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Sample records for metropolitan bus garages

  1. SCHOOL BUS GARAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PALLIDINO, STEVE; STRIPLING, CHARLES W.

    COUNTY BOARDS, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS, SCHOOL PERSONNEL, AND ARCHITECTS PLANNING BUS GARAGE FACILITIES WILL FIND THIS PUBLICATION USEFUL. DECISIONS NEED TO BE MADE IN REGARD TO WHO WILL USE THE GARAGE, WHAT PURPOSE IT SHOULD SERVE, AND WHAT KIND OF SPACES ARE NEEDED. SITE SELECTION FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED ARE LOCATION, PARKING SPACE, MANEUVERING…

  2. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  3. Pricing and availability intervention in vending machines at four bus garages.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A; Hannan, Peter J; Harnack, Lisa J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Toomey, Traci L; Gerlach, Anne

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lowering prices and increasing availability on sales of healthy foods and beverages from 33 vending machines in 4 bus garages as part of a multicomponent worksite obesity prevention intervention. Availability of healthy items was increased to 50% and prices were lowered at least 10% in the vending machines in two metropolitan bus garages for an 18-month period. Two control garages offered vending choices at usual availability and prices. Sales data were collected monthly from each of the vending machines at the four garages. Increases in availability to 50% and price reductions of an average of 31% resulted in 10% to 42% higher sales of the healthy items. Employees were mostly price responsive for snack purchases. Greater availability and lower prices on targeted food and beverage items from vending machines was associated with greater purchases of these items over an 18-month period. Efforts to promote healthful food purchases in worksite settings should incorporate these two strategies.

  4. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  5. Fatigue factors affecting metropolitan bus drivers: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Herbert; Dingsdag, Donald; Stenson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan bus drivers daily face work in a stressful and draining work environment, exposing them to the serious risk of driver fatigue. However, there has been a dearth of information exploring the unique antecedents and effects of such fatigue. To date, much of the research into metropolitan bus drivers has been under the umbrella of large heavy vehicle driving studies, which include a disproportionally large population of long-haul drivers, who are likely to face a significantly different set of fatigue factors [1]. The present study aimed to investigate which work and environmental factors may cause fatigue in metropolitan bus drivers by seeking drivers' own perspectives on the issues. To this end, focus groups were held at five bus depots in Sydney and Newcastle, with an effort made to include a stratified sample of drivers at each. Each of the groups were invited to nominate what factors they felt were most salient, with a number of common factors emerging across the depots. Key themes identified were: support from management; ticketing and related issues; interaction with passengers; cabin ergonomics; tight route schedules; turn-around and shift irregularity; extended shift cycles; interactions with other road users; and extended commute times.

  6. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  7. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: chronic effects of diesel exhaust on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Minshall, S.

    1987-10-01

    Two hundred and eighty-three (283) male diesel bus garage workers from four garages in two cities were examined to determine if there was excess chronic respiratory morbidity related to diesel exposure. The dependent variables were respiratory symptoms, radiographic interpretation for pneumoconiosis, and pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and flow rates). Independent variables included race, age, smoking, drinking, height, and tenure (as surrogate measure of exposure). Exposure-effect relationships within the study population showed no detectable associations of symptoms with tenure. There was an apparent association of pulmonary function and tenure. Seven workers (2.5%) had category 1 pneumoconiosis (three rounded opacities, two irregular opacities, and one with both rounded and irregular). The study population was also compared to a nonexposed blue-collar population. After indirect adjustment for age, race, and smoking, the study population had elevated prevalences of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but there was no association with tenure. Dyspnea showed a dose-response trend but no apparent increase in prevalence. Mean percent predicted pulmonary function of the study population was greater than 100%, i.e., elevated above the comparison population. These data show there is an apparent effect of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function but not chest radiographs. Respiratory symptoms are high compared to blue-collar workers, but there is no relationship with tenure.

  8. Pulmonary function abnormalities associated with exposure to automobile exhaust in a diesel bus garage and roads.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Alam, J; Roychowdhury, A

    2003-01-01

    In Kolkata city the road transports are maintained by private and Government organization. A major work force belonged to the State Transport Corporation (KSTC), Government of West-Bengal. The pollution caused by these vehicles affects the workers health and caused different types of respiratory problems. This study was undertaken to assess the pulmonary function status of these workers. City KSTC garage workers were investigated and categorically divided into two group: garage mechanics and the (2) those transporting the passengers (drivers and conductors). Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were recorded by Spirovit-SP-10 (Schiller Ltd, Switzerland) and Wright's Peak Flow Meter (UK) on 236 workers. The different flow volumes, FEV(1), FEV(1%), and flow rates, FEF(02-121), FEF(25-75%), etc. were calculated. The administrative people had higher PFT than the other categories. Drivers and conductors have almost equal mean PFT values but mechanical workers had slightly higher. PFT values according to different age ranges and duration of exposure showed gradual decrement as age and duration of exposure increased. Non-smokers had higher lung volumes compared to smokers and ex-smokers. Restrictive, obstructive and combined types of impairments were noticed in 28.4%, 1.7% and 2.9%, respectively, workers. The restrictive impairment was found to be 30.4% in conductors; 28.9% in drivers, 27.9% in mechanics and 21.7% in administration people. Obstructive type of impairment was found to be 2.9% in both drivers and conductors. The effect of pollution by dust and fumes may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments, restrictive impairments being greater.

  9. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: acute effects of NO/sub 2/ and respirable particulate on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Minshall, S.

    1987-02-01

    Personal samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and respirable particulate (RP) were collected over the shift on 232 workers in four diesel bus garages. Response was assessed by an acute respiratory questionnaire and before and after shift spirometry. Measures of exposure to NO/sub 2/ and RP were associated with work-related symptoms of cough; itching, burning, or watering eyes; difficult or labored breathing; chest tightness; and wheeze. The prevalence of burning eyes, headaches, difficult or labored breathing, nausea, and wheeze experienced at work were higher in the diesel bus garage workers than in a comparison population of battery workers, while the prevalence of headaches was reduced. Mean reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), peak flow, and flows at 50 and 75% of FVC were not obviously different from zero. There was no detectable association of exposure to NO/sub 2/ or respirable particulate and acute reductions in pulmonary function. Workers who often had respiratory work-related symptoms generally had a slightly greater mean acute reduction in FEV1 and FEF50 than did those who did not have these symptoms, but these differences were not statistically significant.

  10. Whole-body vibration exposure in metropolitan bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C A; Johnson, P W

    2012-10-01

    Back injuries are common in transit drivers, and can result in substantial direct and indirect cost to the employer and employee. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is one risk factor for drivers. Standards have been adopted (ISO 2631-1) to guide researchers in measuring and analysing WBV levels. Lately, a new standard has been added (ISO 2631-5) that takes impulsive exposures into account. The aims of this study were to determine the levels of vibration for bus drivers using both ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards, and whether there are differences in vibration levels and seat transmissibility between different road types. Thirteen bus drivers drove a 7-year-old bus, instrumented to measure WBV in the seat and floor. The 52 km long test route included freeway, city streets and speed humps. Additionally, for comparison, a subset of five drivers also drove a car over the same route. Road type had a significant effect on all the vibration parameters. Based on exposure limit values in the standards, the continuous z-A (w)(8) exposures exceeded the limit value on freeways, and the impulsive z-VDV(8) and S (ed) exposures were above limit values in city streets and speed humps. Bus WBV exposures were about twice as high relative to the car and the bus seat amplified rather than attenuated WBV exposures. Bus drivers are potentially being exposed to daily vibration levels higher than recommended especially on certain road types. The current seat in this study does not attenuate the vibration.

  11. Twenty-First Century Garage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The experiences of several school bus garages around the country show that it is possible to modernize equipment and upgrade training while also holding the line on costs. Computer software is used to track servicing, inventory, and other information about a bus fleet. Related factors in improved bus maintenance are the quality of the vehicles and…

  12. Thermal discomfort and hypertension in bus drivers and chargers in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between perception of temperature inside the bus and hypertension among 1126 collective transportation workers in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Thermal discomfort was determined based on the perception of temperature inside the bus. Hypertension was determined if participant had a medical diagnosis of this disease. Prevalence ratios (PR) for hypertension and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were adjusted using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The perceptions of temperature inside the bus were tolerable (26.5%), disturbs a little (28.6%), disturbs a lot (34.8%) and unbearable (10.2%). The prevalence of hypertension was 14.3%. The thermal discomfort categories of disturbs a lot (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.02-1.95) and unbearable (PR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.16-2.63) were independently related to hypertension. Thermal discomfort was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. This finding should be considerate in new policies for public transportation.

  13. 4. TENSTALL GARAGE. GARAGE DOOR DETAIL. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TEN-STALL GARAGE. GARAGE DOOR DETAIL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  14. Shared Bus Garage Serves District, City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delude, Rita

    1996-01-01

    Through a joint venture between the school district and the municipality of Scarsdale (New York), the district's buses are serviced in a $2 million maintenance and ground facility. The arrangement has reduced vehicle down time, saved wear and tear on the buses, and reduced fuel consumption. (MLF)

  15. Shared Bus Garage Serves District, City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delude, Rita

    1996-01-01

    Through a joint venture between the school district and the municipality of Scarsdale (New York), the district's buses are serviced in a $2 million maintenance and ground facility. The arrangement has reduced vehicle down time, saved wear and tear on the buses, and reduced fuel consumption. (MLF)

  16. Exposure of motorcycle, car and bus commuters to carbon monoxide on a main road in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, Israel.

    PubMed

    Potchter, Oded; Oz, Meirav; Brenner, Shmuel; Yaakov, Yaron; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    Short-term personal exposure of passengers in different types of motor vehicles to carbon monoxide was investigated in an intensively used main road in Israel's Tel Aviv metropolitan area. According to monitoring stations of the Ministry for Environmental Protection (MEP), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) along the road, at a height of 3 m above pedestrian level, in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, are currently very low. However, these measurements do not reflect the actual exposure of commuters, which were the main objective of this study. Four vehicle types/travel modes were investigated: private cars with closed windows, private cars with open windows, motorcycles, and buses. The commuter CO average exposure was the accumulative exposure divided by the duration of the sampling taken along the route, for each type of vehicles. The results showed that commuters in cars with closed windows were exposed to the highest mean CO level, 27.2 ppm, for a period of 38 min; those in a car with open windows, to 19.7 ppm for 38 min; motorcycle riders, to 12.8 ppm, for 17 min; and bus users were exposed to the lowest mean pollution level, of only 3.6 ppm, for 25 min. Thus, CO values of 1 to 3 ppm, as measured at an MEP adjacent monitoring station, may indicate the exposure to CO pollution of area residents, but do not represent the actual exposure of commuters on the congested main road.

  17. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  18. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  19. 1. Photocopy of photograph of Garage at Hornet Ranger Station. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph of Garage at Hornet Ranger Station. Original on file with the Payette National Forest, Supervisor's Office, McCall, Idaho. GARAGE, CA. 1935. - Hornet Ranger Station, Garage, Forest Service Road No. 50002, Council, Adams County, ID

  20. Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) Presidio ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 2. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF OPERATOR'S CAMP SHOWING MECHANIC'S GARAGE AT RIGHT, 4-CAR GARAGE AT CENTER, AND 3-CAR GARAGE AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  2. 1. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF OPERATOR'S CAMP SHOWING MECHANIC'S GARAGE AT RIGHT, 4-CAR GARAGE AT CENTER, AND 3-CAR GARAGE AT LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  3. 3. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXT VIEW OF GARAGE COMPLEX AT SOUTHEAST END OF OPERATOR' CAMP SHOWING MECHANIC'S GARAGE NO. 48 AT LEFT, 4-CAR GARAGE AT CENTER, AND 3-CAR GARAGE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHWEST - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  4. Good-bye Garage, Hello CCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augur, Eleanor

    1977-01-01

    The idea of having a religious education center in a four car garage may sound ridiculous to some but to the parishioners of Saint George's Church in Guilford, Connecticut, it was heaven-sent. (Author/RK)

  5. Good-bye Garage, Hello CCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augur, Eleanor

    1977-01-01

    The idea of having a religious education center in a four car garage may sound ridiculous to some but to the parishioners of Saint George's Church in Guilford, Connecticut, it was heaven-sent. (Author/RK)

  6. Automated parking garage system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A one-twenty-fifth scale model of the key components of an automated parking garage system is described. The design of the model required transferring a vehicle from an entry level, vertically (+Z, -Z), to a storage location at any one of four storage positions (+X, -X, +Y, +Y, -Y) on the storage levels. There are three primary subsystems: (1) a screw jack to provide the vertical motion of the elevator, (2) a cam-driven track-switching device to provide X to Y motion, and (3) a transfer cart to provide horizontal travel and a small amount to vertical motion for transfer to the storage location. Motive power is provided by dc permanent magnet gear motors, one each for the elevator and track switching device and two for the transfer cart drive system (one driving the cart horizontally and the other providing the vertical transfer). The control system, through the use of a microprocessor, provides complete automation through a feedback system which utilizes sensing devices.

  7. Macroscopic car condensation in a parking garage.

    PubMed

    Ha, Meesoon; Den Nijs, Marcel

    2002-09-01

    An asymmetric exclusion process type process, where cars move forward along a closed road that starts and terminates at a parking garage, displays dynamic phase transitions into two types of condensate phases where the garage becomes macroscopically occupied. The total car density rho(o) and the exit probability alpha from the garage are the two control parameters. At the transition, the number of parked cars N(p) diverges in both cases, with the length of the road N(s), as N(p) approximately N(y(p))(s) with y(p)=1/2. Towards the transition, the number of parked cars vanishes as N(p) approximately epsilon(beta) with beta=1, epsilon=/alpha-alpha(*)/ or epsilon=|rho(*)(o)-rho(o)/ being the distance from the transition. The transition into the normal phase represents also the onset of transmission of information through the garage. This gives rise to unusual parked car autocorrelations and car density profiles near the garage, which depend strongly on the group velocity of the fluctuations along the road.

  8. View of front of garage, bays 14, facing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 1-4, facing northeast - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. View of front and side of garage, bays 67, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front and side of garage, bays 6-7, facing northeast. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. View of front of garage, detail of building number over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, detail of building number over bay 4. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. View of front of garage bays 57, facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage bays 5-7, facing northeast. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. View of back of garage, windows of bays 13, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of back of garage, windows of bays 1-3, facing southwest. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Interior view of garage showing roof, post and beam, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of garage showing roof, post and beam, and stored materials. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. View of front and side of garage, bay 7, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front and side of garage, bay 7, facing east. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. View of front of garage, bays 37, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 3-7, facing south - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 1. THREESTALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. THREE-STALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  18. 3. THREESTALL GARAGE. NORTHWEST AND SOUTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. THREE-STALL GARAGE. NORTHWEST AND SOUTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO EAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  19. 1. TWOSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TWO-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. 2. THREESTALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-STALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  1. 3. TENSTALL GARAGE. NORTH AND WEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TEN-STALL GARAGE. NORTH AND WEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  2. 3. TWOSTALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TWO-STALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. View to the east of the Garage's primary elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to the east of the Garage's primary elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Four Transmitter Garage, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  4. 1. VIEW OF LARGE GARAGE (FEATURE 13), FACING NORTHEAST. STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF LARGE GARAGE (FEATURE 13), FACING NORTHEAST. STORAGE BUILDING (FEATURE 24) IS VISIBLE ON THE HILL IN THE BACKGROUND. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Large Garage, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  5. 2. View looking south, showing house, service wing, garage, connection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking south, showing house, service wing, garage, connection to blacksmith shop/garage, setting - Lamprey House, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 mile east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  6. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE OVERHEAD GARAGE DOOR. SHOWING THE LARGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE OVERHEAD GARAGE DOOR. SHOWING THE LARGE OPENING WITH CAST STONE SILL IN THE EXTERIOR GARAGE WALL AT LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type F, 602 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 7. Interior view of enclosed garage space; showing wall hung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of enclosed garage space; showing wall hung space heater, exterior windows, and garage door tracks; east end of building; view to northeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, PX Service Station, 860 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  8. 4. MECHANIC'S GARAGE. SOUTHWEST CORNER, AND WEST AND SOUTH SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MECHANIC'S GARAGE. SOUTHWEST CORNER, AND WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF ADDITION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, Mechanic's Garage, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  9. VIEW OF TANK (BLDG. 1929) AND GARAGE (BLDG. 1930). Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TANK (BLDG. 1929) AND GARAGE (BLDG. 1930). Looking northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Tank & Garage, Rogers Dry Lake, east of Runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, Golda

    2012-01-23

    The main objective of the Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic (PV) Panel project is to install a PV System that will promote the use of renewable energy. This project will also help sustain Bexar County ongoing greenhouse gas emissions reduction and energy efficiency goals. The scope of this project includes the installation of a 100-kW system on the top level of a new 236,285 square feet parking garage. The PV system consists of 420 solar panels that covers 7,200 square feet and is tied into the electric-grid. It provides electricity to the office area located within the garage. The estimated annual electricity production of the PV system is 147,000 kWh per year.

  11. Worksite environment intervention to prevent obesity among metropolitan transit workers.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A; Harnack, Lisa J; Hannan, Peter J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Gerlach, Anne F; Toomey, Traci L

    2010-04-01

    The results of an 18-month worksite intervention to prevent obesity among metropolitan transit workers are reported. Four garages in a major metropolitan area were randomized to intervention or control groups. Data were collected during the fall of 2005 prior to the start of the intervention and during the fall of 2007, after the intervention ended. Intervention program components at the garage included enhancement of the physical activity facilities, increased availability of and lower prices on healthy vending machine choices, and group behavioral programs. Mixed model estimates from cross-sectional and cohort samples were pooled with weights inverse to the variance of their respective estimates of the intervention effects. Measurement participation rates were 78% at baseline and 74% at follow-up. The intervention effect on garage mean BMI change was not significant (-0.14 kg/m(2)). Energy intake decreased significantly, and fruit and vegetable intake increased significantly in intervention garages compared to control garages. Physical activity change was not significant. Worksite environmental interventions for nutrition and physical activity behavior change may have limited impact on BMI among transit workers who spend most of their workday outside the worksite. Copyright 2010 The Institute For Cancer Prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CENTRAL DRIVE RUNNING PAST THE GARAGE AND TERMINATING AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CENTRAL DRIVE RUNNING PAST THE GARAGE AND TERMINATING AT THE BARN. The barn’s primary entrance is through the central double doors with chamfered corners on the west façade. The garage was used both as a mechanic shop and to park vehicles. The hipped roof of the pump house can be seen behind the garage. - Kineth Farm, Barn, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  13. Exhaust ventilation in attached garages improves residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mallach, G; St-Jean, M; MacNeill, M; Aubin, D; Wallace, L; Shin, T; Van Ryswyk, K; Kulka, R; You, H; Fugler, D; Lavigne, E; Wheeler, A J

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that indoor benzene levels in homes with attached garages are higher than homes without attached garages. Exhaust ventilation in attached garages is one possible intervention to reduce these concentrations. To evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention, a randomized crossover study was conducted in 33 Ottawa homes in winter 2014. VOCs including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and air exchange rates were measured over four 48-hour periods when a garage exhaust fan was turned on or off. A blower door test conducted in each garage was used to determine the required exhaust fan flow rate to provide a depressurization of 5 Pa in each garage relative to the home. When corrected for ambient concentrations, the fan decreased geometric mean indoor benzene concentrations from 1.04 to 0.40 μg/m(3) , or by 62% (P<.05). The garage exhaust fan also significantly reduced outdoor-corrected geometric mean indoor concentrations of other pollutants, including toluene (53%), ethylbenzene (47%), m,p-xylene (45%), o-xylene (43%), and carbon monoxide (23%) (P<.05) while having no impact on the home air exchange rate. This study provides evidence that mechanical exhaust ventilation in attached garages can reduce indoor concentrations of pollutants originating from within attached garages.

  14. 4. Relationship of claim house, residence, and garage to each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Relationship of claim house, residence, and garage to each other and immediate surroundings, looking northeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  15. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  16. GARDEN (FOREGROUND), GARAGE (CENTER), AND PUMPHOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARDEN (FOREGROUND), GARAGE (CENTER), AND PUMPHOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  17. 1. TENSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH SIDES. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEN-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH SIDES. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  18. 2. TENSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND PARTIAL NORTH SIDES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TEN-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND PARTIAL NORTH SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  19. 2. TWOSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TWO-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO EAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  1. 2. GARAGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ORIGINAL DOOR IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GARAGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ORIGINAL DOOR IN THE SOUTHEND HAS BEEN INFILLED. THE DARK RECTANGLE (AT RIGHT OF WINDOW) IS A PIECE OF PLYWOOD WITH AN ELECTRICAL RECEPTACLE ITS PURPOSE WAS NOT DETERMINED. - Tonto Ranger Station, Garage, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  2. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  3. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF STATION GARAGE SHOWING SOUTHEAST FACADE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF STATION GARAGE SHOWING SOUTHEAST FACADE WITH WATER SOFTENER BUILDING (BUILDING NO. 42) TO LEFT AND ANIMAL HOUSE (BUILDING NO. 26) TO REAR. VIEW TO WEST. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Station Garage, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  4. GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  5. VIEW OF TANK (BLDG. 1929) AND GARAGE (BLDG. 1930). SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TANK (BLDG. 1929) AND GARAGE (BLDG. 1930). SHOP (BUILDING 1928) IS THE LARGER STRUCTURE IN THE BACKGROUND. Looking southeast - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Tank & Garage, Rogers Dry Lake, east of Runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  7. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  8. LED light fixture for parking garages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, John P.; Shastry, C. Vishnu

    2006-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the viability of an LED-based parking garage light. The requirements for this light were based on the Illumination Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) enclosed parking/driving lanes specifications. Three basic optical designs were compared. The first used no secondary optic, the second used a reflector optic, and the third used a lens optic. Based on the findings herein, the IESNA requirements could be met using approximately 121 1-watt LEDs of typical performance today. Compared to metal halide, high pressure sodium, and fluorescent lights the LED fixture would have a longer lifetime as well as equal or better color rendering index and energy efficiency. Although the energy consumption and the re-lamping frequency could be significantly less for an LED fixture, currently the initial cost of a fixture meeting the IESNA requirements would be more than several times higher than that of existing fixtures. LED cost per lumen is decreasing rapidly, however, it will likely take several years before a cost effective LED light can provide the same performance as metal halide, high pressure sodium, and fluorescent lighting in parking garage applications.

  9. Bus Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorny, Audrea; Cole, ChiKay

    This manual presents guidelines for teaching students with disabilities necessary skills for safe and independent travel on public buses. Six guidelines for teachers include: (1) participate in bus training; (2) use wise and intelligent judgment; (3) utilize the bus checklist; (4) know and teach bus rules; (5) know bus routes; and (6) know bus…

  10. Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage entrance/exit on west slurry wall, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  11. 6. AVALON DAM GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: GARAGE AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AVALON DAM - GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: GARAGE AND WAREHOUSE (LEFT), HOUSE (RIGHT), AND CCC LANDSCAPING (FOREGROUND). VIEW TO NORTH - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  12. Salt attack in parking garage in block of flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beran, Pavel; Frankeová, Dita; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    In recent years many new block of flats with parking garages placed inside the buildings were constructed. This tendency brings beyond question benefits for residents and also for city planning, but it requires new design and structural approaches and advanced material and construction solutions. The analysis of plaster damage on partition wall in parking garage in one of these buildings is presented in the paper. The damage of studied plaster is caused by the salts which are transported together with snow on cars undercarriage into garage area during winter. The snow melts and water with dissolved salts is transported by the capillary suction from concrete floor into the rendered partition wall. Based on the interior temperature, adsorbed water with dissolved chlorides evaporates and from the over saturated pore solution are formed salt crystals that damages the surface plaster layers. This damage would not occur if the partition wall was correctly isolated from the floor finish layer in the parking garage.

  13. 9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT RIGHT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  14. 6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  15. 19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION OF ADDITION. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  16. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  17. 3. View of garages east of headgate operator's house, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of garages east of headgate operator's house, looking northeast. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, Headgate Operator's House, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  18. 11. MECHANICAL ROOM BELOW GARAGE LEVEL OF TOLL PLAZA, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. MECHANICAL ROOM BELOW GARAGE LEVEL OF TOLL PLAZA, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING AURORA PUMPS AND BELL & GOSSETT HEATERS FOR ABANDONED SNOW-MELT SYSTEM. - Chicago Skyway Toll Bridge, Toll Plaza & Service Building, 8801 South Anthony Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. 9. Interior view of unoccupied space; showing opened exterior garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of unoccupied space; showing opened exterior garage door, opened doorway to adjoining rooms, and closed exterior doorway; near southeast corner of building; view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Warehouse, 789 Twining Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  20. 2. FIRST FLOOR, FIRE ENGINE GARAGE, VIEW SHOWING STAIRWAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FIRST FLOOR, FIRE ENGINE GARAGE, VIEW SHOWING STAIRWAY AND FIRE POLE (NOTE THE STAMPWORK ON WALL AND CEILING) - Hoboken Fire Engine Company Number Two, 1313 Washington Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 8. VIEW EAST, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS GARAGE, MODERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW EAST, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS GARAGE, MODERN SHED, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS BLACKSMITH SHOP, AND MODERN SHED. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  3. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  4. GARAGE (L) IN RELATION TO TENANT HOUSE (R), LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE (L) IN RELATION TO TENANT HOUSE (R), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  5. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT) AND WEST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  6. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT), LOOKING WEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  7. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, SOUTH SIDE AND WEST (REAR) FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  8. 321. GARAGE AT REAR OF 1946 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    321. GARAGE AT REAR OF 1946 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, SOUTH SIDE, AND 1945, SOUTH FRONT - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  9. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using compressed natural gas as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-06-01

    The guidelines document presents various facility and bus design issues that need to be considered to ensure safe operations when using CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) as the alternative fuel. Fueling facility, garaging facility, maintenance facility requirements and safety practices are indicated. Among the issues discussed are fuel properties, potential hazards, fuel requirements for specified level of service, applicable codes and standards, ventilation, and electrical classification. Critical fuel related safety issues in the design of the related systems on the bus are also discussed.

  10. 66. FONTHILL GARAGE (1913) AND TERRACE PAVILION (192628), FROM SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. FONTHILL GARAGE (1913) AND TERRACE PAVILION (1926-28), FROM SOUTH. POURED ATOP AN EARLIER STONE BARN. THE FIRST FLOOR OF THIS STRUCTURE SERVERD AS A GARAGE FOR FONTHILL. IN 1926, MERCER BEGAN CONVERTING THE SECOND FLOOR INTO AND ELABORATELY DECORATED MEETING HOUSE FOR THE DOYLESTOWN NATURE CLUB, CALLED THE TERRACE PAVILION. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  11. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability of FTA state of good repair bus and bus facilities...) announces the availability of discretionary Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities grant funds in support of...

  12. The Bus Stops Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Explores some of the factors to consider before school planners decide to buy new school buses. Provides a checklist to help build and maintain a bus fleet. Concludes by addressing bus safety and advertising. (GR)

  13. Fuss on the Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Katherine L.

    1995-01-01

    Approaches to maintaining order and discipline in school transportation include revoking or suspending a student's bus-riding privileges, using radios and video cameras, and using bus monitors. School leaders must demonstrate support for their school-bus drivers. A sidebar lists 17 suggested rules for student behavior to ensure safe…

  14. 2. View of stable looking south with garage/stable to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of stable looking south with garage/stable to the right and paddock fence to the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Stable/Garage, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. 1. VIEW OF CHICKEN COOP (FEATURE C7), FACING NORTHWEST. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CHICKEN COOP (FEATURE C-7), FACING NORTHWEST. GARAGE (FEATURE C-8) IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Bell Family Residence, Chicken Coop & Garage, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  16. Oblique view of garage, looking southwest OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of garage, looking southwest - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Garage, Unnamed road west of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  17. 1. View looking south, showing blacksmith house/garage connecting to residential ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking south, showing blacksmith house/garage connecting to residential garage and setting - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  18. High-Tech Garage to Showcase Strategies for Reducing Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    NREL's new parking garage structure is proving that large garages can be designed and built sustainably at no extra cost. This fact sheet describes the garage's energy and water-saving measures, renewable energy technologies, sustainable and durable building materials, another campus improvements.

  19. 4. 4CAR GARAGE. WEST SIDE (RIGHT) SHOWING JUNCTURE WITH SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 4-CAR GARAGE. WEST SIDE (RIGHT) SHOWING JUNCTURE WITH SOUTH WALL (LEFT) OF MECHANIC'S GARAGE (MT-94-F). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, Four-Car Garage, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  20. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  1. Hydrogen powered bus

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-07

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  2. 4. ROOF OF TWOSTALL GARAGE, SURGE TANK, HOUSE No. 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ROOF OF TWO-STALL GARAGE, SURGE TANK, HOUSE No. 16, RELIEF TANK IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. 7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM TAPE CONTROL SYSTEM (TECHNOLOGY CIRCA 1910) AT CENTER, AND ENTRY TO OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 1. Postandbeam garage (far left), oneroom log cabin (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Post-and-beam garage (far left), one-room log cabin (left of center), house (right of center), garden shed and outhouse (far right). View to west-southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. 3. FOREMAN'S HOUSE, TENSTALL GARAGE, AND STEPS TO SWIMMING POOL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOREMAN'S HOUSE, TEN-STALL GARAGE, AND STEPS TO SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. Learning in the Workplace for Garage Mechanics and Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jans, Ruben, Bollen, Ria,

    2008-01-01

    Employees in technical firms, like garages, need more and more formations. Due to the very fast innovation in technology, lifelong learning is a real need for these labour forces. On the other hand, there are the needed formations very specialized and expensive. Another problem employers faced in these economical sectors in Western Europe is the…

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF POWERHOUSE OFFICE AND CORRUGATED METALCLAD VEHICLE GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF POWERHOUSE OFFICE AND CORRUGATED METAL-CLAD VEHICLE GARAGE AND FUEL PUMP. MAINTENANCE BUILDING IS AT RIGHT CENTER. 90mm lens - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  8. General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the twentieth century, this building dates from very early in the Lazaretto's history and is believed to have once functioned as a summer kitchen or bake house. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Kitchen/Bake House, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  9. School Bus Safety Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

  10. Integrated sensor bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutka, M. J.

    1994-03-01

    In this thesis an integrated sensor bus interface is presented. The proposed bus offers a number of interface procedures to enhance the system flexibility. It enables a 13-bit data exchange per message frame, automatic addressing, device clearing and resetting, and handling of service-request and polling procedures. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the existing data transmission technologies. It presents the most popular digital buses along with their application fields. Also other research activities on sensor buses are described. Chapter 2 deals with the requirements which have to be imposed on the desired sensor bus. It shows both communication and compatibility requirements. Chapter 3 introduces the proposed sensor bus. It presents the interface structure together with implemented bus procedures. The detailed description of the proposed sensor bus protocol is given in Chapter 4. It is divided into two parts; a logical layer description (i.e., sensor bus protocol) and a physical layer description (i.e., transmission medium and electrical characteristics). Chapter 5 deals with the compatibility issue. It investigates differences between typical processes used for sensors and digital circuits. Chapter 6 shows the design of a sensor bus interface prototype. In Chapter 7 the performance of the fabricated interface is discussed.

  11. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  12. A PRACTICAL STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF THE INCENTIVE SUBSIDY TO BUS NETWORK IN KUMAMOTO CITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizokami, Shoshi; Fujimi, Toshio; Hirano, Toshihiko

    Recently, the number of passenger of public bus services in Japan tends to decrease due to the motorization. This condition leads to a severe management situation, including in Kumamoto City. Since 1984, the deficit of bus companies operation in provision of bus services in Kumamoto has been covered by Kumamoto City Government on the basis of lines subsidy, and the city allocated a number of subsidy of about 200 million yen in 2007. Currently, The Kumamoto city government plans to reduce the amount of subsidy to bus companies by introducing the giving of incentive to bus companies in order to trim bus company deficit. This study aims to construct the mathematical model of the incentive reward and apply the model to realignment of buses lines networks in Kumamoto Metropolitan Area.

  13. Creative Bus Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  14. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains why fewer school students are injured are killed while being transported in school buses than any other mode of transportation. Political and community action in school bus transportation safety is addressed. (GR)

  15. SCSI Communication Test Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chanh V.; D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Halula, Elaine M.; Thornton, David N.; Heligman, Robert L.; Turner, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) communication test bus provides high-data-rate, standard interconnection enabling communication among International Business Machines (IBM) Personal System/2 Micro Channel, other devices connected to Micro Channel, test equipment, and host computer. Serves primarily as nonintrusive input/output attachment to PS/2 Micro Channel bus, providing rapid communication for debugger. Opens up possibility of using debugger in real-time applications.

  16. Bus.py

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy; Palmintier, Bryan; Hale, Elaine; Jones, Wesley

    2014-07-21

    GridLAB-D is an agent? based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. GridLAB-D addresses the lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator.

  17. Savannah River bus project

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  18. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  20. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  1. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Livability (BLIV) initiatives funded under the Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities program, which is... used consistent with the competitive proposal and for the eligible purposes defined under 49 U.S.C... under 49 U.S.C. 5309(b)(3). In selecting projects for funding using Bus Program funds, FTA ensured...

  2. View of McKenzieRichey garage showing east side and north back. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey garage showing east side and north back. Note log construction, house in the background and fence in the foreground, facing southwest - McKenzie Property, Garage, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  3. View of McKenzieRichey garage showing front opening, the false front, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey garage showing front opening, the false front, metal roofing and horizontal plank siding, facing northeast - McKenzie Property, Garage, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  4. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 1-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4552, dated October 25, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 1-G, 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  5. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 2G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, PERMANENT GARAGE TYPE 2-G. PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS. Drawing 50-308-4553, dated October 21, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Permanent Garage Type 2-G, 30611 and 30621 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  6. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  7. Bus-Programmable Slave Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Slave microprocessors in multimicroprocessor computing system contains modified circuit cards programmed via bus connecting master processor with slave microprocessors. Enables interactive, microprocessor-based, single-loop control. Confers ability to load and run program from master/slave bus, without need for microprocessor development station. Tristate buffers latch all data and information on status. Slave central processing unit never connected directly to bus.

  8. An evaluation of a lane support system for bus rapid transit on narrow shoulders and the relation to bus driver mental workload.

    PubMed

    Ward, Nicholas J; Shankwitz, Craig; Gorgestani, Alec; Donath, Max; De Waard, Dick; Boer, Erwin R

    2006-07-15

    The use of dedicated bus shoulders is a key method for implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) in areas that do not have the space for additional infrastructure. However, the narrow width of the bus shoulder and the need to anticipate traffic hazards in the adjacent lane can both be significant stressors for bus drivers. Bus driver mental workload and stress in response to these conditions should be a significant concern both for operational safety and driver health. This pilot study evaluated the potential stressors of traffic density and shoulder width in the context of an express BRT service in a large US metropolitan area. In addition, the study considered the potential role of a prototype lane support system (LSS) to support vehicle control within the narrow shoulder boundaries. Ten experienced bus drivers drove an actual route with an instrumented bus equipped with and without LSS. Self-reported effort was recorded along with performance measures of speed and position control relevant to mobility and safety objectives. Bus drivers did note stressors in the BRT environment and the prototype LSS. However, the use of the shoulder during high-density traffic conditions did improve mobility. Moreover, the LSS did enhance safety on the shoulder when there was high-density traffic in the adjacent lane. However, there was no evidence that the LSS reduced bus driver workload while operating in the narrow shoulder. Future research should consider the impact of BRT operations and support systems on bus driver mental workload and stress, and support the deployment of such devices for bus operations on shoulders during high traffic volumes.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  10. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  11. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  12. Electric-bus life-cycle cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A detailed study of the Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District (MTD) electric-bus program was conducted and resulted in a comprehensive set of cost data. These costs are compared with the life cycle costs of diesel buses. Direct comparisons of the life cycle costs of battery-electric buses and of diesel-fueled buses were not found to be meaningful without considering the environmental costs and benefits associated with both vehicle types; some of these factors are discussed in the study. The duty cycles most appropriate to the two bus types are not generally comparable. Electric shuttle-bus life cycle costs with flooded-cell lead-acid battery are 108% of the costs attributable to a diesel shuttle. Costs with the maintenance-free lead-acid and flooded-cell nickel-cadmium batteries are 113% and 117% relative to diesel, respectively. The monetary value attributed to emissions avoided by the use of electric buses depends on the local air quality situation. Labor costs are the major component of electric-bus life cycle costs, incremental advances in the enabling technologies will bring electric-bus costs close to those of diesel-fueled buses. Advances in battery technology will widen the range of duty cycles appropriate to electric buses.

  13. Bus annunciator system

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, D.W.; Duncan, M.G.

    1981-06-09

    As a means of saving energy while minimizing the need for passenger cars, vans, and trucks in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, buses are provided which operate along approximately 6 miles of in-plant roads. A bus annunciator system was developed, fabricated, and installed which reduces the waiting time to near zero. The system consists of three separate devices: (1) an ultrasonic transmitter attached to the side of the bus, (2) a solar-powered ultrasonic receiver and radio-frequency transmitter at roadside, and (3) a receiver-annuciator interfaced with building public address systems. The prototype has been tested in only two areas of the Y-12 Plant, but a coded transmitter and receiver make it possible to cover the entire plant. In full operation, approximately 12 roadside units would be employed to give an average of about 2 to 3 min advance notice to personnel in buildings and offices along the two bus routes inside the Y-12 Plant.

  14. 76 FR 37393 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative Program Grants and Section 5339 Alternatives Analysis Program... in support of the Department of Transportation's (DOT) Livability Initiative: the Bus and Bus...

  15. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  16. 2. Oblique view of caretaker's house with garage/stable to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of caretaker's house with garage/stable to the left looking south - Richmond Hill Plantation, Caretaker's House, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  17. 4. Oblique view of caretaker's house with garage/stable to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oblique view of caretaker's house with garage/stable to the right looking north - Richmond Hill Plantation, Caretaker's House, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. 6. Southeast side of the caretaker's house with garage/stable to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Southeast side of the caretaker's house with garage/stable to the left in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Caretaker's House, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. Pumphouse/garage and shed, looking southwest Thomas Murphy Homestead, North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pumphouse/garage and shed, looking southwest - Thomas Murphy Homestead, North of John Moulton Homestead, approximately 1,000 feet west of Mormon Row Road, and .25 mile north of Antelope Flats Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  20. 3. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: RESIDENCE/SCHOOLHOUSE (FEATURE 14), LARGE GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: RESIDENCE/SCHOOLHOUSE (FEATURE 14), LARGE GARAGE (FEATURE 13), AND RESIDENCE (FEATURE 12). FACING NORTH. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Residence, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  1. 18 CFR 367.3940 - Account 394, Tools, shop and garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., repair work, general shops and garages and not specifically provided for or includible in other accounts... repair shop equipment. (4) Battery charging equipment. (5) Belts, shafts and countershafts. (6) Boilers.... (31) Vises. (32) Welding apparatus. (33) Work benches. ...

  2. 18 CFR 367.3940 - Account 394, Tools, shop and garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., repair work, general shops and garages and not specifically provided for or includible in other accounts... repair shop equipment. (4) Battery charging equipment. (5) Belts, shafts and countershafts. (6) Boilers.... (31) Vises. (32) Welding apparatus. (33) Work benches. ...

  3. 18 CFR 367.3940 - Account 394, Tools, shop and garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., repair work, general shops and garages and not specifically provided for or includible in other accounts... repair shop equipment. (4) Battery charging equipment. (5) Belts, shafts and countershafts. (6) Boilers.... (31) Vises. (32) Welding apparatus. (33) Work benches. ...

  4. 18 CFR 367.3940 - Account 394, Tools, shop and garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., repair work, general shops and garages and not specifically provided for or includible in other accounts... repair shop equipment. (4) Battery charging equipment. (5) Belts, shafts and countershafts. (6) Boilers.... (31) Vises. (32) Welding apparatus. (33) Work benches. ...

  5. 2. View looking east, showing west elevation of blacksmith shop/garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking east, showing west elevation of blacksmith shop/garage and change in slope - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  6. 8. CONSTRUCTION CAMP WAREHOUSE/SHOP, GROUND FLOOR GARAGE, INTERIOR (looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CONSTRUCTION CAMP WAREHOUSE/SHOP, GROUND FLOOR GARAGE, INTERIOR (looking north at end/north wall) - Tieton Dam, Construction Camp Warehouse-Shop, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  7. 26. GARAGE AND RETAINING WALLS NEAR SAR3. NOTE SEVEN OAKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. GARAGE AND RETAINING WALLS NEAR SAR-3. NOTE SEVEN OAKS DAM ROAD CONSTRUCTION SCAR ON MOUNTAINSIDE IN DISTANCE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 1. Overview of Hailey Administrative Site looking west. Garage/Equipment building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of Hailey Administrative Site looking west. Garage/Equipment building left foreground, Office rear center, Gas and Oil House on the right. - Hailey Administrative Site, 309 South Main Street, Hailey, Blaine County, ID

  9. Euro Data Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.E.; Hall, J.R. II; Schrock, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    With the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the opening of the Iron Curtain, a downsizing of the Defense Establishment in the West is occurring, causing industry to look for opportunities where technology used for military applications can be applied to meet former East Block countries. Among these requirements has been the urgent desire of the people in former East Block countries for access to Western media which had been denied them, and has led to numerous opportunities for the implementation of Cable Television (CATV) systems. In addition, there are also requirements for utility metering for electricity, gas, water, heat, etc. which had previously been provided to the population by the Government at little or no cost. EWT of Augsburg, Germany, previously a subcontractor to ASEC on military security system projects, who has a subsidiary, TSS, which is a prominent CATV systems house, requested ASEC to provide a system which can provide utility meter reading and other control and monitoring services utilizing CATV. Working with CableBus Systems Corporation, a CATV data communications supplier and various utility meter manufacturers, ASEC, as the System Integrator, has developed a utilities monitoring system. This system. in cooperation with EWT, is being marketed and sold in Europe as EURO DATA BUS. This paper describes EURO DATA BUS and its applications, as well as the actual system designs for two pilot applications. One system is oriented at Utility Meter Reading and Demand side Management primarily, but will also be used to demonstrate other system capabilities such as security and fire alarm monitoring, etc. The design is therefore quite straightforward and {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes}. The second system has more of an industrial orientation and involves the monitoring and load control for a Municipal Electric Utility. While well within the capabilities of the system to accomplish, a more customized design was required to meet these requirements.

  10. Test Bus Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    4.2.2-1. F-22 Vehicle Management System Architecture This discussion will concentrate on the Processor Interface Control and Communications ( PICC ...module which is used in multiple locations in the F-22 avionics. The PICC module is based on a MIL-STD-1750A processor and supporting chip set. External...differential discrete I/O signals. Each of the PICC ASICs implement the IEEE 1149.1 test bus which is routed to the module connector. 4-12 The

  11. Preliminary investigation of uncombusted auto fuel vapor dispersion within a residential garage microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Lansari, A.; Streicher, J.J.; Huber, A.H.; Crescenti, G.H.; Zweidinger, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Evaporative emissions from vehicles in an attached garage may represent a significant source of indoor pollution and human exposure. A pilot field study was undertaken to investigate potential in-house dispersion of evaporative emissions of uncombusted fuels from a vehicle parked inside an attached garage. In a set of experiments using sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas, the multizonal mass balance model, CONTAM88, was used to predict interzonal air flow rates and SF6 concentration distributions within the garage and house. Several experiments were included to evaluate the effect of meteorology and mechanical mixing mechanisms on the dispersion of automobile fuel vapor. Measurements indicated that approximately three percent of the garage maximum concentration was measured in a room adjacent to the garage. The model successfully predicted garage concentrations under well mixed conditions, but underpredicted the measured concentrations within various rooms of the house, in which mixing was incomplete. Multizonal mass balance models such as CONTAM88 may be useful in approximating contaminant concentrations at various locations within the house.

  12. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  13. Data bus system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Two data bus systems were designed fabricated, Data Bus System I and Data Bus System II. The technical features of the delivered hardware include the following: (1) 5 MHz selfclocking data bus; (2) bidirectional communications utilizing Manchester Code at data rates in excess of 20,000 words per second; (3) utilization of MSI COS/MOS technology (4) probability of accepting an erroneous data bit less than 1 in 10 to the 25th power (5) low power consumption (50 to 1 reduction in quiescent current over P/MOS) (6) compatibility with projected high density packaging. Three distinct types of data bus remote terminals were developed: the subsystem interface unit, the combination of an electronic interface unit and a standard interface unit-serial, and an SIU/Preprocessor.

  14. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  15. Confessions of the "Unhealthy"--Eating Chocolate in the Halls and Smoking behind the Bus Garage: Teachers as Health Missionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Carolyn Vander

    2009-01-01

    By drawing on interviews with administrators, faculty and staff at one school in the northeastern United States, this qualitative work considers the ways in which school leaders negotiate, resist or draw upon discourses associated with health, weight, nutrition and fitness to understand and experience their own bodies and interpret their roles and…

  16. Confessions of the "Unhealthy"--Eating Chocolate in the Halls and Smoking behind the Bus Garage: Teachers as Health Missionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Carolyn Vander

    2009-01-01

    By drawing on interviews with administrators, faculty and staff at one school in the northeastern United States, this qualitative work considers the ways in which school leaders negotiate, resist or draw upon discourses associated with health, weight, nutrition and fitness to understand and experience their own bodies and interpret their roles and…

  17. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  18. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  19. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  20. High-Speed Ring Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  1. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust emission in garage working places. Long-term working as garage workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health.

  2. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M., Jr.; Beale, David; Killinc-Balci, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: VectranTM, NextelTM, Gore PTFE FabricTM, ZylonTM TwaronTM and NomexTM. Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of KevlarTM and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelty mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  3. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  4. Ring Buffered Network Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the research effort to demonstrate the integration of a data sharing technology, Ring Buffered Network Bus, in development by Dryden Flight Research Center, with an engine simulation application, the Java Gas Turbine Simulator, in development at the University of Toledo under a grant from the Glenn Research Center. The objective of this task was to examine the application of the RBNB technologies as a key component in the data sharing, health monitoring and system wide modeling elements of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) [Golding, 1997]. System-wide monitoring and modeling of aircraft and air safety systems will require access to all data sources which are relative factors when monitoring or modeling the national airspace such as radar, weather, aircraft performance, engine performance, schedule and planning, airport configuration, flight operations, etc. The data sharing portion of the overall AVSP program is responsible for providing the hardware and software architecture to access and distribute data, including real-time flight operations data, among all of the AVSP elements. The integration of an engine code capable of numerically "flying" through recorded flight paths and weather data using a software tool that allows for distributed access of data to this engine code demonstrates initial steps toward building a system capable of monitoring and modeling the National Airspace.

  5. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  6. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... 2-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust... Metropolitan Office, Region 2-New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel....

  7. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  8. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  9. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  10. 18 CFR 367.3940 - Account 394, Tools, shop and garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY... COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3940 Account 394, Tools, shop and garage...

  11. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  12. 7. CONSTRUCTION CAMP WAREHOUSE/SHOP, GROUND FLOOR GARAGE, INTERIOR (north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CONSTRUCTION CAMP WAREHOUSE/SHOP, GROUND FLOOR GARAGE, INTERIOR (north end of building, looking south at interior wall. Note overhead crane/hoist. - Tieton Dam, Construction Camp Warehouse-Shop, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  13. Set of Comparable Carbon Footprints for Highway Travel in Metropolitan America

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Sonnenberg, Anthon

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a set of carbon dioxide emissions estimates for highway travel by automobile, truck, bus and other public transit vehicle movements within the nation s 100 largest metropolitan areas, in calendar year 2005. Considerable variability is found to exist across metropolitan areas when these greenhouse gas emissions are measured on a per capita and a per gross metropolitan product (GMP) basis. Least square regression modeling shows a relationship between emissions per capita and per GMP with truck traffic share, transit share, employment density, population dispersion within the metro area, and GMP per capita. As a result many of the nation s largest metropolitan areas tend to have lower CO2 emissions per capita and per GMP than smaller and more recently developed metro areas.

  14. 77 FR 6172 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program Funds.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... applicant will need to apply separately in TEAM for these funds. Research funds must adhere to the... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program...) of FTA Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Program and Section 5312 National Research Program Funds...

  15. Effects of garage employment and tobacco smoking on breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Chung, Fung-Lung; Boccia, Laura; Colosimo, Steven; Liu, Weili; Zhang, Junfeng

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to carbonyl compounds may cause adverse health effects. The present study examined whether working in a garage and smoking can significantly affect personal "daily" exposure to a number of important carbonyl compounds. The study was carried out on 37 subjects including 22 garage workers (9 smokers and 13 nonsmokers) and 15 nongarage workers or so-called controls (4 smokers and 11 nonsmokers). Daily exposure was estimated using 48-hour integrated measurement of breathing-zone concentrations. The measurement involved the use of a passive carbonyl sampler and high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence analysis technique. Each subject was measured for up to three measurement sessions. A wide range of breathing-zone concentrations (unit: microgram per cubic meter) was observed for each of the following carbonyls: formaldehyde (14.1-80.1); acetaldehyde (8.41-80.3); acetone (0.65-1096); acrolein (<0.14-3.71); propionaldehyde (1.08-14.6); crotonaldehyde (<0.13-2.80); benzaldehyde (1.79-9.91); and hexaldehyde (0.122-22.4). Statistical significance of smoking effects and working in a garage effects were assessed using SAS mixed models. The results show that the garage workers had significantly higher levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than the controls, and that the smokers had significantly higher levels of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and hexaldehyde, than the nonsmokers (P<.10). Garage employment and smoking appeared to increase breathing-zone concentrations of crotonaldehyde. In general, within-subject variations were smaller than between-subject variations on 48-hour averaged breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds.

  16. [Mortality in metropolitan regions].

    PubMed

    Simoes Ccds

    1980-01-01

    Data from the 1970 census and a 1974-1975 survey carried out in Brazil by the Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica are used to examine recent mortality trends in urban areas. Specifically, life expectancy in nine metropolitan areas is analyzed in relation to income, diet, and sanitary facilities in the home.

  17. Metropolitan area of Chicago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The metropolitan area of Chicago is encompassed in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP) S190-B photograph taken on September 18, 1973 from the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. The surrounding major cities of Aurora and Joliet, Illinois; Hammond, Gary and East Chicago, Indiana, are easily delineated.

  18. Policing Metropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  19. Metropolitan Approaches to Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before the May 1974 public hearings of the New York City Commission on Human Rights by the Director for the Center for National Policy Review, Catholic University Law School, notes that one barrier to the liberation of black people from a legally-sanctioned caste system is the racially segregated structure of metropolitan areas…

  20. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  1. The NASA bus communications listening device software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the bus listener is presented. Special software was developed to control the 'bus interface units' (BIU) connecting each of these devices to a communications cable to form the bus communication network. The code used in the BTU is described.

  2. "Don't Miss the Bus!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Jane A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents observations from the director of the National Association of Pupil Transportation concerning school bus safety, seat belts, and the state of the $15-billion school transportation industry. Increasing student use of bus transportation and delivering the school bus safety message to all concerned are addressed. (GR)

  3. Data Bus Adapts to Changing Traffic Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Eugene; Deruiter, John; Varga, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Access becomes timed when collisions threaten. Two-mode scheme used to grant terminals access to data bus. Causes bus to alternate between random accessibility and controlled accessibility to optimize performance and adapt to changing data-traffic conditions. Bus is part of 100-Mb/s optical-fiber packet data system.

  4. "Don't Miss the Bus!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Jane A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents observations from the director of the National Association of Pupil Transportation concerning school bus safety, seat belts, and the state of the $15-billion school transportation industry. Increasing student use of bus transportation and delivering the school bus safety message to all concerned are addressed. (GR)

  5. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  6. Pybus -- A Python Software Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-10-14

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user.

  7. Transit bus operator performance and attitudes toward a collision warning system: results of a simulator experiment.

    PubMed

    Reinach, Stephen J; Everson, Jeffrey H

    2005-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a simulator experiment to examine the efficacy of a collision warning system for transit bus operators. Bus operators from a major metropolitan transit agency were assigned to one of three conditions: a collision warning system with a visual-only driver-vehicle interface, a collision warning system with a visual and auditory driver-vehicle interface, or no collision warning system (baseline). Operators were exposed to a critical event at the end of the simulation, in which a vehicle suddenly stopped in front of the bus while the operator was distracted by an in-vehicle task. Upon completing the experiment, operators who used the collision warning system were asked about their experience using the system, as well as whether or not they would like such a system in real life. Experimental results revealed new information about transit bus operator performance, but indicated no statistically significant differences among the three conditions. Subjective data indicated that operators had a positive attitude toward collision warning system usage. Operators generally liked the collision warning system and felt that a system such as the one used in the experiment would help them in avoiding crashes in the real world. These findings suggest that a collision warning system for transit bus operators is feasible from the perspective of user acceptance. However, several technical areas still need to be resolved.

  8. High Speed Multiplex Bus Protocol Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-15

    Transaction 42-45 3.3.4.1-1 High Level Bus State Transition Diagram; BC-RT 48 Poll or Transaction Request 3.3.4.1-2 Response Time Out Interval Measurement 49...61 3.4-2 General Message Types 62 3.4.3-1 High Level BC State Transition Diagram - BC-RT 64 Transaction Request 3.4.3-2 High Level RT State Transition...the data base for each bus unit contains the current state of that bus unit with respect to ongoing bus communications. The bus control data base

  9. EPA Proposes Additional Water Line Connections for Groundwater Contamination at Tinkham Garage Superfund Site in Londonderry, NH

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA in consultation with NHDES, is proposing additional connections to an existing water line for residents whose wells have been found to have contamination and whom live northeast section of the Tinkham Garage Superfund Site (Site).

  10. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  11. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  12. Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, although there are numerous small-scale and medium industries which use lead-based raw materials that may pose health risks to workers, there are no workplace regulations for lead exposure. Moreover, there are no studies carried out on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of workers or on the contribution of common workplace practices to lead poisoning. Method A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis) were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16). The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10 μg/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20 μg/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20 μg/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage. Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58%) of those with the highest BLLs (≥ 20 μg/dL). Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects. Conclusion The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the BLLs of automotive-garage

  13. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  14. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  15. Concentrations of vehicle-related air pollutants in an urban parking garage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung R; Dominici, Francesca; Buckley, Timothy J

    2007-11-01

    There is growing evidence that traffic-related air pollution poses a public health threat, yet the dynamics of human exposure are not well understood. The urban parking garage is a microenvironment that is of concern but has not been characterized. Using time-resolved measurement methods, we evaluated air toxics levels within an urban parking garage and assessed the influence of vehicle activity and type on their levels. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) were measured with direct-reading instruments. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in 30 min intervals using a sorbent tube loaded sequential sampler. Vehicle volume and type were evaluated by video recording. Sampling was conducted from June 24 to July 17, 2002. We observed garage traffic median volumes of 71 counts/h on weekdays and 6 counts/h on weekends. The 12-fold reduction in traffic volume from weekday to weekend corresponded with a decrease in median air pollution that varied from a minimum 2- (CO) to a maximum 7 (pPAH)-fold. The actual 30-min median weekday and weekend values were: CO--2.6/1.2 ppm; pPAH--19/2.6 ng/m(3); 1,3-butadiene-0.5/0.2 microg/m(3), MTBE-7.4/0.4 microg/m(3); and benzene-2.7/0.3 microg/m(3). The influence of traffic was quantified using longitudinal models. The pollutant coefficients provide an indication of the average air pollution vehicle source contribution and ranged from 0.31 (CO) to 1.08 (pPAH) percent increase/vehicle count. For some pollutants, a slightly higher (0.5-0.6%) coefficient was observed for light-trucks relative to cars. This study has public health relevance in providing a unique assessment of air pollution levels and source contribution for the urban parking garage.

  16. Garage Demos: Using Physical Models to Illustrate Dynamic Aspects of Microscopic Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Roca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Colorful PowerPoint presentations with detailed drawings, micrographs, and short animations have become the standard format for illustrating the fundamental features of cell biology in large introductory classes. In this essay, we describe a low-tech tool that can be included in a standard lecture to help students visualize, understand, and remember the dynamic aspects of microscopic cell biological processes. This approach involves use of common objects, including pipe insulation and a garden hose, to illustrate basic processes such as protein folding and cloning, hence the appellation “garage demos.” The demonstrations are short, minimizing displacement of course content, easy to make, and provide an avenue for increasing student–faculty interaction in a large lecture hall. Student feedback over the past 4 years has been overwhelmingly positive. In an anonymous postclass survey in 2007, 90% of the respondents rated garage demos as having been very or somewhat helpful for understanding course concepts. Direct measurements of learning gains on specific concepts illustrated by garage demos are the focus of an ongoing study. PMID:19487500

  17. Riding by the Rules: A Practical Approach to Bus Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neatrour, Paul E.

    1994-01-01

    The Johnstown (Pennsylvania) Middle School has adopted a simple, practical school bus discipline program that refers disruptive students to the bus-duty teacher to discuss the incident. The bus driver's written report activates the bus-rider training program, featuring temporary loss of riding privileges, a simulated bus ride, a safety video, a…

  18. Just Right Vehicle Network (Data Bus) Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    this network to research; however, I shall concentrate on defining a precise method to define and assist in properly selecting the network (data bus...recommended – Simple Mathematical selection method used Vehicle Network Selection Conducted 2003-2005 – CAN Data Bus recommended for lower speed hard...real time control – IEEE 1394b Data Bus recommended for high speed hard real time control – Formal Trade Study Process w/ software assisted method used

  19. Measured carbon monoxide concentrations from stock and reduced-emission prototype portable generators operated in an attached garage.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, S J; Wang, L; Persily, A K

    2017-08-01

    There is concern about the hazard of acute residential CO exposures from portable gasoline-powered generators, which can result in death or serious adverse health effects in exposed individuals. To address this hazard, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has developed low CO emission prototype generators by adapting off-the-shelf emission control technologies onto commercially available generators. A series of tests was conducted to characterize the indoor CO concentrations resulting from portable generators operating in the attached garage of a research house under seven different test house/garage configurations. The tested generators include both unmodified and modified low CO emission prototypes. It was found that CO concentrations varied widely, with peak house CO concentrations ranging from under 10 ppm to over 10,000 ppm. The highest concentrations in the house resulted from operation of the unmodified generator in the garage with the garage bay door closed and the house access door open. The lowest concentrations resulted from operation of a modified low CO emission prototype in the garage with the garage bay door open and the house access door closed. These tests documented reductions of up to 98% in CO concentrations due to emissions from two low CO emission portable generators compared to a stock generator. Improper portable generator use has caused 800 U.S. deaths in the past 14 years. Generators operated in attached garages can cause CO to quickly reach deadly levels. Two low-emission prototypes generators were tested and had CO emissions reduced by up to 98%. Low-emission generators can reduce the risk of consumer poisonings and deaths.

  20. The Principal in Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A., Ed.; Reller, Theodore L., Ed.

    This collection of articles is designed to help metropolitan school principals meet the challenges of their positions. It is especially concerned with how principals can contribute to effective education for students of markedly heterogenous backgrounds. The authors deal with such issues as the principalship and metropolitan administration, the…

  1. Metropolitan Desegregation Remedies: Interdistrict Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Kelly

    Chapter 21 of a book on school law traces the development of metropolitan interdistrict school desegregation. Historically, the first multidistrict cases were filed to secure the desegregation of intentionally segregated school districts. Subsequently, multidistrict cases were filed in metropolitan areas where there were so few white students…

  2. The Principal in Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A., Ed.; Reller, Theodore L., Ed.

    This collection of articles is designed to help metropolitan school principals meet the challenges of their positions. It is especially concerned with how principals can contribute to effective education for students of markedly heterogenous backgrounds. The authors deal with such issues as the principalship and metropolitan administration, the…

  3. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  4. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  5. Priority Queuing On A Parallel Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Queuing strategy for communications along shared data bus minimizes number of data lines while always assuring user of highest priority given access to bus. New system handles up to 32 user demands on 17 data lines that previously serviced only 17 demands.

  6. Controlling Multiple Registers on a Computer Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, Stanley S.

    1987-01-01

    Number of addressable registers increased. Monitoring and controlling interface circuit expands capabilities of DR11-C (or equivalent) input/output port for computer that communicates with peripheral equipment via UNIBUS (or equivalent) data bus. Using only three address locations on bus, unit enables any number of external registers to be addressed, read, or written.

  7. California's Bus Driver's Training Course. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This instructor's manual was designed to help graduates of the California Bus Driver Instructor Course provide effective instruction to school bus driver trainees. It contains enough material for 20-30 hours of classroom training. The information is organized in 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to the course;…

  8. School Bus Maintenance. Bulletin, 1948, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherston, E. Glenn

    1948-01-01

    This bulletin is one in the series on pupil transportation issued by the Office of Education. Its purpose is to furnish information and guidance for local school administrators and others who are concerned with school bus maintenance. Programs of school bus maintenance vary among the 48 States. Presumably all contract vehicles are maintained by…

  9. Connecting Separate Computers to a Common Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawan, A. K.; Mullen, P. G.; Vadakan, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    Network bus adapter (NBA) handles protocols for computer-tocomputer communications. NBA does all protocol handling and communications with bus for its host computer, that processor of different speeds sends data to each other continuously at maximum speed. Any host can communicate with any other, or several or with all.

  10. Hidden Savings in your Bus Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    School transportation industry statistics show the annual average costs for operating and maintaining a single school bus range from $34,000 to $38,000. Operating a school bus fleet at high efficiency has a real impact on the dollars saved for a school district and the reliability of transportation service to students. In this article, the author…

  11. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  12. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge needed by the school bus driver instructor, as well as those supplemental skills and knowledge…

  13. Neurosimulation modeling of a scheduled bus route

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Khoo, L.P.

    1997-05-01

    In a densely built-up urban society, operators of public bus services are faced with the recurrent problem of providing timely and reliable service. Wile they have no control over dynamically changing extraneous factors (such as passenger loads or road conditions) that may suddenly degrade the quality of the service provided, it is nonetheless desirable for management to study the extent to which these factors affect their business, and what measures, if any, can be adopted to neutralize them. This paper discusses how a simulation model of a bus route, embellished by a neural network, was created to model the historical pattern of the inputs (namely, passenger loads and road conditions) that affect the overall scheduled terminus-to-terminus time. Thus, in a case study of a bus route running from a suburb to the city center, it was found that the neurosimulation model could predict the cumulative terminus-to-terminus times better than a conventional simulation model could. A software module, embedded into the neurosimulation model for the purposes of speed regulation, was able to minimize the deviation of the bus service from schedule. When intentional delays were further introduced into the bus route, it was discovered that the speed regulator was more effective the longer the delay, and the further the bus traveled into the bus route. There is potential in applying neural computing in a dynamic bus scheduling problem such as the one discussed here.

  14. Connecting Separate Computers to a Common Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawan, A. K.; Mullen, P. G.; Vadakan, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    Network bus adapter (NBA) handles protocols for computer-tocomputer communications. NBA does all protocol handling and communications with bus for its host computer, that processor of different speeds sends data to each other continuously at maximum speed. Any host can communicate with any other, or several or with all.

  15. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  16. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Robert; Fischler, Mark S.; Husby, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

  17. Demographic Perspectives on Metropolitan School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    School segregation is part of the cause and part of the effect of the metropolitan racial crisis. Metropolitan area school desegregation is a necessary element of any concerted attack on the complex of metropolitan racial problems. School desegregation is not, however, sufficient by itself. The author of this paper discusses metropolitan school…

  18. Demographic Perspectives on Metropolitan School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    School segregation is part of the cause and part of the effect of the metropolitan racial crisis. Metropolitan area school desegregation is a necessary element of any concerted attack on the complex of metropolitan racial problems. School desegregation is not, however, sufficient by itself. The author of this paper discusses metropolitan school…

  19. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Town Garage Radio Beacon, Londonderry, NH. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    The Town Garage Radio Beacon, NH, site includes the Holton Circle residential development of 23 homes, a town garage area, and an undeveloped hillslope and wetlands area in Londonderry, New Hampshire. From 1940 to 1968, the area was owned by the Department of Defense (DOD), who reportedly used it as a radio beacon facility from 1940 to 1947. The ROD provides a final remedy for the contaminated onsite ground water. No further remedial actions are anticipated for the site. The primary contaminants affecting the ground water are VOCs; and metals, including chromium.

  20. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  1. Analog bus driver and multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    For a source-follower signal chain, the ohmic drop in the selection switch causes unacceptable voltage offset, non-linearity, and reduced small signal gain. For an op amp signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise rises rapidly with increasing the array format due to a rapid increase in the effective capacitance caused by the Miller effect boosting up the contribution of the bus capacitance. A new switched source-follower signal chain circuit overcomes limitations of existing op-amp based or source follower based circuits used in column multiplexers and data readout. This will improve performance of CMOS imagers, and focal plane read-out integrated circuits for detectors of infrared or ultraviolet light.

  2. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  3. Arbitrary object localization and tracking via multiple-camera surveillance system embedded in a parking garage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibisch, André; Houben, Sebastian; Michael, Matthias; Kesten, Robert; Schuller, Florian

    2015-03-01

    We illustrate a multiple-camera surveillance system installed in a parking garage to detect arbitrary moving objects. Our system is real-time capable and computes precise and reliable object positions. These objects are tracked to warn of collisions, e.g. between vehicles, pedestrians or other vehicles. The proposed system is based on multiple grayscale cameras connected by a local area network. Each camera shares its field of view with other cameras to handle occlusions and to enable multi-view vision. We aim at using already installed hardware found in many modern public parking garages. The system's pipeline starts with the synchronized image capturing process separately for each camera. In the next step, moving objects are selected by a foreground segmentation approach. Subsequently, the foreground objects from a single camera are transformed into view rays in a common world coordinate system and are joined to receive plausible object hypotheses. This transformation requires a one-time initial intrinsic and extrinsic calibration beforehand. Afterwards, these view rays are filtered temporally to arrive at continuous object tracks. In our experiments we used a precise LIDAR-based reference system to evaluate and quantify the proposed system's precision with a mean localization accuracy of 0.24m for different scenarios.

  4. Removal of oil and grease from automobile garage wastewater using electrocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manilal, A. M.; Harinarayanan Nampoothiri, M. G.; Soloman, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Wastewater from automobile garages and workshops is an important contributor to the water pollution. Oil and grease is one of the major content of wastewater from vehicle garages. Wastewater from a public transport depot at Thrissur district in Kerala, India was collected for the study. A batch reactor has been devised to assess the efficacy of electrocoagulation in removing oil and grease from the wastewater. Aluminium and iron were tested as the anode material with stainless steel as cathode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as current density, pH, time and salt concentration on oil and grease removal. The results shown that aluminium is superior to iron in removing the oil and grease from the wastewater. The reactor with aluminium as anode was able to remove 90.8 % of the oil and grease at a current density of 0.6 A/dm2 in 15 minutes. The calculated specific energy consumption is also less for aluminium in comparison with iron.

  5. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school bus... the administrator to private school bus operators required to be notified under § 605.16. (e) Private... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  7. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  8. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  9. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  10. MIL-STD-1553 programmable dual redundant remote terminal, bus controller, bus monitor, unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. N.

    The performance, physical and electrical characteristics of the BUS-65600 Superhybrid are described. The Superhybrid is a programmable, fully compliant MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), BUS Controller (BC) or BUS Monitor (BM). It requires the BUS-63125 Dual Redundant Monolithic Hybrid Transceiver or two BUS-63102 Universal Transceivers for MIL-STD-1553B or McAir sinusoidal applications. A discussion of the custom Monolithic LSI components implemented in the Superhybrid is included. The special features and capabilities are highlighted, along with special programming options which facilitate a broad array of applications. The BUS-65600 Superhybrid has a Direct Memory Access (DMA) Computer Interface plus necessary control lines which are also described in detail.

  11. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Final report, September 1997--May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.A.

    1998-10-01

    Alternative fuels such as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and alcohol fuels (methanol and ethanol) are already being used in commercial vehicles and transit buses in revenue service. Hydrogen, which has better air quality characteristics as a vehicle fuel, is being used in research demonstration projects in fuel cell powered buses, as well as in internal combustion engines in automobiles and small trucks. At present, there are no facility guidelines to assist transit agencies (and others) contemplating the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. This document addresses the various issues involved. Hydrogen fuel properties, potential hazards, fuel requirements for specified levels of bus service, applicable codes and standards, ventilation, and electrical classification are indicated in this document. These guidelines also present various facility and bus design issues that need to be considered by a transit agency to ensure safe operations when using hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Fueling facility, garaging facility, maintenance facility requirements and safety practices are discussed. Critical fuel-related safety issues in the design of the related system on the bus are also identified. A system safety assessment and hazard resolution process is also presented. This approach may be used to select design strategies which are economical, yet ensure a specified level of safety.

  12. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  13. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  14. Analysis and simulation of a city bus route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-12-01

    Public transport in crowded cities, in particular bus services play an essential role in the mobility of its citizenry. However, an efficient, reliable and safe bus system is still a distant dream of many cities. This paper uses a simulation approach to provide some insight into the factors that contribute to the service quality of a bus system. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a city bus route. The simulation model consists of a bus depot, bus stops, terminal station and a bus route. Parameters used in the simulation include the number of buses serving the route, maximum bus capacity, inter departure time of buses, travel time between stops, number of passengers boarding and alighting. The simulation is applied to a real bus route in Kuala Lumpur city center and a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate how the different variables affect the service quality of the bus system.

  15. MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit, BUS Controller and BUS Monitor Superhybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Steven N.

    This paper describes the performance, physical, and electrical characteristics of the BUS-65600 Superhybrid. The Superhybrid is a programmable, fully compliant MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), BUS Controller (BC) and BUS Monitor (BM). The BUS-65600 requires an external transceiver, clock, and transformers to provide a fully functional terminal interface. A discussion of the next generation CMOS Silicon-On-Sapphire (SOS) single monolithic chip RTU/BC/BM is included. The special features and capabilities, along with special package technologies are highlighted. The Superhybrid has a Direct Memory Access computer interface plus special control lines which are fully described.

  16. Does Bus Rapid Transit promote walking? An examination of New York City's Select Bus Service.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristen; Loh, Lawrence; Ruff, Ryan Richard; Rosenblum, Randi; Fischer, Sean; Lee, Karen K

    2014-11-01

    Cities across the U.S. and internationally are adopting Bus Rapid Transit to improve transit services for residents. Features of Bus Rapid Transit include fewer stops, dedicated bus lanes, and expedited systems for boarding busses, compared with regular bus service. This study examines whether Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) ridership is associated with increased rates of walking, because of the greater distance between BRT stops compared with regular bus service. Surveys were conducted with riders of local and BRT buses for New York City's M15 Select Bus Service line. Surveys examined bus ridership, health status and physical activity, walking rates, and demographic information. BRT riders reported walking approximately half a block more than did local bus riders. The average number of blocks walked decreased for BRT riders who previously used the subway before the implementation of the BRT. BRT may be a useful tool to support walking for some groups. Depending on where it is implemented, BRT may also be associated with reduced walking among users who switch to BRT from other active transportation modes. Future research should examine associations between walking and BRT ridership with a larger sample and more sites.

  17. An Interconnect Bus Power Optimization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Hao, Yue

    2010-07-01

    A simple yet accurate interconnect parasitical capacitance model is presented. Based on this model a novel interconnect bus optimization methodology is proposed. Combining wire spacing with wire ordering, this methodology focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with consideration of bus performance requirements. The optimization methodology is verified under a 65 nm technology node and it shows that with 50% slack in the routing space, a 33.03% power saving can be provided by the proposed optimization methodology for an intermediate video bus compared to the 27.68% power saving provided by uniform spacing technology. The proposed methodology is especially suitable for computer-aided design of nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  18. Metropolitan area of Chicago

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-09-18

    SL3-88-222 (18 Sept. 1973) --- The metropolitan area of Chicago is encompassed in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP) S190-B photograph taken on Sept. 18, 1973 from the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. The surrounding major cities of Aurora and Joliet, Illinois; Hammond, Gary and East Chicago, Indiana, are easily delineated. The photograph reveals the following: (1) Cultural differentiation of commercial, industrial and residential areas for use in population and social studies in micro-macro community planning and in cultural pattern studies in the improvement of urban areas. (Aurora is one of 27 census cities of interest to Robert Alexander, a principal investigator. Alexander is with the U.S. Geological Survey). (2) The transportation network with major corridors and their interchanges, primary and feeder streets for use in network analysis and in the development of models for population movement and land use projection. (3) The agricultural lands for land use identification on crop inventory analysis; airports for use in delineation of service and infringement of major man-made features that affect ecosystem balance (support to environmental impact studies). (4) Air and water plumes for use in case studies, natural and man-made differentiation of pollution sources, in support of model development and in ecosystem research studies on the effects of pollution. (5) Recreational centers for use in relating recreational centers to population centers, establishing possible demands and in development of possible future recreational centers to support the demand. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  19. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  20. The Impact on Traffic Safety in Bus Stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kailun; Guang, Xiaoping; Qian, Yongsheng

    The article improves the attraction of public transportation system when the safety is taken into account during the selection of bus stops. In this paper, the characteristics of traffic conflict at bus stops is analyzed from various types of bus stops and the applicability of bus stations is proposed in comply with provisions of security. It has a certain reference value on selection of bus stops.

  1. Can We Afford These Affordances? GarageBand and the Double-Edged Sword of the Digital Audio Workstation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of computers, tablets, and smartphones has resulted in digital audio workstations (DAWs) such as GarageBand in being some of the most widely distributed musical instruments. Positing that software designers are dictating the music education of DAW-dependent music-makers, I examine the fallacy that music-making applications such…

  2. Can We Afford These Affordances? GarageBand and the Double-Edged Sword of the Digital Audio Workstation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of computers, tablets, and smartphones has resulted in digital audio workstations (DAWs) such as GarageBand in being some of the most widely distributed musical instruments. Positing that software designers are dictating the music education of DAW-dependent music-makers, I examine the fallacy that music-making applications such…

  3. A Case Study Exploring the Use of GarageBand[TM] and an Electronic Bulletin Board in Preservice Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vratulis, Vetta; Morton, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research study is an exploration of the merit and shortcomings of using a combination of the music software GarageBand[TM] and an electronic bulletin board to facilitate musical and peer learning in a 3-month elementary music methods curriculum and instruction course. A pedagogical objective of this assignment was to increase the…

  4. Increasing Turn Signal Use by Drivers Exiting a University Parking Garage: A Comparison of Passive and Mediated Prompting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael; Myers, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The present study attempted to further existing literature on increasing safe driving practices through visual prompts by targeting turn signal use at a 4-way intersection. Drivers exiting a university parking garage were presented with a visual prompt ("Please Signal and Drive Safely") and then observed for turn signal use while entering an…

  5. A Case Study Exploring the Use of GarageBand[TM] and an Electronic Bulletin Board in Preservice Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vratulis, Vetta; Morton, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research study is an exploration of the merit and shortcomings of using a combination of the music software GarageBand[TM] and an electronic bulletin board to facilitate musical and peer learning in a 3-month elementary music methods curriculum and instruction course. A pedagogical objective of this assignment was to increase the…

  6. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  7. A software bus for thread objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Li, Dehuai

    1995-01-01

    The authors have implemented a software bus for lightweight threads in an object-oriented programming environment that allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in discrete-event simulation experiments. While previous research in object-oriented, parallel programming environments has focused on direct communication between threads, our lightweight software bus, called the MiniBus, provides a means to isolate threads from their contexts of execution by restricting communications between threads to message-passing via their local ports only. The software bus maintains a topology of connections between these ports. It routes, queues, and delivers messages according to this topology. This approach allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in other systems without making changes to the specifications or source code. A layered approach that provides the needed transparency to developers is presented. Examples of using the MiniBus are given, and the value of bus architectures in building and conducting simulations of discrete-event systems is discussed.

  8. Environmental Inequality in Metropolitan America

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Liam; Dubois, Summer; Hawkins, Brian; Walker, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the environmental hazard burden experienced by Blacks, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Whites in each of the 329 metropolitan areas in the continental United States, using toxicity-weighted air pollutant concentration data drawn from the Environmental Protection Agency's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators project to determine whether and to what degree environmental inequality exists in each of these metropolitan areas. After demonstrating that environmental inequality outcomes vary widely across metropolitan areas and that each group in the analysis experiences a high pollution disadvantage in multiple metropolitan areas and a medium pollution disadvantage in many metropolitan areas, the authors test three hypotheses that make predictions about the role that residential segregation and racial income inequality play in producing environmental inequality. Using logistic regression models to test these hypotheses, the authors find that residential segregation and racial income inequality are relatively poor predictors of environmental inequality outcomes, that residential segregation can increase and decrease racial/ethnic group proximity to environmental hazards, and that the roles income inequality and residential segregation play in producing environmental inequality vary from one racial/ethnic group to another. PMID:19960094

  9. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... facilities or electrical recharging facilities and related equipment for such buses; or (3) Projects relating to clean fuel, biodiesel, hybrid electric, or zero emissions technology buses that exhibit equivalent... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities...

  10. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  11. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  12. School Bus and School Pupil Activity Bus Inspection and Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowash, Fred W.

    This publication deals with suggested maintenance standards that apply to vehicles used for pupil transportation in California and covers all the safety-related systems that are common to most buses. The guide has been prepared to help all school bus and school pupil activity bus operators set up an inspection and preventive maintenance program…

  13. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  14. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  15. Industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation of municipal solid waste to biogas.

    PubMed

    Qian, M Y; Li, R H; Li, J; Wedwitschka, H; Nelles, M; Stinner, W; Zhou, H J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to through monitoring the 1st industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation (GTDF) MSW biogas plant in Bin County, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate its anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and the stability of process. After a monitoring period of 180days, the results showed that the volumetric biogas production of the digesters and percolate tank was 0.72 and 2.22m(3) (m(3)d)(-1), respectively, and the specific biogas yield of the feedstock was about 270m(3)CH4tVS(-1), which indicated that the GTDF is appropriate for the Chinese MSW. This paper also raised some problems aimed at improving the process stability and AD efficiency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  17. Education, Demand, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Berube, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This report examines education gaps and industry demand in the nation's 100 largest metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas are a natural unit of analysis given that they offer the best approximation of a regional labor market. Moreover, the wide variation in metropolitan area economic performance, as documented by the Brookings MetroMonitor…

  18. Metropolitan population growth in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, K E

    1977-01-01

    A study or urban population growth in Arab countries has 3 objectives: 1) examination at the micro level of recent demographic trends in selected metropolitan areas of the Arab world and their relationship to changes in the total and urban populations in the respective countries; 2) estimation of net migration by sex and broad age groups for each metropolitan area; and 3) analysis of the pattern of variation in the metropolitan growth rates and their components, migration and natural increase. The study covers the cities proper or urban agglomerations, which includes the suburbs, whose population exceeded 100,000 in the most recent census. Altogether, the study covers 49 metropolitan areas from 9 Arab countries--Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt; Sudan; Syria; Iraq; and Kuwait. Analysis revealed that metropolitan growth rates do follow geographic patterns. In countries with an oil-based economy, metropolitan growth rates are high; in countries with unexploited resources they are slightly below the 1st group; and countries which have pressure on land have low metropolitan growth rates. Population size of the metropolitan area appears to be an important factor associated with variations in metropolitan growth rates and net migration rates. Natural increase emerges as the predominant factor in metropolitan growth, but the differentials in the growth rates are more clearly associated with variations in net migration rates. As all the possibilities of analysis of relationships of metropolitan growth have not been exhausted, it is proposed to examine additional variables as possible factors associated with the speed of metropolitan growth.

  19. Education, Demand, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Berube, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This report examines education gaps and industry demand in the nation's 100 largest metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas are a natural unit of analysis given that they offer the best approximation of a regional labor market. Moreover, the wide variation in metropolitan area economic performance, as documented by the Brookings MetroMonitor…

  20. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future. PMID:27992590

  1. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  2. Positioning the Undervalued Metropolitan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herbert E.

    1993-01-01

    It is noted that "undervalued metropolitan universities," which generally have open enrollment, low tuition, and a large proportion of nontraditional students, often also have a diffuse and unclear public image. A model positioning concept for these institutions, used by Wright State University (Ohio) is proposed and described. (MSE)

  3. Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, John Dean, Ed.

    Two major objectives of the Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study were: (1) to produce a directory of sites around Columbus, Ohio, having fieldtrip potential; and (2) to test the validity of the concept that field trips are a useful method in aiding student educational growth. The first section of this document relates the history…

  4. 75 FR 74134 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Mokhtee Ahmad, Regional Administrator, Region 2--New York, One Administrator, Region 7-- Bowling Green..., Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. New York Metropolitan Office, Region 2-- New York, One Bowling...

  5. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  6. Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers.

  7. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers.

  8. Research in bus and rail transit operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Wegmann, F.J.; Ceder, A.; Levinson, H.S.; Hollander, A.

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Private Sector Involvement in Sponsoring Sunday Bus Service; Optimal Design of Transit Short-Turn Trips; New York City's Unfranchised Buses: Case Study in Deregulation; Critical Factors in Planning Multimodal Passenger Terminals; Use of Travelers' Attitudes in Rail Service Design; Driven, Attended, and Fully Automated Transit; Qualitative Comparison; Impact on Transit Patronage of Cessation or Inauguration of Rail Service; Use of Productivity Factors in Estimating LRT Operating Costs; Simulation Study To Evaluate Spare Ratios in Bus Transit Systems; Statistical Evaluation of Spare Ratio in Transit Rolling Stock.

  9. Design of multi-mission spacecraft bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Brij N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary design of a multimission spacecraft bus for meteorological and communications payloads. The meteorological payload uses sun-synchronous circular orbit and the communications payload uses Molniya type orbit to provide communications for areas not covered by geosynchronous communications satellites. The launch vehicles are Pegasus for the meteorological payload and Taurus for the communications payload. The spacecraft bus uses three-axis stabilization consisting of a three reaction wheel system. The electric power system consists of single-axis tracking silicon solar array and Ni2 H2 batteries. The propulsion subsystem consists of six hydrazine thrusters and one propellant tank.

  10. Bus training for developmentally disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Griffith, J; McComish, K; Swasbrook, K

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a program combining classroom and community training in the teaching of bus-riding skills to developmentally disabled adults. These skills were taught sequentially using questions about a slide presentation, role playing, and performance in the natural environment. The experimental design was based upon the work of Neef, Iwata, and Page (1978). Test trials were conducted after each phase of training. Results showed that all subjects learned the necessary bus-riding skills and maintained their performance throughout the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The combination training method proved to be efficient and cost effective.

  11. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Lowell D.; Hoffman, Dennis J.; Oberly, Charles E.

    Metallic superconductors requiring refrigeration in the range of 4 to 10 K are of no benefit to the baseload space power system bus because the refrigeration and insulation constraints are too severe. The ceramic superconductors that can operate in the range of 20 to 100 K alleviate a great deal of the refrigeration problem and can compete with conventional hot bus distribution systems on the basis of mass for a bus exceeding a few meters in length. The ultimate benefit of the superconducting bus to the space power system will not be the mass savings. The great benefit of the superconducting bus will be the enormous reduction in bus voltage requirements due to the zero voltage drop along the bus. Low bus voltage (less than 100 Vdc) will permit a conventional dielectric insulation technology to be utilized as baseload powers are forced above 10 kW on spacecraft.

  12. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  13. 24. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR BUS POTENTIAL FOR UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR BUS POTENTIAL FOR UNIT NO 1 IN BUS CELL GALLERY ON LEVEL +77 OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. The crew activity planning system bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware and software designs used to implement a high speed parallel communications interface to the MITRE 307.2 kilobit/second serial bus communications system are described. The primary topic is the development of the bus interface unit.

  15. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  16. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    The Android-based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in the system. The Android device...operates in USB Host mode and communicates to the RS-485 bus as if a single peripheral on the USB bus .

  17. Developing a Computer Program for Bus Routing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rita M.; Thomas, Warren H.

    A computer-based method was developed that can translate available data about schools, students, and bus facilities into a set of bus routes and schedules prior to the start of the school year. Each route can be so designed via the computer model that student riding time and bus capacity constraints are satisfied at the same time that total bus…

  18. Development and Implementation of a Bus Driver Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchovecky, John G.

    A bus driver training program was developed and implemented in a rural school district in an effort to improve the driving skills of the bus drivers. The program was tailored to meet the needs of the bus drivers and utilized various community agencies for demonstration and teaching purposes. The subject areas included in the program were driver…

  19. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  20. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  1. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  2. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  3. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  4. Ashford Conn. Gets Funds for New Cleaner School Bus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Town of Ashford, Conn. will receive $20,000 from the USEPA to help pay for a new school bus that emits less pollution than its older bus. The new bus will help reduce pollution linked to health problems such as asthma and lung damage.

  5. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus KidsHealth > For Kids > Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus A A A What's ... re probably getting there by riding in a car or a school bus. Most kids spend some ...

  6. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  7. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell& Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    2003-08-01

    Fact sheet describes the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus that was demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency from November 2002 to February 2003. The bus was evaluated by DOE's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  8. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  9. Energy DataBus (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    NREL has developed the Energy DataBus, an open-sourced software that collects massive amounts of energy-related data at second-to-second intervals; stores it in a massive, scalable database; and turns it into useful information.

  10. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  11. EPA Love the Bus in Texas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 11, 2015) Texas' school bus drivers safely transport children to and from school every day and they should not have to worry about pollutants emitted from buses. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is awarding a total of $

  12. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  13. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  14. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  15. SDRAM bus schedule of HDTV video decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; He, Yan L.; Yu, Lu

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a time division multiplexed task scheduling (TDM) is designed for HDTV video decoder is proposed. There are three tasks: to fetch decoded data from SDRAM for displaying (DIS), read the reference data from SDRAM for motion compensating (REF) and write the motion compensated data back to SDRAM (WB) on the bus. The proposed schedule is based on the novel 4 banks interlaced SDRAM storage structure which results in less overhead on read/write time. Two SDRAM of 64M bits (4Bank×512K×32bit) are used. Compared with two banks, the four banks storage strategy read/write data with 45% less time. Therefore the process data rates for those three tasks are reduced. TDM is developed by round robin scheduling and fixed slot allocating. There are both MB slot and task slot. As a result the conflicts on bus are avoided, and the buffer size is reduced 48% compared with the priority bus scheduling. Moreover, there is a compacted bus schedule for the worst case of stuffing owning to the reduced executing time on tasks. The size of buffer is reduced and the control logic is simplified.

  16. [Metropolitan areas in Mexico, 1980].

    PubMed

    Negrete Salas, M E; Salazar Sanchez, H

    1986-01-01

    Urban trends in Mexico from 1960 to 1980 are analyzed using multivariate analysis techniques. The authors note that the total number of metropolitan regions has increased from 12 to 26 during this period. Differences between the stage in urbanization reached by the Mexico City region and other urban centers in the country are noted. In Mexico City, the authors observe a decline in the population of the central city region coupled with rapid growth in the surrounding municipalities. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  17. Geohydrology and contamination at the Michigan Department of Transportation maintenance garage area, Kalamazoo County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, E.A.; Huffman, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A leaking underground storage tank was removed from the Michigan Department of Transportation maintenance garage area in Kalamazoo County., Mich., in 1985. The tank had been leaking unleaded gasoline. Although a remediation system was operational at the site for several years after the tank was removed, ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells in the area consistently showed high concentrations of benzene, toluene. ethylbenzene, and xylenes--indicators of the presence of gasoline. The U.S. Geological Survey did a study in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Transportation, to define the geology, hydrology, and occurrence of gasoline contamination in the maintenance garage area. The aquifer affected by gasoline contamination is an unconfined glaci'a.l sand and gravel aquifer. The average depth to water in the study area is about 74.7 feet. Water-level fluctuations are small; maximum fluctuation was slightly more than 1 foot during August 1993-August 1994. Hydraulic conductivities based on aquifer-test data collected for the study and estimated by use of the Cooper-Jacob method of solution ranged from 130 to 144 feet per day. Ground water is moving in an east-southeasterly direction at a rate of about I foot per day. Leakage from perforated pipes leading from the underground storage tanks to the pump station was identified as a second source of gasoline contamination to saturated and unsaturated zones. The existence of this previously unknown second source is part of the reason that previous remediation efforts were ineffective. Residual contaminants in the unsaturated zone are expected to continue to move to the water table with recharge, except in a small area covered by asphalt at the land surface. The gasoline plume from the perforated pipe source has merged with that from the leaking underground storage tank, and the combined plume in the saturated zone is estimated to cover an area of 30,000 square feet. The combined plume is in the upper 20

  18. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  19. Numerical study of urban traffic flow with dedicated bus lane and intermittent bus lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.

    2010-08-01

    Based on the cellular automaton traffic flow model and the concept of public transport priority, a two-lane traffic model with an intermittent bus lane is proposed and the properties of urban traffic flow are studied. The cases of traffic with a dedicated bus lane (DBL), an intermittent bus lane (IBL) and an ordinary two-lane traffic are simulated, and comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams and the velocity-density profiles are made between them. It is shown that the DBL has the advantage of freeing buses from traffic interference and also has the disadvantage of disrupting traffic, the IBL is more efficient in improving the bus flow than ordinary two-lane traffic and maintaining the car flow at a higher level at the same time than the DBL, while the ordinary two-lane traffic suppresses public transportation and is not advantageous in easing urban traffic congestion. Also it is indicated that the DBL is only appropriate for low traffic flow in a two-lane traffic system, and this limitation can be partly overcome by opening the bus lane to general traffic intermittently when the bus lane is not in use by buses.

  20. 58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER THE CONTROL ROOM MEZZANINE IN THE SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM. BUS IS A HEAVY COPPER BAR APPROXIMATELY 1/2" BY 4" WHICH CONDUCTS POWER THROUGHOUT THE POWER PLANT. BUS ARE PROTECTED BY A BRICK AND SOAPSTONE HOUSING. OPENINGS FOR INSPECTION AND ACCESS WOULD NORMALLY BE PROTECTED BY GLASS DOORS. THE BUS WOULD BE SUPPORTED ON INSULATORS WITHIN THE BRICK CHAMBER. BUS WAS REMOVED AND SALVAGED WHEN THE STATION WAS ABANDONED. THE OBJECT IN THE TOP CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER USED TO REDUCE BUS POTENTIAL OF 2200 VOLTS TO LOW VOLTAGES SAFE FOR USE IN CONTROL ROOM CIRCUITRY. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS ARE PRECISION DEVICES WHICH PRODUCE AN ACCURATE LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG OF THE HIGH VOLTAGE ON THE BUS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  1. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  2. Priorities for an age-friendly bus system.

    PubMed

    Broome, Kieran; Worrall, Linda; McKenna, Kryss; Boldy, Duncan

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the barriers and facilitators to bus use for people aged 60 or older. Two complementary methodologies, nominal group technique and focussed ethnography, were used to identify barriers and facilitators and rank their importance. Two sample sites from Queensland, Australia, were selected, with 227 people participating in the nominal group technique and 40 people participating in the focussed ethnography component. Seven priorities for age-friendly bus systems emerged from the data: vehicle entrance/exit; bus driver friendliness and helpfulness; timetables and scheduling of buses; bus stop locations; pedestrian infrastructure; information and training for older people; and bus routes and destinations. These findings will assist researchers, policy makers, and transport providers to set evidence-based strategic directions for creating age-friendly bus systems. Both methods provide complementary perspectives on bus usability, which could not be gained from either method alone.

  3. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  4. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  5. Metropolitan Areas as Redistributors of Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Curtis C.; McHugh, Kevin E.

    This paper reports on a demographic study that focuses on the patterns of migration to and from specific metropolitan areas which contribute to nonmetropolitan growth and decline. For background, the paper examines some general properties of the United States migration system. Then the concept of metropolitan areas as redistributors of population…

  6. Where Is the Metropolitan U.S.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, Kimberly A.

    1987-01-01

    A Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) may be comprised of one or more counties, can cross state lines, and must contain a city or urbanized area of 50,000 or more people. The population of the whole county (or counties) is included in the MSA even if part of the county is rural. A Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) must have over…

  7. Schools, Housing, Jobs, Transportation: Interlocking Metropolitan Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, William G.

    In this paper the interrelationships among income, health, education, employment and crime in the nation's metropolitan areas are explored in the context of recent and current trends in housing, transportation and urban growth policy. The central role of inner city schools in these phenomena is assessed. Alternative metropolitan strategies for…

  8. Metrolink: Developing Human Resources through Metropolitan Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington, DC.

    The MetroLink project supported and studied the process of collaboration for human resource development in American metropolitan areas. The project was conducted in 1984 and 1985 in the following eight metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Hartford, Connecticut; Indianapolis, Indiana; Louisville, Kentucky; Minneapolis,…

  9. Communication design for multi-boards based on VME bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Song, Fazhi; Wei, Kai; Fu, Zhenxian

    2015-02-01

    As a widely used open-architecture computer bus ,VME bus is increasingly applied in military, aerospace, transportation and other large-scale control systems. Lithography, a very delicate and complicated integrated circuit manufacturing equipment, uses many circuit boards with VME interface in its control system, including one single-board computer, many movement control boards and one data acquisition board. This paper designs communication modules which include VME bus module and VME user-defined bus module for multi-boards in Lithography control system. VME bus module is designed for the communication between the single-board computer and movement control boards and VME user-defined bus is designed for the communication between movement control boards and data acquisition board. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  10. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an applicant's...

  11. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  12. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  13. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  14. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  15. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  16. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  17. Pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. Q.; Li, Yueming

    1997-12-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of two hardwared priority schemes: the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performance of the proposed bus is significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time-division multiplexing optical buses. The possibilities of using our buses to construct multichannel switches and multidimensional processor arrays are also discussed.

  18. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  19. Research on service bus of network-centric simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Mao, Shao-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, You-Liang; Zhu, Yu

    2013-03-01

    When high level architecture is used to build complex systems in support of modeling and simulation, the problems are low level of interoperability and poor reusage. Based on the concept of service-oriented and distributed technologies, a service bus of network-centric simulation is proposed. Definite the concept of community of service and service bus, establish the architecture of simulation service bus and its implementation framework, analyze three key technologies of its implementation process. The primary research and practice show that: the proposed simulation service bus can support to run community simulation tasks based on Internet and provide a reference for building a service-oriented environment of network centric simulation.

  20. TACSAT-spacecraft bus concept and design: Application of a multimission bus for TACSAT in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Georges

    1993-02-01

    Some details as to what is a tactical satellite, as far as such satellites are very often associated with the notion of cheap small satellites, are analyzed. The design process of a low earth orbit multimission bus for tactical application is described.

  1. When the Wheels on the Bus Go Round: Social Interactions on the School Bus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliger, Courtney C.; Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John

    2009-01-01

    Children's social interactions are often dependent upon the setting or context in which they occur. The current study explored the school bus as a unique context for social interaction. One hundred and fifty-seven elementary school students (78 males and 79 females), in grades 3, 4, and 5, completed a questionnaire concerning the rate and types of…

  2. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  3. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  4. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  5. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  6. An SAE high speed ring bus overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, Brian W.; Shih, Hubert

    An overview of the protocols and important features of the SAE high-speed ring bus (HSRB) standard is presented here, along with the functional design of a typical ring interface unit architecture. The counterrotating ring topology, with both loopback and bypass mechanisms, provides the high degree of fault tolerance desirable in many military and avionic systems. The error-detection, fault-detection, and recovery mechanisms are briefly described to illustrate the robustness of the HSRB system. The reserved-priority token-passing protocol is shown to provide efficient and deterministic performance, uselful in real-time applications where messages must be transmitted predictably, quickly, and reliably.

  7. Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretthauer, Joy W.; Chalfant, Chuck H.; Orlando, Fred J.; Parkerson, P.; Rezek, Ed; Sawyer, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB) is an IEEE 1393 compliant, gigabit per second, fiber optic network specifically designed to support the real-time, on-board data handling requirements of remote sensing spacecraft. The network is fault tolerant highly reliable, and capable of withstanding the rigors of launch and the harsh space environment. SFODB achieves this operational and environmental performance while maintaining the small size, light weight, and low power necessary for spaceborne applications. On December 9, 1998, SFODB was successfully demonstrated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  8. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  10. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  11. School bus pollution and changes in the air quality at schools: a case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlei; Nguyen, Quyen; Ryan, Patrick H; Lemasters, Grace K; Spitz, Henry; Lobaugh, Megan; Glover, Samuel; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2009-05-01

    Millions of children attending US schools are exposed to traffic-related air pollutants, including health-relevant ultrafine aerosols generated from school buses powered with diesel fuel. This case study was established in a midwestern (USA) metropolitan area to determine the concentration and elemental composition of aerosol in the vicinity of a public school during morning hours when the bus traffic in and out of the adjacent depot was especially intense. Simultaneous measurements were performed at a control site. The ambient aerosol was first characterized in real time using a particle size selective aerosol spectrometer and then continuously monitored at each site with a real-time non-size-selective instrument that detected particles of 20 nm to >1 microm. In addition, air samples were collected with PM2.5 Harvard Impactors and analyzed for elemental composition using the X-ray fluorescence technique (for 38 elements) and thermal-optical transmittance (for carbon). The measurements were conducted during two seasons: in March at ambient temperature around 0 degrees C and in May when it ranged mostly between 10 and 20 degrees C. The particle number concentration at the test site exhibited high temporal variability while it was time independent at the control site. Overall, the aerosol particle count at the school was 4.7 +/- 1.0 times (March) and 2.2 +/- 0.4 times (May) greater than at the control site. On some days, a 15 min-averaged particle number concentration showed significant correlation with the number of school bus arrivals and departures during these time intervals. On other days, the correlation was less than statistically significant. The 3 h time-averaged particle concentrations determined in the test site on days when the school buses operated were found to be more than two-fold greater (on average) than those measured on bus-free days at the same location, and this difference was statistically significant. Overall, the data suggest a possible

  12. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  13. The Geography of Metropolitan Carbon Footprints

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Southworth, Frank; Sarzynski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The world s metropolitan carbon footprints have distinct geographies that are not well understood or recognized in debates about climate change, partly because data on greenhouse gas emissions is so inadequate. This article describes the results of the most comprehensive assessment of carbon footprints for major American metropolitan areasavailable to date, focusing on residential and transportation carbon emissions for the largest 100 metropolitan areas in the United States. These findings are put into the context of effortsacross the country and the globe to characterize carbon impacts and policy linkages.

  14. Using the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft onboard applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Chris; Bordes, Yves

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus as the principal onboard data handling bus for future spacecraft applications. The paper takes a pragmatic approach by: Identifying the characteristics of the onboard bus traffic and its characteristics; Looking at future trends in onboard bus traffic; Describing the characteristics of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus; Proposing techniques that can be used on the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft application.

  15. Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…

  16. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  17. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  18. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  19. Preliminary Investigation of Workload on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    The daily routine of bus traffic controller which involves high mental processes would have a direct impact on the level of workload. To date, the level of workload on the bus traffic controllers in Malaysia is relatively unknown. Excessive workload on bus traffic controllers would affect the control and efficiency of the system. This paper served to study the workload on bus traffic controllers and justify the needs to conduct further detailed research on this field. The objectives of this research are to identify the level of workload on the intrastate bus traffic controllers. Based on the results, recommendations will be proposed for improvements and future studies. The level of workload for the bus traffic controllers is quantified using questionnaire adapted from NASA TLX. Interview sessions were conducted for validation of workload. Sixteen respondents were involved and it was found that the average level of workload based on NASA TLX was 6.91. It was found that workload is not affected by gender and marital status. This study also showed that the level of workload and working experience of bus traffic controllers has a strong positive linear relationship. This study would serve as a guidance and reference related to this field. Since this study is a preliminary investigation, further detailed studies could be conducted to obtain a better comprehension regarding the bus traffic controllers.

  20. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  1. Parents' Perceptions of the Rural School Bus Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Rob; Howley, Aimee

    2005-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study of the perceptions of parents about the experience of long bus rides on their children. Twenty-six parents, whose homes were located on the longest bus route in a rural Midwestern school district, provided interviews regarding the experiences of a total of 37 students. In the analysis of the interview…

  2. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  3. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide--Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    Geared to behavioral objectives, the instruction is organized into programed units on emergency driving techniques, first aid, field trips, transporting exceptional students, detecting hazards, controlling the position of the bus, driving under special conditions, and preventive maintenance of the bus. Each unit is constructed around content…

  4. Read This Before You Buy Your Next School Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Paul

    1981-01-01

    To avoid losing money when buying a bus, a school board should know its district's needs, use the district transportation officer's expertise, investigate local dealers' credentials, learn about differences in bus quality, follow detailed specifications, and pay promptly upon purchase. (RW)

  5. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  6. Incidence and characteristics of school bus crashes and injuries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Cheng, Gang; Heiden, Erin; Falb, Scott; Ramirez, Marizen

    2009-03-01

    Studies of school bus crashes have focused on the biomechanics of catastrophic collisions, with very few examining crash incidence. Crashes in the state of Iowa were examined from January 2002 through December 2005. School bus crashes were identified through the Iowa Crash Data, a comprehensive database of all reported crashes in the State of Iowa. School bus mileage data were provided by the Iowa Department of Education. School bus crash, fatality, and injury rates were calculated and differences in crash and injury characteristics between school buses and other vehicles were examined. The school bus crash, fatality and non-fatal injury rates were 320.7, 0.4 and 13.6 per 100 million bus miles travelled, respectively. School bus crash fatality and injury rates were 3.5 and 5.4 times lower than overall all vehicle crash fatality and injury rates, respectively. Drivers of other vehicles were more likely to have caused the crash than the bus driver (P<0.001). School buses experience low crash rates, and the majority of crashes do not lead to injury. Buses are among the safest forms of road transportation, and efforts to educate drivers of other vehicles may help reduce crashes with buses.

  7. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  8. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  9. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  10. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ... Apr-12 May-12 Jun-12 Jul-12 Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar-13 Miles Kilometers Bus Propulsion System FC System FC System MBRC 2016 Target Bus MBRC 2016 Target ...

  11. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  12. 16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view to the southeast. An air circuit breaker compressor (visible in photograph number 2) was once attached to the main bus relay visible in the background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  13. In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake-drum service controls at Cincinnati Gas and Electric Garages, Cincinnati, Evanston, and Monroe, Ohio and Covington, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Todd, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Methods used to control asbestos release from brake linings during brake servicing jobs were evaluated at Cincinnati Gas and Electric garages in Ohio and Kentucky. Air samples and general-work-practice evaluations were made at four of ten garages during brake jobs on six different vehicles to determine whether dust-control measures in use were sufficient to limit the potential for exposure to asbestos dust to workers. A solvent spray was used to suppress brake dust, being applied to all exposed surfaces after the brake drum has been removed. In one garage a mechanic applied the solvent by the wet-brush method, while in the other garages the solvent was sprayed on the exposed surfaces. Asbestos concentrations in personal samples for the five vehicles having brake drums less than or equal to 12 inches in diameter was 0.046 fibers/cubic centimeter (f/cc). The greatest potential exposure occurred during spraying of brake components and drums. The second-highest dust levels occurred during loosening and tightening of lug bolts with a pneumatic air wrench. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the wet spray and wet brush methods for containing asbestos exposures.

  14. Prediction of Metropolitan Readiness Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of several visual and auditory predictors of the Metropolitan Readiness Test was examined utilizing 106 grade 1 subjects considered by their teachers to show learning difficulties. (Author/JC)

  15. Hubbell Metropolitan Development Fund I, LLC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Hubbell Metropolitan Development Fund I, LLC, for alleged violations at the SE Westown Parkway realignment, near the intersection of R22, and undertaken as part of the Glyn

  16. Genetic algorithm for multiple bus line coordination on urban arterial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuyan; Ding, Haoyang; Li, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  17. Mechanical and embedded systems design for Generic Nanosatellite Bus spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Scott Edward

    The adaptation of the University of Toronto Space Flight Laboratory Generic Nanosatellite Bus (GNB) mechanical design to Earth-observation and communications applications is investigated. The ability of this bus to expand the capabilities of low-cost nanosatellites by accommodating large pre-deployed payload appendages, such as antennas, is demonstrated. In addition, the operational architecture of a cold-gas nanosatellite propulsion system, enabling small satellite constellations and formation flying, is described. Component testing of this system has validated compliance with subsystem requirements. Lastly, the design and development of a multi-mission embedded systems generic firmware is described. This firmware consolidates common and critical software functionality, greatly reducing both the risk and cost of developing software for new embedded systems. The firmware has been designed for a distributed-node microcontroller bus architecture in general, and the Nanosatellite for Earth Monitoring and Observation (NEMO) bus and Generic Nanosatellite Bus in particular.

  18. Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on Urban Arterial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuyan; Ding, Haoyang; Li, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority. PMID:25663837

  19. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  20. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  1. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  2. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  3. Using field bus for optical gas monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiangyin; Seah, Leong K.; Ong, Lin S.; Asundi, Anand K.

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents a proposal for an optical gas monitoring system based on fieldbus. With the help of the advanced signal processing system more than one hundred gas detectors can be connected to a host system by a single shared bus cable over which the gas detectors, now incorporating with their own intelligence, communicate digitally with the host system. The new system supplies not only about the gas level but also about the physical condition of each sensor. Planed maintenance can be performed to ensure that gas monitor system is maintained in full working order. Integrating fieldbus with optical gas sensor will also have dramatic saving in field wiring and the man-hours for system verification and configuration.

  4. Status of the FASTBUS standard data bus

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.S.

    1980-11-01

    FASTBUS is a new laboratory standard data bus intended for use in experimental data acquisition and control. The development of FASTBUS began with a feasibility study in 1976, and is presently at the development prototyping stage. The principal aims of the standard are to provide a factor of ten or more improvement in speed of data transfers over present systems, as well as to provide an architecture for systems containing multiple processors. Developmental prototypes now in progress include crates, backplanes, cooling devices, power supplies, test and diagnostic modules, and user modules. A sizeable software development effort is also underway. Several experiments have made commitments to use FASTBUS. A review of current work and potential applications is given. 10 figures.

  5. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  6. Integrated optics bus access module for intramachine communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Tammela, Simo K. T.; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The feasibility of a passive bidirectional fiber optic bus and the packaging considerations of a bus access module have been studied. The bus uses 110/125 micrometers HCS fiber and passive integrated optic couplers for bus access. The access couplers are asymmetric and were fabricated using a Ag-Na ion exchange process. The asymmetry of the coupler was 5 dB, the launch loss to the bus was 6 dB and the tap-off loss to the node was 11 dB. With the integrated optics coupler it is possible to connect 6 nodes to the bidirectional bus. It is also possible to realize a simple, easy-to-use, and reliable bus access module for intramachine communication. The integrated optics coupler, a LED chip, and a PIN-diode chip and transceiver electronics are packaged in an electrical connector with a two-fiber optical cable pigtail. Active and passive components are butt coupled to the coupler. The 0.5 dB alignment tolerances for the fiber pigtails, the LED, and the PIN-diode chips are +/- 5 micrometers .

  7. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  8. Modeling level-of-safety for bus stops in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhirui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Yongbo; Shi, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-17

    Safety performance at bus stops is generally evaluated by using historical traffic crash data or traffic conflict data. However, in China, it is quite difficult to obtain such data mainly due to the lack of traffic data management and organizational issues. In light of this, the primary objective of this study is to develop a quantitative approach to evaluate bus stop safety performance. The concept of level-of-safety for bus stops is introduced and corresponding models are proposed to quantify safety levels, which consider conflict points, traffic factors, geometric characteristics, traffic signs and markings, pavement conditions, and lighting conditions. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering methods were used to model and quantify safety levels for bus stops. A case study was conducted to show the applicability of the proposed model with data collected from 46 samples for the 7 most common types of bus stops in China, using 32 of the samples for modeling and 14 samples for illustration. Based on the case study, 6 levels of safety for bus stops were defined. Finally, a linear regression analysis between safety levels and the number of traffic conflicts showed that they had a strong relationship (R(2) value of 0.908). The results indicated that the method was well validated and could be practically used for the analysis and evaluation of bus stop safety in China. The proposed model was relatively easy to implement without the requirement of traffic crash data and/or traffic conflict data. In addition, with the proposed method, it was feasible to evaluate countermeasures to improve bus stop safety (e.g., exclusive bus lanes).

  9. Time and distance barriers to mammography facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Foster, Stephanie; Flanagan, Barry; Dent, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    To a great extent, research on geographic accessibility to mammography facilities has focused on urban-rural differences. Spatial accessibility within urban areas can nonetheless pose a challenge, especially for minorities and low-income urban residents who are more likely to depend on public transportation. To examine spatial and temporal accessibility to mammography facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area by public and private transportation, we built a multimodal transportation network model including bus and rail routes, bus and rail stops, transfers, walk times, and wait times. Our analysis of travel times from the population-weighted centroids of the 282 census tracts in the 2-county area to the nearest facility found that the median public transportation time was almost 51 minutes. We further examined public transportation travel times by levels of household access to a private vehicle. Residents in tracts with the lowest household access to a private vehicle had the shortest travel times, suggesting that facilities were favorably located for women who have to use public transportation. However, census tracts with majority non-Hispanic black populations had the longest travel times for all levels of vehicle availability. Time to the nearest mammography facility would not pose a barrier to women who had access to a private vehicle. This study adds to the literature demonstrating differences in spatial accessibility to health services by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Ameliorating spatial inaccessibility represents an opportunity for intervention that operates at the population level.

  10. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion.

  11. Fair dynamic arbitration for a multiprocessor communications bus

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, J.D.; Crockett, T.W.

    1982-09-01

    The finite element machine (FEM) is an experimental parallel computer consisting of an array of 36 asynchronous microcomputers. One method of interprocessor communication of FEM is a bi-directional parallel bus which uses a dynamic arbitration scheme to increase bus bandwidth. Testing of this bus revealed an imbalance in transfer rates for individual processors. The imbalance was traced to a defect in arbiter design, and two criteria were identified which must be met to ensure fair dynamic arbitration. These involve (1) priority sequencing, and (2) the efficiency of the arbiter. 3 references.

  12. Analysis of bus collision and non-collision incidents using transit ITS and other archived operations data.

    PubMed

    Strathman, James G; Wachana, Paul; Callas, Steve

    2010-04-01

    This paper analyzes factors contributing to bus operations safety incidents at TriMet, the transit provider for the Portland Oregon metropolitan region. The analysis focuses on 4,631 collision and non-collision incidents that occurred between 2006 and 2009. Empirical analysis of these incidents draws on a wide array of operator-level data recovered by transit ITS technologies in combination with information from TriMet's human resources, scheduling, and customer relations databases. Incident frequencies are estimated in relation to operators' demographic characteristics, employment status, assigned work characteristics, service delivery and performance indicators, temporal factors, and customer information. Apart from identifying factors that are empirically related to the frequency of safety incidents, the findings offer insights into operations policies and practices that hold promise for improving safety. Potential for safety improvement based on analysis of archived operations and human resource data. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Classroom Activities in School Bus and Pedestrian Safety Education. Bulletin No. 93138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Transportation, Madison.

    School bus and related pedestrian safety education is prevention-oriented so that students will learn how to avoid bus-related accidents. This manual provides lesson plans emphasizing the school bus stop, loading and unloading zones, emergency evacuation drills, and appropriate behavior on the school bus. The guide also recognizes demographic…

  14. Water Supply Provision in Sarbagita Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryati, S.; Humaira, ANS; Rachmat, SY

    2017-07-01

    Sarbagita (Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar, and Tabanan) Metropolitan Area is one of seven metropolitan areas in Indonesia, located in the coastal region of Bali Island. Providing clean water in the coastal region is generally constrained by the limited sources of water. Besides, there is also disparity issue between the core and peri-urban area. The purpose of this study is to explore the conditions of water supply provision in Metropolitan Sarbagita in the context of coastal and peri-urban region. The methods of analysis used are descriptive and association analysis. The analysis shows that the location in the coastal area and peri-urban area does not affect the water supply provision for the case of daily safe water yet it does affect significantly in the specific context of drinking water source.

  15. Analysis of Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problems

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews. PMID:24526890

  16. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus KidsHealth > For Kids > Staying Safe in the ... to ride safely without a booster! Get in the Back Here's another important safety rule: Sit in ...

  17. 1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND PUBLIC PARKING LOT IN CENTER, HARVARD YARD BUILDINGS IN REAR, HOLYOKE CENTER AT REAR RIGHT. - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  18. 2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO TUNNEL ENTRANCE, HARVARD YARD IN REAR LEFT, HOLYOKE CENTER IN MIDDLE, FIRST CHURCH ON RIGHT - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  19. 16. View looking southeast of a bus waiting station, the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View looking southeast of a bus waiting station, the former filling station and the power station (in the background). - Fort Benjamin Harrison, East Fifty-sixth Street (Aultman Avenue) & Glenn Road, Lawrence, Marion County, IN

  20. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within the former transformer building. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  2. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  3. 2. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST APPROACH, SHOWING BUS STAGING AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST APPROACH, SHOWING BUS STAGING AREA IN FRONT OF THE PASSENGER STATION AND RELATIONSHIP OF PARKING LOT UNDER VIADUCT - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. Analysis of feeder bus network design and scheduling problems.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews.

  5. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  6. Spin-bus concept of spin quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehring, Michael; Mende, Jens

    2006-05-01

    We present a spin-bus concept of quantum computing where an electron spin S=1/2 acts as a bus qubit connected to a finite number N of nuclear spins I=1/2 serving as client qubits. Spin-bus clusters are considered as local processing units and may be interconnected with other spin-bus clusters via electron-electron coupling in a scaled up version. Here we lay the ground for the basic functional unit with long qubit registers, provide the theory and experimental verification of correlated qubit states, and demonstrate the Deutsch algorithm. Experiments were performed on a qubyte plus one nuclear spin in a solid state system.

  7. A comparison of metropolitan and non-metropolitan employment characteristics: Indications of the size of non-metropolitan mobile communication services user classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The similarities and differences between areas inside and outside U.S. metropolitan areas were evaluated in terms of their commercial/industrial and government employment characteristics. The comparison focuses on the levels, shares, and composition of employment in the commercial/industrial and government sectors that represent potential classes of land mobile communications users. The major findings of the analysis are as follows: (1) non-metropolitan commercial/industrial user classes of land mobile communication services exist in significant numbers; (2) the compositions of non-metropolitan and metropolitan commercial/industrial user classes of land mobile communication services closely resemble each other; (3) non-metropolitan areas have significant levels of the government user classes that represent potential markets for land mobile communication services; and (4) non-metropolitan local governments have a significantly larger proportion of their employment in the primary user classes of private land mobile radio service than do metropolitan local governments.

  8. Intelligent Energy Management in a Two Power-Bus Vehicle System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    Dirty Bus Branch 28V Battery Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator Load Clean Bus Branch 28V Battery Bus Bus 19 DISTRIBUTION...Motor Field Controlled DC generator DC Power Supply Electronic Load DC Power Supply (125V, 3A) Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator...Battery Lithium Battery Load Electronic Load Clean Bus Branch Original System Demo System Hydraulic System Permanent DC Motor Alternator Field

  9. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work

  10. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J.

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Intramodule Multielement Microsystem (IM2) Bus and Interface Circuit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    multiple devices on a single digital bus. An alternative choice is the so-called fieldbus concept which provides a single bus with multiple nodes. However... fieldbus is designed for communication between microcontrollers and is not appropriate for less sophisticated sensors. This means it is necessary...smart sensor but a complete microcontroller-based system. As a result, a fieldbus “smart sensor” like this suffers from unnecessary complexity and size

  12. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  13. Final Report for the H2Fuel Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, W.D.

    1998-11-25

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world's first hydrogen-fueled electric hybrid transit bus. It was a project developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technological and industrial organizations, with primary funding by the Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen fueled buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies.

  14. Data Latency in Time Multiplexed Bus Systems for Missile Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-11

    examines the performances of three computer communication bus protocols: round robin passing protocol ( RRPP ), modified round robin passing protocol (MRRPP...Entered) ’ Under these performance measures, the CSMA/CD protocol is clearly superior, wit average message waiting time as low as 22% of that for RRPP and...performances of three computer communication bus protocols: round robin passing protocol ( RRPP ), modified round robin passing protocol (MRKPP), and carrier

  15. A Modular Twin Bus Microprocessor System for Laboratory Automation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-15

    hardware driven bus used for high speed data aquisition , and the local bus of -7 -2F .%6 k7. * * PAGE 3 another microprocessor system acting as an...developed, the name of the program becomes a command in the language . Thus the language develops naturally to a higher and...i ; _- PAGE 13 higher level as more code is written. The high-level language produced is specific to the functions needed by the

  16. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  17. School bus crash rates on routine and nonroutine routes.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-09-01

    Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus crash incidence and characteristics by these route types. School bus crashes were identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation Crash Database from mid-2005 through mid-2010. Crash reports did not identify whether the bus was on a routine or nonroutine route, so a protocol to assign these based on day and time was developed. Bus mileage was provided by the Iowa Department of Education. The school bus crash rate was 2.1 times higher on nonroutine routes than on routine routes (95% CI = 1.8-2.3). Most crashes involved an improper action by the driver of another vehicle. In crashes attributed to improper actions of school buses, failure to yield the right-of-way and disregarding traffic signs were more common on routine routes, while losing control, speeding, reckless, or aggressive driving were more common on nonroutine routes. School bus crashes are more likely to occur on nonroutine routes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  18. [Tuberculosis prevalence in municipality bus drivers in our dispensary region].

    PubMed

    Cakar, Beyhan; Bilgin, Gülden; Yavuz Şumnulu, Selda; Karnak, Demet

    2013-01-01

    Our study was designed to determine pulmonary tuberculosis rate in municipality bus drivers in our dispensary region and to determine whether or not the job is a risk factor for the disease. Micro chest X-rays were taken of municipality bus drivers working in our region. The ones who had suspicious radiology were re-invited to dispensary; their health background was questioned and advanced investigation was performed. Totally 498 (97%) of 512 bus drivers working in our region came to our dispensary for the study survey. All of the attendants were male and between 19 and 57. In radiologic assessment, among 12 cases were suspected to have tuberculosis. Two of them had ARB smear positive tuberculosis and, five had inactive tuberculosis. Tuberculosis prevalence in bus drivers in our dispensary region was 0.4% (2/498). This value corresponded to 400 in 100.000 populations. Examining the statistics tuberculosis prevalence in our region was only 20 in 100.000 in 2006. This meant that, pulmonary tuberculosis is seen 20 times greater among municipality bus drivers. Taking this conclusion into consideration, we think that being a public bus driver may be accepted as a risk factor for tuberculosis.

  19. 36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, DECEMBER 1909. Aperture card 6611-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the

  1. Is the "Motor" or the "Garage" More Important to the "Car"? The Difference between Semantic Associations in Single Word and Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlhaus, Juliane; Heim, Stefan; Sachs, Olga; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Sass, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of part-whole (e.g., "car-motor") and functional associations (e.g., "car-garage") on single word (Experiment 1) and sentence production (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, a classical picture-word task was used. In Experiment 2, the same stimuli and distractors were embedded into a sentence.…

  2. Is the "Motor" or the "Garage" More Important to the "Car"? The Difference between Semantic Associations in Single Word and Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlhaus, Juliane; Heim, Stefan; Sachs, Olga; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Sass, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of part-whole (e.g., "car-motor") and functional associations (e.g., "car-garage") on single word (Experiment 1) and sentence production (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, a classical picture-word task was used. In Experiment 2, the same stimuli and distractors were embedded into a sentence.…

  3. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  6. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  8. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  10. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  11. Reconceptualization Sexuality and Rethinking Homophobia in Metropolitan Campus Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Caglar

    2017-01-01

    The Metropolitan city gives non-metropolitan students an opportunity to meet new social groups. In this article, the perceptions of sexuality of those students who come from provincial areas to a metropolitan city for university education are examined within a framework of semi-structured interviews. The study on which this article is based used a…

  12. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  13. Business Conditions in Michigan Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Paul J.

    The study culminating in this report analyzed business conditions in eleven Michigan metropolitan areas during a ten-year period from the late 60s to the late 70s. Focus is on the need for an overview of the effects of cyclical swings, but it does not try to identify the causes of variation in performance. Short-run business conditions are…

  14. Recent Trends in Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuguitt, Glenn V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Found a divergence of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan fertility rates in the 1970-80 decade but renewed convergence since 1980. Metro-nonmetro differences widened in that nonmetro women 20-24 years of age had higher rates of first and second births but also in that metro women over 30 years of age had higher rates of first and second births. (KS)

  15. The Metropolitan Experience in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Robert L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents comments concerning Lawrence A. Cremin's, "American Education: The Metropolitan Experience, 1876-1980." Robert Church characterizes this volume as providing further evidence for distrusting mass schooling. Michael B. Katz notes that the work provides insight into Cremin's political stance while Harold Silver discusses its…

  16. Gender Inequality in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, David A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Data from General Social Surveys and Census Bureau sources, 1964-94, indicate that nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas are similar in married women's labor force participation and gender differences in earnings. Nonmetro areas have higher occupational sex segregation and slightly less egalitarian gender attitudes. Gender stratification has…

  17. Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area photographed from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Detroit River separates Detroit from Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The largest body of water is Lake Erie. The smaller body of water is Lake St. Clair. This photograph was taken with the Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B five-inch Earth terrain camera.

  18. Metropolitan Reform: Propositions Derived From Two Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor

    1972-01-01

    One purpose of this essay is to attempt to isolate the theoretical sturcture implicit in the traditional metropolitan reform movement so that empirical research can be organized to examine the warrantability of the propositions contained therein; a second is to pose an alternative theoretical structure derived from work of political economists.…

  19. Gender Inequality in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, David A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Data from General Social Surveys and Census Bureau sources, 1964-94, indicate that nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas are similar in married women's labor force participation and gender differences in earnings. Nonmetro areas have higher occupational sex segregation and slightly less egalitarian gender attitudes. Gender stratification has…

  20. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  1. Concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in the air of the underground car park and individual garages attached to residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Marć, Mariusz; Śmiełowska, Monika; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2016-12-15

    The paper describes the characteristics of a two-level underground car park and three individual garages attached to residential buildings, differing by the resident utilization habits, located in North Poland (Tri-City agglomeration area). The strategy of collecting the analyte samples from air in mentioned enclosed areas, concerning the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene and p,m-xylenes (BTEX) concentrations was performed using passive sampling technique - Radiello® diffusive passive samplers with graphitised charcoal cartridge as a sorption medium. The stage of liberation and final determination of collected analytes was conducted with the use of thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (TD-GC-FID) system. As a result of the performed measurements in two-level underground car park, it was observed that the time-weighted average concentrations of BTEX in air were as follows: Level-1 - benzene - 5.2±1.1μg/m(3), toluene - 12.3±2.4μg/m(3), ethylbenzene 2.85±0.80μg/m(3), o-xylene - 4.6±1.4μg/m(3), p, m-xylenes - 8.8±2,4μg/m(3); Level-2 - benzene - 5.2±1.1μg/m(3), toluene - 12.9±3.6μg/m(3), ethylbenzene - 2.73±0.79μg/m(3), o-xylene - 4.2±1.1μg/m(3), p, m-xylenes - 8.5±2.3μg/m(3). As for residential garages, the time-weighted average concentrations of BTEX in air were in the following ranges: from 5.9 to 53μg/m(3) (benzene), from 7.1 to 195μg/m(3) (toluene), from 3.0 to 39μg/m(3) (ethylbenzene), from 5.6 to 44μg/m(3) (o-xylene) and from 6.3 to 99μg/m(3) (p,m-xylenes). Also, BTEX concentration ratios such as: tol/benz ratio and (m, p)-xyl/et.benz coefficient, were calculated based on the obtained results to assess the "freshness" of air mass and the influence exerted by vehicle movement on the concentration of BTEX in air in studied enclosed areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of multiprocessing performance by using optical centralized shared bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuliang; Chen, Ray T.

    2004-06-01

    With the ever-increasing need to solve larger and more complex problems, multiprocessing is attracting more and more research efforts. One of the challenges facing the multiprocessor designers is to fulfill in an effective manner the communications among the processes running in parallel on multiple multiprocessors. The conventional electrical backplane bus provides narrow bandwidth as restricted by the physical limitations of electrical interconnects. In the electrical domain, in order to operate at high frequency, the backplane topology has been changed from the simple shared bus to the complicated switched medium. However, the switched medium is an indirect network. It cannot support multicast/broadcast as effectively as the shared bus. Besides the additional latency of going through the intermediate switching nodes, signal routing introduces substantial delay and considerable system complexity. Alternatively, optics has been well known for its interconnect capability. Therefore, it has become imperative to investigate how to improve multiprocessing performance by utilizing optical interconnects. From the implementation standpoint, the existing optical technologies still cannot fulfill the intelligent functions that a switch fabric should provide as effectively as their electronic counterparts. Thus, an innovative optical technology that can provide sufficient bandwidth capacity, while at the same time, retaining the essential merits of the shared bus topology, is highly desirable for the multiprocessing performance improvement. In this paper, the optical centralized shared bus is proposed for use in the multiprocessing systems. This novel optical interconnect architecture not only utilizes the beneficial characteristics of optics, but also retains the desirable properties of the shared bus topology. Meanwhile, from the architecture standpoint, it fits well in the centralized shared-memory multiprocessing scheme. Therefore, a smooth migration with substantial

  3. Analysis of U.S. School Bus Populations and Alternative Fuel Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.

    2004-04-01

    This Clean Cities final report provides information concerning different school bus types, school bus populations, school bus miles and fuel use, school bus emissions, alternative fuel school buses, and potential for alternative fuel school bus use through 2010. It is intended to provide general information concerning the size of the school bus market in the U.S., as well as to provide some quantification of the potential for alternative fuel use in school buses in the U.S., and what that might mean for petroleum displacement and emissions reductions.

  4. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  5. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  6. Overview hazard analysis for the H2Fuel Bus Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, G.L.

    1996-06-18

    The H2Fuel Bus project is a joint development effort to produce a safe, near-zero emission, 32 passenger bus that is propelled by electric power with continuous on-board hydrogen powered battery recharging. A key initiative in the hydrogen bus development effort is a rigorous evaluation of operational safety. Westinghouse Savannah River Co., the prime contractor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, has developed a hazard analysis methodology designed to provide a systematic, comprehensive identification and evaluation of hazards. Although originally developed to support nuclear/chemical facility safety basis documentation, the SRS Methodology has widespread applicability to operations and/or systems that utilize hazardous materials and energy. This methodology was used to perform an overview hazard analysis for the H2Fuel Bus project to focus attention on those hypothetical circumstances that pose the greatest threat to the populace and property. The hazard analysis yields a listing of all known H2Fuel Bus hazards, postulated accident scenarios describing possible hazardous releases or conditions, an assessment of the scenarios in terms of frequency of occurrence and consequence, and binning in frequency-consequence space to assess the relative severity of postulated scenarios.

  7. Effect of bus size and operation to crash occurrences.

    PubMed

    Chimba, Deo; Sando, Thobias; Kwigizile, Valerian

    2010-11-01

    This paper evaluates roadway and operational factors considered to influence crashes involving buses. Factors evaluated included those related to bus sizes and operation services. Negative binomial (NB) and multinomial logit (MNL) models were used in linearizing and quantifying these factors with respect to crash frequency and injury severities, respectively. The results showed that position of the bus travel lane, presence or absence of on-street shoulder parking, posted speed limit, lane width, median width, number of lanes per direction and number of vehicles per lane has a higher influence on bus crashes compared to other roadway and traffic factors. Wider lanes and medians were found to reduce probability of bus crashes while more lanes and higher volume per lane were found to increase the likelihood of occurrences of bus-related crashes. Roadways with higher posted speed limits excluding freeways were found to have high probability of crashes compared to low speed limit roadways. Buses traveling on the inner lanes and making left turns were found to have higher probability of crashes compared to those traveling on the right most lanes. The same factors were found to influence injury severity though with varying magnitudes compared to crash frequency.

  8. Observations of working postures in garages using the Ovako Working posture Analysing System (OWAS) and consequent workload reduction recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kant, I; Notermans, J H; Borm, P J

    1990-02-01

    The working postures of mechanics (n = 84) in 42 garages were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and work activities were recorded. A computer program was developed for the data analyses. Using this program it is possible to calculate the working posture load for each work activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This is a substantial extension of the original OWAS method. Five out of 19 observed postures of the body members were classified as Action Category 2, which suggests they were slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system and likely to cause discomfort. Of the so-called typical working postures, 31.9% was classified in Action Category 2, suggesting that during a substantial part of the working day typical working postures occur which are at least slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system. Moreover, those work activities principally causing the workload to fall in OWAS' higher Action Categories were identified. For each of these three work activities an alternative work method was observed. The data show that in all three work activities the use of a vehicle lift reduces the number of poor working postures thereby reducing the load on the musculoskeletal system.

  9. A garage sale bargain: A leaking 2.2 GBq {sup 226}Ra source, Phase 1 - the incident

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, B.; Andrews, M.; Hogan, A.

    1996-06-01

    In March 1995, a private citizen living in Bristol, Tennessee, went to a local garage sale and purchased a box containing old medical equipment and paraphernalia for $10.00. The man put the box in the trunk of his car where it remained for several weeks. He then took the box into his home where he examined all of the items, including a small wooden box with a metal sleeve. After significant effort, he managed to remove the inner box which bore the word {open_quotes}radium.{close_quotes} Unsure of what this meant, he called his son-in-law who understood that radium was a radioactive material and called the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health (TDRH). The TDRH investigation quickly located and isolated the source and determined that the contamination was spread throughout the man`s home and yard. Exposure rate readings as high as 160 mR h{sup -1} were found along with removable contamination as high as 3,000,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Over the next several days, the TDRH organized a voluntary effort for the medical evaluation of the man and his wife, the removal of the source, and the decontamination of the home, yard, car, etc. The two following papers will describe these aspects of this incident. On 26 May 1995, the remediation was completed, ending this unusual, but not unique, radiation incident.

  10. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Commercial Garage Lights In the Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-11

    This U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Demonstration project studied the applicability of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires for commercial parking garage applications. High-pressure sodium (HPS) area luminaires were replaced with new LED area luminaires. The project was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid State Lighting Program. Other participants in the demonstration project included Providence Portland Medical Center in Portland, Oregon, the Energy Trust of Oregon, and Lighting Sciences Group (LSG) Inc. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the measurements and analysis of the results. PNNL manages GATEWAY demonstrations for DOE and represents their perspective in the conduct of the work. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light and electrical power were taken at the site for both HPS and LED light sources. Economic costs were estimated and garage users’ responses to the new light sources were gauged with a survey. Six LED luminaires were installed in the below-ground parking level A, replacing six existing 150W HPS lamps spread out over two rows of parking spaces. Illuminance measurements were taken at floor level approximately every 4 ft on a 60-ft x 40-ft grid to measure light output of these LED luminaires which were termed the “Version 1” luminaires. PNNL conducted power measurements of the circuit in the garage to which the 6 luminaires were connected and determined that they drew an average of 82 W per lamp. An improved LED luminaire, Version 2, was installed in Level B of the parking garage. Illuminance measurements were not made of this second luminaire on site due to higher traffic conditions, but photometric measurements of this lamp and Version 1 were made in an independent testing laboratory and power usage for Version 2 was also measured. Version 1 was found to produce 3600 lumens and Version 2 was found to produce 4700 lumens of light and to consume 78 Watts. Maximum and minimum light

  11. The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R; Gondo, C T

    1984-08-01

    This discussion of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil focuses on: administrative divisions; diversity and population growth; households, fertility, and mortality; migration; ethnicity, race, and religion; housing; transport; labor and income; and consumption. Currently, the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, or Greater Sao Paula, is considered the 2nd largest urban agglomeration in Latin America after Mexico City. An estimated 9.5 million people live within the 583 square mile area of the central city. Another 5 million people live in 1 of the 36 other municipalities included in the metropolitan area which includes all 37 municipalities. Central city refers to the municipalities of Sao Paulo and Osasco. The city of Sao Paulo refers only to the municipality of Sao Paulo. The metropolitan area contains 3110 square miles in total and is still the smallest of the 11 administrative regions that comprise the State of Sao Paulo. The population, urban infrastructure, and economic activities are unevenly spread among the 37 municipalities. Greater Sao Paulo's population grew an average of 4.5 year during the 1970, down slightly from a peak of 5.9 year in the 1950s. The central city has a current growth rate of 3.7, a year, with the increase concentrated mainly in the southern and eastern districts that are removed from the city center and where land prices are still relatively low. Mortality plays a minor role in the population trends of Sao Paulo. Fertility is now slowly becoming the dominant factors in its natural increase. The average number of children a woman will bear is 3.3 in the metropolitan area and 3 in the city, low compared with the Brazilian national average of 4.2 children. According to a 1978 survey, 60% of the women use some form of birth control. The most common methods are oral contraceptives 27%, and sterilization, 15%. Despite declining fertility, the birthrate of the metropolitan area increased from 26 in 1970 to 30 in 1980 because of the changes

  12. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  13. Metropolitan Orlando area computerized signal system

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, F.R. ); Allen, T.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Florida's Orlando metropolitan area, which has a population measuring 1 million, is among the fastest growing areas in the nation. The city's weather and popular attractions draw 9 to 10 million tourists annually, half of them arriving in their own cars. Add to this the 1.1 million automobiles already on the streets, and the traffic problems become a nightmare. The Orlando metropolitan area has approximately 550 operational traffic signals, with an increasing number of new signals added each year to control the city's expanding growth. A central, computerized signal system has been conceived as one of the solutions necessary to cope with this tremendous traffic growth. The system is flexible, expandable, and capable of meeting future technical challenges. This article describes the steps that led to the feasibility study, design, and implementation of the Orlando area computerized signal system.

  14. Racial Diversity and Change in Metropolitan Neighborhoods*

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Chad R.; Lee, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the changing racial diversity and structure of metropolitan neighborhoods. We consider three alternative perspectives about localized racial change: that neighborhoods are bifurcating along a white/nonwhite color line, fragmenting into homogeneous enclaves, or integrating white, black, Latino, and Asian residents into diverse residential environments. To assess hypotheses drawn from these perspectives, we develop a hybrid methodology (incorporating the entropy index and majority-rule criteria) that offers advantages over previous typological efforts. Our analysis of 1990–2000 census tract data for the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas finds that most neighborhoods are becoming more diverse and that members of all groups have experienced increasing exposure to neighborhood diversity. However, white populations tend to diminish rapidly in the presence of multiple minority groups and there has been concomitant white growth in low-diversity neighborhoods. Latino population dynamics have emerged as a primary force driving neighborhood change in a multi-group context. PMID:21691412

  15. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  16. Quantum bus of metal nanoring with surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi-Rong; Guo, Guo-Ping; Tu, Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Zou, Chang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Xue; Lu, Yong-Hua; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-12-01

    We develop an architecture for distributed quantum computation using quantum bus of plasmonic circuits and spin qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Deterministic quantum gates between two distant spin qubits can be reached by using an adiabatic approach in which quantum dots couple with highly detuned plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring. Plasmonic quantum bus offers a robust and scalable platform for quantum optics experiments and the development of on-chip quantum networks composed of various quantum nodes, such as quantum dots, molecules, and nanoparticles.

  17. Public transit 1993: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabian, N.C.; Tobias, A.G.; Crayton, L.; Solomon, N.; Brown, S.E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: evaluation of the operating cost consequences of signal preemption as an IVHS strategy; efficient transit priority at intersections; welfare comparison of fixed- and flexible-route bus systems; bus stop accessibility: a guide for virginia transit systems and public entities for complying with the americans with disabilities act of 1990; implications of technological developments for demand responsive transit; impact of nonresponse bias on forecasts of average passenger occupancy; what has happened to carpooling: trends in North Carolina, 1980 to 1990; ridesharing and the consumer: a tale of two marketing strategies; transportation demand management at small employer sites; and state of the commute in Southern California, 1992.

  18. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  19. Neighborhood Diversity, Metropolitan Constraints, and Household Migration

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Kyle; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on micro-level processes of residential segregation, this analysis combines data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with contextual information from three censuses and several other sources to examine patterns of residential mobility between neighborhoods populated by different combinations of racial and ethnic groups. We find that despite the emergence of multiethnic neighborhoods, stratified mobility dynamics continue to dominate, with relatively few black or white households moving into neighborhoods that could be considered multiethnic. However, we also find that the tendency for white and black households to move between neighborhoods dominated by their own group varies significantly across metropolitan areas. Black and white households’ mobility into more integrated neighborhoods is shaped substantially by demographic, economic, political, and spatial features of the broader metropolitan area. Metropolitan-area racial composition, the stock of new housing, residential separation of black and white households, poverty rates, and functional specialization emerge as particularly important predictors. These macro-level effects reflect opportunities for intergroup residential contact as well as structural forces that maintain residential segregation. PMID:22753955

  20. The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation

    PubMed Central

    REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O’SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales. PMID:18939658

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessed. (6) With the bus at curb weight possible damages or deformation associated with lifting the bus... power. The emissions test is not a certification test, and is designed only to enable FTA recipients to...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assessed. (6) With the bus at curb weight possible damages or deformation associated with lifting the bus... power. The emissions test is not a certification test, and is designed only to enable FTA recipients to...

  3. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    PubMed Central

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses. PMID:23778192

  4. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    PubMed

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  5. Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-13

    Project No. 8CH -0008.01) Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations Executive Summary Introduction. We performed the...Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations (Project No. 8CH -0008.01) This is in response to your December 28...Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations (Project No. 8CH -0008.01) Finding: The decision to contract out the bus and taxi service operations at

  6. Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1985-02-01

    Brazil's capital city, Rio de Janeiro, has been called Latin America's slum capital, and is slowly losing its political position to Brasilia and its cultural and economic leadership to Sao Paolo. Rio's metropolitan area includes 14 municipalities and had a population of 9.64 million in 1984, making it Latin America's 4th largest and the world's 14th largest metropolitan area. The 452-square mile central city contains 5.35 million people. Projections predict that Rio will be the world's 9th largest city in the year 2000, with a population of 13.3 million. Rio encompasses sharp social and economic contrasts; population density varies from 30,686 to 124 people per square mile and per capita municipal budgets range from $100 to $12.50. Like most metropolitan areas, Rio's suburbs show its greatest growth. The peripheral municipalities which held only 24% of the population in 1940, now have about 45%. Low land prices and government housing attact poor families to these areas which tend to be economically sluggish. Rio's fertility rate (2.8%) is the lowest in Brazil (4.2%) and life expectancy is somewhat higher than the national average. Low fertility and declining migration result in small households and increasing age structure. 2.2 million households, with 3.8 persons on an average, and 1.3 million households, with 3.6 persons, inhabited the metropolitan area and its municipality, respectively. Less of Rio's population are black (10%) or of mixed descent (39%) than in the rest of Brazil; the population is 97% Brazilian-born. Most metropolitan homes are owner occupied, but Rio also has many highly visible slums. Rio has an 84% literacy rate; 5% of the population have university degrees. The area's geography requires massive daily movement by nearly 60% of the population, and several municpalities function largely as commuter towns. Service jobs (especially for women) account for 27% of all jobs with manufacturing and tourism next in importance. Median monthly income

  7. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  8. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  9. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... means any part of the bus, of either a mechanical or electrical nature, which is explicitly identified... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength...

  10. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard...

  11. School Bus Rider Safety Education Modules for Use with Drills on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Physical Education, Fitness, Health, Nutrition and Safety Services.

    Developed for teachers and members of the pupil transportation staff who conduct school bus drills, these 10 lesson outlines are intended for classroom instruction on school bus safety. Lessons may be adapted to fit the grade level, intelligence, and special needs of students. Topics covered are: preparing to ride the bus, boarding and proceeding…

  12. School Bus Rider Safety Education Modules for Use with Drills on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Physical Education, Fitness, Health, Nutrition and Safety Services.

    Developed for teachers and members of the pupil transportation staff who conduct school bus drills, these 10 lesson outlines are intended for classroom instruction on school bus safety. Lessons may be adapted to fit the grade level, intelligence, and special needs of students. Topics covered are: preparing to ride the bus, boarding and proceeding…

  13. 49 CFR 571.217 - Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window retention and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window... VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.217 Standard No. 217; Bus emergency... positions on the bus. At least 40 percent of the total required area of unobstructed openings, computed...

  14. 75 FR 20034 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections AGENCY: Federal..., 2010 Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Notice titled ``Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program... the Special Warranty for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program that is most current as of...

  15. SunLine Leads the Way in Demonstrating Hydrogen-Fueled Bus Technologies (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This brochure describes SunLine Transit Agency's newest advanced technology fuel cell electric bus. SunLine is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This bus represents the sixth generation of hydrogen-fueled buses that the agency has operated since 2000.

  16. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  17. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  18. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  19. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection. S1. Scope. This standard establishes performance requirements for school bus rollover protection....

  20. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  1. Instructor's Behind-the-Wheel Guide for California's Bus Driver's Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Intended to help produce safe, competent California school bus drivers, this document contains instructor's materials for a bus driver education course with eight sequential skill levels, including a final appraisal. The first section contains the curriculum's purpose and objectives, the California standards for a state-certified bus driver…

  2. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  3. Beware of high stresses in ``A`` frame supported two-level bus structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thaik, A.

    1995-10-01

    Rigid-bus structures in many low profile, high voltage transmission substations consist of two-level bus assemblies of tubular conductors with one bus assembly supporting the other bus assembly with rigid tubular ``A`` frames at the crossover points. The lower-level bus is normally supported by a single porcelain post insulator under the ``A`` frame. Rigid ``A`` frames not only support the upper-level bus assembly, but also make the electrical connections between the two buses. This paper addresses the stress problem in the lower-level bus of the two-level bus structure. It presents the results of the structural analysis of a sample two-level bus structure using a simple structural method based on the Three Moment Theorem and equilibrium equations. A spreadsheet template is used to perform the mathematical calculations. The spreadsheet first calculates the maximum allowable bus span length in accordance with the IEEE Standard 605 and then determines the internal stress on the upper and lower-level bus conductors in the two-level rigid bus structures.

  4. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  5. Fiber optic data bus using Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) and an asymmetric coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanger, M.; Webster, L.

    1984-01-01

    A fiber optic data bus, using frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is discussed. The use of FDM is motivated by the need to avoid central control of the bus operation. A major difficulty of such a data bus is introduced by the couplers. An efficient low loss access coupler with an asymmetric structure is presented, and manufacturing processes for the coupler are proposed.

  6. The Role of the Coroner in School Bus Accident Prevention: Some Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Following the deaths of two elementary school students in bus-related accidents in 1992, the Coroner of Quebec held extensive hearings investigating school bus safety and accident prevention. A subsequent report addressed responsibilities of government and school board officials to correct deficiencies in school bus services and provided…

  7. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  8. School Bus Safety. An AS&U Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A roundtable discussion of the issue of seat belts in school buses features United States Representative Peter H. Kostmayer, who has introduced a bill providing incentive grants to states to adopt and enforce laws requiring the use of seat belts in new school buses; three bus manufacturing executives; and two educators. (MLF)

  9. Research Says "No" to School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineland, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents factual data on research in school bus safety that shows that seat belts in school buses may actually be detrimental to students. Includes data from surveys and research tests and sources for additional information on seat belts in school buses. (MD)

  10. Augmented thermal bus wih multiple thermoelectric devices individually controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  11. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  12. The Diagnostic and Predictive Validity of "The Renfrew Bus Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Mary E.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Insalaco, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented providing evidence indicating the diagnostic and predictive validity of the American version of "The Renfrew Bus Story" (J. Cowley & C. Glasgow, 1994). Method: Thirty-two children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 children with typical language development participated in the first…

  13. Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of bullying on the school bus. Videotapes were used to identify occurrences of bullying on buses of elementary school students. Incidents were reviewed for forms of bullying, fullness, presence of friends, and severity of acts. Results indicated that approximately two incidents occurred per bus…

  14. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  15. Issues in School Bus Safety: Real or Red Herring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Robin L.

    1999-01-01

    In many states, the greatest threat to safe student transportation is elimination of the school transportation program. Using public transit buses, large vans, smaller vehicles, or specialized equipment can cause major-issue headaches. False issues include controversies over seat belts, bus design, and optional "bells and whistles." (10…

  16. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  17. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Study Guide -- Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge which the proficient driver might require. This guide contains the materials presented in eight…

  18. Manual of First Aid Practices for School Bus Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William R.

    This manual is intended to assist local school authorities in California in providing the required course in instruction in first aid practices for school bus drivers. While it deals with basic principles of handling serious medical emergencies, major emphasis is on minor injuries or illnesses that are most likely to occur while students are…

  19. Course Guide for School Bus Driver Training in Texas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Public Safety, Austin.

    The safe and effective transportation of pupils to and from schol is an integral part of a sound educational program. This course guide is a study and reference tool for use in a training course designed to promote the competency of school bus drivers throughout the State of Texas. Unit 1 of the guide provides an overview of the transportation…

  20. School Bus Safety. An AS&U Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A roundtable discussion of the issue of seat belts in school buses features United States Representative Peter H. Kostmayer, who has introduced a bill providing incentive grants to states to adopt and enforce laws requiring the use of seat belts in new school buses; three bus manufacturing executives; and two educators. (MLF)

  1. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  2. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  3. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  4. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  5. School Bus Driver Instructor Training Institute. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleven, Arlene M.; Fucigna, Joseph T.

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Association (NHTSA) has supported the development of a training program for school bus drivers in the form of a curriculum package (instructor's, course, and trainee study guides). To assist the States in making the program operational, NHTSA in 1974 supported the conduct of five five-day institutes to explain…

  6. Issues in School Bus Safety: Real or Red Herring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Robin L.

    1999-01-01

    In many states, the greatest threat to safe student transportation is elimination of the school transportation program. Using public transit buses, large vans, smaller vehicles, or specialized equipment can cause major-issue headaches. False issues include controversies over seat belts, bus design, and optional "bells and whistles." (10…

  7. School Bus Safety Advisory Committee: 1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenberry, Dennis; Anderson, Barbara

    This report summarizes the deliberations and recommendations of Minnesota's School Bus Safety Advisory Committee (SBSAC). The committee, which operates under the auspices of the Minnesota Department of Public Safety, is charged to study issues affecting the safety of students on school buses, arrive at consensus on ways to improve student safety…

  8. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  9. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  10. 26. DETAIL TO NORTH OF BUS STRUCTURE. NEW POWERHOUSE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL TO NORTH OF BUS STRUCTURE. NEW POWERHOUSE SECOND FLOOR, WITH OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER UNITS (LEFT) AND TANK LIFTER (CENTER) - Trenton Falls Hydroelectric Station, Powerhouse & Substation, On west bank of West Canada Creek, along Trenton Falls Road, 1.25 miles north of New York Route 28, Trenton Falls, Oneida County, NY

  11. The Diagnostic and Predictive Validity of "The Renfrew Bus Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Mary E.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Insalaco, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented providing evidence indicating the diagnostic and predictive validity of the American version of "The Renfrew Bus Story" (J. Cowley & C. Glasgow, 1994). Method: Thirty-two children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 children with typical language development participated in the first…

  12. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  13. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  14. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  15. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  16. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  17. Training Module for Bus Drivers Working with Emotionally Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Div. of Special Education.

    The module provides training information for school bus drivers who interact with emotionally handicapped (EH) students. An initial description of characteristics of EH students and support staff responsibilities is followed by a discussion of transportation services for handicapped students. The development of a behavior management plan with four…

  18. Long School Bus Rides: Stealing the Joy of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Beth

    Every school day, hundreds of West Virginia children ride school buses much longer than state guidelines say they should. Under those guidelines, no elementary student should be on the bus more than 30 minutes one way, middle school students 45 minutes, and high school students 1 hour. In fall 1999, public hearings about school transportation…

  19. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  20. Public transit bus ramp slopes measured in situ.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina; Frost, Karen; Smalley, Craig

    2014-05-02

    Abstract Purpose: The slopes of fixed-route bus ramps deployed for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users during boarding and alighting were assessed. Measured slopes were compared to the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable ramp slope. Methods: A ramp-embedded inclinometer measured ramp slope during WhMD user boarding and alighting on a fixed-route transit bus. The extent of bus kneeling was determined for each ramp deployment. In-vehicle video surveillance cameras captured ramp deployment level (street versus sidewalk) and WhMD type. Results: Ramp slopes ranged from -4° to 15.5° with means of 4.3° during boarding (n = 406) and 4.2° during alighting (n = 405). Ramp slope was significantly greater when deployed to street level. During boarding, the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope (9.5°) was exceeded in 66.7% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level, and in 1.9% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. During alighting, the proposed ADA maximum allowable slope was exceeded in 56.8% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level and in 1.4% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. Conclusions: Deployment level, built environment and extent of bus kneeling can affect slope of ramps ascended/descended by WhMD users when accessing transit buses. Implications for Rehabilitation Since public transportation services are critical for integration of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users into the community and society, it is important that they, as well as their therapists, are aware of conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses. Knowledge of real world ramp slope conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses will allow therapists to better access capabilities of WhMD users in a controlled clinical setting. Real world ramp slope conditions can be recreated in a clinical setting to allow WhMD users to develop and practice necessary