commercial parking garage applications. High-pressure sodium (HPS) area luminaires were replaced with new LED area luminaires. The project was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid State Lighting Program. Other participants in the demonstration project included Providence Portland Medical Center in Portland, Oregon, the Energy Trust of Oregon, and Lighting Sciences Group (LSG) Inc. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the measurements and analysis of the results. PNNL manages GATEWAY demonstrations for DOE and represents their perspective in the conduct of the work. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light and electrical power were taken at the site for both HPS and LED light sources. Economic costs were estimated and garage users’ responses to the new light sources were gauged with a survey. Six LED luminaires were installed in the below-ground parking level A, replacing six existing 150W HPS lamps spread out over two rows of parking spaces. Illuminance measurements were taken at floor level approximately every 4 ft on a 60-ft x 40-ft grid to measure light output of these LED luminaires which were termed the “Version 1” luminaires. PNNL conducted power measurements of the circuit in the garage to which the 6 luminaires were connected and determined that they drew an average of 82 W per lamp. An improved LED luminaire, Version 2, was installed in Level B of the parking garage. Illuminance measurements were not made of this second luminaire on site due to higher traffic conditions, but photometric measurements of this lamp and Version 1 were made in an independent testing laboratory and power usage for Version 2 was also measured. Version 1 was found to produce 3600 lumens and Version 2 was found to produce 4700 lumens of light and to consume 78 Watts. Maximum and minimum light

  4. Air quality in urban parking garages (PM10, major and trace elements, PAHs): Instrumental measurements vs. active moss biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Razumenić, Ivana; Kuzmanoski, Maja; Pergal, Miodrag; Škrivanj, Sandra; Popović, Aleksandar

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed in four parking garages in downtown of Belgrade with the aim to provide multi-pollutant assessment. Concentrations of 16 US EPA priority PAHs and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in PM10 samples. The carcinogenic health risk of employees' occupational exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) and PAHs (B[a]A, Cry, B[b]F, B[k]F, B[a]P and DB[ah]A) was estimated. A possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for monitoring of trace element air pollution in semi-enclosed spaces was evaluated as well. The results showed that concentrations of PM10, Cd, Ni and B[a]P exceeded the EU Directive target values. Concentration of Zn, Ba and Cu were two orders of magnitude higher than those measured at different urban sites in European cities. Cumulative cancer risk obtained for heavy metals and PAHs was 4.51 × 10-5 and 3.75 × 10-5 in M and PP, respectively; upper limit of the acceptable US EPA range is 10-4. In the moss, higher post-exposure than pre-exposure (background) element concentrations was observed. In comparison with instrumental monitoring data, similar order of abundances of the most elements in PM10 and moss samples was found. However, using of the S. girgensohnii moss bag technique in indoor environments needs further justification.

  5. A garage sale bargain: A leaking 2.2 GBq {sup 226}Ra source, Phase 1 - the incident

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, B.; Andrews, M.; Hogan, A.

    1996-06-01

    In March 1995, a private citizen living in Bristol, Tennessee, went to a local garage sale and purchased a box containing old medical equipment and paraphernalia for $10.00. The man put the box in the trunk of his car where it remained for several weeks. He then took the box into his home where he examined all of the items, including a small wooden box with a metal sleeve. After significant effort, he managed to remove the inner box which bore the word {open_quotes}radium.{close_quotes} Unsure of what this meant, he called his son-in-law who understood that radium was a radioactive material and called the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health (TDRH). The TDRH investigation quickly located and isolated the source and determined that the contamination was spread throughout the man`s home and yard. Exposure rate readings as high as 160 mR h{sup -1} were found along with removable contamination as high as 3,000,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Over the next several days, the TDRH organized a voluntary effort for the medical evaluation of the man and his wife, the removal of the source, and the decontamination of the home, yard, car, etc. The two following papers will describe these aspects of this incident. On 26 May 1995, the remediation was completed, ending this unusual, but not unique, radiation incident.

  6. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  7. Metropolitan School Organization: Basic Problems and Patterns. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Troy V., Ed.

    This anthology describes and discusses the study and development of metropolitan educational delivery systems--the process of bringing education under the control of one system spanning the city and its suburbs. Substantive works focus on the forces presently surrounding the problem of metropolitan educational reform and the present state of…

  8. Metropolitan School Organization: Proposals for Reform. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Troy V., Ed.

    Within the conceptual framewords that surround the development of new structures for the organization of education in metropolitan areas, contributors to this anthology focus on the purpose, conceptualizations, and proposed organizational structures of metropolitan educational reform activities. The book is primarily intended for scholars and…

  9. 31. RECORD PLAN, METROPOLITAN SEWER, GENERAL PLAN OF PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RECORD PLAN, METROPOLITAN SEWER, GENERAL PLAN OF PUMPING STATION GROUNDS, DEER ISLAND. METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE COMMISSION, JUNE 1896. Photocopy of image of aperture card 4977-1. Aperture cards and original drawings at Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Archives, Building 39, Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, MA - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. Metropolitan Universities: An Emerging Model in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel M., Ed.; Bell, David A., Ed.

    This volume contains 29 readings reprinted from the journal "Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum," selected to demonstrate the unique mission and characteristics of metropolitan universities and to recognize the special challenges they face in addressing the nation's major urban issues. The papers include: "What Is a Metropolitan…

  11. Changing International Constructs: How Metropolitan Universities Must Engage Globally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Mitch; Zimpher, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of American metropolitan universities has never before been so relevant, both to the future of institutions themselves and to the United States. The success of the mission requires that we develop a deep understanding of the impact of both urbanization and de-urbanization, as well as the challenges metropolitan universities face with…

  12. Metropolitan Professional Sexual Differentiation, 1970: An Ecological Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gordon C., Jr.

    From the perspective of contemporary human ecology, this paper presents a descriptive analysis of sexual differentiation in professional occupations, using data provided for the large metropolitan labor forces of the United States in 1970. Aggregate profile characteristics of the total metropolitan labor force [the combined professional work…

  13. Sectors and Jobs in Metropolitan Economies. A Rand Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwitz, Aaron

    A study assessed the potential development of service sectors in different cities throughout the country and compared the results of growth in these and other sectors with respect to their effects on (1) total employment; (2) the geographic dispersion of metropolitan employment; (3) central city fiscal capacity; (4) metropolitan cyclical…

  14. Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Opportunities for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report intended for officials responsible for solving metropolitan problems identifies ways that telecommunications could improve the delivery of public services to metropolitan communities during the 1980's. Areas included in this study are delivery of public services to the home, operation of mobile public services, personal security…

  15. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  16. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  17. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  18. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  19. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  20. University and Local Government in Metropolitan Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffite, Nicolas Baya

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the role of universities in the sustainable management of metropolitan areas, drawing on the outputs from a workshop that brought together academics, professionals and politicians responsible for the urban environmental management of the metropolitan areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Urban…

  1. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 CFR 1710.13 have been met in the sale or lease of the lot(s) described above. I also affirm that I... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale...

  2. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 CFR 1710.13 have been met in the sale or lease of the lot(s) described above. I also affirm that I... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale...

  3. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 CFR 1710.13 have been met in the sale or lease of the lot(s) described above. I also affirm that I... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  9. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  10. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  11. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  12. Fly-by-light optical bus interface module (OBIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargano, Robert

    1995-05-01

    Driving the need for optics in flight control are the issues of wire weight, HIRF, and system bandwidth. With the advent of advanced Vehicle Management System (VMS) systems and the higher level of functional and physical integration of subsystems such as the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and the Subsystem Utility Integration Technology (SUIT) program, optics in flight control offer attractive system benefits. Advanced VMS control functions generate large quantities of data to be transmitted over the VMS buses for processing. This paper will address the implementation of a module that will support the high throughput requirements of an advanced VMS system. The module is defined as the Optical Bus Interface Module (OBIM) and utilizes the AS1773A 20 mbps fiber optic bus for the VMS system bus. In addition, the module supports 5 mbps fiber optic Cross Channel Data Links (CCDLs) for the exchange of flight critical data in redundant architectures.

  13. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  14. Metropolitan Road Traffic Simulation on FPGAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp J. L.; Mortveit, H. S.; Hansson, A. A.; Gokhale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates that road traffic simulation of entire metropolitan areas is possible with reconfigurable supercomputing that combines 64-bit microprocessors and FPGAs in a high bandwidth, low latency interconnect. Previously, traffic simulation on FPGAs was limited to very short road segments or required a very large number of FPGAs. Our data streaming approach overcomes scaling issues associated with direct implementations and still allows for high-level parallelism by dividing the data sets between hardware and software across the reconfigurable supercomputer. Using one FPGA on the Cray XD1 supercomputer, we are able to achieve a 34.4 x speed up over the AMD microprocessor. System integration issues must be optimized to exploit this speedup in the overall simulation.

  15. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system. PMID:22164876

  16. Dynamic behavior in two-route bus traffic system with real-time information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of two-route bus traffic system with two buses using a bus choice scenario. The two-route bus traffic system with real-time information is not consistent with the two-route vehicular traffic system but is similar to the vehicular system. The two-route bus traffic system is mimicked by the physically dynamic model. The dynamics of two-route bus traffic system is described by a couple of nonlinear maps. A bus runs a neck- and neck race with another bus. The motion of two buses displays an irregular behavior in a complex manner. We clarify the effect of real-time information on the bus traffic.

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., low, and split-friction surfaces. The parking brake should be evaluated with the bus parked facing... static tension load equal to 1.2 times the curb weight should be applied to the bus towing...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., low, and split-friction surfaces. The parking brake should be evaluated with the bus parked facing... static tension load equal to 1.2 times the curb weight should be applied to the bus towing...

  19. Metropolitan Fragmentation and Health Disparities: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Malo André; Kaplan, George A; Ranjit, Nalini; Mujahid, Mahasin S

    2012-01-01

    Context This article explores the relationship between metropolitan fragmentation, as defined by the total number of governmental units within a metropolitan statistical area (local municipalities, special service districts, and school districts), and racial disparities in mortality among blacks and whites in the 1990s. The presence of numerous governmental jurisdictions in large metropolitan areas in the United States can shape the geography of opportunity, with adverse consequences for health. Methods We conducted a regression analysis using U.S. Census of Government data and Compressed Mortality File data for the country's largest 171 metropolitan statistical areas. Findings We found a link between increased metropolitan area fragmentation and greater racial differences in mortality between blacks and whites for both children and working-age adults. Although increasing fragmentation is associated with a higher mortality rate for blacks, it is not associated with a higher mortality rate for whites. These findings suggest that research is needed to understand how governance can positively or negatively influence a population's health and create conditions that generate or exacerbate health disparities. Conclusions We need to understand the extent to which metropolitan fragmentation contributes to racial segregation, whether racism contributes to both, and the role of poverty and antipoverty policies in reducing or exacerbating the consequences of metropolitan fragmentation. The exact pathways by which metropolitan fragmentation contributes to differences between blacks’ and whites’ mortality rates are unknown. Uncovering how institutions influence the social, economic, and environmental conditions, which in turn contribute to the current racial and ethnic health disparities in the largest metropolitan areas, is key. Understanding these “upstream” determinants of a population's health and the disparities in health between subgroups in the overall population

  20. Public transit 1993: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabian, N.C.; Tobias, A.G.; Crayton, L.; Solomon, N.; Brown, S.E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: evaluation of the operating cost consequences of signal preemption as an IVHS strategy; efficient transit priority at intersections; welfare comparison of fixed- and flexible-route bus systems; bus stop accessibility: a guide for virginia transit systems and public entities for complying with the americans with disabilities act of 1990; implications of technological developments for demand responsive transit; impact of nonresponse bias on forecasts of average passenger occupancy; what has happened to carpooling: trends in North Carolina, 1980 to 1990; ridesharing and the consumer: a tale of two marketing strategies; transportation demand management at small employer sites; and state of the commute in Southern California, 1992.

  1. S-100-bus microcomputers aim at high-performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.

    1982-08-18

    The explosion in integrated low-cost desktop computer systems for single-user dedicated applications has a companion trend: a growing interest in high-performance multitasking multiuser systems and in system architecture which lend themselves easily to peripheral- and procesing-power expansion. The mature S-100 (IEEE-696) bus, once the domain of hobby computers, offers a variety of advantages to serve such applications; thus, systems designed around this bus are enjoying a revival. Microcomputers, from a number of manufacturers, which follow this trend are described.

  2. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  3. Intra-metropolitan migration in the Warsaw agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Rykiel, Z

    1984-01-01

    "Two questions of intra-metropolitan migration are analyzed in the paper, intra-metropolitan hierarchy and intra-metropolitan spatial barriers. The former embraces four detailed questions: ranking of centers; spatial pattern of hierarchical subordination; degree of unequivocalness of the subordinations, or degree of dominance; and degree of hierarchicality of interrelationships. Two specialties of the Warsaw [Poland] agglomeration are discussed, the influence of the present crisis, and the administrative restrictions to migration to the city, or the spatial barriers. Social connotations of the latter are also presented."

  4. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    PubMed Central

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses. PMID:23778192

  5. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    PubMed

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  6. Changes in the Distribution of Poverty across and within the US Metropolitan Areas, 1979-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Janice Fanning

    1996-01-01

    This study measures the effects of changes in social, demographic, economic, and structural characteristics of metropolitan areas on the changes in metropolitan poverty rates and in the spatial concentrations of poverty in their central cities. Findings support the view that metropolitan economic growth reduces metropolitan poverty. (Author/SLD)

  7. 23 CFR 450.310 - Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan planning organization designation and... Programming § 450.310 Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation. (a) To carry out the metropolitan transportation planning process under this subpart, a metropolitan planning organization...

  8. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  9. Riding the School Bus: A Comparison of the Rural and Suburban Experience in Five States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.; Shamblen, Steven

    2001-01-01

    A study comparing rural and suburban school bus rides surveyed 1,194 elementary principals in five states. Rural elementary schools were more likely than suburban schools to have bus rides of 30 minutes of more, attendance areas greater than 10 square miles, rough rides, and older students on the bus with elementary students. (Contains 41…

  10. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  11. Beware of high stresses in ``A`` frame supported two-level bus structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thaik, A.

    1995-10-01

    Rigid-bus structures in many low profile, high voltage transmission substations consist of two-level bus assemblies of tubular conductors with one bus assembly supporting the other bus assembly with rigid tubular ``A`` frames at the crossover points. The lower-level bus is normally supported by a single porcelain post insulator under the ``A`` frame. Rigid ``A`` frames not only support the upper-level bus assembly, but also make the electrical connections between the two buses. This paper addresses the stress problem in the lower-level bus of the two-level bus structure. It presents the results of the structural analysis of a sample two-level bus structure using a simple structural method based on the Three Moment Theorem and equilibrium equations. A spreadsheet template is used to perform the mathematical calculations. The spreadsheet first calculates the maximum allowable bus span length in accordance with the IEEE Standard 605 and then determines the internal stress on the upper and lower-level bus conductors in the two-level rigid bus structures.

  12. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an applicant's...) of the Federal Mass Transit Act of 1964, as amended (49 U.S.C. 1602(d)). The comments of...

  13. 75 FR 2583 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...) announces the availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility... of an accessible over-the-road bus are listed in 49 CFR part 38, subpart G. The rule required 50.... Specifications describing the design features of an accessible over-the-road bus are listed in 49 CFR part...

  14. Chaotic and periodic motions of a cyclic bus induced by speedup.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2002-10-01

    We study the effect of speedup on the dynamical behavior of a single cyclic bus in a bus system with many bus stops. We present a nonlinear-map model of a cyclic bus to take into account the speedup. When the cyclic bus is delayed, the bus speeds up to retrieve the delay. It is found that the cyclic bus exhibits chaotic motion with increasing speedup. The chaotic motion depends on both speedup and the number of bus stops. Also, it is shown that the dynamical transition between the chaotic and periodic motions occurs with the increase of bus stops. The dependence of the recurrence time (one period) and Liapunov exponent on both speedup and the number of bus stops is calculated for distinct dynamic states. It is shown that the speedup has a significant effect on the bus motion. For a piecewise linear-map model, the cyclic bus does not exhibit the chaotic motion but a complex oscillatory motion with multiple periods occurs.

  15. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... devices, external mirror systems, flashing lights, and other warning and passenger safety devices...

  16. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... devices, external mirror systems, flashing lights, and other warning and passenger safety devices...

  17. History and Current Status of School Bus Driver Education in Ohio and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisman, Robert W.

    The key position in any student transportation system is that of school bus driver. The driver's responsibilities are such that a specific program of school bus driver education becomes a necessity. A review of the literature reveals that no studies pertaining to school bus driver education have been made. This thesis documents the history and…

  18. Instructor's Behind-the-Wheel Guide for California's Bus Driver's Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Intended to help produce safe, competent California school bus drivers, this document contains instructor's materials for a bus driver education course with eight sequential skill levels, including a final appraisal. The first section contains the curriculum's purpose and objectives, the California standards for a state-certified bus driver…

  19. SunLine Leads the Way in Demonstrating Hydrogen-Fueled Bus Technologies (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This brochure describes SunLine Transit Agency's newest advanced technology fuel cell electric bus. SunLine is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This bus represents the sixth generation of hydrogen-fueled buses that the agency has operated since 2000.

  20. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  1. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  2. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection. S1. Scope. This standard establishes performance requirements for school bus rollover protection....

  3. 75 FR 71792 - National Express Corporation-Control Exemption-Vogel Bus Company, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board National Express Corporation--Control Exemption--Vogel Bus Company, Inc... approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 14303(a)(5) and 49 CFR 1182 to acquire control of Vogel Bus Company, Inc... also primarily provides transportation of school children, in New Jersey. School bus transportation...

  4. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection. S1. Scope. This standard establishes performance requirements for school bus rollover protection....

  5. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Pt. 665, App. A Appendix A to Part 665—Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility The eight tests to be performed on...

  7. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for a school bus endorsement must satisfy the... devices required for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Pt. 665, App. A Appendix A to Part 665—Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility The eight tests to be performed on...

  9. Fiber optic data bus using Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) and an asymmetric coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanger, M.; Webster, L.

    1984-01-01

    A fiber optic data bus, using frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is discussed. The use of FDM is motivated by the need to avoid central control of the bus operation. A major difficulty of such a data bus is introduced by the couplers. An efficient low loss access coupler with an asymmetric structure is presented, and manufacturing processes for the coupler are proposed.

  10. School Bus Rider Safety Education Modules for Use with Drills on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Physical Education, Fitness, Health, Nutrition and Safety Services.

    Developed for teachers and members of the pupil transportation staff who conduct school bus drills, these 10 lesson outlines are intended for classroom instruction on school bus safety. Lessons may be adapted to fit the grade level, intelligence, and special needs of students. Topics covered are: preparing to ride the bus, boarding and proceeding…

  11. Site-specific standard request for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility Buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks located at the Rust Garage Facility. These standards are justified based on conclusion derived from the exposure assessment that indicates there is no current or forseeable future human health risk associated with petroleum contaminants on the site, that current and future ecological risks would be generally limited to subsurface species and plant life with roots extending into the area, and that most of the impacted area at the site is covered by asphalt or concrete. The vertical and horizontal extent of soil and ground water contamination are limited to immediate area of the Rust Garage Facility.

  12. The Diagnostic and Predictive Validity of "The Renfrew Bus Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Mary E.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Insalaco, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented providing evidence indicating the diagnostic and predictive validity of the American version of "The Renfrew Bus Story" (J. Cowley & C. Glasgow, 1994). Method: Thirty-two children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 children with typical language development participated in the first study to determine…

  13. Long School Bus Rides: Stealing the Joy of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Beth

    Every school day, hundreds of West Virginia children ride school buses much longer than state guidelines say they should. Under those guidelines, no elementary student should be on the bus more than 30 minutes one way, middle school students 45 minutes, and high school students 1 hour. In fall 1999, public hearings about school transportation…

  14. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  15. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  16. Increased plasma homocysteine levels in shift working bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    Martins, P; D'Almeida, V; Vergani, N; Perez, A; Tufik, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have indicated an association between shift work and cardiovascular disease. There is also considerable epidemiological evidence that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Aims: To analyse plasma homocysteine levels in shift work bus drivers, and to investigate possible relations with sleep parameters and other biochemical factors. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 30 male shift working long-haul bus drivers in a Brazilian sample and analysed for plasma levels of homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and serum lipids. A group of 22 daytime workers, matched for age and body mass index served as controls. The incidence of mutations in the gene coding for methylene tetrahydrofolate, an enzyme which is related to hyperhomocysteinemia, was also assessed. Polysomnographic recordings were obtained from the target group. Results: Bus drivers showed significantly higher levels of plasma homocysteine than the control group (18.57 v 9.43 µM). Most of the other biochemical, behavioural, and molecular parameters did not differ between groups. Likewise, sleep parameters appeared to be within the normal range. Conclusions: The significantly increased plasma homocysteine levels in long-haul bus drivers did not appear to be secondary to other biochemical or behavioural problems in this group. These results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia may be involved in the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases observed in shift workers. PMID:12937187

  17. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... records as necessary. (c) Drivers must also receive instruction on the topics listed in 45 CFR 1304.52(k... with Disabilities (45 CFR 1308) relating to transportation services for children with disabilities. (d... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17...

  18. Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of bullying on the school bus. Videotapes were used to identify occurrences of bullying on buses of elementary school students. Incidents were reviewed for forms of bullying, fullness, presence of friends, and severity of acts. Results indicated that approximately two incidents occurred per bus…

  19. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... records as necessary. (c) Drivers must also receive instruction on the topics listed in 45 CFR 1304.52(k... with Disabilities (45 CFR 1308) relating to transportation services for children with disabilities. (d... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17...

  20. Manual of First Aid Practices for School Bus Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William R.

    This manual is intended to assist local school authorities in California in providing the required course in instruction in first aid practices for school bus drivers. While it deals with basic principles of handling serious medical emergencies, major emphasis is on minor injuries or illnesses that are most likely to occur while students are…

  1. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  2. Issues in School Bus Safety: Real or Red Herring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Robin L.

    1999-01-01

    In many states, the greatest threat to safe student transportation is elimination of the school transportation program. Using public transit buses, large vans, smaller vehicles, or specialized equipment can cause major-issue headaches. False issues include controversies over seat belts, bus design, and optional "bells and whistles." (10…

  3. Augmented thermal bus wih multiple thermoelectric devices individually controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  4. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  5. Manual for the Instruction of School Bus Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Otto J., Comp.

    In answer to requests from numerous school and safety officials throughout the State, a manual for the instruction of school bus drivers was prepared; with 2,000,000 pupils in 20,000 vehicles being transported daily during a school year, the State of New York realizes the necessity for correct safety procedures to be well defined for those…

  6. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  7. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  8. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic.

    PubMed

    Muttamara, S; Leong, Shing Tet; Arayasiri, M

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups(16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12 unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure. During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 +/- 3.88 microg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 +/- 0.03 microg/m3 and decreased to C6H6: 33.5 +/- 1.35 microg/m3, Pb: 0.13 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations (P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions. The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission. PMID:14971454

  9. Modeling transit bus fuel consumption on the basis of cycle properties.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Oscar F; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J

    2011-04-01

    A method exists to predict heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy and emissions over an "unseen" cycle or during unseen on-road activity on the basis of fuel consumption and emissions data from measured chassis dynamometer test cycles and properties (statistical parameters) of those cycles. No regression is required for the method, which relies solely on the linear association of vehicle performance with cycle properties. This method has been advanced and examined using previously published heavy-duty truck data gathered using the West Virginia University heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with the trucks exercised over limited test cycles. In this study, data were available from a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority emission testing program conducted in 2006. Chassis dynamometer data from two conventional diesel buses, two compressed natural gas buses, and one hybrid diesel bus were evaluated using an expanded driving cycle set of 16 or 17 different driving cycles. Cycle properties and vehicle fuel consumption measurements from three baseline cycles were selected to generate a linear model and then to predict unseen fuel consumption over the remaining 13 or 14 cycles. Average velocity, average positive acceleration, and number of stops per distance were found to be the desired cycle properties for use in the model. The methodology allowed for the prediction of fuel consumption with an average error of 8.5% from vehicles operating on a diverse set of chassis dynamometer cycles on the basis of relatively few experimental measurements. It was found that the data used for prediction should be acquired from a set that must include an idle cycle along with a relatively slow transient cycle and a relatively high speed cycle. The method was also applied to oxides of nitrogen prediction and was found to have less predictive capability than for fuel consumption with an average error of 20.4%.

  10. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced

  11. Public transit bus ramp slopes measured in situ.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina; Frost, Karen; Smalley, Craig

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Purpose: The slopes of fixed-route bus ramps deployed for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users during boarding and alighting were assessed. Measured slopes were compared to the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable ramp slope. Methods: A ramp-embedded inclinometer measured ramp slope during WhMD user boarding and alighting on a fixed-route transit bus. The extent of bus kneeling was determined for each ramp deployment. In-vehicle video surveillance cameras captured ramp deployment level (street versus sidewalk) and WhMD type. Results: Ramp slopes ranged from -4° to 15.5° with means of 4.3° during boarding (n = 406) and 4.2° during alighting (n = 405). Ramp slope was significantly greater when deployed to street level. During boarding, the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope (9.5°) was exceeded in 66.7% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level, and in 1.9% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. During alighting, the proposed ADA maximum allowable slope was exceeded in 56.8% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level and in 1.4% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. Conclusions: Deployment level, built environment and extent of bus kneeling can affect slope of ramps ascended/descended by WhMD users when accessing transit buses. Implications for Rehabilitation Since public transportation services are critical for integration of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users into the community and society, it is important that they, as well as their therapists, are aware of conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses. Knowledge of real world ramp slope conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses will allow therapists to better access capabilities of WhMD users in a controlled clinical setting. Real world ramp slope conditions can be recreated in a clinical setting to allow WhMD users to develop and practice necessary

  12. Characterisation of an urban bus network for environmental purposes.

    PubMed

    André, Michel; Villanova, André

    2004-12-01

    Since pollutant emissions are closely related to the operating conditions of vehicles, their evaluation usually involves studying these operating conditions (through bus instrumentation and monitoring under actual operation), the design of representative driving or engine test cycles and the measurement of pollutant emissions. A preliminary characterisation of the routes on a bus network should make it possible to identify typical routes, the driving conditions and pollutant emissions of which are then studied. Two approaches are envisaged and applied to the Paris area, for which a wealth of information is available, which should be transferable to other bus networks. Both approaches are based on factorial analysis and automatic clustering, to allow optimum description and the identification of a pertinent typology of the bus routes in several classes. The first attempt at characterisation is based on statistics relating to bus operations: route characteristics (length, dedicated bus lanes, number of stops, location of stops: schools, tourist sites, hospitals, railways or underground stations), travel time, commercial speed, annual statistics (number of passengers, number of vehicles per hour, total kilometres), the irregularity of travel (variation of travel times, injuries, congestion.), as well as information on the problems encountered (congestion, distribution of the passenger load, junctions, bends). A second approach is based on the analysis of the "urban context" in which buses are driven. Population, employment, housing, road network, traffic and places that generate or disturb traffic (schools, railway stations, shopping areas, etc.) are calculated for the Ile de France region, by cells of 100 x 100 m, and collected in a geographical information system (GIS). Statistical analyses enable a typology of these urban cells to be established, the main parameters being density, type of housing, road types and traffic levels. The bus routes are then analysed

  13. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  14. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  15. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000–2001 and 2010–2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  16. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Levinson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  17. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Levinson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon.

  18. Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Bradarić, Nikola; Paić, Vlado Ozic; Mulić, Rosanda; Puntarić, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

    2014-09-01

    Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures.

  19. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  20. An intelligent fiberoptic data bus for fly-by-light applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, L. C.; Muthuvel, S.

    An active fiberoptic data bus compatible with MIL-STD-1553B, which could be used for fly-by-light, stores management, AEW etc., on an aircraft has been developed. The data bus is considered intelligent because it can automatically sense which station is in the transmit mode and control the active interface accordingly, so that smooth flow of data takes place on the bus. The tests carried out on the bus including those on the Jaguar Avionics Rig to check its validity are also described. As no software is involved in the operation of the bus, this could be used on any aircraft having its own software.

  1. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  2. Dynamics of dc bus networks and their stabilization by decentralized delayed feedback.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Keiji; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Hara, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the dynamics of bus networks, which consist of several identical dc bus systems connected by resistors. It is analytically guaranteed that the stability of a stand-alone dc bus system is equivalent to that of the networks, independent of the number of bus systems and the network topology. In addition, we show that a decentralized delayed-feedback control can stabilize an unstable operating point embedded within the networks. Moreover, this stabilization does not depend on the number of bus systems or the network topology. A systematic procedure for designing the controller is presented. Finally, the validity of the analytical results is confirmed through numerical examples.

  3. Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Robert F; Handler, Marcie W; Ramirez-Platt, Christina M; Luiselli, James K

    2003-01-01

    We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-based lottery. Disruptive bus behaviors, as measured by discipline referrals and suspensions, decreased with intervention relative to baseline phases in an ABAB reversal design. These positive results were maintained over the long term, with school personnel assuming responsibility for intervention in the absence of ongoing consultation. PMID:14768676

  4. Dynamics of dc bus networks and their stabilization by decentralized delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Keiji; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Hara, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the dynamics of bus networks, which consist of several identical dc bus systems connected by resistors. It is analytically guaranteed that the stability of a stand-alone dc bus system is equivalent to that of the networks, independent of the number of bus systems and the network topology. In addition, we show that a decentralized delayed-feedback control can stabilize an unstable operating point embedded within the networks. Moreover, this stabilization does not depend on the number of bus systems or the network topology. A systematic procedure for designing the controller is presented. Finally, the validity of the analytical results is confirmed through numerical examples.

  5. Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Robert F; Handler, Marcie W; Ramirez-Platt, Christina M; Luiselli, James K

    2003-01-01

    We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-based lottery. Disruptive bus behaviors, as measured by discipline referrals and suspensions, decreased with intervention relative to baseline phases in an ABAB reversal design. These positive results were maintained over the long term, with school personnel assuming responsibility for intervention in the absence of ongoing consultation.

  6. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  7. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

  8. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Phil; Andrews, Chuck; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; Colon, Orlando; Fry, Steve; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Lamore, Donna; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed.

  9. Determination of an Optimal Commercial Data Bus Architecture for a Flight Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kevin; Johnson, Martin; Humphries, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continually looking for methods to reduce cost and schedule while keeping the quality of work high. MSFC is NASA's lead center for space transportation and microgravity research. When supporting NASA's programs several decisions concerning the avionics system must be made. Usually many trade studies must be conducted to determine the best ways to meet the customer's requirements. When deciding the flight data system, one of the first trade studies normally conducted is the determination of the data bus architecture. The schedule, cost, reliability, and environments are some of the factors that are reviewed in the determination of the data bus architecture. Based on the studies, the data bus architecture could result in a proprietary data bus or a commercial data bus. The cost factor usually removes the proprietary data bus from consideration. The commercial data bus's range from Versa Module Eurocard (VME) to Compact PCI to STD 32 to PC 104. If cost, schedule and size are prime factors, VME is usually not considered. If the prime factors are cost, schedule, and size then Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC104 are the choices for the data bus architecture. MSFC's center director has funded a study from his discretionary fund to determine an optimal low cost commercial data bus architecture. The goal of the study is to functionally and environmentally test Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC 104 data bus architectures. This paper will summarize the results of the data bus architecture study.

  10. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  12. TRANSIT BUS LOAD-BASED MODAL EMISSION RATE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) operations are a major source of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions in metropolitan area nationwide. Although HD¬DVs constitute a small portion of the on-road fleet, they typically contribute more than 45% of NOx and ...

  13. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices. PMID:25151302

  14. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices.

  15. Smoking among schoolchildren in metropolitan Manila.

    PubMed

    Yason, J V; Parazo, M A; Morelos, S I; Geizerora, H; Tuzara, D J; Guzman, S V

    1984-01-01

    A total of 2000 school children aged 8-20 years from 3 sets of elementary and secondary schools in Metropolitan Manila (Philippines) were surveyed to determine the prevalence of smoking among them and to learn the factors affecting the acquisition of the habit. The students were chosen to represent each of the 3 socioeconomic classes of school children in Metropolitan Manila -- 500 each came from socioeconomic class 1 and socioeconomic class 2, and 1000 came from socioeconomic class 3. Cluster random sampling was used in the selection of study subjects. The necessary information was obtained by self-administered questionnaires. The students ranged in age from 8 years to over 20 years with a mean of 14 years for both males and females. The proportion of boys was the same as girls among the ever-smokers. Their mean age was likely comparable. The same result was noted among the nonsmokers. The mean age of ever-smokers was 15 + or - 1.75 years; the mean age of nonsmokers was 13 + or - 2.11. The age differences were significantly different, with ever-smokers being generally older than the nonsmokers. The prevalence of ever-smokers in the class 1 school was 34.4%. The proportion of boy ever-smokers was not significantly different from the girl ever-smokers. In class 2 school, the prevalence rate was 23.4%, and the proportion of boys and girls was not significantly different. Among class 3 school children, boy ever-smokers were significantly more prevalent than girl ever-smokers, and the combined prevalence of ever-smokers in this social class was 29.2%. A regular smoker among school children is defined as one who smokes at least 1 cigarette per week. The overall prevalence rate of regular smokers in the 3 schools was 6.6% for both sexes (11.6% for males and 1.7% for females). The proportion of boy ever-smokers was about the same or slightly higher than the girl ever-smokers except among the 15-year-olds where the proportion of girl ever-smokers was much higher than those

  16. Smoke signs: patterns of tobacco billboard advertising in a metropolitan region

    PubMed Central

    Luke, D.; Esmundo, E.; Bloom, Y.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To use geographic information systems data and analyses to describe locations and characteristics of tobacco billboards in a large metropolitan area, and to assess the extent to which tobacco companies are locating billboards in close proximity to minority neighbourhoods and schools.
DESIGN—Observational study of billboards in a large metropolitan region.
SETTING—City and county of St Louis, Missouri.
PARTICIPANTS—All stationary billboards in the city and county of St Louis were eligible to be observed, with the exception of bus stop and street side retail advertising signs (for example, cigarette advertising at gas stations). A total of 1239 non-blank billboards were observed. All data were collected in early 1998.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Tobacco and non-tobacco billboard geographic distribution; billboard type and product brand frequencies; and billboard neighbourhood characteristics.
RESULTS—Almost 20% of the billboards contained tobacco advertising. Four of the top five and nine of the top 22 brands displayed on billboards were tobacco products. Billboards were located in all areas of St Louis except for the communities with the highest average incomes. Tobacco billboards were more likely to be found in low income areas and areas with a higher percentage of African Americans. Images of African American figures on tobacco billboards were concentrated in the most heavily African American populated regions of the city. Approximately 74% of all billboards in the city of St Louis were within 2000 feet (700 metres) of public school property.
CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco products were the single most heavily advertised type of product on billboards in St Louis. The geographic distribution of tobacco billboards, as well as the types of images found on these billboards, is consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco companies are targeting poor and minority communities with their advertising. Methods employing geographic information systems

  17. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  18. Bus Vent Design Evolution for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. Opposing the need to vent these volumes freely into space are thermal, optical, and electrostatic requirements for limiting or prohibiting the intrusion of unwanted energy into the same cavities. Bus vent design evolution is discussed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Design changes were influenced by a number of factors and concerns, such as contamination control, electrostatic discharge, changes in bus material, and driving fairing ascent pressure for a launch vehicle that was just entering service as this satellite project had gotten underway.

  19. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  20. Metropolitan Influences on Migration into Poor and Nonpoor Neighborhoods*

    PubMed Central

    South, Scott J.; Pais, Jeremy; Crowder, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and three decennial U.S. censuses are used to examine the influence of metropolitan-area characteristics on black and white households' propensity to move into poor versus nonpoor neighborhoods. We find that a nontrivial portion of the variance in the odds of moving to a poor rather to a nonpoor neighborhood exists between metropolitan areas. Net of established individual-level predictors of inter-neighborhood migration, black and white households are more likely to move to a poor or extremely poor tract rather than to a nonpoor tract in metropolitan areas containing many poor neighborhoods and a paucity of recently-built housing in nonpoor areas. Blacks are especially likely to move to a poor tract in metropolitan areas characterized by high levels of racial residential segregation and in which poor tracts have a sizeable concentration of blacks. White households are more likely to move to a poor than to a nonpoor tract in metropolitan areas that have comparatively few African Americans. PMID:21625368

  1. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  2. Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lisa; Stephen, Lucy; af Wåhlberg, Anders; Gandolfi, Julie

    2010-12-01

    There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. For study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the 10 components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently significant associations found for two components. For study 3, avoidance coping was consistently associated with celeration variables in a bus simulator, especially for a time-pressured drive. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The instrument can be used by bus companies for driver stress and fatigue management training to identify at-risk bus driver behaviour. Training to reduce the tendency to engage in avoidance coping strategies, improve evaluative coping strategies and hazard monitoring when under stress may improve bus driver safety.

  3. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers’ route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model. PMID:26214001

  4. Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lisa; Stephen, Lucy; af Wåhlberg, Anders; Gandolfi, Julie

    2010-12-01

    There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. For study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the 10 components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently significant associations found for two components. For study 3, avoidance coping was consistently associated with celeration variables in a bus simulator, especially for a time-pressured drive. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The instrument can be used by bus companies for driver stress and fatigue management training to identify at-risk bus driver behaviour. Training to reduce the tendency to engage in avoidance coping strategies, improve evaluative coping strategies and hazard monitoring when under stress may improve bus driver safety. PMID:21108079

  5. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  6. Bus rounds for palliative care education in the community

    PubMed Central

    Bruera, E; Selmser, P; Pereira, J; Brenneis, C

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly, patients with cancer are dying at home and in continuing care facilities. The purpose of bus rounds is to provide continuing education to physicians and nurse palliative care consultants, to familiarize family physicians with the delivery of care in these settings and to educate family medicine and specialty residents as well as medical students. A total of 18 4-hour bus rounds took place during 1996. A mean of 13 (range 9 to 17) participants attended, to discuss a mean of 3.5 (range 2 to 4) patients and 4.5 (range 3 to 8) journal articles. A questionnaire was filled out anonymously by 18 first-time medical and 24 first-time nursing participants. On a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best), they gave the rounds an overall rating of 5 (range 4 to 5). The mean cost per round was $245.40. The authors conclude that bus rounds provide an opportunity for intensive exposure to community-based learning for physicians, nurses and students and are highly satisfactory from the participants' perspective. PMID:9307561

  7. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  8. Measuring job quality: a study with bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Wendy; Haslam, Roger; Haslam, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the contribution which job design can make to worker health; also a desire to better understand the multidimensional notion of 'job quality' and to develop approaches to measuring this. This paper reviews concepts of 'job quality' and 'good jobs' and examines these issues in the work of bus drivers, an occupational group commonly reported as having poor health and poor working conditions. The DGB-Index (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund Good Work Index), a tool used recently in Germany for measuring job quality, was translated and administered to a sample of UK bus drivers (n = 381). It found job quality to be significantly lower than that for a group of non-drivers in the same organisation; and better than that for a sample of German bus drivers. We conclude that the DGB-Index is an effective tool for measuring job quality and providing feedback to employers; and could be used to compare job quality between organisations or internationally. PMID:24942323

  9. Fuel cell transit bus development & commercialization programs at Gerogetown University

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, R.; Larkins, J.; Romano, S.

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen years ago, Georgetown University (GU) perceived the need for a clean, efficient power systems for transportation that could operate on non-petroleum based fuels. The transit bus application was selected to begin system development. GU recognized the range and recharge constraints of a pure battery powered transit bus. A Fuel Cell power system would circumvent these limitations and, with an on board reformer, accommodate liquid fuel for rapid refueling. Feasibility studies for Fuel Cell power systems for transit buses were conducted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1983. Successful results of this investigation resulted in the DOT/DOE Fuel Cell transit bus development program. The first task was to prove that small Fuel Cell power plants were possible. This was achieved with the Phase I development of two 25 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) brassboard systems. A liquid cooled version was selected for the Phase II activity in which three 30-foot Fuel Cell powered Test Bed Buses (TBBs) were fabricated. The first of these TBBs was delivered in the spring of 1994. All three of these development vehicles are now in Phase III of the program to conduct testing and evaluation, is conducting operational testing of the buses. The test will involve two fuel cell-operated buses; one with a proton exchange fuel cell and the other with a phosphoric acid fuel cell.

  10. Ring Bus Architecture for a Solid-State Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, W. John; Kopf, Edward; Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document concisely describes a ring bus architecture for a proposed solid-state recorder (SSR) that would serve as buffer of data to be transmitted from a spacecraft to Earth. This architecture would afford fault tolerance needed for reliable operation in an anticipated high-radiation environment in which traditional SSRs cannot operate reliably. Features of the architecture include one or more controller boards and multiple memory boards interconnected in a ringlike topology. The interconnections would be high-speed serial links complying with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus). Accordingly, each controller and memory board would be equipped with an IEEE-1393-compliant ring-bus-interface unit. The ringlike topology and the multiplicity of memory boards (and, optionally, of controller boards) would afford the redundancy needed for fault tolerance. Each board would be a fault-containment region. The IEEE 1393 links could be routed so that the SSR would continue to function even in the event of multiple failures. This architecture would also support scalability over a wide range. In a fully redundant configuration, it could accommodate between 1 and 125 memory boards.

  11. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  12. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  13. Measuring job quality: a study with bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Wendy; Haslam, Roger; Haslam, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the contribution which job design can make to worker health; also a desire to better understand the multidimensional notion of 'job quality' and to develop approaches to measuring this. This paper reviews concepts of 'job quality' and 'good jobs' and examines these issues in the work of bus drivers, an occupational group commonly reported as having poor health and poor working conditions. The DGB-Index (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund Good Work Index), a tool used recently in Germany for measuring job quality, was translated and administered to a sample of UK bus drivers (n = 381). It found job quality to be significantly lower than that for a group of non-drivers in the same organisation; and better than that for a sample of German bus drivers. We conclude that the DGB-Index is an effective tool for measuring job quality and providing feedback to employers; and could be used to compare job quality between organisations or internationally.

  14. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment.

  15. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  16. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays.

  17. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays. PMID:27449416

  18. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  19. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas. PMID:26618317

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-20, 1716-B Maintenance Garage Underground Tank, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-019

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-27

    The 100-B-20 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of an underground oil tank that once serviced the 1716-B Maintenance Garage. The selected action for the 100-B-20 waste site involved removal of the oil tanks and their contents and demonstrating through confirmatory sampling that all cleanup goals have been met. In accordance with this evaluation, a reclassification status of interim closed out has been determined. The results demonstrate that the site will support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. These results also show that residual concentrations support unrestricted future use of shallow zone soil and that contaminant levels remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Complex motion of a shuttle bus between two terminals with periodic inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus serving repeatedly between two terminals when passengers come periodically at two terminals A and B. The period and phase of the periodic inflow of passengers at terminal A are different from those at terminal B. The dynamic behavior of the bus is highly affected by the difference between two periods and the phase difference. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamics. We present the extended circle map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on the inflow periods, the period difference, the phase difference, and the loading parameter. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions. The quasi-periodic motion changes to a chaotic motion by the difference between two periods.

  2. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  3. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  4. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  5. [Costs of air pollution in Brazilian metropolitan regions].

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the economic impact of health events associated with air pollution in Brazilian metropolitan regions. From the estimated mortality attributable to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in 29 metropolitan areas, with a total of 20,050 deaths, the costs associated with mortality were calculated by means of the use of DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years) methodology. The cost of premature deaths in Brazil resulted in $ 1.7 billion annually. Translating losses in public health to economic values served to compare this data with the expense budget of the Ministry of Health and highlight priorities in decision-making of public policies that minimize the magnitude of these impacts.

  6. Nitrogen deposition in the greater Tehran metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Salahi, A; Geranfar, S; Korori, S A

    2001-12-01

    An investigation of air pollution in the Tehran metropolitan area between 1992-2000 indicated that there are significant amounts of nitrate ion (NO3-), over 30 kg/ha/year, deposited as wet deposition, compared to 13 kg/ha/year in the Chitgar Parkland near the Tehran metropolitan area. The amount of NO3- in warm seasons is twofold that of cold seasons, and there was a significant difference between cold and warm seasons. Annual wet deposition of ammonia (NH3) was 10 kg/ha/year in the Chitgar Parkland.

  7. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality...

  8. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  9. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3... other source of electric power, except for interlock systems for momentary transfer of loads; and (c)...

  10. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3... other source of electric power, except for interlock systems for momentary transfer of loads; and (c)...

  11. A study of multiplex data bus techniques for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, R. J.; Kalange, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive technology base for the design of a multiplexed data bus subsystem is provided. Extensive analyses, both analytical and empirical, were performed. Subjects covered are classified under the following headings: requirements identification and analysis; transmission media studies; signal design and detection studies; synchronization, timing, and control studies; user-subsystem interface studies; operational reliability analyses; design of candidate data bus configurations; and evaluation of candidate data bus designs.

  12. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  13. Development of Flexible Standard Bus for ISAS/JAXA Small Scientific Satellite Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Koji; Fukuda, Seisuke; Sakai, Shin-Ichiro; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Toriumi, Tsuyoshi; Junko Takahashi; Maehara, Masaki; Okahashi, Takakazu; Shujiro Sawai, And

    This paper describes design and current developing status of a flexible standard bus system for a new series of small scientific satellites planned in the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA). The satellite series are called SPRINT series, which stands for “Small space science Platform for Rapid INvestigation and Test”. First, features realizing a flexible standard bus are mentioned. Design concepts such as alternative options and selectable options are introduced. Second, the current status of the standard bus and SPRINT-A, which is the first satellite of SPRINT series using the standard bus and planed to be launched in 2013, is explained.

  14. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  15. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  16. Superconducting link bus design for the accelerator project for upgrade of LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, F.; Brandt, J.; Cheban, S.; Feher, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kashikhin, V.; Peterson, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory was developing sub-systems for the upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. Part of the upgrade called for various lengths of superconducting power transmission lines known as SC Links which were up to 100 m long. The SC Link electrically connects the current leads in the Distribution Feed Boxes to the interaction region magnets. The SC Link is an extension of the magnet bus housed within a cryostat. The present concept for the bus consists of 22 power cables, 4 x 13 kA, 2 x 7 kA, 8 x 2.5 kA and 8 x 0.6 kA bundled into one bus. Different cable and strand possibilities were considered for the bus design including Rutherford cable. The Rutherford cable bus design potentially would have required splices at each sharp elbow in the SC Link. The advantage of the round bus design is that splices are only required at each end of the bus during installation at CERN. The round bus is very flexible and is suitable for pulling through the cryostat. Development of the round bus prototype and of 2 splice designs is described in this paper. Magnetic analysis and mechanical test results of the 13 kA cable and splices are presented.

  17. Superconducting link bus design for the accelerator project for upgrade of LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, F.; Brandt, J.; Cheban, S.; Feher, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kashikhin, V.; Peterson, T.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory was developing sub-systems for the upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. Part of the upgrade called for various lengths of superconducting power transmission lines known as SC Links which were up to 100 m long. The SC Link electrically connects the current leads in the Distribution Feed Boxes to the interaction region magnets. The SC Link is an extension of the magnet bus housed within a cryostat. The present concept for the bus consists of 22 power cables, 4 x 13 kA, 2 x 7 kA, 8 x 2.5 kA and 8 x 0.6 kA bundled into one bus. Different cable and strand possibilities were considered for the bus design including Rutherford cable. The Rutherford cable bus design potentially would have required splices at each sharp elbow in the SC Link. The advantage of the round bus design is that splices are only required at each end of the bus during installation at CERN. The round bus is very flexible and is suitable for pulling through the cryostat. Development of the round bus prototype and of 2 splice designs is described in this paper. Magnetic analysis and mechanical test results of the 13 kA cable and splices are presented.

  18. Heisenberg spin bus as a robust transmission line for quantum-state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangchul; Hu Xuedong; Wu Lianao; Shim, Yun-Pil; Fei, Jianjia; Friesen, Mark

    2011-08-15

    We study quantum-state transfer (QST) through a strongly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chain (acting as a spin bus), between weakly coupled external qubits. By treating the weak coupling as a perturbation, we find that QST is enabled specifically by the second-order terms in the perturbative expansion. We show that QST is robust against disorder in the couplings, either within the bus or to the external qubits. We find that the protocol works when the qubits are attached to any node on an even-size bus or to the antiferromagnetic nodes on an odd-size bus. The optimal time for QST is found to depend nonmonotonically on qubit separation.

  19. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Nicole S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients’ residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health. PMID:26376392

  20. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nicole S

    2015-09-01

    Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients' residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health.

  1. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  2. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  3. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  4. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  5. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  6. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  7. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  8. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  9. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  10. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  11. 23 CFR 450.306 - Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning... PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.306 Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process. (a) The...

  12. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  13. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  14. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  17. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  18. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  19. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  20. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  1. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  2. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  3. 23 CFR 450.310 - Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan planning organization designation and... PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.310 Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation. (a) To carry out...

  4. 23 CFR 450.310 - Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan planning organization designation and... PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.310 Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation. (a) To carry out...

  5. 23 CFR 450.310 - Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan planning organization designation and... PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.310 Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation. (a) To carry out...

  6. 23 CFR 450.310 - Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation. 450.310 Section 450.310 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.310 Metropolitan...

  7. Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Differences in the Role Models of Negro Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Wayne H.; Kuvlesky, William P.

    The purpose of this study was to examine metropolitan-nonmetropolitan and sex differences in the role models selected by Negro high school sophomores. A questionnaire was grouped-administered to 111 metropolitan males, 170 metropolitan females, 98 nonmetropolitan males, and 99 nonmetropolitan females. The results of the study indicated that sex…

  8. 40 CFR 81.40 - Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.40 Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been revised...

  9. 40 CFR 81.40 - Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.40 Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been revised...

  10. 75 FR 39052 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... BUDGET 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Correction In... Statistical Areas and New England City and Town Areas, in the last line of paragraph (a), ``75'' should read... column, in paragraph (f), in the first and second lines, ``Metropolitan and Metropolitan Statistical...

  11. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  12. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  13. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  14. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  15. OXYGEN TRANSFER STUDIES AT THE MADISON METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies at the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District facilities were conducted over a 3-year period to obtain long-term data on the performance of fine pore aeration equipment in municipal wastewater. The studies were conducted on several basins in the East Plant containi...

  16. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  17. [The metropolitan area of Monterrey in the year 2020].

    PubMed

    Garza, G

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses possible future trends in economic development and urbanization in the city of Monterrey, Mexico. Information is provided on metropolitan growth from 1940 to 1995; population size and growth rate; extension of the urban area; deconcentration; and projections according to land use.

  18. Education, Job Openings, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide metro, state, and national policy makers with a better sense of the specific problems facing metropolitan labor markets. First, the analysis examines trends in the demand for educated labor and how a gap between education supply and demand is related to unemployment. Next, it attempts to distinguish between cyclical and…

  19. Private School Choice in the Chicago Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of private school choice in the Chicago metropolitan area are examined. Particular attention is given to the effects of race and ethnicity. Results include non-Hispanic White, Blacks, and Hispanics having a higher demand for private schools where there are higher concentrations of Blacks. Non-Hispanic Whites also have a higher…

  20. Metropolitan Housing Opportunities for Poor and Working Class Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Margery Austin; Page, Douglas B.

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory analysis of suburban housing opportunities for working class minorities, using data for the nation as a whole and for five metropolitan areas. Chapter 1 is an introduction and summary of the paper. Chapter 2, "Dimensions of the Problem," covers the following topics: (1) household incomes and…