There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...
Lindborg, Kristina; Ovando, Carlos J.
Focusing on four Mexican American women from migrant farmworker backgrounds and one woman recently immigrated from Mexico, the study explored the attitudes and experiences of the Mexican American culture considered important by Mexican American migrant women themselves. Extensive open-ended interviews, conducted mostly in the women's homes, were…
Durán-Padilla, Marco A.; Gómez-Apo, Erick; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis A.
Objective: To establish distribution frequency and demographic characteristics of salivary gland tumours (SGT) i6n order to identify possible risk profiles. Design of study: The present report constitutes an eight year retrospective study (January 2000-August 2007). The archives of the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory (Graduate and Research Division, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico) as well as archives of the Surgical Pathology Service (General Hospital, Mexico City) were subject to revision in order to select all cases where SGT tumour diagnoses were emitted. Age and gender of patients as well as SGT topography were obtained from medical records. Selected cases were classified according to location of the lesion, histological lineage and biological behaviour. Results: 360 cases of SGT were included, 227 (67%) cases were benign tumours, while 83 cases (23%) were malignant tumours. SGT were most frequent in women with ages ranging from their 3rd to 5th decades of life. 275 tumours were located in major salivary glands, 78.9% of them were identified in the parotid gland. The most frequent location of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (33 cases, 38%) was found in the palatine glands. Tumours of epithelial lineage were the predominant histological type. The most frequent benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas (86.1%) and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (7.3%). The most frequent malignant tumours were adenoid cystic carcinomas (25%) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (23.6%) Conclusions: Salivary gland tumours in Mexican population appear principally in major salivary glands of women in their 3rd to 5th decade of life. Key words: Salivary glands tumours, epithelial tumours, pleomorphic adenoma, papillary cistadenoma lymphomatosum, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:22143697
Blanco Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja Aburto, Victor Hugo; Torres Sánchez, Luisa Elvira; García García, Ana María; López Carrillo, Lizbeth
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic level (as measured by maternal education, maternal occupation, and monthly family income) and anencephaly. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance System Register for Neural Tube Defects for three states of the Mexican Republic: Puebla, Guerrero and the State of Mexico. Mothers of 151 cases of infants born with anencephaly and mothers of 151 control infants born during the period March 2000 to February 2001 were interviewed about their socioeconomic characteristics and other factors including reproductive history, use of prenatal care, use of tobacco and alcohol, fever during pregnancy, and folic acid supplementation. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, a risk gradient was seen with decreasing maternal education. Women with less than a primary school education (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.6) and women who had completed primary school but had not completed junior high school (adjusted OR=2.2; 95% CI 0.9, 5.7) had higher risks of giving birth to an infant with anencephaly, compared to women with a higher educational level. A monthly income < or = 1,000 pesos (approximately dollars 100 U.S.) was also associated with a higher risk of anencephaly (OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.2, 5.1). Women employed in industry or agriculture during the acute risk period (three months prior to conception to one month after conception) had a risk 6.5 times (95% CI 1.4, 29.6) that of professional and business women. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps to identify groups that may be especially vulnerable to this type of congenital malformation so that primary and secondary preventive strategies can be targeted to these groups. PMID:15736330
Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; González-Chavero, J.G.; Salinas-Martinez, R.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.
Background Physical performance tests play a major role in the geriatric assessment. In particular, gait speed has shown to be useful for predicting adverse outcomes. However, risk factors for slow gait speed (slowness) are not clearly described. Objectives To determine risk factors associated with slowness in Mexican older adults. Design A two-step process was adopted for exploring the antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed. First, the cut-off values for gait speed were determined in a representative sample of Mexican older adults. Then, antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed (defined using the identified cut-points) were explored in a nested, cohort case-control study. Setting, participants One representative sample of a cross-sectional survey for the first step and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (a cohort characterized by a 10-year follow-up). Measurements A 4-meter usual gait speed test was conducted. Lowest gender and height-stratified groups were considered as defining slow gait speed. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, psychological and health-care related variables were explored to find those associated with the subsequent development of slow gait speed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were performed. Results In the final model, age, diabetes, hypertension, and history of fractures were associated with the development of slow gait speed. Conclusions Early identification of subjects at risk of developing slow gait speed may halt the path to disability due to the robust association of this physical performance test with functional decline. PMID:26889463
Ouarda, T. B. M. J.; Bâ, K. M.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Cârsteanu, A.; Chokmani, K.; Gingras, H.; Quentin, E.; Trujillo, E.; Bobée, B.
SummaryThis paper presents an adaptation of some regional estimation approaches to tropical climates and a comparison of their performance on the basis of their application to data from the Balsas, Lerma and Pánuco River Basins located in Mexico. Four approaches are used in this study for the delineation of homogeneous regions: The first one is the hierarchical cluster analysis approach which leads to fixed hydrologic regions. The second one is the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which allows the determination of hydrologic neighborhoods that are specific to the site of interest. The third one is a revised version of the canonical correlation analysis approach that is free of parameter optimization and which can be automated easily. Finally, the fourth one is the technique of canonical kriging which consists in interpolating hydrological variables over the canonical physiographical space. The methods based on the canonical correlation analysis approach provide also the basis for identifying the explanatory variables to be used during the step of regional estimation. Regional estimation is carried out based on a multiple regression approach. A data set of 29 stations from several Mexican River Basins in and around the Balsas region is used to show the advantages and weaknesses of each method and to demonstrate their usefulness in the context of regional flood quantile estimation. This study allows also to test the robustness of these methods through their application to a real world case study with a relatively limited number of stations. While all methods performed quite adequately, results indicate clearly the advantages of the neighborhood type of approach and the superiority of the canonical correlation analysis based methods. Results demonstrate that CCA-based methods lead to best performances overall. While hierarchical clustering seems generally to lead to less biased quantile estimates, the lowest root mean square error values are almost consistently
Perales Escudero, Moises Damian
This dissertation project examines the implementation of a critical reading intervention in a Mexican university, and the emergence of target critical reading processes in Mexican college-level EFL readers. It uses a Complexity Theory-inspired, qualitative methodology. Orienting the selection and design of materials is a deep view of culture that…
Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel
Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (<10 years) and remotely diagnosed (>10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or
de Burciaga, Cecilia Preciado; And Others
The 6th and final report of the Mexican American Education Study (MAES) focuses on specific educational problems of Mexican American children in the Southwest and recommends actions at various governmental and educational levels to alleviate these. Information was gathered from: (1) a 1969 survey and 1970-71 field study; (2) a literature review;…
Prado-Leon, Lilia R; Celis, Alfredo; Avila-Chaurand, Rosalio
The objective of this study was to quantify and assess whether lifting tasks in the workplace are a risk factor in lumbar spondyloarthrosis etiology. A case-control study was performed with 231 workers, 18-55 years old, insured by the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, according to its designation in Spanish). A multivariate analysis using conditional logistical regression showed that lifting tasks, combined with driving tasks, are associated with this illness (OR = 7.3; 95% CI 1.7-31.4). The daily frequency of lifting as it interacts with work as a driver resulted in a greater risk (OR = 10.4; 95% CI 2.0-52.5). The load weight, daily task-hours and cumulative time showed a dose-response relationship. The attributable risk for lifting tasks was 0.83, suggesting that 83% of lumbar spondyloarthrosis development could be prevented if risk factors were eliminated by ergonomic redesign of the task.
de la Piedra, Maria Teresa
Drawing on sociocultural approaches to literacy and literature on the communal spaces of teaching and learning of Latino/as, I share one Mexican border women's life story and analyze her literacies and ways of knowing in relation to the literacy event of giving "consejo." Using data gathered through individual interviews and…
Padilla, Laura Elena
This article depicts how faculty members at Mexican higher education institutions have been prepared in order to assume their professional responsibilities. It relies on three elements: First, a secondary analysis of a national faculty survey composed of 3,861 faculty members from 65 institutions; second, 34 interviews conducted in eight higher…
Dieck-Assad, Flory Anette
How should the strategies and regulations of the Mexican laws be designed in order to trigger a country to go from a non-sustainable energy economy towards a sustainable energy economy? This paper proposes a classroom debate of the reformed Law of Public Electricity Service in Mexico (LSPEE, 1992: Ley del Servicio Publico de Energia Electrica),…
Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir
Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…
Bonifaz, Alexandro; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Calderón, Luz; Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Kassack, Juan; Ponce, Rosa María; Mena, Carlos; Stchigel, Alberto; Cano, Josep; Guarro, Josep
We present a single-centre, retrospective study (1985-2012) of 22 cases of mucormycosis in children. A total of 158 mucormycosis cases were identified, of which 22 (13.96%) were children. The mean age of the children was 10.3 years (range: 6 months-18 years), and 59% of the infections occurred in males. The rhinocerebral form was the main clinical presentation (77.27%), followed by the primary cutaneous and pulmonary patterns. The major underlying predisposing factors were diabetes mellitus in 68.18% of the patients and haematologic diseases in 27.7% of the patients. The cases were diagnosed by mycological tests, with positive cultures in 95.4% of the patients. Rhizopus arrhizus was the foremost aetiologic agent in 13/22 cases (59.1%). In 21 cultures, the aetiologic agents were identified morphologically and by molecular identification. In 10 cultures, the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA was sequenced. Clinical cure and mycological cure were achieved in 27.3% cases, which were managed with amphotericin B deoxycholate and by treatment of the underlying conditions.
Beeton, Renee P.
Mexican Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. However, they are noticeably absent from physical science fields. Little research has explored the experiences of Mexican American girls in high school chemistry. The theories of identity based on communities of practice and multicultural feminism framed this year-long case study of nine Mexican American girls in a high school chemistry course. This study explored the social encounters and experiences that shaped the participants' identities and how their views of themselves affected their attitudes towards high school chemistry and future science careers. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with the participants, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. Five main identities influenced the participants' potential to become a scientist: ethnic, gender, science, student, and college. Mexican ethnic identity was the overarching identity; however gender also influenced the participants' other identities. The participants were aware of ethnic gender stereotypes that might hinder them from being successful in science. Also, ethnic factors, such as citizenship and abilities to receive financial aid limited their views of themselves as chemists. Participatory science, student, and school identities were all needed in order for the participants to be potential scientists. Family expectations, authentic relationships with teachers, and personal connections were important factors in the development of these participatory identities.
Lester, Rebecca J
This is a case study of Celeste, postulant in a Roman Catholic convent in Mexico who experienced frequent episodes of leaving her body to commune with God. During these experiences, Celeste felt immersed in an ;incredibly beautiful profound silence' where ;time and space were broken.' But as much as Celeste craved these experiences, they also alarmed her; she was acutely aware that they might be indicative of psychological or neurological dysfunction. This article chronicles Celeste's struggles to make sense of her experiences in light of competing explanatory models. Her ultimate resolution suggests intriguing new directions for transcultural psychiatric research.
Costa-Urrutia, Paula; Abud, Carolina; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Colistro, Valentina; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha Eunice; Vázquez-Pérez, Joel; Granados, Julio; Seelaender, Marilia
We analyzed commonly reported European and Asian obesity-related gene variants in a Mexican-Mestizo population through each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 23 selected SNPs. Study subjects were physically active Mexican-Mestizo adults (n = 608) with body mass index (BMI) values from 18 to 55 kg/m(2) . For each SNP and for the GRS, logistic models were performed to test for simple SNP associations with BMI, fat mass percentage (FMP), waist circumference (WC), and the interaction with VO2max and muscular endurance (ME). To further understand the SNP or GRS*physical fitness components, generalized linear models were performed. Obesity risk was significantly associated to 6 SNPs (ADRB2 rs1042713, APOB rs512535, PPARA rs1800206, TNFA rs361525, TRHR rs7832552 and rs16892496) after adjustment by gender, age, ancestry, VO2max , and ME. ME attenuated the influence of APOB rs512535 and TNFA rs361525 on obesity risk in FMP. WC was significantly associated to GRS. Both ME and VO2max attenuated GRS effect on WC. We report associations for 6 out of 23 SNPs and for the GRS, which confer obesity risk, a novel finding for Mexican-Mestizo physically active population. Also, the importance of including physical fitness components variables in obesity genetic risk studies is highlighted, with special regard to intervention purposes.
Garza-Lubeck, Maria; Salinas, Ana Maria
Developed for elementary school children, this unit is designed to teach about Mexican American culture through the study of holidays celebrated throughout much of Latin America and the southwestern United States. The unit describes and provides background information about nine Mexican American holidays. Among the activities included are the…
Anaya, A L; Ramos, L; Cruz, R; Hernández, J G; Nava, V
Agroecosystems in Tlaxcala, Mexico, are surrounded by trees and water channels and have a great variety of cultivated and noncultivated plants. The main results of a study carried out on a traditional agroecosystem in Santa Inés, Tlaxcala are presented. Some ecological aspects of polycultures, plant covers (dry leaves ofAlnus firmifolia, Berula erecta, andJuncus sp.), and the allelopathic potential of crops and noncultivated plants (fresh and dry material) were analyzed. The main plants (trees, shrubs, and herbs) present in the agroecosystem were identified. The total number of weeds in plots where plant covers were added was reduced. The number of nodules ofRhizobium phaseoli and the production of bean and squash increased with plant covers. Corn, beans, and squash showed a clear allelopathic effect, as well asChenopodium murale, Tradescantia crassifolia, Melilotus indicus, andAmaranthus hybridus, among other weeds. The contribution of allelopathy in studies of traditional agroecosystems is of great importance for the management of species in space and time. Allelopathy can be the basis of biological control of pests and weeds and of the discovery of new useful substances.
Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; García, Sandra G; Villalobos, Aremis
This study focuses on the experience of Mexican women migrants in California, USA, with the use of formal health services for sexual and reproductive health issues. The authors used a qualitative interpretative approach with life histories, interviewing eight female users of healthcare services in California and seven key informants in Mexico and California. There were three main types of barriers to healthcare: immigration status, language, and gender. Participants reported long waiting times, discriminatory attitudes, and high cost of services. A combination of formal and informal healthcare services was common. The assessment of quality of care was closely related to undocumented immigration status. Social support networks are crucial to help solve healthcare issues. Quality of care should take intercultural health issues into account.
Walker, Janiece L.; Harrison, Tracie C.; Hendrickson, Sherry G.
There is a dearth of literature examining how adversity shapes the experiences of pain and/or suffering in a middle aged Mexican American women. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to understand pain and suffering from a life course perspective as described by a Mexican American woman aging with early onset mobility impairment. This Hispanic woman experienced episodes of abuse and rejection over the life course, which may have significantly influenced her pain and suffering experience in adulthood. This adds to the literature on how adversity influences later life pain experience and provides insight on why pharmacological treatment alone may not be as successful as a holistic intervention. Hay escasez de literatura que examine cómo la adversidad da forma a las experiencias de dolor y / o sufrimiento en mujeres mexicana-americana mayores de edad. El propósito de este estudio descriptivo cualitativo fue comprender el dolor y el sufrimiento desde una perspectiva de ciclo de vida como descrito por una mujer mexicana-americana envejeciendo con inicio temprano de deterioro de movilidad. Esta Latina experimentó episodios de maltrato y rechazo, que se percibió haber afectado su experiencia de dolor y sufrimiento luego como adulta. Este estudio aumenta la literatura sobre cómo la adversidad influya la experiencia de dolor más tarde en la vida, y nos permite comprender mejor como el tratamiento farmacológico por sí solo no es tan exitoso como pueda ser una intervención integral. PMID:24830728
Zavaleta-Muñiz, S. A.; Martín-Márquez, B. T.; Gonzalez-Lopez, L.; Gonzalez-Montoya, N. G.; Díaz-Toscano, M. L.; Ponce-Guarneros, J. M.; Ruiz-Padilla, A. J.; Mercado, M. Vázquez-Del; Maldonado-González, M.; Fafutis-Morris, M.; Flores-Martínez, S. E.; Martínez-García, E. A.; Gamez-Nava, J. I.
Objective. There is a lack of information about the genotype frequencies of IL-6 −174G/C and −572G/C polymorphisms in Mexicans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the IL-6 −174G/C and −572G/C polymorphisms in Mexican mestizo with RA. Methods. We included 137 patients with RA and 102 healthy controls. Patients were assessed for clinical characteristics. IL-6 −174G/C and −572G/C polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP analysis. Allele and genotype frequencies and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were computed. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed to identify the risk for RA associated with the presence of GG genotype in comparison with the GC or CC genotypes. Results. The genotype −174GG occurred at a higher frequency in cases and controls (77.4% versus 78.4%, P = 0.845). We found similar results for the genotype −572GG (54% in patients versus 60.8% in controls, P = 0.295). Conclusions. This is the first study to evaluate the association of −174G/C and −572G/C polymorphisms of the IL-6 gene with RA in Mexican mestizo patients. These two polymorphisms were not associated with RA in the studied sample. Additional studies are required to evaluate if these IL-6 polymorphisms have relevance to the development of more severe disease. PMID:24223608
Hernández-Díaz, Yazmín; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Álvarez-Cámara, José Francisco; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz
Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP) and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are considered markers of inflammation and have been shown to predict the risk of incident cardiovascular events. However, few studies have undertaken a comprehensive examination of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of the CRP and TNF-α genes; due to this, we will present a protocol study to evaluate the role of the CRP and TNF-α genes in Mexican individuals. Methods/design: we will perform a case-control study to explore the CRP and TNF-α genotype distribution as well as the serum influence of rs1800947, rs1130864, rs2794521 and rs1205 (polymorphisms of the CRP gene) and rs361525, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630, rs1799964 (of the TNF-α gene) in Mexican individuals who present coronary artery disease. Ethics and dissemination: a written informed consent will be obtained from all the participating subjects. An article detailing the results of the study will be submitted for publication in an international peer-reviewed journal, in accordance with STROBE criteria. PMID:26751459
Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia
Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938
Background Although the etiology of preeclampsia is still unclear, recent work suggests that changes in circulating angiogenic factors play a key role in its pathogenesis. In the trophoblast of women with preeclampsia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is over-expressed, and induces the expression of non-angiogenic factors and inhibitors of trophoblast differentiation. This observation prompted the study of HIF-1α and its relation to preeclampsia. It has been described that the C1772T (P582S) and G1790A (A588T) polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene have significantly greater transcriptional activity, correlated with an increased expression of their proteins, than the wild-type sequence. In this work, we studied whether either or both HIF1A variants contribute to preeclampsia susceptibility. Results Genomic DNA was isolated from 150 preeclamptic and 105 healthy pregnant women. Exon 12 of the HIF1A gene was amplified by PCR, and the genotypes of HIF1A were determined by DNA sequencing. In preeclamptic women and controls, the frequencies of the T allele for C1772T were 4.3 vs. 4.8%, and the frequencies of the A allele for G1790A were 0.0 vs. 0.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found between groups. Conclusion The frequency of the C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene is very low, and neither polymorphism is associated with the development of preeclampsia in the Mexican population. PMID:21414224
Moore, N.L.; Chidester, R.J.; Hughes, K.R.; Fowler, R.A.
Because the Mexican government has encouraged investment in Mexico by increasing the percentage of ownership of a Mexican business that a US company can hold, joint ventures are more attractive now than they had been in the past. This study provides preliminary information for US renewable energy companies who are interested in forming a joint venture with a Mexican company. This report is not intended to be a complete reference but does identifies a number of important factors that should be observed when forming a Mexican joint venture: (1)Successful joint ventures achieve the goals of each partner. (2)It is essential that all parties agree to the allocation of responsibilities. (3)Put everything in writing. (4)Research in depth the country or countries in which you are considering doing business.
González-Macías, C; Sánchez-Reyna, G; Salazar-Coria, L; Schifter, I
During the last two decades, sediments collected in different sources of water bodies of the Tehuantepec Basin, located in the southeast of the Mexican Pacific Coast, showed that concentrations of heavy metals may pose a risk to the environment and human health. The extractable organic matter, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factors were quantified for arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and the fine-grained sediment fraction. The non-parametric SiZer method was applied to assess the statistical significance of the reconstructed metal variation along time. This inference method appears to be particularly natural and well suited to temperature and other environmental reconstructions. In this approach, a collection of smooth of the reconstructed metal concentrations is considered simultaneously, and inferences about the significance of the metal trends can be made with respect to time. Hence, the database represents a consolidated set of available and validated water and sediment data of an urban industrialized area, which is very useful as case study site. The positive matrix factorization approach was used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments. Regionally, metals and organic matter are depleted relative to crustal abundance in a range of 45-55 %, while there is an inorganic enrichment from lithogenous/anthropogenic sources of around 40 %. Only extractable organic matter, Pb, As, and Cd can be related with non-crustal sources, suggesting that additional input cannot be explained by local runoff or erosion processes.
Marmolejo-Leyva, Rafael; Perez-Angon, Miguel Angel; Russell, Jane M
We use a data set of Mexican researchers working abroad that are included in the Mexican National System of Researchers (SNI). Our diaspora sample includes 479 researchers, most of them holding postdoctoral positions in mainly seven countries: USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Spain, Canada and Brazil. Their research output and impact is explored in order to determine their patterns of production, mobility and scientific collaboration as compared with previous studies of the SNI researchers in the periods 1991-2001 and 2003-2009. Our findings confirm that mobility has a strong impact on their international scientific collaboration. We found no substantial influence among the researchers that got their PhD degrees abroad from those trained in Mexican universities. There are significant differences among the areas of knowledge studied: biological sciences, physics and engineering have better production and impact rates than mathematics, geosciences, medicine, agrosciences, chemistry, social sciences and humanities. We found a slight gender difference in research production but Mexican female scientists are underrepresented in our diaspora sample. These findings would have policy implications for the recently established program that will open new academic positions for young Mexican scientists.
Marmolejo-Leyva, Rafael; Perez-Angon, Miguel Angel; Russell, Jane M.
We use a data set of Mexican researchers working abroad that are included in the Mexican National System of Researchers (SNI). Our diaspora sample includes 479 researchers, most of them holding postdoctoral positions in mainly seven countries: USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Spain, Canada and Brazil. Their research output and impact is explored in order to determine their patterns of production, mobility and scientific collaboration as compared with previous studies of the SNI researchers in the periods 1991–2001 and 2003–2009. Our findings confirm that mobility has a strong impact on their international scientific collaboration. We found no substantial influence among the researchers that got their PhD degrees abroad from those trained in Mexican universities. There are significant differences among the areas of knowledge studied: biological sciences, physics and engineering have better production and impact rates than mathematics, geosciences, medicine, agrosciences, chemistry, social sciences and humanities. We found a slight gender difference in research production but Mexican female scientists are underrepresented in our diaspora sample. These findings would have policy implications for the recently established program that will open new academic positions for young Mexican scientists. PMID:26047501
Zimmer, Brian W.; Riggs, Nancy R.; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo
Cerro Pinto is a Pleistocene rhyolite tuff ring-dome complex located in the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The complex is composed of four tuff rings and four domes that were emplaced in three eruptive stages marked by changes in vent location and eruptive character. During Stage I, vent clearing produced a 1.5-km-diameter tuff ring that was then followed by emplacement of two domes of approximately 0.2 km3 each. With no apparent hiatus in activity, Stage II began with the explosive formation of a tuff ring ~2 km in diameter adjacent to and north of the earlier ring. Subsequent Stage II eruptions produced two smaller tuff rings within the northern tuff ring as well as a small dome that was mostly destroyed by explosions during its growth. Stage III involved the emplacement of a 0.04 km3 dome within the southern tuff ring. Cerro Pinto's eruptive history includes sequences that follow simple rhyolite-dome models, in which a pyroclastic phase is followed immediately by effusive dome emplacement. Some aspects of the eruption, however, such as the explosive reactivation of the system and explosive dome destruction, are more complex. These events are commonly associated with polygenetic structures, such as stratovolcanoes or calderas, in which multiple pulses of magma initiate reactivation. A comparison of major and trace element geochemistry with nearby Pleistocene silicic centers does not show indication of any co-genetic relationship, suggesting that Cerro Pinto was produced by a small, isolated magma chamber. The compositional variation of the erupted material at Cerro Pinto is minimal, suggesting that there were not multiple pulses of magma responsible for the complex behavior of the volcano and that the volcanic system was formed in a short time period. The variety of eruptive style observed at Cerro Pinto reflects the influence of quickly exhaustible water sources on a short-lived eruption. The rising magma encountered small amounts of groundwater that
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro
Background The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in inmates has not been previously studied. Therefore, we determine the seroepidemiology of H. pylori infection in inmates. Methods Through a case-control study, inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango, Mexico and subjects without incarceration of the same city were examined for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, incarceration, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the inmates was also investigated. Results Antibodies to H. pylori were found in 140 (83.3%) of 168 inmates and in 101 (60.1%) of 168 controls. Seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was significantly higher in inmates than in controls (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.93 - 5.71; P = 0.000002). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was not influenced by gender, age, or socioeconomic status of inmates. Seropositivity to H. pylori was found in 3 of 3 inmates with peptic ulcer and in 1 of 2 inmates with gastritis. The seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure was high regardless the jail section, duration (years) in incarceration and number of incarcerations. Multivariate analysis revealed that H. pylori exposure was positively associated with having tattoos (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.14 - 9.70; P = 0.02), and negatively associated with drug abuse (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.70; P = 0.007). Conclusions Seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure in inmates is higher than those found in non-incarcerated people and other populations in the region. Results indicate that inmates may represent a new risk group for H. pylori exposure. Results warrant for further research on the potential role of incarceration and behavioral features of inmates for H. pylori infection. PMID:27785257
Wagstaff, David A.; Kulis, Stephen; Elek, Elvira
In the Fall of 2004, 1,948 5th grade students from Phoenix, AZ enrolled in an evaluation of a school-based, substance use prevention intervention. To assess the consistency of Mexican and Mexican-American students' self-reports of lifetime substance use, the present study analyzed data reported by 1,418 students who reported Mexican ancestry and…
DeRosa, Janet Ann
This qualitative study used a narrative design to explore the perceptions, background and experiences of Mexican Americans who completed their bachelor's degree as adult learners. The study focuses in particular on their experiences of learning to be bicultural. A "Borderlands" framework whereby Mexican American adult learners negotiated…
Plata-Potter, Sandra Ixa; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.
This phenomenological study examines Mexican immigrant parents' experiences of helping their children navigate and succeed in school and their perceptions regarding differences between the U.S. and Mexican educational systems. Findings highlight parents' challenges in helping their children succeed in a new and unfamiliar school system and the…
San-Juan, O D; Zermeño, P F
Persistent aura symptoms in patients with migraine are rare but well documented. The International Headache Society defines persistent aura without infarction as when the aura symptoms persist for > 1 week without radiographic evidence of infarction. The visual aura of migraine attacks has been explained by cortical spreading depression. We describe a case of a 28-year-old Mexican woman, who presented with persistent aura symptoms, and a literature review. The patient had a 24-year history of migraine headache. In November 2005 the patient had an attack which started with scintillating scotomas bilaterally associated with photopsias and amaurosis followed by migraine headache. All imaging studies were negative. The episode lasted 35 days and probably resolved with nimodipine therapy. Persistent aura symptoms are rare entities. This is the first case documented of a Mexican patient with persistent aura without infarction and probably resolved with nimodipine therapy.
MITTELBACH, FRANK G.; AND OTHERS
THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE ASPECTS OF INTERMARRIAGE AMONG MEXICAN-AMERICANS IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. DATA WERE OBTAINED BY ANALYZING LOS ANGELES COUNTY MARRIAGE LICENSES FOR 1963. USING THESE DATA THE FOLLOWING TOPICS WERE STATISTICALLY EXAMINED--(1) THE RATE OF INTERMARRIAGE AS AN INDICATOR OF SOCIAL DISTANCE, (2) THE…
Morgan Consoli, Melissa L; Llamas, Jasmin D
The current study investigated the role of cultural values in the resilience of Mexican American college students. Utilizing mixed methodology, 124 self-identified Mexican American college students were asked to complete an online survey, including a demographic questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, Mexican American Cultural Values Scale, and 2 open-ended questions concerning overcoming adversity and cultural values. As hypothesized, Mexican American traditional cultural values (Familismo, Respeto, Religiosidad, and Traditional Gender Roles) predicted resilience, with Familismo accounting for the majority of the variance. Consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) was used to identify emergent domains and themes within the open-ended question responses. Traditional Mexican American Value themes included Familismo, Ethnic Identity, Religiosidad, Perseverance, and Respeto. Results highlight the important role that certain Mexican American cultural values play in providing strength for overcoming adversities.
Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Al Snih, Soham
Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Methods We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Results Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36–2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07–2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41–4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06–2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45–0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41–0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57–0.97). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. PMID:26872919
Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Arce, Irma Elia; Tostado-Rabago, Enrique Alejandro; Vargas, Alberto; Padilla-Gómez, Luis Alfredo; Bolaños, Alejandro; Barrios-Guyot, Selenne; Anguiano-Alvarez, Víctor Manuel; Ledezma-Rodríguez, Víctor Chistian; Islas-Carbajal, María Cristina; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Dávalos, Nory Omayra
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders whose primary clinical features include soft and extensible skin, articular hypermobility and tissue fragility. EDS type VIIC or ‘human dermatosparaxis’ is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by severe skin fragility and sagging redundant skin (major criteria) with a soft, doughy texture, easy bruising, premature rupture of fetal membranes and large hernias (minor criteria). Dermatosparaxis (meaning ‘tearing of skin’), which has been described in several non-human species, is a disorder of the connective tissue resulting from a deficiency of the enzyme that cleaves the registration peptide off the N-terminal end of collagen after it has been secreted from fibroblasts. We describe a Mexican case from consanguineous parents with all the phenotypical characteristics previously described, plus skeletal abnormalities. PMID:22787447
The level of success of the Mexican INEA (National Institute for the Education of Adults) academic program implemented in the U.S. has never been examined. INEA developed five goals for its students in the U.S. that supplement the general goals that the program has for all its students in Mexico. The 5 supplementary goals are to provide access to…
Fernández-Torres, Javier; Flores-Jiménez, Denhi; Arroyo-Pérez, Antonio; Granados, Julio; López-Reyes, Alberto
Among oncohematological diseases, acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are characterized by the uncontrolled production and accumulation of blasts that can lead to death. Although the physiopathology of these diseases is multifactorial, a genetic factor seems to be at play. Several studies worldwide have shown association of ALL and AML with several alleles of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Objective. To determine gene frequencies of HLA-B alleles in Mexicans (individuals with Native American genetic background admixed with European descent) with ALL and AML. Methods. We compared the HLA-B alleles in 213 patients with ALL and 85 patients with AML to those present in 731 umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples as a control group; this was done by means of the PCR-SSP technique. Results. We found an increased frequency of the HLA-B*40 allele in ALL patients as compared to the control group (14.5% versus 9.84%, P = 0.003, OR = 1.67); this was particularly evident in a subgroup of young (less than 18 years old) ALL patients (P = 0.002, OR = 1.76); likewise, a decreased frequency of HLA-B*40 allele in AML patients was observed as compared to the control group (4.70% versus 9.84%, P = 0.02, OR = 0.42). Conclusions. These results might suggest opposing effects of the HLA-B*40 in the genetic susceptibility to develop ALL or AML and offer the possibility to study further the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation within the bone marrow lineage. PMID:24364037
Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M
Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.
The onus of this dissertation was to evaluate the educational conditions of Mexican American students forty years after the "Mexican American Education Study" published a six-volume study detailing the findings of the "Mexican American Education Study" (1970-1974). The "MAES" study focused on five southwest states…
Astacio, Ramon; Iruegas, Efrain
Developed originally for grades 7-12, the three bilingual Mexican American studies curriculum units on the pre-Hispanic cultures of the Olmecs, Mayas, and Aztecs present information for the teacher and for the student, a glossary, worksheets, an answer key, a test, and a bibliography in Spanish and English. The cross section of materials are…
Gonzales, Jesus J., Comp.
The document is a bibliography of resource materials in the field of Mexican American studies. Approximately 300 entries covering the period from 1917 to 1967 are divided into the following major categories: Art, Economy, History, Literature, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, Religion, Sociology, and Audio-Visual. (EJ)
Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian
Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that
Although Mexican Americans are the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, their history and literature are seldom taught in American classrooms. A study of over 3,000 high school sophomores in the Southwest revealed that neither Anglos nor Hispanics were aware of the contributions of Mexican Americans. Incorporating Mexican American…
Filonov, Anatoliy E.
Barra de Navidad is a small Mexican tourist town on the coast of a lagoon that is buffered from the Pacific Ocean by a narrow strip of sand. The town is a favorite rest spot of American and Canadian tourists. On October 9, 1995, at 9:36 local time (1536 GMT), a strong earthquake that measured Mx = 8.0 disrupted the lives of the townspeople. The epicenter of the earthquake was located in the ocean at 18°51.5‧N and 104°8.4‧W [Ortiz and Synolakis, 1996], but it destroyed many hotels and homes, and the shifting of the land tore up the highway that connects Barra de Navidad and Manzanillo. Crevices of up to 3 m wide opened across the road, and bridges over small rivers were knocked down. In an instant, the town was disconnected from the outside world. Frightened townspeople roamed the streets, assessing the destruction.
Díaz de León González, Enrique; Gutiérrez Hermosillo, Hugo; Martinez Beltran, Jesus Avilio; Medina Chavez, Juan Humberto; Palacios Corona, Rebeca; Salinas Garza, Deborah Patricia; Rodriguez Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra
Background The aging population in Latin America is characterized by not optimal conditions for good health, experiencing high burden of comorbidity, which contribute to increase the frequency of frailty; thus, identification should be a priority, to classify patients at high risk to develop its negative consequences. Aim The objective of this analysis was to validate the FRAIL instrument to measure frailty in Mexican elderly population, from the database of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Materials and methods Prospective, population study in Mexico, that included subjects of 60 years and older who were evaluated for the variables of frailty during the year 2001 (first wave of the study). Frailty was measured with the five-item FRAIL scale (fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and weight loss). The robust, pre-frail or intermediate, and the frail group were considered when they had zero, one, and at least two components, respectively. Mortality, hospitalizations, falls, and functional dependency were evaluated during 2003 (second wave of the study). Relative risk was calculated for each complications, as well as hazard ratio (for mortality) through Cox regression model and odds ratio with logistic regression (for the rest of the outcomes), adjusted for covariates. Results The state of frailty was independently associated with mortality, hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. The pre-frailty state was only independently associated with hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. Conclusions Frailty measured through the FRAIL scale, is associated with an increase in the rate of mortality, hospitalizations, dependency in activities of daily life, and falls. PMID:26646253
Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Yoder, Michelle; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Bergey, Rebecca
Siblings play a critical role in the socialization experiences of their younger siblings. Societal values, standards, and customs are transmitted and created through the process of modeling and the construction of shared meaning. It follows, therefore, that the process of socialization may be culturally dependent. Using multiple case studies of…
Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto
Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…
González-De la Rosa, María Guadalupe; Alva-Moncayo, Edith
Myoclonic epilepsy, described in 1911 by Lafora and Glueck, is an autosomal recessive hereditary clinical-pathological entity, which begins at the end of childhood or during adolescence, presents atypical absences, generalized and atonic tonic-clonic seizures, which can evolve to the epileptic state. The diagnosis is confirmed trough the skin biopsy or trough determination of the protein laforine. In this paper we present the initial case of a patient in whom we confirm the diagnosis of progressive myoclonic epilepsy and in particular the Lafora disease, which due to the symptomatology and the knowledge of the case we were able to detect her sister's disease. Skin biopsies are reported with high sensitivity and specificity, observing inclusion bodies, and neurophysiological and electroencephalographic studies are undoubtedly non-specific. The article reports on the cases of two sisters, who were definitively confirmed their diagnosis, which allowed us to focus on the early detection of the other case.
Moreno, Robert P.
This study examined the maternal teaching practices of Mexican American mothers and the relation of these practices to their children's task performance. The questions considered in the study were: (1) what teaching behaviors characterize maternal instruction; (2) how does use of these behaviors change throughout instruction; and (3) how do these…
Farrell, Janice; Markides, Kyriakos S.
The relationships between health and marital status and marital satisfaction were investigated with data from a three-generation study of Mexican Americans. It was concluded that marriage and good health appear to have more protective influences on younger Mexican Americans, though the possibility was acknowledged that generational differences may…
Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina
This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…
Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio
Introduction Our aim was to compare the longitudinal lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents with the collated spirometric reference proposed for international use and with that of Mexican-Americans from the National Health State Examination Survey III (NHANES) III study. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third year of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models separated by gender were fit for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children expressed as Z-scores of tested reference equations. Impact of adjustment by sitting height on differences with Mexican-American children was observed in a subsample of 1,987 children. Results At same gender, age, and height, Mexican children had increasingly higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) than the children from the collated reference study (mean Z-score, 0.68 for FEV1 and 0.51 for FVC) and than Mexican-American children (Z-score, 0.23 for FEV1 and 0.21 for FVC) respectively. Differences with Mexican-Americans were not reduced by adjusting by sitting height. Conclusions For reasons that remain unclear, the gender-, age-, and height-adjusted lung function of children from Mexico City is higher than that reported by several international studies. PMID:24143231
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth
Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751
Moreno, Claudia E.; Guevara, Roger; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Téllez, Dianeis; Verdú, José R.
Environmental assessment at the community level in highly diverse ecosystems is limited by taxonomic constraints and statistical methods requiring true replicates. Our objective was to show how diverse systems can be studied at the community level using higher taxa as biodiversity surrogates, and re-sampling methods to allow comparisons. To illustrate this we compared the abundance, richness, evenness and diversity of the litter fauna in a pine-oak forest in central Mexico among seasons, sites and collecting methods. We also assessed changes in the abundance of trophic guilds and evaluated the relationships between community parameters and litter attributes. With the direct search method we observed differences in the rate of taxa accumulation between sites. Bootstrap analysis showed that abundance varied significantly between seasons and sampling methods, but not between sites. In contrast, diversity and evenness were significantly higher at the managed than at the non-managed site. Tree regression models show that abundance varied mainly between seasons, whereas taxa richness was affected by litter attributes (composition and moisture content). The abundance of trophic guilds varied among methods and seasons, but overall we found that parasitoids, predators and detrivores decreased under management. Therefore, although our results suggest that management has positive effects on the richness and diversity of litter fauna, the analysis of trophic guilds revealed a contrasting story. Our results indicate that functional groups and re-sampling methods may be used as tools for describing community patterns in highly diverse systems. Also, the higher taxa surrogacy could be seen as a preliminary approach when it is not possible to identify the specimens at a low taxonomic level in a reasonable period of time and in a context of limited financial resources, but further studies are needed to test whether the results are specific to a system or whether they are general
Markides, K S; Krause, N; Mendes de Leon, C F
Data from a three-generation study of Mexican Americans conducted in the San Antonio, Texas area are utilized to examine the influence of acculturation into the larger society on alcohol consumption. Acculturation was not related to alcohol consumption in the older generation. In the middle generation, it was related to lower alcohol consumption among men, as well as among women. In the younger generation, acculturation was related to more drinking among women, but not among men. Within-family analysis showed that the alcohol consumption of members of the younger generation was associated with the consumption of their parents, particularly in the case of younger women. PMID:3407815
Espino, Michelle M.
In this study, Michelle M. Espino uncovers the ways in which twenty-five Mexican American women PhDs made meaning of conflicting messages about the purpose of higher education as they navigated within and through educational structures and shifting familial expectations. Participants received "consejos", or nurturing advice, from parents…
Aguilar-Navarro, Sara G; Amieva, Hélène; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto
Objective To describe the characteristics and prognosis of subjects classified as frail in a large sample of Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Materials and methods An eleven-year longitudinal study of 5 644 old adults participating in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Frailty was defined loss, weakness, exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity. The main outcomes were incident disability and death. Multiple covariates were used to test the prognostic value of frailty. Results Thirty-seven percent of participants (n = 2 102) met the frailty criteria. Frail participants were significantly older, female, less disease, lower income, and poorer self-reported health status, in comparison with their non-frail counterparts. Frailty was a predictor both for disability activities of daily living and for mortality. Conclusion After a follow-up of more than ten years, the phenotype of frailty was a predictor for adverse health-related outcomes, including ADL disability and death. PMID:26172236
Alcántara de la Cruz, Ricardo; Barro, Francisco; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José Alfredo; De Prado, Rafael
In recent years, glyphosate-tolerant legumes have been used as cover crops for weed management in tropical areas of Mexico. Mexican cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.) is an innate glyphosate-tolerant legume with a potential as a cover crop in temperate areas of the country. In this work, glyphosate tolerance was characterized in two Mexican cologania (a treated (T) and an untreated (UT)) populations as being representatives of the species, compared in turn to a glyphosate-susceptible hairy fleabane (S) (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.) population. Experiments revealed that T and UT Mexican cologania populations had a higher tolerance index (TI), and a lower shikimic acid accumulation and foliar retention than the hairy fleabane S population. Absorption and translocation, leaf morphology and metabolism studies were only carried out in the Mexican cologania T population and the hairy fleabane S population. The latter absorbed 37% more (14)C-glyphosate compared to the Mexican cologania T at 96 h after treatment (HAT). Mexican cologania T translocated less herbicide from the treated leaf to the remainder of the plant than hairy fleabane S. The Mexican cologania T presented a greater epicuticular wax coverage percentage than the hairy fleabane S. This morphological characteristic contributed to the low glyphosate absorption observed in the Mexican cologania. In addition, the Mexican cologania T metabolized glyphosate mainly into AMPA, formaldehyde and sarcosine. These results indicate that the high glyphosate tolerance observed in Mexican cologania is mainly due to the poor penetration and translocation of glyphosate into the active site, and the high glyphosate degradation into non-toxic substances.
Cárdenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Tovalín-Ahumada, Horacio; Nates, Joseph L.
Context Characterizing where people die is needed to inform palliative care programs in Mexico. Objectives To determine whether access to health care influences the place of death of older Mexicans and examine the modifying effects of demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 2001 baseline and 2003 follow-up data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Cases included adults who completed the baseline interview and died before the follow-up interview and for whom a proxy interview was obtained in 2003. The main outcome variable was the place of death (hospital vs. home). The predictors of the place of death were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results The study group included 473 deceased patients; 52.9% died at home. Factors associated with hospital death were having spent at least one night in a hospital during the last year of life (odds ratio [OR]: 6.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 13.78) and dying in a city other than the city of usual residence (OR: 4.68, 95% CI: 2.56, 8.57). Factors associated with home death were not having health care coverage (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.34, 5.88), living in a city of less than 100,000 residents (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.43, 4.17), and older age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05). Conclusion Older Mexicans with access to health care services were more likely to die in the hospital even after controlling for important clinical and demographic characteristics. Findings from the study may be used to plan the provision of accessible end-of-life hospital and home-based services. PMID:21146354
Diaz Cruz, J. Lorenzo
This paper is aimed to review the contribution made by scientists working at Mexican Institutions on the subject of Electroweak symmetry breaking. This review covers the period from the 80 up to the present.
Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Pantridge, Caroline E.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor
Parental influences on youth drinking are well documented but not the influence of extended family members. This article explores extended family influences on alcohol use among Mexican youths and whether extended family members can be considered natural mentors. We conducted a qualitative study using ethnographic open ended interviews with 117 first year university students in Mexico City. The ethnographic interviews revealed six drinking groups: excessive, heavy, regular, occasional, abstainers and non drinkers. Youths reported close relationships with extended family members who provided counsel and acted as representatives of familial norms and values. The alcohol beliefs and behaviors of these family members, including their alcohol misuse, had a positive influence on youths’ alcohol attitudes. The naturally occurring mentoring relationships of Mexican extended family members can positively influence moderate youth drinking. Natural mentoring relationships should be encouraged and facilitated in prevention efforts for Mexican youths, Mexican-American youths and potentially other Hispanic/Latino youths. PMID:26187913
Inda Diaz, H. A.; Pares-Sierra, A.
East boundary ecosystems are the most productive regions in the world and they sustain a large percentage of world fisheries. Understand and describe the connectivity and exchange between different regions of the ocean is very important for larvae dispersion study and other tracers like pollutants. In this work we use an offline numerical model to simulate Lagrangian particle trajectories in the Eastern Mexican Pacific (between 120-94 W and 12-34 N). Particles are advected whit velocity fields generated with the model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) in the period 1980-2006. We define connectivity indexes in order to classify different zones by their capacity of exporting, receiving and retaining particles. We aim to identify the most transited pathways, quantify connectivity between different regions of EMP through connectivity matrix and describe their seasonal variability. It has been identified zones of high isolation and retention (Vizcaino Bay, Northern of Gulf of California), high retention and importation (between Ensenada and Point Conception) and high exportation and importation (Cabo Corrientes). Connectivity has clear equatoward preference in the California Peninsula region dominated by the influence of California Current with an increase in winter and spring, and also equatoward in the south region of Mexico (from Cabo Corrientes to Tehuantepec Gulf), dominated by the anticyclonic circulation of Tehuantepec Dome. It is observed a complete disconnection between the Baja California Peninsula and Cabo Corrientes zone and further south. Results suggest that the scales of connectivity does not significantly change for simulations over 3 months.
Vera-Lastra, Olga; Sauceda-Casas, Christian Alexis; Domínguez, María Del Pilar Cruz; Alvarez, Sergio Alberto Mendoza; Sepulceda-Delgado, Jesús
Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma (ssSSc) is a form of systemic sclerosis that is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), visceral involvement without thickening of skin and anticentromere antibodies (ACA). We studied 10 ssSsc patients with a prevalence of 2%. The clinical signs were: RP 9/10, esophageal manifestations 8/10, pulmonary arterial hypertension 4/10, interstitial lung disease 4/10, cardiac signs 3/10 and ACA 8/10.
Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles
Research on drug trafficking has not been able to discern the exact nature of illegal drug markets and the relationship between their individual and group participants. This article delineates the role of Mexican immigrants and Mexican-American participants involved in the stratified drug market of South Texas. This article synthesizes ethnographic materials drawn from two previous National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) studies in order identify the different types of drug distribution behaviors that occur within the groups, the differentiated roles of individuals, the organizational framework, and most significantly, the processes that link market participants to others outside of the drug market. This illegal behavior can be interpreted as an adaptive mechanism that is a direct response to the marginal economic status imposed by macro socio-economical background factors. As well, we conclude that the specific foreground factors of the opportunities offered by the context, culture, and proximity of the U.S./Mexico border and invitational edges explain this behavior. There are both parallels and particular differences between the South Texas case and the structuring and functioning of informal legal and illegal markets that are characteristic of other economically disadvantaged communities. PMID:21218142
Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.
The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…
Bullington, Robin L.; Arbona, Consuelo
Interviews of four academically successful Mexican American adolescents found them engaged in age-appropriate career development tasks according to Super's theory. Family and ethnicity influenced their educational and vocational aspirations in terms of awareness of ethnic identity, prejudice, and discrimination; however, they did not perceive…
Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.
The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…
Doran, Gerry; Downing Hansen, Nancy
Using a collective case study ethnographic approach, nine individuals comprising three Mexican American families were interviewed about their family bereavement experiences after the death of a child. All families were Catholic, had surviving siblings, and had had three or more years to grieve their loss when interviewed. The deceased children ranged in age from 3 to 14, and all experienced sudden, traumatic, nonsuicide deaths. To provide a broader, contextual picture of their grief experiences, four individuals who supported these family members after the loss were also interviewed. Unique grief experiences were identified, and eight common themes emerged, reflecting the ways in which family members maintained their bond to the deceased: dreams, storytelling, keepsakes, sense of presence, faith-based connections, proximity connections, ongoing rituals, and pictorial remembrances. The cultural implications of family bereavement are highlighted.
Suen, Hoi K; Greenspan, Stephen
A Spanish-language translation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), normed in Mexico, is sometimes used when evaluating Spanish-speaking defendants in capital cases in order to diagnose possible mental retardation (MR). Although the manual for the Mexican test suggests use of the U.S. norms when diagnosing MR, the Mexican norms-which produce full-scale scores on average 12 points higher-are sometimes used for reasons that are similar to those used by proponents for "race-norming" in special education. Such an argument assumes, however, that the Mexican WAIS-III norms are valid. In this paper, we examined the validity of the Mexican WAIS-III norms and found six very serious problems with those norms: (1) extremely poor reliability, (2) lack of a meaningful reference population, (3) lack of score normalization, (4) exclusion of certain groups from the standardization sample, (5) use of incorrect statistics and calculations, and (6) incorrect application of the true score confidence interval method. An additional problem is the apparent absence of any social policy consensus within Mexico as to the definition and boundary parameters of MR. Taken together, these concerns lead one to the inescapable conclusion that the Mexican WAIS-III norms are not interpretable and should not be used for any high-stakes purpose, especially one as serious as whether a defendant should qualify for exemption against imposition of the death penalty.
Chittoor, Geetha; Arya, Rector; Farook, Vidya S; David, Randy; Puppala, Sobha; Resendez, Roy G; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Curran, Joanne E; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Gonzalez, Lupe; Blangero, John; Crawford, Michael H; Vlasich, Esteban M; Escobedo, Luis G; Duggirala, Ravindranath
Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbid conditions have become a burden on global health economies. It is well understood that susceptibility of the host to TB infection/disease is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The aims of this pilot case-control study are to characterize the sociodemographic and environmental factors related to active TB disease (TB/case) and latent TB infection (LTBI/control) status, and to identify risk factors associated with progression from LTBI to TB. We recruited 75 cases with TB (mean age=46.3y; females=41%) and 75 controls with LTBI (mean age=39.0y; females=37%), from the Mestizo population of Cuidad Juárez, Mexico. In addition to the determination of case/control status, information on environmental variables was collected (e.g., socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, nutritional status, household demographics, medical histories and presence of type 2 diabetes [T2DM]). The data were analyzed to identify the environmental correlates of TB and LTBI using univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, TB was associated with poor nutrition, T2DM, family history of TB, and non-Chihuahua state of birth. These preliminary findings have relevance to TB control at the Mexico-United States border, and contribute to our future genetic study of TB in Mexicans.
Eldeirawi, Kamal; Koenig, Mary Dawn; Persky, Victoria; Chavez, Noel
There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994), on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4-16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.
The "Paulina case" is the story of a 13-year-old girl in Mexico who became pregnant in 1999 after being raped. Although she received permission to obtain a legal abortion, the hospital convinced her mother through misleading information to decline the abortion. This case has become an almost obligatory point of reference when abortion is discussed in Mexico. This paper analyses how the Mexican press portrayed the Paulina case and the social actors who participated in it--Paulina herself, Paulina's allies, the state government, the Catholic Church, members of the political party PAN and the National Human Rights Commission. One of the great breakthroughs of this case was that the denial of an abortion was judged to be a form of negligence. In demanding justice for Paulina, Paulina's allies were given moral authority in the press to denounce those who denied her an abortion. While the government of Baja California state and members of the PAN were held responsible for their role in the case, the Catholic Church, who was also responsible, seemed to escape criticism. It is probable that the large emotional weight of the Paulina case accomplished more in terms of changing public opinion in support of women's right to decide on abortion than any other single event to date.
This is a qualitative interpretive study that explores the past and present experiences of heritage learners (HLs) of Mexican descent who were studying or had recently studied advanced Spanish in institutions of higher education. All of the participants had been exposed to Spanish in the home and began their studies in elementary or middle school…
Ladd, Doris M.
This guide contains three Latin American study units for students in junior and community colleges on the topic of Mexican women in Anahuac and New Spain. Objectives are to help the student read history, exercise empathy, think critically, stimulate interest in the study of women, and understand the dignity and fascination of the Mexican heritage.…
Sanchez-Zamora, Sabrina Suzanne
This mixed methods study explored the resilience of Mexican American women administrators at Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs). The women administrators that were considered in this study included department chairs, deans, and vice presidents in a four-year public HSI. There is an underrepresentation of Mexican American women in higher…
Jaramillo, James A.
This study conducted a library literature search of college guides, directories, and catalogs to determine the number of undergraduate level Chicano/a Studies and Mexican-American Studies programs in the U.S. The analysis found that there were 76 undergraduate programs in these fields, including 20 at two-year colleges and 56 at four-year…
Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.
This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…
Baca, Joseph Donald
The purpose of this study was to determine whether attitudes toward Mexican American students were associated with the ethnicity, age, and teaching experience of secondary school teachers in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. A 50 item cultural awareness questionnaire was used with a sample of 112 participants. The 6 significant factors studied were…
Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Janssen, Ian
This study analyzed the prospective relationship of community social disorder with sedentary behavior, sport participation, and adiposity in Mexican adults from the National Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS). The sample included 8307 adults (aged ≥20 years) from 145 communities. During a three-year follow-up, participants from communities with high social disorder had a 1.36cm larger increase in waist circumference than participants from communities with low social disorder. However, there were no differences in body mass index, television, or sport participation. These findings emphasize the need to promote healthy social environments in local communities.
This study asked whether traceable knowledge transformations are occurring among indigenous Mexican women and, if so, the processes through which these shape their engagements with sexual health values and views. Thirty-nine interviews with rural and urban indigenous Mexican female adolescents were analysed through the lenses of social representations theory. Results evince that participants express transformations in terms of their social context, what constitutes a healthy youth and the uses of folk medicine, which are brought about by selecting, displacing and hybridising knowledge. Discussion centres on the consistency of themes across the sample and the variety of processes mapped.
The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and…
Orozco, Richard A.
The article discusses a legislation that would effectively terminate Mexican American Studies programs in k-12 was passed in Arizona in 2010. In this article, the author traces how this legislation drew from discourses of anti-Americanism and wickedness initiated by the state's superintendent of public instruction against Mexican American Studies…
Perez, Norma; Franzini, Luisa; Freeman, Daniel H.; Ju, Hyunsu; Peek, Kristen
There is little known about the association between socioeconomic status and job stress in Mexican Americans. To address this issue, data were originated on a community level using personal interviews from working Mexican Americans using a multistage probability sample. In this study we described the population's sociodemographic characteristics,…
This article reports the results of a qualitative field study of the ethnotherapeutic treatment practices of "curanderos," the practitioners of traditional Mexican medicine, and their effectiveness in the treatment of mental illness. Three healers and their patients from the southwestern state of Oaxaca participated in the study. The…
Latin American audiences living in their countries of origin are poorly understood as museum learners due to the scarcity of research in this field. Through a case study approach, I investigate and report on the ways of learning of 20 Mexican family groups. In particular, I examine the influence of the Mexican sociocultural context on the…
Background Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Several studies have provided a possible relationship between genetic factors and suicidal behavior. Also, these studies have shown evidence for altered serotonergic neural transmission in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior. In addition, genes pertaining to the serotonergic system have been proposed as candidates to establish biological correlates between suicidal behavior and the serotonergic system. The most studied genes are SCL6A4, HTR2A, HTR2C, HTR1A, HTR1B, TPH-1, and TPH-2. To get a comprehensive understanding of the association with suicidal behavior we will conduct genotype assays studies in a Mexican population. Methods/Design We will conduct a case–control study. The population sample will comprise adolescent and adult patients admitted for attempted of suicide and diagnosed by a psychiatrist. A peripheral blood sample will be taken from all the subjects (cases and controls). Genomic DNA from the leukocytes blood sample will be extracted. The genotypes of interest are distributed in the following genes: SCL6A4, HTR2A, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2C, TPH-2 and TPH-1. All the samples will be analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) end-point method. We will evaluate the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test will be used to compare genotype and allele frequencies between control and case groups. The Quanto 1.2 software will measure the sample size of the association. For all the association analyses the level of significance will be set at p = 0.05 and the confidence interval at 95%. Discussion Suicidal behavior has been increase in Mexico, principally in young population. Our study will demonstrate the association between serotoninergic genes and suicide behavior in Mexican population. PMID:24495559
Alvarez, Robert M., Jr.
Explores Mexican-American immigrant entrepreneurial activity in the wholesale produce industry in Los Angeles (California). This activity exhibits the primary characteristics defined for immigrant enclaves, a specific mode of incorporation into the economic sector of the U.S. Describes hierarchical elements of Mexican entrepreneurship that…
Flores, Juan Modesto
Two questions were investigated in this study: (1) Does the low socioeconomic Mexican American perceive himself as he is portrayed in literature? and (2) Are there relationships between educational achievement, perceived cultural characteristics, and the 7 specific themes: 1) ethnic isolation, 2) Spanish language, 3) fatalism, 4) present day…
Espinoza-Gonzalez, Daniel; French, Kristen B.; Gallardo, Stephanie; Glemaker, Ethan; Noel, Saraswati; Marsura, Michelle; Mehary, Elaine; Saldaña-Spiegle, Nadia; Schimpf, Brendan; Thaw, Chelsea
In this article, college students and faculty narrate their co-constructed journey across differences, through intersecting identities and intertwining paths in an effort to stand in solidarity with students, teachers, and community members resisting the removal of the Mexican-American Studies (MAS) program in the Tucson Unified School District in…
Lee, Joohee; Rehner, Tim; Castellanos, Diana Cuy
Despite increased interest in mental health among Latino immigrants in the United States, it is particularly salient to note that minimal or marginal attention has been paid to Mexican immigrant men settling in non-metro or rural areas outside of traditional settlement places. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with…
Jackson, Kelly F.; Wolven, Thera; Aguilera, Kimberly
Guided by an integrated framework of resilience, this in-depth qualitative study examined the major stressors persons of multiethnic Mexican American heritage encountered in their social environments related to their mixed identity and the resilience enhancing processes they employed to cope with these stressors. Life-story event narratives were…
Roosa, Mark W.; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana
Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability,…
Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Pantridge, Caroline E.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor
Parental influences on youth drinking are well documented but not the influence of extended family members. This article explores extended family influences on alcohol use among Mexican youths and whether extended family members can be considered natural mentors. We conducted a qualitative study using ethnographic open ended interviews with 117…
Tyler, Diane O.
This study assessed actual and perceived health status of overweight Mexican American clients at a central Texas school-based health center in a predominately Hispanic school district. It also explored the participants' interest in making lifestyle changes to promote a healthy weight. A medical records review indicated that of the Hispanic…
Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Mexican-origin families are a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the U.S. population, but they remain underrepresented in family scholarship. This paper introduces a special section of four papers on Mexican-origin families designed to contribute to the advancement of research on how cultural, family, and gender socialization processes unfold across key developmental periods and life transitions in this cultural context. Two longitudinal studies of Mexican-origin families provided the data for these four papers: (a) The Juntos Project, an 8-year longitudinal study of mothers, fathers, and adolescent sibling pairs in 246 Mexican-origin families; and (b) The Supporting MAMI Project, a study following 204 adolescent mothers and their mother figures from the third trimester of pregnancy through their young children's 5th birthdays. In this introductory paper, we highlight four themes, including (a) differential acculturation and reciprocal socialization, (b) interdependence in families, (c) the intersection of culture and gender, and (d) methodological issues. We end with suggestions for future research.
In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.
Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard
This review presents recent studies on Mexican American fathers in the United Sates to provide researchers with an understanding of contemporary fatherhood of Mexican American individuals. It describes the myths that create methodological and conceptual problems in conducting research studies to characterize Mexican American fathers. It also…
Márquez, Lidia; Camarena, Beatriz; Hernández, Sandra; Lóyzaga, Cristina; Vargas, Luis; Nicolini, Humberto
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder whose etiology is not yet known. We investigate the role of three variants of the BDNF gene (rs6265, rs1519480 and rs7124442) by single SNP and haplotype analysis in OCD Mexican patients using a case-control and family-based association design. BDNF gene variants were genotyped in 283 control subjects, 232 OCD patients and first degree relatives of 111 OCD subjects. Single SNP analysis in case-control study showed an association between rs6265 and OCD with a high frequency of Val/Val genotype and Val allele (p=0.0001 and p=0.0001, respectively). Also, genotype and allele analysis of rs1519480 showed significant differences (p=0.0001, p=0.0001; respectively) between OCD and control groups. Haplotype analysis showed a high frequency of A-T (rs6265-rs1519480) in OCD patients compared with the control group (OR=2.06 [1.18-3.59], p=0.0093) and a low frequency of haplotype A-C in the OCD patients (OR=0.04 [0.01-0.16], p=0.000002). The family-based association study showed no significant differences in the transmission of any variant. Our study replicated the association between BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism and OCD. Also, we found a significant association of rs1519480 in OCD patients compared with a control group, region that has never been analyzed in OCD. In conclusion, our findings suggest that BDNF gene could be related to the development of OCD.
Background Studies of domestication enables a better understanding of human cultures, landscape changes according to peoples’ purposes, and evolutionary consequences of human actions on biodiversity. This review aimed at discussing concepts, hypotheses, and current trends in studies of domestication of plants, using examples of cases studied in regions of Mesoamerica and Brazil. We analyzed trends of ethnobiological studies contributing to document processes of domestication and to establish criteria for biodiversity conservation based on traditional ecological knowledge. Methods Based on reviewing our own and other authors’ studies we analyzed management patterns and evolutionary trends associated to domestication occurring at plant populations and landscape levels. Particularly, we systematized information documenting: ethnobotanical aspects about plant management and artificial selection mechanisms, morphological consequences of plant management, population genetics of wild and managed plant populations, trends of change in reproduction systems of plants associated to management, and other ecological and physiological aspects influenced by management and domestication. Results Based on the analysis of study cases of 20 native species of herbs, shrubs and trees we identified similar criteria of artificial selection in different cultural contexts of Mexico and Brazil. Similar evolutionary trends were also identified in morphology (selection in favor of gigantism of useful and correlated parts); organoleptic characteristics such as taste, toxicity, color, texture; reproductive biology, mainly breeding system, phenological changes, and population genetics aspects, maintenance or increasing of genetic diversity in managed populations, high gene flow with wild relatives and low structure maintained by artificial selection. Our review is a first attempt to unify research methods for analyzing a high diversity of processes. Further research should emphasize deeper
Ramirez Rojas, A.; Moreno-Torres, R. L.
The subduction in the Mexican South Pacific coast might be approximated as a subhorizontal slab bounded at the edge by the steep subduction geometry of the Cocos plate beneath the Caribbean plate to the east and of the Rivera plate beneath North America to the west. Singh et al. (1983), reported a study that takes into account the geometry of the subducted Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North American lithosphere defining, according their geometry, four regions: Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero and Oaxaca. In this work we study the seismicity occurred in Mexico, for each region, by means of the visual recurrence analysis (VRA). Our analysis shows important differences between each region that could be associated with nonlinear dynamical properties of each region. Singh, S.K., M. Rodriguez, and L. Esteva (1983), Statistics of small earthquakes and frequency of occurrence of large earthquakes along the Mexican subduction zone, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 73, 6A, 1779-1796.
Rosas, Lisa G; Harley, Kim; Fernald, Lia CH; Guendelman, Sylvia; Mejia, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M
Background/objective Children of Mexican descent frequently experience household food insecurity both in the United States (US) and Mexico, however, little is known about the associations of food insecurity with dietary intake. This study aimed to understand the level of perceived food insecurity and its association with dietary intake among children of Mexican descent residing in the US and Mexico. Design This cross-sectional study utilized data from a 2006 binational study of five-year-old children of Mexican descent living in migrant communities in California (CA) and Mexico (MX). Methods In CA, children were 301 participants from the CHAMACOS study, a longitudinal birth cohort in a Mexican immigrant community. MX children (n=301) were participants in the Proyecto Mariposa study, which was designed to capture a sample of women and their children living in Mexico who closely resembled the CA sample, yet who never migrated to the US. Household food insecurity was measured using the US Department of Agriculture Food Security Scale and dietary intake was assessed with food frequency questionnaires. Analysis of variance was used to examine unadjusted and adjusted differences in total energy, nutrient intake, and consumption of food groups by household food security status. Results Approximately 39% of the CA mothers and 75% of the MX mothers reported low or very low food security in the last 12 months (p<0.01). Children in the US, experiencing food insecurity consumed more fat, saturated fat, sweets and fried snacks than children not experiencing food insecurity. In contrast, in Mexico food insecurity was associated with lower intake of total carbohydrates, dairy and vitamin B6. Conclusions Programs and policies addressing food insecurity in the US and Mexico may need to take steps to address dietary intake among children in households experiencing food insecurity, possibly through education and programs to increase resources to obtain healthy foods. PMID:19942017
Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Areces, Cristina; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Marco, Javier; Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Rey, Diego
HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 alleles have been studied in a Mixtec Mexican Amerindian population by indirect DNA sequencing. HLA relatedness has been tested by comparing results with other Amerindians and worldwide populations; a total of 15,681 chromosomes have been used. Genetic distances between populations, Neighbour Joining (NJ) dendrograms and correspondence analyses have been carried out. Conclusions are: 1) Our Mixtec sample from Oaxaca Coastal Mexican area shows an HLA profile different to that of Oaxaca Central Mountains area showing that genes and languages do not correlate which is inferred both by plane genetic distances and NJ dendrograms and correspondence analyses. 2) Genetic distances and NJ dendrograms join together Mazatecan Mexican Amerindians with our studied Coastal Mixtec group; it fits with the historical relationship between Mixtec and Mazatecans. 3) A*24:02-B*35:14-DRB1*04:11, A*02:01-B*15:15-DRB1*04:11 and A*68:03-B*39:08-DRB1*08:02 extended HLA haplotypes have been "de novo" found in our Mixtec Coastal sample. 4) Shared HLA alleles are found between our Pacific Coast Mixtec Amerindians and Pacific Islanders. 5) These results are useful for establishing a future area transplantation waiting list, for the study of HLA linked diseases epidemiology and for pharmacogenomics in certain drug therapy.
Gonzalez, T.; Salas, J.; Yamamoto, J.
Analysis of the aeromagnetic anomalies over the central sector of the Mexican Volcanic Belt sheds new light on the structure of Amealco Caldera. This volcanic center located NW of Mexico City is approximately 10 km in diameter,is partially cut by a regional fault (Epitafio Huerta fault). Aguirre-Diaz (1993, 1996) has mapping the Amealco area and described the geology and petrology of the erupted products. This Caldera was formed by a large eruption which produced an ignimbrite which covers the area. The Amealco tuff is the most important volcanic unit because of its volume and distribution. After the emplacement of the central lava dome, volcanism persisted for more than a million years in the periphery and in the Caldera rim. This activity forms the Garabato dome and the Comal Scoria cone. The analyzed region is a rectangular area, approximately from 20o N to 20o 15´ N and between 100o W and 100o 20' W. The total field aeromagnetic data was obtained with a Geometrics G-803 proton magnetometer at a flight altitude of 300 m above ground level. For the analysis of the anomalies, the data was further smoothed to construct a 2 km regularly spaced grid. The anomaly map was compared with the surface geology and larger anomalies were correlated with major volcanic features. Since our main interest was in mapping the subsurface intrusive and volcanic bodies, the total field magnetic anomalies were reduced to the pole by using the double integral Fourier method. The reduced to the pole anomaly map results in a simplified pattern of isolated positive and negative anomalies, which show an improved correlation with all major volcanic structures. For the analysis and interpretation of the anomalies, the reduced to the pole anomalies were continued upward at various reference levels. These operations result in smoothing of the anomaly field by the filtering of high frequency anomalies that may be related to shallow sources. Two profiles were selected that cross the major
Mechanisms of social stratification require the categorical definition of an out-group to that can be excluded and exploited. Historically, in the United States, African Americans have been the subject of a systematic process of racial formation to define socially in this fashion. Beginning in the 1970s, however, and accelerating in the 1980s and 1990s, Mexicans were increasingly subject to processes of racialization that have rendered them more exploitable and excludable than ever before. Over the past decade, Mexican Americans moved steadily away from their middle position in the socioeconomic hierarchy and gravitated toward the bottom. This paper describes the basic mechanisms of stratification in the United States and how Mexicans have steadily been racialized to label them socially as a dehumanized and vulnerable out-group. PMID:20814590
Kiyama, Judy Marquez
Families are crucial in the development of a college-going culture in the home. This qualitative study illustrates that Mexican American families are no exception. Using a multiple case study design, this study explored the funds of knowledge present in Mexican American families. Findings from this study reveal how daily educational practices,…
Lin, Janice; Temple, Luisa; Trujillo, Celina; Mejia-Rodriquez, Fabiola; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Fernald, LIa; Young, Sera Lewise
Although pica, the craving and purposive consumption of non-food substances, is common among many populations, especially during pregnancy, the health consequences are not well understood. Further, very little is known about pica among Mexican populations in the US and Mexico. Therefore, we conducted formative research to understand pica in this understudied population. Our objectives were to identify the frequency and types of pica behaviors, understand perceived etiologies and consequences of pica, and to ascertain if the behavior was common enough to warrant a larger study. We held 9 focus group discussions (FGDs, 3 in the Salinas Valley, California, 6 in Xoxocotla, Morelos, Mexico) with 76 Mexican-born women who were currently pregnant or had delivered within the past two years. Earth, adobe, bean stones, and ice were the most commonly reported pica substances. Twenty-eight of the 76 participants (37%) reported ever engaging in pica; 22 participants (29%) reported doing so during pregnancy. The proportion of women reporting pica in the US was 43% and 34% in Mexico. Women attributed pica to the overwhelming organoleptic appeal of pica substances (especially smell and texture) and to micronutrient deficiencies. Perceived consequences of unfulfilled pica cravings were birthmarks or fetal loss; fulfilled pica cravings were also thought to be generally harmful to the mother or child, with several women specifying toxic lead, pesticides, or “worms”. In sum, pica among Mexican women is common enough to warrant a larger epidemiologic study of its socio-demographic correlates and physiological consequences. PMID:24784797
Lin, Janice W; Temple, Luisa; Trujillo, Celina; Mejia-Rodriquez, Fabiola; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Fernald, Lia; Young, Sera L
Although pica, the craving and purposive consumption of non-food substances, is common among many populations, especially during pregnancy, the health consequences are not well understood. Further, very little is known about pica among Mexican populations in the United States and Mexico. Therefore, we conducted formative research to understand pica in this understudied population. Our objectives were to identify the frequency and types of pica behaviours, to understand perceived aetiologies and consequences of pica and to ascertain if the behaviour was common enough to warrant a larger study. We held nine focus group discussions (three in the Salinas Valley, California; six in Xoxocotla, Morelos, Mexico) with 76 Mexican-born women who were currently pregnant or had delivered within the past 2 years. Earth, adobe, bean stones and ice were the most commonly reported pica substances. Twenty-eight of the 76 participants (37%) reported ever engaging in pica; 22 participants (29%) reported doing so during pregnancy. The proportion of women reporting pica in the United States and Mexico was 43% and 34%, respectively. Women attributed pica to the overwhelming organoleptic appeal of pica substances (especially smell and texture) and to micronutrient deficiencies. Perceived consequences of unfulfilled pica cravings were birthmarks or fetal loss; fulfilled pica cravings were also thought to be generally harmful to the mother or child, with several women specifying toxic lead, pesticides or 'worms'. In sum, pica among Mexican women is common enough to warrant a larger epidemiologic study of its sociodemographic correlates and physiological consequences.
McKenzie, S B; O'Connell, J; Smith, L A; Ottinger, W E
Many chronic diseases that are leading causes of morbidity and mortality can be prevented or controlled by primary or secondary interventions. Type 2 diabetes with its complications constitutes a major health problem, especially among Mexican Americans. The purpose of this pilot study was to develop an age- and culturally appropriate primary intervention program for Mexican American children at risk of type 2 diabetes. The sample included 37 Mexican American children ages 7 to 12 years who had at least one parent or grandparent with type 2 diabetes. A health screen of physiologic risk factors, a nutritional assessment, and a diabetes knowledge test were administered before and after the program. The eight-session activity oriented educational program focused on nutrition, exercise, and diabetes knowledge. Due to small sample size and limited study time, changes in physiologic factors and diet were not analyzed for statistical significance. Analysis of individual factors showed a trend toward more normal values. Results of this pilot program indicated that health intervention projects may be effective in helping children at risk of type 2 diabetes adopt healthier lifestyles.
Herreid, Clyde Freeman
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.
Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.
Introduction Calf circumference is a surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, there is scarce evidence on its validity in predicting adverse outcomes such as mobility disability. The aim of this report is to determine if calf circumference could predict incident mobility disability in Mexican 60-year or older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and in particular of its two first waves. Sixty-year or older adults without mobility disability in the first assessment were included and followed-up for two years. Calf circumference quartile groups were compared to test the difference of incident mobility disability. Logistic regression models were fitted to test the independent association when including confounding variables. Results A total of 745 older adults were assessed, from which 24.4% of the older adults developed mobility disability at follow-up. A calf circumference > 38 cm was associated with a higher risk of developing mobility disability, even after adjustment in the multivariate model, with an odds ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.99, P = 0.049). Conclusions High calf circumference in Mexican older adults is independently associated with incident mobility disability. This could reflect the impact of adverse health conditions such as obesity (with high fat tissue) or edema. Further research should aim at testing these results in different populations. PMID:27656259
Baer, R D; Bustillo, M
Information about the folk illness caida de mollera was collected from Mexican and Mexican American migrant mothers who had treated their children for the illness, and from physicians in a clinic that served this population. These physicians believed that the vast majority of the sets of symptoms were worthy of medical attention and could be life threatening if not treated. This research report concurs with other studies that suggest that although Mexican folk illnesses are conceptualized to have folk-social and psychological causes, they are also seen to have biological causes and physiological symptoms that can be treated by biomedical methods. This report outlines a model for understanding aspects of folk illnesses that includes folk vs. biomedical ideas about disease, causes vs. symptoms, and psychological vs. physiological aspects of sickness. It also suggests that the kinds of questions anthropologists ask about these illnesses may need to be modified--shifting away from questions about treatments of causes and refocusing on those about the treatment of physiological symptoms--if we are to more fully understand home approaches to the management of these illnesses.
LAMANNA, RICHARD A.; SAMORA, JULIAN
MEXICAN AMERICANS WHO HAVE MIGRATED TO THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF EAST CHICAGO ARE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF A HYPOTHESIS THAT THIS GROUP WAS PROVIDED OPPORTUNITIES NOT AVAILABLE TO THEIR COUNTERPARTS IN THE SOUTHWEST FOR ASSIMILATION INTO THE COMMUNITY. A CONCISE REPORT ON THE HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN COLONY IN EAST CHICAGO, ITS…
The report covers an investigation of the productivity of land, labor, and capital in Mexican agriculture as a means of clarifying the role played by land-reform, and more specifically its main outcome--the institution of the ejido--in the recent rapid rise of agricultural output in Mexico. The ejido is a form of communal property, although only a…
Salinas, Jennifer J.; Eschbach, Karl A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.
Objective To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Design Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician diagnosed hypertension were conducted using the Hispanic EPESE (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS- 70 years and older) datasets. Setting Five Southwestern States of Texas, Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico in the United States. Participants Older Mexican and Mexican Americans ages 70 and over living in the United States and Mexico. Main Outcome Measures Physician diagnosed hypertension. Results Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women, who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico, have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, obesity, and smoking, older Mexican and Mexican American women who have migrated or immigrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conclusions Gender differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:18785442
Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Reynolds, Megan M
This article draws on theories of gender inequality and immigrant health to hypothesize differences among the largest immigrant population, Mexicans, and a lesser known population of Middle Easterners. Using data from the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Surveys, we compare health outcomes among immigrants to those among U.S.-born whites and assess gender differences within each group. We find an immigrant story and a gender story. Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants are healthier than U.S.-born whites, and men report better health than women regardless of nativity or ethnicity. We identify utilization of health care as a primary mechanism that contributes to both patterns. Immigrants are less likely than U.S.-born whites to interact with the health care system, and women are more likely to do so than men. Thus, immigrant and gender health disparities may partly reflect knowledge of health status rather than actual health.
Elizondo, Sandra Gray
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the role of "la familia" for women of Mexican descent as it relates to their development as leaders and their leadership in academia. Purposeful sampling was utilized to reach the goal of 18 participants who were female academic leaders of Mexican descent teaching full time in…
Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...
Horwitz, Russell H; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D
This study examines attitudes of Mexican female immigrants to Albuquerque, New Mexico, regarding barriers to health care access in the United States and Mexico for stigmatizing and non-stigmatizing illnesses and moderating effects of social support. Native Spanish speakers conducted three focus groups (in Spanish) lasting two hours with seven to eight participants. Focus groups were transcribed, translated, and coded. Frequency data were calculated by number of times concepts or themes were raised. Comparisons of barriers to health care access were made between U.S. and Mexican cultures. The majority (86%) of comments on barriers for non-stigmatizing illnesses implicated U.S. culture; the majority (90%) for stigmatizing illnesses implicated Mexican culture. Social support for stigmatizing illnesses was discussed. Participants discussed important issues of health care access for stigmatizing illnesses that may have implications for this population's health status. Greater attention should be paid to stigma and social support in future empirical studies.
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.
The purpose of this teacher research study was to examine narrative inquiry as a method for student engagement with course material and the local community. This study sought to understand how students perceived themselves within Mexican American history. While a number of studies have used oral history and narrative effectively, these studies…
Reyna-Limas, C,; Cruz, E.T. de la
In Penoles Group facilities have started in the process of Integral Quality, for this reason words like ecology culture, security culture, productivity culture, labor modernity, etc. were used like independent items and the directors made Strategic Plans of each item, with no integration, although they are part of the business. In Minera Tizapa their vision is integral and the authors planned an Environmental Management System based in the Management Model, besides the integration of other environmental programs resulted of legal requirements. This paper presents several practical elements of the standard and the relationship with quality and the Mexican requirements.
Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J
A longitudinal daily diary method was employed to examine the implications of family assistance for the academic achievement of 563 adolescents (53% female) from Mexican (n = 217), Chinese (n = 206), and European (n = 140) backgrounds during the high school years (mean age 14.9 years in 9th grade to 17.8 years in 12th grade). Although changes in family assistance time within individual adolescents were not associated with simultaneous changes in their Grade Point Averages (GPAs), increases in the proportion of days spent helping the family were linked to declines in the GPAs of students from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. The negative implications of spending more days helping the family among these two groups was not explained by family background factors or changes in study time or school problems. These results suggest that the chronicity rather than the amount of family assistance may be difficult for adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.
Tong, Elisa; Saito, Naomi; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Borges, Guilherme; Kravitz, Richard L.; Hinton, Ladson; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena
Objectives. We examined migration-related changes in smoking behavior in the transnational Mexican-origin population. Methods. We combined epidemiological surveys from Mexico (Mexican National Comorbidity Survey) and the United States (Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys). We compared 4 groups with increasing US contact with respect to smoking initiation, persistence, and daily cigarette consumption: Mexicans with no migrant in their family, Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience, migrants, and US-born Mexican Americans. Results. Compared with Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience, migrants were less likely to initiate smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38, 0.83) and less likely to be persistent smokers (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.63). Among daily smokers, the US-born smoked more cigarettes per day than did Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience for men (7.8 vs 6.5) and women (8.6 vs 4.3). Conclusions. Evidence suggests that smoking is suppressed among migrants relative to the broader transnational Mexican-origin population. The pattern of low daily cigarette consumption among US-born Mexican Americans, noted in previous research, represents an increase relative to smokers in Mexico. PMID:22994190
Velázquez-Pérez, L; Cerecedo-Zapata, C M; Hernández-Hernández, O; Martínez-Cruz, E; Tapia-Guerrero, Y S; González-Piña, R; Salas-Vargas, J; Rodríguez-Labrada, R; Gurrola-Betancourth, R; Leyva-García, N; Cisneros, B; Magaña, J J
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia associated with macular degeneration. We recently described one of the largest series of patients with SCA7 that originated from a founder effect in a Mexican population, which allowed us to perform herein the first comprehensive clinical, neurophysiological, and genetic characterization of Mexican patients with SCA7. In this study, 50 patients, categorized into adult or early phenotype, were clinically assessed using standard neurological exams and genotyped using fluorescent PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Patients with SCA7 exhibited the classical phenotype of the disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia and visual loss; however, we reported, for the first time, frontal-executive disorders and altered sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in these patients. Semiquantitative analysis of ataxia-associated symptoms was performed using Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS) scores, while extracerebellar features were measured employing the Inventory of Non-ataxia Symptoms (INAS) scale. Ataxia rating scales confirmed the critical role size of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat size on age at onset and disease severity, while analysis of CAG repeat instability showed that paternal rather than maternal transmission led to greater instability.
Tapia Carlín, Rebeca Elena; Castillo Salazar, María del Carmen; Velázquez Cortés, Susana
This article describes a study conducted in a Mexican English teacher education program about multiple intelligences. Seventy-four first year students participated in the study. Findings reveal that the highest kinds of intelligences were the bodily kinesthetic, the interpersonal, the intrapersonal, and the musical; the lowest ones were the…
de la Luz Valverde Rocha, M.
A close examination of the literature yielded two different, but vague models of Mexican policy-making: (1) closed presidential policy-making and (2) open presidential policy-making. These two models are tested by identifying the regime's policy-making structures and by explaining the manner in which they operated to produce oil policy in two presidential administrations. To attain these goals, the oil policy-making process was divided into several stages. The policy roles played by different actors in the various stages of policy-making were analyzed. The process they engaged in to produce oil policy was also examined. The findings lend strong support to the open presidential policy-making model. The most salient features of this model are: (1) the president and different members of the Mexican federal bureaucracy share policy-making functions, power, and influence; (2) policymakers engage in a political process of persuasion, coalition building, information functions, power, and influence; and (3) policymakers engage in these and other political techniques to produce government decisions and actions.
Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Esparza-Romero, Julian; Chaudhari, Lisa S.; Begay, R. Cruz; Giraldo, Mario; Ravussin, Eric; Knowler, William C.; Hanson, Robert L.; Bennett, Peter H.; Schulz, Leslie O.; Valencia, Mauro E.
Objective To focus on the rationale and methods of the Maycoba Project. Methods Study population included Mexican Pima Indians (MPI) and Blancos aged ≥20-years, living in the village of Maycoba and surrounding area. Surveys in 1995 and 2010 included a medical history, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Additionally, socioeconomic, physical activity, and dietary interviews were conducted. The 2010 study incorporated investigations on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity-associated genetic alleles and human-environment changes. Results The study results are limited to demographic data and description of the eligible and examined sample. Conclusions This study may yield important information on T2D and obesity etiology in a traditional population exposed to environmental changes. PMID:24636033
Latin American audiences living in their countries of origin are poorly understood as museum learners due to the scarcity of research in this field. Through a case study approach, I investigate and report on the ways of learning of 20 Mexican family groups. In particular, I examine the influence of the Mexican sociocultural context on the participant family members' learning outcomes from a Mexican science museum. Conducted in Universum Museo de las Ciencias, a science museum located in Mexico City, this research study is based on the premise that understanding the role of the sociocultural elements of learning is essential to understanding the nature of learning in museums. The cognitive and social outcomes of the participants are discussed in the light of the sociocultural elements that define Mexicans as museum learners.
de Avila, Edward A.; Havassy, Barbara
Approximately 1,225 Mexican American and Anglo American children in grades 1-6 (ages 6-14) from California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were tested using school achievement and IQ standardized tests and four Piagetian-derived measures (Cartoon Conservation Scales, Water Level Task, Figural Intersection Test, and Serial Task). The field study's…
Beasley, Jennifer M.
The transition to formal schooling is thought of as a critical educational experience for all children and their families. This transition may be especially critical for those in the largest immigrant group in the United States, Mexican families and their children. Using Critical Race Theory, the aim of the current study was to give Mexican…
Cabrera, Nolan L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Jaquette, Ozan; Marx, Ronald W.
The Arizona legislature passed HB 2281, which eliminated Tucson Unified School District's (TUSD's) Mexican American Studies (MAS) program, arguing the curriculum was too political. This program has been at the center of contentious debates, but a central question has not been thoroughly examined: Do the classes raise student achievement? The…
Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura
Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…
Easley, Nate, Jr.; Bianco, Margarita; Leech, Nancy
The disparity between the educational attainment of Mexican heritage and White individuals illustrate a need for research on factors associated with the high educational attainment of some immigrant and first-generation students of Mexican descent. Using autobiographies, student interviews, and family interviews as data sources, this article…
Cortes, Carlos E.
Interrelationships between Mexican Americans living in the United States and natives living in Mexico are explored in this paper. It is intended as a resource to help teachers understand the complex processes and factors which contribute to the identity of Mexican Americans. One obvious relationship, or linkage, arises from the shared political…
Stecklov, Guy; Winters, Paul; Stampini, Marco; Davis, Benjamin
Prior research on Mexican migration has shown that social networks and economic incentives play an important role in determining migration outcomes. We use experimental data from PROGRESA, Mexico's primary poverty-reduction program, to evaluate the effects of conditional cash transfers on migration both domestically and to the United States. Our study complements a growing body of literature aimed at overcoming longstanding hurdles to the establishment of causal validity in empirical studies of migration. Analysis based on the data collected before and after the program's onset shows that conditional transfers reduce U.S. migration but not domestic migration. The data also enable us to explore the role of existing family and community migration networks. The results show that migration networks strongly influence migration, but that the effect of conditional transfers on migration is apparently not mediated by existing migration network structures. Our results suggest that conditional transfers may be helpful in managing rural out-migration, particularly to the United States.
Velandia Naranjo, Durfari; van Gameren, Edwin
Precautionary saving is the additional saving done by individuals to protect them financially in situations of uncertainty and reduce their vulnerability for negative shocks that may affect their consumption levels. This paper investigates the existence and extent of savings motivated by precaution in Mexico for people aged between 50 and 75, using data from the Mexican Health and Ageing Study 2003. The empirical strategy is based on a test of the direct relationship between the accumulated wealth and the uncertainty generated by the social security status, in particular the availability of health insurance, accounting also for the expectation to receive a retirement pension. The endogeneity-corrected estimates do not yield results that unequivocally support the existence of private savings as a risk protection mechanism, implying that the public protection system has an important role in reducing the vulnerability of the population studied.
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.
Mexican-origin families are a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the U.S. population, but they remain underrepresented in family scholarship. This paper introduces a special section of four papers on Mexican-origin families designed to contribute to the advancement of research on how cultural, family, and gender socialization processes unfold across key developmental periods and life transitions in this cultural context. Two longitudinal studies of Mexican-origin families provided the data for these four papers: (a) The Juntos Project, an eight-year longitudinal study of mothers, fathers, and adolescent sibling pairs in 246 Mexican-origin families; and (b) The Supporting MAMI Project, a study following 204 adolescent mothers and their mother figures from the third trimester of pregnancy through their young children's 5th birthdays. In this introductory paper we highlight four themes, including (a) differential acculturation and reciprocal socialization, (b) interdependence in families, (c) the intersection of culture and gender, and (d) methodological issues, then offer suggestions for future research. PMID:25675994
Herreid, Clyde Freeman
This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)
Avila-Rios, Santiago; Ormsby, Christopher E; Carlson, Jonathan M; Valenzuela-Ponce, Humberto; Blanco-Heredia, Juan; Garrido-Rodriguez, Daniela; Garcia-Morales, Claudia; Heckerman, David; Brumme, Zabrina L; Mallal, Simon; John, Mina; Espinosa, Enrique; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo
Background Mounting evidence indicates that HLA-mediated HIV evolution follows highly stereotypic pathways that result in HLA-associated footprints in HIV at the population level. However, it is not known whether characteristic HLA frequency distributions in different populations have resulted in additional unique footprints. Methods The phylogenetic dependency network model was applied to assess HLA-mediated evolution in datasets of HIV pol sequences from free plasma viruses and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-integrated proviruses in an immunogenetically unique cohort of Mexican individuals. Our data were compared with data from the IHAC cohort, a large multi-center cohort of individuals from Canada, Australia and the USA. Results Forty three different HLA-HIV codon associations representing 30 HLA-HIV codon pairs were observed in the Mexican cohort (q < 0.2). Strikingly, 23 (53%) of these associations differed from those observed in the well-powered IHAC cohort, strongly suggesting the existence of unique characteristics in HLA-mediated HIV evolution in the Mexican cohort. Furthermore, 17 of the 23 novel associations involved HLA alleles whose frequencies were not significantly different from those in IHAC, suggesting that their detection was not due to increased statistical power but to differences in patterns of epitope targeting. Interestingly, the consensus differed in four positions between the two cohorts and three of these positions could be explained by HLA-associated selection. Additionally, different HLA-HIV codon associations were seen when comparing HLA-mediated selection in plasma viruses and PBMC archived proviruses at the population level, with a significantly lower number of associations in the proviral dataset. Conclusion Our data support universal HLA-mediated HIV evolution at the population level, resulting in detectable HLA-associated footprints in the circulating virus. However, it also strongly suggests that unique genetic
Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Cauce, Ana M; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W
Cultural adaptation may influence Latino youth substance use (SU) development, yet few longitudinal studies have examined cultural change over time and adolescent SU outcomes. Using longitudinal data collected annually across ages 10-16 from 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female), the authors characterized cultural adaptation patterns for language use (English and Spanish use), values (American values and familism values), and identity (ethnic pride), and examined whether these cultural adaptation patterns were associated with differential SU risk. Youth with increasing bilingualism and high/stable family values had lower SU risk compared to youth who primarily spoke English and endorsed decreasing family values, respectively. Ethnic pride trajectories were not associated with SU. Findings highlight the importance of considering cultural change related to Latino youth SU.
Ranney, Susan; Kossoudji, Sherrie A.
Reviews data on the labor market experience of Mexican female temporary migrants in the United States. Analyzes data from a Mexican national survey and compares the role of schooling, work experience, region of origin,and legal status in male and female migrants' working experiences. (KH)
Baca Zinn, Maxine
Suggests that the biased image of Mexican-American women in current literature can be improved by: locating Mexican-American females in precise organizational context; distinguishing between macro- and microanalytical levels; separating social structural from cultural phenomena; and relating Mexican-American women's studies to general feminist…
Kossoudji, S A; Ranney, S I
This article, using a Mexican national survey, provides a profile of temporary Mexican female migrants in the US labor market. The usual association between occupational groups and wage rates does not hold up, with women in unskilled jobs averaging nearly the same wages as while collar women. The dramatic exception is private household workers, who earn less than 1/4 of the wage rates of other women. Although the distribution of wage rates across occupational groups for migrant women is not easily explained by schooling or potential work experience, wage rates seem to be positively correlated with marriage and childrearing. This is partly explained by the fact that married women are more likely to have the option of not working outside the home, and also that the labor market contacts provided by husbands may be helpful in securing more remunerative jobs. Migration networks make the region of origin in Mexico strongly correlate with wage rate variations across occupational groups for women. Although women are found to have more schooling, higher legal status, more US work experience and are more likely to come from regions with well developed migration networks than men, women average upto $7 less per day--a phenomenon largely explained by the labor market segmentation. A lack of legal status constrains women's job opportunities more than men's: over 90% of the women without entry permits are in the low paying private household sector, compared with less than 1/4 of those with some legal status. This connection between lack of proper legal status and low status jobs does not seem to prevent women from migrating illegally--more than 1/2 the women migrant studied had no legal status at all. This study concludes that women do not necessarily follow men in migration, and their labor market functions are quite distinct from those of men.
The Raman microprobe (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of seven mexican meteorites: Aldama, Cosina, El Pozo, Escalon, Nuevo Mercurio,Pacula, Zapotitlan Salinas.
This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying the most common attributions of their mental disorder in a Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and their relatives and exploring how having experienced or not characteristic psychotic symptoms and their present clinical status might affect their etiological attributions. Past and current symptom profiles of 66 patients were as assessed with the SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) and the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), respectively. The etiological attribution of psychosis of patients (n = 62) and the relatives (n = 65) was assessed with the Angermeyer and Klusmann scale comprising 30 items into five categories: biology, personality, family, society, and esoteric. Patients and relatives attribute psychosis mainly to social factors. Relatives' attributions were not influenced by clinical profile of patients, whereas in the case of patients it was only current clinical status that showed a difference, with those in nonremission scoring higher personality and family factors. Acknowledging patients' and relatives' beliefs about mental disorders at onset and later on is particularly important in psychosis, a mental condition with severe and/or persistent symptoms, in order to promote better involvement in treatment and in consequence efficacy and recovery. PMID:27413550
Babcock, L.; Nieder, P.
This paper addresses the broad Mexican demographic/economic environment as it influences/interacts with the Mexican physical environment. Mexico is relatively resource-rich, but a high population yields a low per capita income, one sixth that of the United States an Canada, still above levels of most other American countries. The Mexican population has become highly urbanized, and population will continue to increase well into the next century. Mexico City will continue to dominate the Mexican urban hierarchy into the future, and the heavy concentration of people has resulted in a heavy concentration of environmental problems in the Mexico City region. A multi-billion-dollar program has been implemented with a goal of limiting air emissions in 2010 to the levels experienced in 1990. Numerous Mexican environmental problems exist beyond Mexico City, in border areas, and throughout Mexico, but qualified professionals and other resources needed for assessments and management are lacking. The authors conclude that continued economic/environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico will help Mexico to acquire resources needed to improve its infrastructure, environmental education, and environmental education, and environmental management, but the authors question whether Mexico, even with reduced population growth, will be able to attain levels of affluence currently enjoyed in the United State and Canada. They raise, but leave unanswered, the larger question of the level of environmentally sound development which is achievable, appropriate, and sustainable for Mexico and for the North American continent as a whole.
Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette
This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.
Background There is a desperate need to address diet-related chronic diseases in Mexican-origin women, particularly for those in border region colonias (Mexican settlements) and other new destination communities in rural and non-rural areas of the U.S. Understanding the food choices of mothers, who lead food and health activities in their families, provides one way to improve health outcomes in Mexican-origin women and their children. This study used a visual method, participant-driven photo-elicitation, and grounded theory in a contextual study of food choices from the perspectives of Mexican-origin mothers. Methods Teams of trained promotoras (female community health workers from the area) collected all data in Spanish. Ten Mexican-origin mothers living in colonias in Hidalgo County, TX completed a creative photography assignment and an in-depth interview using their photographs as visual prompts and examples. English transcripts were coded inductively by hand, and initial observations emphasized the salience of mothers' food practices in their routine care-giving. This was explored further by coding transcripts in the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti. Results An inductive conceptual framework was created to provide context for understanding mothers' daily practices and their food practices in particular. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) a mother's primary orientation was toward her children; 2) leveraging resources to provide the best for her children; and 3) a mother's daily food practices kept her children happy, healthy, and well-fed. Results offer insight into the intricate meanings embedded in Mexican-origin mothers' routine food choices. Conclusions This paper provides a new perspective for understanding food choice through the eyes of mothers living in the colonias of South Texas -- one that emphasizes the importance of children in their routine food practices and the resilience of the mothers themselves. Additional research is needed to
Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has doubled worldwide during the last few decades. The substantial increase in sweetened beverage (SB) consumption has also coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia. Recent studies do show that the consumption of SB can induce hyperuricemia. However, the association between SB and hyperuricemia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SB consumption and levels of uric acid in Mexican adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. A total of 6,705 participants of both sexes between ages 18 and 70 years were included. SB intake was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric information was collected using standard procedures. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid levels ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥ 5.8 mg/dL in women. The association of interest was assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results The odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia in men who consume 0.5-1 SB/day was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.05-2.40) and 2.29 (95% CI; 1.55-3.38) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to men who consume less than half a SB/day. In women, the OR for hyperuricemia for those who consume >1.0- < 3.0 SB/day was 1.33 (95% CI; 1.04-1.70) and 1.35 (95% CI; 1.04-1.75) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to women who consume less than half a SB/day, independent of other covariables. Men and women with high SB consumption and a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2 had greater risk for hyperuricemia than men and women with low SB consumption and normal BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the consumption of SB is associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults. However, longitudinal research is needed to confirm the association between SB intake and
Atherton, Olivia E; Conger, Rand D; Ferrer, Emilio; Robins, Richard W
Substance use initiation in adolescence is a critical issue, given its association with substance dependency and associated problems in adulthood. However, due to the dearth of fine-grained, longitudinal studies, the factors associated with early initiation are poorly understood, especially in minority youth. The present study examined substance use initiation in a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N=674) assessed annually from age 10 to 16. Using discrete-time survival analyses, we found that initiation escalated rapidly from late childhood to adolescence, and we identified a wide range of factors, from the individual to the cultural level of analysis, that significantly increased or decreased risk for early initiation. These findings have important implications for programs aimed at preventing early substance use by Mexican-origin youth.
Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario
Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238
Watt, G P; Vatcheva, K P; Beretta, L; Pan, J J; Fallon, M B; McCormick, J B; Fisher-Hoch, S P
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Mexican Americans living in South Texas. We tested plasma for the presence of HCV antibody from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC), a randomized, population-based cohort in an economically disadvantaged Mexican American community on the United States/Mexico border with high rates of chronic disease. A weighted prevalence of HCV antibody of 2·3% [n = 1131, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-3·4] was found. Participants with diabetes had low rates of HCV antibody (0·4%, 95% CI 0·0-0·9) and logistic regression revealed a statistically significant negative association between HCV and diabetes (OR 0·20, 95% CI 0·05-0·77) after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. This conflicts with reported positive associations of diabetes and HCV infection. No classic risk factors were identified, but important differences between genders emerged in analysis. This population-based study of HCV in Mexican Americans suggests that national studies do not adequately describe the epidemiology of HCV in this border community and that unique risk factors may be involved.
Lara, María Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Nieto, Lourdes
Prospective studies on the predictors of postpartum depression (PPD) in Latin America are scarce, which is a matter of importance, since the significance of PPD risk factors may vary according to the level of development of a country, the types of measurement and the time periods assessed. This study identifies the prenatal predictors for PPD (diagnostic interview) and postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS) (self-report scale) in Mexican mothers at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Two hundred and ten women were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and various risk factor scales. Univariate logistic regressions showed that social support, marital satisfaction, life events, a history of psychopathology, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, the traditional female role, previous miscarriages/termination of pregnancy and unplanned/unwanted pregnancy were significant predictors for both PPD and PPDS at both assessment times in the postpartum. Education, age, marital status, income, occupation, parity, C-section and resilience were significant for only one of the measurements and/or at just one assessment time. General findings replicate a high- and low-income country observed psychosocial risk profile and confirm a sociodemographic and obstetric profile of vulnerability that is more prevalent in resource-constrained countries. PPD constitutes a high burden for new mothers, particularly for those living in low-middle-income countries who face social disadvantages (such as low educational attainment and income).
Garcia, Victor; Gonzalez, Laura
Participatory research is essential in public health studies, but using this methodology to examine sensitive public health problems among vulnerable populations is a challenge. We share some of our trials and tribulations in attempting to use participatory research in our substance abuse studies among transnational Mexican migrants in southeastern Pennsylvania. Major challenges did not permit partnerships across the community in all phases of research, including the dissemination of findings. Especially difficult was including transnational migrants and nearby relatives as partners in the research, similar to partnerships created with others in the community. The sensitive nature of our research and associated human subject concerns did not permit a more participatory methodology. Another problem involved partnerships with members of the larger community, given the apathy and ambivalence towards drug use by transnational migrants. Finally, collaborating with community stakeholders to develop and implement research-based recommendations was also problematic. As we learned, there are more to generating substance abuse recommendations in partnership with stakeholders than simply working together on recommendations, which also require an effective implementation strategy. Based on these experiences, we elaborate useful suggestions in development and application of local-level programs aimed at curtailing substance abuse among transnational migrant workers while they are at their work sites in Pennsylvania. PMID:22003376
Ramírez-Galicia, Guillermo; Garduño-Juarez, Ramón; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Deeb, Omar; Estrada-Soto, Samuel
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies were performed to describe and predict the antispasmodic activity of some molecules isolated from Mexican Medicinal Flora as well as for some synthetic ones based on stilbenoid bioisosteres. The relaxant activity of these molecules was taken from experiments on rat and guinea-pig ileum tissues. Given that there is some evidence of species-specific on the relaxant effects, two data sets were proposed, one for rat ileum and the other for guinea-pig ileum. These data were statistically treated in order to find a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship model that could describe the corresponding biological models. The goodness of prediction for the best models was measured in terms of the Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation R(2) (LOO q(2)) and the correlation coefficients of regressions through the origin (RTO R(2)0). Results show that papaverine activity could not be used as reference in rat ileum tests; however, this molecule can be used as a good reference molecule in guinea-pig ileum tests. Our study shows that MATS5p and R8m+ descriptors are the most important descriptors in predicting the rat ileum activity and that atomic polarizability is the main atomic property. On the other hand, the R3u GETAWAY descriptor turns out to be important in predicting the guinea-pig ileum activity where the influence/distance of substituents on these molecules could describe the observed activity.
Reyes, Reynaldo, III
Many students of Mexican descent must learn how to be successful students. This study describes 5 students of Mexican descent from situationally marginalized lives who were a part of a support and retention scholarship program (College Assistance Migrant Program--CAMP). These case studies document how they perceived their learning and how they…
Ojeda-Robertos, Nadia Florencia; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo Margarito; Peralta-Torres, Jorge Alonso; Luna-Palomera, Carlos; Aguilar-Cabrales, Aguilar; Chay-Canul, Alfonso Juventino; González-Garduño, Roberto; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón
The objective was to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites (GP) genera affecting water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) reared under humid tropical conditions of Mexico. Three hundred eighty-three Munrah breed water buffalo were included, 251 adult females and 132 calves. Feces were directly collected form the rectum of the animals and processed by the McMaster technique. Coprocultures were made to identify the genera of the nematodes. The frequency of GP in B. bubalis was 42%, independently of their age, 60% of calves resulted parasitized. Age had a strong association with the presence of GP (Xi(2) = 77.4014, d.f. = 1, p = 0.001). The family Trichostrongylidae was found in both age groups. The genera identified were Strongyloides sp. (47.2%), Cooperia sp. (33.9%), and Haemonchus sp. (10.4%), as well as Eimeria sp., Moniezia sp., Trichuris sp., and Strongyloides sp. The highest parasite burden corresponded to the genus Strongyloides sp. with 1108.9 EPG. There is a need to carry out further studies in order to know the prevalence and incidence of nematode affecting to B. bubalis as an introduced animal species to Mexican tropics.
Espino, David V.; Angel, Jaqueline L.; Wood, Robert C.; Finely, M. Rosina; Ye, Y.
Objectives The purpose of the current study is to describe the factors associated with Mexican American elders who have spent time in a SNF compared to those who have not in the Southwestern United States. Design Data were collected on the Mexican American elders who reported a SNF stay within 10 years of baseline. Participants A probability sample of 3050 Mexican American elders from five Southwestern states followed from 1993 to 2005 were examined. Measures Variables examined included socio-demographics, language of interview, disabilities with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), selfreported health, cognitive status and depression. Results A total of 78 (3.9%) out of 2020 subjects resided in SNF’s. Using univariate analyses older age, English-language interview, poorer cognitive status, and functional disabilities were independently associated with Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) admissions. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age reveal that SNF patients were older (OR =1.08, p=0.001), have an ADL disability (OR=4.94, p<0.001), scored in the Geriatric Depression Scale depressed range (OR=2.72, p=0.001) and were more likely to interview in English (OR=1.95, p=0.042), when compared to community counterparts. Conclusions Mexican American elders resided in a SNF at some point in the previous ten years were older and more likely to be functionally impaired. They also were more likely to prefer English as their primary language indicating they were more likely to agree to a SNF stay than their Spanish speaking counterparts. PMID:23352979
Pinto, Guido; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram
Objective To prospectively assess the relationship between overweight/obesity and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Mexicans aged 50+, assessing effects of age, genetic predisposition,education,physical activity,and place of residence. Materials and methods The Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) was used to prospectively follow respondents free of diabetes in 2001 who became diabetic by 2012. Multivariate random effects logistic regression was used to assess covariates effects on the incidence of T2DM. Results Obese or overweight individuals at baseline (2001) were about 3 and 2 times,respectively,significantly more likely to become diabetic by 2012.Genetic predisposition increases the risk of diabetes by about three times compared to those with no family history of diabetes. Conclusion Overweight/obesity and genetic predisposition are the primary drivers of diabetes incidence among Mexican older adults. Reducing body weight and having access to health care may ameliorate the disease burden of T2DM. PMID:26172229
Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.
Toral-Rios, Danira; Franco-Bocanegra, Diana; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Mena-Barranco, Francisco; Carvajal-García, Rosa; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Campos-Peña, Victoria
Amyloid peptide is able to promote the activation of microglia and astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this stimulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inflammation contributes to the process of neurodegeneration and therefore is a key factor in the development of AD. Some of the most important proteins involved in AD inflammation are: clusterin (CLU), complement receptor 1 (CR1), C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), the interleukins 1α (IL-1α), 6 (IL-6), 10 (IL-10) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). In particular, COX-2 is encoded by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene (PTGS2). Since variations in the genes that encode these proteins may modify gene expression or function, it is important to investigate whether these variations may change the developing AD. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of polymorphisms in the genes encoding the aforementioned proteins is associated in Mexican patients with AD. Fourteen polymorphisms were genotyped in 96 subjects with AD and 100 controls; the differences in allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were analyzed. Additionally, an ancestry analysis was conducted to exclude differences in genetic ancestry among groups as a confounding factor in the study. Significant differences in frequencies between AD and controls were found for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs20417 within the PTGS2 gene. Ancestry analysis revealed no significant differences in the ancestry of the compared groups, and the association was significant even after adjustment for ancestry and correction for multiple testing, which strengthens the validity of the results. We conclude that this polymorphism plays an important role in the development of the AD pathology and further studies are required, including their proteins.
Nearly 100 Mexican American children and adolescents in grades 2-12 were interviewed in central Texas to determine their understanding of ethnicity and their attitudes toward their own ethnicity. Their responses were interpreted in relation to a developmental model with five stages or "perspectives" in reasoning about ethnicity. The…
Padilla, Amado M.; Baird, Traci L.
Examines sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of 84 Mexican-American adolescents. Findings show low sexual knowledge for all subgroups. Few sexually active subjects practiced contraception. Majority indicated birth control makes sex seem preplanned. Respondents appeared traditional in sex attitudes, with virginity and birth-control…
State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012
The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through…
May, Steven K.
Discusses a case study involving organizational change and its effect on employees. Presents three responses to the case study: "Paradox of Ordering Change: I Insist That We Work as a Team" (Paaige K. Turner); "Managing Change Is Managing Meaning" (Greg Hearn and Abraham Ninan); and "The Psychodynamics of an Organizational Change Initiative"…
Valderrama-Hinds, Luis M; Al Snih, Soham; Rodriguez, Martin A; Wong, Rebeca
Arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency are prevalent in older adults and are risk factors for disability. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of co-occurring arthritis and vitamin D deficiency on upper-lower extremity functional limitations and disability in older adults. We examined 1533 participants aged ≥50 years from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographics, body mass index, comorbid conditions, falls, physical activity, physical function tests, functional limitations, activities of daily living (ADL), and vitamin D. Participants were categorized into four groups according to arthritis and vitamin D status: no vitamin D insufficiency and no arthritis (58.80%), vitamin D insufficiency only (27.49%), arthritis only (8.47%), and arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency (5.24%). Fourteen percent reported arthritis, and 31.2% had vitamin D insufficiency. The arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency group was associated with upper-lower extremity functional limitations [odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.15, and OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.00-3.62, respectively] and ADL disability (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.63-5.51) when compared with the no vitamin D insufficiency and no arthritis group (reference group). The arthritis only group was three times more likely to report upper-lower extremity functional limitations and ADL disability. The vitamin D insufficiency only group was not significantly associated with functional limitations nor ADL disability. Arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency increased the risk of ADL disability in this population. However, the effect of arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency on upper-lower extremity functional limitations was not higher than the effect of arthritis only, but higher than the effect on vitamin D insufficiency alone.
Belliard, Juan Carlos; Ramirez-Johnson, Johnny
This case study reflects on the variety of approaches to health care in a pluralistic immigrant urban enclave in Southern California. In-depth interviews were conducted with a Mexican immigrant woman to explore and understand her health worldview and the strategies she uses in deciding among the diverse health care options available to protect and…
A number of scholars have found that wartime conditions often bring about conflict between the press and the military. This study documents the various incidents between the United States Army and various Mexican and United States newspaper editors that led to at least ten cases of newspaper suppression, the occasional use of prior censorship, and…
Valadez, James R.
The purpose of this case study is to investigate the decision-making processes of 12 high-achieving rural Mexican immigrant high school students. Ethnographic data are collected over 18 months, and the investigation is guided by structuration theory. The strength of using structuration theory is that it opens up the possibility for exploring how…
Goff, D C; Ramsey, D J; Labarthe, D R; Nichaman, M Z
Age-adjusted 28-day case-fatality rates were higher among Mexican Americans than among non-Hispanic whites and higher among women than among men hospitalized for definite or possible myocardial infarction in Corpus Christi, Nueces County, Texas, from May 1, 1988, through April 30, 1990. The authors therefore examined whether these higher case-fatality rates were associated with greater prevalence of previously diagnosed coronary heart disease or diabetes; with greater age, frequency of definite myocardial infarction, or congestive heart failure; with higher values of indicators of severity of infarction, including peak creatine phosphokinase levels and scales prognostic of early mortality after myocardial infarction; and with differences in receipt of in-hospital therapy. The overall 28-day case-fatality rate among 1,228 patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction during a 24-month period was 7.3%. After adjustment for age; diabetes; myocardial infarction class (definite vs. possible); congestive heart failure; the Norris and Peel severity indices; peak total creatine phosphokinase; and receipt of thrombolytic therapy, aspirin, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, anticoagulants, angioplasty, and bypass surgery, the risk of 28-day case-fatality for Mexican Americans in relation to non-Hispanic whites was 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.92-2.40). The corresponding risk for women in relation to men was 1.80 (95% confidence interval 1.12-2.89). These findings should alert clinicians to the high-risk status of these groups of patients.
Kasun, G. Sue
Drawing upon multisited ethnographic case studies in the United States and Mexico, I demonstrate "sobrevivencia", a survivalist way of knowing of Mexican-origin families. Through an underdog mentality, family members persisted and sometimes thrived. However, the grittiness of the underdog mentality did not always work out. By…
Cabrera, Alberto F.; de Vries, Wietse; Anderson, Shaquana
During decades, the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP) like many other Mexican universities has tried to contribute to the national development by offering different educational programs presumed to be better attuned to the needs of the labor market. In this paper we explore the association of three different waves of major offering…
In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.
In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses’ security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services. PMID:20595330
Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes. I integrate data from qualitative interviews with 21 first and second generation Mexican-origin women in 2013-2014 with data from discrete time hazard models with 798 Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Qualitative results demonstrate that gender inequality and sexual expectations in Mexican-origin immigrant households are associated with structural factors. Gender inequality occurs more often in households with family instability, greater poverty, and among parents who migrated independently. Qualitative data also demonstrate that parental gendered expectations are sometimes at odds to what parents are actually doing in the household. Finally, contrary to assumptions that a patriarchal "traditional Latino culture" protects against early sexual initiation, qualitative and multivariate quantitative data suggest that household gender inequality increases risk of early sexual initiation. These findings challenge the utility of a culturalist approach that views culture as determining health behavior among immigrants and demonstrate the need to incorporate an intersectional framework that includes structural factors. This approach may reduce stereotypes and identify meaningful interventions to reduce reproductive health disparities.
Ohashi, Marina; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Yunis, María; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana S.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Granados, Julio; Yunis, Edmond J.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are highly polymorphic and informative in disease association, transplantation, and population genetics studies with particular importance in the understanding of human population diversity and evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the HLA diversity in Mexican admixed individuals. We studied the polymorphism of MHC class I (HLA-A, -B, -C), and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) genes using high-resolution sequence based typing (SBT) method and we structured the blocks and conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs) in 234 non-related admixed Mexican individuals (468 haplotypes) by a maximum likelihood method. We found that HLA blocks and CEHs are primarily from Amerindian and Caucasian origin, with smaller participation of African and recent Asian ancestry, demonstrating a great diversity of HLA blocks and CEHs in Mexicans from the central area of Mexico. We also analyzed the degree of admixture in this group using short tandem repeats (STRs) and HLA-B that correlated with the frequency of most probable ancestral HLA-C/−B and -DRB1/−DQB1 blocks and CEHs. Our results contribute to the analysis of the diversity and ancestral contribution of HLA class I and HLA class II alleles and haplotypes of Mexican admixed individuals from Mexico City. This work will help as a reference to improve future studies in Mexicans regarding allotransplantation, immune responses and disease associations. PMID:24086347
Gerst-Emerson, Kerstin; Shovali, Tamar E; Markides, Kyriakos S
Increasing numbers of researchers are finding that loneliness is a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality, and several variables have been found to be closely related to the experience of loneliness among elders. However, much of the research has focused on the general older population, with no research to date focusing on minority populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the correlates of loneliness among a community-dwelling older Mexican American population. This study used a three-item loneliness scale to determine the prevalence of loneliness. Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses were used to determine the cross-sectional association between sociodemographic, interpersonal relationship and health variables with the scale. Data used came from the most recent wave (2011) of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE). A total of 873 Mexican Americans completed the loneliness scale. The age range was from 80 to 102, with a majority (65%) female. The mean score on the scale was 4.05 (range 3-9), indicating relatively low levels of loneliness. Regression results indicate that depressive symptoms, cognitive status, and living alone were significantly associated with higher loneliness scores. Being married and having a confidante were significantly associated with lower loneliness. Age, number of close relatives and frequency of contact were not associated with loneliness. Findings suggest that among community-dwelling Mexican American older adults, loneliness has multiple determinants. Loneliness is a significant public health topic and clinicians should be aware of the various factors that can affect loneliness.
Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...
A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.
The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...
Fernández, T; Tuset, A M
Normative data are presented for Bender test performance, following the system of Koppitz, of 695 Mexican students between 5.0 and 12.1 yr. old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.01) and belonging to different socioeconomic status. The data are compared with the normative group of U.S. students used by Koppitz and with a representative sample of children from Barcelona, Spain. The results indicate that the total number of Bender errors decreased with increasing age of the children and that significant differences existed with respect to socioeconomic status. The comparison of these data with U.S. and Spanish children shows significant differences in all age groups, with the Mexican children scoring lowest. Differences in quality of schooling and in other aspects of education could explain the variability in Bender test performance.
Background The contraceptive skin patch (CSP) accepted by the U.S. FDA in 2001 includes ethinylestradiol and norelgestromine, whereas the subdermal contraceptive implant (SCI) has etonogestrel and is also approved by the FDA. In Mexico, both are now widely used for contraception but their effects on Mexican population are unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate if these treatments induce metabolic changes in a sample of indigenous and mestizo Mexican women. Methods An observational, prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study of women between 18 and 35 years of age assigned to CSP or SCI. We performed several laboratory tests: clinical chemistry, lipid profile, and liver and thyroid function tests. Also, serum levels of insulin, C-peptide, IGF-1, leptin, adiponectin, and C reactive protein were assayed. Results Sixty-two women were enrolled, 25 used CSP (0 indigenous; 25 mestizos) and 37 used SCI (18 indigenous; 19 mestizos). Clinical symptoms were relatively more frequent in the SCI group. Thirty-four contraceptive users gained weight without other clinical significant changes. After 4 months of treatment, significant changes were found in some biochemical parameters in both treatment groups. Most were clinically irrelevant. Interestingly, the percentage of users with an abnormal atherogenic index diminished from 75% to 41.6% after follow-up. Conclusions The CSP slightly modified the metabolic variables. Most changes were nonsignificant, whereas for SCI users changes were more evident and perhaps beneficial. Results of this attempt to evaluate the effects of contraceptives in mestizo and native-American populations show that clinical symptoms are frequent in Mexican users of CSP and SCI. Although these medications may affect some metabolic variables, these changes seem clinically irrelevant. Induction of abnormalities in other physiological pathways cannot be ruled out. PMID:24767248
Klees, Steven J.
This study attempts to evaluate Mexico's television-based secondary education system, Telesecundaria, by comparing the mathematics and language achievement of Telesecundaria students with that of students receiving traditional instruction. Student background and ability, community, teacher, and classroom variables are considered.…
Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucía G; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Ochoa-Martínez, Angeles C; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; González Palomo, Ana K; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, Cesar A; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N
Recent studies indicate that exposure to environmental pollutants (as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) is a very important risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Correspondingly, in recent times asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been proposed as a new and meaningful biomarker predictor for the risk of CVDs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate plasma ADMA concentrations in Mexican women (n=155) exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene [(1-OHP), exposure biomarker for PAHs] levels were quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique and plasma ADMA concentrations were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Urinary 1-OHP levels in all women assessed ranged from
Barker, Bruce O.
The Office of Technology Assessment authorized a series of case studies in 1989 to investigate how technologies, services, and programs are implemented in distance education projects. The studies were also intended to look at the role of local, state, and federal agencies, and other public and private entities in providing educational services to…
Ortegon, Ricardo Ray
This case study examined the trials and tribulations a predominantly Mexican-American community in South Texas went through to obtain higher education opportunities for its residents. This study focuses on the "LULAC v. Richards" lawsuit and the South Texas Border Initiative. In 1987, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational…
Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Sanchez-Hernandez, Julia Dolores; Vazquez-Del Mercado, Monica; Ontiveros-Mercado, Heriberto; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Celis, Alfredo; Ortega-Flores, Ricardo; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in allele and genotype frequencies of -383 tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) polymorphism between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and controls. Mexican Mestizos with AS were matched by gender, age, and ethnicity with healthy controls and compared in allele and genotype frequencies of the -383 TNFR1 polymorphism. Polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. The AA genotype occurred at a higher frequency in the AS group (92%) compared with controls (79%, P = 0.03). A allele was increased in AS (96% vs. 88%, P = 0.015) and was associated with genetic susceptibility for AS (odds ratio = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.23-10.61). This preliminary study is the first assessing the association of the -383 A/C TNFR1 polymorphism with AS, although it has the limitation of a small sample size. These data are of interest for the genetic epidemiology of AS in the Mexican population, requiring further investigation in other countries.
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals’ fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors, and to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination, related to youths’ depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors, but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females’ adjustment, and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress. PMID:25099084
Cachelin, Fary M.; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G. Terence; Thompson, Douglas R.; Striegel, Ruth H.
Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pre-treatment to post-treatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955
"Curanderismo," a Mexican folk practice, is a prevalent subject in Mexican American literature. Because much of the presence of "curanderismo" in Mexican American literature is only explored in ethnographic studies, the purpose of this study is to examine the artistic representation of "curanderismo" in the novels "Bless Me, Ultima" by Rudolfo…
Macken, Marlys A.
The data in this study are taken from an on-going research project investigating the development of the production of intervocalic consonants in Mexican Spanish. The total project includes both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of forty children and uses both naturalistic observation and experimental methods. The data discussed here is from…
Zeakes, Samuel J.
A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)
database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.
Baldwin, Harriet; Ross-Larson, Bruce, Ed.
This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is a case study designed to teach secondary school social studies students about an integrated rural development project in Mexico, and how it is helping to raise the standard of living for six million Mexicans in 131 microregions throughout Mexico. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a sound filmstrip,…
Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna
The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…
Laganà, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle
Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Date were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59–89 years) using a semi-structured interview protocol and a grounded theory approach. We inquired about dimensions of sexual desire including sexual fantasies and the desire to engage in sexual activity within the context of several socio-cultural and health-related factors. Using content analysis, we were able to identify key themes differentiating among respondents’ levels of sexual desire and fantasies. These included the availability of a suitable partner, cultural and religious norms pertinent to women’s sexuality, stigma related to sexuality in older age, and health status. Traditional socio-cultural restrictions coupled with unmarried status and physical health problems emerged as critical issues associated with limited or no sexual fantasies and desire in our sample. Many respondents indicated that their sexual needs were unmet. PMID:20526982
Villegas Sánchez, C. A.; Pérez España, H.; Rivera Madrid, R.; Salas Monreal, D.; Arias González, J. E.
Efficient reef management strategies rely on detailed knowledge of biological exchange dynamics. At present, available connectivity information on Mexican Atlantic reefs is scarce, particularly concerning the Veracruz Reef System (VRS), which is located in the south-western Gulf of Mexico. This study used a hierarchically nested sampling design to evaluate the levels of genetic connectivity both within and between the Mexican Caribbean (MC) and VRS reef regions; all of the studied reefs are marine protected areas. Microsatellites were used as genetic markers, and bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits were used as a biological model. The paired genetic differentiation index between regions ( Fst (ENA) = 0.008) was lower than the global index ( Fst (ENA) = 0.027), suggesting that the stronger restrictions to gene flow may be located inside the regions rather than between them. The AMOVA results supported this explanation, as the differences were only non-significant between regions. In the VRS, Santiaguillo reef was associated with low genetic connectivity levels, whilst within the MC region the group formed by Chinchorro Bank and Cozumel exhibited a restriction to gene flow with Puerto Morelos, their northernmost reef. Despite their spatial separation, reefs from different regions (Puerto Morelos and Anegada de Adentro) showed the lowest, albeit significant, genetic difference, meaning that a subtle genetic connectivity exists at the regional scale. The detected composite flow pattern is likely related to self-recruitment and cohesive dispersal processes interacting with current patterns, which may favour genetic connections under specific conditions. The results presented here suggest that coral reef management in the Mexican Atlantic Ocean should consider large scale measures in addition to appropriate local actions to protect reef fish populations.
Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Palma-Padilla, Virginia; Carreón-Cruz, Rogelio; Ortega-Alvárez, Manuel Carlos; Mejía-Arangure, Juan Manuel
Background In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions) and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions), were analyzed. Personnel were specifically trained to register, capture, and encode information. For each of these jurisdictions, the frequency, average annual age-standardized incidence (AAS) and average annual incidence per period by sex and, age, were calculated (rates per 1,000,000 children/years). Results In total 2,615 new cases of cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio generally >1, but in some tumors there were more cases in females (retinoblastoma, germ cells tumors). The principal groups of neoplasms in seven jurisdictions were leukemias, central nervous system tumors (CNS tumors), and lymphomas, and the combined frequency for these three groups was 62.6 to 77.2%. Most frequently found (five jurisdictions) was the North American-European pattern (leukemias-CNS tumors-lymphomas). Eight jurisdictions had AAS within the range reported in the world literature. The highest incidence was found for children underless than five year of age. In eight jurisdictions, leukemia had high incidence (>50). The AAS of lymphomas was between 1.9 to 28.6. Chiapas and Guerrero had the highest AAS of CNS tumors (31.9 and 30.3, respectively). The frequency and incidence of neuroblastoma was low. Chiapas had the highest incidence of retinoblastoma (21.8). Germ-cell tumors had high incidence. Conclusion The North American-European pattern of cancers was the principal one found; the overall incidence was within the range reported worldwide. In general but particularly in two jurisdictions (Yucatán and Chiapas), it will be necessary
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; McCarthy, Katharine; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.; de Lourdes Rosas López, Maria
Migration and population movement are increasingly viewed as important factors associated with HIV transmission risk. With growing awareness of the potential impact of migration on HIV transmission, several perspectives have emerged that posit differing dynamics of risk. We considered available data on the role of migration on HIV transmission among Mexican migrants in New York City and Puebla, Mexico. Specifically, we examined 3 distinct models of migratory dynamics of HIV transmission—namely, the structural model, the local contextual model, and the interplay model. In doing so, we reframed current public health perspectives on the role of migration on HIV transmission. PMID:24825203
Ruiz, Yumary; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; McCarthy, Katharine; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; de Lourdes Rosas López, Maria
Migration and population movement are increasingly viewed as important factors associated with HIV transmission risk. With growing awareness of the potential impact of migration on HIV transmission, several perspectives have emerged that posit differing dynamics of risk. We considered available data on the role of migration on HIV transmission among Mexican migrants in New York City and Puebla, Mexico. Specifically, we examined 3 distinct models of migratory dynamics of HIV transmission-namely, the structural model, the local contextual model, and the interplay model. In doing so, we reframed current public health perspectives on the role of migration on HIV transmission.
de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl
During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country.
Mexicans are a recent admixture of Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. We performed local ancestry analysis of Mexican samples from two genome-wide association studies obtained from dbGaP, and discovered that at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region Mexicans have excessive African ance...
Golding, Jacqueline M.; Burnam, M. Audrey
Studies of relative levels of psychological distress among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites have found mixed results, possibly due to cultural differences within Mexican American samples which may confound potential ethnic differences. The hypothesis that differences in psychological distress between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic…
Crane, Thomas B.
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the conceptualization of low-income Mexican immigrant parents about their parental involvement and the family-school connection, (b) identify the influences on low-income Mexican immigrant parents' approach to parent involvement, and (c) identify the ways that Mexican immigrant parents…
Masten, William G.
It has been postulated that the result of the Mexican woman's inability to live up to the stiff requirements of her culture should show itself in depressive trends. These theories are often applied to the Mexican-American female as well. The aim of this study was to determine if acculturation is related to depression in Mexican-American females. A…
Ewing, Norma J.; Yong, Fung Lan
Analysis of the Learning Style Inventory scores of 155 gifted African-American, Mexican-American, and American-born Chinese students in grades 6-8 indicated significant group differences in preferences for noise, light, visual modality, studying in the afternoon, and persistence. Gender and grade differences were found for some variables.…
San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.
In the early 1970s, thousands of Mexican-origin students, parents, and community members participated in legal and political actions against the Houston public schools. Their actions were sparked by the school district's effort in 1970 to circumvent a desegregation court order by classifying Mexican American children as "white,"…
Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María
Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a
methods in public relations and marketing communications. New York, Routledge 166-185 13. Denzin , N. K. (1978) The Research Act: A Theoretical...Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study
The purpose of this report is to provide case studies of site cleanup projects utilizing bioremediation. This volume contains reports on nine projects that include bioventing and land treatment technologies, as well as a unique, large-scale slurry-phase project. In these projects, petroleum hydrocarbons are the most frequent contaminants of concern. Two land treatment projects in this volume represent completed cleanups at creosote sites.
De Anda, Roberto M.
This study compares the prevalence and causes of employment hardship between Mexican-origin and White women. Data come from the March 1992, 1996, and 2000 Current Population Surveys. Using logistic regression, the author assesses whether there is a difference between Mexican-origin and White women in employment hardship, controlling for personal…
The Hogg Foundation for Mental Health sponsored and financed the Hidalgo Project on Differential Culture Change and Mental Health during the 4-year period from 1957 to 1961; this document is an abbreviated report of that study of Mexican-American culture in Hidalgo County, Texas. Acculturation levels of various classes of the Mexican-American…
Ibarra-Cabrera, Ricardo; Mena-Pérez, Sandra Carolina; Bondani-Guasti, Augusto; García-Arrazola, Roeb
The global biopharmaceutical market is worth over $100 billion USD. Nearly 90% of these products will lose their patent in the next ten years, leading to the commercialization of their subsequent versions, known as 'biosimilars'. Biosimilars are much more complex molecules than chemically synthesized generics in terms of size, structure, stability, microheterogeneity, manufacture, etc. Therefore, a specific regulatory framework is needed in order to demonstrate their comparability with innovative products, as well as their quality, safety and efficacy. The EU published the first regulatory pathway in 2005 and has approved 14 biosimilars. Mexico has recently developed a clear regulatory pathway for these products. Their legal basis was established in Article 222 Bis of General Law of Health in 2009, clear specifications in the Regulation for Health Goods in 2011, and further requirements in the Mexican Official Norm NOM-EM-001-SSA1-2012. The aim of this review is to summarize the regulatory pathways for biosimilars in the world with a special focus on Mexican experience, so as contribute to the development of regulations in other countries.
Underwood, Jimmy M.
NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken four case studies for prospective expansion of manned space activities beyond earth orbit. The subjects of these studies are (1) an expedition to the Martian moon Phobos; (2) a three-mission expedition to Mars; (3) the construction of a man-tended lunar observatory; and (4) the construction of a lunar outpost to serve as the basis for construction of a Martian outpost. The fourth alternative would follow the recommendation of the National Commission on Space for the creation of a 'bridge between worlds' in which explorers would develop ways in which to 'live off the land' in a space environment.
"This article compares sex differences in migratory behaviors, work patterns and conjugal relations in a cohort of male and female immigrants who move seasonally between Mexico and the United States. Gender comparisons are made using survey data and information from in-depth group interviews. The findings indicate that among Mexicans immigration to the United States reinstates men's traditional roles as providers while making women assume non-traditional roles. Female role expansion, through employment in the U.S., strongly influences conjugal relations in the direction of more equality. In contrast, failure to enter the American labor force implies a role restriction resulting in a loss of autonomy for many immigrant women." (SUMMARY IN SPA)
Wilson, Kate S; Eggleston, Elizabeth; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G
Rates of HIV and STIs are higher among Latinos than the general U.S. population. A number of factors place Latino immigrants at particularly high risk. 128 male Mexican immigrants in Dallas, Texas completed personal interviews. We measured the prevalence of HIV/STI risk factors and identified sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with higher risk. 9% of the total sample had 3 or more sexual partners in the past year. 5% had sex with a commercial sex worker (CSW). 11% had sex with another man. 11% had a previous STI diagnosis. Risk behaviors and STI history were more prevalent among men who had used illegal drugs or frequently consumed alcohol (18% of the sample) than among others. The overall prevalence of HIV/STI risk factors in this population was moderate. However, men who drank alcohol frequently and used illegal drugs were more likely than others to report engaging in behaviors that put them at risk for acquiring HIV/STI.
González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda
The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making.
Cavez, Damien; Hachez, Charles; Chaumont, François
Aquaporins (AQPs) are channel proteins that facilitate and regulate the permeation of water across biological membranes. Black Mexican sweet suspension cultured cells are a convenient model for studying the regulation of maize AQP expression and activity. Among other advantages, a single cell system allows the contribution of plasma membrane AQPs (PIPs, plasma membrane intrinsic proteins) to the membrane water permeability coefficient (P(f)) to be determined using biophysical measurement methods, such as the cell pressure probe or protoplast swelling assay. We generated a transgenic cell culture line expressing a tagged version of ZmPIP2;6 and used this material to demonstrate that the ZmPIP2;6 and ZmPIP2;1 isoforms physically interact. This kind of interaction could be an additional mechanism for regulating membrane water permeability by acting on the activity and/or trafficking of PIP hetero-oligomers.
Wetzel, Eunike; Robins, Richard W
Narcissism is an important and consequential aspect of personality, yet we know little about its developmental origins. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families, we examined cross-lagged relations between parenting behaviors (warmth, hostility, monitoring) and narcissism (superiority, exploitativeness). Parental hostility at age 12 was associated with higher levels of exploitativeness at age 14, whereas parental monitoring at age 12 was associated with lower levels of exploitativeness at age 14. These effects replicated across three different parenting measures: child reports, spouse reports, and behavioral coding of parent-child interactions. None of the parenting dimensions was related to superiority, suggesting that parenting practices are more strongly related to the maladaptive than the adaptive component of narcissism.
Stroope, Samuel; Martinez, Brandon C; Eschbach, Karl; Peek, M Kristen; Markides, Kyriakos S
Ethnic enclaves may be protective for health. This study investigates the effects of neighborhood co-ethnic density on problem drinking among older Mexican American men. Probability sample of 2,086 community-dwelling Mexican Americans aged 75 or older drawn in 2004-2005 residing in communities in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. Problem drinking was found among 15.3 % of men (n = 350). For each percent increase in neighborhood percent Mexican American, men had 2 % lower odds of problem drinking [odds ratio (OR) 0.98; P < 0.05]. U.S. born men had lower odds of problem drinking (OR 0.40; P < 0.05) compared with foreign born men, while English language use was associated with greater odds of problem drinking (OR 2.14; P < 0.05). Older Mexican American men in neighborhoods with low levels of co-ethnic density, the foreign born, and those with English language facility had an increased likelihood of problem drinking.
Fleury, A; Morales, J; Bobes, R J; Dumas, M; Yánez, O; Piña, J; Carrillo-Mezo, R; Martínez, J J; Fragoso, G; Dessein, A; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E
Neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system. It is highly endemic in many developing countries, where many people are exposed but few become infected. Here, the relevance of age, gender, and genetic and exposure factors on NC susceptibility was studied in 649 inhabitants of a rural community of Mexico. Endemicity was confirmed by the high prevalence of pig cysticercosis (32.8%) and human seroprevalence (43.8%). Human NC cases were diagnosed by computerised tomography scans. A questionnaire to evaluate risk factors was applied and familial relationships between participants were registered. An overall NC frequency of 9.1% (59/649) was found. NC frequency increased with age but did not associate with gender. Most NC cases were asymptomatic. None of the evaluated risk factors were associated with NC. No familial aggregation was detected when studying all cases, although a significant relationship between mother and child in cases with multiple parasites was found. These findings point to the fact that human NC in high exposure conditions is not simply related to exposure factors and they do not support the participation of a major gene in single-cyst NC. Rather, our results point to a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors involved in NC.
Parrish, Krystal H.; Atherton, Olivia E.; Quintana, Alina; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.
Aims Alcohol consumption and internalizing symptoms, which often co-occur, pose considerable risk to the developing adolescent and have lasting public health consequences. Previous research has documented concurrent associations between alcohol use and symptoms of anxiety and depression, but the dearth of longitudinal research, particularly for ethnic minority youth, raises questions about the replicability and causal direction of these effects. The goal of the present research was to clarify these issues, and investigate whether different facets of anxiety and depression are uniquely associated with alcohol use in adolescence. Method The present research examined cross-lagged relations between frequency of alcohol use and internalizing symptoms, using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female) assessed at ages 14 and 16. Results Alcohol use at age 14 prospectively predicted increases in overall internalizing symptoms, and overall internalizing symptoms at age 14 prospectively predicted increases in alcohol use. Reciprocal effects were consistently found for the general distress and anxious arousal facets, but not for anhedonic depression and a scale measuring the cognitive aspects of anxiety. Conclusions The findings provide evidence of reciprocal relations between alcohol use and internalizing symptoms, but also highlight the danger of treating all symptoms of anxiety and depression as interchangeable components of a single broad domain. Instead, symptoms common to both anxiety and depressive disorders (e.g., general distress) have the most robust reciprocal relations with alcohol use. Thus, intervention programs aimed at reducing early alcohol use by Mexican-origin youth should target this component of the internalizing domain. PMID:26999352
Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.
Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study…
Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi
Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…
Oliva, Maria Guadalupe; Lugo, Alfonso; Alcocer, Javier; Cantoral-Uriza, Enrique A
Background Cyclotella choctawhatcheeana Prasad 1990 is a small centric diatom found in the plankton of water bodies with a wide range of salt concentrations. This paper describes the morphological features of the valve of C. choctawhatcheeana, from Alchichica lake, a hyposaline lake located in Central Mexico, and provides information about their ecology with respect to water chemistry and distribution in the water column along the annual cycle. Alchichica, and their neighbor lake Atexcac, are the only Mexican water bodies where C. choctawhatcheeana has been registered. Results Morphological differences were found with respect to the original description. The valves of C. choctawhatcheeana from Alchichica exceeded the diameter (5–12 μm) given for the type material (3.0–9.5 μm), and it does not forms or seldom forms short chains (2–3 cells) in contrast of up to 20 cell chains. Other difference was the presence of irregularly distributed small silica granules around the margin of the external view of the valve, meanwhile in Prasad's diagnosis a ring of siliceous granules is present near the valve margin; all other features were within the range of variation of the species. Maximum densities (up to 3877 cells ml-1) of C. choctawhatcheeana were found in Alchichica lake from June to October, along the stratificated period of the lake. Low densities (48 cells ml-1) when the water column was mixed, in January and February. C. choctawhatcheeana of Lake Alchichica was found in an ample depth range from 20 m down to 50 m. Conductivity (K25) ranged between 13.3 and 14.5 mS cm-1 and the pH between 8.8 and 10.0. Water temperature fluctuated between 14.5 and 20°C. Dissolved oxygen ranged from anoxic (non detectable) up to saturation (7 mg l-1). Conclusion The morphology of C. choctawhatcheeana from Alchichica corresponded to the original description, with exception of some secondary traits. C. choctawhatcheeana can grow in several different environmental conditions. It
Orozco, L; Salcedo, M; Lezana, J L; Chávez, M; Valdez, H; Moreno, M; Carnevale, A
This paper reports the frequency of the delta F508 mutation in a cohort of 50 Mexican patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The mutation was detected by PCR mediated site directed mutagenesis. delta F508 was found in 39% of CF chromosomes, a frequency lower than that reported in Argentina and Spain. The high rate of CF cases who die undiagnosed, the ethnic origin of Mexican populations, and the limited number of cases studied could account for the low frequency of the delta F508 mutation found in this preliminary report. Images PMID:8326494
Wentzell, Emily A; Inhorn, Marcia C
Men are poorly integrated into sexual and reproductive health programmes, despite long-standing calls for their inclusion. From the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to the Policy Recommendations for the ICPD Beyond 2014, calls for 'rights for all' conflict with implicit, homogenising framing of men as patriarchal roadblocks to women's empowerment. This framing generates ambivalence about providing men's services, leading to emphasis on 'men as partners' supporting women's autonomous reproductive health decision-making rather than attention to both sexes' health needs. We argue that this framing also belies both the global rise of self-consciously non-traditional masculinities, and the fact that people's ostensibly individual sexual and reproductive health practices are profoundly relational. Here, we reimagine the concept of 'partnering' as an analytic for understanding how lived relationships influence both men's and women's sexual and reproductive practice. 'Partnering' in this sense is the context-dependent collaboration through which a range of gendered actors, not limited to male-female dyads, interact to shape health behaviour. We apply this approach to Mexican men's participation in a medical research on human papillomavirus transmission, demonstrating how spouses jointly refashioned male-focused health surveillance into familial health care and a forum for promoting progressive gender norms to their children and the broader society.
Kerscher, W. J. III; Booker, J. M.; Meyer, Mary A.
Delphi Automotive Systems and the Los Alamos National Laboratory worked together to develop PREDICT, a new methodology to characterize the reliability of a new product during its development program. Rather than conducting testing after hardware has been built, and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this updating approach starts with an early reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty, and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework. A considerable amount of knowledge is available at the beginning of a program in the form of expert judgment which helps to provide the initial estimate. This estimate is then continually updated as substantial and varied information becomes available during the course of the development program. This paper presents a case study of the application of PREDICT, with the objective of further describing the methodology. PREDICT has been honored with an R&D 100 Award presented by R&D Magazine.
This paper explores Mexican-American prospective teachers' use of culture--defined as social practices and shared experiences--as an instructional resource in mathematics. The setting is an after-school mathematics program for the children of Mexican heritage. Qualitative analysis of the prospective teachers' and children's interactions reveals…
Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Leon-Reyes, Maria Juana; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo
The present study was designed to determine the weight-based stigmatization of Mexican overweight (OW) and non-OW children by their mothers and peers, who rated both boys and girls with varying physical characteristics. Four hundred and thirty-two fifth and sixth graders and 342 mothers participated in the study. Children were administered a…
Martinez, George A.
Mexican Americans were legally defined as Whites as a result of treaty obligations with Mexico that expressly allowed Mexicans to become U.S. citizens. Federal laws of the time required that an alien be White to become a U.S. citizen. The government of Mexico and the U.S. Department of State pressured the U.S. Census Bureau to reclassify Mexican…
Nicolini, H; Weissbecker, K; Mejía, J M; Sánchez de Carmona, M
Twenty seven obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients were studied at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría in Mexico City. This is the first sample of OCD patients studied in Latin America. There was a significant sex ratio difference and a significant difference in the type of obsessions and compulsions displayed by males and females. Co-morbidity data demonstrated a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, depression, sexual abuse, suicidal attempts and neurological damage. Approximately one third of OCD cases demonstrated a positive family history. There was a higher than expected frequency of first degree relatives affected with OCD. In addition, this study may support the hypothesis that OCD and tics are genetically related.
Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; Germán, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosa, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The items measure were derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans’ (adolescents, mothers and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups and a preliminary item refinement resulted in the fifty-item Mexican American Cultural Values Scales (identical for adolescents and adults) that includes nine value subscales. Analyses of data from two large previously published studies sampling Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers provided evidence of the expected two correlated higher order factor structures, reliability, and construct validity of the subscales of the Mexican American Cultural Values Scales as indicators of values that are frequently associated with Mexican/Mexican American culture. The utility of this measure for use in longitudinal research, and in resolving some important theoretical questions regarding dual cultural adaptation, are discussed. PMID:20644653
Mendez, Julian J.; Bauman, Sheri; Guillory, Raphael M.
This article reports on a study using qualitative methods to investigate intracultural bullying, specifically, bullying between Mexican American (MA) and Mexican immigrant (MI) high school students. Previous research has reported specific cultural conflicts and discrimination within ethnic groups due to differences in acculturation. The purpose of…
Graf, Noreen M.; Blankenship, Charlene J.; Sanchez, Gabriel; Carlson, Ralph
This study examined attitudes toward people with disabilities (PWD) among Mexicans and Mexican Americans at the U.S.-Mexico border. Participants (N = 160) were surveyed using the "Questions About Disability Survey" (QADS). A factor analysis identified five factors that accounted for 49% of the variance: Maleficent God; Social…
Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna
This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…
Hime, Paul M; Hotaling, Scott; Grewelle, Richard E; O'Neill, Eric M; Voss, S Randal; Shaffer, H Bradley; Weisrock, David W
Perhaps the most important recent advance in species delimitation has been the development of model-based approaches to objectively diagnose species diversity from genetic data. Additionally, the growing accessibility of next-generation sequence data sets provides powerful insights into genome-wide patterns of divergence during speciation. However, applying complex models to large data sets is time-consuming and computationally costly, requiring careful consideration of the influence of both individual and population sampling, as well as the number and informativeness of loci on species delimitation conclusions. Here, we investigated how locus number and information content affect species delimitation results for an endangered Mexican salamander species, Ambystoma ordinarium. We compared results for an eight-locus, 137-individual data set and an 89-locus, seven-individual data set. For both data sets, we used species discovery methods to define delimitation models and species validation methods to rigorously test these hypotheses. We also used integrated demographic model selection tools to choose among delimitation models, while accounting for gene flow. Our results indicate that while cryptic lineages may be delimited with relatively few loci, sampling larger numbers of loci may be required to ensure that enough informative loci are available to accurately identify and validate shallow-scale divergences. These analyses highlight the importance of striking a balance between dense sampling of loci and individuals, particularly in shallowly diverged lineages. They also suggest the presence of a currently unrecognized, endangered species in the western part of A. ordinarium's range.
Lawler, Robert W.
Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…
Examines the paradox of case studies' abilities to understand the complexity in particular contexts while not being generalizable. Argues that the pressure for quantification and multisite case study design in policy research has weakened the original utility of the case study method for understanding complex educational phenomena. (DSK)
Friedberg, Ahron L
In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed.
Bond, G G
The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.
Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S
Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.
In November 2001, Nature published a letter in which University of California Berkeley's biologists claimed to have found evidence of genetically modified (GM) DNA in regional varieties of maize in Oaxaca, even though the Mexican government had banned transgenic corn agriculture in 1998. While urban protesters marched against the genetic 'contamination' of Mexican corn by US-based agricultural biotech firms, rural indigenous communities needed a framework for understanding concepts such as GM before they could take action. This article analyzes how the indigenous organization, the Zapatistas, mobilized a program to address this novel entity. Their anti-GM project entailed educating local farmers about genetics, importing genetic testing kits, seed-banking landrace corn and sending seeds to 'solidarity growers' around the world. This article explores material-semiotic translations to explain one of the central aspects of this project, the definition and circulation of Zapatista corn--an entity defined not only through cultural geography, but also technological means. Through its circulation, Zapatista corn serves to perform a biocultural engagement with Zapatista's political project of resistance to neoliberalism. While much has been written about both regulatory policy and consumer activism against GM in the Global North, Zapatista corn also provides a case study in indigenous, anti-GM activism founded on biocultural innovation and the creation of alternative networks for circulating corn.
Martínez-Cortés, G; Gusmão, L; Pereira, R; Salcido, V H; Favela-Mendoza, A F; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Inclán-Sánchez, A; López-Hernández, L B; Rangel-Villalobos, H
Insertion-deletions for human identification purposes (HID-Indels) offer advantages to solve particular forensic situations and complex paternity cases. In Mexico, admixed population known as Mestizos is the largest (∼90%), plus a number of Amerindian groups (∼10%), which have not been studied with HID-Indels. For this reason, allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 38 HID-Indels were estimated in 531 unrelated individuals from one Amerindian (Purépecha) and seven Mestizo populations from different regions of the country. Genotype distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in almost all loci/populations. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) test did not reveal possible associations between loci pairs in all eight Mexican populations. The combined power of discrimination was high in all populations (PD >99.99999999998%). However, the power of exclusion of the 38 HID-Indel system (PE >99.6863%) was reduced regarding most of autosomal STR kits. The assessment of genetic structure (AMOVA) and relationships between populations (FST) demonstrated significant differences among Mexican populations, mainly of the Purépecha Amerindian group. Among Mexican-Mestizos, three population clusters consistent with geography were defined: (i) North-West region: Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Jalisco; (ii) Central-Southern region: Mexico City, Veracruz and Yucatan; (iii) South region: Chiapas. In brief, this report validates the inclusion of the 38 HID-Indel system in forensic casework and paternity cases in seven Mexican-Mestizo populations from different regions, and in one Mexican Amerindian group.
The life expectancy of Mexican women has increased to 80 years and thus the possibility of disease. This requires health professionals to remain current in the skills needed to provide optimal service. He has spent more than a century since released the first report of effective treatment to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of restorative therapy hypoestrogenism since then, much progress has been made in the study of the physiology and pathophysiology, there have been many observational studies and randomized controlled have shown that treatment have prolonged the life expectancy of women. The prescription of hormone replacement therapy should be based on knowledge of the clinical history of each patient, the mechanism of action of each drug, the risk-benefit of this and the real need to indicate them. The purpose of publicizing this "point view", derived from the opinions of a group of scholars in this area of medical knowledge, is put at the disposal of the Mexican medical community an update on all aspects of care of women in the climacteric stage.
Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Smith, Melinda A.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Brown, Devin L.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Garcia, Nelda; Kerber, Kevin A.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Baek, Jonggyu; Lisabeth, Lynda D.
Objective To determine trends in ischemic stroke incidence among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Methods We performed population-based stroke surveillance from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 in Corpus Christi, Texas. Ischemic stroke patients 45 years and older were ascertained from potential sources, and charts were abstracted. Neurologists validated cases based on source documentation blinded to ethnicity and age. Crude and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted annual incidence was calculated for first ever completed ischemic stroke. Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted ischemic stroke rates, rate ratios, and trends. Results There were 2,604 ischemic strokes in Mexican Americans and 2,042 in non-Hispanic whites. The rate ratios (Mexican American:non-Hispanic white) were 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67–2.25), 1.50 (95% CI = 1.35– 1.67), and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.90–1.11) among those aged 45 to 59, 60 to 74, and 75 years and older, respectively, and 1.34 (95% CI = 1.23–1.46) when adjusted for age. Ischemic stroke incidence declined during the study period by 35.9% (95% CI = 25.9–44.5). The decline was limited to those aged ≥60 years, and happened in both ethnic groups similarly (p > 0.10), implying that the disparities seen in the 45- to 74-year age group persist unabated. Interpretation Ischemic stroke incidence rates have declined dramatically in the past decade in both ethnic groups for those aged ≥60 years. However, the disparity between Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke rates persists in those <75 years of age. Although the decline in stroke is encouraging, additional prevention efforts targeting young Mexican Americans are warranted. PMID:23868398
Background Several studies in type 2 diabetes patients have shown significant associations between the SOD2 gene Val16Ala polymorphism and albuminuria, but this association has not been explored in the Mexican population. Methods We evaluated the association between the SOD2 gene Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880) and macroalbuminuria in a sample of 994 unrelated Mexican type 2 diabetes patients. The study included 119 subjects with urinary albumin >300 mg/dL and 875 subjects with urinary albumin ≤ 30 mg/dL. Genotyping of the SOD2 gene Val16Ala SNP was carried out with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Results The frequency of the TT genotype was 6.7% higher in participants with macroalbuminuria than in the normoalbuminuria group (16.8% vs. 10.1%). Using a logistic regression analysis, we observed that individuals with the CC genotype had significantly lower risks of macroalbuminuria than those with the TT genotype (OR=0.42, p=0.034). We carried out a meta-analysis combining our data with data from four previous studies and estimated an odds ratio (95% CI) for the C allele (with respect to the reference T allele) of 0.65 (0.52-0.80, p<0.001). Conclusions A significant association was found between the SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphism and macroalbuminuria in a sample of Mexican type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:24119114
Marks, Amy R.; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Barr, Dana Boyd; Johnson, Caroline; Calderon, Norma; Eskenazi, Brenda
Background Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, well-known neurotoxicants, has been associated with neurobehavioral deficits in children. Objectives We investigated whether OP exposure, as measured by urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in pregnant women and their children, was associated with attention-related outcomes among Mexican-American children living in an agricultural region of California. Methods Children were assessed at ages 3.5 years (n = 331) and 5 years (n = 323). Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We administered the NEPSY-II visual attention subtest to children at 3.5 years and Conners’ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at 5 years. The K-CPT yielded a standardized attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Confidence Index score. Psychometricians scored behavior of the 5-year-olds during testing using the Hillside Behavior Rating Scale. Results Prenatal DAPs (nanomoles per liter) were nonsignificantly associated with maternal report of attention problems and ADHD at age 3.5 years but were significantly related at age 5 years [CBCL attention problems: β = 0.7 points; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2–1.2; ADHD: β = 1.3; 95% CI, 0.4–2.1]. Prenatal DAPs were associated with scores on the K-CPT ADHD Confidence Index > 70th percentile [odds ratio (OR) = 5.1; 95% CI, 1.7–15.7] and with a composite ADHD indicator of the various measures (OR = 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1–10.7). Some outcomes exhibited evidence of effect modification by sex, with associations found only among boys. There was also limited evidence of associations between child DAPs and attention. Conclusions In utero DAPs and, to a lesser extent, postnatal DAPs were associated adversely with attention as assessed by maternal report, psychometrician observation, and direct assessment. These associations were somewhat stronger at 5 years than at 3.5 years and were stronger in boys. PMID:21126939
Morgenstern, Lewis B; Smith, Melinda A; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Risser, Jan M H; Uchino, Ken; Garcia, Nelda; Longwell, Paxton J; McFarling, David A; Akuwumi, Olubumi; Al-Wabil, Areej; Al-Senani, Fahmi; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A
Mexican Americans are the largest subgroup of Hispanics, the largest minority population in the United States. Stroke is the leading cause of disability and third leading cause of death. The authors compared stroke incidence among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites in a population-based study. Stroke cases were ascertained in Nueces County, Texas, utilizing concomitant active and passive surveillance. Cases were validated on the basis of source documentation by board-certified neurologists masked to subjects' ethnicity. From January 2000 to December 2002, 2,350 cerebrovascular events occurred. Of the completed strokes, 53% were in Mexican Americans. The crude cumulative incidence was 168/10,000 in Mexican Americans and 136/10,000 in non-Hispanic Whites. Mexican Americans had a higher cumulative incidence for ischemic stroke (ages 45-59 years: risk ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.69; ages 60-74 years: risk ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 1.91; ages >or=75 years: risk ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.32). Intracerebral hemorrhage was more common in Mexican Americans (age-adjusted risk ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 2.16). The subarachnoid hemorrhage age-adjusted risk ratio was 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 2.89). Mexican Americans experience a substantially greater ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage incidence compared with non-Hispanic Whites. As the Mexican-American population grows and ages, measures to target this population for stroke prevention are critical.
Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in eating behaviors and health outcomes. While food deserts have been researched extensively in developed Anglophone countries, evidence from low- and middle-income countries is still scarce. In Mexico, prevalence of obesity is among the highest worldwide. As obesity has increased nationally and become a widespread public health issue, it is becoming concentrated in the low-income population. This mixed-methods study uses a multidimensional approach to analyze food environments in a low-, middle-, and high-income community in a Mexican city. The study advances understanding of the role that food environments may play in shaping eating patterns by analyzing the density and proximity of food outlet types as well as the variety, quantity, quality, pricing, and promotion of different foods. These measures are combined with in-depth qualitative research with families in the communities, including photo elicitation, to assess perceptions of food access. The central aims of the research were to evaluate physical and economic access and exposure to healthy and unhealthy foods in communities of differing socioeconomic status as well as participants' subjective perceptions of such access and exposure. The findings suggest a need to reach beyond a narrow focus on food store types and the distance from residence to grocery stores when analyzing food access. Results show that excessive access and exposure to unhealthy foods and drinks, or "food swamps," may be a greater concern than food deserts for obesity-prevention policy in Mexico.
Castellanos-Morales, Gabriela; Gámez, Niza; Castillo-Gámez, Reyna A; Eguiarte, Luis E
The hypothesis that endemic species could have originated by the isolation and divergence of peripheral populations of widespread species can be tested through the use of ecological niche models (ENMs) and statistical phylogeography. The joint use of these tools provides complementary perspectives on historical dynamics and allows testing hypotheses regarding the origin of endemic taxa. We used this approach to infer the historical processes that have influenced the origin of a species endemic to the Mexican Plateau (Cynomys mexicanus) and its divergence from a widespread ancestor (Cynomys ludovicianus), and to test whether this endemic species originated through peripatric speciation. We obtained genetic data for 295 individuals for two species of black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus and C. mexicanus). Genetic data consisted of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region), and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. We estimated dates of divergence between species and between lineages within each species and performed ecological niche modelling (Present, Last Glacial Maximum and Last Interglacial) to determine changes in the distribution range of both species during the Pleistocene. Finally, we used Bayesian inference methods (DIYABC) to test different hypotheses regarding the divergence and demographic history of these species. Data supported the hypothesis of the origin of C. mexicanus from a peripheral population isolated during the Pleistocene [∼230,000 years ago (0.1-0.43 Ma 95% HPD)], with a Pleistocene-Holocene (∼9,000-11,000 years ago) population expansion (∼10-fold increase in population size). We identified the presence of two possible refugia in the southern area of the distribution range of C. ludovicianus and another, consistent with the distribution range of C. mexicanus. Our analyses suggest that Pleistocene climate change had a strong impact in the distribution of these species, promoting peripatric speciation for the origin of
Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz
This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…
Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)
Wood, A M; Wood, C M; Bakker-Dyos, J
We present the case of a 26 year old Indian base worker who attended the Role 2 enhanced hospital in Iraq with a case of leprosy. The patient presented four times over a 12 month period with non-specific pain in the right hand and forearm combined with a large lesion of dry skin and reduced sensation in the forearm. A clinical diagnosis of leprosy was made, which was subsequently confirmed as paucibacillary leprosy by skin smears sent to the UK. It was not possible to treat the patient locally and a recommendation made to the patient's employer that the patient return to India to commence treatment.
Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor
Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.
Ramírez-Rojas, Alejandro; Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Flores, Leticia
By using the method of the visibility graph (VG), five magnitude time series extracted from the seismic catalog of the Mexican subduction zone were investigated. The five seismic sequences represent the seismicity which occurred between 2005 and 2012 in five seismic areas: Guerrero, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Jalisco and Michoacan. Among the five seismic sequences, the Jalisco sequence shows VG properties significantly different from those shown by the other four. Such a difference could be inherent in the different tectonic settings of Jalisco with respect to those characterizing the other four areas. The VG properties of the seismic sequences have been put in relationship with the more typical seismological characteristics (b-value and a-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law). The present study was supported by the Bilateral Project Italy-Mexico "Experimental Stick-slip models of tectonic faults: innovative statistical approaches applied to synthetic seismic sequences", jointly funded by MAECI (Italy) and AMEXCID (Mexico) in the framework of the Bilateral Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation PE 2014-2016
Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D
We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty-trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States versus Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant 3rd variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization) and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the 3rd variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations.
Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty–trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States vs. Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant third variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization), and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the third variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations. PMID:23895172
Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel
The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ≥ 40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7%, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4% in normal weight, 19.9% in overweight and 24.5% in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations.
Hispanic nurses represent less than 2% of the current U.S. nursing workforce, despite that approximately 14% of the nation's population is Hispanic. There is an urgent need to correct the gross underrepresentation of Mexican Americans, the largest subgroup among Hispanics, in the U.S. nursing workforce to provide culturally concordant care. One solution is to increase the academic success of Mexican American nursing students with English as a second language through improved linguistic and cultural adaptation to multiple-choice tests. This article will discuss these students' linguistic and cultural adaptation needs related to multiple-choice tests and will also present several intervention strategies and a case study.
Zavala, C; Carmona-Miranda, L; Estañol-Vidal, B
Environmental factors as well as different modes of inheritance has been suggested to explain the etiology of left-handedness. In order to improve knowledge of this problem, manual skill (MS) of parents (n = 234), siblings (n = 506) and children (n = 126) of 60 right-handed (RHI) and 60 left-handed (LHI) index cases (IC), born in Mexico City, were studied. Parents and siblings of both IC had similar frequencies of left-handedness. Quite the contrary, 36.7% of children of LHI were left-handed, while 7.3% children of RHI happen to be left-handed (P < 0.00025). No differences were found in the appearance of perinatal environmental factors. These findings are explained in part according to the pressure exerted by parents and/or teachers for dextrality. The impact of this influence modifies the effect of several unknown genes (multifactorial inheritance). The understanding of the above mechanisms in the etiology of MS is relevant not only for academic purposes, but for the educational sphere as well.
Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric
Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…
Rodriguez Ceja, M.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Rosas Elguera, J.; Calvo, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.
The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the largest continental volcanic arcs of the North American plate. It spans about 1000 km from the Pacific to the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the abundance of thick lava sequences with quite high extrusion rates, the TMVB have been relatively little studied from a paleomagnetic point of view. Previous studies were aimed for tectonic evolution of the region rather than documenting fluctuations of Earth's magnetic field in terms of both directions and intensity. We report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study of Tequila and Ceboruco-San Pedro-Amado Nervo volcanic fields. 350 oriented samples belonging to 31 independent cooling units were collected. All these sites were previously dated by means of the state-of-the-art 40Ar-39Ar geochronological method and span from 1.1 Ma to 2 Ky. Rock-magnetic experiments which included continuous susceptibility, isothermal remanence acquisition and hysteresis measurements point to simple magnetic mineralogy. In most of cases, the remanence is carried by Ti-poor titanomagnetite of pseudo-single-domain magnetic structure. The paleodirections of the flow dated as 819±25 ka correspond to a VGP latitude of 18° N. This anomalous field behaviour apparently recorded prior to the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal may coincide with the geomagnetic event, defined as M-B precursor. Two independent lava flows, dated as 623±91 and 614±16 ka respectively, yield reverse paleodirections and one lava flow dated as 690±29 yields transitional paleodirections. It is possible that these lavas erupted during the worldwide observable Big Lost or Delta events.
Garcia, Angela B.; Zimmerman, Barry J.
In this study of 40 disadvantaged Mexican-American first grade children it was hypothesized that praise from a Mexican-American adult would be more reinforcing to a Mexican-American child than praise from an Anglo adult. Further, it was hypothesized that praise in Spanish would be more reinforcing to a Mexican-American child than praise delivered…
Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…
The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…
Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others
Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…
Ambrosio-Gallardo, Félix; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Heinze-Martin, Gerhard; Caraveo-Anduaga, Jorge; Cortés-Sotres, José
Introduction Minor physical anomalies (MPA) are dysmorphic features that reflect deviations in early development, are morphological variants that appear during the first trimester of pregnancy and could be used as a marker of disease risk in susceptible people. The literature agrees that the number of MPA is higher in patients with schizophrenia compared with their relatives and healthy subjects. The purpose of this study is to compare the MPA, assessed using the Gourion Scale, in complete nuclear families (families with a member with schizophrenia and control families) by determining the MPA mean, concordance and heritability for the total score on the MPA Gourion Scale for each anomaly. Method The sample consisted of 60 families with at least one schizophrenic patient (284 members) and 61 control families (249 members). Results: The mean total score for the scale was 5.72 ± 2.3 MPA in the case of families with at least one schizophrenic patient and 1.8 ± 4.46 MPA for control families. The average for families of patients without considering the patient in the analysis was 5.59 ± 2.3 MPA; for patients, the mean was 6.14 ± 2.4 MPA. In the analysis by anomaly differences were found only in eleven anomalies found no evidence of heritability or concordance. Conclusions MPA occur more frequently in patients, but a pattern of low consistency between them persists. It is concluded that MPA could be a marker of neurodevelopmental problems, but it is not suitable to consider them a Gourion scale as endophenotype. PMID:25612094
Wu, X; Delclos, G L; Annegers, J F; Bondy, M L; Honn, S E; Henry, B; Hsu, T C; Spitz, M R
The associations between lung cancer risk, mutagen sensitivity (a marker of cancer susceptibility), and a putative lung carcinogen, wood dust, were assessed in a hospital-based case-control study. There were 113 African -American and 67 Mexican-American cases with newly diagnosed, previously untreated lung cancer and 270 controls, frequency-matched on age, ethnicity, and sex. Mutagen sensitivity ( 1 chromatid break/cell after short-term bleomycin treatment) was associated with statistically significant elevated risk for lung cancer [odds ration (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 2.3-7.9]. Wood dust exposure was also a significant predictor of risk (overall OR = 3.5; CI = 1.4-8.6) after controlling for smoking and mutagen sensitivity. When stratified by ethnicity, wood dust exposure was s significant risk factor for African-Americans (OR = 5.5; CI = 1.6-18.9) but not for Mexican-Americans (OR = 2.0; CI = 0.5-8.1). The ORs were 3.8 and 4.8 for non-small cell lung cancer in Mexican-Americans (CI = 1.2-18.5). Stratified analysis suggested evidence of strong interactions between wood dust exposure and both mutagen sensitivity and smoking in lung cancer risk.
Toral-Rios, Danira; Franco-Bocanegra, Diana; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Mena-Barranco, Francisco; Carvajal-García, Rosa; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Campos-Peña, Victoria
Amyloid peptide is able to promote the activation of microglia and astrocytes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and this stimulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inflammation contributes to the process of neurodegeneration and therefore is a key factor in the development of AD. Some of the most important proteins involved in AD inflammation are: clusterin (CLU), complement receptor 1 (CR1), C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), the interleukins 1α (IL-1α), 6 (IL-6), 10 (IL-10) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). In particular, COX-2 is encoded by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene (PTGS2). Since variations in the genes that encode these proteins may modify gene expression or function, it is important to investigate whether these variations may change the developing AD. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of polymorphisms in the genes encoding the aforementioned proteins is associated in Mexican patients with AD. Fourteen polymorphisms were genotyped in 96 subjects with AD and 100 controls; the differences in allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were analyzed. Additionally, an ancestry analysis was conducted to exclude differences in genetic ancestry among groups as a confounding factor in the study. Significant differences in frequencies between AD and controls were found for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs20417 within the PTGS2 gene. Ancestry analysis revealed no significant differences in the ancestry of the compared groups, and the association was significant even after adjustment for ancestry and correction for multiple testing, which strengthens the validity of the results. We conclude that this polymorphism plays an important role in the development of the AD pathology and further studies are required, including their proteins. PMID:26041990
Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
A longitudinal daily diary method was employed to examine the implications of family assistance for the academic achievement of 563 adolescents (53% female) from Mexican (n = 217), Chinese (n = 206), and European (n = 140) backgrounds during the high school years (mean age 14.9 years in 9th grade to 17.8 years in 12th grade). Although changes in…
Two of the major objectives of the six week institute were "to provide teacher training in the folklore and traditions of the Mexican American, Black and Appalachian people to teachers who are either members of these cultures, or who work with students of these cultures; and to present teachers with subject matter, curriculum and background…
Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the…
Since the early 1950s, several programs have enticed thousands of rural Mexicans to migrate to California and the Northwest to be agricultural workers. The resultant demographic and cultural impacts have been immense. Hood River County (Oregon) schools are over 30 percent Hispanic. There is much ignorance and prejudice regarding the Hispanic…
GONZALEZ, NANCIE L.
USING NEW MEXICO AS A BASIS TO TRACE THE SPANISH-AMERICAN AND MEXICAN-AMERICAN HERITAGE, THE AUTHOR STATES THAT ANY STIGMA PLACED ON THE LATTER GROUP IS ONE OF CLASS DISTINCTION. THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT ACCULTURATION AND ASSIMILATION OF BOTH GROUPS INTO THE ANGLO-AMERICAN SOCIETY IS PROCEEDING STEADILY, AND THAT THE WORLD WARS AND THE KOREAN…
Licona, Miguel M.
In this case study, I use an ethnographic-style approach to understand the funds of knowledge of immigrant families living in colonias on both sides of the US/Mexico border. I focus on how these "knowledges" and concomitant experiences impact the ways we perceive and treat immigrant students who have all too often been viewed through deficit lenses that relegate them to the lowest expectations and outcomes in the classroom. I find that Mexican and Mexican-American families hold unusually sophisticated and relevant "knowledges" to mitigate their everyday lives. In this paper, I will refer to citizens of Mexico, whether they reside in Mexico or have crossed to the United States legally or without documentation for purposes of work, as Mexican. People who have crossed the border and are living in the US as legal residents or have gained citizenship are referred to as Mexican-Americans. They live a hybrid identity that is varied and dynamic, an issue that adds to the complexity of the content and contexts of this study. These families know and use these "knowledges" on a daily basis, yet they are not recognized by teachers in the US as a starting point to affirm and support immigrant children. Instead, immigrant children are relegated to the non-gifted and lower track classes where science is taught from an abstract and non-contextual and therefore less engaged basis. The approach I outline here, based on insights from my case study, can greatly improve teachers' abilities to prepare their curricula for diversity in science education and science literacy as well as for broad expectations for student success.
Brannan, Steve; Fullerton, Ann
Case studies in the National Camp Evaluation Project and National Inclusive Camp Practices project used interviews with counselors and parents about camper's growth to yield qualitative data for camp program evaluation. The importance, methods, and benefits of case studies are described. Sidebars give examples of comments on perceived camper…
Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly
These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…
Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda
This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…
Case study learning was integrated into a course designed to improve students' potential for academic success and increase student retention. Case studies related to self-regulation of behavior, motivation, and cognition for academic tasks were used to prompt students' critical thinking and facilitate deep learning of self-regulation topics,…
National Endowment for the Arts, 2009
The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…
Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel
Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976
Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Medina-Solís, Carlo E.; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana A.; Marquez-Corona, Maria L.; Pontigo-Loyola, América P.; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Maupomé, Gerardo
Background: Diverse variables are implicated in the pathogenesis of gingival recession; more detailed knowledge about the relationship between the clinical presentation of gingival recession and assorted risk indicators may lead to improved patient monitoring, early intervention, and subsequent prevention. The objective was to evaluate clinically gingival recession in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population and to determine the strength of association with related factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a largely homogeneous group in terms of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, gender, occupation, and medical/dental insurance, in Campeche, Mexico. Periodontal examinations were undertaken to determine diverse clinical dental variables. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk indicators. Statistical analyses were undertaken with negative binomial regression models. Results: The mean number of sites with gingival recession per subject was 6.73±5.81; the prevalence was 87.6%. In the negative binomial regression model we observed that for (i) each year of age, and (ii) each percentage unit of increase in sites with plaque, and (iii) with suppuration, mean sites with gingival recession increased 2.9%, 1.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Having a spouse was associated with gingival recession. Conclusions: We observed association between gingival recession, and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients need to be educated about risk indicators for gingival recession as well as the preventive maneuvers that may be implemented to minimize its occurrence. The potential of improved oral self-care to prevent a largely benign condition such as gingival recession is important, given the associated disorders that may ensue root exposure, such as root caries and root hypersensitivity. Key words:Oral health, periodontal health
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Szlyk, Hannah; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Natera, Guillermina
Background There is a critical need to document the mental health effects of immigration policies and practices on children vulnerable to parental deportation. Few studies capture the differential experiences produced by U.S. citizen-children’s encounters with immigration enforcement, much less in ways that analyze mental health outcomes alongside the psychosocial contexts within which those outcomes arise. Methods We explore the psychosocial dimensions of depression in U.S. citizen-children with undocumented Mexican parents to examine differences between citizen-children affected and not affected by parental deportation. An exploratory mixed-method design was used to integrate a quantitative measure of depression symptoms (CDI-2) within qualitative data collected with 48 citizen-children aged 8 to 15 with and without experiences of parental deportation. Results Stressors elicited by citizen-children in the qualitative interview included an inability to communicate with friends, negative perceptions of Mexico, financial struggles, loss of supportive school networks, stressed relation with parent(s), and violence. Fifty percent of citizen-children with probable depression—regardless of experiences with parental deportation—cited “stressed relation with parents,” compared to 9% without depression. In contrast, themes of “loss of supportive school network” and “violence” were mentioned almost exclusively by citizen-children with probable depression and affected by parental deportation. Conclusions While citizen-children who suffer parental deportation experience the most severe consequences associated with immigration enforcement, our findings also suggest that the burden of mental health issues extends to those children concomitantly affected by immigration enforcement policies that target their undocumented parents. PMID:26648588
Matheron, G.; Armstrong, M.
The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes.
Marquez Kiyama, Judy
Using a qualitative multiple-case-study design, this study explored how funds of knowledge in Mexican American families contributed to the development of educational ideologies. Findings illustrated the following ways in which families are involved in their children's education: the formation of both helpful and limiting educational ideologies,…
Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case
Hancock, Dana B.; Romieu, Isabelle; Shi, Min; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Wu, Hao; Chiu, Grace Y.; Li, Huiling; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Willis-Owens, Saffron A. G.; Weiss, Scott T.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Gao, Hong; Eng, Celeste; Chapela, Rocio; Burchard, Esteban G.; Tang, Hua; Sullivan, Patrick F.; London, Stephanie J.
Many candidate genes have been studied for asthma, but replication has varied. Novel candidate genes have been identified for various complex diseases using genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We conducted a GWAS in 492 Mexican children with asthma, predominantly atopic by skin prick test, and their parents using the Illumina HumanHap 550 K BeadChip to identify novel genetic variation for childhood asthma. The 520,767 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passing quality control were tested for association with childhood asthma using log-linear regression with a log-additive risk model. Eleven of the most significantly associated GWAS SNPs were tested for replication in an independent study of 177 Mexican case–parent trios with childhood-onset asthma and atopy using log-linear analysis. The chromosome 9q21.31 SNP rs2378383 (p = 7.10×10−6 in the GWAS), located upstream of transducin-like enhancer of split 4 (TLE4), gave a p-value of 0.03 and the same direction and magnitude of association in the replication study (combined p = 6.79×10−7). Ancestry analysis on chromosome 9q supported an inverse association between the rs2378383 minor allele (G) and childhood asthma. This work identifies chromosome 9q21.31 as a novel susceptibility locus for childhood asthma in Mexicans. Further, analysis of genome-wide expression data in 51 human tissues from the Novartis Research Foundation showed that median GWAS significance levels for SNPs in genes expressed in the lung differed most significantly from genes not expressed in the lung when compared to 50 other tissues, supporting the biological plausibility of our overall GWAS findings and the multigenic etiology of childhood asthma. PMID:19714205
Mexican society contains a variety of indigenous cultures as well as European influences. Most babies in rural areas are delivered by midwives. Traditional midwives, government-trained and empirical midwives, nurse-midwives, and foreign-trained midwives all practice in Mexico. Nurse-midwives in one project are demonstrating their ability to meet the needs of urban childbearing women. A midwifery organization is developing under the leadership of midwives influenced by the contemporary midwifery movement in the United States. In this article, some traditional Mexican midwifery practices are discussed and interviews with several different Mexican midwives from a variety of backgrounds are presented.
Nauer, K A; Kramer, L; Lockard, K L
Presentation of a case study involving a female patient, in her 20s, undergoing routine surgery for removal of atrial myxoma leading to a heart transplant. This case study will show the progression from postcardiotomy failure, the emergent use of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device, the insertion of the HeartMate device, and the final return to the operating room for a heart transplant. The case study will examine the physiologic demands on the patient, as well as the psychological effects from the various life-saving devices.
their social and economic environment. The study states that NAFTA accelerated the transition of Mexico to a liberalized economy but did not create the...Trade Agreement (NAFTA), in effect since January 1994, plays a very strong role in the bilateral economic relationship between Mexico and the United...health issues. The effects of NAFTA on Mexico and the state of the Mexican economy have important impacts on U.S. economic and political interests. As
Villarroel, Camilo E; Álvarez, Rosa M; Gómez-Laguna, Laura; Ramos, Sandra; González-Del Ángel, Ariadna
It is calculated that distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 occurs in one out of every 5000 live births and causes approximately 1.2% of cases of mental retardation of unknown origin. This alteration usually cannot be detected in the standard karyotype, requiring molecular cytogenetic techniques for the diagnosis. In addition to the neurological manifestations, it may cause internal organs malformations, such as congenital heart disease, and a characteristic facial phenotype. This report describes the clinical and cytogenetic findings from the first two cases diagnosed in Mexico, confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization test, and compares them to those described in the literature. The probable subdiagnosis of this entity, the importance of improves its recognition and the useful data for the clinical suspicion are also discussed.
Pugh, Sandra Lyniece
An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…
Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena
The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…
Molina, Luisa T; Molina, Mario J
The development and effective implementation of solutions to the air pollution problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area is essential to guarantee the health and welfare of its inhabitants. To achieve this, it is essential to have the active and informed participation of the civil society, the academic community, the private sector, and the government, because dealing with pollution requires the use of different strategies in multiple fields of action. The Mexico City case study brings together health, transportation, administration, and many other interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and defeating air pollution. Although focused on the Mexico City area, the work conducted under this case study has significance for developing nations generally. Although policies to reduce air pollution should be based on the best available scientific knowledge, political will and capacity must transform this knowledge into action. This case study has developed a series of recommendations emphasizing the interaction between different disciplines that have provided the foundation for the 10-year air quality management program prepared by the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission.
Background The increasing numbers of colonias along the U.S.-Mexico border are characterized by disproportionately poor families of Mexican-origin, limited access to resources and health services, and heightened risk for obesity and diabetes. Despite consistent evidence supporting physical activity (PA) in prevention of chronic diseases, many individuals of Mexican-origin, including children, fail to meet PA recommendations. Environmental influences on PA, founded in ecological and social cognitive perspectives, have not been examined among children living in colonias. The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand (1) household and neighborhood environmental PA resources/supports, (2) perceived barriers to engaging in PA, and (3) PA offerings, locations, and transportation characteristics for Mexican-origin children living in colonias. Methods Data for this study were collected by promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers trained in research methods) using face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish. The sample consists of 94 mother-child dyads from Texas border colonias in Hidalgo County. Interviews included questionnaire items addressing PA barriers, household and neighborhood environmental support assessments conducted with each dyad, and open-ended questions that were coded to identify availability and locations of PA opportunities and transportation options. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between genders, birth countries, and BMI categories of children were determined using chi-square tests. Results All children were of Mexican-origin. The most frequently reported barriers were unleashed dogs in the street, heat, bad weather, traffic, no streetlights, and no place like a park to exercise. Prominent locations for current PA included schools, home, and parks. Common PA options for children were exercise equipment, running, playing, and sports. Environmental assessments identified exercise equipment
Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...
Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...
Slater, Timothy F.
Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.
A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma
The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.
Navarrete-Navarro, Susana; Gómez-Delgado, Alejandro; Riebeling-Navarro, Carlos; López-García, Gloria Araceli; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo
OBJECTIVE. To identify studies on quality of health care in the IMSS. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A bibliometric, descriptive cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted, from 1992 to 2011. RESULTS. We identified 881 research studies related to the issue of quality (CI95% 10.6-12.0) of 7 762 studies presented at the annual research meetings. 10 521 articles were published in this period of time and only 946 (CI95% 8.4-9.5) were linked to the issue of quality. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study allowed us to identify the interest about research on quality. Further research is needed to establish what has been the impact on the improvement of quality in health care.
Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Bayona-Soriano, Paulette; Hernández-Jimenez, Arturo; Contreras-Rendón, Alejandra; Chabat-Manzanera, Paulina; Nevarez-Bernal, Roberto
Objective. Assessment of the frequency of complications observed with various forceps and operative vaginal delivery (OVD) techniques performed at the ABC Medical Center (Mexico City) to evaluate their safety, bearing in mind the importance of decreasing our country's high cesarean section incidence. Methods. We reviewed 5,375 deliveries performed between the years 2007 and 2012, only 146 were delivered by OVD. Results. Only 1.0% of the cases had a serious, life-threatening situation (uterine rupture). The Simpson forceps was the most favored instrument (46%) due to its simplicity of use, effectiveness, and familiarity. Prophylactic use was the most common indication (30.8%) and significant complications observed were vaginal lacerations (p = 0.016), relative risk (RR) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–10.04), and fourth degree perineal tear (p = 0.016), RR of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.15–10.04). Conclusions. Forceps use and other OVD techniques are a safe alternative to be considered, diminishing C-section incidence and its complications. PMID:26380111
Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; de la Luz Arenas-Sordo, María; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Rogelio
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited disorder of the human peripheral nerve, with an estimated overall prevalence of 17-40/10 000 . The typical phenotype presents peroneal muscular atrophy and pes cavus . CMT is usually divided into two large types, about two-thirds of the patients have CMT type 1 (CMT1), that affects the layer of myelin (demyelination). In type 2 (CMT2) the nerve fibers are affected (axonal). CMT diseases have autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance . The most frequent subtype is 1A (CMT1A) with autosomal dominant transmission, secondary in most cases to a tandem duplication of a 1.5 Mb DNA fragment on chromosome 17p11.2-p12 [4-7]. In this region, the codification of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) takes place. The severity of the disease varies among patients, even within the same family, from almost no symptoms to severe foot-drop and sensory loss. The PMP22 gene has four exons and is regulated by two promoters located toward the extreme 5'. The origin of the duplication that causes the disease is an uneven exchange of the chromatids during the meiosis. This unequal recombination occurs between two regions that limit the PMP22 gene, described as REP places of 24 kb, proximal and distal [3, 4].
Prevalence of gene rearrangements in Mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population study-report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukemia.
Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Rangel-López, Angélica; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel
Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010-2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children.
Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; López-Cortés, David J; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E
This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.
Álvarez, Isabel; Gómez-Chacón, Inés Mª
Students' difficulty in learning and suitably understanding the concept of the algebraic variable has been studied with a number of tools and documented for several populations. Little research has been conducted, however, using the same tool to explore understanding of the notion among populations from different countries in an attempt to…
Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga
In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…
Perales Escudero, Moises Damian; Reyes Cruz, Maria del Rosario; Loyo, Griselda Murrieta
The quality of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) instruction in elementary schools worldwide is an issue of concern for language policy and planning (LPP) scholars, as are examinations of power and ideologies operating in policy creation and implementation. This critical, exploratory study blends these two strands of inquiry by examining…
Band-Schmidt, Christine J.; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J.; López-Cortés, David J.; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J.; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E.
This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 ºC and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions. PMID:20631876
Molina-Guzman, Gabriel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Hernández Díaz, Yazmín; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe; Genis, Alma; Pool García, Sherezada; López-Narvaez, María Lilia; Rodriguez-Perez, José Manuel
Background The aim of this case–control study was to explore the association by gender between the HTR2C gene variants and suicidal behavior in a Mexican population. Subjects and methods A total of 183 suicide attempters and 208 healthy volunteers were included in this study. We genotyped five polymorphisms of HTR2C (rs547536, rs2192372, rs4272555, rs6318, and rs2428707), then measured the association by genotype, allele, and haplotype. Results In the female group, we found an association between two polymorphisms of the HTR2C (rs4272555 and rs2428707) and suicide attempts. The C allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4272555 was associated with a decreased risk of suicide attempt (P=0.01, odds ratio =0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.09–0.79), whereas the G allele of the SNP rs2428707 was associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt (P=0.01, odds ratio =3.68, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–10.90). No significant association was observed between the other polymorphisms studied (rs547536, rs2192372, rs6318) or haplotypes with suicide attempts. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible risk factor of the HTR2C gene in the pathology of suicidal behavior in Mexican population. More studies are necessary to confirm this association. PMID:28260903
Edelblute, Heather B; Clark, Sandra; Mann, Lilli; McKenney, Kathryn M; Bischof, Jason J; Kistler, Christine
The migration of working-aged men from Mexico to the United States fractures the family-centered support structures typical of Latin America and contributes to high levels of depression in women left behind in migratory sending communities in Mexico. Mujeres en Solidaridad Apoyandose (MESA) was developed to improve depression in women through social support in a resource poor setting. MESA is a promotora intervention that trains women in the community to lead social support groups over a five-week period. The MESA curriculum uses a combination of cognitive behavioral theory techniques, psychoeducation, and social support activities aimed at alleviating or preventing depression in women. Results from this pilot efficacy study (n = 39) show that depressed participants at baseline experienced declines in depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at follow-up. Other findings demonstrate the complexity behind addressing social support and depression for women impacted by migration in different ways.
Martinez, Melissa Ann
Utilizing the notion of community cultural wealth, this study focuses on the various forms of capital that Mexican American students from the South Texas Border draw upon within their community to navigate the college choice process. Findings indicate that neighbors, church members, and in one case, a physician, served as sources of social…
Zamarripa, Manuel X.; Lane, Ileana; Lerma, Eunice; Holin, Lyle, II
This study explores the lived experiences of Mexican American graduate students who completed a course on Mexican American counseling and mental health. The experiences of Mexican American students taking a mental health course that focuses on their own ethnic group has not been previously discussed in the literature. Given the history of…
Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; Atkinson, Donald R.
This study examined the relationships between Mexican acculturation, cultural values, gender, and help-seeking intentions among Mexican American community college students. Findings suggest that as Mexican Americans lose their culture of origin and increase their generational status, their attitudes toward help seeking become less favorable. This…
Borjian, Ali; Padilla, Amado M.
In this study 18 Mexican teachers of English as a foreign language in Guanajuato, Mexico were asked for their professional opinion about the teaching of English to Mexican immigrant students in the U.S. Teachers responded to a questionnaire that asked about attitudes toward the U.S. educational system, ways to support Mexican immigrant students,…
Shinnar, Rachel Sheli
This study examines the variables shaping career development among Mexican immigrants. Based on qualitative interviews with 17 adult, Mexican immigrants, a model describing the barriers and motivators to career development for this sample is offered. Findings indicate that Mexican immigrants' careers are shaped by three sets of interrelated…
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…
Gerst, Kerstin; Miranda, Patricia Y; Eschbach, Karl; Sheffield, Kristin M; Peek, M Kristen; Markides, Kyriakos S
Research indicates that neighborhood context can have a significant effect on the health of older adults. The evidence suggests that there may be physical health benefits afforded to Mexican Americans living in ethnically homogenous neighborhoods, despite the relatively high economic risk in such neighborhoods, but few studies have considered the effect of neighborhood ethnic density on mental health outcomes in older adults. This study evaluated the association between neighborhoods with a high proportion of Mexican Americans and depressive symptoms in very old Mexican Americans. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine data from Wave 5 (2004/05) of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Subjects included 1,875 community-dwelling Mexican Americans aged 75 and older living in 386 neighborhoods in five states in the southwestern United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (α=0.88). Results showed that, in very old men, there was a significant negative association between percentage of Mexican Americans in the neighborhood and depressive symptoms (P=.01). In women, the direction of the association was the same, but the effect was not significant. These findings suggest that the proportion of Mexican Americans in the neighborhood matter more for very old Mexican American men than women. Further research may inform screening and treatment for depressive symptoms based on differences in neighborhood composition. Recommendations include culturally customized programs that offer older Mexican Americans greater mobility and access to programs and opportunities in culturally identifiable neighborhoods.
Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment.
Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment. PMID:25525628
Della Sala, S; Logie, R H; Marchetti, C; Wynn, V
Patterns of cognitive deficit in single neuropsychological cases are common sources of evidence for theories of normal cognition. In particular, the working memory model has benefited from data obtained from a number of contrasting patients, in some cases resulting in modifications of the working memory model. In this paper, patterns of data from short-term memory patients and anarthric patients are compared with patterns of data from normal subjects. The patterns of patient data that were unlike those patterns typically found for groups of normal subjects, could be incorporated within a modified version of the articulatory loop component of the working memory model. However a small number of individual normal subjects also did not show the pattern that is reported on the basis of average performance of groups of normal subjects. This causes some difficulty in interpreting those data from such 'aberrant normal' patterns, and those data from single patients with functional cognitive deficits. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of neuropsychological data are discussed in the context of the working memory model, but with the intention of making a general point pertaining to the development of functional models of cognition. It is argued that single case studies should continue to provide a useful source of evidence, providing that care is exercised in considering the implications of such data for models of normal cognition.
Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Salcido-García, Juan-Francisco; Hernández-Flores, Florentino
Background The aim of this study was to know the distribution of dental developmental alterations in the population requesting stomatological attention at the Admission and Diagnosis Clinic of our institution in Mexico City. Material and Methods We reviewed the archives and selected those files with developmental dental alterations. Analyzed data were diagnoses, age, gender, location and number of involved teeth. Results Of the 3.522 patients reviewed, 179 (5.1%) harbored 394 developmental dental alterations. Of them, 45.2% were males and 54.8% were females with a mean age of 16.7 years. The most common were supernumeraries, dental agenesia and dilaceration. Adults were 30.7% of the patients with dental developmental alterations. In them, the most common lesions were agenesia and supernumeraries. Mesiodens was the most frequently found supernumerary teeth (14.7%). Conclusions Our finding that 30.7% of the affected patients were adults is an undescribed and unusually high proportion of patients that have implications on planning and prognosis of their stomatological treatment. Key words:Developmental dental alterations, developmental alterations, supernumerary teeth, dental agenesia, root dilaceration. PMID:26946196
Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Kokina, Tatiana; Mendoza Araiza, Daniel
This work begins by presenting a historical introduction on how the change in the Earth's rotation axis was first detected, and on related aspects of the discovery of precession and nutation phenomena. Newton's explanation of precession, the dynamical theory of nutation by Délambert as well as an acount of the first observatories dedicated to these studies are also discussed. In 1899 the International Latitude Service "ILS" was established, defining their main objectives, and started to determine the mean pole (1900 - 1905). In 1961 ILS was substituted by the International Polar Motion Service "IPMS". This service used laser telemetry to the Earth's artificial satelites "SAT", as well as to the Moon. Also in that period, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) aproved the MERIT international program, dedicated to monitor the Earth rotation intercomparing techniques of observation and analysis. It was in this program that "very long base interferometry" VLBI was used for the fist time, obtaining very good results. In 1987 the IAU started the International Earth Rotation Service "IERS" suported by its two networks ICRF and ITRF. The VLBI is said to be a powerful tool that could be used to solve global problems which have an impact in the countries' economies. In México we lack a rigid link in the geodesic network, which is linked to the global positional system NAVSTAR (GPS), as well as to the international system of coordinates (ITRF), and on the other hand there is a very high sysmic activity. We conclude by arguing that México ought to participate in IERS, as it has both scientists and infraestructure, such as the GMT, Sierra la Negra, Puebla, México. To achieve this a companion radiotelescope is needed. For this purpose, 5 telescopes are discussed, showing estimates for simultaneous reception as well as for the precission of the position of these radiotelescopes.
Bernal, Ernest M., Jr.
Results and descriptions of an exploratory study designed to develop an instrument to identify gifted Mexican-American children who would not ordinarily be identified with traditional techniques are presented. The Mexican American community was used to develop a cultural-community based definition of giftedness and to develop a measure for…
Polo, Antonio J.; Lopez, Steven R.
Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American…
Finer, Neal B.
Designed to be used as part of a comprehensive social studies program on Mexican culture, this two-volume manual, written in Spanish, offers an instructional package on Mexican culture, stressing an art-architecture perspective, which can be used at the secondary, college and adult levels. The teacher's guide, Volume I, includes a discussion of a…
This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…
Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern
Background: Mexican American women have the highest leisure-time physical inactivity prevalence of any ethnic minority group. Purpose: This study examined a sample of Mexican American females living near the U.S.-Mexico border to determine whether the variables of age, health status, educational level, marital status, and acculturation…
The study focuses on storytelling among Mexican families, documenting the frequency of storytelling in the homes of working- and middle-class Mexican families, the range of topics of the stories, characteristics and genres of stories, and intergenerational continuity of storytelling practices. Also examined are potential associations between…
Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.
Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398
Naples, Nancy A.
An 8-year ethnographic study in two rural Iowa towns examined the incorporation of recently arrived Mexicans and Mexican Americans into the social, economic, and political life of the community. Relocating to work in a nearby food processing plant, the newcomers altered the ethnic composition of this formerly homogeneous area. Data were gathered…
Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy
A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…
Engstrom, Gerald A.
This study compared the perceptions held by Mexican-American secondary school students with those held by their Anglo-American peers toward the climate of their classrooms. The objectives of the study were to identify any differences in student perceptions and to examine the relationships between school climate perceptions, academic achievement,…
Meredith, John D.
Utilizing both quantitative and qualitative approaches, the study assessed the strengths of selected components of the Mexican American ethnic medical system within the local community of Casper, Wyoming. Findings indicated that few local Hispanics adhered to much of the system, except in the realm of some easily available home remedies.…
Smith, Peter A. C.
Proposes that the objectives of strategic planning may be attained more effectively if implemented via a learning paradigm. In support of this claim, describes a case study detailing implementation of such an initiative plus post-implementation interviews. (Contains 5 figures.)
Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.
As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.
This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)
Jones, Jeffery C.; Webber, Charles F.
Principal succession is misunderstood and underutilized as a means of affecting dynamic renewal in school communities. Previously, the replacement of a principal was examined solely through the experiences of principals and teachers. This paper reports on a case study that added the previously neglected perspectives of students, support staff, and…
Coleman, Howard W.
This collection of case studies, based on factual situations which have challenged broadcast managers in recent years, is designed to stimulate thinking about and solving of "real world" problems in commercial radio and television operations. Topics of a serious, long-run nature include enlarging the radio audience; station revenue and economy;…
Teboul, J. C. Bruno
Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…
Mathematical Association of America, Washington, DC.
This collection of nine case studies in applied mathematics was written primarily for the use of the instructor by a Conference sponsored by the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics (CUPM). Each chapter contains exercises of varying degrees of difficulty and several include student projects. The materials were used on a trial…
Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail
This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…
Velasco Herrera, Graciela
A high forest fire season of two to three years is regularly observed each decade in Mexican forests. This seems to be related to the presence of the El Niño phenomenon and to the amount of total solar irradiance. In this study, the results of a multi-cross wavelet analysis are reported based on the occurrence of Mexican forest fires, El Niño and the total solar irradiance for the period 1970-2014. The analysis shows that Mexican forest fires and the strongest El Niño phenomena occur mostly around the minima of the solar cycle. This suggests that the total solar irradiance minima provide the appropriate climatological conditions for the occurrence of these forest fires. The next high season for Mexican forest fires could start in the next solar minimum, which will take place between the years 2017 and 2019. A complementary space analysis based on MODIS active fire data for Mexican forest fires from 2005 to 2014 shows that most of these fires occur in cedar and pine forests, on savannas and pasturelands, and in the central jungles of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena
Pain and suffering are deeply embedded in the ethos of Mexican American culture. Consequently, it is not surprising to find that many Mexican Americans turn to their faith in an effort to deal with the pain and suffering that arise in their lives. The purpose of the current study is to explore the interface between pain, suffering, religion, and health among older Mexican Americans. Three major themes emerged from in-depth qualitative interviews with 52 older Mexican Americans. The first is concerned with whether pain and suffering are a necessary part of religious life, the second has to do with the potential benefits that pain and suffering may provide, and the third involves whether it is necessary to bear pain and suffering in silence. In the process of reviewing these themes, an effort is made to show how they may be linked with the physical and mental health of older Mexican Americans. PMID:21415936
Morales, Alejandro; Yakushko, Oksana F.; Castro, Antonio J.
Language brokering (LB) is the act of translating and interpreting within immigrant families by children and adolescents for their parents, other family members, and other adults. Although LB is a common phenomenon among immigrant families in the United States, research regarding its impact on immigrant families mainly focuses on the experiences…
Meredith, Sandra; Burkle, Martha
E-learning has been an important topic for more than a decade, but the area is still evolving. The increased use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education systems, has major implications for instructors, learners and institutions. Ultimately, the goal, and the very nature of e-learning, is that a continuity of…
34Tendrdn Bibliotecas Especiales los Militares," El Universal, May 26, 1925, p. 1. 6 9 "Fuerza Armada Para Obligar a la Gente a que se Vacune," El...America," Newsweek, October 14, 1940, p. 41. "Tendrdn Bibliotecas Especiales los Militares," El Universal, May 26, 1925, p. 1. Dipsertations Michaels
Cuellar, Jose B.
Discusses Chicano social scientists' needs identified by Mario Barrera: to use methodological strategies and theoretical models emphasizing researcher's close contact with the people; to research the nature of social and political control systems as applicable to the Chicano community; to define the relations between social scientists and the…
Zavala, Blanca Arciga
For more than ten years, academics of public universities in Mexico have endured modernization programs that promote individual productivity and operate as a mechanism of selection and assessment. The implementation of the programs has exposed a tension between the values implicit in the programs and the values of the academic teachers. There is a…
Evans, Bronwynne C.; Belyea, Michael J.; Ume, Ebere
We know little about Mexican-American (MA) family adaptation to critical events in the informal caregiving experience but, in these days of economic and social turmoil, sons must sometimes step up to provide personal care for their aging mothers. This article compares two empirically real cases of MA males who provided such care, in lieu of a female relative. The cases are selected from a federally-funded, descriptive, longitudinal, mixed methods study of 110 MA caregivers and their care recipients. In case-oriented research, investigators can generate propositions (connected sets of statements) that reflect their findings and conclusions, and can be tested against subsequent cases: Caregiving strain and burden in MA males may have more to do with physical and emotional costs than financial ones; MA males providing personal care for their mothers adopt a matter-of-fact approach as they act “against taboo”; and this approach is a new way to fulfill family obligations. PMID:21643486
Mendoza Rincón, J F; Rodríguez Elias, A K; Fragoso, J M; Vargas Alarcón, G; Maldonado Murillo, K; Rivas Jiménez, M L; Barbosa Cobos, R E; Jimenez Morales, S; Lugo Zamudio, G; Tovilla Zárate, C; Ramírez Bello, J
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial disease. A combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributes to its etiology. Several genes have been reported to be associated with susceptibility to the development of RA. The MHC2TA and FCRL3 genes have been associated previously with RA in Swedish and Japanese populations, respectively. In two recent reports, we show an association between FCRL3 and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and MHC2TA and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Mexican population. We assessed the association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MHC2TA (-168G/A; rs3087456, and +16G/C; rs4774) and FCRL3 (-169T/C; rs7528684) genes and rheumatoid arthritis in Mexican population through a genotyping method using allelic discrimination assays with TaqMan probes. Our case-control study included 249 patients with RA and 314 controls. We found no evidence of an association between the MHC2TA -168G/A and +1614G/C or FCRL3 -169T/C polymorphisms and RA in this Mexican population. In this cohort of Mexican patients with RA, we observed no association between the MHC2TA or FCRL3 genes and this autoimmune disease.
De Luca, Stefano; Bautista, Josefina; Alemán, Inmaculada; Cameriere, Roberto
Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images of the canines, to observe the apposition of secondary dentine. The present study examines the application of this technique in a Mexican identified sample coming from the Department of Physical Anthropology of the INAH, at Mexico City. The main aim of this work is to test the reliability of this method in a skeletal sample of a specific population, different from the samples used for its development. The obtained regression model explained 96.2% of total variance (R(2) = 0.962) with a standard error of estimate of 1.909 and a standard deviation of 1.947. These results demonstrate great reliability and that the age/secondary dentine relationship is not variable in this specific population.
McCormick, Bryan P.
Reviews the rationale for and implications of case study research in therapeutic recreation, examining: what can be learned from studying a single case; issues of validity and reliability; ethical conduct of research; and the practice of case study research (case protocol, case selection, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, and…
Spradley, Katherine; Stull, Kyra E; Hefner, Joseph T
Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group. The excavation of a historic Hispanic cemetery in Tucson, Arizona, also allows for a comparison between historic Hispanics and recent migrants to explore craniofacial trends over a broad time period, as both groups originate from Mexico. The present research addresses two main questions: (1) Are cranial secular changes evident in recent Mexican migrants? (2) Are historic Hispanics and recent Mexican migrants similar? By studying secular changes within a migrant population group, secular trends may be detected, which will be important for understanding the biological variation of the migrants themselves and will serve as a preliminary investigation of secular change within Mexican migrants. The comparison of a sample of recent Mexican migrants with a historic Hispanic sample, predominantly of Mexican origin, allows us to explore morphological similarities and differences between early and recent Mexicans within the United States. Vault and face size and a total of 82 craniofacial interlandmark distances were used to explore secular changes within the recent Mexican migrants (females, n = 38; males, n = 178) and to explore the morphological similarities between historic Hispanics (females, n = 54; males, n = 58) and recent migrants. Sexes were separated, and multivariate adaptive regression splines and basis splines (quadratic with one knot) were used to assess the direction and magnitude
Tay, J; Schenone, H; Sánchez, J T; Robert, L
A thorough review of the medical literature is made regarding Chagas' disease in Mexico and elsewhere since 1939, when Trypanosoma cruzi was first reported in this country, until 1991. The location where human cases, non human reservoirs and vectors have been found and are pointed out by means of tables and charts. Comments are made regarding the results reported. The importance of increasing the studies of Chagas' disease in Mexican Republic is stressed.
Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Huang, Liling; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Dorantes-Alonso, Ana; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura
Objective To determine whether exposure to smoking imagery in films predicts smoking onset among never-smoking Mexican adolescents. Methods The analytic sample was comprised of 11- to 14-year old secondary school students who reported never having tried smoking at baseline, 83% (1741/2093) of whom were successfully followed up after one year. Exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking was assessed at baseline, whereas smoking behavior and risk factors were assessed at baseline and follow up. Logistic regression was used to estimate bivariate and adjusted relative risks of trying smoking and current smoking at follow up. Results At follow up, 36% reported having tried smoking and 8% reported having smoked in the previous month. Students who were successfully followed up were exposed to an average of 43.8 minutes of smoking in the films they reported viewing at baseline. Adjusted relative risks (ARRs) indicated that students in the two highest levels of exposure to film smoking were more than twice as likely to have smoked in the previous 30 days at follow up (ARR3v1=2.44, 95%CI 1.31, 4.55; ARR4v1=2.23, 95% CI 1.19, 4.17). The adjusted relative risk of having tried smoking by follow up reached statistical significance only when comparing the 3rd highest to the lowest exposure group (ARR3v1=1.54, 95%CI 1.01, 2.64). Having a parent or best friend who smoked at baseline were the only other variables that independently predicted both outcomes. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is a risk factor for smoking onset among Mexican youth. PMID:19959694
Dominguez, Graciela; And Others
Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…
This paper describes the careers of four notable Mexican American women, including their educational and family backgrounds, achievements, and importance as role models for young Hispanic women. Marie Acosta-Colon's political activism began as a college student volunteering for presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy in 1968. Active in political…
Gallo, Linda C.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Allison, Matthew; Roux, Ana Diez; Polak, Joseph F.; Watson, Karol E.; Morales, Leo S.
Objective Although socioeconomic position (SEP) shows a consistent, inverse relationship with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in westernized non-Hispanic white populations, the relationship in ethnic minorities, including Hispanics, is often weak or even reversed (i.e., worse health with higher SEP). In the current study, we examined whether the association between SEP and subclinical atherosclerosis in Mexican Americans would be moderated by acculturation. Methods Participants were 801 Hispanics of Mexican origin (49.6% female; average age 60.47 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort who underwent computed tomography of the chest for coronary artery calcium (CAC) and thoracic aortic calcium (TAC). SEP was represented by a composite of self-reported education and income. Acculturation was a composite score including language spoken at home, generation, and years of “exposure” to U.S. culture. Results Small, but statistically significant SEP by acculturation interaction effects were identified in relation to prevalent CAC, prevalent TAC, and extent of TAC (all p < .05). Follow-up analyses revealed that the direction of the SEP gradient on detectable CAC changed as individuals progressed from low to high acculturation. Specifically, the association between SEP and calcification was positive at low levels of acculturation (i.e., a “reversed” gradient), and negative in circumstances of high acculturation (i.e., the expected, protective effect of higher SEP). Conclusions The findings support the utility of examining SEP and acculturation simultaneously, and of disaggregating large ethnic groupings (e.g., “Hispanic”) into meaningful subgroups to better understand health risks. PMID:19661194
de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde-Torres, Pedro
We narrate the main stages of the long journey that led to the structuring of modern electrovectorcardiography based on the fundamentals established by Willem Einthoven (1860-1927), who held the physiology chair of the Leyden University (The Netherlands), and presented his string electrocardiograph in 1901. The Mexican electrovectorcardiography became strong thanks to the endeavor of Dr. Demetrio Sodi Pallares, a disciple of F.N. Wilson of Ann Arbor. Dr. Sodi Pallares founded the Mexican School of Electrovectorcardiography, which was a cornerstone in the field and was widely recognized internationally for several decades. This fact is due to the rational and not empirical approach to the electrical exploration of the heart, thanks to the application of the inductive-deductive Galilean procedure. It was then possible to obtain these results, through the study of myocardial depolarization and repolarization processes, under normal conditions and with bundle branch block, performed by Dr. Gustavo A. Medrano and collaborators, in the 1950 decade. The electrovectorcardiographic manifestations of the non complicated myocardial infarct were the object of studies, as well as those of the infarction complicated with rhythm and conduction disorders. Likewise, proximal and distal or peripheral blocks were studied. The current disciples of that School are now studying of cardiac arrhythmias with promising results.
AD__ _ _ _ Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8471 TITLE: A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sara S. Strom...Molecular Epidmeiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate DAMD17-98-1-8471 Cancer Susceptibility 6. AUTHOR(S) Sara S. Strom, Ph.D. Sue-Hwa Lin 7. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Although prostate cancer is the most common cancer in
Ramirez, M. D.; Ramirez, D. M.
The research translation and community outreach goal of The University of Arizona's (UA) Superfund Basic Research Program and U.S.-Mexico Binational Center for Environmental Sciences and Toxicology is to increase human capacity and information dissemination to diverse stakeholders, including federal, state, and local government agencies as well as northern Mexican and border community stakeholders. Due to Arizona's demographic characteristics and the UA's proximity to the U.S. - Mexico border, activities target primarily Mexican and Mexican-American populations. With this in mind, a model has been established that pulls from human capital, community-based participatory research and public participation theories. The theories applied to our target population have resulted in the creation of a successful model that is used in both research translation and community outreach work. The model contains four components: community needs (participation), science translation (information), engagement (outreach), and training (education). Examples of how this model operates for various stakeholders involved in environmental science and health issues will be discussed. A case in point of how this model has been applied effectively is the partnership with promotoras (community health advocates) to do environmental science and health trainings to increase the knowledge base of specific populations disproportionately exposed to contaminants of concern. Additional case studies and methodologies used to develop innovative communicative tools (that takes into consideration cultural idiosyncrasies) for stakeholders at all levels in Arizona, the border, and Mexico will be highlighted, such as: 1) information sheets regarding local environmental issues for communities neighboring contaminated sites, 2) SciTransfer Bulletins targeting professional level stakeholders such as Project Managers, Community Involvement Coordinators and the general public, 3) coordinating technical and
The current project sought to develop the Mexican Intercultural Competence Scale (MICS), which assesses group-specific skills and attributes that facilitate effective cultural interactions, among adults of Mexican descent. Study 1 involved an Exploratory Factor Analysis (N = 184) that identified five factors including Ambition/Perseverance, Networking, the Traditional Latino Culture, Family Relationships, and Communication. In Study 2, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis provided evidence for the 5-factor model for adults of Mexican origin living in the Midwest (N = 341) region of the U.S. The general findings are discussed in terms of a competence-based formulation of cultural adaptation and include theoretical and clinical implications.
The subject of this study is the more or less seasonal influx of Mexican (bracero) laborers to work in agriculture in California between 1942 and 1960. The migration began as a joint effort between the governments of Mexico and the United States to ease the manpower shortage created by World War II. Dire needs of these migrants, and their…
This purpose of this investigation is to explore the cultural challenges faced by Mexican immigrant students through the study of current literature. Four themes emerged as a result of the investigation: dominant pedagogy, educational skills, deficit model, and student identities. The themes are discussed and suggestions are made as to how these…
Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present.…
Adelman, Alan, Ed.; Salazar, Sylvia Ortega, Ed.
This guide for students interested in studying at Mexican universities covers 50 universities including all state universities, the National University of Mexico, as well as a representative selection of the leading private universities. Introductory material provides a brief history of Mexico, a discussion of differences from and similarities to…
Flores, Lisa Y.; Carrubba, Maria D.; Good, Glenn E.
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Feminist Identity Development Scale (FIDS) and the Attitudes Toward Feminism and the Womens Movement Scale (FWM) with 389 Mexican American 11th-grade and 12th-grade women. Results indicated internal consistency coefficients of .61, .62, .76, and .77 for the FIDS Passive Acceptance, Revelation,…
Perez, William; Espinoza, Roberta; Ramos, Karina; Coronado, Heidi; Cortes, Richard
This study examined the civic engagement of undocumented Mexican students. Civic engagement was defined as providing a social service, activism, tutoring, and functionary work. Survey data results (n = 126) suggest that despite high feelings of rejection because of their undocumented status, part-time employment, and household responsibilities,…
Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Spendlove, Stuart J.; Pemberton, Joy R.
There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for…
Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Angeles-Martínez, Javier; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Alvarez-León, Edith; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Ramírez-Bello, Julian; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Fragoso, José Manuel; Posadas-Romero, Carlos
Aim The role of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in the inflammatory process has caused interest in the potential significance of IL-17A as a biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of IL-17A gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for CAD in the Mexican population. Methods Four IL-17A gene polymorphisms (rs8193036, rs3819024, rs2275913 and rs8193037) were genotyped by 5’ exonuclease TaqMan assays in a group of 900 patients with premature CAD and 667 healthy controls (with negative calcium score by computed tomography), seeking associations with CAD and other metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Results No single IL-17A polymorphism was associated with premature CAD, however two haplotypes (CAGG and TAGA) were significantly associated with increased risk of premature CAD (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.00–1.84, P = 0.018 and OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.16–3.76, P = 0.003, respectively). Moreover, rs3819024 was associated with increased levels of visceral abdominal fat (P = 0.002) and rs8193036 was significantly associated with risk of central obesity (P = 0.020), hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.027), and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.027) in the premature CAD group, under dominant models adjusted by age, gender, BMI, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and treatment. Conclusion The results suggest that IL-17A haplotypes are involved in the risk of developing premature CAD and some IL-17A polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican individuals with premature CAD. PMID:25615631
Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S. ); Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L. )
This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand.
Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia
Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.
Paynter, Clara K.; Estrada, Diane
The clinical experience of a Euro-American female counselor-in-training providing bilingual family therapy services to Mexican immigrants is described. Cultural themes encountered when applying academic discourse to clinical work are raised in the context of case studies in which the student therapist works from a postmodern client-as-expert…
Parra, E. J.; Below, J. E.; Krithika, S.; Valladares, A.; Barta, J. L.; Cox, N. J.; Hanis, C. L.; Wacher, N.; Garcia-Mena, J.; Hu, P.; Shriver, M. D.; Kumate, J.; McKeigue, P. M.; Escobedo, J.; Cruz, M.
Aims/hypothesis We report a genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in an admixed sample from Mexico City and describe the results of a meta-analysis of this study and another genome-wide scan in a Mexican-American sample from Starr County, TX, USA. The top signals observed in this meta-analysis were followed up in the Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis Consortium (DIAGRAM) and DIAGRAM+ datasets. Methods We analysed 967 cases and 343 normoglycaemic controls. The samples were genotyped with the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP array 5.0. Associations of genotyped and imputed markers with type 2 diabetes were tested using a missing data likelihood score test. A fixed-effects meta-analysis including 1,804 cases and 780 normoglycaemic controls was carried out by weighting the effect estimates by their inverse variances. Results In the meta-analysis of the two Hispanic studies, markers showing suggestive associations (p<10−5) were identified in two known diabetes genes, HNF1A and KCNQ1, as well as in several additional regions. Meta-analysis of the two Hispanic studies and the recent DIAGRAM+ dataset identified genome-wide significant signals (p<5×10−8) within or near the genes HNF1A and CDKN2A/CDKN2B, as well as suggestive associations in three additional regions, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1 and the previously unreported C14orf70. Conclusions/interpretation We observed numerous regions with suggestive associations with type 2 diabetes. Some of these signals correspond to regions described in previous studies. However, many of these regions could not be replicated in the DIAGRAM datasets. It is critical to carry out additional studies in Hispanic and American Indian populations, which have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21573907
Nahleh, Zeina; Otoukesh, Salman; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Sanchez, Luis; Saldivar, J Salvador; Cataneda, Kayla; Heydarian, Rosalinda
Hispanics in El Paso, TX, a large American-Mexican border city constitute 85% of the population. Limited cancer research has been conducted in this population. We sought to study the prevalence of BRCA mutations among Hispanic patients of Mexican origin, identify reported Mexican founder or recurrent mutations, and study the breast cancer characteristics in mutation carriers. Methods: Hispanic women of Mexican descent with a personal history of breast cancer, who presented consecutively for genetic cancer risk assessment, were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved registry and underwent BRCA testing based on national guidelines. The characteristics of tumors and patients with positive BRCA mutation were analyzed. Results: 88 patients were screened; 18 patients (20%) were BRCA carriers. Among BRCA carriers, 72% were diagnosed with breast cancer at younger than 50 years, 61% had “Triple negative disease”. BRCA carriers had a significantly higher Body Mass Index (BMI) than non-carriers. Thirteen patients had BRCA1 mutations and five had BRCA2 mutations. A total of 17 deleterious BRCA Mutations were observed. Seven have been previously reported as specific genes from Mexico as country of origin. Five new mutations in BRCA carriers of Mexican descent were identified. Conclusion: Hispanic breast cancer patients of Mexican origin present at a younger age, and have predominantly triple negative tumors and high BMI. We identified 5 new mutations not reported previously in Hispanic BRCA carriers of Mexican descent. Interestingly, 41% of BRCA mutations identified have been reported as recurrent mutations in Hispanic individuals from Mexico as the country of origin. A more cost-effective approach to initial screening of Hispanic individuals based on country of origin is desirable and would potentially decrease the number of cases requiring complete sequencing. PMID:25628955
Kennedy, Mary M.
Although single case studies might be useful to evaluators for a variety of purposes, there are no generally accepted ways for drawing inferences about the generality of findings from a case study. Single case studies are defined in this paper as either studies of single events, or disaggregated studies of multiple events. The data may be…
A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…
Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.
The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.
Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia
Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.
Hinkelman, Jeanne M.
Mexican women tend to have limited access to medical and mental health care resources. Some of the common clinical issues experienced by Mexican woman are psychological conflict, depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms. Appropriate treatment approaches for therapy varies depending on the nature of the presenting problem. If clinical issues…
Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S
The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial
Rosales-Castillo, J Alberto; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Torres, Rosantina; Ochoa-Fierro, Jesús; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Gurrola, Georgina B; Cebrian, Mariano E; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S
We assessed the relationships between chronic arsenic (As) exposure, human papilloma virus (HPV) contact and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) by means of a dermatology clinic-based case-control study (42 cases and 48 controls) in Region Lagunera, Mexico, where chronic As poisoning is endemic. Exposure was determined through detailed history of residence in the As-contaminated area and measurement of As levels in drinking water and urine. We used a consensus epitope from the central region of L1 protein of the HPV family to determine antibodies against HPV. A history of As exposure and HPV seropositivity were associated with increased NMSC risks. A history of exposure to high levels of As increased the risk for NMSC (OR = 4.53; P = 0.11) in the group of seronegative HPV patients. A positive response to HPV significantly increased the OR for NMSC to 9.04 (P = 0.01) when history showed exposure to low levels of As. Interestingly, the OR was significantly increased to 16.5 (P = 0.001) when both exposure to high levels of As and HPV seropositivity were present. In addition, the presence of NMSC increased the OR (5.45; P = 0.03) for a positive response to HPV when history showed exposure to low levels of As, but the OR was increased to 8.0 (P = 0.005) in the cases with high exposure levels. Thus, HPV infection could constitute an additional risk factor for NMSC development in humans chronically exposed to As. However, further studies with additional populations are needed to determine the interaction between HPV and As exposure in NMSC.
Despite recent science education reform documents citing evolution as a core concept to be taught in grades K-12, research shows problems with how it is currently taught. Evolution is often avoided, teachers minimize its importance within biology, infuse misconceptions, and/or interject non-scientific ideologies into lessons. My research focused on how teachers in two geographically and culturally distinct school districts in the southwestern U.S. negotiate dilemmas during an evolution unit. One school district was rural and had a large population of Mormon students, while the other district was urban, with a large majority Mexican/Mexican-American students. Using a case study approach, I observed three biology teachers during their evolution lessons, interviewed them throughout the unit, co-planned lessons with them, and collected artifacts from this unit, including anonymous student work. I also included data from four genetics lessons for each teacher to determine if the issues that arose during the evolution unit were a result of the general practice of the teacher, or if they were unique to evolution. Findings showed teachers' backgrounds and comfort levels with evolution, in addition to their perceptions of community context, affected how they negotiated pedagogical, conceptual, political, and cultural dilemmas. This study's findings will inform in-service teachers' future practice and professional development tools to aid with their teaching---this may include methods to negotiate some of the political (e.g. state standards) or cultural (e.g. religious resistance) issues inherent to teaching evolution.
Franco, Wendy; Hsu, Wei-Yea; Simonne, Amarat H
Mexican red salsa is one of the most common side dishes in Mexican cuisine. According to data on foodborne illnesses collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, salsa was associated with 70 foodborne illness outbreaks between 1990 and 2006. Salsa ingredients such as tomatoes, cilantro, and onions often have been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks. Mexican-style restaurants commonly prepare a large batch of red salsa, store it at refrigeration temperatures, and then serve it at room temperature. Salmonella is one of the top etiologies in foodborne illness outbreaks associated with salsa, and our preliminary studies revealed the consistent presence of Staphylococcus aureus in restaurant salsa. In the present study, we evaluated the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus inoculated into restaurant-made salsa samples stored at ambient (20 degrees C) and refrigeration (4 degrees C) temperatures. These test temperature conditions represent best-case and worst-case scenarios in restaurant operations. Salmonella survived in all samples stored at room temperature, but S. aureus populations significantly decreased after 24 h of storage at room temperature. No enterotoxin was detected in samples inoculated with S. aureus at 6.0 log CFU/g. Both microorganisms survived longer in refrigerated samples than in samples stored at room temperature. Overall, both Salmonella and S. aureus survived a sufficient length of time in salsa to pose a food safety risk.
Fimmen, Carol; Witthuhn, Burton; Crump, Jeff; Brunn, Michael; Delaney-Barmann, Gloria; Riggins, Debi; Gutierrez, Maria; Schabilion, Dan; Watters, Britta
This paper examines the growth and characteristics of the Hispanic population in Illinois and presents a case study of how a rural Illinois community and its schools are adapting to an influx of mostly Mexican immigrants. The first section discusses Mexican immigration to Illinois during the 1900s and provides racial/ethnic data on population…
Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Pearce, Neil
The purpose of this article is to present in elementary mathematical and statistical terms a simple way to quickly and effectively teach and understand case-control studies, as they are commonly done in dynamic populations-without using the rare disease assumption. Our focus is on case-control studies of disease incidence ('incident case-control studies'); we will not consider the situation of case-control studies of prevalent disease, which are published much less frequently.
Roche, Kathleen M; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia
Given educational risks facing Mexican-origin children of immigrant parents, it is important to understand how aspects of the acculturation process influence Mexican-origin youth's educational success. Drawing from selective assimilation theory, this study examined how cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation were associated with the educational attainment of second-generation Mexican immigrant youth. The sample included 755 Mexican-origin youth (50% female) in the "Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study." Results from structural equation models indicated that youth reporting greater facility in the English language and a stronger value on familism attained higher levels of education in young adulthood than did other youth. Parents' U.S. social ties and youth's value on early paid work were associated with less educational attainment. Innovative findings from this study indicate the importance of considering both Mexican and American cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation for understanding second-generation immigrant Mexican youth's educational attainment.
The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.
Ludwig, Edward W., Ed.; Santibanez, James, Ed.
Articles, fiction, and poetry that form a picture of Chicano life today are presented in this anthology of writings about Mexican Americans. Included are reminiscences of Mexican American childhood, accounts of Chicanos in the American school system, reports on strikes by Chicano workers, and poems and stories that reflect the hard realities of…
Mendoza, Joe I.
A well-acculturated migrant education program director reminisces about his Mexican upbringing in the United States, noting the persistence of his cultural heritage and the scars left by acts of segregation, prejudice, and racism. It is important for Mexican Americans to recognize that they are a unique group at a crossroads. They are not all…
Delta Pi Epsilon, Minneapolis, Minn. Phi Chapter.
This publication contains 58 case studies for classroom use in teaching various business and consumer education subjects at the high school level. A supplement to a previous Phi Chapter publication, "Office Education Case Studies" (1973), the case studies are intended to create class discussions and help students acquire the ability to analyze…
Yin, Robert K.
In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…
Ferrando, Juan; Mir-Bonafé, José M.; Cepeda-Valdés, Rodrigo; Domínguez, Anna; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; García-Veigas, Javier; Gómez-Flores, Minerva; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.
Background: Trichothiodistrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is characterized by a specific congenital hair shaft dysplasia caused by deficiency of sulfur associated with a wide spectrum of multisystem abnormalities. In this article, we study clinical, microscopic, and ultrastructural findings of 20 patients with TTD with the aim to add further insights regarding to this rare condition. Additionally, analyses of our results are compared with those extracted from the literature in order to enhance its comprehensibility. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of TTD were included: 7 from Mexico and 14 from Spain. Clinical, microscopic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies and X-ray microanalysis (XrMa) were carried out in all of them. Genetic studies were performed in all seven Mexican cases. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and xeroderma pigmentosum/TTD-complex were excluded. Results: Cuticular changes and longitudinal crests of the hair shaft were demonstrated. These crests were irregular, disorganized, following the hair longest axis. Hair shaft sulfur deficiency was disposed discontinuously and intermittently rather than uniformly. This severe decrease of sulfur contents was located close to the trichoschisis areas. Only five patients did not show related disturbances. Micro-dolichocephaly was observed in five cases and represented the most frequent facial dysmorphism found. It is also remarkable that all patients with urologic malformations also combined diverse neurologic disorders. Moreover, three Mexican sisters demonstrated the coexistence of scarce pubic vellus hair, developmental delay, onychodystrophy, and maxillar/mandibullar hypoplasia. Conclusions: TTD phenotype has greatly varied from very subtle forms to severe alterations such as neurologic abnormalities, blindness, lamellar ichthyosis and gonadal malformations. Herein, a multisystem study should be performed mandatorily in patients diagnosed with TTD. PMID:23180925
Patiño-Rodríguez, Omar; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Torres-Roque, Irma; Martínez-Delgado, Maricela; Mares-García, América Susana; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Covarrubias-Pinedo, Amador; Arzola-Paniagua, Angélica; Herrera-Torres, José Luis
Several clinical trials have substantiated the efficacy of the co-administration of statins like atorvastatin (ATO) and fibrates. Without information currently available about the interaction between the two drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effect when both drugs were co-administered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tablets containing ATO 20 mg, or the combination of ATO 20 mg with fenofibrate (FNO) 160 mg administered to healthy Mexican volunteers. This was a randomized, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study; 36 eligible subjects aged between 20–50 years were included. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) were measured for ATO as the reference and ATO and FNO as the test product for bioequivalence design. The estimation computed (90% confidence intervals) for ATO and FNO combination versus ATO for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, were 102,09, 125,95, and 120,97%, respectively. These results suggest that ATO and FNO have no relevant clinical-pharmacokinetic drug interaction. PMID:25688207
Ballinas-Verdugo, Martha; Reyes, Pedro Antonio; Mejia-Dominguez, Ana; López, Ruth; Matta, Vivian; Monteón, Victor M
Thirteen Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from different geographic regions of Mexico and Guatemala belonging to discrete typing unit (DTU) I and a reference CL-Brener (DTU VI) strain were used to perform enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A panel of 57 Mexican serum samples of patients with chronic chagasic cardiopathy and asymptomatic infected subjects (blood bank donors) were used in this study. DNA from the above 14 T. cruzi strains were extracted and analyzed by PCR using different sets of primers designed from minicircle and satellite T. cruzi DNA. The chronic chagasic cardiopathy serum samples were easily recognized with ELISA regardless of the source of antigenic extract used, even with the CL-Brener TcVI, but positive serum samples from blood bank donors in some cases were not recognized by some Mexican antigenic extracts. On the other hand, PCR showed an excellent performance despite the set of primers used, since all Mexican and Guatemalan T. cruzi strains were correctly amplified. In general terms, Mexican, Guatemalan, and CL-Brener T. cruzi strains are equally good sources of antigen when using the ELISA test to detect Mexican serum samples. However, there are some strains with poor performance. The DTU I strains are easily detected using either kinetoplast or satellite DNA target designed from DTU VI strains.
Sánchez-Armáss, Omar; Barabasz, Arreed F
Normative data for the Mexican adaptation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) are presented. Twenty-seven raters administered the scale to 513 Mexican volunteers. Score distribution, item analysis, and reliability of the SHSS:C are presented and compared to other international norming studies. The findings show that the Mexican adaptation of the SHSS:C has psychometric properties essentially comparable to those of the Dutch, German, Italian, and United States reference samples. However, the elevated sample mean suggests Mexicans may have an elevated ability to engage in hypnotic behavior, thus they would likely be especially good candidates for hypnotherapeutic interventions that would better the health options currently available.
Tack, E; De Cuypere, G; Jannes, C; Remouchamps, A
A case is presented of a young woman with a serious addiction to levodopa who over the years developed an extrapyramidal syndrome and chronic paranoid psychotic behaviour. The possible pathophysiological mechanism is discussed.
This article is a study of the mystical and apocalyptic dimensions of Teresa Urrea. As explained in this article, Urrea’s mystical experiences and visions are unique for their connection with a propheticapocalyptic and political worldview. This apocalyptic dimension is more than a communication of a hidden message or spiritual world; it also includes a reading of history that is catastrophic and discontinuous. The crisis and terror of history are given expression in Urrea’s mystical and apocalyptic pronouncements. In particular, the chaotic and oppressive circumstances of Mexican society during the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz was confronted and denounced in Urrea’s mystical and apocalyptic ministry. This apocalyptic healer castigated those culpable or even complicit with the injustices affecting the indigenous communities of Mexico during the late nineteenth century. In the case of Urrea, the transformation and healing of Church and society was an important aspect of her spiritual, healing powers. Because Urrea possessed neither arms nor the weapon of the pen, her sole weapon became her mystical experiences and the insight and healing powers that flowed from them. People of Mexico—especially indigenous groups—began to flock to her hoping that she would bring God’s presence to the troubled and chaotic circumstances of their lives. Her compassion and tenderness for the afflicted as well as the apocalyptic expectations that she stirred up among the indigenous groups of Northern Mexico were enough to get this mystical-political Mexican mestiza exiled from her homeland.
Kantar, Lina D.
Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…
Nair, Rajni L; White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H
Studies of stress consistently have linked individuals' experiences of stress to maladjustment, but limited attention has been given to cultural stressors commonly experienced by minority individuals. To address this, the current study examined the links between cultural stressors and prospective changes in mental health symptoms in a sample of 710 (49 % female) Mexican American youth. In addition, the moderating role of both family and neighborhood cohesion was examined. In-home interviews were completed with youth, mothers (required) and fathers (optional) to collect data on youth's experiences of cultural stressors (discrimination and language hassles) and internalizing/externalizing behavior, and mothers' report of family cohesion and mothers' and fathers' report of neighborhood cohesion. Analyses revealed that youth's experiences of discrimination and language hassles at 5th grade were related positively to increases in internalizing symptoms at 7th grade. Additionally, youths who reported higher levels of language hassles in 5th grade experienced increases in externalizing symptoms across the 2-year span. Both family and neighborhood cohesion emerged as significant moderating factors but their impact was conditional on youth's gender and nativity. Limitations and future implications are discussed.
Brown, Eric L.; Below, Jennifer E.; Fischer, Rebecca S. B.; Essigmann, Heather T.; Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad; Robinson, D. Ashley; Petty, Lauren E.; Aguilar, David; Bell, Graeme I.; Hanis, Craig L.
Staphylococcus aureus is the number one cause of hospital-acquired infections. Understanding host pathogen interactions is paramount to the development of more effective treatment and prevention strategies. Therefore, whole exome sequence and chip-based genotype data were used to conduct rare variant and genome-wide association analyses in a Mexican-American cohort from Starr County, Texas to identify genes and variants associated with S. aureus nasal carriage. Unlike most studies of S. aureus that are based on hospitalized populations, this study used a representative community sample. Two nasal swabs were collected from participants (n = 858) 11–17 days apart between October 2009 and December 2013, screened for the presence of S. aureus, and then classified as either persistent, intermittent, or non-carriers. The chip-based and exome sequence-based single variant association analyses identified 1 genome-wide significant region (KAT2B) for intermittent and 11 regions suggestively associated with persistent or intermittent S. aureus carriage. We also report top findings from gene-based burden analyses of rare functional variation. Notably, we observed marked differences between signals associated with persistent and intermittent carriage. In single variant analyses of persistent carriage, 7 of 9 genes in suggestively associated regions and all 5 top gene-based findings are associated with cell growth or tight junction integrity or are structural constituents of the cytoskeleton, suggesting that variation in genes associated with persistent carriage impact cellular integrity and morphology. PMID:26569114
Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Orlander, Philip R; Hanis, Craig L
Objectives: Studies of social support in diabetes have focused on the effects of support on the person with type 2 diabetes. We explored diabetes prevention effects of a culturally tailored diabetes self-management intervention in individuals without diabetes who were supporters of intervention participants. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial that involved 256 Mexican Americans with diabetes. Each study participant designated a supporter—spouse, relative, friend—who attended intervention sessions and assisted participants in attaining effective diabetes self-management. Supporter’s glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) data were tracked for 1 year to determine diabetes conversion rates in supporters without diabetes at baseline. Results: Fewer individuals in the intervention group (n = 9) converted to an A1C above the 7% threshold, compared to the 1-year wait-listed control group (n = 16). We found a statistically significant difference (p = .021) at 12 months in the number of individuals whose A1C was ⩽8%, with fewer supporters above threshold in the intervention group (reduction of 48%). Supporters in the intervention group with prediabetes, based on baseline A1C, experienced a slight reduction in A1C, while control group supporters with prediabetes experienced an increase. Discussion: The results suggest that there are potential benefits for family members and other supporters of persons with diabetes who participated in diabetes self-management programs. PMID:28228947
Nair, Rajni L; White, Rebecca. M. B.; Zeiders, Katherine. H.; Roosa, Mark W.
Studies of stress consistently have linked individuals’ experiences of stress to maladjustment, but limited attention has been given to cultural stressors commonly experienced by minority individuals. To address this, the current study examined the links between cultural stressors and prospective changes in mental health symptoms in a sample of 710 (49% female) Mexican American youth. In addition, the moderating role of both family and neighborhood cohesion was examined. In-home interviews were completed with youth, mothers (required) and fathers (optional) to collect data on youth’s experiences of cultural stressors (discrimination and language hassles) and internalizing/externalizing behavior, and mothers’ report of family cohesion and mothers’ and fathers’ report of neighborhood cohesion. Analyses revealed that youth’s experiences of discrimination and language hassles at 5th grade were related positively to increases in internalizing symptoms at 7th grade. Additionally, youths who reported higher levels of language hassles in 5th grade experienced increases in externalizing symptoms across the 2-year span. Both family and neighborhood cohesion emerged as significant moderating factors but their impact was conditional on youth’s gender and nativity. Limitations and future implications are discussed. PMID:23111841
Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K; Diáz-Loving, Rolando
This study examined psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (MSI-R) in a sample of 71 Spanish-speaking couples in Mexico. Results from this sample were compared to findings obtained from 65 Mexican American couples who completed the MSI-R in Spanish. Both the internal consistency and factor structure of the Spanish MSI-R with Mexican couples were found to be comparable to findings on the Spanish MSI-R for Mexican American couples. Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated no significant mean profile differences between these two groups as a function of nationality, gender, or nationality-by-gender interaction. These findings offer initial evidence toward establishing the appropriateness of the Spanish MSI-R for use with Spanish-dominant Mexican couples.
This book is designed as a resource for educators who teach business content in a variety of instructional settings. It contains case studies representing all functional areas of business, including corporate training, for grades 7 through graduate education. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the case study method. The history of the case method,…
Introduction Autoantibodies to RNA helicase A (RHA) were reported as a new serological marker of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with early stage of the disease. Anti-RHA and other autoantibodies in Mexican SLE patients and their correlation with clinical and immunological features were examined. Methods Autoantibodies in sera from 62 Mexican SLE patients were tested by immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled K562 cell extract and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (anti-U1RNP/Sm, ribosomal P, β2GPI, and dsDNA). Anti-RHA was screened based on the immunoprecipitation of the 140-kDa protein, the identity of which was verified by Western blot using rabbit anti-RHA serum. Clinical and immunological characteristics of anti-RHA-positive patients were analyzed. Results Anti-RHA was detected in 23% (14/62) of patients, a prevalence higher than that of anti-Sm (13%, 8/62). Prevalence and levels of various autoantibodies were not clearly different between anti-RHA (+) vs. (-) cases, although there was a trend of higher levels of anti-RHA antibodies in patients without anti-U1RNP/Sm (P = 0.07). Both anti-RHA and -Sm were common in cases within one year of diagnosis; however, the prevalence and levels of anti-RHA in patients years after diagnosis did not reduce dramatically, unlike a previous report in American patients. This suggests that the high prevalence of anti-RHA in Mexican patients may be due to relatively stable production of anti-RHA. Conclusions Anti-RHA was detected at high prevalence in Mexican SLE patients. Detection of anti-RHA in races in which anti-Sm is not common should be clinically useful. Racial difference in the clinical significance of anti-RHA should be clarified in future studies. PMID:20064217
White, Kari L.; Potter, Joseph E.
BACKGROUND Mexican women in the United States (US) have higher rates of fertility compared to other ethnic groups and women in Mexico. Whether variation in women’s access to family planning services or patterns of contraceptive use contributes to this higher fertility has received little attention. OBJECTIVE We explore Mexican women’s contraceptive use, taking into account women’s place in the reproductive life course. METHODS Using nationally representative samples from the US (National Survey of Family Growth) and Mexico (Encuesta National de la Dinámica Demográfica), we compared the parity-specific frequency of contraceptive use and fertility intentions for non-migrant women, foreign-born Mexicans in the US, US-born Mexicans, and whites. RESULTS Mexican women in the US were less likely to use IUDs and more likely to use hormonal contraception than women in Mexico. Female sterilization was the most common method among higher parity women in both the US and Mexico, however, foreign-born Mexicans were less likely to be sterilized, and the least likely to use any permanent contraceptive method. Although foreign-born Mexicans were slightly less likely to report that they did not want more children, differences in method use remained after controlling for women’s fertility intentions. CONCLUSION At all parities, foreign-born Mexicans used less effective methods. These findings suggest that varying access to family planning services may contribute to variation in women’s contraceptive use. COMMENTS Future studies are needed to clarify the extent to which disparities in fertility result from differences in contraceptive access. PMID:26146485
Villarreal, Bernardo; Salido, Lucy
A fundamental challenge of globally competing companies is to increase their level of customer satisfaction, by devising and implementing strategies aimed at providing better price, quality, and service. This paper describes the efforts of a Mexican company to achieve this goal, and in particular, with the need to decrease order lead time…
Melancon, Jim; Oomen-Early, Jody; del Rincon, Lydia M.
The primary purpose of this mixed-methods study was two-fold: first, to assess diabetes knowledge, attitudes, disease management and self efficacy among a sample of Mexican American (MA) and Mexican-Native (MN) adults living in North Texas; and second, to determine factors which promote or deter diabetes prevention and management using…
Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Barker, Judith C; Unutzer, Jurgen; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Johnson, Megan Dwight; Tran, Cindy; Guarnaccia, Peter; Hinton, Ladson
Older men are less likely than older women to receive depression treatment. Latino older men in particular have been found to have significantly lower rates of depression treatment than their white-non-Mexican (WNM) counterparts. Prior research has shown that men are less likely than women to express overt affect and/or report depression symptoms that may prompt primary care physicians' inquiry about depression. Previous studies have overlooked the idioms of distress common among older men. This study investigates: a) the range of idioms of distress that emerge in the narratives of depressed older men, and b) the use of these idioms among depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older men. The present report is based on qualitative data collected through the Men's Health and Aging Study (MeHAS), a mixed-method study of clinically depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older (65 and above) men recruited in primary care settings. Qualitative analysis of 77 interviews led to identification of idioms of distress and informed idiom categories. Study findings show that: a) both groups of men utilized a range of idioms of distress that met current DSM criteria for depression, b) both groups were also likely to utilize idioms that feel outside clinical depression criteria, and c) there were similarities as well as differences between WNM and Mexican-origin men. This study provides a larger vocabulary that clinicians might consider in recognizing depression and initiating depression care for older men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. This is important to improve depression care among older men in general and those of Mexican-origin in particular.
Wagner, Fred; Roberts, Dave; Francfort, Jim; White, Sera
Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs
Thapar, R B; Jha, V U; Mehta, R U; Shah, G R
The urachus, or median umbilical ligament, is a midline tubular structure that extends upward from the anterior dome of the bladder toward, the umbilicus and represents the vestigial remnant of at least two embryonic structures, the cloaca and the allantois. The tubular urachus normally involutes before birth, remaining as a fibrous band, however its persistence can give rise to various clinical problems, not only in infants and children but also in adults. We report two cases of pyourachus at our institute with a review of the clinical presentation, imaging findings and surgical management. Both our patients were young males, with haematuria being the presenting feature in one case which has not been previously described in literature.
Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei
Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…
McLean, Gary N.
Eight case studies appropriate for use in a course in management development were prepared and are provided in this document. The typical case describes a real business situation in which a real manager had to reach a decision. The case gives quantitative and qualitative information that is, or may be, relevant to that decision. Questions for…
Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O
We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.
Espinoza, Russ K E; Willis-Esqueda, Cynthia
Racial bias in legal decision making has been given considerable attention over the past few decades, focusing mainly on African Americans to the exclusion of other minority groups. The purpose of this study was to address the dearth of research examining bias against Mexican American defendants. Two hundred forty-seven participants read through a trial transcript that varied defendant race/ethnicity (Mexican American or European American), defense attorney race/ethnicity (Mexican American or European American), and defendant socioeconomic status (SES; low or high [upper middle class]). Dependent measures included verdict, sentencing, culpability ratings, and trait assessments. Bias against Mexican American defendants occurred most when the Mexican American defendant was of low SES and represented by a Mexican American defense attorney. In addition, attorneys representing low-SES Mexican American defendants were perceived as less competent and rated lower on a number of trait measures. Limitations, applications, and future directions are discussed.
Breslau, Joshua; Su, Maxwell; Miller, Matthew; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio
Objectives. We examined migration to the United States as a risk factor for suicidal behavior among people of Mexican origin. Methods. We pooled data from 2 nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001–2003; n = 1284) and Mexico (2001–2002; n = 5782). We used discrete time survival models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics, including psychiatric disorders. Results. Risk for suicidal ideation was higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 2.11), Mexican-born immigrants who arrived in the United States at 12 years or younger (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.09, 3.09), and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.03, 2.38) than among Mexicans with neither a history of migration to the United States nor a family member currently living there. Risk for suicide attempts was also higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.52) and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.65). Selection bias caused by differential migration or differential return migration of persons at higher risk of suicidal ideation or attempt did not account for these findings. Conclusions. Public health efforts should focus on the impact of Mexico–US migration on family members of migrants and on US-born Mexican Americans. PMID:19150909
EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred
Felix-López, Xóchitl Adriana; Argüello-García, Raúl; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Peñaloza-Espinoza, Rosenda I; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; Estrada-Mena, Francisco Javier; Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Gómez, Fabio Salamanca; Arenas-Aranda, Diego Julio
The (CGG)n repeat size distribution in the FMR1 gene was studied in healthy individuals: 80 X chromosomes of Mexican Mestizos from Mexico City and 33 X chromosomes of Mexican Amerindians from three indigenous communities (Purepechas, Nahuas, and Tzeltales), along with alleles and haplotypes defined by two microsatellite polymorphic markers (DXS548 and FRAXAC1) and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (FMRA and FMRB). Genetic frequencies of Mestizo and Amerindian subpopulations were statistically similar in almost all cases and thus were considered one population for comparisons with other populations. Sixteen (CGG)n alleles in the 17-38 size range were observed, and the most common were the 25 (38.0%), 26 (28.3%), and 24 (12.3%) repeat alleles. This pattern differs from most other populations reported, but a closer relation to Amerindian, European, and African populations was found, as expected from the historical admixture that gave rise to Mexican Mestizos. The results of the CA repeats analysis at DXS548-FRAXAC1 were restricted to nine haplotypes, of which haplotypes 7-4 (52.2%), 8-4 (23.8%), and 7-3 (11.5%) were predominant. The modal haplotype 7-4, instead of the nearly universal haplotype 7-3, had been reported exclusively in Eastern Asian populations. Likewise, only seven different FRAXAC1-FMRA-FMRB haplotypes were observed, including five novel haplotypes (3TA, 4TA, 3 - A, 4 - A, and 5 - A), compared with Caucasians. Of these, haplotypes - A (78.7%) and 3 - A (13.2%) were the most common in the Mexican population. These data suggest a singular but relatively low genetic diversity at FMR1 in the studied Mexican populations that may be related to the recent origin of Mestizos and the low admixture rate of Amerindians.
Hall, Matthew; Stringfield, Jonathan
This study uses data from the 2000 Census and 2005–2009 American Community Survey to examine the impact of undocumented Mexican migration to new destinations on residential segregation between Mexican immigrants and native-born whites and native-born blacks. We find that Mexican-white and Mexican-black segregation is higher in new Mexican gateways than in established areas and that, for Mexican-immigrant segregation from whites, this heightened level of residential segregation in new destinations can be explained by the high presence of unauthorized Mexican immigrants living there which tends to bolster segregation between the two groups. By contrast, Mexican-immigrant segregation from native-born blacks tends to be lower in areas with larger undocumented populations, a pattern that is especially true in new destinations. Neither of these opposing effects of legal status on Mexican-immigrant segregation can be explained by compositional differences in assimilation (English ability and earnings) between documented and undocumented immigrants nor by structural variation in metropolitan areas, suggesting a unique association between legal status and segregation. PMID:24913945
Carnevale, A; Lisker, R; Villa, A R; Armendares, S
Prenatal diagnosis (PD) provides the physician information on whether the unborn fetus has a genetic or chromosomal disorder, and offers patients a new option: selective abortion. In the present study, we analyzed the answers Mexican geneticists provided to a few selected questions from a multinational survey designed by Wertz and Fletcher [1988: Am J Hum Genet 42:592-600]. The selected questions were related to the use of PD, the acceptance of selective abortion, and the self-reported directiveness of counselling following the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. Our results show that the great majority of Mexican geneticists participating in the study agree with PD when medically indicated, but not on free demand. Specific cases stimulated the group on thinking more than the general statements provided in the survey. Although the majority agreed that PD should be available to all women, when faced with cases of nonmorbid maternal anxiety, paternity testing, and sex selection, the proportion of geneticists willing to perform the test decreased substantially. When counselling patients on a fetal anomaly, the minority would be as unbiased as possible, and this seems to be the tendency in developing countries where counselling, as stated in the respondents' comments, reflects the belief that the goal of genetics is the prevention of or opposition to abortion. Counselling was influenced by the severity of the disorder. The geneticists' personal attitude toward abortion in the same situations was stronger than when counselling others. Analysis of directiveness in counselling for fetal anomaly showed that older geneticists, with more years of experience in medical genetics, were more likely to be neutral. When counselling directively, the group showed an overall direction toward continuing affected pregnancies. However, older geneticists and those with more than 10 years of practice were more likely than their younger counterparts to counsel towards terminating affected
Vergara, J. David; Garcia-Compean, H.
In this paper we summarize the Mexican contributions to the subject of Noncommutative theories. These contributions span several areas: Quantum Groups, Noncommutative Field Theories, Hopf algebra of renormalization, Deformation Quantization, Noncommutative Gravity, and Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics.
Macias, Nayeli; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E
Background The study of body composition in specific populations by techniques such as bio-impedance analysis (BIA) requires validation based on standard reference methods. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate a predictive equation for bioelectrical impedance using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as standard method to measure body composition in Mexican adult men and women. Methods This study included 155 male and female subjects from northern Mexico, 20–50 years of age, from low, middle, and upper income levels. Body composition was measured by ADP. Body weight (BW, kg) and height (Ht, cm) were obtained by standard anthropometric techniques. Resistance, R (ohms) and reactance, Xc (ohms) were also measured. A random-split method was used to obtain two samples: one was used to derive the equation by the "all possible regressions" procedure and was cross-validated in the other sample to test predicted versus measured values of fat-free mass (FFM). Results and Discussion The final model was: FFM (kg) = 0.7374 * (Ht2 /R) + 0.1763 * (BW) - 0.1773 * (Age) + 0.1198 * (Xc) - 2.4658. R2 was 0.97; the square root of the mean square error (SRMSE) was 1.99 kg, and the pure error (PE) was 2.96. There was no difference between FFM predicted by the new equation (48.57 ± 10.9 kg) and that measured by ADP (48.43 ± 11.3 kg). The new equation did not differ from the line of identity, had a high R2 and a low SRMSE, and showed no significant bias (0.87 ± 2.84 kg). Conclusion The new bioelectrical impedance equation based on the two-compartment model (2C) was accurate, precise, and free of bias. This equation can be used to assess body composition and nutritional status in populations similar in anthropometric and physical characteristics to this sample. PMID:17697388
Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N
Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749
Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.
From 1939 to 1973, nine million persons immigrated to the United States from "all of the countries of the world". During that same period more than seven million illegal Mexican aliens were apprehended and deported to Mexico. Most of these illegal aliens enter the U.S. economy as workers, whereas almost half of the legal Mexican…
Aranda, Robert G.; And Others
Some 26 Mexican American families of East Los Angeles having children in Head Start responded to a questionnaire gathering data on birthplace, family income, number of individuals in the home, and pregnancy history of the mothers. Questionnaire results recorded in this document indicate that 46% of the mothers and 35% of the fathers were born in…
In 2004, a low pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus was identified in a psittacine bird for the first time in the United States. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene grouped the parrot isolate under the Mexican lineage H5N2 viruses (Subgroup B) with highest similarity to recent c...
Haffner, S M; Mitchell, B D; Stern, M P; Hazuda, H P
Mexican Americans have a threefold greater prevalence of non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus than non-Hispanic whites in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes. In addition, Mexican-American diabetic subjects (n = 365) have greater fasting glycemia than non-Hispanic white diabetic subjects (P less than 0.001). Despite these findings, and despite a higher prevalence of microvascular complications among Mexican Americans, there does not appear to be a marked difference in prevalence of macrovascular complications between Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white diabetic subjects. Mexican-American diabetic subjects have only a moderate excess of peripheral vascular disease (as judged by ankle-arm blood pressure ratios) relative to non-Hispanic white diabetic subjects (sex-adjusted Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio 1.84, 95% confidence interval 0.75-4.49). Mexican-American diabetic subjects actually reported fewer myocardial infarctions than non-Hispanic white diabetic subjects (sex-adjusted Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.31-1.71). Duration was not associated with either peripheral vascular disease or myocardial infarction. Severity of glycemia was only mildly associated with presence of peripheral vascular disease and negatively associated with self-reported myocardial infarction. This latter finding may represent a survival bias in that more severe diabetic subjects have already died and are not ascertained in a prevalence study. The absence of an ethnic difference in the prevalence of macrovascular disease contrasts with our previous reports from the San Antonio Heart Study, in which the prevalence of both retinopathy and proteinuria was observed to be higher in Mexican-American diabetic subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Tamez, E G
Mexican Americans form the 2nd largest minority group in the US. Fertility is 50% higher than in any other ethnic group. Income levels are inordinately low. In 1970, 42% of Mexican Americans were indigent, making approxiamtely 4200 annually. The Mexican American poor can be categorized into newly arrived aliens or 2nd or 3rd generation American citizens. In the 1st instance, the couple is young and English is not spoken. 2nd or 3rd generation Mexican Americans speak English. The persistent socioeconomic status of the Mexican American relates directly to the level of education. 52% of all Mexican Americans do not finish high school. Paz and Remos described the Mexican in terms of Adler's inferiority model. Murillo stated that to an individual, the family--whether nuclear or extended--is the center of life. The inherent responsibility is that the individual behave properly lest the family be disgraced. The family provides emotional and material security. Familism was seen as a deterrant to utilization of health care services, although some studies claim opposing views. Familism and occupational stability related positively to seeking medical care when ill. Hayden believed that supreme male dominance, individualism, pride, wife beating, aversion to contraceptives, and other characteristics were attributable to machismo. A predominant pattern in Mexican American culture is that of elders' ordering young men and women to establish obedience and male dominance. The husband represents authority and the wife-mother maintains a role of complete devotion to her husband and children. Role differentiation is taught implicitly and explicitly from infancy. Studies on the psychological differences between the sexes indicated that females were oppressed and had lower self esteem than males. 18-24 year old Mexican Americans are becoming less insistent upon strict separation of sex roles and are beginning to reject the traditional Mexican notion of masculine superiority. The word
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights conducted the Mexican American Education Study between 1969 and 1974. Drawn from the published and unpublished findings of this study, this report discusses the education of Mexican Americans in the 5 Southwestern states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas, where about 85 percent of all…
Mexican men have been traditionally misrepresented in or omitted from fatherhood scholarship, sexuality and reproductive health-related research, and immigration studies. Based on in-depth tape-recorded interviews with 20 immigrant men living in Los Angeles, this study examined Mexican fathers views of virginity as they educate their daughters in…
This study investigates patterns of volunteerism within a rapidly growing segment of the population, Mexican immigrant and Mexican origin youth, using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. These data show that volunteerism varies by immigrant generational status. Contradicting classical assimilation theory, first-generation Mexican…
Romo, Ana Cuevas; Vega, Marylola; Sampieri, Roberto Hernández
This study is part of a larger research project financed by CONACYT, the Mexican authority in Science, Research and Technology. The purpose of this study is to understand perception and attitude towards science of Mexican students at primary school level. Data were collected through a survey answered by 1,559 students from 38 private and public…
Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Nock, Matthew
The study examines data from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey to study the prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among Mexican adolescents. The results reveal patterns of the risk factors and suggest that intervention should focus on adolescents with mental disorders to effectively prevent suicides.
Trevino, Albert Dwight
There has been no specific, detailed study, accompanied by pedagogical apparatus, of Mexican-American literature available for use in the high school English classroom. This study shows that there is a significant amount of Mexican-American literature which can be incorporated effectively into a high school literature program to meet the needs of…
Evans, Bronwynne C.; Belyea, Michael J.; Ume, Ebere
We know little about Mexican American (MA) family adaptation to critical events in the informal caregiving experience but, in these days of economic and social turmoil, sons must sometimes step up to provide personal care for their aging mothers. This article compares two empirically real cases of MA males who provided such care, in lieu of a…
just last summer, two Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operatives were shot and injured while traveling to a Mexican military base. Their assailants...the CIA agents were traveling with a Mexican Navy officer and were in an Embassy vehicle with diplomatic plates47 calls into question whether these...internal business displacement from the violent northern region to the quieter interior is also occurring51. The bloodshed is also impacting tourism and
This essay presents an overview of artists and writers who read Freud's work in Mexico between 1920 and 1968. The focus is on cultural readings of Freud: non-clinical interpretations of psychoanalysis that applied Freud's theory to literary, artistic, philosophical, or religious questions. The essay focuses on Salvador Novo, one of the poets associated with the Contemporáneos group, and his reading of the "Three Essays in the Theory of Sexuality;" Raúl Carrancá y Trujillo, a judge and criminologist who used psychoanalysis in his work, including the trial of Trotky's assassin; Octavio Paz, a poet and intellectual who wrote an essay on Mexican history, "The Labyrinth of Solitude," as a response to "Moses and Monotheism;" and Gregorio Lemercier, a Benedictine monk who placed his monastery in group analysis. These unorthodox readings of Freud opened the door for some of the most daring intellectual experiments in the 20th century.
The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.
Loyola, Paola Kinara Reyes; Campos-Rodríguez, R; Bello, Martiniano; Rojas-Hernández, S; Zimic, Mirko; Quiliano, Miguel; Briz, Verónica; Muñoz-Fernández, M Angeles; Tolentino-López, Luis; Correa-Basurto, Jose
The neuraminidase (NA) epitope from the Mexican AH1N1 influenza virus was identified by using sequences registered at the GenBank during the peak of a pandemic (from April 2009 to October 2010). First, NA protein sequences were submitted for multiple alignment analysis, and their three-dimensional models (3-D) were then built by using homology modeling. The most common sequence (denominated wild-type) and its mutants were submitted to linear and nonlinear epitope predictors, which included the major histocompatibility complex type II (MHC II) and B-cell peptides. The epitope prediction was in accordance with evolutionary behavior and some protein structural properties. The latter included a low NA mutation rate, NA 3-D surface exposure, and the presence of high hindrance side chain residues. After selecting the epitope, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to explore interactions between the epitope and MHC II. Afterward, several experimental assays were performed to validate the theoretical study by using antibodies from humans (infected by pandemic H1N1) and rabbits (epitope vaccination). The results show 119 complete sequences that were grouped into 28 protein sequences according to their identity (one wild-type and 27 representative mutants (1-5 mutations)). The predictors yielded several epitopes, with the best fit being the one located in the C-terminal region. Theoretical methods demonstrated that the selected epitope reached the P4, P6, P7, and P9 pockets of MHC II, whereas the experimental evidence indicates that the epitope is recognized by human antibodies and also by rabbit antibodies immunized with the peptide.
Topographical and geological amplification that occurred during past earthquakes are quantified using spectral ratios of recorded motions. Several cases are presented from the 1985 Chilean and Mexican earthquakes as well as the 1983 Coalinga (California) and 1987 Supersition Hills (California) earthquake. The strong motions recorded in Mexico City during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake are supplemented by ambient motions recorded within Mexico City to quantify the now well known resonating frequencies of the Mexico City lakebed. Topographical amplification in Canal Beagle (Chile), Coalinga and Superstition Hills (California) are quantified using the ratios derived from the aftershocks following the earthquakes. A special dense array was deployed to record the aftershocks in each case. The implications of both geological and topographical amplification are discussed in light of current code provisions. The observed geological amplifications has already influenced the code provisions. Suggestions are made to the effect that the codes should include further provisions to take the amplification due to topography into account. ?? 1991.
Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill
Purpose: This paper aims to provide an Australian perspective on successful school leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on case studies in two Australian states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Findings: The findings show a remarkable degree of…
Sudzina, Mary R.
This paper examines the decisions, benefits, and difficulties in teaching educational psychology through a constructivist case study approach. Recent interest in and inquiry into constructivism, pedagogical content knowledge, and case study methodology are influencing the content and goals of educational psychology in teacher preparation. The…
This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…
Hofstein, Avi; Nae, Nehemia
Describes a unit designed to illustrate the "science-society-technology connection," in which three case studies of the chemical industry in Israel are presented to high school chemistry students. Chosen for the unit are case studies on copper production in Timna, on plastics, and on life from the Dead Sea. (CS)
Sudzina, Mary R.
Problem-based learning and teaching with case studies are instructional approaches that are increasingly being applied in a variety of disciplines, such as business, law, medicine, and education. Instructors who have experienced traditional, teacher-centered instruction are often looking for ways to successfully integrate case studies, a…
Macnamara, Gael R.
This easy-to-use book of case studies helps you recognize the signs of dyslexia and prescribe effective teaching strategies for students with dyslexia. It includes a Case Study Analysis Sheet so you can work through important aspects of a student's personal, academic, and social life. You can then compare what you've compiled to the author's…
Leigh, Rachel A.
The purpose of this descriptive case study was to trace the policy production process of a state agency, the Iowa College Student Aid Commission (Commission), to its function today. This case study relied on a review of federal and state statutes, a news article search, biennium reports of the Commission, and information obtained from the…
Buffington, James R.; Harper, Jeffrey S.
Many of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools require undergraduate Management Information Systems (MIS) majors to take a course in the management of information technology. Over half of these schools utilize case studies in the teaching of this course. The authors emphasize that case studies are an…
White, Lori S.
This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…
Trela, Thaddeus M., Comp.; Becker, George J., Comp.
Descriptions of individual diagnosis and remediation of reading problems experienced by students at all levels are included in this annotated bibliography. Included are books, texts having case study sections, and journal reports which together comprise useful sources of case studies of reading disabilities. An opening section lists nine "first…
Bird, Sharon R.; Erickson, Karla A.
On the basis of analysis of student responses to a case study titled "Drinks and Dinner," the authors evaluate the pedagogical potential of using constructive controversy case studies to teach about inequality. "Drinks and Dinner" is designed to capture the complexity of social interactions that defy simple solutions to engage students in…
Moran, Louise, Ed.; Mugridge, Ian, Ed.
This book contains nine case studies of collaboration in distance education. The case studies focus on such aspects of collaboration in distance education as the following: roles of individual institutional partners; importance of personal relationships; benefits of collaboration to individual partners; conflicts between collaboration and…
Roze, E.; Soumare, A.; Pironneau, I.; Sangla, S.; de Cock, V. Cochen; Teixeira, A.; Astorquiza, A.; Bonnet, C.; Bleton, J. P.; Vidailhet, M.; Elbaz, A.
Task-specific focal dystonias are thought to be due to a combination of individual vulnerability and environmental factors. There are no case-control studies of risk factors for writer's cramp. We undertook a case-control study of 104 consecutive patients and matched controls to identify risk factors for the condition. We collected detailed data…
Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther
Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835
In this paper, the dental morphology of prehispanic Meso-american populations is described, compared, and examined within the context of New World dental variation. Twenty-eight morphological dental traits were studied and compared in four samples of prehispanic Mexican populations. After eliminating intra- and interobserver error, the dental morphological characteristics observed show evidence of heterogeneity among the populations. In particular, the oldest population, Tlatilco (1300-800 BC), was significantly different from the other three groups, Cuicuilco (800-100 BC), Monte Albán (500 BC-700 AD) and Cholula (550-750 AD). When the four samples were compared to other Mongoloid populations, either univariately or multivariately, it was observed that the Mexican groups did not follow a strict Sinodont (characteristic of Northeast Asia)/Sundadont (characteristic of Southeast Asia) classification (Turner  Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 51:619-636). From the traits examined, 27% presented frequencies consistent with Sinodont variation, while 73% of the traits showed similar incidence to Southeast Asian groups. Multivariately, the Mexican populations were found to fit an overall Sundadont classification. These results indicate that there is more dental morphological variation among American Indian populations than previously shown.
Prentice, Andrew M
Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.
Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G.; MacDonald, M.
The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.
Langholz, Bryan; Richardson, David
It has been recently asserted that the nested case-control study design, in which case-control sets are sampled from cohort risk sets, can introduce bias (“study design bias”) when there are lagged exposures. The bases for this claim include a theoretic and an “empirical evaluation” argument. Both of these arguments are examined and found to be incorrect. Appropriate methods to explore the performance of nested case-control study designs, analysis methods, and compute power and sample size from an existing cohort are described. This empirical evaluation approach relies on simulating case-control outcomes from risk sets in the cohort from which the case-control study is to be performed. Because it is based on the underlying cohort structure, the empirical evaluation can provide an assessment that is tailored to the specific characteristics of the study under consideration. The methods are illustrated using samples from the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort. PMID:19289963
Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725
Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.
Background Bullying (Bull) is a public health problem worldwide, and Mexico is not exempt. However, its epidemiology and early detection in our country is limited, in part, by the lack of validated tests to ensure the respondents’ anonymity. The aim of this study was to validate a self-administered test (Bull-M) for assessing Bull among high-school Mexicans. Methods Experts and school teachers from highly violent areas of Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, México), reported common Bull behaviors. Then, a 10-item test was developed based on twelve of these behaviors; the students’ and peers’ participation in Bull acts and in some somatic consequences in Bull victims with a 5-point Likert frequency scale. Validation criteria were: content (CV, judges); reliability [Cronbach’s alpha (CA), test-retest (spearman correlation, rs)]; construct [principal component (PCA), confirmatory factor (CFA), goodness-of-fit (GF) analysis]; and convergent (Bull-M vs. Bull-S test) validity. Results Bull-M showed good reliability (CA = 0.75, rs = 0.91; p < 0.001). Two factors were identified (PCA) and confirmed (CFA): “bullying me (victim)” and “bullying others (aggressor)”. GF indices were: Root mean square error of approximation (0.031), GF index (0.97), and normalized fit index (0.92). Bull-M was as good as Bull-S for measuring Bull prevalence. Conclusions Bull-M has a good reliability and convergent validity and a bi-modal factor structure for detecting Bull victims and aggressors; however, its external validity and sensitivity should be analyzed on a wider and different population. PMID:23577755
López-Jiménez, J J; Porras-Dorantes, Á; Juárez-Vázquez, C I; García-Ortiz, J E; Fuentes-Chávez, C A; Lara-Navarro, I J; Jaloma-Cruz, A R
Idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (IRPL) is defined by three or more consecutive miscarriages occurring before the twentieth week of gestation as a result of unidentified etiological factors. The results of previous studies have indicated that prothrombotic factors play a pathogenic role in early and late pregnancy. This study aimed to identify inherited prothrombotic and hypofibrinolytic risk factors in Mexican-Mestizo patients with IRPL. Fifty-six women with IRPL and 50 control women with at least two full-term pregnancies and no history of RPL were included in this case-control study. Four prothrombotic (F5 G1691A, F2 G20210A, MTHFR C677T-A1298C) and one hypofibrinolytic (PAI1 4G/5G) restricted fragment length polymorphisms were subjected to molecular analysis. In the case of hypofibrinolytic ACE Ins/Del (I/D), identification was performed by direct PCR. The independent risk correlated with the presence of polymorphisms in IRPL patients was estimated using odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). MTHFR 677TT was the most frequent prothrombotic factor in the IRPL group (23%), followed by the compound-heterozygous C677T-A1298C (16%) and heterozygous F2 20210GA (3.6%). The heterozygous ACE I/D (62%) was the main hypofibrinolytic risk factor of IRPL, followed by the homozygote PAI1 4G/4G (18%). The ACE I/D polymorphism was the only significantly different factor among the cases and controls. The dominant genetic model D/D+I/D vs I/I showed an OR (95%CI) of 2.89 (1.22-6.89) and P = 0.019 in Mexican-Mestizo women. The results of this study support an association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and IRPL risk in a Mexican population.
Diaz, Christina J; Koning, Stephanie M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P
Despite having lower levels of education and limited access to health care services, Mexican immigrants report better health outcomes than U.S.-born individuals. Research suggests that the Mexican health advantage may be partially attributable to selective return migration among less healthy migrants-often referred to as "salmon bias." Our study takes advantage of a rare opportunity to observe the health status of Mexican-origin males as they cross the Mexican border. To assess whether unhealthy migrants are disproportionately represented among those who return, we use data from two California-based studies: the California Health Interview Survey; and the Migrante Study, a survey that samples Mexican migrants entering and leaving the United States through Tijuana. We pool these data sources to look for evidence of health-related return migration. Results provide mixed support for salmon bias. Although migrants who report health limitations and frequent stress are more likely to return, we find little evidence that chronic conditions and self-reported health are associated with higher probabilities of return. Results also provide some indication that limited health care access increases the likelihood of return among the least healthy. This study provides new theoretical considerations of return migration and further elucidates the relationship between health and migration decisions.
Mendoza-Lopez, M.L.; Perez-Bueno, J.J.; Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E.
This paper presents a complete methodology for the characterization of silver alloys used in modern coin production. Mexican coins with a nominal silver concentration from 10% to 99.99% were used in this study. Calibrated Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometers were used to determine the chemical composition of the alloys as a function of the depth, while inductively coupled plasma was used to determine the total element composition in bulk. Scanning Electron Microscope was used to study the phase distributions in the different silver coins. According to Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometers and inductively coupled plasma, the silver content found in the studied samples was consistently greater than that of the nominal silver content reported by the Mexican mint. This may lead to a review of the new methods of analysis used nowadays in contemporary coin minting. This result is very important because silver is increasing in value as metal and, considering the volume of production of silver coins, this may increase further as a consequence of a growing popular confidence in silver currency. In the case of silver studies, an advantage of the absence of silver detector in the Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometers system is that it allows for the recalibration to have a better range of detection of other metals present in the alloys. A calibration curve using the copper content obtained by inductively coupled plasma (bulk) and Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometers (depth profile) was performed. The relevance of control in modern silver coin minting was clarified, especially in minimizing the discrepancy between the nominal and the core fineness. The physical and chemical properties of the alloys studied are defined, revealing important variations in silver and copper contents. A new methodology and metrology for the control of coinage are suggested.
Salvucci, Linda K.
Discusses coverage of Mexican history and Mexican Americans in 10 U.S. history textbooks approved for use in Texas. Criticizes the lack of complete information, ethnocentricity, and failure to present the Mexican point of view. Argues that U.S. history courses should cover topics of Mexican history, including Spanish colonialism, the Texas…
Newlon, Betty J.; Borboa, Roman
The purpose of this research was to identify the self-reported factors affecting the career decision making of Mexican and Mexican-American students. It was hypothesized that the factor clusters would differ between the two sample populations, Mexican and Mexican-American. It was also hypothesized that these clusters would differ from six clusters…
McConkey, Joan; And Others
Describes a six-year effort to complete a salary equity review for librarians at the University of Colorado (Boulder) in the context of general salary equity for women and minority faculty. Recounts the difficulties before a male counterpart study was chosen to complete the process, and advises others seeking salary equity to be realistic,…
Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…
Romieu, I; Hernández-Avila, M; Lazcano, E; Lopez, L; Romero-Jaime, R
The authors conducted a case-control study in Mexico City between September 1990 and December 1992 to determine whether a dose-response relation could be observed between duration of lactation and the risk of breast cancer. Cases, women aged 20-75 years, were identified through six hospitals in Mexico City (n = 349) and were interviewed to obtain data on risk factors for breast cancer, including a detailed history of lactation. Controls (n = 1,005) were selected from the general population using the Mexican national sampling frame. Parous women who had ever lactated had a reduction in breast cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.62). A small decreasing trend of breast cancer risk in relation to duration of lactation (p < 0.001) was observed. Compared with parous women who had never breast-fed, women who had breast-fed for 12-24 months had an age-adjusted odds ratio of 0.47 (95% CI 0.27-0.83). A stronger protective effect was observed with lactation duration for the first live birth among pre- and postmenopausal women (for 4-12 months of lactation, OR = 0.56 (95 percent CI 0.32-0.96) and OR = 0.48 (95 percent CI 0.29-0.81) in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). Adjusting for potentially confounding factors modified these results only slightly. The declining trend in fertility and lactation among Mexican women could lead to a major epidemic of breast cancer such as that observed in Western countries.
McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May
This study compared the effectiveness of a culturally modified version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), called Guiando a Ninos Activos (GANA), to the effectiveness of standard PCIT and Treatment as Usual (TAU) for young Mexican American children with behavior problems. Fifty-eight Mexican American families whose 3- to 7-year-old child…
Shah, M.; Coyle, Y.; Kavanaugh, A.; Adams-Huet, B.; Lipsky, P.E.
This study focus tested the acceptability of a set of six 1400 kcal and six 1800 kcal culturally appropriate cholesterol-lowering menus developed for low-income Mexican-Americans with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The focus group, made up of 11 low-income Mexican-American women without SLE, found the menus to be generally culturally valid,…
Aguirre, Benigno E.; Saenz, Rogelio
Investigated whether Mexican foreign-born immigrants who immigrated to the United States for economic reasons naturalized less often than Cubans who immigrated for political reasons. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Latino Sample, indicated that while more Mexicans plan to apply or have applied for naturalization, proportionately more…
Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong
Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…
Padilla, Yolanda C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Hummer, Robert A.; Espitia, Marilyn
Children of Mexican American women, especially immigrants, have unexpectedly good birth weights. A study of 3,710 Mexican American, Black, and White children aged 3-4, who completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, found birth weight was not a powerful predictor of child cognitive development, nor did it explain pronounced racial and…
Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.
Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…
Cross-sectional studies show that sleep is related to childhood obesity. We aimed to examine the longitudinal impact of sleep on the risk of obesity in Mexican American children. We evaluated 229 Mexican American 8–10-year-olds and their mothers at base- line and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Slee...
Orozco, Richard; López, Francesca
Understanding the impacts of immigration legislation on Mexican ethnic students who are citizens of the United States is needed. This study investigates how passage of Arizona's antiimmigration law, SB 1070, in 2010 bears upon the schooling experiences of Mexican American high school students. Applying Meyer's Minority Stress Model as the…
The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...
Castillo, Victor A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the Life-history narratives of ten academically successful Mexican American men and their recollections of the salient factors that facilitated their education attainment. In seeking an understanding to the phenomenon, the research was guided by two general questions: What barriers did Mexican American men…
There is a health disparity for obesity amongst Mexican-Americans compared to other race/ethnic groups. In particular Mexican-American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and non-traditional risk factors in a subset of Mexica...
There is a health disparity for obesity among Mexican Americans compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In particular, Mexican American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and nontraditional risk factors in a subset of Mexi...
Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia
Given educational risks facing Mexican-origin children of immigrant parents, it is important to understand how aspects of the acculturation process influence Mexican-origin youth's educational success. Drawing from selective assimilation theory, this study examined how cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation were associated…
Villarreal Sosa, Leticia
There has been continued concern over the continued high dropout rate among Mexican origin youth. The purpose of this study is to understand how everyday experiences in school shape the content and meaning of Mexican origin students' social identities and how those social identities influence their academic trajectories over the transition to…
Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica
This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…
A study examined the changes created in Mexican education resulting from the North American Free Trade Agreement and the hundreds of foreign (mostly U.S.) manufacturing operations, or maquiladoras, benefitting from the agreement. Interview data from 100 Mexicans and 25 schools indicate that the maquiladoras provide jobs for people who had none,…
Sarkisian, Natalia; Gerena, Mariana; Gerstel, Naomi
Addressing recent theoretical debates, this study examined the differences in extended family integration among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites, as well as the importance of culture and structure in explaining these differences. Our findings showed Whites and Latinos/as have distinctive patterns of extended family integration: Mexicans and…
Applbaum, Ronald L.
A study compared normative communication apprehension (CA) data on Mexican American high school and college students with CA data from other Hispanics speaking English in order to determine the extent to which the subjects' self-perceived competence in a language was related to CA in that language. Subjects were 388 Mexican American and 41 Anglo…
Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.
This study examined associations between Mexican-origin spouses' conflict resolution strategies (i.e., nonconfrontation, solution orientation, and control) and (a) gender-typed qualities and attitudes, (b) cultural orientations, and (c) marital quality in a sample of 227 couples. Results of multilevel modeling revealed that Mexican cultural…
Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Savage, Miranda C.; Guardiola, Rebekah
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American college students' complete mental health. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, mindfulness, and grit influenced 130 Mexican American college students' life satisfaction and depression. Within the first regression…
Piña-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Ojeda, Lizette; Rodriguez, Kimberly M.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine how marianismo is related to the depressive symptoms of Mexican American women with family conflict as a mediator. Participants: During January of 2010, 170 Mexican American women college students in a southern, Hispanic-serving institution were sampled. Methods: A mediation analysis was conducted…