Science.gov

Sample records for mexican hybrid power

  1. Migration and relationship power among Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Parrado, Emilio A; Flippen, Chenoa A; McQuiston, Chris

    2005-05-01

    Our study drew on original data collected in Durham, NC, and four sending communities in Mexico to examine differences in women's relationship power that are associated with migration and residence in the United States. We analyzed the personal, relationship, and social resources that condition the association between migration and women's power and the usefulness of the Relationship Control Scale (RCS) for capturing these effects. We found support for perspectives that emphasize that migration may simultaneously mitigate and reinforce gender inequities. Relative to their nonmigrant peers, Mexican women in the United States average higher emotional consonance with their partners, but lower relationship control and sexual negotiation power. Methodologically, we found that the RCS is internally valid and useful for measuring the impact of resources on women's power. However, the scale appears to combine diverse dimensions of relationship power that were differentially related to migration in our study. PMID:15986990

  2. Hybrid power semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  3. Hybrid power semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  4. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  5. Hybrid Power Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An engineering discipline denoted as hybrid power management (HPM) has emerged from continuing efforts to increase energy efficiency and reliability of hybrid power systems. HPM is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations for both terrestrial and outer-space applications. The basic concepts of HPM are potentially applicable at power levels ranging from nanowatts to megawatts. Potential applications include terrestrial power-generation, terrestrial transportation, biotechnology, and outer-space power systems. Instances of this discipline at prior stages of development were reported (though not explicitly labeled as HPM) in three prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle"(LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW-17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; and "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 24, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37. As the titles of the cited articles indicate, the use of ultracapacitors as energy-storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller. Power-control circuits for ultracapacitors can be simpler than those for batteries, for two reasons: (1) Because of the absence of chemical reactions, charge and discharge currents can be greater than those in batteries, limited only by the electrical

  6. Hybrid power source

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  7. Hybrid Power Management Program Continued

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications including power-generation, transportation, biotechnology, and space power systems. It may significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  8. Hybrid power management system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  9. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  10. Hybrid high power femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resan, Bojan

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing demand for ultrafast laser systems with high average power and repetition rate. We present two hybrid master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) architectures employing variety of available technologies to achieve 100 W average power femtosecond pulses. We achieved 120 W 820 fs pulses using solid-state oscillator and fiber amplifiers and chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique (10 μJ pulse energy at 10 MHz and 100 μJ at 400 kHz). In the second experiment, we achieved 160 W 800 fs pulses in a compact system without the standard CPA using solidstate oscillator and single crystal fiber amplifiers. As currently every component experiences some limitations, it is a challenge to choose the optimal architecture with associated components to achieve a desired combination of laser output parameters.

  11. Power Distribution of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kenta; Morimoto, Masayuki

    In this paper, the fuel consumption of the hybrid electric vehicles is analyzed by the rated power of the engine and the motor. The analysis was based on the published data only. Hybrid ratio and normalized fuel consumption are defined. As the result, the key for the high mileage of hybrid electric vehicle is to use the high power motor and the low power engine.

  12. Hybrid2: The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E I; Green, H J; van Dijk, V A.P.; Manwell, J F

    1996-07-01

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids (including wind turbines, PV, diesel generators, AC/DC energy storage) as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, NREL and U. Mass. researchers developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed.

  13. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van; Manwell, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Healing Multicultural America: Mexican Immigrants Rise to Power in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueba, Henry T.; And Others

    This book is an ethnohistorical and ethnographic account of how several generations of Mexican immigrants became an integral part of the city of Woodland, California. These immigrants came to rural northern California as underclass agricultural workers, but, in the last 2 decades, have risen rapidly to political power through participation in the…

  15. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  16. Hybrid power for wireless sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakeman, Charles D. E.; Fleig, Patrick F.; DeGreeff, Jenniffer L.; Trainor, J. Timothy

    2006-05-01

    Wireless sensors provide solutions to otherwise intractable problems in homeland defense and security, building automation, industrial process monitoring and control, structural health monitoring in bridges, aircraft, buildings and ships and a host of applications where the cost or feasibility of deploying wired sensors is impractical. The biggest challenge facing wireless sensors is power. While advances in power management and battery technology may enable 3 to 5 year battery life, in many applications even this is not sufficient. Energy harvesting techniques show potential to provide long lasting power, but suffer from low power density values, meaning that they must be oversized to deliver power for short duty cycle communications functions. In this paper we demonstrate a solution that draws on the benefits of energy harvesting for long life, and microbatteries and microsupercapacitors to provide back-up and pulse power capabilities without the need for refueling or recharging.

  17. DOE/EPRI hybrid power system

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, S.G.; Taylor, K.J.; Hughes, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of the DOE Geopressured Geothermal Program is to improve methods for optimum energy extraction from geopressured reservoirs. Hybrid power systems which take advantage of the chemical and thermal energy content of geopressured fluids could improve conversion efficiency by 15 to 20% over the same amount of fuel and geothermal fluid processed separately. In a joint DOE/EPRI effort, equipment from the Direct Contact heat Exchange test facility at East Mesa is being modified for use in a unique geopressured hybrid power plant located at the Pleasant Bayou wellsite in Brazoria County, TX. Natural gas separated at the wellhead will fuel a gas turbine, and exhaust heat from the engine will be used with the geothermal brine to vaporize isobutane in a binary power cycle. The hybrid power system is designed for 10,000 bbl/day brine flow, with estimated power production of 980 kW (net). In addition to evaluating the enhanced performance resulting from the combined power generation cycles, operation of the hybrid unit will provide a demonstration of fuel flexibility in an individual plant. This approach would allow a resource developer to reduce costs and risks by optimizing production for various economic climates and would improve the mix in a utility's generating system. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Manzanita Hybrid Power system Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Trisha Frank

    2005-03-31

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit, and in 1995 the Tribe established the Manzanita Renewable Energy Office. Through the U.S. Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program the Band received funds to install a hybrid renewable power system to provide electricity to one of the tribal community buildings, the Manzanita Activities Center (MAC building). The project began September 30, 1999 and was completed March 31, 2005. The system was designed and the equipment supplied by Northern Power Systems, Inc, an engineering company with expertise in renewable hybrid system design and development. Personnel of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory provided technical assistance in system design, and continued to provide technical assistance in system monitoring. The grid-connected renewable hybrid wind/photovoltaic system provides a demonstration of a solar/wind energy hybrid power-generating project on Manzanita Tribal land. During the system design phase, the National Renewable Energy Lab estimated that the wind turbine is expected to produce 10,000-kilowatt hours per year and the solar array 2,000-kilowatt hours per year. The hybrid system was designed to provide approximately 80 percent of the electricity used annually in the MAC building. The project proposed to demonstrate that this kind of a system design would provide highly reliable renewable power for community uses.

  19. Hybrid power system for remote communications stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietras, Christopher R.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is upgrading communications equipment at remote sites in Alaska in support of the Coastal Voice Distress Network. The VHF-FM Search and Rescue sites are powered by a primary power system consisting of a thermoelectric generator. Thermoelectric generators are very inefficient devices which consume vast quantities of propane to create electricity. The upgrade necessitates added power requirements on the power supply system at the remote sites. These requirements compel the redesign and/or upgrade of the power system. If thermoelectric generators continue to be utilized as the primary power system, additional helicopter visits to the sites to deliver propane will be required. These helicopter flights are costly and sometimes hazardous due to severe weather. This thesis investigates a variety of power system options capable of providing electrical power to the communications sites. Specifically, this thesis addresses three objectives. The first is a discussion of current alternative energy source technology available to supply the required power. The second is an analysis of the specific power system requirements and constraints. The third objective and major thrust of the research is the design of a reliable hybrid power system for this application, capable of utilizing the inexhaustible natural energy available at the remote sites. The engineering parameters for a hybrid power system were studied and calculations made based on commercially available components. The difficulties in the design due to extreme weather conditions and unavailability of natural power resource information at specific sites are addressed. This thesis presents the groundwork associated with hybrid power system designs for use at remote communications sites.

  20. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  1. Plastic-Sealed Hybrid Power Circuit Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed design for hybrid high-voltage power-circuit package uses molded plastic for hermetic sealing instead of glass-to-metal seal. New package used to house high-voltage regulators and solid-state switches for applications in aircraft, electric automobiles, industrial equipment, satellites, solarcell arrays, and other equipment in extreme environments.

  2. Hybrid solar powered desalination plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hamester, H.L.; Husseiny, A.; Lumdstrom, J.; La Porta, C.; McLagan, G.

    1981-01-01

    A solar powered sea water desalination system design is described. The commercial size plant is specified to provide at least 1.8*10/sup 6/m/sup 3//year of product water (<500 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids) from sea water containing 44,000 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids. The basis of the design is a two-stage desalination system employing membrane technologies. Membrane technologies were selected since they require about a factor of five less energy than desalination technologies which use distillation.

  3. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  4. Relationship power, decision making, and sexual relations: an exploratory study with couples of Mexican origin.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S Marie; Beckman, Linda J; Browner, Carole H; Sherman, Christy A

    2002-11-01

    This study explored how couples of Mexican origin define power in intimate relationships, what makes men and women feel powerful in relationships, and the role of each partner in decision making about sexual and reproductive matters. Interviews were conducted with each partner of 39 sexually active couples and data were analyzed using content analysis. Results indicate that power is perceived as control over one s partner and the ability to make decisions. Women say they feel more powerful in relationships when they make unilateral decisions and have economic independence. Men feel powerful when they have control over their partner and bring home money. Respondents agreed that women make decisions about household matters and children, while men make decisions related to money. Findings indicate that whereas couples share decision making about sexual activities and contraceptive use, men are seen as initiators of sexual activity and women are more likely to suggest condom use. PMID:12545411

  5. Nuclear power plants and natural populations of Mexican Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Levine, L; Olvera, O; Rockwell, R F; de la Rosa, M E; Guzmán, J

    1989-01-01

    With the worldwide proliferation of nuclear power plants has come the need to study the biological effects of the operation of the reactors on surrounding populations. We have begun a long-term study of the sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in the area of Laguna Verde in the state of Veracruz in Mexico. Laguna Verde, on the Gulf of Mexico about 75 km north of the city of Veracruz, is the location of the country's first nuclear power plant. This plant has not yet gone "on-line." The species have been collected from two sites, one of which is south of the reactor and is in the path of the prevailing north to south wind flow. The other collecting site is west of the plant. The species are being studied for the following: species frequency, desiccation resistance, vagility, proportion of larvae pupating, pupation height, and egg to adult survival after irradiation. To date we have noted both spatial and seasonal differences in a number of these characteristics. The information being gathered will serve as base-line data for monitoring the future operation of the nuclear power plant.

  6. Nuclear power plants and natural populations of Mexican Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Levine, L; Olvera, O; Rockwell, R F; de la Rosa, M E; Guzmán, J

    1989-01-01

    With the worldwide proliferation of nuclear power plants has come the need to study the biological effects of the operation of the reactors on surrounding populations. We have begun a long-term study of the sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in the area of Laguna Verde in the state of Veracruz in Mexico. Laguna Verde, on the Gulf of Mexico about 75 km north of the city of Veracruz, is the location of the country's first nuclear power plant. This plant has not yet gone "on-line." The species have been collected from two sites, one of which is south of the reactor and is in the path of the prevailing north to south wind flow. The other collecting site is west of the plant. The species are being studied for the following: species frequency, desiccation resistance, vagility, proportion of larvae pupating, pupation height, and egg to adult survival after irradiation. To date we have noted both spatial and seasonal differences in a number of these characteristics. The information being gathered will serve as base-line data for monitoring the future operation of the nuclear power plant. PMID:2591737

  7. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  8. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  9. Hybrid Aerocapacitor{trademark}-battery power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, M.J.; Kraemer, B.J.; Laramore, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    PolyStor, Power-One, LLNL and Aerojet are participants in a Technology Reinvestment Program contract supported by the Advanced Research Project Agency for developing carbon aerogel-based Electrolytic Double Layer Capacitors (Aerocapacitors). This paper reports some recent results for organic-electrolyte Aerocapacitors developed under this contract and initial results on their use in electrolytic double layer capacitor (EDLC)-battery power sources. EDLC-battery hybrid power sources offer the potential for increased discharge time, improved low temperature performance and longer cycle life vis-a-vis batteries in pulse discharge applications. The authors previously presented performance results for AA Aerocapacitors but this is the first report of their work on hybrid power sources. Prototype organic-electrolyte Aerocapacitors exhibit low equivalent series resistance (ESR), high capacitance, excellent rate capability at room temperature and low temperatures, and long life. The AA-size devices assembled for testing have ESRs of 20-30 m{Omega} at 1000 Hz and capacitances of about 6 Farads. They are capable of being discharged at very high rates. The capacity at 15 Amps is about 71% of the capacity at 1 Amp. The capacity at 1 Amp and {minus}40{degrees}C is 57% of the room-temperature 1 Amp capacity. AA Aerocapacitors have demonstrated 32,000 cycles in cycle life testing. After an initial capacity decrease of about 17% the capacity remained almost constant between cycle 10,000 and cycle 32,000.

  10. Hybrid high power femtosecond laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a high-power femtosecond laser system based on hybrid chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique developed by us is presented. The goal of the hybrid principle is the use of the parametric and laser amplification methods in chirped pulse amplifiers. It makes it possible to amplify the low-cycle pulses with a duration of <= fs to terawatt power with a high contrast and high conversion efficiency of the pump radiation. In a created system the Ti:Sapphire laser with 10 fs pulses at 810 nm and output energy about 1-3 nJ will be used like seed source. The oscillator pulses were stretched to duration of about 500 ps by an all-reflective grating stretcher. Then the stretched pulses are injected into a nondegenerate noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) on the two BBO crystals. After amplification in NOPA the residual pump was used in a bow-tie four pass amplifier with hybrid active medium (based on Al II0 3:Ti 3+ and BeAl IIO 4:Ti 3+ crystals). The final stage of the amplification system consists of two channels, namely NIR (820 nm) and short-VIS (410 nm). Numerical simulation has shown that the terawatt level of output power can be achieved also in a short-VIS channel at the pumping of the double-crystal BBO NOPA by the radiation of the fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. Experimentally parametric amplification in BBO crystals of 30-50 fs pulses were investigated and optimized using SPIDER technique and single-shot autocomelator for the realization of shortest duration 40 fs.

  11. Narratives of Assimilation, Divergence, and Hybridity: The Reproduction Decisions of College-Educated Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Emmanuel; Nehring, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Our study explored cultural understandings surrounding the reproductive decisions of US-born, college-educated Mexican American women through a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews. In considering the results, this article advances debates on Latina women's reproductive choices beyond the theoretical paradigms of "assimilation" and…

  12. The Mexican Health Paradox: Expanding the Explanatory Power of the Acculturation Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Organista, Kurt C.

    2013-01-01

    The Mexican health paradox refers to initially favorable health and mental health outcomes among recent Mexican immigrants to the United States. The subsequent rapid decline in Mexican health outcomes has been attributed to the process of acculturation to U.S. culture. However, the construct of acculturation has come under significant criticism…

  13. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  14. The Power of Mexican Descent Families in the Successful Education of Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Mexican descent students leave school before completions at a much higher rate than other ethnic groups. Marginalization is one contributing factor. Thirty-two Mexican descent students were interviewed with two main objectives: What marginalization factors did they experience in their secondary schools? What factors allowed them to overcome…

  15. Understanding and Working with the Power Structure in the Mexican-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Armando

    The Mexican American population at the present time is approximately 4 million, of which 80% are urban dwellers. For the city schools this situation poses difficult problems which have remained mostly unsolved, as evidenced by the high rate of Mexican American dropouts from high schools. Since the educational system has failed the Mexican…

  16. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-30

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  17. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  18. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  19. HYBRID2: A versatile model of the performance of hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. James; Manwell, James

    1995-04-01

    In 1993, the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) made an assessment of the available tools from the United States and Europe for predicting the long-term performance of hybrid power systems. By hybrid power the authors mean combinations of two or more power sources wind turbines, photovoltaics (PV), diesel gensets, or other generators into integrated systems for electric power generation in remote locations. Their conclusion was that there was no single, user-friendly tool capable of modeling the full range of hybrid power technologies being considered for the 1990s and beyond. The existing tools were, in particular, lacking flexibility in system configuration and in dispatch of components. As a result, NREL developed a specification for a model, called HYBRID2, for making comparisons of competing technology options on a level playing field. This specification was prepared with a range of potential users in mind including not only the US Department of Energy (DOE) renewable energy programs, but also the US wind industry, technical consultants, international development institutions/banks, and rural electrification programs in developing countries. During 1994, NREL and subcontractor, the University of Massachusetts (UMass), began development of HYBRID2 with funding from the DOE Wind Energy Program. It builds on the wind/diesel model, HYBRID1, developed previously by UMass, and expands that model to accommodate the wider array of technologies used in hybrid power systems. This paper will provide an overview of the model's features, functions, and status.

  20. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  1. Ultralight Solar Powered Hybrid Research Drone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Cs.

    2012-06-01

    A planetary research drone is proposed, which is capable for vertical takeoff and landing. A hybrid flight concept utilizing static lift enables the exploration over ground. The static lift is achieved with a lighter than CO2 gas like air, He or H2.

  2. Hybrid Laser Would Combine Power With Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Donald L., Jr

    1986-01-01

    Efficient laser system constructed by using two semiconductor lasers to pump neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) device. Hybrid concept allows digital transmission at data rates of several megabits per second with reasonably sized optical aperture of 20 cm. Beams from two GaAs lasers efficiently coupled for pumping Nd:YAG crystal. Combination of lasers exploits best features of each.

  3. Geoproducts hybrid geothermal/wood fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.

    1983-12-01

    This presentation describes the 15 MW(e) hybrid combined cycle power plant being constructed at Honey Lake, near Susanville, California. The power plant will use a wood fired system topping cycle, an organic Ranking (binary) bottoming cycle, and geothermal heating of combustion air and organic working fluid. In addition to a technical description, project economics, project merits, and project status are presented.

  4. Session 7: Geoproducts Hybrid Geothermal / Wood Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, Tom

    1983-12-01

    This presentation describes the 15 MW(e) hybrid combined cycle power plant being constructed at Honey Lake, near Susanville, California. The power plant will use a wood fired system topping cycle, an organic Ranking (binary) bottoming cycle, and geothermal heating of combustion air and organic working fluid. In addition to a technical description, project economics, project merits, and project status are presented.

  5. Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program Resulted in Several New Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors, fuel cells, and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications from nanowatts to megawatts. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  6. Hybrid power supplies: A capacitor-assisted battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Burgel, Joseph F.; Shi, Peter L.; Rusek, Andrew; Zou, Xiulin

    A hybrid electrochemical power supply is a concept that circumvents the need for designing any single power source to meet some extraordinary application requirement. A hybrid allows using components designed for near optimal operation without having to make unnecessary performance sacrifices. In many cases some additional synergistic effects appear. In this study, an electrochemical capacitor was employed as a power assist for a battery. An engine starting load was numerically modeled in the time domain and simulations were carried out. Actual measurements were then taken on the cranking of a diesel engine removed from a 5.0-tonne military truck and cranked in an environmental chamber. The cranking currents delivered by each power source were measured in the accessible current loops. This permitted the model parameters to be identified and, by doing that, studies using the analytical model demonstrated the merit of this hybrid application. The general system response of the battery/capacitor configuration was then modeled as a function of temperature. Doing this revealed electrical the interaction between the hybrid components. This study illustrates another case for advocating hybridized power systems.

  7. Andesite petrogenesis in a hybrid arc-rift setting: the Western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Tuena, A.; Vázquez-Duarte, A.; Díaz-Bravo, B.; Mori, L.

    2011-12-01

    The western sector of the Mexican subduction zone is characterized by the steep subduction of one of the youngest slabs on the planet (Rivera plate), and by the existence of a continental rift at ~230 km to the north from the trench (the so-called Tepic-Zacoalco rift, TZR), under which the subducted slab is either extremely deep or even absent (>250 km). The volcanic front is located at ~170 km from the trench and contains abundant potassic-alkaline lamprophyres with strong subduction (Ba/Ta= 1600-6000) and garnet signatures (Gd/Yb= 2-8), that have been recently interpreted as influenced by deep K2O-rich slab melts or supercritical fluids (Gómez-Tuena et al., 2011, GCA). In contrast, the most mafic rocks within the TZR are high-Nb, intraplate-like basalts that appear to derive from low extents of melting of a dryer (Ba/Ta= 800-60) and shallower (Gd/Yb= 2-2.5) mantle source. Even though a simple transition from an arc environment to an extensional tectonic regime is apparent when only the most primitive volcanic rocks are taken into account, the scenario becomes more complicated since at least five stratovolcanoes have been erupting typical arc andesites within the TZR over the last million years (San Juan, Sanganguey, Tepetiltic, Ceboruco and Tequila). Surprisingly, true calc-alkaline basalts that could be parental to andesites have not been found, indicating that andesites may have a direct mantle origin. Indeed, mayor and trace element compositions of volcanic rocks from western Mexico arrange in discrete suites with linear trends that are indicative of mixing, but they form sub-parallel arrays that do not converge to a common primitive basaltic melt, and often follow diverging trends in trace element-ratio plots. Melt-crust interactions likely occurred during magma ascent, since the volcanic rocks frequently include xenoliths and disequilibrium textures, but correlations among isotopic compositions and indexes of fractionation are not clearly observed in the

  8. An extended duration hybrid powered hexcopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winningham, Jason D.

    This work attempts to extend the flight time of a UAS to allow for longer ranges, extended time on station, and larger payloads by adding lift capacity for an auxiliary power unit that generates electrical power using an internal combustion engine. The UAS is instrumented to examine power consumption during flights with various payload masses. Safety aspects of the larger UAS are examined, including a safety analysis of the flight control software.

  9. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  10. Sharing Power? An Experience of Mexican American Parents Serving on a Campus Advisory Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Delores C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores issues concerning representation, training, guidelines, and parent representative roles to determine how Mexican-American parents serving on an elementary school advisory council were involved in school decision-making. Parents' role may be minor, due to factors (like staff assumptions) resulting in unequal knowledge, respect, and…

  11. Economic analysis of PV hybrid power system: Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Durand, S.; Thomas, M.; Post, H.

    1997-11-01

    PV hybrid electric power systems can offer an economically competitive alternative to engine generator (genset) systems in many off-grid applications. Besides the obvious `green` advantages of producing less noise and emissions, the PV hybrid can, in some cases, offer a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) then the genset. This paper evaluates the LCC of the 9.6 kWp PV hybrid power system installed by the National Park Services (NPS) at Pinnacles National Monument, CA. NPS motivation for installation of this hybrid was not based on economics, but rather the need to replace two aging diesel gensets with an alternative that would be quieter, fuel efficient, and more in keeping with new NPS emphasis on sustainable design and operations. In fact, economic analysis shows a lower 20-year LCC for the installed PV hybrid than for simple replacement of the two gensets. The analysis projects are net savings by the PV hybrid system of $83,561 and over 162,000 gallons of propane when compared with the genset-only system. This net savings is independent of the costs associated with environmental emissions. The effects of including emissions costs, according to NPS guidelines, is also discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Experiences of Power and Violence in Mexican Men Attending Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Verduzco, Ignacio; Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo; Romero-Mendoza, Martha; Tena-Suck, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Fundamental elements of hegemonic masculinity such as power and violence are analyzed through characteristics of 12-step programs and philosophy immersed in Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment (CRAMAAs). CRAMAAs are a culturally specific form of substance abuse treatment in Mexico that are characterized by control and violence. Fifteen interviews were carried out with men of varied sociodemographic characteristics, and who resided in at least two of these centers. Results identify that power is expressed through drug abuse and leads them to subsequent biopsychosocial degradation. Residency in CRAMAAs is motivated by women, but men do not seek the residency and are usually admitted unwillingly. Power through violence is carried out inside CRAMAAs where men are victims of abuse. From a 12-step philosophy, this violence is believed to lead them to a path of recovery but instead produces feelings of anger and frustration. The implications of these centers on Mexican public health are discussed.

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2004-07-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the January to June 2004 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh; Faress Rahman

    2002-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the October 2002 to December 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The following activities have been carried out during this reporting period: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} Part-load performance analysis was conducted {lg_bullet} Primary system concept was down-selected {lg_bullet} Dynamic control model has been developed {lg_bullet} Preliminary heat exchanger designs were prepared {lg_bullet} Pressurized SOFC endurance testing was performed

  16. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  17. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bohn, Mark S.; Williams, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  18. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  19. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power project

    SciTech Connect

    Toland, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Honey Lake Hybrid Geothermal Wood Residue Power Project with a planned output of 50 MW is undergoing feasibility studies funded by GeoProducts Corporation, Department of Water Resources, State of California, US Department of Energy and the Forest Service, USDA. The outlook is optimistic. It is reliably estimated that the required volume of woody biomass can be made available without environmental degradation.

  20. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Pereira, Carlos M.; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices such as emergency devices or remote sensors that have to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries require sometimes in excess of 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources have to be provided to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper the development of a hybrid reserve power source obtained by the integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery that can provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is also provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  2. The neutronics studies of fusion fission hybrid power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Youqi; Wu Hongchun; Zu Tiejun; Yang Chao; Cao Liangzhi

    2012-06-19

    In this paper, a series of neutronics analysis of hybrid power reactor is proposed. The ideas of loading different fuels in a modular-type fission blanket is analyzed, fitting different level of fusion developments, i.e., the current experimental power output, the level can be obtained in the coming future and the high-power fusion reactor like ITER. The energy multiplication of fission blankets and tritium breeding ratio are evaluated as the criterion of design. The analysis is implemented based on the D-type simplified model, aiming to find a feasible 1000MWe hybrid power reactor for 5 years' lifetime. Three patterns are analyzed: 1) for the low fusion power, the reprocessed fuel is chosen. The fuel with high plutonium content is loaded to achieve large energy multiplication. 2) For the middle fusion power, the spent fuel from PWRs can be used to realize about 30 times energy multiplication. 3) For the high fusion power, the natural uranium can be directly used and about 10 times energy multiplication can be achieved.

  3. Analysis of gene rearrangements using a fluorescence in situ hybridization method in Mexican patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vera, Patricia; Salas, Consuelo; Montero-Ruiz, Oreth; Frías, Sara; Dehesa, Gloria; Jarquín, Berenice; Rivera-Luna, Roberto

    2008-07-15

    We evaluated the prevalence of BCR/ABL, MLL, and ETV6/RUNX1 rearrangements as well as CDKN2A (alias p16) deletion in a group of Mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to determine whether the changes coexist, and to compare the incidences found with other reports in the literature. To increase the detection of these abnormalities, we combined conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 59 consecutive children with ALL. FISH detected a total of 63 abnormalities with the selected probes, 34 of which were related to the conventional cytogenetic results. The most common abnormality was the p16 deletion (22.8%), followed by MLL and ETV6/RUNX1 rearrangements (8.7%), and the BCR/ABL fusion was the least frequent (2.7%). The coexistence of two recurrent abnormalities with specific prognostic significance in the same patient was not found. A lesser proportion of the p16 deletion in T-ALL patients was observed, probably related to the low prevalence of this subtype in our population. In addition, we confirmed the low frequency of the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion observed in Hispanics. Due to the different prevalence of these abnormalities in the Mexican population, similar studies should be conducted analyzing new rearrangements, to improve the adequate classification of the abnormalities and the stratification in prognostic groups.

  4. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Alok; Samatova, Nagiza; Wu, Kesheng; Liao, Wei-keng

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  5. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  6. A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

  7. High Power Laser Hybrid Welding - Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Steen Erik

    High power industrial lasers at power levels up to 100 kW is now available on the market. Therefore, welding of thicker materials has become of interest for the heavy metal industry e.g. shipyards and wind mill producers. Further, the power plant industry, producers of steel pipes, heavy machinery and steel producers are following this new technology with great interest. At Lindø Welding Technology (LWT), which is a subsidiary to FORCE Technology, a 32-kwatt disc laser is installed. At this laser facility, welding procedures related to thick section steel applications are developed. Material thicknesses between 40 and 100 mm are currently of interest. This paper describes some of the challenges that are related to the development of the high power hybrid laser welding process as well as to the perspectives for the technology as a production tool for the heavy metal industry.

  8. Performance of Li-ion secondary batteries in low power, hybrid power supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shruti; Mustain, William E.; Kohl, Paul A.

    Small, portable electronic devices need power supplies that have long life, high energy efficiency, high energy density, and can deliver short power bursts. Hybrid power sources that combine a high energy density fuel cell, or an energy scavenging device, with a high power secondary battery are of interest in sensors and wireless devices. However, fuel cells with low self-discharge have low power density and have a poor response to transient loads. A low capacity secondary lithium ion cell can provide short burst power needed in a hybrid fuel cell-battery power supply. This paper describes the polarization, cycling, and self-discharge of commercial lithium ion batteries as they would be used in the small, hybrid power source. The performance of 10 Li-ion variations, including organic electrolytes with Li xV 2O 5 and Li xMn 2O 4 cathodes and LiPON electrolyte with a LiCoO 2 cathode was evaluated. Electrochemical characterization shows that the vanadium oxide cathode cells perform better than their manganese oxide counterparts in every category. The vanadium oxide cells also show better cycling performance under shallow discharge conditions than LiPON cells at a given current. However, the LiPON cells show significantly lower energy loss due to polarization and self-discharge losses than the vanadium and manganese cells with organic electrolytes.

  9. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-07-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the January 2003 to June 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. This report summarizes the results obtained to date on: System performance analysis and model optimization; Reliability and cost model development; System control including dynamic model development; Heat exchanger material tests and life analysis; Pressurized SOFC evaluation; and Pre-baseline system definition for coal gasification fuel cell system concept.

  10. Hybrid simulation of electrode plasmas in high-power diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Bruner, Nichelle; Clark, Robert E.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Johnston, Mark D.

    2009-12-15

    New numerical techniques for simulating the formation and evolution of cathode and anode plasmas have been successfully implemented in a hybrid code. The dynamics of expanding electrode plasmas has long been recognized as a limiting factor in the impedance lifetimes of high-power vacuum diodes and magnetically insulated transmission lines. Realistic modeling of such plasmas is being pursued to aid in understanding the operating characteristics of these devices as well as establishing scaling relations for reliable extrapolation to higher voltages. Here, in addition to kinetic and fluid modeling, a hybrid particle-in-cell technique is described that models high density, thermal plasmas as an inertial fluid which transitions to kinetic electron or ion macroparticles above a prescribed energy. The hybrid technique is computationally efficient and does not require resolution of the Debye length. These techniques are first tested on a simple planar diode then applied to the evolution of both cathode and anode plasmas in a high-power self-magnetic pinch diode. The impact of an intense electron flux on the anode surface leads to rapid heating of contaminant material and diode impedance loss.

  11. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  12. Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation.

    PubMed

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. Simulation results show that performance of reactive power and harmonic compensation with advanced hybrid passive filter is better than conventional hybrid passive filters. PMID:27536512

  13. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2002-03-31

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the January 2002 to March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. For this reporting period the following activities have been carried out: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} System-level performance model was created {lg_bullet} Dynamic control models are being developed {lg_bullet} Mechanical properties of candidate heat exchanger materials were investigated {lg_bullet} SOFC performance mapping as a function of flow rate and pressure was completed

  15. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  16. Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant Project. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A technical and economic feasibility study of the engineering aspects of a hybrid wood-fired geothermal electrical generating plant is presented. The proposed plant location is in Lassen County, California, near the Wendel Amedee Known Geothermal Resource Area. This power plant uses moderate temperature geothermal fluid to augment the heat supplied from a wood waste fired boiler. This report defines major plant systems for implementation into the plant conceptual design and provides sufficient design information for development of budgetary cost estimates. Emphasis is placed on incorporation of geothermal heat into the power generation process. Plant systems are designed and selected based on economic justification and on proven performance. The culminating economic analysis provides the financial information to establish the incentives for construction of the plant. The study concludes that geothermal energy and energy from wood can be combined in a power generating plant to yield attractive project economics.

  17. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Kiu, G. Q.

    2015-04-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes.

  18. Energy Analysis of Hybrid Power Source During Vehicle Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danko, Ján; Bugár, Martin; Staňák, Vladimír

    2011-12-01

    This paper proposes a perfect energy source provided by a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main power source and a storage device: battery and super-capacitor, for modern distributed generation system, particularly for future fuel cell vehicle applications. The energy in hybrid systems is balanced by the dc bus regulation in dependence to the drive cycle. A super-capacitor module, as a high dynamic and high power density device, functions for supplying energy to regulate a dc bus. A battery module, as a high energy density device, operates to supply energy to the super-capacitor bank in order to keep it charged. The control strategy is used to determine the real-time optimal power distribution by simple minimization.

  19. Development and Demonstration of a 25 Watt Thermophotovoltaic Power Source for a Hybrid Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Edward; Shukla, Kailash; Metcalfe, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The development of a propane-fueled, 25 W thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power source for use in a hybrid power system is described. The TPV power source uses a platinum emitting surface with an anti-reflective coating to radiate to gallium antimonide photocells, which converts the radiation to electric power. The development program started with the design and fabrication of an engineering prototype system. This was used as a component development vehicle to develop the technologies for the various components. A 25 W demonstration prototype was then designed and fabricated using the most advanced component approaches. The designs and test results from this development program are discussed.

  20. Racism and Power: Arizona Politicians' Use of the Discourse of Anti-Americanism against Mexican American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses a legislation that would effectively terminate Mexican American Studies programs in k-12 was passed in Arizona in 2010. In this article, the author traces how this legislation drew from discourses of anti-Americanism and wickedness initiated by the state's superintendent of public instruction against Mexican American Studies…

  1. Hybrid metal-semiconductor mirror for high power VECSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurain, Alexandre; Gbele, Kokou; Hader, Jorg; Stolz, Wolfgang; Koch, Stephan; Ruiz Perez, Antje; Moloney, Jerome V.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a low thermal impedance hybrid mirror VECSEL. We used only 14 pairs of AlGaAs/AlAs, transparent at the pump wavelength, and we used a patterned mask to deposit pure gold on areas of the chip to be pumped, and Ti/Au on other area to circumvent the poor adhesion of gold on GaAs. A higher gain is observed on an area metallized with pure gold and an output power of 4W was obtained, showing the effectiveness of the metallic mirror and validating the bonding quality. Chip processing and laser characteristics are studied in detail and compared to simulations.

  2. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  3. Hybrid-Circuit Module For Dc-To-Dc Power Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorperian, Vatche; Detwiler, Robert; Karmon, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Power hybrid module is general-purpose power-switching module providing flexibility in design and application. Complete dc-to-dc power converter constructed by adding input/output filters and feedback circuitry to module to suit specific application.

  4. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  5. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid ship power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doktorcik, Christopher J.

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the performance of naval ship power systems requires integrated design and coordination of the respective subsystems (sources, converters, and loads). A significant challenge in the system-level integration is solving the Power Management Control Problem (PMCP). The PMCP entails deciding on subsystem power usages for achieving a trade-off between the error in tracking a desired position/velocity profile, minimizing fuel consumption, and ensuring stable system operation, while at the same time meeting performance limitations of each subsystem. As such, the PMCP naturally arises at a supervisory level of a ship's operation. In this research, several critical steps toward the solution of the PMCP for surface ships have been undertaken. First, new behavioral models have been developed for gas turbine engines, wound rotor synchronous machines, DC super-capacitors, induction machines, and ship propulsion systems. Conventional models describe system inputs and outputs in terms of physical variables such as voltage, current, torque, and force. In contrast, the behavioral models developed herein express system inputs and outputs in terms of power whenever possible. Additionally, the models have been configured to form a hybrid system-level power model (HSPM) of a proposed ship electrical architecture. Lastly, several simulation studies have been completed to expose the capabilities and limitations of the HSPM.

  6. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH 4 on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO 2 as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO 2 battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs.

  7. Power management strategy for vehicular-applied hybrid fuel cell/battery power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangjun; Xu, Liangfei; Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    In this paper, a control strategy for a hybrid PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell/BES (battery energy system) vehicular power system is presented. The strategy, based on fuzzy logic control, incorporates the slow dynamics of fuel cells and the state of charge (SOC) of the BES. Fuel cell output power was determined according to the driving load requirement and the SOC, using fuzzy dynamic decision-making and fuzzy self-organizing concepts. An analysis of the simulation results was conducted using Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow software in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. It was confirmed that the control scheme can be used to improve the operational efficiency of the hybrid power system.

  8. Simultaneous production of desalinated water and power using a hybrid-cycle OTEC plant

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1987-05-01

    A systems study for simultaneous production of desalinated water and electric power using the hybrid-cycle OTEC system was carried out. The hybrid cycle is a combination of open and closed-cycle OTEC systems. A 10 MWe shore-based hybrid-cycle OTEC plant is discussed and corresponding operating parameters are presented. Design and plant operating criteria for adjusting the ratio of water production to power generation are described and their effects on the total system were evaluated. The systems study showed technical advantages of the hybrid-cycle power system as compared to other leading OTEC systems for simultaneous production of desalinated water and electric power generation.

  9. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  10. Hybrid thermionic space reactor for power and propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, S. . Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi); Kennel, E.B. )

    1994-08-01

    A thermo-hydrodynamic-neutronic analysis is performed for a fast, uranium carbide (UC) fueled space-craft nuclear in-core thermionic reactor. The thermo-hydrodynamic analysis shows that a hybrid thermionic spacecraft nuclear reactor can be designed for both electricity generation and nuclear thermal propulsion purposes. The neutronic analysis has been conducted in S[sub 8]-P[sub 3] approximation with the help of one- and two-dimensional neutron transport codes ANISN and DORT, respectively. The calculations have shown that a UC fueled electricity generating single mode thermionic nuclear reactor can be designed to be extremely compact because of the high atomic density of the nuclear fuel (by 95% sintering density), namely, with a core radius of 8.7 cm and core height of 25 cm, leading to power levels as low as 5 kW (electric) by an electrical output on an emitter surface of 1.243 W/cm[sup 2]. A reactor control with boronated reflector drums at the outer periphery of the radial reflector of 16-cm thickness would make possible reactivity changes of [Delta]k[sub eff] > 10% -- amply sufficient for a fast reactor -- without a significant distortion of the fission power profile during all phases of the space mission. The hybrid thermionic spacecraft nuclear reactor mode contains cooling channels in the nuclear fuel for the hydrogen propellant. This increase the critical reactor size because of the lower uranium atomic density in this design concept. Calculations have lead to a reactor with a core radius of 22 cm and core height of 35 cm leading to power levels [approximately] 50 kW(electric) under the aforementioned thermionic conversion conditions.

  11. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1995-10-19

    Carbonate fuel cells developed by Energy Research Corporation, in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9 percent. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted in cooperation with METC to identify an economically competitive system with an efficiency in excess of 65 percent. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency in excess of 70 percent. This new system is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95 percent of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for the reforming of the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72 percent of the power. The portion of the fuel cell anode exhaust which is not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to the compressed air from a gas turbine, raising its temperature to 1800{degrees}F. The stream is then heated to 2000{degrees}F in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13 percent of the power. Half the exhaust from the gas turbine flows to the anode exhaust burner, and the remainder flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the fuel cells flows to a steam system which includes a heat recovery steam generator and stages steam turbine which generates 15 percent of the TTC system power. Studies of the TTC for 200-MW and 20-MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the characteristics of the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6 percent, and is relatively insensitive to ambient temperature, but requires a heat exchanger capable of 2000{degrees}F. The estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr which is not competitive with a combined cycle in installations where fuel cost is under $5.8/MMBtu.

  12. Turbine Powered Simulator Calibration and Testing for Hybrid Wing Body Powered Airframe Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Patrick R.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Long, Kurtis R.; James, Kevin D.; Tompkins, Daniel M.; Beyar, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion airframe integration testing on a 5.75% scale hybrid wing body model us- ing turbine powered simulators was completed at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-foot test section. Four rear control surface con gurations including a no control surface de ection con guration were tested with the turbine powered simulator units to investigate how the jet exhaust in uenced the control surface performance as re- lated to the resultant forces and moments on the model. Compared to ow-through nacelle testing on the same hybrid wing body model, the control surface e ectiveness was found to increase with the turbine powered simulator units operating. This was true for pitching moment, lift, and drag although pitching moment was the parameter of greatest interest for this project. With the turbine powered simulator units operating, the model pitching moment was seen to increase when compared to the ow-through nacelle con guration indicating that the center elevon and vertical tail control authority increased with the jet exhaust from the turbine powered simulator units.

  13. Detection of ETV6 and RUNX1 gene rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization in Mexican patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vera, Patricia; Montero-Ruiz, Oreth; Frías, Sara; Ulloa-Avilés, Verónica; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Carnevale, Alessandra

    2005-10-15

    The t(12;21) produces the gene fusion ETV6/RUNX1 and is a frequent rearrangement in childhood ALL, associated with a good prognosis. In Mexico its prevalence has not been reported. This study evaluated a group of consecutive Mexican children with newly diagnosed ALL, to detect the fusion using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Seventy-one bone marrow samples were analyzed with FISH, using ETV6/RUNX1 DNA probes. Abnormalities of ETV6, RUNX1, or both were found in 31 of the 71 (44%) patients. Six showed ETV6/RUNX1 fusion and 17, with extra RUNX1 copies, presented an additional chromosome 21 or dup(21)(q22). Five patients had structural changes in ETV6, and three patients showed extra copies of ETV6 and RUNX1 from polysomy of chromosomes 12 and 21. Our results revealed a fusion in 8.5% of the 71 cases analyzed. This frequency is lower than that observed in other populations (9.5-32%). The structural rearrangements resulting in RUNX1 extra copies were found in 9.8% of patients, which is close to the range reported (1.5-9.7%) by other authors. Due to the prevalence of RUNX1 overrepresentation in our population and its unknown prognostic significance, further studies should be conducted in consecutive children with ALL, to correlate this abnormality with the patients' follow-up.

  14. Optimal fuzzy power control and management of fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Liu, Guo-Ping

    Hybrid electric vehicles powered by fuel cells have been focused for alternative powertrains due to their high efficiency and low emission. The relative engine sizing and power split strategy of different power sources have great effect in influencing the fuel economy. In this paper, for a given driving cycle, the overall efficiency of a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle is maximized by identifying the best degree of hybridization (DOH) and a power control strategy. Fuzzy logic is used in power distribution of the hybrid vehicle, where the optimized centers and widths of membership functions are found by optimization. Simulation results show that the optimally designed and controlled hybrid vehicle can provide good fuel economy and overall system efficiency.

  15. Predicts the Long Term Performance and Economic Feasibility of Hybrid Power Sys

    1996-12-01

    HYBRID2 is a combined probalistic/time series model designed to study a wide variety of hybrid power systems. Hybrid power systems combine a number of sources of power generation and, usually, a form of energy storage to supply an electrical load. Hybrid power systems are mainly used in areas such as islands or remote communities that are removed from a power distribution network. These power systems can range from large, multi-megawatt systems to those supplying singlemore » family dwellings. HYBRID2 simulates systems that include diesel generators, wind turbines, battery storage, different power conversion devices and a photovoltaic array. Systems can be modeled with components on the AC, DC or multiple buses. A variety of different operating strategies have been allowed as well as an economic analysis tool. The HYBRID2 code has a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) as well as a glossary of terms commonly associated with hybrid power systems. HYBRID2 is also packaged with an extensive library of equipment to assist the user in designing hybrid power systems. Each piece of equipment is commercially available and uses manufacturer''s specifications. In addition the library includes resource data and some sample power systems and projects that can be used as templates. Two levels of output are provided, a summary as well as a detailed time step by time step description of power flows. A Graphical Results Interface (GRI) allows for easy and in-depth review of the detailed simulation results.« less

  16. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  17. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  18. Ka-Band Waveguide Hybrid Combiner for MMIC Amplifiers With Unequal and Arbitrary Power Output Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chevalier, Christine T.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Freeman, Jon C.

    2009-01-01

    The design, simulation and characterization of a novel Ka-band (32.05 +/- 0.25 GHz) rectangular waveguide branch-line hybrid unequal power combiner is presented. The manufactured combiner was designed to combine input signals, which are in phase and with an amplitude ratio of two. The measured return loss and isolation of the branch-line hybrid are better than 22 and 27 dB, respectively. The application of the branch-line hybrid for combining two MMIC power amplifiers with output power ratio of two is demonstrated. The measured combining efficiency is approximately 93 percent over the above frequency band.

  19. Ka-Band Waveguide Hybrid Combiner for MMIC Amplifiers with Unequal and Arbitrary Power Output Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chevalier, Christine T.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Freeman, Jon C.

    2009-01-01

    The design, simulation and characterization of a novel Ka-band (32.05 +/- 0.25 GHz) rectangular waveguide branchline hybrid unequal power combiner is presented. The manufactured combiner was designed to combine input signals, which are nearly in phase and with an amplitude ratio of two. The measured return loss and isolation of the branch-line hybrid are better than 22 and 27 dB, respectively. The application of the branch-line hybrid for combining two monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers with output power ratio of two is demonstrated. The measured combining efficiency is 92.9% at the center frequency of 32.05 GHz.

  20. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  1. Conceptual Design and Optimal Power Control Strategy for AN Eco-Friendly Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, N. Mir; Chieng, Frederick T. A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new concept for a hybrid vehicle using a torque and speed splitting technique. It is implemented by the newly developed controller in combination with a two degree of freedom epicyclic gear transmission. This approach enables optimization of the power split between the less powerful electrical motor and more powerful engine while driving a car load. The power split is fundamentally a dual-energy integration mechanism as it is implemented by using the epicyclic gear transmission that has two inputs and one output for a proper power distribution. The developed power split control system manages the operation of both the inputs to have a known output with the condition of maintaining optimum operating efficiency of the internal combustion engine and electrical motor. This system has a huge potential as it is possible to integrate all the features of hybrid vehicle known to-date such as the regenerative braking system, series hybrid, parallel hybrid, series/parallel hybrid, and even complex hybrid (bidirectional). By using the new power split system it is possible to further reduce fuel consumption and increase overall efficiency.

  2. Topology, Design, Analysis, and Thermal Management of Power Electronics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Peng, F. Z.; Kelly, K. J.; O'Keefe, M.; Hassani, V.

    2008-01-01

    Power electronics circuits play an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit topologies, such as buck converters, voltage source inverters and bidirectional boost converters are challenged by system cost, efficiency, controllability, thermal management, voltage and current capability, and packaging issues. Novel topologies, such as isolated bidirectional DC/DC converters, multilevel converters, and Z-source inverters, offer potential improvement to hybrid vehicle system performance, extended controllability and power capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the topologies, design, and thermal management, and control of power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicle applications.

  3. A New Starting Method of the Hybrid Power Filter for Wind Power Generation Systems with Soft Starter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    This paper proposes a new method of starting the hybrid power filter for wind power generation systems with soft starter. In the proposed method, an active filter of the hybrid power filter behaves a resistor for the source current under the starting condition. Thus the inrush phenomena of the passive filter are perfectly suppressed. The basic principle of the proposed starting method is discussed, and then confirmed by digital computer simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed starting method can overcome the inrush currents for the passive filter, building up the dc voltage of the active filter.

  4. Safety and power multiplication aspects of mirror fusion-fission hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Klaus; Ågren, Olov; Källne, Jan; Hagnestâl, Anders; Moiseenko, Vladimir E.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, in a research project at Uppsala University a simplified neutronic model for a straight field line mirror hybrid has been devised and its most important operation parameters have been calculated under the constraints of a fission power production of 3 GW and that the effective multiplication factor keff does not exceed 0.95. The model can be considered as representative for hybrids driven by other types of mirrors too. In order to reduce the demand on the fusion power of the mirror, a modified option of the hybrid has been considered that generates a reduced fission power of 1.5 GW with an increased maximal value keff =0.97. The present paper deals with nuclear safety aspects of this type of hybrids. It presents and discusses calculation results of reactivity effects as well as of driver effects.

  5. Safety and power multiplication aspects of mirror fusion-fission hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Noack, Klaus; Agren, Olov; Kaellne, Jan; Hagnestal, Anders; Moiseenko, Vladimir E.

    2012-06-19

    Recently, in a research project at Uppsala University a simplified neutronic model for a straight field line mirror hybrid has been devised and its most important operation parameters have been calculated under the constraints of a fission power production of 3 GW and that the effective multiplication factor k{sub eff} does not exceed 0.95. The model can be considered as representative for hybrids driven by other types of mirrors too. In order to reduce the demand on the fusion power of the mirror, a modified option of the hybrid has been considered that generates a reduced fission power of 1.5 GW with an increased maximal value k{sub eff}=0.97. The present paper deals with nuclear safety aspects of this type of hybrids. It presents and discusses calculation results of reactivity effects as well as of driver effects.

  6. Application of Hybrid Optimization-Expert System for Optimal Power Management on Board Space Power Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Basheer, Omar Ali AL

    1996-01-01

    The space power system has two sources of energy: photo-voltaic blankets and batteries. The optimal power management problem on-board has two broad operations: off-line power scheduling to determine the load allocation schedule of the next several hours based on the forecast of load and solar power availability. The nature of this study puts less emphasis on speed requirement for computation and more importance on the optimality of the solution. The second category problem, on-line power rescheduling, is needed in the event of occurrence of a contingency to optimally reschedule the loads to minimize the 'unused' or 'wasted' energy while keeping the priority on certain type of load and minimum disturbance of the original optimal schedule determined in the first-stage off-line study. The computational performance of the on-line 'rescheduler' is an important criterion and plays a critical role in the selection of the appropriate tool. The Howard University Center for Energy Systems and Control has developed a hybrid optimization-expert systems based power management program. The pre-scheduler has been developed using a non-linear multi-objective optimization technique called the Outer Approximation method and implemented using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The optimization model has the capability of dealing with multiple conflicting objectives viz. maximizing energy utilization, minimizing the variation of load over a day, etc. and incorporates several complex interaction between the loads in a space system. The rescheduling is performed using an expert system developed in PROLOG which utilizes a rule-base for reallocation of the loads in an emergency condition viz. shortage of power due to solar array failure, increase of base load, addition of new activity, repetition of old activity etc. Both the modules handle decision making on battery charging and discharging and allocation of loads over a time-horizon of a day divided into intervals of 10

  7. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  8. Design and operation of a geopressurized-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.G.; Hattar, M.M.

    1991-02-01

    Geopressured-geothermal resources can contribute significantly to the national electricity supply once technical and economic obstacles are overcome. Power plant performance under the harsh conditions of a geopressured resource was unproven, so a demonstration power plant was built and operated on the Pleasant Bayou geopressured resource in Texas. This one megawatt facility provided valuable data over a range of operating conditions. This power plant was a first-of-a-kind demonstration of the hybrid cycle concept. A hybrid cycle was used to take advantage of the fact that geopressured resources contain energy in more than one form -- hot water and natural gas. Studies have shown that hybrid cycles can yield thirty percent more power than stand-alone geothermal and fossil fuel power plants operating on the same resource. In the hybrid cycle at Pleasant Bayou, gas was burned in engines to generate electricity directly. Exhaust heat from the engines was then combined with heat from the brine to generate additional electricity in a binary cycle. Heat from the gas engine was available at high temperature, thus improving the efficiency of the binary portion of the hybrid cycle. Design power output was achieved, and 3445 MWh of power were sold to the local utility over the course of the test. Plant availability was 97.5% and the capacity factor was over 80% for the extended run at maximum power production. The hybrid cycle power plant demonstrated that there are no technical obstacles to electricity generation at Pleasant Bayou. 14 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  10. A comparison of GaAs and Si hybrid solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical comparison of energy output from various silicon and gallium arsenide hybrid solar power systems, producing electric power and also thermal power for heating or cooling, is made. System performance indices in terms of capital cost, peak power, total power output, and electric power were evaluated. Limiting values for annual energy production from GaAs and Si solar concentrator systems were estimated to be 2 cents and 6.8 cents per kWh for GaAs concentrator systems and between 2.5 cents and 11 cents per kWh for Si concentrator systems.

  11. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants - Thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipippo, R.; Kestin, J.; Avelar, E. M.; Khalifa, H. E.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants to compound systems which combine the features of the two previously analyzed hybrid plants, the geothermal preheat and the fossil superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A complete summary of formulae to assess the performance of the plants is included for completeness. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at several geothermal sites in the western United States.

  12. Economics and performance of PV hybrid power systems: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.L.; Durand, S.J.; Thomas, M.G.; Post, H.N.

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center (PVSAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been supporting the development and implementation of off-grid PV hybrid power systems for many years. Technical support has included: refining hardware; understanding system design techniques; obtaining operation and maintenance data; studying use of energy produced. As part of the program, the PVSAC has provided technical expertise on hybrid systems to many federal agencies including the National Park Service, the Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of Defense. The goal of these partnerships has been to ensure that reliable and safe PV hybrid systems are specified and procured. At present, a critical review of performance and costs of several representative PV hybrid systems is underway. This paper presents a summary of the performance and economical analyses conducted on three PV hybrid systems.

  13. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C.; Warner, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, James Gerald

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  15. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging biomechanical energy for sustainably powering wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Xue; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report a hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for highly efficient scavenging of biomechanical energy to sustainably power wearable electronics by human walking. Based on the effective conjunction of triboelectrification and electromagnetic induction, the hybridized nanogenerator, with dimensions of 5 cm × 5 cm × 2.5 cm and a light weight of 60 g, integrates a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that can deliver a peak output power of 4.9 mW under a loading resistance of 6 MΩ and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) that can deliver a peak output power of 3.5 mW under a loading resistance of 2 kΩ. The hybridized nanogenerator exhibits a good stability for the output performance and a much better charging performance than that of an individual energy-harvesting unit (TENG or EMG). Furthermore, the hybridized nanogenerator integrated in a commercial shoe has been utilized to harvest biomechanical energy induced by human walking to directly light up tens of light-emitting diodes in the shoe and sustainably power a smart pedometer for reading the data of a walking step, distance, and energy consumption. A wireless pedometer driven by the hybrid nanogenerator can work well to send the walking data to an iPhone under the distance of 25 m. This work pushes forward a significant step toward energy harvesting from human walking and its potential applications in sustainably powering wearable electronics.

  16. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  17. A Packaged Self-Powered System with Universal Connectors Based on Hybridized Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bojing; Zheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Hong; Yao, Yan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-01

    A packaged self-powered system by hybridizing nanogenerators (PSNGS) is demonstrated. The performance of the PSNGS is tested in a biofluid and used for powering an electronic thermometer. Select waterproof universal connectors are designed and fabricated for energy and signal transmission. This PSNGS and the connectors can significantly advance the development of self-powered implanted medical devices and wearable/portable electronics. PMID:26634808

  18. Hybrid robust predictive optimization method of power system dispatch

    DOEpatents

    Chandra, Ramu Sharat; Liu, Yan; Bose, Sumit; de Bedout, Juan Manuel

    2011-08-02

    A method of power system dispatch control solves power system dispatch problems by integrating a larger variety of generation, load and storage assets, including without limitation, combined heat and power (CHP) units, renewable generation with forecasting, controllable loads, electric, thermal and water energy storage. The method employs a predictive algorithm to dynamically schedule different assets in order to achieve global optimization and maintain the system normal operation.

  19. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  20. Economic evaluation of solar-only and hybrid power towers using molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    Several hybrid and solar-only configurations for molten-salt power towers were evaluated with a simple economic model, appropriate for screening analysis. The solar specific aspects of these plants were highlighted. In general, hybrid power towers were shown to be economically superior to solar-only plants with the same field size. Furthermore, the power-booster hybrid approach was generally preferred over the fuel-saver hybrid approach. Using today`s power tower technology, economic viability for the solar power-boost occurs at fuel costs in the neighborhood of $2.60/MBtu to $4.40/ MBtu (low heating value) depending on whether coal-based or gas-turbine-based technology is being offset. The cost Of CO[sub 2] avoidance was also calculated for solar cases in which the fossil fuel cost was too low for solar to be economically viable. The avoidance costs are competitive with other proposed methods of removing CO[sub 2] from fossil-fired power plants.

  1. Wind/hybrid power system test facilities in the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. J.; Clark, R. N.; Brothers, C.; Saulnier, Bernard

    1994-05-01

    By 1995, there will be four facilities available for testing of wind/hybrid power systems in the United States and Canada. This paper describes the mission, approach, capabilities, and status of activity at each of these facilities. These facilities have in common a focus on power systems for remote, off-grid locations that include wind energy. At the same time, these facilities have diverse, yet complimentary, missions that range from research to technology development to testing. The first facility is the test facility at the Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), Hydro-Quebec's research institute near Montreal, Canada. This facility, not currently in operation, was used for initial experiments demonstrating the dynamic stability of a high penetration, no-storage wind/diesel (HPNSWD) concept. The second facility is located at the Atlantic Wind Test Site (AWTS) on Prince Edward Island, Canada, where testing of the HPNSWD concept developed by Hydro-Quebec is currently underway. The third is the Hybrid Power Test Facility planned for the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, which will focus on testing commercially available hybrid power systems. The fourth is the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas, where a test laboratory is being developed to study wind-energy penetration and control strategies for wind/hybrid systems. The authors recognize that this summary of test facilities is not all inclusive; for example, at least one U.S. industrial facility is currently testing a hybrid power system. Our intent, though, is to describe four facilities owned by nonprofit or governmental institutions in North America that are or will be available for ongoing development of wind/hybrid power systems.

  2. Hybrid zero-voltage switching (ZVS) control for power inverters

    DOEpatents

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Hu, Haibing; Batarseh, Issa

    2016-11-01

    A power inverter combination includes a half-bridge power inverter including first and second semiconductor power switches receiving input power having an intermediate node therebetween providing an inductor current through an inductor. A controller includes input comparison circuitry receiving the inductor current having outputs coupled to first inputs of pulse width modulation (PWM) generation circuitry, and a predictive control block having an output coupled to second inputs of the PWM generation circuitry. The predictive control block is coupled to receive a measure of Vin and an output voltage at a grid connection point. A memory stores a current control algorithm configured for resetting a PWM period for a switching signal applied to control nodes of the first and second power switch whenever the inductor current reaches a predetermined upper limit or a predetermined lower limit.

  3. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG E) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PG E grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W.; Ribeiro, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  6. Amp-hour counting control for PV hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-06-01

    The performance of an amp-hour (Ah) counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based PV hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive field testing of the charge algorithm on flooded lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The test results after one-year have demonstrated that PV charge utilization, battery charge control, and battery state of charge (SOC) has been significantly improved by providing maximum charge to the batteries while limiting battery overcharge to manufacturers specifications during variable solar resource and load periods.

  7. Extremal harmonic active control of power for a monocylinder hybrid powertrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Jean-Philippe; Micheau, Philippe; Cauet, Sébastien; Coirault, Patrick; Martin, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    This article presents a real-life application for the extremal harmonic active control of power [1] applied on a hybrid engine setup. The active control was adapted for a hybrid powertrain constituted of a one-cylinder diesel engine coupled with a permanent magnet synchronous machine. The problem was formulated in the harmonic domain and the control objective was to extremalize energetic criterions. Three criterions were considered: minimizing the speed ripple of the engine, maximizing the mechanical reactive power (mechanical impedance adaptation) and maximizing the active electric power for energy harvesting. The results show that, for the first and second orders of the ripple, speed oscillations can be completely cancelled and reactive power and active power can be optimized on-line. The implicit extremal controller converged rapidly, remaining stable even when the mean engine speed changed abruptly. These results confirm the robustness and the applicability of the extremal harmonic active control for industrial applications.

  8. Supervisory Power Management Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. A Survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2014-03-31

    The growing necessity for environmentally benign hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms to maximize fuel economy and minimize pollutant emissions. This paper surveys the control algorithms for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) that have been reported in the literature to date. The exposition ranges from parallel, series, and power split HEVs and PHEVs and includes a classification of the algorithms in terms of their implementation and the chronological order of their appearance. Remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

  9. Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

  10. Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D. W.

    1999-02-12

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

  11. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; LaClair, Tim J.; Parks, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  12. The use of hybrid-power sources for improved performance with pulsed loads

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.P.; Nagasubramanian, G.

    1998-04-01

    Electrical characteristics of hybrid power sources consisting of Li-ion cells and double layer capacitors were studied at 25 C and {minus}20 C. The cells were initially evaluated for pulse performance and then measured in hybrid modes of operation. Cells manufactured by Panasonic delivered pulses up to 3A and cells from A and T delivered 4A at 25 C before cell capacity dropped. Measured cell resistances were 0.15 ohms and 0.12 ohms, respectively. These measurements were repeated at {minus}20 C. Direct coupling of the cells and capacitors (dumb hybrid) extended the pulse limits to 5.6A using the Panasonic cells and 9A for the A and T cells. Operation in a smart hybrid mode using uncoupled cell/capacitor discharge allowed full cell capacity usage at 25 C and showed a factor of 5 improvement in delivered capacity at {minus}20 C.

  13. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics. PMID:27391273

  14. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flowmore » data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.« less

  15. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro Kalyan Perumalla, James Joseph

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flow data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.

  16. A simple mathematical description of an off-grid hybrid solar-wind power generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2013-05-01

    We give a detailed description of the energy balance equation for a stand-alone hybrid solar-wind power generating system. The dimensions of the power generator and the energy capacity of a buffer battery (used as an energy storage system) are chosen to suit a known consumer's profile. Future applications of the mathematical model developed and analogies with a similar hydrodynamic problem are discussed.

  17. Hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film multijunction solar cells exceeding 11% power conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Roland, Steffen; Neubert, Sebastian; Albrecht, Steve; Stannowski, Bernd; Seger, Mark; Facchetti, Antonio; Schlatmann, Rutger; Rech, Bernd; Neher, Dieter

    2015-02-18

    Hybrid multijunction solar cells comprising hydrogenated amorphous silicon and an organic bulk heterojunction are presented, reaching 11.7% power conversion efficiency. The benefits of merging inorganic and organic subcells are pointed out, the optimization of the cells, including optical modeling predictions and tuning of the recombination contact are described, and an outlook of this technique is given.

  18. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluşan, H.; Gharehbaghi, K.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage.

  19. Application of explicit model predictive control to a hybrid battery-ultracapacitor power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hredzak, Branislav; Agelidis, Vassilios G.; Demetriades, Georgios

    2015-03-01

    An explicit model predictive control (EMPC) system for a hybrid battery-ultracapacitor power source is proposed and experimentally verified in this paper. The main advantage of using the EMPC system is that the control law computation is reduced to evaluation of an explicitly defined piecewise linear function of the states. Separate EMPC systems for the total output current loop, the battery loop and the ultracapacitor loop are designed. This modular design approach allows evaluation of the performance of each individual EMPC system separately and also improves the convergence of the EMPC system design algorithm as the models used to design each loop are smaller. In order to protect the hybrid power source, the designed EMPC systems maintain operation of the hybrid power source within specified constraints, namely, battery and ultracapacitor current constraints, battery state of charge constraints and ultracapacitor voltage constraints. At the same time, the total output current EMPC system allocates high frequency current changes to the ultracapacitor and the low frequency current changes to the battery thus extending the battery lifetime. Presented experimental results verify that the hybrid power source operates within the specified constraints while allocating high and low frequency current changes to the ultracapacitor and battery respectively.

  20. A comparison of GaAs and Si hybrid solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Five different hybrid solar power systems using silicon solar cells to produce thermal and electric power are modeled and compared with a hybrid system using a GaAs cell. Among the indices determined are capital cost per unit electric power plus mechanical power, annual cost per unit electric energy, and annual cost per unit electric plus mechanical work. Current costs are taken to be $35,000/sq m for GaAs cells with an efficiency of 15% and $1000/sq m for Si cells with an efficiency of 10%. It is shown that hybrid systems can be competitive with existing methods of practical energy conversion. Limiting values for annual costs of Si and GaAs cells are calculated to be 10.3 cents/kWh and 6.8 cents/kWh, respectively. Results for both systems indicate that for a given flow rate there is an optimal operating condition for minimum cost photovoltaic output. For Si cell costs of $50/sq m optimal performance can be achieved at concentrations of about 10; for GaAs cells costing 1000/sq m, optimal performance can be obtained at concentrations of around 100. High concentration hybrid systems offer a distinct cost advantage over flat systems.

  1. Experimental investigation on thermoelectric generator of micro hybrid power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yonghong; Li, Yanqiu; Yu, Hongyun; Sun, Hongguang; Su, Bo

    2007-12-01

    The micro power system, which is composed of photovoltaic solar cell, heat conductor, thermoelectric generator (TEG) module and fin heat sink has been developed in our laboratory. A photovoltaic silicon solar cell of the P-N junction type is sensitive to radiant energy of wavelength from 5,000 Å to 12,000 Å. Radiation under and within this range is converted not only into electric energy but also into heat energy. The wavelength longer than this range is also converted into heat energy, which degrades the conversion efficiency of the solar cell. TEG produces electrical power from temperature difference via Seebeck effect that can be put under the solar cell to absorb the heat. The heat energy can be converted into electrical power. It was found that when TEG surface area was 150mm×60mm, it could generate 0.24V output voltage and 4.18mA short circuit at ambient temperature varying between 5-10°C at winter. It also could generate 1.3V output voltage and 16mA short circuit at ambient temperature varying between 30-36°C at summer. In fact we can use a dc-dc boost up converter to enlarge the output voltage to meet the requirements of wireless sensor network nodes or its recharging battery. It will be an alternative power source for many portable electronic types of equipment.

  2. A long term study of the desiccation resistance of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans from the Mexican nuclear power plant "Laguna Verde".

    PubMed

    Pimentel, A E; Levine, L; Cruces, M P; Salceda, S V

    2007-05-01

    The generation of electricity through the use of radioactive material at the nuclear power plant is inevitably associated with the production of wastes, some of which have potential impact on the biosphere. The objective of the present investigation was to provide information for evaluating the presumed impact of the Mexican Nuclear Power Plant "Laguna Verde" on the natural populations. Two sibling species that live in the immediate vicinity, Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans have been studied for several traits in a long term study. The present study describes results for the desiccation resistance (DR) trait obtained during the period from 1995 to 2002. Flies were collected at two sites, one near the reactors and another farther away. The data obtained confirmed that D. melanogaster had higher DR values than D. simulans at both sites. The analysis of the results obtained from both species of the site closer to the reactor indicated that the values of the DR in the operational stage did not change, compared with those in the preoperational stage previously analyzed. Therefore, the significant differences found between the monitored sites did not seem to be associated to the operation of the reactors. PMID:17016749

  3. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel; Mines, Greg; Turchi, Craig; Zhu, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  4. Hybrid Voltage-Multipliers Based Switching Power Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Caro, Julio C.; Mayo-Maldonado, Jonathan C.; Vazquez-Bautista, Rene Fabian; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, Antonio; Salas-Cabrera, Ruben; Valdez-Resendiz, Jesus Elias

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a derivation of PWM DC-DC hybrid converters by combining traditional converters with the Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier, the voltage multiplier of each converter is driven with the same transistor of the basic topology; this fact makes the structure of the new converters very simple and provides high-voltage gain. The traditional topologies discussed are the boost, buck-boost, Cuk and SEPIC. They main features of the discussed family are: (i) high-voltage gain without using extreme duty cycles or transformers, which allow high switching frequency and (ii) low voltage stress in switching devices, along with modular structures, and more output levels can be added without modifying the main circuit, which is highly desirable in some applications such as renewable energy generation systems. It is shown how a multiplier converter can become a generalized topology and how some of the traditional converters and several state-of-the-art converters can be derived from the generalized topologies and vice-versa. All the discussed converters were simulated, additionally experimental results are provided with an interleaved multiplier converter.

  5. Lower hybrid wave edge power loss quantification on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, I. C.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Parker, R. R.; Terry, J. L.; Whyte, D. G.; Baek, S. G.; Edlund, E.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Kuang, A. Q.; Reinke, M. L.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Walk, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    For the first time, the power deposition of lower hybrid RF waves into the edge plasma of a diverted tokamak has been systematically quantified. Edge deposition represents a parasitic loss of power that can greatly impact the use and efficiency of Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) at reactor-relevant densities. Through the use of a unique set of fast time resolution edge diagnostics, including innovative fast-thermocouples, an extensive set of Langmuir probes, and a Lyα ionization camera, the toroidal, poloidal, and radial structure of the power deposition has been simultaneously determined. Power modulation was used to directly isolate the RF effects due to the prompt ( t < τ E ) response of the scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma to Lower Hybrid Radiofrequency (LHRF) power. LHRF power was found to absorb more strongly in the edge at higher densities. It is found that a majority of this edge-deposited power is promptly conducted to the divertor. This correlates with the loss of current drive efficiency at high density previously observed on Alcator C-Mod, and displaying characteristics that contrast with the local RF edge absorption seen on other tokamaks. Measurements of ionization in the active divertor show dramatic changes due to LHRF power, implying that divertor region can be a key for the LHRF edge power deposition physics. These observations support the existence of a loss mechanism near the edge for LHRF at high density ( n e > 1.0 × 10 20 (m-3)). Results will be shown addressing the distribution of power within the SOL, including the toroidal symmetry and radial distribution. These characteristics are important for deducing the cause of the reduced LHCD efficiency at high density and motivate the tailoring of wave propagation to minimize SOL interaction, for example, through the use of high-field-side launch.

  6. Performance evaluation of hybrid VLC using device cost and power over data throughput criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. C.; Tan, C. S.; Wong, H. Y.; Yahya, M. B.

    2013-09-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) technology has attained its attention in both academic and industry lately. It is determined by the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology for solid-state lighting (SSL).It has great potential to gradually replace radio frequency (RF) wireless technology because it offers unregulated and unlicensed bandwidth to withstand future demand of indoor wireless access to real-time bandwidth-demanding applications. However, it was found to provide intrusive uplink channel that give rise to unpleasant irradiance from the user device which could interfere with the downlink channel of VLC and hence limit mobility to users as a result of small coverage (field of view of VLC).To address this potential problem, a Hybrid VLC system which integrates VLC (for downlink) and RF (for uplink) technology is proposed. It offers a non-intrusive RF back channel that provides high throughput VLC and maintains durability with conventional RF devices. To deploy Hybrid VLC system in the market, it must be energy and cost saving to attain its equivalent economical advantage by comparing to existing architecture that employs fluorescent or LED lights with RF technology. In this paper, performance evaluation on the proposed hybrid system was carried out in terms of device cost and power consumption against data throughput. Based on our simulation, Hybrid VLC system was found to reduce device cost by 3% and power consumption by 68% when compares to fluorescent lights with RF technology. Nevertheless, when it is compared to LED lights with RF technology, our proposed hybrid system is found to achieve device cost saving as high as 47% and reduced power consumption by 49%. Such promising results have demonstrated that Hybrid VLC system is a feasible solution and has paved the way for greater cost saving and energy efficient compares with the current RF architecture even with the increasing requirement of indoor area coverage.

  7. Analysis of DMFC/battery hybrid power system for portable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bong-Do; Jung, Doo-Hwan; Ko, Young-Ho

    This study was carried out to develop a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)/battery hybrid power system used in portable applications. For a portable power system, the DMFC was applied for the main power source at average load and the battery was applied for auxiliary power at overload. Load share characteristics of hybrid power source were analyzed by computational simulation. The connection apparatus between the DMFC and the battery was set and investigated in the real system. Voltages and currents of the load, the battery and the DMFC were measured according to fuel, air and load changes. The relationship between load share characteristic and battery capacity was surveyed. The relationship was also studied in abnormal operation. A DMFC stack was manufactured for this experiment. For the study of the connection characteristics to the fuel cell Pb-acid, Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries were tested. The results of this study can be applied to design the interface module of the fuel cell/battery hybrid system and to determine the design requirement in the fuel cell stack for portable applications.

  8. Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

  9. Wind Power Forecasting techniques in complex terrain: ANN vs. ANN-CFD hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Mana, Matteo; Burlando, Massimiliano; Meißner, Cathérine; Piccioni, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Due to technology developments, renewable energies are becoming competitive against fossil sources and the number of wind farms is growing, which have to be integrated into power grids. Therefore, accurate power forecast is needed and often operators are charged with penalties in case of imbalance. Yet, wind is a stochastic and very local phenomenon, and therefore hard to predict. It has a high variability in space and time and wind power forecast is challenging. Statistical methods, as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), are often employed for power forecasting, but they have some shortcomings: they require data sets over several years and are not able to capture tails of wind power distributions. In this work a pure ANN power forecast is compared against a hybrid method, based on the combination of ANN and a physical method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The validation case is a wind farm sited in southern Italy in a very complex terrain, with a wide spread turbine layout.

  10. The Lived Experiences of 3rd Generation and beyond U.S.-Born Mexican Heritage College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and Mexican)…

  11. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-14

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  12. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  13. Ultra-low-power hybrid light–matter solitons

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P. M.; Tinkler, L.; Skryabin, D. V.; Yulin, A.; Royall, B.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Skolnick, M. S.; Krizhanovskii, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    New functionalities in nonlinear optics will require systems with giant optical nonlinearity as well as compatibility with photonic circuit fabrication techniques. Here we introduce a platform based on strong light–matter coupling between waveguide photons and quantum-well excitons. On a sub-millimetre length scale we generate picosecond bright temporal solitons at a pulse energy of only 0.5 pJ. From this we deduce a nonlinear refractive index three orders of magnitude larger than in any other ultrafast system. We study both temporal and spatio-temporal nonlinear effects and observe dark–bright spatio-temporal polariton solitons. Theoretical modelling of soliton formation in the strongly coupled system confirms the experimental observations. These results show the promise of our system as a high speed, low power, integrated platform for physics and devices based on strong interactions between photons. PMID:26400748

  14. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  15. Ultra-low-power hybrid light-matter solitons.

    PubMed

    Walker, P M; Tinkler, L; Skryabin, D V; Yulin, A; Royall, B; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Skolnick, M S; Krizhanovskii, D N

    2015-09-24

    New functionalities in nonlinear optics will require systems with giant optical nonlinearity as well as compatibility with photonic circuit fabrication techniques. Here we introduce a platform based on strong light-matter coupling between waveguide photons and quantum-well excitons. On a sub-millimetre length scale we generate picosecond bright temporal solitons at a pulse energy of only 0.5 pJ. From this we deduce a nonlinear refractive index three orders of magnitude larger than in any other ultrafast system. We study both temporal and spatio-temporal nonlinear effects and observe dark-bright spatio-temporal polariton solitons. Theoretical modelling of soliton formation in the strongly coupled system confirms the experimental observations. These results show the promise of our system as a high speed, low power, integrated platform for physics and devices based on strong interactions between photons.

  16. Optimization of hybrid power system composed of SMES and flywheel MG for large pulsed load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2008-09-01

    A superconducting magnetic storage system (SMES) has some advantages such as rapid large power response and high storage efficiency which are superior to other energy storage systems. A flywheel motor generator (FWMG) has large scaled capacity and high reliability, and hence is broadly utilized for a large pulsed load, while it has comparatively low storage efficiency due to high mechanical loss compared with SMES. A fusion power plant such as International Thermo-Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) requires a large and long pulsed load which causes a frequency deviation in a utility power system. In order to keep the frequency within an allowable deviation, we propose a hybrid power system for the pulsed load, which equips the SMES and the FWMG with the utility power system. We evaluate installation cost and frequency control performance of three power systems combined with energy storage devices; (i) SMES with the utility power, (ii) FWMG with the utility power, (iii) both SMES and FWMG with the utility power. The first power system has excellent frequency power control performance but its installation cost is high. The second system has inferior frequency control performance but its installation cost is the lowest. The third system has good frequency control performance and its installation cost is attained lower than the first power system by adjusting the ratio between SMES and FWMG.

  17. Hybrid power system intelligent operation and protection involving distributed architectures and pulsed loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Ahmed

    Efficient and reliable techniques for power delivery and utilization are needed to account for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electric power systems. Such methods are also required for current and future demands of plug-in electric vehicles and high-power electronic loads. Distributed control and optimal power network architectures will lead to viable solutions to the energy management issue with high level of reliability and security. This dissertation is aimed at developing and verifying new techniques for distributed control by deploying DC microgrids, involving distributed renewable generation and energy storage, through the operating AC power system. To achieve the findings of this dissertation, an energy system architecture was developed involving AC and DC networks, both with distributed generations and demands. The various components of the DC microgrid were designed and built including DC-DC converters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and AC-DC rectifiers featuring novel designs developed by the candidate. New control techniques were developed and implemented to maximize the operating range of the power conditioning units used for integrating renewable energy into the DC bus. The control and operation of the DC microgrids in the hybrid AC/DC system involve intelligent energy management. Real-time energy management algorithms were developed and experimentally verified. These algorithms are based on intelligent decision-making elements along with an optimization process. This was aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the power system and mitigating the effect of heavy non-linear loads with variable intensity and duration. The developed algorithms were also used for managing the charging/discharging process of plug-in electric vehicle emulators. The protection of the proposed hybrid AC/DC power system was studied. Fault analysis and protection scheme and coordination, in addition to ideas on how to retrofit currently available

  18. Developing high-power hybrid resonant gain-switched thulium fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Nan; Li, Yue; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose hybrid-pumped resonant gain-switched thulium fiber lasers to realize high-average-power and high-pulse-energy 2-μm laser emissions. Based on numerical simulation, laser dynamics (pulse peak power, pulse energy, pulse duration, etc.) of this kind of laser system are investigated in detail. By taking advantages of the 793 nm continuous wave pump and the 1900 nm pulsed pump, performance of the laser emission can be significantly improved, with the highest average power of 28 W, peak power of 3.5 kW, pulse energy of 281 μJ, and narrowest pulse duration of 92 ns, all of which can be further optimized through designing the cavity parameters and the pumping circumstance. Compared with the pump pulses, two times improvement in pulse energy and average power has been achieved. This hybrid resonant gain-switched system has an all-fiber configuration and high efficiency (low heat load), and can be steadily extended into the cladding pump scheme, thus paving a new way to realize high power (>100 W average power) and high pulse energy (>1 mJ) 2 μm thulium fiber lasers. PMID:26480083

  19. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  20. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    PubMed

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants. PMID:25816968

  1. Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for a Self-Powered Electronic Watch.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ting; Wang, Xue; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2015-12-22

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator including a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and six electromagnetic generators (EMGs) that can effectively scavenge biomechanical energy for sustainably powering an electronic watch. Triggered by the natural motions of the wearer's wrist, a magnetic ball at the center in an acrylic box with coils on each side will collide with the walls, resulting in outputs from both the EMGs and the TENG. By using the hybridized nanogenerator to harvest the biomechanical energy, the electronic watch can be continuously powered under different motion types of the wearer's wrist, where the best approach is to charge a 100 μF capacitor in 39 s to maintain the continuous operation of the watch for 456 s. To increase the working time of the watch further, a homemade Li-ion battery has been utilized as the energy storage unit for realizing the continuous working of the watch for about 218 min by using the hybridized nanogenerator to charge the battery within 32 min. This work will provide the opportunities for developing a nanogenerator-based built-in power source for self-powered wearable electronics such as an electronic watch.

  2. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    PubMed

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants.

  3. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  4. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2016-08-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  5. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  6. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  7. Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

  8. Rotating-Disk-Based Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Sustainably Powering Wireless Traffic Volume Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binbin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Long; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Wireless traffic volume detectors play a critical role for measuring the traffic-flow in a real-time for current Intelligent Traffic System. However, as a battery-operated electronic device, regularly replacing battery remains a great challenge, especially in the remote area and wide distribution. Here, we report a self-powered active wireless traffic volume sensor by using a rotating-disk-based hybridized nanogenerator of triboelectric nanogenerator and electromagnetic generator as the sustainable power source. Operated at a rotating rate of 1000 rpm, the device delivered an output power of 17.5 mW, corresponding to a volume power density of 55.7 W/m(3) (Pd = P/V, see Supporting Information for detailed calculation) at a loading resistance of 700 Ω. The hybridized nanogenerator was demonstrated to effectively harvest energy from wind generated by a moving vehicle through the tunnel. And the delivered power is capable of triggering a counter via a wireless transmitter for real-time monitoring the traffic volume in the tunnel. This study further expands the applications of triboelectric nanogenerators for high-performance ambient mechanical energy harvesting and as sustainable power sources for driving wireless traffic volume sensors.

  9. Rotating-Disk-Based Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Sustainably Powering Wireless Traffic Volume Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binbin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Long; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Wireless traffic volume detectors play a critical role for measuring the traffic-flow in a real-time for current Intelligent Traffic System. However, as a battery-operated electronic device, regularly replacing battery remains a great challenge, especially in the remote area and wide distribution. Here, we report a self-powered active wireless traffic volume sensor by using a rotating-disk-based hybridized nanogenerator of triboelectric nanogenerator and electromagnetic generator as the sustainable power source. Operated at a rotating rate of 1000 rpm, the device delivered an output power of 17.5 mW, corresponding to a volume power density of 55.7 W/m(3) (Pd = P/V, see Supporting Information for detailed calculation) at a loading resistance of 700 Ω. The hybridized nanogenerator was demonstrated to effectively harvest energy from wind generated by a moving vehicle through the tunnel. And the delivered power is capable of triggering a counter via a wireless transmitter for real-time monitoring the traffic volume in the tunnel. This study further expands the applications of triboelectric nanogenerators for high-performance ambient mechanical energy harvesting and as sustainable power sources for driving wireless traffic volume sensors. PMID:27232668

  10. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  11. Powerful wideband amplifier based on hybrid plasma-cavity slow-wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zavjalov, M.A.; Mitin, L.A.; Perevodchicov, V.I.; Tskhai, V.N.; Shapiro, A.L. )

    1994-10-01

    A powerful beam-plasma amplifier operating under continuous conditions is described. The amplifier is designed on new principles using hybrid plasma-cavity electrodynamic structures. The theory and foundation for calculating slow-wave structures have a plasma filled propagation channel, and the interaction of an electron beam with a hybrid plasma-cavity system, are considered. Considerably increased power of microwave radiation and expansion of the operating pass-band is shown to result when the propagation channel is filled with plasma. The use of new principles makes it possible to create an amplifier with an efficiency and 3 dB operating band width higher than those attained in vacuum devices.

  12. A hybrid solar panel maximum power point search method that uses light and temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Solar cells have low efficiency and non-linear characteristics. To increase the output power solar cells are connected in more complex structures. Solar panels consist of series of connected solar cells with a few bypass diodes, to avoid negative effects of partial shading conditions. Solar panels are connected to special device named the maximum power point tracker. This device adapt output power from solar panels to load requirements and have also build in a special algorithm to track the maximum power point of solar panels. Bypass diodes may cause appearance of local maxima on power-voltage curve when the panel surface is illuminated irregularly. In this case traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms can find only a local maximum power point. In this article the hybrid maximum power point search algorithm is presented. The main goal of the proposed method is a combination of two algorithms: a method that use temperature sensors to track maximum power point in partial shading conditions and a method that use illumination sensor to track maximum power point in equal illumination conditions. In comparison to another methods, the proposed algorithm uses correlation functions to determinate the relationship between values of illumination and temperature sensors and the corresponding values of current and voltage in maximum power point. In partial shading condition the algorithm calculates local maximum power points bases on the value of temperature and the correlation function and after that measures the value of power on each of calculated point choose those with have biggest value, and on its base run the perturb and observe search algorithm. In case of equal illumination algorithm calculate the maximum power point bases on the illumination value and the correlation function and on its base run the perturb and observe algorithm. In addition, the proposed method uses a special coefficient modification of correlation functions algorithm. This sub

  13. Conceptual design analysis for hybrid-cycle OTEC plants for co-production of electric power and desalinated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C. B.; Genens, L.

    Hybrid-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants are shown to be potentially the most flexible and cost effective in obtaining any specific mix of electrical power and desalinated water. This paper describes two particular hybrid configurations. One achieves maximum power production and the other achieves maximum water production for a given cold sea-water flow rate and pipe size. When power is the desired commodity and desalinated water is the by-product, the most effective configuration is the conventional hybrid cycle. When only water production is required, the desired configuration combines a multistage flash evaporator and a closed-cycle power OTEC plant, the latter generates the power to run the support equipment with no net or minimal power generation.

  14. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  15. Experimental hybrid power transmission line with liquid hydrogen and MgB2-based superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, V. V.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Blagov, E. V.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Firsov, V. P.

    2012-03-01

    Results of developing and testing an experimental hybrid power transmission line with liquid hydrogen and superconducting power (SCP) cable based on magnesium diboride (MgB2) are presented. Critical currents of the MgB2 based prototype SCP cable have been determined for the first time at the forced flow of liquid hydrogen in a temperature interval of 20-26 K. Various regimes of SCP cable cryostatting with both subcooled saturated liquid hydrogen have been tested in a broad range of supply rates (7-220 g/s) and pressures (0.15-0.4 MPa).

  16. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser power generation with an off-axis hybrid resonator.

    PubMed

    Handke, Jürgen; Schall, Wolfgang O; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grünewald, Karin M

    2006-06-01

    A rectangular negative branch off-axis hybrid resonator was coupled to a 10 kW class chemical oxygen-iodine laser. Resonator setup and alignment turned out to be straightforward. The extracted power was 6.6 kW and reached approximately 70% of the power for an optimized stable resonator. The divergence of the emitted laser beam in the unstable direction was lower than two times the diffraction limit. Experimentally measured margins for mirror misalignment were found in close agreement with numerical calculations. PMID:16724146

  17. DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ashish Gupta

    2002-06-01

    A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

  18. The power capability of ultracapacitors and lithium batteries for electric and hybrid vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    There is much confusion and uncertainty in the literature concerning the useable power capability of batteries and ultracapacitors (electrochemical capacitors) for various applications. Clarification of this confusion is one of the primary objectives of this paper. The three approaches most often applied to determine the power capability of devices are (1) matched impedance power, (2) the min/max method of the USABC, and (3) the pulse energy efficiency approach used at UC Davis. It has been found that widely different power capability for batteries and ultracapacitors can be inferred using these approaches even when the resistance and open-circuit voltage are accurately known. In general, the values obtained using the energy efficiency method for EF = 90-95% are much lower than the other two methods which yield values corresponding to efficiencies of 70-75%. For plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle applications, the maximum useable power density for a lithium-ion battery can be higher than that corresponding to 95% efficiency because the peak power of the driveline is used less frequently and consequently charge/discharge efficiently is less important. For these applications, the useable power density of the batteries can be closer to the useable power density of ultracapacitors. In all cases, it is essential that a careful and appropriate measurement is made of the resistance of the devices and the comparisons of the useable power capability be made in a way appropriate for the application for which the devices are to be used.

  19. Hybrid Power Management Program Evaluated Fuel Cell/Ultracapacitor Combinations and Developed Other New Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2004-01-01

    In fiscal year 2003, the continuation of the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program through NASA Glenn Research Center's Commercial Technology Office resulted in several new successful applications of this pioneering technology. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors, fuel cells, and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential, with applications from nanowatts to megawatts--including power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. Fuel cells provide excellent efficiency and energy density, but do not have good power density. In contrast, ultracapacitors have excellent power density and virtually unlimited cycle life. To improve the power density of the fuel cell, the combination of fuel cells and ultracapacitors was evaluated.

  20. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W.; Peng, F.Z.

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Power-balancing instantaneous optimization energy management for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongye; Lin, Xinyou; Qin, Datong; Deng, Tao

    2012-11-01

    Energy management(EM) is a core technique of hybrid electric bus(HEB) in order to advance fuel economy performance optimization and is unique for the corresponding configuration. There are existing algorithms of control strategy seldom take battery power management into account with international combustion engine power management. In this paper, a type of power-balancing instantaneous optimization(PBIO) energy management control strategy is proposed for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus. According to the characteristic of the novel series-parallel architecture, the switching boundary condition between series and parallel mode as well as the control rules of the power-balancing strategy are developed. The equivalent fuel model of battery is implemented and combined with the fuel of engine to constitute the objective function which is to minimize the fuel consumption at each sampled time and to coordinate the power distribution in real-time between the engine and battery. To validate the proposed strategy effective and reasonable, a forward model is built based on Matlab/Simulink for the simulation and the dSPACE autobox is applied to act as a controller for hardware in-the-loop integrated with bench test. Both the results of simulation and hardware-in-the-loop demonstrate that the proposed strategy not only enable to sustain the battery SOC within its operational range and keep the engine operation point locating the peak efficiency region, but also the fuel economy of series-parallel hybrid electric bus(SPHEB) dramatically advanced up to 30.73% via comparing with the prototype bus and a similar improvement for PBIO strategy relative to rule-based strategy, the reduction of fuel consumption is up to 12.38%. The proposed research ensures the algorithm of PBIO is real-time applicability, improves the efficiency of SPHEB system, as well as suite to complicated configuration perfectly.

  2. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant. PMID:18996680

  3. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  4. Bio-inspired, Moisture-Powered Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Park, Karam; Mun, Tae Jin; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Hygromorph artificial muscles are attractive as self-powered actuators driven by moisture from the ambient environment. Previously reported hygromorph muscles have been largely limited to bending or torsional motions or as tensile actuators with low work and energy densities. Herein, we developed a hybrid yarn artificial muscle with a unique coiled and wrinkled structure, which can be actuated by either changing relative humidity or contact with water. The muscle provides a large tensile stroke (up to 78%) and a high maximum gravimetric work capacity during contraction (2.17 kJ kg(-1)), which is over 50 times that of the same weight human muscle and 5.5 times higher than for the same weight spider silk, which is the previous record holder for a moisture driven muscle. We demonstrate an automatic ventilation system that is operated by the tensile actuation of the hybrid muscles caused by dew condensing on the hybrid yarn. This self-powered humidity-controlled ventilation system could be adapted to automatically control the desired relative humidity of an enclosed space. PMID:26973137

  5. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  6. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  7. High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, JieXi; Munroe, Brian J.; Xu, Haoran; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the first high power tests of hybrid photonic band gap (PBG) accelerator structures. Three hybrid PBG (HPBG) structures were designed, built and tested at 17.14 GHz. Each structure had a triangular lattice array with 60 inner sapphire rods and 24 outer copper rods sandwiched between copper disks. The dielectric PBG band gap map allows the unique feature of overmoded operation in a TM02 mode, with suppression of both lower order modes, such as the TM11 mode, as well as higher order modes. The use of sapphire rods, which have negligible dielectric loss, required inclusion of the dielectric birefringence in the design. The three structures were designed to sequentially reduce the peak surface electric field. Simulations showed relatively high surface fields at the triple point as well as in any gaps between components in the clamped assembly. The third structure used sapphire rods with small pin extensions at each end and obtained the highest gradient of 19 MV /m , corresponding to a surface electric field of 78 MV /m , with a breakdown probability of 5 ×10-1 per pulse per meter for a 100-ns input power pulse. Operation at a gradient above 20 MV /m led to runaway breakdowns with extensive light emission and eventual damage. For all three structures, multipactor light emission was observed at gradients well below the breakdown threshold. This research indicated that multipactor triggered at the triple point limited the operational gradient of the hybrid structure.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  9. Bio-inspired, Moisture-Powered Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Park, Karam; Mun, Tae Jin; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Hygromorph artificial muscles are attractive as self-powered actuators driven by moisture from the ambient environment. Previously reported hygromorph muscles have been largely limited to bending or torsional motions or as tensile actuators with low work and energy densities. Herein, we developed a hybrid yarn artificial muscle with a unique coiled and wrinkled structure, which can be actuated by either changing relative humidity or contact with water. The muscle provides a large tensile stroke (up to 78%) and a high maximum gravimetric work capacity during contraction (2.17 kJ kg‑1), which is over 50 times that of the same weight human muscle and 5.5 times higher than for the same weight spider silk, which is the previous record holder for a moisture driven muscle. We demonstrate an automatic ventilation system that is operated by the tensile actuation of the hybrid muscles caused by dew condensing on the hybrid yarn. This self-powered humidity-controlled ventilation system could be adapted to automatically control the desired relative humidity of an enclosed space.

  10. Bio-inspired, Moisture-Powered Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Park, Karam; Mun, Tae Jin; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Hygromorph artificial muscles are attractive as self-powered actuators driven by moisture from the ambient environment. Previously reported hygromorph muscles have been largely limited to bending or torsional motions or as tensile actuators with low work and energy densities. Herein, we developed a hybrid yarn artificial muscle with a unique coiled and wrinkled structure, which can be actuated by either changing relative humidity or contact with water. The muscle provides a large tensile stroke (up to 78%) and a high maximum gravimetric work capacity during contraction (2.17 kJ kg−1), which is over 50 times that of the same weight human muscle and 5.5 times higher than for the same weight spider silk, which is the previous record holder for a moisture driven muscle. We demonstrate an automatic ventilation system that is operated by the tensile actuation of the hybrid muscles caused by dew condensing on the hybrid yarn. This self-powered humidity-controlled ventilation system could be adapted to automatically control the desired relative humidity of an enclosed space. PMID:26973137

  11. A high power spiral wound lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.B.; Sexton, E.D.

    1997-12-01

    Optima Batteries, Inc. is currently in development of a high power (660 W/kg) spiral wound lead-acid 6V battery with a nominal capacity of 15 Ah. Its exceptional power and excellent thermal characteristics make it a promising choice for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The hybrid electric vehicle presents a new and unique challenge for energy storage systems. The batteries require high power for acceleration and hill climbing and good charge acceptance for regenerative braking and overall energy efficiency. Since the on board auxiliary power unit results in much lower demands for battery energy capacity, lead-acid batteries fit quite well into these performance requirements. Many of the remaining challenges involve the development of battery management systems which must function to maintain the battery pack at peak performance and achieve an economical cycle life. Related to the issue of battery management is information about conditions that may cause damage or unbalance of the pack. Experiments are described investigating the effects of extreme cell reversal on battery capacity and cycle life. The results demonstrate the amazing robustness of the lead-acid battery for tolerating over discharge.

  12. Ergodynamics in the Reliability of Power Plant Operators and Prospective Hybrid Intelligence Systems.

    PubMed

    Venda; Chachko

    1996-01-01

    Based on ergodynamics and the hybrid intelligence theory, an analysis of the nuclear power plant operator's performance is given at the levels of strategies, tactics, and actions. Special attention is paid to the strategies used in the course of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Data from Ukrainian and Russian power plants and training centres, and from accidents around the world were collected and processed. It is shown that in an emergency it is essential for the human operator to be flexible. This flexibility includes two main training and personal factors: a large set of strategies and tactics the operator manages to use, and quick transformations between the strategies (tactics). It was also found that some emergency tasks are too complicated: They require simultaneous use of different strategies, with time strictly limited by nuclear power plant dynamics. Those tasks cannot be successfully solved by any individual operator. Hybrid intelligence systems involving different specialists should be used in those cases in order to avoid failures in emergency problem solving and macroergonomic organizational design.

  13. Optimized efficiency of all-electric ships by dc hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Bijan; Norum, Lars E.; Ludvigsen, Kristine B.

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid power systems with dc distribution are being considered for commercial marine vessels to comply with new stringent environmental regulations, and to achieve higher fuel economy. In this paper, detailed efficiency analysis of a shipboard dc hybrid power system is carried out. An optimization algorithm is proposed to minimize fuel consumption under various loading conditions. The studied system includes diesel engines, synchronous generator-rectifier units, a full-bridge bidirectional converter, and a Li-Ion battery bank as energy storage. In order to evaluate potential fuel saving provided by such a system, an online optimization strategy for fuel consumption is implemented. An Offshore Support Vessel (OSV) is simulated over different operating modes using the online control strategy. The resulted consumed fuel in the simulation is compared to that of a conventional ac power system, and also a dc power system without energy storage. The results show that while the dc system without energy storage provides noticeable fuel saving compared to the conventional ac system, optimal utilization of the energy storage in the dc system results in twice as much fuel saving.

  14. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-10-19

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a stationary-wireless- power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep was performed over many different battery sizes, charging power levels, and number/location of bus stop charging stations. The net present cost was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under favorable and high unfavorable market penetration assumptions. The analysis identifies fuel saving opportunities with plug-in hybrid electric bus scenarios at cumulative net present costs not too dissimilar from those for conventional buses.

  15. Study of molten carbonate fuel cell—microturbine hybrid power cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Francisco

    The interaction realized by fuel cell—microturbine hybrids derive primarily from using the rejected thermal energy and combustion of residual fuel from a fuel cell in driving the gas turbine. This leveraging of thermal energy makes the high temperature molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) ideal candidates for hybrid systems. Use of a recuperator contributes to thermal efficiency by transferring heat from the gas turbine exhaust to the fuel and air used in the system. Traditional control design approaches, consider a fixed operating point in the hope that the resulting controller is robust enough to stabilize the system for different operating conditions. On the other hand, adaptive control incorporates the time-varying dynamical properties of the model (a new value of gas composition) and considers the disturbances acting at the plant (load power variation).

  16. A Study on a Hybrid Approach for Diagnosing Faults in Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.; Zhang, Z.J.; Peng, M.J.; Yan, S.Y.; Wang, H.; Ouyang, J.

    2006-07-01

    Proper and rapid identification of malfunctions is of premier importance for the safe operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Many monitoring or/and diagnosis methodologies based on artificial and computational intelligence have been proposed to aid operator to understand system problems, perform trouble-shooting action and reduce human error under serious pressure. However, because no single method is adequate to handle all requirements for diagnostic system, hybrid approaches where different methods work in conjunction to solve parts of the problem interest researchers greatly. In this study, Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are proposed and employed to develop a fault diagnosis system with the intention of improving the success rate of recognition on the one hand, and improving the understandability of diagnostic process and results on the other hand. Several simulation cases were conducted for evaluating the performance of the proposed diagnosis system. The simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid approach. (authors)

  17. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, Luis

    2008-08-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  18. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  19. Hybrid Power Management Program Evaluated Ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Transportation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of ultracapacitors to obtain empirical data in determining the feasibility of using ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Transportation (NGLT) Project. There are large transient loads associated with NGLT that require a very large primary energy source or an energy storage system. The primary power source used for this test was a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The energy storage system can consist of batteries, flywheels, or ultracapacitors. Ultracapacitors were used for these tests. NASA Glenn has a wealth of experience in ultracapacitor technology through the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which the Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of Glenn s Engineering Development Division initiated for the Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-ofthe- art power devices in optimal configurations for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various advanced power devices (such as ultracapacitors and fuel cells) significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  20. Shunt hybrid active power filter under nonideal voltage based on fuzzy logic controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Papan; Mekhilef, Saad

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a synchronous reference frame (SRF) method based on a modified phase lock loop (PLL) circuit is developed for a three-phase four-wire shunt hybrid active power filter (APF). Its performance is analysed under unbalanced grid conditions. The dominant lower order harmonics as well as reactive power can be compensated by the passive elements, whereas the active part mitigates the remaining distortions and improves the power quality. As different control methods show contradictory performance, fuzzy logic controller is considered here for DC-link voltage regulation of the inverter. Extensive simulations of the proposed technique are carried out in a MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. A laboratory prototype has been built on dSPACE1104 platform to verify the feasibility of the suggested SHAPF controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  1. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  2. Multi-objective optimization for hybrid fuel cells power system under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.; Goyal, Amit

    One of the major applications of fuel cells is as onsite stationary electric power plants. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine a fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. Generally, the heat rejected by the fuel cell at a higher temperature is used in a bottoming cycle to generate steam. In this work we are considering a conceptual design of a solid oxide fuel cell-proton exchange membrane (SOFC-PEM) fuel cell hybrid power plant [R. Geisbrecht, Compact Electrochemical Reformer Based on SOFC Technology, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2000] in which the high temperature SOFC fuel cell acts both as electricity producer and fuel reformer for the low temperature PEM fuel cell (PEMFC). The exhaust from the PEM fuel cell goes to a waste hydrogen burner and heat recovery steam generator that produces steam for further utilizations. Optimizing this conceptual design involves consideration of a number of objectives. The process should have low pollutant emissions as well as cost competitive with the existing technology. The solution of a multi-objective optimization problem is not a single solution but a complete non-dominated or Pareto set, which includes the alternatives representing potential compromise solutions among the objectives. This makes a range of choice available to decision makers and provides them with the trade-off information among the multiple objectives effectively. This paper presents the optimal trade-off design solutions or the Pareto set for this hybrid power plant through a multi-objective optimization framework. This hybrid technology is new and the system level models used for fuel cells performance have significant uncertainties in them. In this paper, we characterize these uncertainties and study the effect of these uncertainties

  3. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  4. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  5. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  6. Joint U.S./Brazilian hybrid power system (wind-PV-diesel) on Marajo Island

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, C.; Taylor, R.W.; Corbus, D.; Moszkowicz, M.; Lima, J.; Ribeiro, C.

    1995-09-01

    A cooperative renewable energy project is underway between the U.S. Department of Energy (through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL), and the Federal Republic of Brazil (through the Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, CEPEL). The objectives of this joint US/Brazilian program are to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy systems to meet the needs of the people of rural Brazil, to build ongoing partnerships beneficial to both countries, and to demonstrate the potential for large-scale rural electrification through the use of renewable energy systems. Phase 1 of this program resulted in the deployment of more than 700 photovoltaic (PV) electric lighting systems in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco and Ceara. Phase 2 of the program extends the pilot project into six additional Brazilian states and demonstrates a wider variety of stand-alone end uses, including the use of wind electric power generation for selected sites and applications. Additionally, Phase 2 also includes the development of two hybrid village power systems, including one comprising PV, wind, battery, and diesel power sources. This paper focuses on this hybrid system, which is located in the Amazon River delta.

  7. Modeling and sizing optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-03-01

    The rapid industrialization and growth of world's human population have resulted in the unprecedented increase in the demand for energy and in particular electricity. Depletion of fossil fuels and impacts of global warming caused widespread attention using renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energies. Energy security under varying weather conditions and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing hybrid power generation systems. In this paper, the match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria to size the proposed system in lowest cost. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient, correlation coefficient, and annualized cost of system. It provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment, so it can handle large-scale design problems. Meteorological data were collected from the city of Zabol, located in south-east of Iran, as a case study. Six types of wind turbine and also six types of PV modules, with different output powers and costs, are considered for this optimization procedure. A battery storage system is used to even out irregularities in meteorological data. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used for the prediction of an optimized set of design based on the MEM technique. The results of this study are valuable for evaluating the performance of future stand-alone hybrid power system. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking into account the meteorological data and the consumer's demand.

  8. System simulation of compressed hydrogen storage based residential wind hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Mandhapati; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the storage of excess wind energy, in a hybrid wind power system, in the form of compressed hydrogen. A system simulation model is developed in Matlab/Simulink platform for the charging and discharging dynamics of compressed hydrogen storage system integrated with the wind turbine and the fuel cell. Wind model is used to estimate the power generation in the wind turbine. When the wind power generation exceeds the load, the excess power is diverted to the electrolyzer to produce hydrogen. As and when the pressure inside the electrolyzer builds, a compressor is operated intermittently (for higher efficiency) to divert the hydrogen into high pressure cylinders. When demand exceeds the power generation, fuel cell supplies the power to the load. A number of fuel cell stacks are provided to meet the required load. The overall efficiency of the storage system, defined as the ratio of the useful energy derived from the storage system to the energy diverted to the storage system is found to be 24.5% for the compressed hydrogen storage based system.

  9. Power dependent pulse delay with asymmetric dual-core hybrid photonic crystal fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qi; Zhang, Xia; Wei, Wei; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin

    2014-02-01

    We propose a novel asymmetric dual-core hybrid photonic crystal fiber (PCF) coupler composed of a silicon tube as the left core and a silica core as the right core. The control of picosecond pulse delay is achievable by means of power adjusting. The transmission modes, dispersion characteristics and coupling coefficients of the proposed coupler are investigated numerically. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain 2.0 ps time delay for soliton pulse with 2.0 ps temporal width within 1 cm length. Further numerical results show that the coupler can generate 10.0 ps undistorted time advance within 5 cm length.

  10. Hybrid high-energy high-power pulsewidth-tunable picosecond source.

    PubMed

    Pouysegur, Julien; Guichard, Florent; Zaouter, Yoann; Hanna, Marc; Druon, Frédéric; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Georges, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    A hybrid ytterbium-doped fiber-bulk laser source allowing the generation of 3 ps, 350 μJ, 116 MW peak power Fourier transform-limited pulses at 50 kHz repetition rate and 1030 nm wavelength is described. Pulse duration tunability is provided by an adjustable spectral compression-based seeder system. Energy scaling capabilities of the architecture by use of the divided-pulse amplification method are investigated. This source provides a robust, compact, and versatile solution for applications such as RF photocathode guns, x- and γ-ray generation by inverse Compton scattering, and optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification pumping.

  11. Hybrid high-energy high-power pulsewidth-tunable picosecond source.

    PubMed

    Pouysegur, Julien; Guichard, Florent; Zaouter, Yoann; Hanna, Marc; Druon, Frédéric; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Georges, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    A hybrid ytterbium-doped fiber-bulk laser source allowing the generation of 3 ps, 350 μJ, 116 MW peak power Fourier transform-limited pulses at 50 kHz repetition rate and 1030 nm wavelength is described. Pulse duration tunability is provided by an adjustable spectral compression-based seeder system. Energy scaling capabilities of the architecture by use of the divided-pulse amplification method are investigated. This source provides a robust, compact, and versatile solution for applications such as RF photocathode guns, x- and γ-ray generation by inverse Compton scattering, and optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification pumping. PMID:26565830

  12. Explanatory Emotion Talk in Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Christi A.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…

  13. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Hybrid System Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-506

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this PTS is to collaboratively leverage the collective resources at General Electric Global Research (GEGRC) and National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) in the areas of concentrating solar power hybrid systems to advance state-of-the-art concentrating solar and conventional power generation system integration.

  15. Hybrid integrated biological–solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106 mm−2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm−2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm−2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%. PMID:26638983

  16. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Jared M; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2015-12-07

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 10(6) mm(-2)) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm(-2) from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%.

  17. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Jared M; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 10(6) mm(-2)) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm(-2) from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%. PMID:26638983

  18. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-12-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106 mm-2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm-2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm-2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%.

  19. Feasibility of Hybrid Retrofits to Off-Grid Diesel Power Plants in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C. D.; Flowers, L. T.; Benavidez, P. J.; Abergas, R. L.; Barruela, R. B.

    1999-08-01

    The Strategic Power Utilities Group (SPUG) of the National Power Corporation (NPC) in the Philippines owns and operates about 100 power plants, mostly fueled by diesel, ranging in energy production from about 15 kilowatt-hours (kWh)/day to 106,000 kWh/day. Reducing the consumption of diesel fuel in these plants, along with the associated financial losses, is a priority for SPUG. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential fuel and cost savings that might be achieved by retrofitting hybrid power systems to these existing diesel plants. As used in this report, the term ''hybrid system'' refers to any combination of wind turbine generators (WTGs), photovoltaic (PV) modules, lead-acid batteries, and an AC/DC power converter (either an electronic inverter or a rotary converter), in addition to the existing diesel gensets. The resources available for this study did not permit a detailed design analysis for each of the plants. Instead, the following five-step process was used: (1) Tabulate some important characteristics of all the plants. (2) Group the plants into categories (six classes) with similar characteristics. (3) For each class of system, identify one plant that is representative of the class. (4) For each representative plant, perform a moderately detailed prefeasibility analysis of design options. (5) Summarize and interpret the results. The analysis of each representative plant involved the use of time-series computer simulation models to estimate the fuel usage, maintenance expenses, and cash flow resulting from various designs, and to search the domain of possible designs for the one leading to the lowest life-cycle cost. Cost items that would be unaffected by the retrofit, such as operator salaries and the capital cost of existing equipment, were not included in the analysis. Thus, the results are reported as levelized cost of energy (COE) savings: the difference between the cost of the existing diesel-only system and that of an optimized hybrid

  20. Characterization and quantification of uncertainty in solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.

    Distributed power generation is one of the most powerful applications of fuel cell technology. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level, but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine the fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. The power plant in focus is the high pressure (HP)-low pressure (LP) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)/steam turbine (ST)/gas turbine (GT) configuration which is a part of the vision-21 program, which is a new approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fossil Energy has begun, for developing 21st century energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. The overall goal is to effectively eliminate—at competitive costs—environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels, for producing electricity and transportation fuels. In this design, coal is gasified in an entrained bed gasifier and the syn-gas produced is cleaned in a transport bed desulfurizer and passed over to cascaded SOFC modules (at two pressure levels). This module is integrated with a reheat GT cycle. The heat of the exhaust from the GT cycle is used to convert water to steam, which is eventually used in a steam bottoming cycle. Since this hybrid technology is new and futuristic, the system level models used for predicting the fuel cells' performance and for other modules like the desulfurizer have significant uncertainties in them. Also, the performance curves of the SOFC would differ depending on the materials used for the anode, cathode and electrolyte. The accurate characterization and quantification of these uncertainties is crucial for the validity of the model predictions and hence is the main focus of this paper. This work performs a two-level uncertainty analysis of the fuel cell module: uncertainty associated with (1) model and (2) material used for anode, cathode and

  1. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  2. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMICS OF THE ADVANCED CO2 HYBRID POWER CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    A. Nehrozoglu

    2004-12-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract DEFC26-02NT41621 to analyze the feasibility of a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called the Advanced CO{sub 2} Hybrid Power Plant, offers the promise of efficiencies nearing 36 percent, while concentrating CO{sub 2} for 100% sequestration. Other pollutants, such as SO{sub 2} and NOx, are sequestered along with the CO{sub 2} yielding a zero emissions coal plant. The CO{sub 2} Hybrid is a gas turbine-steam turbine combined cycle plant that uses CO{sub 2} as its working fluid to facilitate carbon sequestration. The key components of the plant are a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), a pressurized circulating fluidized bed gasifier, a CO{sub 2} powered gas turbine, a circulating fluidized bed boiler, and a super-critical pressure steam turbine. The gasifier generates a syngas that fuels the gas turbine and a char residue that, together with coal, fuels a CFB boiler to power the supercritical pressure steam turbine. Both the gasifier and the CFB boiler use a mix of ASU oxygen and recycled boiler flue gas as their oxidant. The resulting CFB boiler flue gas is essentially a mixture of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Cooling the CFB flue gas to 80 deg. F condenses most of the moisture and leaves a CO{sub 2} rich stream containing 3%v oxygen. Approximately 30% of this flue gas stream is further cooled, dried, and compressed for pipeline transport to the sequestration site (the small amount of oxygen in this stream is released and recycled to the system when the CO{sub 2} is condensed after final compression and cooling). The remaining 70% of the flue gas stream is mixed with oxygen from the ASU and is ducted to the gas turbine compressor inlet. As a result, the gas turbine compresses a mixture of carbon dioxide (ca. 64%v) and oxygen (ca. 32.5%v) rather than air. This carbon dioxide rich mixture then becomes the gas turbine working fluid and

  3. Triboelectric-pyroelectric-piezoelectric hybrid cell for high-efficiency energy-harvesting and self-powered sensing.

    PubMed

    Zi, Yunlong; Lin, Long; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Chen, Jun; Fan, Xing; Yang, Po-Kang; Yi, Fang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-01

    A triboelectric-pyroelectric-piezoelectric hybrid cell, consisting of a triboelectric nanogenerator and a pyroelectric-piezoelectric nanogenerator, is developed for highly efficient mechanical energy harvesting through multiple mechanisms. The excellent performance of the hybrid cell enhances the energy-harvesting efficiency significantly (by 26.2% at 1 kΩ load resistance), and enables self-powered sensing, which will lead to a variety of advanced applications.

  4. A new topology of fuel cell hybrid power source for efficient operation and high reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizon, Nicu

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes a new fuel cell Hybrid Power Source (HPS) topology having the feature to mitigate the current ripple of the fuel cell inverter system. In the operation of the inverter system that is grid connected or supplies AC motors in vehicle application, the current ripple normally appears at the DC port of the fuel cell HPS. Consequently, if mitigation measures are not applied, this ripple is back propagated to the fuel cell stack. Other features of the proposed fuel cell HPS are the Maximum Power Point (MPP) tracking, high reliability in operation under sharp power pulses and improved energy efficiency in high power applications. This topology uses an inverter system directly powered from the appropriate fuel cell stack and a controlled buck current source as low power source used for ripple mitigation. The low frequency ripple mitigation is based on active control. The anti-ripple current is injected in HPS output node and this has the LF power spectrum almost the same with the inverter ripple. Consequently, the fuel cell current ripple is mitigated by the designed active control. The ripple mitigation performances are evaluated by indicators that are defined to measure the mitigation ratio of the low frequency harmonics. In this paper it is shown that good performances are obtained by using the hysteretic current control, but better if a dedicated nonlinear controller is used. Two ways to design the nonlinear control law are proposed. First is based on simulation trials that help to draw the characteristic of ripple mitigation ratio vs. fuel cell current ripple. The second is based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The ripple factor is up to 1% in both cases.

  5. Design of a hybrid wind power storage and generation system for a remote community

    SciTech Connect

    Devgan, S.S.; Walker, D.R. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    There are thousands of small communities in various parts of the world, even in developed countries, that are too far away to be economically connected to an electric supply system. Clean water is essential for health and well being and electric energy is essential for economic development of the community. This paper describes the design of a {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} Wind/Diesel power generation and storage system. and the electric power distribution system for a small rural community of 50 persons and live stock. The most cost effective and reliable system designed to satisfy reasonable growth over the next twenty-five years consists of three 10 kW wind turbines, a 30 kWh storage battery and a 17.5 kW backup diesel generator. This paper also describe efforts to train a neural network to predict wind power over the next time interval and few more time intervals. This is very essential for significant penetration of wind power systems.

  6. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  7. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  8. Investigation of lower hybrid physics through power modulation experiments on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Porkolab, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive tool for off-axis current profile control in magnetically confined tokamak plasmas and burning plasmas (ITER), because of its high current drive efficiency. The LHCD system on Alcator C-Mod operates at 4.6 GHz, with ~ 1 MW of coupled power, and can produce a wide range of launched parallel refractive index (n||) spectra. A 32 chord, perpendicularly viewing hard x-ray camera has been used to measure the spatial and energy distribution of fast electrons generated by lower hybrid (LH) waves. Square-wave modulation of LH power on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different n|| spectra. Inverted hard x-ray profiles show clear changes in LH-driven fast electron location with differing n||. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for ~ 1 ms time resolution which is sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down phases of fast electrons. Ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck modeling in combination with a synthetic hard x-ray diagnostic shows quantitative agreement with the x-ray data for high n|| cases. The time histories of hollow x-ray profiles have been used to measure off-axis fast electron transport in the outer half of the plasma, which is found to be small on a slowing down time scale.

  9. Development of energy management system based on a power sharing strategy for a fuel cell-battery-supercapacitor hybrid tramway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Zhixiang; Li, Ming; Ma, Lei

    2015-04-01

    A hybrid powertrain configuration based on a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC), a battery and a supercapacitor (SC) is designed without grid connection for the LF-LRV tramway. In order to avoid rapid changes of power demand and achieve high efficiency without degrading the mechanism performance, a power sharing strategy based on a combination of fuzzy logic control (FLC) and Haar wavelet transform (Haar-WT) is proposed for an energy management system of the hybrid tramway. The results demonstrate that the proposed energy management system is able to ensure the major positive portion of the low frequency components of power demand can be deals with the PEMFC. The battery can help provide a portion of the positive low frequency components of power demand to reduce the PEMFC burden while the SC bank can supply all the high frequency components which could damage the PEMFC membrane. Therefore, the energy management system of high-power hybrid tramway is able to guarantee a safe operating condition with transient free for the PEMFC and extend the lifetime of each power source. Finally, the comparisons with other control strategies verify that the proposed energy management system can achieve better energy efficiency of the overall hybrid tramway.

  10. Design of a 60 T Quasi-continuous Magnetic Field System with a Hybrid Capacitor/Rectifier Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Ding, H. F.; Peng, T.; Xiao, H. X.; Jiang, C. X.

    2013-03-01

    At the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, a 135 MW rectifier power supply is being installed nearby a 11 MJ capacitor bank power supply. By combining the two power supplies, a 60 T / 100 ms quasi-continuous magnetic field can be achieved in a monolithic copper coil magnet with a 22 mm diameter bore. Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a and Matlab 7.11.0 were adopted to verify the performance of the magnet and the hybrid power supply system. Details of the designed magnet, the power supply and the simulation results are presented.

  11. Simultaneously Harvesting Thermal and Mechanical Energies based on Flexible Hybrid Nanogenerator for Self-Powered Cathodic Protection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hulin; Zhang, Shangjie; Yao, Guang; Huang, Zhenlong; Xie, Yuhang; Su, Yuanjie; Yang, Weiqing; Zheng, Chunhua; Lin, Yuan

    2015-12-30

    Metal corrosion occurs anytime and anywhere in nature and the corrosion prevention has a great significance everywhere in national economic development and daily life. Here, we demonstrate a flexible hybrid nanogenerator (NG) that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting ambient thermal and mechanical energies and used for a self-powered cathodic protection (CP) system without using an external power source. Because of its double peculiarities of both pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based NG was constructed to scavenge both thermal and mechanical energies. As a supplementary, a triboelectric NG was constructed below the pyro/piezoelectric NG to grab ambient mechanical energy. The output power of the fabricated hybrid NG can be directly used to protect the metal surface from the chemical corrosion. Our results not only verify the feasibility of self-powered CP-based NGs, but also expand potential self-powered applications. PMID:26669205

  12. Hybrid Automaton Based Controller Design for Damage Mitigation of Islanded Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Sudipta

    Spurred by increasingly unpredictable weather, high penetration of renewable resources and a period of focused US government policy, it is widely expected that microgrids within the electric distribution system will show exponential growth in the coming decade. Microgrids comprise of power generation, delivery and consumption assets within restricted electrical boundaries and under contiguous control oversight that enables holistic management of these assets. Microgrids can be islanded and operated independent of a larger electric power network, and as such, a primary function of microgrids is to enhance the energy reliability of the underlying loads. In this work, we focus on naval shipboard power systems. Apart from being islanded, in the true sense, resiliency and damage mitigation are key considerations in the design and operation of these power systems. Islanded power systems encompass a rich diversity of discrete and continuous dynamic behavior in multiple time-scales. A high penetration of devices with power electronics interface, low inherent system inertia, and high density of switching devices can lead to rapid disturbance propagation and system failure without advanced damage mitigation strategies. Hybrid systems formalism incorporates continuous dynamics as well as discrete switching behavior into a modeling and control framework, thus allowing a complete system description while crystallizing concepts of safety into system design criteria. We build on existing work to enhance a Dynamic Mixed Integer Programming (DMIP) model of a power system that combines continuous time differential algebraic models with switching dynamics synthesized into mixed integer inequalities. We use this model to derive an optimal system reconfiguration strategy to prevent voltage collapse of a benchmark shipboard power system. However, this methodology is restricted by the computational complexity of dynamic programming and scalability of non-automated processes. To overcome

  13. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  14. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  15. Modelling cross-hybridization on phylogenetic DNA microarrays increases the detection power of closely related species.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Julia C; Rahmann, Sven; Wolf, Matthias; Schultz, Jörg; Fritzilas, Epameinondas; Kneitz, Susanne; Dandekar, Thomas; Müller, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays are a popular technique for the detection of microorganisms. Several approaches using specific oligomers targeting one or a few marker genes for each species have been proposed. Data analysis is usually limited to call a species present when its oligomer exceeds a certain intensity threshold. While this strategy works reasonably well for distantly related species, it does not work well for very closely related species: Cross-hybridization of nontarget DNA prevents a simple identification based on signal intensity. The majority of species of the same genus has a sequence similarity of over 90%. For biodiversity studies down to the species level, it is therefore important to increase the detection power of closely related species. We propose a simple, cost-effective and robust approach for biodiversity studies using DNA microarray technology and demonstrate it on scenedesmacean green algae. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA sequence was chosen as marker because it is suitable to distinguish all eukaryotic species even though parts of it are virtually identical in closely related species. We show that by modelling hybridization behaviour with a matrix algebra approach, we are able to identify closely related species that cannot be distinguished with a threshold on signal intensity. Thus this proof-of-concept study shows that by adding a simple and robust data analysis step to the evaluation of DNA microarrays, species detection can be significantly improved for closely related species with a high sequence similarity.

  16. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PMID:16211622

  17. Integration and optimization of the gas removal system for hybrid-cycle OTEC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.J.; Panchal, C.B.; Stevens, H.C. )

    1990-02-01

    A preliminary design of the noncondensible gas removal system for a 10 mWe, land-based hybrid-cycle OTEC power plant has been developed and is presented herein. This gas removal system is very different from that used for conventional power plants because of the substantially larger and continuous noncondensible gas flow rates and lower condenser pressure levels which predicate the need for higher-efficiency components. Previous OTEC studies discussed the need for multiple high-efficiency compressors with intercoolers; however, no previous design effort was devoted to the details of the intercoolers, integration and optimization of the intercoolers with the compressors, and the practical design constraints and feasibility issues of these components. The resulting gas removal system design uses centrifugal (radial) compressors with matrix-type crossflow aluminum heat exchangers as intercoolers. Once-through boiling of ammonia is used as the heat sink for the cooling and condensing of the steam-gas mixture. A computerized calculation method was developed for the performance analysis and subsystem optimization. For a specific number of compressor units and the stream arrangement, the method is used to calculate the dimensions, speeds, power requirements, and costs of all the components.

  18. Feasibility of a Hydraulic Power Assist System for Use in Hybrid Neuroprostheses

    PubMed Central

    Foglyano, Kevin M.; Kobetic, Rudi; To, Curtis S.; Bulea, Thomas C.; Schnellenberger, John R.; Audu, Musa L.; Nandor, Mark J.; Quinn, Roger D.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility of using pressurized hydraulic fluid as a source of on-demand assistive power for hybrid neuroprosthesis combining exoskeleton with functional neuromuscular stimulation was explored. Hydraulic systems were selected as an alternative to electric motors for their high torque/mass ratio and ability to be located proximally on the exoskeleton and distribute power distally to assist in moving the joints. The power assist system (PAS) was designed and constructed using off-the-shelf components to test the feasibility of using high pressure fluid from an accumulator to provide assistive torque to an exoskeletal hip joint. The PAS was able to provide 21 Nm of assistive torque at an input pressure of 3171 kPa with a response time of 93 ms resulting in 32° of hip flexion in an able-bodied test. The torque output was independent of initial position of the joint and was linearly related to pressure. Thus, accumulator pressure can be specified to provide assistive torque as needed in exoskeletal devices for walking or stair climbing beyond those possible either volitionally or with electrical stimulation alone. PMID:27017963

  19. Battery available power prediction of hybrid electric vehicle based on improved Dynamic Matrix Control algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Limei; Cheng, Yong; Zou, Ju

    2014-09-01

    The core technology to any hybrid engine vehicle (HEV) is the design of energy management strategy (EMS). To develop a reasonable EMS, it is necessary to monitor the state of capacity, state of health and instantaneous available power of battery packs. A new method that linearizes RC equivalent circuit model and predicts battery available power according to original Dynamic Matrix Control algorithm is proposed. To verify the validity of the new algorithm, a bench test with lithium-ion battery cell and a HEV test with lithium-ion battery packs are carried out. The bench test results indicate that a single RC block equivalent circuit model could be used to describe the dynamic and the steady state characteristics of a battery under testing conditions. However, lacking of long time constant of RC modules, there is a sample deviation in the open-circuit voltage identified and that measured. The HEV testing results show that the battery voltage predicted is in good agreement with that measured, the maximum difference is within 3.7%. Fixing the time constant to a numeric value, satisfactory results can still be achieved. After setting a battery discharge cut-off voltage, the instantaneous available power of the battery can be predicted.

  20. Feasibility of a Hydraulic Power Assist System for Use in Hybrid Neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Foglyano, Kevin M; Kobetic, Rudi; To, Curtis S; Bulea, Thomas C; Schnellenberger, John R; Audu, Musa L; Nandor, Mark J; Quinn, Roger D; Triolo, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility of using pressurized hydraulic fluid as a source of on-demand assistive power for hybrid neuroprosthesis combining exoskeleton with functional neuromuscular stimulation was explored. Hydraulic systems were selected as an alternative to electric motors for their high torque/mass ratio and ability to be located proximally on the exoskeleton and distribute power distally to assist in moving the joints. The power assist system (PAS) was designed and constructed using off-the-shelf components to test the feasibility of using high pressure fluid from an accumulator to provide assistive torque to an exoskeletal hip joint. The PAS was able to provide 21 Nm of assistive torque at an input pressure of 3171 kPa with a response time of 93 ms resulting in 32° of hip flexion in an able-bodied test. The torque output was independent of initial position of the joint and was linearly related to pressure. Thus, accumulator pressure can be specified to provide assistive torque as needed in exoskeletal devices for walking or stair climbing beyond those possible either volitionally or with electrical stimulation alone. PMID:27017963

  1. Hybrid energy storage system for wireless sensor node powered by aircraft specific thermoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraj, K.; Elefsiniotis, A.; Aslam, S.; Becker, Th.; Schmid, U.; Lees, J.; Featherston, C. A.; Pullin, R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for efficiently storing the energy harvested from a thermoelectric module for powering autonomous wireless sensor nodes for aeronautical health monitoring applications. A representative temperature difference was created across a thermo electric generator (TEG) by attaching a thermal mass and a cavity containing a phase change material to one side, and a heat source (to represent the aircraft fuselage) to the other. Batteries and supercapacitors are popular choices of storage device, but neither represents the ideal solution; supercapacitors have a lower energy density than batteries and batteries have lower power density than supercapacitors. When using only a battery for storage, the runtime of a typical sensor node is typically reduced by internal impedance, high resistance and other internal losses. Supercapacitors may overcome some of these problems, but generally do not provide sufficient long-term energy to allow advanced health monitoring applications to operate over extended periods. A hybrid energy storage unit can provide both energy and power density to the wireless sensor node simultaneously. Techniques such as acoustic-ultrasonic, acoustic-emission, strain, crack wire sensor and window wireless shading require storage approaches that can provide immediate energy on demand, usually in short, high intensity bursts, and that can be sustained over long periods of time. This application requirement is considered as a significant constraint when working with battery-only and supercapacitor-only solutions and they should be able to store up-to 40-50J of energy.

  2. Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Hybrid Brillouin/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, W.; Marciante, J.R.

    2010-06-22

    A coupled-wave rate-equation model, including multiple-order stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is used to study power scaling of hybrid Brillouin/ytterbium fiber lasers. To validate the model, a single-frequency, Brillouin/ytterbium fiber laser was built with a laser output of 40 mW and an optical signal-to-noise ratio greater than 50 dB. The numerical model simulation agrees with the measurements in both fully and partially injection locked regimes. To scale up the laser’s output power, a dual-clad architecture is proposed. In this new configuration, the active Yb-doped fiber provides the nonlinear SBS gain as well as the gain resulting from the excited Yb ions. Numerical modeling including three Stokes orders shows that over 5 W of single-frequency laser output can be achieved with a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of greater than 80 dB. Beyond this power, multi-order SBS affects the laser efficiency and SMSR.

  3. Outgassing of lower hybrid antenna modules during high-power long-pulse transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Goniche, M.; Kazarian, F.; Bibet, P.; Maebara, S.; Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, T.

    2005-01-01

    During high-power, long-pulse transmission from lower-hybrid-range-of-frequency (LHRF) antennas, the waveguide walls outgas as a result of rf-loss-induced heating. If the resulting pressure rise is too high, power transmission will be adversely affected and additional pumping may be required to maintain the pressure at a low enough value. The outgassing rates of waveguides made of various materials (oxygen-free high-conductivity copper, dispersoid copper, copper-coated carbon fiber composite, copper-coated graphite) were measured during rf injection at high power density (50-200 MW/m{sup 2}) for a duration in the range 100-4700 s. The experiments were performed on a test-bed facility equipped with a 3.7 GHz klystron on multiwaveguide (2 to 18) mock-ups. The effect of the main parameters, namely, the waveguide surface temperature and the initial wall gas loading ('conditioning'), are analyzed in detail. It is concluded that an outgassing rate of 1x10{sup -5} (5x10{sup -5}) Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} m{sup -2} at 300 deg. C (400 deg. C) can be considered for most materials. The requirement, in terms of additional pumping, for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor LHRF antenna is finally discussed.

  4. Hybrid Invariance and Stability of a Feedback Linearizing Controller for Powered Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anne E.; Gregg, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of powered lower-limb prostheses has the potential to significantly improve amputees’ quality of life. By applying advanced control schemes, such as hybrid zero dynamics (HZD), to prostheses, more intelligent prostheses could be designed. Originally developed to control bipedal robots, HZD-based control specifies the motion of the actuated degrees of freedom using output functions to be zeroed, and the required torques are calculated using feedback linearization. Previous work showed that an HZD-like prosthesis controller can successfully control the stance period of gait. This paper shows that an HZD-based prosthesis controller can be used for the entire gait cycle and that feedback linearization can be performed using only information measured with on-board sensors. An analytic metric for orbital stability of a two-step periodic gait is developed. The results are illustrated in simulation. PMID:26604427

  5. Advanced Power Conversion Efficiency in Inventive Plasma for Hybrid Toroidal Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hançerlioğullari, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut; Güdal, Murat

    2013-08-01

    Apex hybrid reactor has a good potential to utilize uranium and thorium fuels in the future. This toroidal reactor is a type of system that facilitates the occurrence of the nuclear fusion and fission events together. The most important feature of hybrid reactor is that the first wall surrounding the plasma is liquid. The advantages of utilizing a liquid wall are high power density capacity good power transformation productivity, the magnitude of the reactor's operational duration, low failure percentage, short maintenance time and the inclusion of the system's simple technology and material. The analysis has been made using the MCNP Monte Carlo code and ENDF/B-V-VI nuclear data. Around the fusion chamber, molten salts Flibe (LI2BeF4), lead-lithium (PbLi), Li-Sn, thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) have used as cooling materials. APEX reactor has modeled in the torus form by adding nuclear materials of low significance in the specified percentages between 0 and 12 % to the molten salts. In this study, the neutronic performance of the APEX fusion reactor using various molten salts has been investigated. The nuclear parameters of Apex reactor has been searched for Flibe (LI2BeF4) and Li-Sn, for blanket layers. In case of usage of the Flibe (LI2BeF4), PbLi, and thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) salt solutions at APEX toroidal reactors, fissile material production per source neutron, tritium production speed, total fission rate, energy reproduction factor has been calculated, the results obtained for both salt solutions are compared.

  6. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purceno, Aluir D.; Machado, Bruno F.; Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Medeiros, Tayline V.; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C.; Cardeal, Zenilda L.; Lago, Rochel M.; Serp, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen.In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and

  7. Maximum power output and load matching of a phosphoric acid fuel cell-thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Ling; Zhou, Yinghui

    2015-10-01

    Based on the current models of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and thermoelectric generators (TGs), a new hybrid system is proposed, in which the effects of multi-irreversibilities resulting from the activation, concentration, and ohmic overpotentials in the PAFC, Joule heat and heat leak in the TG, finite-rate heat transfer between the TG and the heat reservoirs, and heat leak from the PAFC to the environment are taken into account. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the PAFC, TG, and hybrid system are analytically derived and directly used to discuss the performance characteristics of the hybrid system. The optimal relationship between the electric currents in the PAFC and TG is obtained. The maximum power output is numerically calculated. It is found that the maximum power output density of the hybrid system will increase about 150 Wm-2, compared with that of a single PAFC. The problem how to optimally match the load resistances of two subsystems is discussed. Some significant results for practical hybrid systems are obtained.

  8. Single-frequency hybrid laser with an output power up to 3 W at a wavelength of 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Trikshev, A I; Kurkov, Andrei S; Tsvetkov, V B

    2012-05-31

    A high-power single-frequency laser with an output power of 2.5 W in the cw regime at a wavelength of 1064 nm has been developed using a hybrid scheme based on a master singlefrequency semiconductor laser (wavelength 1064 nm, lasing linewidth less than 3 MHz) and a two-cascade fibre amplifier pumped by high-power laser diodes. At pump powers of 4.8 W in the first cascade and 6.8 W in the second cascade the total gain is about 100.

  9. A hybrid fuzzy logic and extreme learning machine for improving efficiency of circulating water systems in power generation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Nur Liyana Afiqah Abdul; Siah Yap, Keem; Afif Bunyamin, Muhammad

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach of the fault detection for improving efficiency of circulating water system (CWS) in a power generation plant using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) neural network. The FLS is a mathematical tool for calculating the uncertainties where precision and significance are applied in the real world. It is based on natural language which has the ability of "computing the word". The ELM is an extremely fast learning algorithm for neural network that can completed the training cycle in a very short time. By combining the FLS and ELM, new hybrid model, i.e., FLS-ELM is developed. The applicability of this proposed hybrid model is validated in fault detection in CWS which may help to improve overall efficiency of power generation plant, hence, consuming less natural recourses and producing less pollutions.

  10. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  11. Performance of OVERFLOW-D Applications based on Hybrid and MPI Paradigms on IBM Power4 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report briefly discusses our preliminary performance experiments with parallel versions of OVERFLOW-D applications. These applications are based on MPI and hybrid paradigms on the IBM Power4 system here at the NAS Division. This work is part of an effort to determine the suitability of the system and its parallel libraries (MPI/OpenMP) for specific scientific computing objectives.

  12. Energy management of a fuel cell/ultracapacitor hybrid power system using an adaptive optimal-control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Song; Zheng, Chen-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Energy management of a fuel cell/ultracapacitor hybrid power system aims to optimize energy efficiency while satisfying the operational constraints. The current challenges include ensuring that the non-linear dynamics and energy management of a hybrid power system are consistent with state and input constraints imposed by operational limitations. This paper formulates the requirements for energy management of the hybrid power system as a constrained optimal-control problem, and then transforms the problem into an unconstrained form using the penalty-function method. Radial-basis-function networks are organized in an adaptive optimal-control algorithm to synthesize an optimal strategy for energy management. The obtained optimal strategy was verified in an electric vehicle powered by combining a fuel-cell system and an ultracapacitor bank. Driving-cycle tests were conducted to investigate the fuel consumption, fuel-cell peak power, and instantaneous rate of change in fuel-cell power. The results show that the energy efficiency of the electric vehicle is significantly improved relative to that without using the optimal strategy.

  13. Heavy Traffic Feasible Hybrid Intracycle and Cyclic Sleep for Power Saving in 10G-EPON

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqian; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Energy consumption in optical access networks costs carriers substantial operational expense (OPEX) every year and is one of contributing factors for the global warming. To reduce energy consumption in the 10-gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON), a hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep mechanism is proposed in this paper. Under heavy traffic load, optical network units (ONUs) can utilize short idle slots within each scheduling cycle to enter intracycle sleep without postponing data transmission. In this way, energy conservation is achieved even under heavy traffic load with quality of service (QoS) guarantee. Under light traffic load, ONUs perform long cyclic sleep for several scheduling cycles. The adoption of cyclic sleep instead of intracycle sleep under light traffic load can reduce unnecessary frequent transitions between sleep and full active work caused by using intracycle sleep. Further, the Markov chain of the proposed mechanism is established. The performances of the proposed mechanism and existing approaches are analyzed quantitatively based on the chain. For the proposed mechanism, power saving ability with QoS guarantee even under heavy traffic and better power saving performance than existing approaches are verified by the quantitative analysis. Moreover, simulations validate the above conclusions based on the chain. PMID:25177727

  14. Design of low-power hybrid digital pulse width modulator with piecewise calibration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Shaowei; Hou, Sijian; Gan, Wubing; Chen, Jingbo; Luo, Ping; Zhang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    A low-power hybrid digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is proposed in the paper. Owing to the piecewise calibration scheme, the delay time of delay line is locked to target frequency. The delay line consists of two piecewise lines with different control codes. The delay time of each cell in one sub-delay-line is longer than the last significant bit (LSB) of DPWM, while the delay time of each cell in the other sub-delay-line is shorter than LSB. Optimum linearity is realised with minimum standard cells. Simulation results show that the differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity are improved from 5.1 to 0.4 and from 5 to 1.3, respectively. The DPWM is fully synthesised and fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS process. The proposed DPWM occupies a silicon area of 0.01 mm2, with 31.5 μw core power consumption. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the 2-MHz, 10-bit resolution implementation. Pulse width histogram is firstly introduced to characterise the linearity of the DPWM.

  15. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  17. Comparative evaluation of biomass power generation systems in China using hybrid life cycle inventory analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  18. Comparative evaluation of biomass power generation systems in China using hybrid life cycle inventory analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  19. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  20. Application of hybrid life cycle approaches to emerging energy technologies--the case of wind power in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Suh, Sangwon; Feng, Kuishuang; Lenzen, Manfred; Acquaye, Adolf; Scott, Kate; Barrett, John R

    2011-07-01

    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework - Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy. PMID:21649442

  1. Application of hybrid life cycle approaches to emerging energy technologies--the case of wind power in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Suh, Sangwon; Feng, Kuishuang; Lenzen, Manfred; Acquaye, Adolf; Scott, Kate; Barrett, John R

    2011-07-01

    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework - Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy.

  2. Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

    Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

  3. The Mexican national satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

    1983-10-01

    The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

  4. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  5. Power and temperature control of fluctuating biomass gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, T.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    This paper addresses how the power and temperature are controlled in a biomass gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and micro gas turbine (MGT) hybrid system. A SOFC and MGT dynamic model are developed and used to simulate the hybrid system performance operating on biomass gas. The transient behavior of both the SOFC and MGT are discussed in detail. An unstable power output is observed when the system is fed biomass gas. This instability is due to the fluctuation of gas composition in the fuel. A specially designed fuel controller succeeded not only in allowing the hybrid system to follow a step change of power demand from 32 to 35 kW, but also stably maintained the system power output at 35 kW. In addition to power control, fuel cell temperature is controlled by introduction and use of a bypass valve around the recuperator. By releasing excess heat to the exhaust, the bypass valve provided the control means to avoid the self-exciting behavior of system temperature and stabilized the temperature of SOFC at 850 °C.

  6. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2015-03-10

    The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

  7. The Prevalence of Hypertension in Older Mexicans and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Eschbach, Karl A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Design Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician diagnosed hypertension were conducted using the Hispanic EPESE (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS- 70 years and older) datasets. Setting Five Southwestern States of Texas, Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico in the United States. Participants Older Mexican and Mexican Americans ages 70 and over living in the United States and Mexico. Main Outcome Measures Physician diagnosed hypertension. Results Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women, who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico, have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, obesity, and smoking, older Mexican and Mexican American women who have migrated or immigrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conclusions Gender differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:18785442

  8. Mexican oil and dependent development

    SciTech Connect

    Gentleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The developmet of Mexico's enormous hydrocarbon resources during the latter part of the 1970's provides an opportunity to examine the impact of Mexico's dependent-state status upon the use of the resource. Specifically, this study examines the hypothesis, drawn from the dependency literature, that the development of this resource within the context of dependency would lead to a greater internationalization of the Mexican economy and, in general, a deepening of Mexico's dependence rather than a lessening of that dependence as Mexico's political leaders suggest. The study also examines the impact of hydrocarbon development upon the growth of the Mexican state and state capitalism. Finally, the study examines the extent to which Mexico has sought to and has been able to modify the conditions of its dependence at the level of international exchange in the specific areas of trade, labor, and energy. Has the ''oil weapon'' been sufficiently powerful to modify substantially and fundamentally the terms of Mexico's dependence as some would argue should be able to do and as Mexico's leaders believed it would. Essentially, the study finds that Mexico's dependence has been exacerbated by the program of hydrocarbon development. Not only has the specific profile of oil, gas, and petrochemicals development been substantially impacted upon by Mexico's dependence, but the program for general economic development based upon the utilization of new oil revenues initiated a new era of dependent development for Mexico.

  9. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, R. M. J.; Endo, A.; Visser, P. J. de; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  10. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III )

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  11. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, W. R.; Johnson, B. L., III

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study.

  12. Single-level optimization of a hybrid SOFC-GT power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calise, F.; Dentice d'Accadia, M.; Vanoli, L.; von Spakovsky, M. R.

    The detailed synthesis/design optimization of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) power plant is presented in this paper. In the first part of the paper, the bulk-flow model used to simulate the plant is discussed. The performance of the centrifugal compressors and radial turbine is determined using maps, properly scaled in order to match the values required for mass flow rate and pressure ratio. Compact heat exchangers are simulated using Colburn and friction factor correlations. For the SOFC, the cell voltage versus current density curves (i.e. polarization curves) are generated on the basis of the Nernst potential and overvoltages. Validation of the SOFC polarization curves is accomplished with data available from Siemens Westinghouse. Both the steam-methane pre-reforming and internal reforming processes are modeled assuming the water-gas shift reaction to be equilibrium-controlled and the demethanization reactions to be kinetically controlled. Finally, a thermoeconomic model is developed by introducing capital cost functions for each plant component. The whole plant is first simulated for a fixed configuration. Then, a synthesis/design optimization of the plant is carried out using a traditional single-level approach. The results of the optimization are presented and discussed.

  13. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  14. Low power compact hybrid plasmonic double microring electro-optical modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Aya O.; Fouad, Nourhan H.; Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Beccherelli, Romeo; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present an electro-optical modulator based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Our modulator employs a conductor-gap-silicon (CGS) microring resonator on each side of the input waveguide in a pushpull configuration utilizing an embedded electro-optical polymer (EOP). CGS waveguides support hybrid plasmonic modes offering a sound trade-off between mode confinement and propagation loss. The modulator is designed and analyzed using 3D finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. To have a high quality resonator, the rings are designed to have moderate waveguide propagation losses and a sub-micron radius of R = 805 nm. With an exact capacitance of just 1.06 fF per single microring resonator and applied voltage of 2 V, the exact energy consumption is estimated to be 4.24 fJ/bit. To the best of our knowledge, this figure represents 40% less power consumption in comparison with different modulators structures. The ultra-small capacitance of the proposed modulator and the instantaneous response of the used polymer make our design suitable for high bit rate applications. At the wavelength of -1550 nm-, the insertion loss is 0.34 dB and the extinction ratio is 10.23 dB.

  15. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  16. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C.; Taylor, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  17. Hybrid solid state laser system using a neodymium-based master oscillator and an ytterbium-based power amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Marshall, Christopher D.; Powell, Howard T.; Krupke, William F.

    2001-01-01

    In a master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) hybrid laser system, the master oscillator (MO) utilizes a Nd.sup.3+ -doped gain medium and the power amplifier (PA) utilizes a diode-pumped Yb.sup.3+ -doped material. The use of two different laser gain media in the hybrid MOPA system provides advantages that are otherwise not available. The Nd-doped gain medium preferably serves as the MO because such gain media offer the lowest threshold of operation and have already been engineered as practical systems. The Yb-doped gain medium preferably serves in the diode-pumped PA to store pump energy effectively and efficiently by virtue of the long emission lifetime, thereby reducing diode pump costs. One crucial constraint on the MO and PA gain media is that the Nd and Yb lasers must operate at nearly the same wavelength. The 1.047 .mu.m Nd:YLF/Yb:S-FAP [Nd:LiYF.sub.4 /Yb:Sr.sub.5 (PO.sub.4).sub.3 F] hybrid MOPA system is a preferred embodiment of the hybrid Nd/Yb MOPA.

  18. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  19. Tradeoffs between battery energy capacity and stochastic optimal power management in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Scott J.; Callaway, Duncan S.; Fathy, Hosam K.; Stein, Jeffrey L.

    Recent results in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power management research suggest that battery energy capacity requirements may be reduced through proper power management algorithm design. Specifically, algorithms which blend fuel and electricity during the charge depletion phase using smaller batteries may perform equally to algorithms that apply electric-only operation during charge depletion using larger batteries. The implication of this result is that "blended" power management algorithms may reduce battery energy capacity requirements, thereby lowering the acquisition costs of PHEVs. This article seeks to quantify the tradeoffs between power management algorithm design and battery energy capacity, in a systematic and rigorous manner. Namely, we (1) construct dynamic PHEV models with scalable battery energy capacities, (2) optimize power management using stochastic control theory, and (3) develop simulation methods to statistically quantify the performance tradeoffs. The degree to which blending enables smaller battery energy capacities is evaluated as a function of both daily driving distance and energy (fuel and electricity) pricing.

  20. Working with Mexican midwives.

    PubMed

    Smith, M

    1996-09-01

    Mavis Smith is a midwife and a Ph. D. (Nursing) student at the University of Wollongong. She was the recipient of a Lions Nurses Scholarship Award for an overseas project, which was an internship in a freestanding Mexican Birthing Clinic on the Texas-Mexico border. Here Mavis shares her experience at the clinic which challenged and enhanced her midwifery skills.

  1. Notable Mexican American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Judith

    This paper describes the careers of four notable Mexican American women, including their educational and family backgrounds, achievements, and importance as role models for young Hispanic women. Marie Acosta-Colon's political activism began as a college student volunteering for presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy in 1968. Active in political…

  2. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  3. 40 CFR 1037.525 - Special procedures for testing hybrid vehicles with power take-off.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... is from a fully charged renewable energy storage system (RESS) to a depleted RESS and then back to a... system. When testing just the post-transmission hybrid system, you must include all hardware for the PTO system. You may ask us to modify the provisions of this section to allow testing hybrid vehicles...

  4. Relativistic Fermi-Ulam map: Application to WEGA stellarator lower hybrid power operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, V.; Seidl, J.; Krlín, L.; Pánek, R.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Laqua, H. P.

    2014-06-15

    Analytical and numerical support is here provided in support of the explanation [Laqua et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 075022 (2014)] for the observation of ∼MeV electrons during Lower Hybrid (LH) operation in EC pre-heated plasma at the WEGA stellarator [Otte et al., Nukleonika, 57, 171 (2012)]. In the quoted experiments, LH power from the WEGA TE{sub 11} circular waveguide, 9 cm diameter, un-phased, 2.45 GHz antenna, is radiated into a B ≅ 0.5 T, n{sup ¯}{sub e} ≅ 5 × 10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3} plasma at T{sub e} ≅ 10 eV bulk temperature with an EC-generated 50 keV population of electrons. In response, the fast electrons travel around flux or drift surfaces essentially without collisions, repeatedly interacting with the rf field close to the antenna mouth, and gaining energy in the process. Our WEGA antenna calculations indicate a predominantly standing electric field pattern at the antenna mouth. From a simple approximation of the corresponding Hamiltonian equations of motion, we derive here a relativistic generalization of the simplified area-preserving Fermi-Ulam (F-U) map [M. A. Lieberman and A. J. Lichtenberg, Phys. Rev. A 5, 1852 (1972), Lichtenberg et al., Physica D 1, 291 (1980)], allowing phase-space global stochasticity analysis. At typical WEGA plasma and antenna conditions, and with correlated phases between electron–antenna electric field interaction events, the F-U map and supporting numerical simulations predict an absolute energy barrier in the range of 300 keV. In contrast, with random phases intervening between interaction events, the electron energy can reach ∼MeV values, compatible with the measurements on WEGA [Laqua et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 075022 (2014)].

  5. Man portable power needs of the 21st century. I. Applications for the dismounted soldier. II. Enhanced capabilities through the use of hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Terrill B.; Cygan, Peter J.; Leung, Fee Chan

    The Army is facing a number of challenges now and in the future. One of the major challenges is in the power sources arena. As the Army continues to move toward digitizing the battlefield, the need for portable power is increasingly becoming a technological hurdle that must be overcome in order for a soldier to exercise his electronics capabilities without being overburdened by the power sources size, weight and operating/logistical costs. Advanced electronic devices are becoming a critical piece of the soldier's personal battlefield equipment. A soldier with the latest version of the Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) is one of the most dangerous weapon systems on the modern battlefield. The ability to accurately navigate and communicate multiplies the soldier's advantage over a less electronic capable enemy. Keeping his personal electronics operational is crucial to giving the soldier the capability to complete his mission successfully. Inherent in keeping the electronic equipment operating is keeping it supplied with batteries. Due to the increased emphasis placed on the modern soldiers electronic equipment, the importance of the portage of the power sources needed to keep this equipment operational has also increased. Recent efforts have focused on hybrid power sources that may enhance discussed capabilities by taking advantage of both high energy sources and high power systems for intermittent power application. This development could lead to a power source with enough energy to meet the Army's preference for a 72-h mission life before the need for resupply.

  6. Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

  7. Dynamic modeling, design and simulation of a wind/fuel cell/ultra-capacitor-based hybrid power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onar, O. C.; Uzunoglu, M.; Alam, M. S.

    Recent research and development of alternative energy sources have shown excellent potential as a form of contribution to conventional power generation systems. In order to meet sustained load demands during varying natural conditions, different energy sources and converters need to be integrated with each other for extended usage of alternative energy. The paper focuses on the combination of wind, fuel cell (FC) and ultra-capacitor (UC) systems for sustained power generation. As the wind turbine output power varies with the wind speed: an FC system with a UC bank can be integrated with the wind turbine to ensure that the system performs under all conditions. We propose herein a dynamic model, design and simulation of a wind/FC/UC hybrid power generation system with power flow controllers. In the proposed system, when the wind speed is sufficient, the wind turbine can meet the load demand while feeding the electrolyzer. If the available power from the wind turbine cannot satisfy the load demand, the FC system can meet the excess power demand, while the UC can meet the load demand above the maximum power available from the FC system for short durations. Furthermore, this system can tolerate the rapid changes in wind speed and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the equipment side voltage in a novel topology.

  8. Energy and Propulsion Optimization of Solid-Propellant Grain of a Hybrid Power Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarchuk, Sergey S.; Bondarchuk, Iliya S.; Borisov, Boris V.; Zhukov, Alexandr S.

    2016-02-01

    A method of distribution of an additional solid-phase component (oxidizer) providing uniformity of grain burning for the purpose of evaluation and optimization of energy and propulsion parameters of hybrid solid-propellant motor is proposed in the paper.

  9. Power sources for hybrid buses: comparative evaluation of the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bossche, Peter

    Due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles are an important factor for the improvement of urban traffic and, more particularly, for a healthier living environment. A particularly promising field of application is the hybrid-electric city bus, which offers unprecedented opportunities for reducing energy consumption and emissions. Nowadays, various hybrid bus configurations are being proposed and are being demonstrated in several European cities with the support of the European Union's `Thermie' programme. The most important hybrid bus project within Thermie is the Sagittaire project [EU Thermie Project Sagittaire, Newsletter 2, September 1998; EU Thremie project Sagittaire, unpublished documents], aiming to introduce hybrid buses in nine European cities: Luxembourg, Besançon, Alicante, Sintra, Stavanger, Trento, Savona, Athens and Bruges.

  10. Bio-Hybrid Micro/Nanodevices Powered by Flagellar Motor: Challenges and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Tung, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Molecular motors, which are precision engineered by nature, offer exciting possibilities for bio-hybrid engineered systems. They could enable real applications ranging from micro/nano fluidics, to biosensing, to medical diagnoses. This review describes the fundamental biological insights and fascinating potentials of these remarkable sensing and actuation machines, in particular, bacterial flagellar motors, as well as their engineering perspectives with regard to applications in bio-engineered hybrid systems. PMID:26284237

  11. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C.; Kandlikar, M.

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km.

  12. Application of Hybrid Real-Time Power System Simulator for Designing and Researching of Relay Protection and Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikov, Yu S.; Sulaymanov, A. O.; Andreev, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    Development, research and operation of smart grids (SG) with active-adaptive networks (AAS) are actual tasks for today. Planned integration of high-speed FACTS devices greatly complicates complex dynamic properties of power systems. As a result the operating conditions of equipment of power systems are significantly changing. Such situation creates the new actual problem of development and research of relay protection and automation (RPA) which will be able to adequately operate in the SGs and adapt to its regimes. Effectiveness of solution of the problem depends on using tools - different simulators of electric power systems. Analysis of the most famous and widely exploited simulators led to the conclusion about the impossibility of using them for solution of the mentioned problem. In Tomsk Polytechnic University developed the prototype of hybrid multiprocessor software and hardware system - Hybrid Real-Time Power System Simulator (HRTSim). Because of its unique features this simulator can be used for solution of mentioned tasks. This article introduces the concept of development and research of relay protection and automation with usage of HRTSim.

  13. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management Solutions Based on Isolated and Non-Isolated Configurations of MMCCC Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faisal H; Tolbert, Leon M; Webb, William E

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the various configurations of a multilevel modular capacitor-clamped converter (MMCCC), and it reveals many useful and new formations of the original MMCCC for transferring power in either an isolated or nonisolated manner. The various features of the original MMCCC circuit are best suited for a multibus system in future plug-in hybrid or fuel-cell-powered vehicles' drive train. The original MMCCC is capable of bidirectional power transfer using multilevel modular structure with capacitor-clamped topology. It has a nonisolated structure, and it offers very high efficiency even at partial loads. This circuit was modified to integrate single or multiple high-frequency transformers by using the intermediate voltage nodes of the converter. On the other hand, a special formation of the MMCCC can exhibit dc outputs offering limited isolation without using any isolation transformer. This modified version can produce a high conversion ratio from a limited number of components and has several useful applications in providing power to multiple low-voltage loads in a hybrid or electric automobile. This paper will investigate the origin of generating ac outputs from the MMCCC and shows how the transformer-free version can be modified to create limited isolation from the circuit. In addition, this paper will compare various modified forms of the MMCCC topology with existing dc-dc converter circuits from compactness and component utilization perspectives.

  14. Mexican Regulation of Biobanks.

    PubMed

    Motta-Murguia, Lourdes; Saruwatari-Zavala, Garbiñe

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research in Mexico is mostly governed by research and data protection laws. There is no direct mention of biobanks in either statutory or regulatory law besides a requirement that the Federal Ministry of Health and a Mexican institution devoted to scientific research approve the transfer of biological materials outside of Mexico for population genetics research purposes. Such requirements are the basis of Genomic Sovereignty in Mexico, but such requirements have not prevented international collaboration. In addition, Mexican law singles out genetic research in informed consent provisions, but it does not specify whether all biobank-based research is genetic research. In order to facilitate international collaboration on biobank-based research, Mexico should directly address biobanking in its laws, building on the research framework and data protection framework already in place. PMID:27256124

  15. Mexican Regulation of Biobanks.

    PubMed

    Motta-Murguia, Lourdes; Saruwatari-Zavala, Garbiñe

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research in Mexico is mostly governed by research and data protection laws. There is no direct mention of biobanks in either statutory or regulatory law besides a requirement that the Federal Ministry of Health and a Mexican institution devoted to scientific research approve the transfer of biological materials outside of Mexico for population genetics research purposes. Such requirements are the basis of Genomic Sovereignty in Mexico, but such requirements have not prevented international collaboration. In addition, Mexican law singles out genetic research in informed consent provisions, but it does not specify whether all biobank-based research is genetic research. In order to facilitate international collaboration on biobank-based research, Mexico should directly address biobanking in its laws, building on the research framework and data protection framework already in place.

  16. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic

  17. Fabrication of thickness controllable free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film for high-rate and high-power supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Helin; Wei, Sihang; Tian, Weifeng; Zhu, Daming; Liu, Yuhao; Yuan, Lili; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid carbon films composed of graphene film and porous carbon film may give full play to the advantages of both carbon materials, and have great potential for application in energy storage and conversion devices. Unfortunately, there are very few reports on fabrication of hybrid carbon films. Here we demonstrate a simple approach to fabricate free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film composed of porous amorphous carbon film and multilayer graphene film by chemical vapor deposition in a controllable and scalable way. Hybrid carbon films reveal good electrical conductivity, excellent flexibility, and good compatibility with substrate. Supercapacitors assembled by hybrid carbon films exhibit ultrahigh rate capability, wide frequency range, good capacitance performance, and high-power density. Moreover, this approach may provide a general path for fabrication of hybrid carbon materials with different structures by using different metals with high carbon solubility, and greatly expands the application scope of carbon materials. PMID:25394410

  18. POWER (power optimization for wireless energy requirements): A MATLAB based algorithm for design of hybrid energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. A.; Albano, F.; Nevius, P. E.; Sastry, A. M.

    We have expanded and implemented an algorithm for selecting power supplies into a turnkey MATLAB code, "POWER" (power optimization for wireless energy requirements). Our algorithm uses three approaches to system design, specifying either: (1) a single, aggregate power profile; (2) a power system designed to satisfy several power ranges (micro-, milli- and Watt); or (3) a power system designed to be housed within specified spaces within the system. POWER was verified by conducting two case studies on hearing prosthetics: the TICA (LZ 3001) (Baumann group at the Tübingen University) and Amadeus cochlear implant (CI) (WIMS-ERC at the University of Michigan) based on a volume constraint of 2 cm 3. The most suitable solution identified by POWER for the TICA device came from Approach 1, wherein one secondary cell provided 26,000 cycles of 16 h operation. POWER identified Approach 2 as the solution for the WIMS-ERC Amadeus CI, which consisted of 1 cell for the microWatt power range and 1 cell for the milliWatt range (4.43 cm 3, ∼55% higher than the target volume), and provided 3280 cycles of 16 h operation (including re-charge of the batteries). Future work will be focused on continuously improving our present tool.

  19. Hybrid Solvent-Membrane CO2 Capture: A Solvent/Membrane Hybrid Post-combustion CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: The University of Kentucky is developing a hybrid approach to capturing CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. In the first, CO2 is removed as flue gas is passed through an aqueous ammonium-based solvent. In the second, carbon-rich solution from the CO2 absorber is passed through a membrane that is designed to selectively transport the bound carbon, enhancing its concentration on the permeate side. The team’s approach would combine the best of both membrane- and solventbased carbon capture technologies. Under the ARPA-E award, the team is enabling the membrane operation to be a drop-in solution.

  20. Self-powered textile for wearable electronics by hybridizing fiber-shaped nanogenerators, solar cells, and supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhen; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Jie; Zi, Yunlong; Xu, Weidong; Deng, Jianan; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Xuhui; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wearable electronics fabricated on lightweight and flexible substrate are believed to have great potential for portable devices, but their applications are limited by the life span of their batteries. We propose a hybridized self-charging power textile system with the aim of simultaneously collecting outdoor sunshine and random body motion energies and then storing them in an energy storage unit. Both of the harvested energies can be easily converted into electricity by using fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (for solar energy) and fiber-shaped triboelectric nanogenerators (for random body motion energy) and then further stored as chemical energy in fiber-shaped supercapacitors. Because of the all–fiber-shaped structure of the entire system, our proposed hybridized self-charging textile system can be easily woven into electronic textiles to fabricate smart clothes to sustainably operate mobile or wearable electronics.

  1. Off-Design Performance Analysis of a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeh, Joshua E.; Steffen, J., Jr.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A solid-oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system for auxiliary aerospace power is analyzed using 0-D and 1-D system-level models. The system is designed to produce 440 kW of net electrical power, sized for a typical long-range 300-passenger civil airplane, at both sea level and cruise flight level (12,500 m). In addition, a part power level of 250 kW is analyzed at the cruise condition, a requirement of the operating power profile. The challenge of creating a balanced system for the three distinct conditions is presented, along with the compromises necessary for each case. A parametric analysis is described for the cruise part power operating point, in which the system efficiency is maximized by varying the air flow rate. The system is compared to an earlier version that was designed solely for cruise operation. The results show that it is necessary to size the turbomachinery, fuel cell, and heat exchangers at sea level full power rather than cruise full power. The resulting estimated mass of the system is 1912 kg, which is significantly higher than the original cruise design point mass, 1396 kg. The net thermal efficiencies with respect to the fuel LHV are calculated to be 42.4 percent at sea level full power, 72.6 percent at cruise full power, and 72.8 percent at cruise part power. The cruise conditions take advantage of pre-compressed air from the on-board Environmental Control System, which accounts for a portion of the unusually high thermal efficiency at those conditions. These results show that it is necessary to include several operating points in the overall assessment of an aircraft power system due to the variations throughout the operating profile.

  2. Can hybrid solar-fossil power plants mitigate CO2 at lower cost than PV or CSP?

    PubMed

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2013-03-19

    Fifteen of the United States and several nations require a portion of their electricity come from solar energy. We perform an engineering-economic analysis of hybridizing concentrating solar thermal power with fossil fuel in an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) generator. We construct a thermodynamic model of an ISCC plant in order to examine how much solar and fossil electricity is produced and how such a power plant would operate, given hourly solar resource data and hourly electricity prices. We find that the solar portion of an ISCC power plant has a lower levelized cost of electricity than stand-alone solar power plants given strong solar resource in the US southwest and market conditions that allow the capacity factor of the solar portion of the power plant to be above 21%. From a local government perspective, current federal subsidies distort the levelized cost of electricity such that photovoltaic electricity is slightly less expensive than the solar electricity produced by the ISCC. However, if the cost of variability and additional transmission lines needed for stand-alone solar power plants are taken into account, the solar portion of an ISCC power plant may be more cost-effective.

  3. Can hybrid solar-fossil power plants mitigate CO2 at lower cost than PV or CSP?

    PubMed

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2013-03-19

    Fifteen of the United States and several nations require a portion of their electricity come from solar energy. We perform an engineering-economic analysis of hybridizing concentrating solar thermal power with fossil fuel in an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) generator. We construct a thermodynamic model of an ISCC plant in order to examine how much solar and fossil electricity is produced and how such a power plant would operate, given hourly solar resource data and hourly electricity prices. We find that the solar portion of an ISCC power plant has a lower levelized cost of electricity than stand-alone solar power plants given strong solar resource in the US southwest and market conditions that allow the capacity factor of the solar portion of the power plant to be above 21%. From a local government perspective, current federal subsidies distort the levelized cost of electricity such that photovoltaic electricity is slightly less expensive than the solar electricity produced by the ISCC. However, if the cost of variability and additional transmission lines needed for stand-alone solar power plants are taken into account, the solar portion of an ISCC power plant may be more cost-effective. PMID:23379665

  4. Simulation and optimum design of hybrid solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel power generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei

    Solar and wind energy systems are considered as promising power generating sources due to its availability and topological advantages in local power generations. However, a drawback, common to solar and wind options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather changes, both of these energy systems would have to be oversized to make them completely reliable. Fortunately, the problems caused by variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating these two resources in a proper combination to form a hybrid system. However, with the increased complexity in comparison with single energy systems, optimum design of hybrid system becomes more complicated. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the renewable energy resources, one optimal sizing method is necessary. This thesis developed an optimal sizing method to find the global optimum configuration of stand-alone hybrid (both solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel) power generation systems. By using Genetic Algorithm (GA), the optimal sizing method was developed to calculate the system optimum configuration which offers to guarantee the lowest investment with full use of the PV array, wind turbine and battery bank. For the hybrid solar-wind system, the optimal sizing method is developed based on the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and the Annualized Cost of System (ACS) concepts. The optimization procedure aims to find the configuration that yields the best compromise between the two considered objectives: LPSP and ACS. The decision variables, which need to be optimized in the optimization process, are the PV module capacity, wind turbine capacity, battery capacity, PV module slope angle and wind turbine installation height. For the hybrid solar-wind-diesel system, minimization of the system cost is achieved not only by selecting an appropriate system configuration, but also by finding a suitable control strategy (starting and stopping point) of the diesel generator. The

  5. Converging Forces: Mexican Culture and Clinical Issues of Mexican Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Jeanne M.

    Mexican women tend to have limited access to medical and mental health care resources. Some of the common clinical issues experienced by Mexican woman are psychological conflict, depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms. Appropriate treatment approaches for therapy varies depending on the nature of the presenting problem. If clinical issues…

  6. A wavelet-fuzzy logic based energy management strategy for a fuel cell/battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid vehicular power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdinc, O.; Vural, B.; Uzunoglu, M.

    Due to increasing concerns on environmental pollution and depleting fossil fuels, fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as an alternative to the conventional vehicular systems. However, a FC system combined with an energy storage system (ESS) can display a preferable performance for vehicle propulsion. As the additional ESS can fulfill the transient power demand fluctuations, the fuel cell can be downsized to fit the average power demand without facing peak loads. Besides, braking energy can be recovered by the ESS. This study focuses on a vehicular system powered by a fuel cell and equipped with two secondary energy storage devices: battery and ultra-capacitor (UC). However, an advanced energy management strategy is quite necessary to split the power demand of a vehicle in a suitable way for the on-board power sources in order to maximize the performance while promoting the fuel economy and endurance of hybrid system components. In this study, a wavelet and fuzzy logic based energy management strategy is proposed for the developed hybrid vehicular system. Wavelet transform has great capability for analyzing signals consisting of instantaneous changes like a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power demand. Besides, fuzzy logic has a quite suitable structure for the control of hybrid systems. The mathematical and electrical models of the hybrid vehicular system are developed in detail and simulated using MATLAB ®, Simulink ® and SimPowerSystems ® environments.

  7. Optimal sizing study of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power generation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Belfkira, Rachid; Zhang, Lu; Barakat, Georges

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a methodology of sizing optimization of a stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system is presented. This approach makes use of a deterministic algorithm to suggest, among a list of commercially available system devices, the optimal number and type of units ensuring that the total cost of the system is minimized while guaranteeing the availability of the energy. The collection of 6 months of data of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient temperature recorded for every hour of the day were used. The mathematical modeling of the main elements of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel system is exposed showing the more relevant sizing variables. A deterministic algorithm is used to minimize the total cost of the system while guaranteeing the satisfaction of the load demand. A comparison between the total cost of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system with batteries and the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system without batteries is presented. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the used sizing methodology and show the influence of the battery storage on the total cost of the hybrid system. (author)

  8. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems. PMID:24489488

  9. SUNBURN: A computer code for evaluating the economic viability of hybrid solar central receiver electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, C.J.

    1987-06-01

    The computer program SUNBURN simulates the annual performance of solar-only, solar-hybrid, and fuel-only electric power plants. SUNBURN calculates the levelized value of electricity generated by, and the levelized cost of, these plants. Central receiver solar technology is represented, with molten salt as the receiver coolant and thermal storage medium. For each hour of a year, the thermal energy use, or dispatch, strategy of SUNBURN maximizes the value of electricity by operating the turbine when the demand for electricity is greatest and by minimizing overflow of thermal storage. Fuel is burned to augment solar energy if the value of electricity generated by using fuel is greater than the cost of the fuel consumed. SUNBURN was used to determine the optimal power plant configuration, based on value-to-cost ratio, for dates of initial plant operation from 1990 to 1998. The turbine size for all plants was 80 MWe net. Before 1994, fuel-only was found to be the preferred plant configuration. After 1994, a solar-only plant was found to have the greatest value-to-cost ratio. A hybrid configuration was never found to be better than both fuel-only and solar-only configurations. The value of electricity was calculated as The Southern California Edison Company's avoided generation costs of electricity. These costs vary with time of day. Utility ownership of the power plants was assumed. The simulation was performed using weather data recorded in Barstow, California, in 1984.

  10. A technical, economic, and environmental performance of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power system in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems.

  11. The Chicanos; Mexican American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Edward W., Ed.; Santibanez, James, Ed.

    Articles, fiction, and poetry that form a picture of Chicano life today are presented in this anthology of writings about Mexican Americans. Included are reminiscences of Mexican American childhood, accounts of Chicanos in the American school system, reports on strikes by Chicano workers, and poems and stories that reflect the hard realities of…

  12. On Being a Mexican American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Joe I.

    1994-01-01

    A well-acculturated migrant education program director reminisces about his Mexican upbringing in the United States, noting the persistence of his cultural heritage and the scars left by acts of segregation, prejudice, and racism. It is important for Mexican Americans to recognize that they are a unique group at a crossroads. They are not all…

  13. Technical and economic feasibility study of solar/fossil hybrid power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Calogeras, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Results show that new hybrid systems utilizing fossil fuel augmentation of solar energy can provide significant capital and energy cost benefits when compared with solar thermal systems requiring thermal storage. These benefits accrue from a reduction of solar collection area that results from both the use of highly efficient gas and combined cycle energy conversion subsystems and elimination of the requirement for long-term energy storage subsystems. Technical feasibility and fuel savings benefits of solar hybrid retrofit to existing fossil-fired, gas and vapor cycle powerplants was confirmed; however, economic viability of steam cycle retrofit was found to be dependent on the thermodynamic and operational characteristics of the existing powerplant.

  14. Megawatt-level peak-power from a passively Q-switched hybrid fiber-bulk amplifier and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Axel; Bdzoch, Juraj; Höfer, Sven; Scholz-Riecke, Sina; Seitz, Daniel; Kugler, Nicolas; Genter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    A novel laser system with optical parameters that fill the gap between Q-switched and modelocked lasers has been developed. It consists of a high gain hybrid fiber-bulk amplifier seeded by a low power SESAM Q-switched oscillator. The mW level output power of the seed oscillator is preamplified by a single mode fiber which is limited by SRS effects. The final amplification stage is realized by a longitudinal pumped Nd:YVO4 crystal in a double pass setup. This MOPA configuration delivers sub-300ps pulses at repetition rates up to 1 MHz with an output power exceeding 60W. Nonlinear frequency conversion to 532nm and 355nm is achieved with efficiencies of >75% and >45%, respectively. Due to the high peak power, high repetition rate and high beam quality of this system, applications formerly only addressable at lower pulse repetition frequencies or with complex modelocked laser systems are now possible with high speed and lower cost of ownership. Application results that take benefit from these new laser parameters will be shown. Furthermore, the reduction of the pulse duration to sub-100ps and power scaling to output powers <100W by the use of the Innoslab concept are being presented.

  15. The impact of hybrid energy storage on power quality, when high power pulsed DC loads are operated on a microgrid testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jay Paul

    As the Navy's demands for high power transient loads evolves, so too does the need for alternative energy sources to back-up the more traditional power generation. Such applications in need of support include electrical grid backup and directed energy weapon systems such as electromagnetic launchers, laser systems, and high power microwave generators, among others. Among the alternative generation sources receiving considerable attention are energy storage devices such as rechargeable electrochemical batteries and capacitors. In such applications as those mentioned above, these energy storage devices offer the ability to serve a dual role as both a power source to the various loads as well high power loads themselves to the continual generation when the high power transient loads are in periods of downtime. With the recent developments in electrochemical energy storage, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) seem like the obvious choice, but previous research has shown that the elevated rates of charging can be detrimental to both the cycle life and the operational life span of the device. In order to preserve the batteries, their charge rate must be limited. One proposed method to accomplish the dual role task mentioned above, while preserving the life of the batteries, is by combining high energy density LIBs with high power density electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) using controllable power electronics to adjust the flow of power to and from each device. Such a configuration is typically referred to as hybrid energy storage module (HESM). While shipboard generators start up, the combined high energy density and high power density of the HESM provides the capability to source critical loads for an extended period of time at the high rates they demand. Once the generator is operationally efficient, the HESM can act as a high energy reservoir to harvest the energy from the generator while the loads are in short periods of inactivity

  16. 40 CFR 1037.525 - Special procedures for testing hybrid vehicles with power take-off.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The full test for the hybrid vehicle is from a fully charged renewable energy storage system (RESS) to... powertrain testing. You must include all hardware for the PTO system. You may ask us to modify the provisions... pressure transducers at the outlet of the hydraulic pump for each circuit. (2) Operate the PTO system...

  17. 40 CFR 1037.525 - Special procedures for testing hybrid vehicles with power take-off.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is from a fully charged renewable energy storage system (RESS) to a depleted RESS and then back to a... storage system (RESS) to a depleted RESS and then back to a fully charged RESS. These procedures may be... system. When testing just the post-transmission hybrid system, you must include all hardware for the...

  18. Study on a Simple Method for Controlling the Engine Output Power of Hybrid Powered Railway Vehicles with Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Shota; Shibuya, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Keiichiro

    This paper presents a simple and energy-saving method for controlling hybrid powered railway vehicles that run on rural non-electrified railway lines and have diesel engine and electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The aim this study is to reduce both the fuel consumption and the capacitance of EDLCs. A basic idea proposed in this paper is that EDLCs supply and absorb the kinetic energy of the vehicle and the engine output compensates supply the energy loss with the vehicle running. Thus, the energy loss is not taken into consideration while expressing the EDLC voltage reference (equation 1); energy loss is considered when the engine is in operating mode. The proposed method is examined by performing numerical simulations for various values of engine operation time, load, and grade section. The results of this study reveal the relationship between the capacitance of the EDLCs and the fuel consumption. Using this proposed control methods, excessive charging of EDLCs can be avoided. The results of this study are expected to expedite the development of energy-saving railway vehicles for the non-electrified lines. Finally, the results of this study increase the possibility of developing hybrid powered railway vehicles.

  19. Familism, machismo and child rearing practices among Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Tamez, E G

    1981-09-01

    Mexican Americans form the 2nd largest minority group in the US. Fertility is 50% higher than in any other ethnic group. Income levels are inordinately low. In 1970, 42% of Mexican Americans were indigent, making approxiamtely 4200 annually. The Mexican American poor can be categorized into newly arrived aliens or 2nd or 3rd generation American citizens. In the 1st instance, the couple is young and English is not spoken. 2nd or 3rd generation Mexican Americans speak English. The persistent socioeconomic status of the Mexican American relates directly to the level of education. 52% of all Mexican Americans do not finish high school. Paz and Remos described the Mexican in terms of Adler's inferiority model. Murillo stated that to an individual, the family--whether nuclear or extended--is the center of life. The inherent responsibility is that the individual behave properly lest the family be disgraced. The family provides emotional and material security. Familism was seen as a deterrant to utilization of health care services, although some studies claim opposing views. Familism and occupational stability related positively to seeking medical care when ill. Hayden believed that supreme male dominance, individualism, pride, wife beating, aversion to contraceptives, and other characteristics were attributable to machismo. A predominant pattern in Mexican American culture is that of elders' ordering young men and women to establish obedience and male dominance. The husband represents authority and the wife-mother maintains a role of complete devotion to her husband and children. Role differentiation is taught implicitly and explicitly from infancy. Studies on the psychological differences between the sexes indicated that females were oppressed and had lower self esteem than males. 18-24 year old Mexican Americans are becoming less insistent upon strict separation of sex roles and are beginning to reject the traditional Mexican notion of masculine superiority. The word

  20. Familism, machismo and child rearing practices among Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Tamez, E G

    1981-09-01

    Mexican Americans form the 2nd largest minority group in the US. Fertility is 50% higher than in any other ethnic group. Income levels are inordinately low. In 1970, 42% of Mexican Americans were indigent, making approxiamtely 4200 annually. The Mexican American poor can be categorized into newly arrived aliens or 2nd or 3rd generation American citizens. In the 1st instance, the couple is young and English is not spoken. 2nd or 3rd generation Mexican Americans speak English. The persistent socioeconomic status of the Mexican American relates directly to the level of education. 52% of all Mexican Americans do not finish high school. Paz and Remos described the Mexican in terms of Adler's inferiority model. Murillo stated that to an individual, the family--whether nuclear or extended--is the center of life. The inherent responsibility is that the individual behave properly lest the family be disgraced. The family provides emotional and material security. Familism was seen as a deterrant to utilization of health care services, although some studies claim opposing views. Familism and occupational stability related positively to seeking medical care when ill. Hayden believed that supreme male dominance, individualism, pride, wife beating, aversion to contraceptives, and other characteristics were attributable to machismo. A predominant pattern in Mexican American culture is that of elders' ordering young men and women to establish obedience and male dominance. The husband represents authority and the wife-mother maintains a role of complete devotion to her husband and children. Role differentiation is taught implicitly and explicitly from infancy. Studies on the psychological differences between the sexes indicated that females were oppressed and had lower self esteem than males. 18-24 year old Mexican Americans are becoming less insistent upon strict separation of sex roles and are beginning to reject the traditional Mexican notion of masculine superiority. The word

  1. Design of an Area-Efficient and Low-Power NoC Architecture Using a Hybrid Network Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo Joo; Hwang, Sun Young

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid NoC structure and a dynamic job distribution algorithm which can reduce system area and power consumption by reducing packet drop rate for various multimedia applications. The proposed NoC adopts different network structures between sub-clusters. Network structure is determined by profiling application program so that packet drop rate can be minimized. The proposed job distribution algorithm assigns every job to the sub-cluster where packet drop rate can be minimized for each multimedia application program. The proposed scheme targets multimedia applications frequently used in modern embedded systems, such as MPEG4 and MP3 decoders, GPS positioning systems, and OFDM demodulators. Experimental results show that packet drop rate was reduced by 31.6% on the average, when compared to complex network structure topologies consisting of sub-clusters of same topology. Chip area and power consumption were reduced by 16.0% and 34.0%, respectively.

  2. Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chunting Chris; Xia, Bing; You, Chenwen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, an energy management method is proposed for a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Through analyzing the PHEV powertrain, a series of quadratic equations are employed to approximate the vehicle's fuel-rate, using battery current as the input. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is introduced to find the battery current commands by solving the Hamiltonian function. Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is applied to calculate the engine-on power and the maximum current coefficient. Moreover, the battery state of health (SOH) is introduced to extend the application of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results verified that the proposed algorithm can reduce fuel-consumption compared to charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) mode.

  3. Experimental characterization and modelling of non-linear coupling of the lower hybrid current drive power on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preynas, M.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve steady-state operation on future fusion devices, in particular on ITER, the coupling of the lower hybrid wave must be optimized on a wide range of edge conditions. However, under some specific conditions, deleterious effects on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) coupling are sometimes observed on Tore Supra. In this way, dedicated LHCD experiments have been performed using the LHCD system of Tore Supra, composed of two different conceptual designs of launcher: the fully active multi-junction (FAM) and the new passive active multi-junction (PAM) antennas. A non-linear interaction between the electron density and the electric field has been characterized in a thin plasma layer in front of the two LHCD antennas. The resulting dependence of the power reflection coefficient (RC) with the LHCD power is not predicted by the standard linear theory of the LH wave coupling. A theoretical model is suggested to describe the non-linear wave-plasma interaction induced by the ponderomotive effect and implemented in a new full wave LHCD code, PICCOLO-2D (ponderomotive effect in a coupling code of lower hybrid wave-2D). The code self-consistently treats the wave propagation in the antenna vicinity and its interaction with the local edge plasma density. The simulation reproduces very well the occurrence of a non-linear behaviour in the coupling observed in the LHCD experiments. The important differences and trends between the FAM and the PAM antennas, especially a larger increase in RC for the FAM, are also reproduced by the PICCOLO-2D simulation. The working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling is therefore validated through this comprehensive modelling for the first time on the FAM and PAM antennas on Tore Supra.

  4. ZnO(N)-Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor.

    PubMed

    Game, Onkar; Singh, Upendra; Kumari, Tanya; Banpurkar, Arun; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with environmentally friendly and earth-abundant materials. Herein, we report a facile solution-processed fabrication of a self-powered organic-inorganic hybrid photodetector using n-type oriented ZnO nanorods and p-type Spiro-MeOTAD semiconductor. ZnO is eco-friendly and earth-abundant, and Spiro-MeOTAD is non-hazardous. We show that the latter has far less toxicity than the toxic elements stated above. This visible blind UV photodetector shows high sensitivity (10(2)) and a UV/visible rejection ratio of 300. It also exhibits fast response times of τ(rise) ~ 200 μs and τ(fall) ~ 950 μs. Importantly, with a small modification of nitrogen incorporation in ZnO one can also realize a highly-sensitive self-powered visible light photodetector with at least 1000% (or higher) improvements in quality factors (photocurrent/sensitivity/response time) as compared to previously reported organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors based on metal-chalcogenides (CdS-PANI or CuInSe2-P3HT). Interestingly, the broadband sensitivity of such N:ZnO-Spiro-MeOTAD photodiode enables sensing of low intensity (~28 μW cm(-2)) ambient white light with a high photocurrent density of 120 nA cm(-2) making it an efficient ambient white light detector.

  5. High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinsuke; Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Sekiguchi, Shigeaki; Kurahashi, Teruo; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2012-12-17

    An Si/III-V hybrid laser oscillating at a single wavelength was developed for use in a large-scale Si optical I/O chip. The laser had an InP-based reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) chip integrated with an Si wavelength-selection-mirror chip in a flip-chip configuration. A low coupling loss of 1.55 dB at the Si-SOA interface was accomplished by both mode-field-matching between Si-SOA waveguides and accurately controlling the bonding position. The fabricated Si hybrid laser exhibited a very low threshold current of 9.4 mA, a high output power of 15.0 mW, and a high wall-plug efficiency of 7.6% at 20 °C. Moreover, the device maintained a high output power of >10 mW up to 60°C due to the high thermal conductance between the SOA chip and Si substrate. The short cavity length of the flip-chip bonded laser expanded the longitudinal mode spacing. This resulted in temperature-stable single longitudinal mode lasing and a low RIN level of <-130 dB/Hz.

  6. Mexican American Legal Heritage in the Southwest. Second Edition, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Manuel, Jr.

    By 1920, 72 years after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo brought hostilities between Mexico and the United States to an end, Mexican American exclusion from virtually every area of participation in the mainstream of American life had become institutionalized. With two cultures in conflict and new political power at stake, a series of legal actions…

  7. Hybrid plasma slow-wave structures for linacs and microwave power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Karbushev, N.I.; Kolosov, Y.A.; Ostrensky, E.I.; Polovkov, A.I.

    1995-07-05

    Dispersion and amplitude properties of waves in hybrid plasma slow-wave structures consisting of usual slow-wave structures partially filled with plasma are investigated. It is shown that using of plasma may allow to increase sufficiently the amplitude of an axial component of an accelerating or decelerating electric field on the axis of a slow-wave structure. This fact correspondingly leads to higher acceleration rates for accelerators and more effective interaction of an electron beam with microwaves in amplifiers and oscillators. Different types of hybrid plasma slow-wave structures such as a rippled wall waveguide, helix, a set of coupled cavities, and a dielectric waveguide are considered. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. A 90 degrees optical fiber hybrid for optimal signal power utilization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Leeb, W R

    1987-10-01

    An optical 90 degrees hybrid comprising a single-mode fiber coupler and a polarization beam splitter was made at 0.82 microm. It relies on the phase retardation intentionally induced in one of the input fiber leads of the coupler. By properly choosing the transmission/coupling coefficient as well as the orientation of the polarization beam splitter following the coupler, optimum distribution of the available optical fields can be obtained in a Costas loop.

  9. A 90-deg optical fiber hybrid for optimal signal power utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Leeb, Walter R.

    1987-10-01

    An optical 90-deg hybrid comprising a single-mode fiber coupler and a polarization beam splitter was made at 0.82 micron. It relies on the phase retardation intentionally induced in one of the input fiber leads of the coupler. By properly choosing the transmission/coupling coefficient as well as the orientation of the polarization beam splitter following the coupler, optimum distribution of the available optical fields can be obtained in a Costas loop.

  10. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  11. Solar PV power generation forecasting using hybrid intelligent algorithms and uncertainty quantification based on bootstrap confidence intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHakeem, Donna Ibrahim

    This thesis focuses on short-term photovoltaic forecasting (STPVF) for the power generation of a solar PV system using probabilistic forecasts and deterministic forecasts. Uncertainty estimation, in the form of a probabilistic forecast, is emphasized in this thesis to quantify the uncertainties of the deterministic forecasts. Two hybrid intelligent models are proposed in two separate chapters to perform the STPVF. In Chapter 4, the framework of the deterministic proposed hybrid intelligent model is presented, which is a combination of wavelet transform (WT) that is a data filtering technique and a soft computing model (SCM) that is generalized regression neural network (GRNN). Additionally, this chapter proposes a model that is combined as WT+GRNN and is utilized to conduct the forecast of two random days in each season for 1-hour-ahead to find the power generation. The forecasts are analyzed utilizing accuracy measures equations to determine the model performance and compared with another SCM. In Chapter 5, the framework of the proposed model is presented, which is a combination of WT, a SCM based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), and a population-based stochastic particle swarm optimization (PSO). Chapter 5 proposes a model combined as a deterministic approach that is represented as WT+RBFNN+PSO, and then a probabilistic forecast is conducted utilizing bootstrap confidence intervals to quantify uncertainty from the output of WT+RBFNN+PSO. In Chapter 5, the forecasts are conducted by furthering the tests done in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 forecasts the power generation of two random days in each season for 1-hour-ahead, 3-hour-ahead, and 6-hour-ahead. Additionally, different types of days were also forecasted in each season such as a sunny day (SD), cloudy day (CD), and a rainy day (RD). These forecasts were further analyzed using accuracy measures equations, variance and uncertainty estimation. The literature that is provided supports that the proposed

  12. High-Power Warm-White Hybrid LED Package for Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Soer, Wouter

    2013-09-19

    In this project, an integrated warm-white hybrid light engine was developed. The hybrid approach involves combining phosphor-converted off-white InGaN LEDs and direct-emitting red AlInGaP LEDs in a single light engine to achieve high efficacy together with high color rendering index. We developed and integrated technology improvements in InGaN and AlInGaP die technology, phosphor technology, package architecture and encapsulation, to realize a hybrid warm-white LED package with an efficacy of 140 lm/W at a correlated color temperature of 3000K and a color rendering index of 90, measured under representative operating conditions. This efficacy is 26% higher than the best warm-white LEDs of similar specification that are commercially available at the end of the project. Since the InGaN- and AlInGaP-based LEDs used in the hybrid engine show different behavior as a function of current and temperature, a control system needs to be in place to ensure a stable color point over all operating conditions. In this project, we developed an electronic control circuit that is fully integrated into the light engine in such a way that the module can simply be driven by a conventional single-channel driver. The integrated control circuit uses a switch-mode boost converter topology to control the LED drive currents based on the temperature and the input current of the light engine. A color control performance of 5 SDCM was demonstrated, and improvement to 3 SDCM is considered well within reach. The combination of high efficacy and ease of integration with existing single-channel drivers is expected to facilitate the adoption of the hybrid technology and accelerate the energy savings associated with solid-state lighting. In the product commercialization plan, downlights and indirect-lit troffers have been selected as the first target applications for this product concept. Fully functional integrated prototypes have been developed for both applications, and the business case

  13. Captive breeding and the reintroduction of Mexican and red wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, P W; Fredrickson, R J

    2008-01-01

    Mexican and red wolves were both faced with extinction in the wild until captive populations were established more than two decades ago. These captive populations have been successfully managed genetically to minimize mean kinship and retain genetic variation. Descendants of these animals were subsequently used to start reintroduced populations, which now number about 40-50 Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico and about 100 red wolves in North Carolina. The original captive Mexican wolf population was descended from three founders. Merging this lineage with two other captive lineages, each with two founders, has been successfully carried out in the captive population and is in progress in the reintroduced population. This effort has resulted in increased fitness of cross-lineage wolves, or genetic rescue, in both the captive and reintroduced populations. A number of coyote-red wolf hybrid litters were observed in the late 1990s in the reintroduced red wolf population. Intensive identification and management efforts appear to have resulted in the elimination of this threat. However, population reintroductions of both Mexican and red wolves appear to have reached numbers well below the generally recommended number for recovery and there is no current effort to re-establish other populations.

  14. 3D fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator for energy harvesting and as a self-powered pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhan; Lin, Zong-Hong; Cheng, Gang; Wen, Xiaonan; Liu, Ying; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-28

    In the past years, scientists have shown that development of a power suit is no longer a dream by integrating the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) or triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with commercial carbon fiber cloth. However, there is still no design applying those two kinds of NG together to collect the mechanical energy more efficiently. In this paper, we demonstrate a fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator (FBHNG) composed of TENG and PENG to collect the mechanical energy in the environment. The FBHNG is three-dimensional and can harvest the energy from all directions. The TENG is positioned in the core and covered with PENG as a coaxial core/shell structure. The PENG design here not only enhances the collection efficiency of mechanical energy by a single carbon fiber but also generates electric output when the TENG is not working. We also show the potential that the FBHNG can be weaved into a smart cloth to harvest the mechanical energy from human motions and act as a self-powered strain sensor. The instantaneous output power density of TENG and PENG can achieve 42.6 and 10.2 mW/m(2), respectively. And the rectified output of FBHNG has been applied to charge the commercial capacitor and drive light-emitting diodes, which are also designed as a self-powered alert system. PMID:25268317

  15. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    PubMed

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  16. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power part II. System packaging and operating route simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2012-09-01

    This work assesses the feasibility of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid power systems for use as the prime mover in freight locomotives. The available space in a diesel engine-powered locomotive is compared to that required for an SOFC-GT system, inclusive of fuel processing systems necessary for the SOFC-GT. The SOFC-GT space requirement is found to be similar to current diesel engines, without consideration of the electrical balance of plant. Preliminary design of the system layout within the locomotive is carried out for illustration. Recent advances in SOFC technology and implications of future improvements are discussed as well. A previously-developed FORTRAN model of an SOFC-GT system is then augmented to simulate the kinematics and power notching of a train and its locomotives. The operation of the SOFC-GT-powered train is investigated along a representative route in Southern California, with simulations presented for diesel reformate as well as natural gas reformate and hydrogen as fuels. Operational parameters and difficulties are explored as are comparisons of expected system performance to modern diesel engines. It is found that even in the diesel case, the SOFC-GT system provides significant savings in fuel and CO2 emissions, making it an attractive option for the rail industry.

  17. 3D fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator for energy harvesting and as a self-powered pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhan; Lin, Zong-Hong; Cheng, Gang; Wen, Xiaonan; Liu, Ying; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-28

    In the past years, scientists have shown that development of a power suit is no longer a dream by integrating the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) or triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with commercial carbon fiber cloth. However, there is still no design applying those two kinds of NG together to collect the mechanical energy more efficiently. In this paper, we demonstrate a fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator (FBHNG) composed of TENG and PENG to collect the mechanical energy in the environment. The FBHNG is three-dimensional and can harvest the energy from all directions. The TENG is positioned in the core and covered with PENG as a coaxial core/shell structure. The PENG design here not only enhances the collection efficiency of mechanical energy by a single carbon fiber but also generates electric output when the TENG is not working. We also show the potential that the FBHNG can be weaved into a smart cloth to harvest the mechanical energy from human motions and act as a self-powered strain sensor. The instantaneous output power density of TENG and PENG can achieve 42.6 and 10.2 mW/m(2), respectively. And the rectified output of FBHNG has been applied to charge the commercial capacitor and drive light-emitting diodes, which are also designed as a self-powered alert system.

  18. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  19. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan Bin; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari Bin

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

  20. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-01

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  1. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-01

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation. PMID:26967583

  2. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  3. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

  4. Development and analysis of a lithium carbon monofluoride battery-lithium ion capacitor hybrid system for high pulse-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Patricia H.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Waterman, Kyle G.; Myron, L. Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Although Li/CFx and Li/CFxMnO2 have two of the highest energy densities of all commercial lithium primary batteries known to date, they are typically current-limited and therefore are not used in high-power applications. In this work, a Li/CFxMnO2 battery (BA-5790) was hybridized with a 1000 F lithium ion capacitor to allow its use for portable electronic devices requiring 100 W 1-min pulses. An intelligent, power-management board was developed for managing the energy flow between the components. The hybrid architecture was shown to maintain the battery current to a level that minimized energy loss and thermal stress. The performance of the Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was compared to the standard Li/SO2 battery (BA-5590). The hybrid was shown to deliver the same number of 100 W pulse cycles as two BA-5590 batteries, resulting in a weight savings of 30% and a volumetric reduction of 20%. For devices requiring 8 h of operational time or less, a 5-cell Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was found to be a lighter (55%) and smaller (45%) power source than the existing two BA-5590 battery option, and a lighter (42%) and smaller (27%) option than 1½ BA-5790 batteries alone. At higher power requirements (>100 W), further weight and size improvements can be expected.

  5. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (< 2 ha) powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  6. Amp-hour counting charge control for photovoltaic hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-10-01

    An amp-hour counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based photovoltaic hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive laboratory and field testing of the charge algorithm on vented lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid batteries. The test results have shown that with proper setup amp-hour counting charge control is more effective than conventional voltage regulated sub-array shedding in returning the lead-acid battery to a high state of charge.

  7. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited

  8. Mexican American intergenerational caregiving model.

    PubMed

    Escandón, Socorro

    2006-08-01

    This study employed grounded theory to formulate a conceptual model of intergenerational caregiving among Mexican American families. The sample consisted of 10 Mexican American caregivers of various generations older than 21 who provided at least one intermittent service (without pay at least once a month) to an elder, related through consanguinal or acquired kinship ties. The inductively generated theory of role acceptance is composed of four phases: (a) introduction--early caregiving experiences, (b) role reconciliation, (c) role imprint, and (d) providing or projecting care. This model can be used to study varied generations of Mexican American caregivers. It also provides a framework for comparison with other groups of caregivers. The results can help in designing nursing interventions to support caregivers based on understanding the issues, to create and design systems that address the varying and ever-changing needs of informal caregivers, and to assist in the formulation of policy that supports Mexican American caregivers.

  9. Freud's Mexican readers.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents an overview of artists and writers who read Freud's work in Mexico between 1920 and 1968. The focus is on cultural readings of Freud: non-clinical interpretations of psychoanalysis that applied Freud's theory to literary, artistic, philosophical, or religious questions. The essay focuses on Salvador Novo, one of the poets associated with the Contemporáneos group, and his reading of the "Three Essays in the Theory of Sexuality;" Raúl Carrancá y Trujillo, a judge and criminologist who used psychoanalysis in his work, including the trial of Trotky's assassin; Octavio Paz, a poet and intellectual who wrote an essay on Mexican history, "The Labyrinth of Solitude," as a response to "Moses and Monotheism;" and Gregorio Lemercier, a Benedictine monk who placed his monastery in group analysis. These unorthodox readings of Freud opened the door for some of the most daring intellectual experiments in the 20th century.

  10. Freud's Mexican readers.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents an overview of artists and writers who read Freud's work in Mexico between 1920 and 1968. The focus is on cultural readings of Freud: non-clinical interpretations of psychoanalysis that applied Freud's theory to literary, artistic, philosophical, or religious questions. The essay focuses on Salvador Novo, one of the poets associated with the Contemporáneos group, and his reading of the "Three Essays in the Theory of Sexuality;" Raúl Carrancá y Trujillo, a judge and criminologist who used psychoanalysis in his work, including the trial of Trotky's assassin; Octavio Paz, a poet and intellectual who wrote an essay on Mexican history, "The Labyrinth of Solitude," as a response to "Moses and Monotheism;" and Gregorio Lemercier, a Benedictine monk who placed his monastery in group analysis. These unorthodox readings of Freud opened the door for some of the most daring intellectual experiments in the 20th century. PMID:21970025

  11. Testing Low-Energy, High-Power Energy Storage Alternatives in a Full-Hybrid Vehicle (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonger, J.

    2014-01-01

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle gasoline use. However, the battery cost in HEVs contribute to higher incremental cost of HEVs (a few thousand dollars) than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. Significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost vs. benefit relationship for HEVs. Such an improvement could lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate gasoline savings. After significant analysis by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage program suggested a new set of requirements for ESS for power-assist HEVs for cost reduction without impacting performance and fuel economy significantly. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This poster will describe development of the LEESS HEV test platform, and LEESS laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results. The first LEESS technology tested was lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) - i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). We will discuss the performance and fuel saving results with LIC with comparison with original NiMH battery.

  12. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  13. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  14. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any serious effects on power supply system in those scenarios. PHEV can run with both gasoline and electricity. Therefore we evaluate CO2 emissions not only from gasoline consumption but also from electricity consumption. To consider a distribution of daily-trip-distance is important for evaluating the economical merit and CO2 emissions by introducing of PHEV. Also, the battery cost in the future is very important for making a PHEV's growth scenario. The growth of the number of PHEV makes battery cost lower. Then, we formulate the total model that combines passenger car sector and power supply sector with considering a distribution of daily-trip-distance and Learning Curve on battery costs. We use the iteration method to consider a Learning Curve that is non- linear. Therefore we set battery cost only in the first year of the simulation. Battery costs in the later year are calculated in the model. We focus on the 25-year time frame from 2010 in Japan, with divided in 5 terms (1st∼5th). And that model selects the most economical composition of car type and power sources.

  15. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  16. ZnO(N)-Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Game, Onkar; Singh, Upendra; Kumari, Tanya; Banpurkar, Arun; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2013-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with environmentally friendly and earth-abundant materials. Herein, we report a facile solution-processed fabrication of a self-powered organic-inorganic hybrid photodetector using n-type oriented ZnO nanorods and p-type Spiro-MeOTAD semiconductor. ZnO is eco-friendly and earth-abundant, and Spiro-MeOTAD is non-hazardous. We show that the latter has far less toxicity than the toxic elements stated above. This visible blind UV photodetector shows high sensitivity (102) and a UV/visible rejection ratio of 300. It also exhibits fast response times of τrise ~ 200 μs and τfall ~ 950 μs. Importantly, with a small modification of nitrogen incorporation in ZnO one can also realize a highly-sensitive self-powered visible light photodetector with at least 1000% (or higher) improvements in quality factors (photocurrent/sensitivity/response time) as compared to previously reported organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors based on metal-chalcogenides (CdS-PANI or CuInSe2-P3HT). Interestingly, the broadband sensitivity of such N:ZnO-Spiro-MeOTAD photodiode enables sensing of low intensity (~28 μW cm-2) ambient white light with a high photocurrent density of 120 nA cm-2 making it an efficient ambient white light detector.Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with

  17. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  18. A high-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab amplifier with a hybrid resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Y. F.; Zhang, H. L.; Yuan, J. H.; Hao, X. L.; Xing, J. C.; Xin, J. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated a compact and efficient in-band diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 partially end-pumped slab (Innoslab) nanosecond amplifier based on a hybrid resonator. For the seeder source, a-6 W, 5 ns Q-switched laser with a repetition rate of 30 kHz was obtained with beam quality factors M 2  <  1.3 . A beam-shaping system consisting of cylindrical lenses was designed according to the different sizes of the active medium in two orthogonal directions. A maximum average output power of 77 W was obtained. The optical-to-optical efficiency was 27.9%. The beam quality factors M 2 in the unstable and stable directions were 1.52 and 1.36, respectively.

  19. Fuel Cell/Electric Double Layer Capacitor Hybrid Power Source Using a Multi-port Bidirectional DC-DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Noboru; Kogoshi, Sumio

    A fuel cell/electric double layer capacitor hybrid power source using a multi-port bidirectional DC-DC converter has been developed to reduce load variations for the purpose of extending fuel cell life. The proposed converter operates to maintain the fuel cell current, load voltage and bus voltage at constant values with a digital signal processor. The effect of the proposed converter is evaluated. The charging or discharging current of the EDLC rapidly changes along with step loading, and the voltage and current of the fuel cell are maintained at the constant values. Short-time transient responses show that the fuel cell current ripples 0.35 A at 1 A load change in 6 ms.

  20. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  1. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  2. Fuel cell system modeling for solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plants, Part I: Modeling and simulation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leucht, Florian; Bessler, Wolfgang G.; Kallo, Josef; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Müller-Steinhagen, H.

    A sustainable future power supply requires high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies even in small-scale power plants. A promising technology to reach this goal is a hybrid power plant in which a gas turbine (GT) is coupled with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents a dynamic model of a pressurized SOFC system consisting of the fuel cell stack with combustion zone and balance-of-plant components such as desulphurization, humidification, reformer, ejector and heat exchangers. The model includes thermal coupling between the different components. A number of control loops for fuel and air flows as well as power management are integrated in order to keep the system within the desired operation window. Models and controls are implemented in a MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Different hybrid cycles proposed earlier are discussed and a preferred cycle is developed. Simulation results show the prospects of the developed modeling and control system.

  3. Experimental results of H-mode power threshold with lower hybrid wave heating on the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Canbin; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Zixi; Han, Xiang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yumin; Zang, Shoubiao; Kong, Defeng; the EAST Team

    2016-07-01

    The density roll-over dependence on H-mode power threshold is observed on EAST for the first time. In campaign 2014 and 2015 shots with a toroidal field of 2.25 T have observed roll-over dependence with lower hybrid wave as the only auxiliary heating method, while shots with a toroidal field of 1.79 T and 1.9 T exhibit linear dependence consistent with scaling law. The density of minimum power for accessing H-mode on EAST has different plasma current values of 400 kA and 500 kA, and is better described in the normalized Greenwald fraction {{\\widehat{n}}\\text{e,min}}/{{n}\\text{G}}~≈ ~0.4 at {{B}\\text{T}}=2.35 \\text{T} . The absence of {{\\widehat{n}}\\text{e,min}} in 1.7 T and 1.8 T may be attributed to the positive dependence with toroidal field. Besides, correlation analysis of H-mode power threshold and divertor geometry in scanning X-point is summarized and compared. Outer leg length (distance from X-point to outer strike point) has the highest correlation coefficient with H-mode power threshold, which explains the data scattering within the same plasma parameters. A new equation of scaling law is proposed: {{P}\\text{th \\_\\text{EAST}}}=4.27\\text{OL}{{\\text{L}}1.4}× {{P}\\text{th \\_\\text{08}}}.~ Neutral particles are believed to be the hidden factor in different divertor geometry, and play a negative role in L-H transition via charge exchange damping.

  4. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power plant, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The feasibility of a proposed 50 MW (gross) electric power project located near Wendel, California about 25 miles east of Susanville was studied. The project would be the first commercial power plant to combine the use of geothermal energy and wood fuel for power production. Wood fuel consisting primarily of various forms of forest management residues would be processed and partially dehydrated with geothermal energy prior to combustion. Geothermal energy would also be used for boiler feedwater heating and combustion air preheating. The study defines the range of site-specific benefits and economics of using wood fuel and moderate temperature geothermal energy, both of which are abundant and often located in proximity at many locations in the western United States. The study results document conclusively that overall project economics can be very favorable and that in addition to providing an important source of electric power, many benefits to forest land managers, local communities, project developers and the state of the environment can be derived from the combined use of moderate temperature geothermal energy and wood fuel.

  5. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 1. Development and characterization of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A I; Broeckmann, A; Richards, B S

    2007-02-01

    In isolated communities where potable water sources as well as energy grids are limited or nonexistent, treating brackish groundwater aquifers with small-scale desalination systems can be a viable alternative to existing water infrastructures. Given the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only very limited experience exists, both with regards to efficiency as well as water quality. In this paper, this lack of knowledge is addressed by evaluating a system operated with varying parameters (pressure and flow) with constant power as a step toward defining a safe operating window, and they provide a basis for interpreting future data obtained with a renewable energy source. Field trials were performed on a brackish (5300 mg/L TDS; 8290 microS/cm) bore in Central Australia with a photovoltaic-powered membrane filtration (PV-membrane) system. Four nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes (BW30, ESPA4, NF90, TFC-S) and a number of operation parameter combinations (transmembrane pressure, feed flow, TFC-S) and operating parameters transmembrane pressure and feed flow were investigated to find the best operating conditions for maximum drinking water production and minimum specific energy consumption (SEC). The ESPA4 membrane performed best for this brackish source, producing 250 L/h of excellent drinking water (257 mg/L TDS; 400 microS/ cm) at an SEC of 1.2 kWh/m3. The issue of brine disposal or reuse is also discussed and the article compares the salinity of the produced brine with livestock water. Since the feedwater is disinfected physically using ultrafiltration (UF), the brine is free from bacteria and most viruses and hence can be seen more as a reusable product stream than a waste stream with a disposal problem.

  6. Impact Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the U.S. Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-09-30

    The US electricity grid is a national infrastructure that has the potential to deliver significant amounts of the daily driving energy of the US light duty vehicle (cars, pickups, SUVs, and vans) fleet. This paper discusses a 2030 scenario with 37 million plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the road in the US demanding electricity for an average daily driving distance of about 33 miles (53 km). The paper addresses the potential grid impacts of the PHEVs fleet relative to their effects on the production cost of electricity, and the emissions from the electricity sector. The results of this analysis indicate significant regional difference on the cost impacts and the CO2 emissions. Battery charging during the day may have twice the cost impacts than charging during the night. The CO2 emissions impacts are very region-dependent. In predominantly coal regions (Midwest), the new PHEV load may reduce the CO2 emission intensity (ton/MWh), while in others regions with significant clean generation (hydro and renewable energy) the CO2 emission intensity may increase. Discussed will the potential impact of the results with the valuation of carbon emissions.

  7. Wavelet-transform-based power management of hybrid vehicles with multiple on-board energy sources including fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Masrur, Abul; Daniszewski, David

    A wavelet-transform-based strategy is proposed for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with multiple on-board energy sources and energy storage systems including a battery, a fuel cell, and an ultra-capacitor. The proposed wavelet-transform algorithm is capable of identifying the high-frequency transient and real time power demand of the HEV, and allocating power components with different frequency contents to corresponding sources to achieve an optimal power management control algorithm. By using the wavelet decomposition algorithm, a proper combination can be achieved with a properly sized ultra-capacitor dealing with the chaotic high-frequency components of the total power demand, while the fuel cell and battery deal with the low and medium frequency power demand. Thus the system efficiency and life expectancy can be greatly extended. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of wavelet-transform-based power management algorithm.

  8. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  9. Mexican Repatriation in East Chicago, Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Daniel T.

    1974-01-01

    Notes that intolerance for Mexicans reached a level where a decisive portion of the community organized and financed large scale repatriation only when industry had little need for Mexican labor and when Mexicans were perceived as responsible for high relief costs and native American unemployment. (Author/AM)

  10. Mexican-American Women: Diversity in Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Marleen E.

    Various literary views of the Mexican American woman have been presented over the past 150 years. Anglo treatment of Mexican American women in literature has varied from blatant prejudice or vague mystical eroticism in early portrayals to more realistic views of the Chicano in modern writing. The current identity crisis of Mexican Americans is…

  11. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as being…

  12. El Arte Culinario Mexicano (Mexican Culinary Art).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Michelle

    This unit in Mexican cooking can be used in Junior High School home economics classes to introduce students to Mexican culture or as a mini-course in Spanish at almost any level. It is divided into two parts. Part One provides historical background and information on basic foods, the Mexican market, shopping tips, regional cooking and customs.…

  13. Impurity Radiation for Detecting Arcs during High Lower Hybrid Power Transmission at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Goniche, M.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Hillairet, J.; Mailloux, J.; Baranov, Y.; Coffey, I.; Kirov, K.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Sergienko, G.; Ongena, J.

    2009-11-26

    During high power commissioning of the JET LH launcher, the radiation and impurity release has been analyzed from various diagnostics: VUV and visible spectroscopy, bolometry. These two last diagnostics have lines-of-sight viewing the launcher and can provide information about the electron and/or impurity source localisation. Using a database of 800 plasmas, it is concluded that the iron contamination (FeXV and FeXXIII) is very low for 94% of the pulses and increases linearly with LH power. During arcs, a strong and fast increase of the radiation along the line-of-sight viewing the launcher is observed. This diagnostic could provide a tool for arc detection complementary to the RF measurements aiming at reducing the metal contamination in the plasma.

  14. Investigation of aging mechanisms of high power Li-ion cells used for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourlot, Sandrine; Blanchard, Philippe; Robert, Stéphanie

    High power lithium-ion batteries need to exhibit long service life to meet targets of automotive applications. This article describes the deep investigation of the so-called VL6P cells, high power lithium-ion cells mass produced by Johnson Controls - Saft (JC-S), in order to understand the root causes of their aging. Cells aged by calendar and cycle life are investigated here compared to fresh cells. Among the results of the different analyses, the most significant is that more active lithium is detected in negative electrode after aging. This tends to indicate that effect of aging is due to increase of positive electrode limitation. Results of this investigation will allow JC-S to continue to improve life of the lithium-ion cells.

  15. Diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Subrata; Thameem, Farook; Alves, Tahira; Nolen, Jacqueline; Al-Shahrouri, Hania; Bansal, Shweta; Abboud, Hanna E.; Fanti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is growing rapidly worldwide as a consequence of the rising prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Among U.S. ethnic groups, Mexican Americans have a disproportionately high incidence and prevalence of DN and associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In communities bordering Mexico, as many as 90% of Mexican American patients with ESRD also suffer from T2DM compared to only 50% of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Both socio-economic factors and genetic predisposition appear to have a strong influence on this association. In addition, certain pathogenetic and clinical features of T2DM and DN are different in Mexican Americans compared to NHW, raising questions as to whether the diagnostic and treatment strategies that are standard practice in the NHW patient population may not be applicable in Mexican Americans. This article reviews the epidemiology of DN in Mexican Americans, describes the pathophysiology and associated risk factors, and identifies gaps in our knowledge and understanding that needs to be addressed by future investigations. PMID:22445478

  16. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  17. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making.

  18. Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

  19. Application of Hybrid Geo-Spatially Granular Fragility Curves to Improve Power Outage Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Allen, Melissa R; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Fragility curves depict the relationship between a weather variable (wind speed, gust speed, ice accumulation, precipitation rate) and the observed outages for a targeted infrastructure network. This paper describes an empirical study of the county by county distribution of power outages and one minute weather variables during Hurricane Irene with the objective of comparing 1) as built fragility curves (statistical approach) to engineering as designed (bottom up) fragility curves for skill in forecasting outages during future hurricanes; 2) county specific fragility curves to find examples of significant deviation from average behavior; and 3) the engineering practices of outlier counties to suggest future engineering studies of robustness. Outages in more than 90% of the impacted counties could be anticipated through an average or generic fragility curve. The remaining counties could be identified and handled as exceptions through geographic data sets. The counties with increased or decreased robustness were characterized by terrain more or less susceptible to persistent flooding in areas where above ground poles located their foundations. Land use characteristics of the area served by the power distribution system can suggest trends in the as built power grid vulnerabilities to extreme weather events that would be subjects for site specific studies.

  20. High efficiency direct fuel cell hybrid power cycle for near term application

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C.; Sanderson, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Direct carbonate fuel cells being developed by Energy Research Corporation can generate power at an efficiency approaching 60% LHV. This unique fuel cell technology can consume natural gas and other hydrocarbon based fuels directly without requiring an external reformer, thus providing a simpler and inherently efficient power generation system. A 2 MW power plant demonstration of this technology has been initiated at an installation in the city of Santa Clara in California. A 2.85 MW commercial configuration shown in Figure 1 is presently being developed. The complete plant includes the carbonate fuel cell modules, an inverter, transformer and switchgear, a heat recovery unit and supporting instrument air and water treatment systems. The emission levels for this 2.85 MW plant are projected to be orders of magnitude below existing or proposed standards. The 30 year levelized cost of electricity, without inflation, is projected to be approximately 5{cents}/kW-h assuming capital cost for the carbonate fuel cell system of $1000/kW.

  1. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-10-01

    In response to the multiple and tighter operation requirements already placed on power plants, and anticipating everyday variations on their quantity and relevance due to competition on deregulated energy markets, this dissertation contributes the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm that establishes a reference framework for the design of overall control systems for fossil-fuel power units, and develops a minimum prototype (ICCS-MP) to show its feasibility. The ICCS consists of a multiagent system organization structured as an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchy. The upper level performs the supervisory functions needed to produce self-governing system behavior, while the lower level performs the fast reactive functions necessary for real-time control and protection. The ICCS-MP greatly extends the concept of current coordinated control schemes and embraces a minimum set of ICCS functions for the power unit to participate in load-frequency control in deregulated power systems; provides the means to achieve optimal wide-range load-tracking in multiobjective operating scenarios. The ICCS-MP preserves the ICCS structure. Supervisory functions include optimization and command generation, learning and control tuning, and performance and state monitoring. Direct level control functions realize a nonlinear multivariable feedforward-feedback scheme. These functions are implemented in three modules: reference governor, feedforward control processor (FFCP), and feedback control processor (FBCP). The reference governor provides set-point trajectories for the control loops by solving a multiobjective optimization problem that accommodates the operating scenario at hand. The FFCP facilitates achievement of wide-range operation; it is implemented as a fuzzy system that emulates the inverse static behavior of the power unit, and it is designed using neural networks. The FBCP provides disturbance and uncertainty compensation

  2. Piezoelectric, solar and thermal energy harvesting for hybrid low-power generator systems with thin-film batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambier, P.; Anton, S. R.; Kong, N.; Erturk, A.; Inman, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The harvesting of ambient energy to power small electronic components has received tremendous attention over the last decade. The research goal in this field is to enable self-powered electronic components for use particularly in wireless sensing and measurement applications. Thermal energy due to temperature gradients, solar energy and ambient vibrations constitute some of the major sources of energy that can be harvested. Researchers have presented several papers focusing on each of these topics separately. This paper aims to develop a hybrid power generator and storage system using these three sources of energy in order to improve both structural multifunctionality and system-level robustness in energy harvesting. A multilayer structure with flexible solar, piezoceramic, thin-film battery and metallic substructure layers is developed (with the overhang dimensions of 93 mm × 25 mm × 1.5 mm in cantilevered configuration). Thermal energy is also used for charging the thin-film battery layers using a 30.5 mm × 33 mm × 4.1 mm generator. Performance results are presented for charging and discharging of the thin-film battery layers using each one of the harvesting methods. It is shown based on the extrapolation of a set of measurements that 1 mA h of a thin-film battery can be charged in 20 min using solar energy (for a solar irradiance level of 223 W m-2), in 40 min using thermal energy (for a temperature difference of 31 °C) and in 8 h using vibrational energy (for a harmonic base acceleration input of 0.5g at 56.4 Hz).

  3. High power density aqueous hybrid supercapacitor combining activated carbon and highly conductive spinel cobalt oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godillot, G.; Taberna, P.-L.; Daffos, B.; Simon, P.; Delmas, C.; Guerlou-Demourgues, L.

    2016-11-01

    The remarkable electrochemical behavior of complete activated carbon/cobalt oxide cells is reported in the present work. Among the various weight ratios between the positive and negative electrodes evaluated, the best features are obtained with an overcapacitive cobalt oxide electrode. The energy densities obtained by this system (20 Wh kg-1 for a power density of 209 W kg-1) are twice higher than those measured for a activated carbon/activated carbon symmetric cell, in the same operating conditions. With discharge capacities around 62 F g-1, this system is among the best ones reported in the literature for this category.

  4. Mathematical model of an off-grid hybrid solar and wind power generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of an off-grid power generating system, coupled to a storage unit and to household appliances, is described by means of an analytic hydrodynamic analog. Following this analogy, by noticing that the effux rate from a leaking bucket is described, in terms of the liquid content, by Torricelli's formula, we denote as "Torricelli's smart consumer" a user being able to calibrate its energy consumption rate with respect to the energy level in the storage unit as if the hydrodynamic model would strictly apply. Simple solutions to the nonlinear dynamic problem associated to this type of smart consumer are found and generalization to other types of smart consumers are sought.

  5. Outsmarting cancer: the power of hybrid genomic/proteomic biomarkers to predict drug response.

    PubMed

    Rexer, Brent N; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2014-01-01

    A recent study by Niepel and colleagues describes a novel approach to predicting response to targeted anti-cancer therapies. The authors used biochemical profiling of signaling activity in basal and ligand-stimulated states for a panel of receptor and intracellular kinases to develop predictive models of drug sensitivity. In some cases, the response to ligand stimulation predicted drug response better than did target abundance or genomic alterations in the targeted pathway. Furthermore, combining biochemical profiles with genomic information was better at predicting drug response. This work suggests that incorporating biochemical signaling profiles with genomic alterations should provide powerful predictors of response to molecularly targeted therapies.

  6. Power Budget Analysis of Colorless Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON Scheme Using Downstream DPSK and Re-modulated Upstream OOK Data Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yousaf; Afridi, Muhammad Idrees; Khan, Ahmed Mudassir; Rehman, Waheed Ur; Khan, Jahanzeb

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid wavelength-division multiplexed/time-division multiplexed passive optical access networks (WDM/TDM-PONs) combine the advance features of both WDM and TDM PONs to provide a cost-effective access network solution. We demonstrate and analyze the transmission performances and power budget issues of a colorless hybrid WDM/TDM-PON scheme. A 10-Gb/s downstream differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and remodulated upstream on/off keying (OOK) data signals are transmitted over 25 km standard single mode fiber. Simulation results show error free transmission having adequate power margins in both downstream and upstream transmission, which prove the applicability of the proposed scheme to future passive optical access networks. The power budget confines both the PON splitting ratio and the distance between the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU).

  7. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  8. Evaluation of Hybrid Air-Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines

    2005-10-01

    Geothermal binary power plants reject a significant portion of the heat removed from the geothermal fluid. Because of the relatively low temperature of the heat source (geothermal fluid), the performance of these plants is quite sensitive to the sink temperature to which heat is rejected. This is particularly true of air-cooled binary plants. Recent efforts by the geothermal industry have examined the potential to evaporatively cool the air entering the air-cooled condensers during the hotter portions of a summer day. While the work has shown the benefit of this concept, air-cooled binary plants are typically located in regions that lack an adequate supply of clean water for use in this evaporative cooling. In the work presented, this water issue is addressed by pre-flashing the geothermal fluid to produce a clean condensate that can be utilized during the hotter portions of the year to evaporatively cool the air. This study examines both the impact of this pre-flash on the performance of the binary plant, and the increase in power output due to the ability to incorporate an evaporative component to the heat rejection process.

  9. Development of auxiliary power units for electric hybrid vehicles. Interim report, July 1993-February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, E.C.; Steiber, J.

    1997-06-01

    Larger urban commercial vehicles (such as shuttle and transit buses), various delivery and service vehicles (such as panel and step vans), and garbage trucks and school buses are particularly well suited for electric drive propulsion systems due to their relatively short operating routes, and operation and maintenance from central sites. Furthermore, these vehicles contribute a proportionately large amount to metropolitan air pollution by virtue of their continuous operation in those areas. It is necessary to develop auxiliary power units (APUs) that minimize emissions and in addition, increase range of electric vehicles. This report focuses on the first phase study of the development of APUs for large, electric drive commercial vehicles, intended primarily for metropolitan applications. This paper (1) summarizes the differences between available mobile APUs and Electric Vehicle APU requirements, (2) describes the major components in APUs, and (3) discusses APU integration issues. During this phase, three potential APU manufacturers were identified and selected for development of prototype units at 25 kW and 50 kW power levels.

  10. Calculating the Energy Cost of CO2 Removal in a Coal Based Gas Turbine Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Generation System with an Isolated Anode Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Vanosdol, J G; Gemmen, R S; Liese, E A

    2007-10-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in identifying carbon capturing technologies that can be applied to fossil fuel power generation plants.CO2 capture technologies seek to reduce the amount of CO2 that would normally be emitted into the atmosphere from the daily operation of these plants. In terms of system efficiency and operating costs, this carbon capture is expensive. Further, the additional equipment that would be used to capture CO2 emissions greatly adds to the complexity of the system. There has also been significant interest in coal based gas turbine fuel cell hybrid power plants. A hybrid power plant can have much greater system efficiency than a normal gas turbine power plant because the heat that is normally unused in a standalone solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is recovered and used to drive a power producing turbine. It is thought that the increased system efficiency of the hybrid system might compensate for the increased expense of performing carbon capture. In order to provide some analytical insight on this tradeoff we present a 100 MW class coal fired gas turbine SOFC hybrid power generation system. The hybrid system operates at a pressure ratio of 6, and uses heat recuperation and cathode air recirculation to control the SOFC inlet temperature and the temperature change across the SOFC. A carbon capture scheme is added to this system in order to calculate the relative energy cost in terms of system efficiency due to CO2 compression. The carbon capture is performed by burning the unused fuel from the SOFC in an isolated anode stream using pure O2 injection. The resulting heat that is generated from this process is then used to drive a secondary turbine that is placed in the anode exhaust stream where more work is extracted. With an isolated anode stream, the products of combustion from this secondary combustion process are mostly water and carbon dioxide. The water by-product is

  11. Comparison of electrochemical and thermal storage for hybrid parabolic dish solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, H. L.; Wen, L.

    1981-01-01

    The economic and operating performance of a parabolic point focus array of solar electricity generators combined with either battery or thermal energy storage are examined. Noting that low-cost, mass-producible power generating units are under development for the point focus of distributed dishes, that Zn-Cl battery tests will begin in 1981 and a 100 kWh Na-S battery in 1983, the state of thermal storage requires acceleration to reach the prototype status of the batteries. Under the assumptions of 10,000 units/yr with an expected 30 yr lifetime, cost comparisons are developed for 10 types of advanced batteries. A 5 MWe plant with full thermal or 80% battery storage discharge when demand occurs in conditions of no insolation is considered, specifically for Fe-Cr redox batteries. A necessity for the doubling of fuel prices from 1980 levels by 1990 is found in order to make the systems with batteries economically competitive.

  12. Low Insertion HVDC Circuit Breaker: Magnetically Pulsed Hybrid Breaker for HVDC Power Distribution Protection

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: General Atomics is developing a direct current (DC) circuit breaker that could protect the grid from faults 100 times faster than its alternating current (AC) counterparts. Circuit breakers are critical elements in any electrical system. At the grid level, their main function is to isolate parts of the grid where a fault has occurred—such as a downed power line or a transformer explosion—from the rest of the system. DC circuit breakers must interrupt the system during a fault much faster than AC circuit breakers to prevent possible damage to cables, converters and other grid-level components. General Atomics’ high-voltage DC circuit breaker would react in less than 1/1,000th of a second to interrupt current during a fault, preventing potential hazards to people and equipment.

  13. Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program site operator program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    During the term of the above mentioned agreement, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), a municipal utility serving the citizens of Los Angeles, marked its tenth year of involvement in testing and promoting electric vehicles as part of Los Angeles` overall air quality improvement program, and as a means of improving the regions` economic competitiveness through the creation of new industries. LADWP maintained and operated twenty electric vehicles (EVs) during the test period. These vehicles consisted of six G-Vans, four Chrysler TEVans, five U.S. Electricar pickup trucks, and five U.S. Electricar Prizms. LADWP`s electric transportation program also included infrastructure, public transit development, public and awareness, and legislative and regulatory activities.

  14. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay.

    PubMed

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency.

  15. "The Mexican Culture" in the Education of the Mexican American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Maria Luisa

    1978-01-01

    This paper offers reasons for teaching Mexican culture in bilingual programs. The first section considers three important court decisions - Lau vs. Nichols, Serna vs. Portales Municipal Schools, and Keyes vs. School District N. 1, Denver, Colorado - and then discusses the extent of bilingual-bicultural education. The meaning of bicultural…

  16. Being Mexican: Strengths and Challenges of Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides outcomes of a qualitative inquiry with 20 adolescents of Mexican origin, all of whom have lived in the United States at least two years. Questions addressed the perceived strengths and challenges related to the participants' ethnic heritage. Findings indicated the greatest perceived challenge was discrimination. Strengths…

  17. Children and Power in Mexican Transnational Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreby, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Today, many families find that they are unable to fulfill the goal of maintaining a household by living together under the same roof. Some members migrate internationally. This article addresses the consequences of a transnational lifestyle for children who are left behind by migrant parents. Using ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with a…

  18. Load Frequency Control of a Two-Area Thermal-Hybrid Power System Using a Novel Quasi-Opposition Harmony Search Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahto, Tarkeshwar; Mukherjee, V.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, a two-area thermal-hybrid interconnected power system, consisting of a thermal unit in one area and a hybrid wind-diesel unit in other area is considered. Capacitive energy storage (CES) and CES with static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) are connected to the studied two-area model to compensate for varying load demand, intermittent output power and area frequency oscillation. A novel quasi-opposition harmony search (QOHS) algorithm is proposed and applied to tune the various tunable parameters of the studied power system model. Simulation study reveals that inclusion of CES unit in both the areas yields superb damping performance for frequency and tie-line power deviation. From the simulation results it is further revealed that inclusion of SSSC is not viable from both technical as well as economical point of view as no considerable improvement in transient performance is noted with its inclusion in the tie-line of the studied power system model. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the potential of the proposed QOHS algorithm and show its effectiveness and robustness for solving frequency and power drift problems of the studied power systems. Binary coded genetic algorithm is taken for sake of comparison.

  19. The Impacts of Emigration on the Mexican Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Allen R.

    1982-01-01

    The assumption that Mexican emigration to the United States provides benefits to Mexico in the form of jobs for unemployed Mexicans and wage remittances has kept Mexican officials from discouraging illegal emigration. In fact, emigration drains the Mexican economy and should be a cause for Mexican government concern. (Author/MJL)

  20. Myth: America's Public Schools Are Educating Mexican American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retish, Paul; Kavanaugh, Paul

    1992-01-01

    States and then unmasks myths about Mexican-American students that have hindered public schools from fulfilling their mission. Myths focus on Mexican-American culture; Mexican Americans' intelligence quotient; attitudes and aspirations of Mexican-American parents; and education and achievement of Mexican-American students. Describes Mexican…

  1. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor process design kit for the design of low-power non-volatile logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pendina, G.; Prenat, G.; Dieny, B.; Torki, K.

    2012-04-01

    Since the advent of the MOS transistor, the performance of microelectronic circuits has followed Moore's law, stating that their speed and density would double every 18 months. Today, this trend tends to get out of breath: the continuously decreasing size of devices and increasing operation frequency result in power consumption and heating issues. Among the solutions investigated to circumvent these limitations, the use of non-volatile devices appears particularly promising. It allows easing, for example, the power gating technique, which consists in cutting-off the power supply of inactive blocks without losing information, drastically reducing the standby power consumption. In this approach, the advantages of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) compared with other non-volatile devices allow one to design hybrid CMOS/magnetic circuits with high performance and new functionalities. Designing such circuits requires integrating MTJs in standard microelectronics design suites. This is performed by means of a process design kit (PDK) for the hybrid CMOS/magnetic technology. We present here a full magnetic PDK, which contains a compact model of the MTJ for electrical simulation, technology files for layout and physical verifications, and standard cells for the design of complex logic circuits and which is compatible with standard design suites. This PDK allows designers to accurately and comfortably design high-performance hybrid CMOS/magnetic logic circuits in the same way as standard CMOS circuits.

  2. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  3. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    PubMed

    Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

    2008-06-15

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover.

  4. Couples' cultural values, shared parenting, and family emotional climate within Mexican American families.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Figueredo, Aurelio J; Christensen, Donna H; Taylor, Angela R

    2012-06-01

    This study tested a model of shared parenting as its centerpiece that incorporates cultural values as predictors and family emotional climate as the outcome variable of interest. We aimed to assess the predictive power of the Mexican cultural values of familismo and simpatia over couples' shared parenting practices. We anticipated that higher levels of shared parenting would predict family emotional climate. The participants were 61 Mexican American, low income couples, with at least one child between 3 and 4 years of age, recruited from a home-based Head Start program. The predictive model demonstrated excellent goodness of fit, supporting the hypothesis that a positive emotional climate within the family is fostered when Mexican American couples practice a sufficient level of shared parenting. Empirical evidence was previously scarce on this proposition. The findings also provide evidence for the role of cultural values, highlighting the importance of family solidarity and avoidance of confrontation as a pathway to shared parenting within Mexican American couples.

  5. A sizing-design methodology for hybrid fuel cell power systems and its application to an unmanned underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Q.; Brett, D. J. L.; Browning, D.; Brandon, N. P.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell with an energy storage unit (battery or supercapacitor) combines the advantages of each device to deliver a system with high efficiency, low emissions, and extended operation compared to a purely fuel cell or battery/supercapacitor system. However, the benefits of such a system can only be realised if the system is properly designed and sized, based on the technologies available and the application involved. In this work we present a sizing-design methodology for hybridisation of a fuel cell with a battery or supercapacitor for applications with a cyclic load profile with two discrete power levels. As an example of the method's application, the design process for selecting the energy storage technology, sizing it for the application, and determining the fuel load/range limitations, is given for an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). A system level mass and energy balance shows that hydrogen and oxygen storage systems dominate the mass and volume of the energy system and consequently dictate the size and maximum mission duration of a UUV.

  6. Hybridizing energy conversion and storage in a mechanical-to-electrochemical process for self-charging power cell.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xinyu; Wang, Sihong; Guo, Wenxi; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-09-12

    Energy generation and energy storage are two distinct processes that are usually accomplished using two separated units designed on the basis of different physical principles, such as piezoelectric nanogenerator and Li-ion battery; the former converts mechanical energy into electricity, and the latter stores electric energy as chemical energy. Here, we introduce a fundamental mechanism that directly hybridizes the two processes into one, in which the mechanical energy is directly converted and simultaneously stored as chemical energy without going through the intermediate step of first converting into electricity. By replacing the polyethylene (PE) separator as for conventional Li battery with a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film, the piezoelectric potential from the PVDF film as created by mechanical straining acts as a charge pump to drive Li ions to migrate from the cathode to the anode accompanying charging reactions at electrodes. This new approach can be applied to fabricating a self-charging power cell (SCPC) for sustainable driving micro/nanosystems and personal electronics.

  7. Hybridizing energy conversion and storage in a mechanical-to-electrochemical process for self-charging power cell.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xinyu; Wang, Sihong; Guo, Wenxi; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-09-12

    Energy generation and energy storage are two distinct processes that are usually accomplished using two separated units designed on the basis of different physical principles, such as piezoelectric nanogenerator and Li-ion battery; the former converts mechanical energy into electricity, and the latter stores electric energy as chemical energy. Here, we introduce a fundamental mechanism that directly hybridizes the two processes into one, in which the mechanical energy is directly converted and simultaneously stored as chemical energy without going through the intermediate step of first converting into electricity. By replacing the polyethylene (PE) separator as for conventional Li battery with a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film, the piezoelectric potential from the PVDF film as created by mechanical straining acts as a charge pump to drive Li ions to migrate from the cathode to the anode accompanying charging reactions at electrodes. This new approach can be applied to fabricating a self-charging power cell (SCPC) for sustainable driving micro/nanosystems and personal electronics. PMID:22876785

  8. Observation of a power-law energy distribution in atom-ion hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Ziv; Akerman, Nitzan; Sikorsky, Tomas; Ben-Shlomi, Ruti; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2016-05-01

    Understanding atom-ion collision dynamics is at the heart of the growing field of ultra-cold atom-ion physics. The naive picture of a hot ion sympathetically-cooled by a cold atomic bath doesn't hold due to the time dependent potentials generated by the ion Paul trap. The energy scale of the atom-ion system is determined by a combination of the atomic bath temperature, the ion's excess micromotion (EMM) and the back action of the atom-ion attraction on the ion's position in the trap. However, it is the position dependent ion's inherent micromotion which acts as an amplifier for the ion's energy during random consecutive collisions. Due to this reason, the ion's energy distribution deviates from Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) characterized by an exponential tail to one with power-law tail described by Tsallis q-exponential function. Here we report on the observation of a strong deviation from MB to Tsallis energy distribution of a trapped ion. In our experiment, a ground-state cooled 88 Sr+ ion is immersed in an ultra-cold cloud of 87 Rb atoms. The energy scale is determined by either EMM or solely due to the back action on the ion position during a collision with an atom in the trap. Energy distributions are obtained using narrow optical clock spectroscopy.

  9. Strategy for Migration of Traditional to Hybrid Control Boards in a Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Ronald Laurids; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Ulrich, Thomas Anthony

    2014-07-01

    This strategy document describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of new digital control room elements in a legacy analog main control room (MCR). Information from previous planning and analysis work serves as the foundation for creating a human-machine interface (HMI) specification for distributed control systems (DCSs) to be implemented as part of nuclear power plant (NPP) modernization. This document reviews ways to take the HMSI specification and use it when migrating legacy displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then an integrated system validation (ISV) in the full-scope control room training simulator. Following successful demonstration of operator performance using the systems during the ISV, the new DCS is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the MCR. This document concludes with a sample project plan, including a 15-month timeline from DCS design through implementation. Included is a discussion of how the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) can be used to support design and V&V activities. This report completes a Level 4 (M4) milestone under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program.

  10. A 6 month evaluation of a non-powered hybrid mattress replacement system.

    PubMed

    Newton, Heather

    2015-11-11

    In 2013, the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust undertook a 6-week evaluation of the AtmosAir 4000 non-powered reactive pressure redistribution mattress replacement system to determine its suitability in supporting the prevention of pressure ulcers in high-risk patients (phase one). The results demonstrated that the AtmosAir 4000 mattress system, together with skin assessment and repositioning regimes, met the pressure ulcer preventative needs of patients at high and very high risk of developing pressure ulcers. It also resulted in a notable reduction in the use of dynamic air mattresses. Consequently, 50 AtmosAir 4000 mattresses were purchased for two acute medical wards in the evaluation site, where the majority of patients are elderly with an acute medical condition. This article discusses the second phase where an audit compares the number of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers reported over a 6-month period with the equivalent time period in 2014. Results show that the number of pressure ulcers reduced by 65% and 50% in the two wards. The number of dynamic mattresses used on the two wards reduced significantly from 28 to 7, which represents a 75% reduction in usage.

  11. Pseudocapacitance of MXene nanosheets for high-power sodium-ion hybrid capacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfen; Kajiyama, Satoshi; Iinuma, Hiroki; Hosono, Eiji; Oro, Shinji; Moriguchi, Isamu; Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2015-04-02

    High-power Na-ion batteries have tremendous potential in various large-scale applications. However, conventional charge storage through ion intercalation or double-layer formation cannot satisfy the requirements of such applications owing to the slow kinetics of ion intercalation and the small capacitance of the double layer. The present work demonstrates that the pseudocapacitance of the nanosheet compound MXene Ti2C achieves a higher specific capacity relative to double-layer capacitor electrodes and a higher rate capability relative to ion intercalation electrodes. By utilizing the pseudocapacitance as a negative electrode, the prototype Na-ion full cell consisting of an alluaudite Na2Fe2(SO4)3 positive electrode and an MXene Ti2C negative electrode operates at a relatively high voltage of 2.4 V and delivers 90 and 40 mAh g(-1) at 1.0 and 5.0 A g(-1) (based on the weight of the negative electrode), respectively, which are not attainable by conventional electrochemical energy storage systems.

  12. Pseudocapacitance of MXene nanosheets for high-power sodium-ion hybrid capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianfen; Kajiyama, Satoshi; Iinuma, Hiroki; Hosono, Eiji; Oro, Shinji; Moriguchi, Isamu; Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    High-power Na-ion batteries have tremendous potential in various large-scale applications. However, conventional charge storage through ion intercalation or double-layer formation cannot satisfy the requirements of such applications owing to the slow kinetics of ion intercalation and the small capacitance of the double layer. The present work demonstrates that the pseudocapacitance of the nanosheet compound MXene Ti2C achieves a higher specific capacity relative to double-layer capacitor electrodes and a higher rate capability relative to ion intercalation electrodes. By utilizing the pseudocapacitance as a negative electrode, the prototype Na-ion full cell consisting of an alluaudite Na2Fe2(SO4)3 positive electrode and an MXene Ti2C negative electrode operates at a relatively high voltage of 2.4 V and delivers 90 and 40 mAh g−1 at 1.0 and 5.0 A g−1 (based on the weight of the negative electrode), respectively, which are not attainable by conventional electrochemical energy storage systems. PMID:25832913

  13. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  14. Reading Exercises on Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almaraz, Felix D., Jr.; Almaraz, Maria O.

    Short biographical sketches and drawings of 30 prominent Mexican Americans are presented in this book of reading exercises. Written on a fourth or fifth grade level, the book includes figures representing a variety of occupations and fields of achievement: the arts, sports, business, journalism, education, entertainment, literature, medicine, law,…

  15. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  16. The Mexican Axolotl in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests and describes laboratory activities in which the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw) is used, including experiments in embryology and early development, growth and regeneration, neoteny and metamorphosis, genetics and coloration, anatomy and physiology, and behavior. Discusses care and maintenance of animals. (CS)

  17. New Mexican Spanish Verb Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, J. Donald

    This paper presents a morphophonemic analysis of the characteristics that distinguish verb structure in New Mexican Spanish from that of Standard Spanish. Verb structure and classification are discussed, and verbs are analyzed as being composed of four components: stem, thematic vowel, tense-aspect, and person-number. Verbs are classified as…

  18. Recruiting Mexican American Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Robert S.; Serpe, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 591 Mexican Americans to determine adoption interest and create recruiting practices for prospective parents. Approximately one-third of sample reported an interest in adoption, but many perceived both structural and cultural obstacles to adoption. Based on findings, recommendations for increasing recruitment of…

  19. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  20. Self-Assembled NiO/Ni(OH)2 Nanoflakes as Active Material for High-Power and High-Energy Hybrid Rechargeable Battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Fu, Jing; Park, Moon Gyu; Liu, Hao; Ghorbani Kashkooli, Ali; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    Herein, a proof-of-concept of novel hybrid rechargeable battery based on electrochemical reactions of both nickel-zinc and zinc-air batteries is demonstrated using NiO/Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes self-assembled into mesoporous spheres as the active electrode material. The hybrid battery operates on two sets of fundamentally different battery reactions combined at the cell level, unlike in other hybrid systems where batteries of different reactions are simply connected through an external circuitry. As a result of combining nickel-zinc and zinc-air reactions, the hybrid battery demonstrates both remarkably high power density (volumetric, 14 000 W L(-1); gravimetric, 2700 W kg(-1)) and energy density of 980 W h kg(-1), significantly outperforming the performances of a conventional zinc-air battery. Furthermore, the hybrid battery demonstrates excellent charge rate capability up to 10 times faster than the rate of discharge without any capacity and voltage degradations, which makes it highly suited for large-scale applications such as electric vehicle propulsion and smart-grid energy storage.

  1. Self-Assembled NiO/Ni(OH)2 Nanoflakes as Active Material for High-Power and High-Energy Hybrid Rechargeable Battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Fu, Jing; Park, Moon Gyu; Liu, Hao; Ghorbani Kashkooli, Ali; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    Herein, a proof-of-concept of novel hybrid rechargeable battery based on electrochemical reactions of both nickel-zinc and zinc-air batteries is demonstrated using NiO/Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes self-assembled into mesoporous spheres as the active electrode material. The hybrid battery operates on two sets of fundamentally different battery reactions combined at the cell level, unlike in other hybrid systems where batteries of different reactions are simply connected through an external circuitry. As a result of combining nickel-zinc and zinc-air reactions, the hybrid battery demonstrates both remarkably high power density (volumetric, 14 000 W L(-1); gravimetric, 2700 W kg(-1)) and energy density of 980 W h kg(-1), significantly outperforming the performances of a conventional zinc-air battery. Furthermore, the hybrid battery demonstrates excellent charge rate capability up to 10 times faster than the rate of discharge without any capacity and voltage degradations, which makes it highly suited for large-scale applications such as electric vehicle propulsion and smart-grid energy storage. PMID:26854411

  2. Self-Powered Electrical Stimulation for Enhancing Neural Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Graphene-Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Hybrid Microfibers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weibo; Zhang, Xiaodi; Yu, Xin; Wang, Shu; Qiu, Jichuan; Tang, Wei; Li, Linlin; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-05-24

    Engineered conductive scaffolds toward neural regeneration should have the ability to regulate mesenchymal stems cell (MSC) differentiation into neural lineage through an electrical stimulation-assisted culture process. In this work, a self-powered electrical stimulation-assisted neural differentiation system for MSCs was realized by combining a high effective triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to supply pulsed electric simulation signals and a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid microfiber (80 μm in diameter) as a scaffold. The conductive PEDOT endows the rGO-PEDOT hybrid microfiber with an enhanced electrical conductivity and maintains a good cytocompatibility. MSCs cultured on this highly conductive rGO-PEDOT hybrid microfiber possess enhanced proliferation ability and good neural differentiation tendency. Importantly, by inducing electric pulses generated by the TENG as the electrical stimulation signal, which are triggered by human walking steps, neural differentiation of MSCs is dramatically improved. This study illustrates the customizability of the rGO-PEDOT hybrid microfiber for neural tissue engineering scaffolding applications, underlines the potential of a self-powered TENG electrical stimulation system for accelerating MSC differentiation into neural cells without bio/chemical cues, and suggests the TENG's practical use as a wearable stimulation system to assist nerve regeneration for a walking person. PMID:27144593

  3. Study of the effect of low-power pulse laser on arc plasma and magnesium alloy target in hybrid welding by spectral diagnosis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the effect of laser pulses on arc plasma and target metal in the hybrid welding process, the spectra of the plasmas in the welding process of magnesium alloys are analysed in this paper. The acquisition system of plasma spectra is set up and the spectral lines of welding plasma are acquired. Compared with tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welding, the intensities of the spectral lines of magnesium increase sharply while those of Ar decrease for strong evaporation and ionization of magnesium alloys in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding. The electron temperature and density are estimated by the Boltzmann plot method and the Stark broadening effect. The result shows that the electron temperature of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process is much lower than that in TIG welding, especially in the laser beam-affected zone. In contrast, the electron density of the plasma is enhanced. The influences of laser parameters on electron temperature are also studied. The changes in electron temperature and density indicate that the effect of laser pulse on the target metal is the dominant factor influencing the electron temperature and density in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding.

  4. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications.

  5. Anxiety Reporting and Culturally Associated Interpretation Biases and Cognitive Schemas: A Comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, R. Enrique; Vernberg, Eric M.; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Riveros, Angelica; Mitchell, Montserrat; Mashunkashey, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether Mexican (n = 53), Mexican American (n = 50), and European American (n = 51) children differed in their reporting of anxiety symptoms and whether parental influence and specific cognitive schemas associated with Mexican culture were related to differences in anxiety reporting. As expected, Mexican and Mexican American…

  6. Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Thin-Film Solar Cells: A Survey of Enabling Technologies for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Dickman, John E.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Anctil, Annick; DiLeo, Roberta; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Lee, Chung-Young; Friske, Theresa J.; Sun, Sam-S.; Zhang, Cheng; Choi, S.; Ledbetter, Abram; Seo, Kang; Bonner, Carl E.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Rauh, David

    2007-01-01

    The development of hybrid inorganic/organic thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified, durable substrates provides an attractive solution for fabricating solar arrays with high mass specific power (W/kg). Next generation thin-film technologies may well involve a revolutionary change in materials to organic-based devices. The high-volume, low-cost fabrication potential of organic cells will allow for square miles of solar cell production at one-tenth the cost of conventional inorganic materials. Plastic solar cells take a minimum of storage space and can be inflated or unrolled for deployment. We will explore a cross-section of in-house and sponsored research efforts that aim to provide new hybrid technologies that include both inorganic and polymer materials as active and substrate materials. Research at University of Texas at Arlington focuses on the fabrication and use of poly(isothianaphthene-3,6-diyl) in solar cells. We describe efforts at Norfolk State University to design, synthesize and characterize block copolymers. A collaborative team between EIC Laboratories, Inc. and the University of Florida is investigating multijunction polymer solar cells to more effectively utilize solar radiation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) group has undertaken a thermal analysis of potential metallized substrates as well as production of nanoparticles of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 in good yield at moderate temperatures via decomposition of single-source precursors. Finally, preliminary work at the Rochester Institute of Technology (R.I.T.) to assess the impact on performance of solar cells of temperature and carbon nanotubes is reported. Technologies that must be developed to enable ultra-lightweight solar arrays include: monolithic interconnects, lightweight array structures, and new ultra-light support and deployment mechanisms. For NASA applications, any solar cell or array technology must not only meet

  7. Making hybrids of two-hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Dagher, M C; Filhol-Cochet, O

    1997-05-01

    Two-hybrid systems are powerful tools to find new partners for a protein of interest. However, exchange of material between two-hybrid users has been handicapped by the various versions of two-hybrid systems available and by the widely accepted idea that they are not compatible. In the present paper we show that, contrary to the dogma, the most often used two-hybrid systems may be combined by either transformation or mating assays. The protocol to be followed in each case is provided. This will greatly increase the prospects of the growing network of interacting proteins, by reconciling the "two-hybrid systems" and the "interaction trap".

  8. Innovative Power-Augmentation-Guide-Vane Design of Wind-Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Harvester for Urban High Rise Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Chong Wen; Zainon, M. Z.; Chew, Poh Sin; Kui, Soo Chun; Keong, Wee Seng; Chen, Pan Kok

    2010-06-01

    To generate greater quantities of energy from wind, the most efficient solution would be by increasing the wind speed. Also, due to the decreasing number of economic wind energy sites, there are plans to place wind turbines closer to populated areas. To site wind turbines out from rural areas, the current problems of wind turbines need to be resolved, especially visual impact, poor starting behaviour in low wind speeds, noise and danger caused by blade failure. In this paper, a patented wind-solar hybrid renewable energy harvester is introduced. It is a compact system that integrates and optimizes several green elements and can be built on the top (or between upper levels) of high rise buildings or structures. This system can be used in remote and urban areas, particularly at locations where the wind speed is lower and more turbulent. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through fixed or yaw-able power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine (straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT in this project) at center portion. PAGV is a new and innovative design where its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. From the studies, it is shown that the wind speed increment in the PAGV can be produced according to the Bernoulli's principle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to optimize the geometry of the PAGV and the simulation results demonstrated the technical possibility of this innovative concept. The PAGV replaces the free air-stream from wind by multiple channels of speed-increased and directional-controlled air-stream. With the PAGV, this lift-type VAWT can be self-started and its size can be reduced for a given power output. The design is also safer since the VAWT is enclosed by the PAGV. By integrating the PAGV with the VAWT (the diameter and height of PAGV are 2

  9. GeoNetwork powered GI-cat: a geoportal hybrid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Alessio; Boldrini, Enrico; Santoro, Mattia; Mazzetti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    according to the interface protocols exposed by GI-cat into the multiple query dialects spoken by the resource service providers. Currently, a number of well-accepted catalog and inventory services are supported, including several OGC Web Services, THREDDS Data Server, SeaDataNet Common Data Index, GBIF and OpenSearch engines. A GeoNetwork powered GI-cat has been developed in order to exploit the best of the two frameworks. The new system uses a modified version of GeoNetwork web interface in order to add the capability of querying also the specified GI-cat catalog and not only the GeoNetwork internal database. The resulting system consists in a geoportal in which GI-cat plays the role of the search engine. This new system allows to distribute the query on the different types of data sources linked to a GI-cat. The metadata results of the query are then visualized by the Geonetwork web interface. This configuration was experimented in the framework of GIIDA, a project of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) focused on data accessibility and interoperability. A second advantage of this solution is achieved setting up a GeoNetwork catalog amongst the accessors of the GI-cat instance. Such a configuration will allow in turn GI-cat to run the query against the internal GeoNetwork database. This allows to have both the harvesting and the metadata editor functionalities provided by GeoNetwork and the distributed search functionality of GI-cat available in a consistent way through the same web interface.

  10. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  11. Mexican and Mexican-American children's funds of knowledge as interventions into deficit thinking: opportunities for praxis in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licona, Miguel M.

    2013-12-01

    In this case study, I use an ethnographic-style approach to understand the funds of knowledge of immigrant families living in colonias on both sides of the US/Mexico border. I focus on how these "knowledges" and concomitant experiences impact the ways we perceive and treat immigrant students who have all too often been viewed through deficit lenses that relegate them to the lowest expectations and outcomes in the classroom. I find that Mexican and Mexican-American families hold unusually sophisticated and relevant "knowledges" to mitigate their everyday lives. In this paper, I will refer to citizens of Mexico, whether they reside in Mexico or have crossed to the United States legally or without documentation for purposes of work, as Mexican. People who have crossed the border and are living in the US as legal residents or have gained citizenship are referred to as Mexican-Americans. They live a hybrid identity that is varied and dynamic, an issue that adds to the complexity of the content and contexts of this study. These families know and use these "knowledges" on a daily basis, yet they are not recognized by teachers in the US as a starting point to affirm and support immigrant children. Instead, immigrant children are relegated to the non-gifted and lower track classes where science is taught from an abstract and non-contextual and therefore less engaged basis. The approach I outline here, based on insights from my case study, can greatly improve teachers' abilities to prepare their curricula for diversity in science education and science literacy as well as for broad expectations for student success.

  12. Hydrogen production by the solar-powered hybrid sulfur process: Analysis of the integration of the CSP and chemical plants in selected scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) is a water splitting process for hydrogen production powered with high temperature nuclear heat and electric power; among the numerous thermo-chemical and thermo-electro-chemical cycles proposed in the literature, such cycle is considered to have a particularly high potential also if powered by renewable energy. SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) is a 3 year research project, co-funded by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU). A significant part of the project activities are devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar power plant with the chemical, hydrogen production plant. This work reports a part of the results obtained in such research activity. The analysis presented in this work builds on previous process simulations used to determine the energy requirements of the hydrogen production plant in terms of electric power, medium (<550°C) and high (>550°C) temperature heat. For the supply of medium temperature (MT) heat, a parabolic trough CSP plant using molten salts as heat transfer and storage medium is considered. A central receiver CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) plant is considered to provide high temperature (HT) heat, which is only needed for sulfuric acid decomposition. Finally, electric power is provided by a power block included in the MT solar plant and/or drawn from the grid, depending on the scenario considered. In particular, the analysis presented here focuses on the medium temperature CSP plant, possibly combined with a power block. Different scenarios were analysed by considering plants with different combinations of geographical location and sizing criteria.

  13. Modular pump head design of diffused, metal, and hybrid pump geometry for diode-side-pumped high power Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Sundar, R; Ranganathan, K; Hedaoo, P; Bindra, K S

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we present a comparative study on pump heads for a high power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The pump head is a modular type, which is in the form of discs, with each disc holding three pump diodes kept at 120° with respect to each other. Unabsorbed pump light from the active medium is reflected by reflectors mounted adjacent to the pump diodes. The performance of a high power pump head made of modular discs mounted with specular or diffused type reflectors was studied. Hybrid pump geometry was also investigated, where the pump head is made up of discs loaded with metal and diffused reflectors, alternately. The discs are loaded around the active medium in such a way that successive discs are rotated by sixty degrees with respect to each other. Fluorescence profiles, thermal lensing, laser output power, and M2 values were studied for pump heads made up of metal, diffused, and hybrid type reflectors. All of the pump heads were studied for three different resonator lengths to maximize the output power with the best beam quality. The experimental results show that the diffused reflector-based geometry in a sixty degree rotated configuration produced the maximum output power and best beam quality in terms of the M2 value. PMID:27661579

  14. The Health Beliefs of Mexican, Mexican American and Anglo American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Felipe G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 102 urban Mexican, Mexican American, and Anglo American women to examine health-illness beliefs in five health domains as related to acculturation level: folk and hot-cold beliefs, beliefs of responsibility and control over own health, and cardiovascular disease and stress-illness beliefs. Mexican-origin women mildly…

  15. Social support in Mexican American childbearing women.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Schallmoser, Lucy; MacMullen, Nancy J; Telleen, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Because the Mexican American population in the United States is increasing, nurses will inevitably come into contact with members of this cultural group. Social support is essential for women to adapt to the demands of the perinatal period, and Mexican American childbearing women face particular challenges in obtaining social support. In this article, traditional roles and social support in Mexican American families are described, the challenges of delivering prenatal care within these traditions are discussed, and strategies for nursing intervention are offered.

  16. Mexican doctors serve rural areas.

    PubMed

    Grossi, J

    1991-02-01

    The Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) worked to solve the unemployment problems of physicians and to increase health services to underserved rural areas. In Mexico, 75% of practicing physicians were located in 16 urban areas. Mexico had a large population of 83 million, of whom many in rural areas have been deprived of family planning and medical services. MEXFAM initiated the Community Doctors Project in 1986. The aim was to help Mexican doctors set up a medical practice in marginal urban towns and small towns with low income residents. Funding to physicians was provided for conducting a market survey of the proposed region and for advertising the new medical services. Loans of furniture and medical supplies were provided, and options were provided for purchase of equipment at a later date. During the promotion, services for maternal and child health care were provided for a small fee, while family planning was provided for free. Doctors usually become self-sufficient after about two years. The MEXFAM project established 170 community doctor's offices in 30 out of 32 states. Services were provided for at least 2500 families per office. In 1990, 13 offices were opened to serve an estimated 182,000 clients. A new effort is being directed to owners of Mexican factories. MEXFAM will set up a medical and family planning clinic very close to factories for a company contribution of only $12,000. The clinic promotion is being marketed through videos. MEXFAM found two companies that agreed to support a clinic. PMID:12288711

  17. Analysis of a novel autonomous marine hybrid power generation/energy storage system with a high-voltage direct current link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Lee, Dong-Jing; Lee, Wei-Jen; Chen, Zhe

    This paper presents both time-domain and frequency-domain simulated results of a novel marine hybrid renewable-energy power generation/energy storage system (PG/ESS) feeding isolated loads through an high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link. The studied marine PG subsystems comprise both offshore wind turbines and Wells turbines to respectively capture wind energy and wave energy from marine wind and ocean wave. In addition to wind-turbine generators (WTGs) and wave-energy turbine generators (WETGs) employed in the studied system, diesel-engine generators (DEGs) and an aqua electrolyzer (AE) absorbing a part of generated energy from WTGs and WETGs to generate available hydrogen for fuel cells (FCs) are also included in the PG subsystems. The ES subsystems consist of a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system to balance the required energy in the hybrid PG/ESS. It can be concluded from the simulation results that the proposed hybrid marine PG/ESS feeding isolated loads can stably operate to achieve system power-frequency balance condition.

  18. Binder-free flexible LiMn2O4/carbon nanotube network as high power cathode for rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao; Wu, Xianwen; Doan, The Nam Long; Tian, Ye; Zhao, Hongbin; Chen, P.

    2016-09-01

    Highly flexible LiMn2O4/carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes are developed and used as a high power cathode for the Rechargeable Hybrid Aqueous Battery (ReHAB). LiMn2O4 particles are entangled into CNT networks, forming a self-supported free-standing hybrid films. Such hybrid films can be used as electrodes of ARLB without using any additional binders. The binder-free LiMn2O4/CNT electrode exhibits good mechanical properties, high conductivity, and effective charge transport. High-rate capability and high cycling stability are obtained. Typically, the LiMn2O4/CNT electrode achieves a discharge capacity of 72 mAh g-1 at the large-current of 20 C (1 C = 120 mAh g-1), and exhibits good cycling performance and high reversibility: Coulombic efficiency of almost 100% over 300 charge-discharge cycles at 4 C. By reducing the weight, and improving the large-current rate capability simultaneously, the LiMn2O4/CNT electrode can highly enhance the energy/power density of ARLB and hold potential to be used in ultrathin, lightweight electronic devices.

  19. Enhanced Production of Runaway Electrons during a Disruptive Termination of Discharges Heated with Lower Hybrid Power in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Solis, J. R.; Esposito, B.; Panaccione, L.; Sanchez, R.; Poli, F. M.

    2006-10-20

    We report on the observation of a large production of runaway electrons during a disruptive termination of discharges heated with lower-hybrid waves at the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade. The runaway current plateaus, which can carry up to 80% of the predisruptive current, are observed more often than in normal Ohmic disruptions. The largest runaway currents correspond to the slowest plasma current decay rates. This trend is opposite to what is observed in most tokamaks. We attribute this anomalous behavior to the acceleration of the preexistent wave-resonant suprathermal electrons during the disruption decay phase. These results could be relevant for the operation of the ITER tokamak whenever a sizeable amount of lower-hybrid power is made available.

  20. Observer-based higher order sliding mode control of power factor in three-phase AC/DC converter for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianxing; Laghrouche, Salah; Wack, Maxime

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a full-bridge boost power converter topology is studied for power factor control, using output higher order sliding mode control. The AC/DC converters are used for charging the battery and super-capacitor in hybrid electric vehicles from the utility. The proposed control forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can control the output voltage while keeping the power factor close to one. Super-twisting sliding mode observer is employed to estimate the input currents and load resistance only from the measurement of output voltage. Lyapunov analysis shows the asymptotic convergence of the closed-loop system to zero. Multi-rate simulation illustrates the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller in the presence of measurement noise.

  1. Women as Leaders in Mexican Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of women in Mexican public education leadership. Teaching is a desirable career for Mexican women, but gender differentiated education, training, cultural expectations, family responsibilities, and lack of affirmative government policy inhibit women's professional advancement in the centralized federal bureaucracy that manages…

  2. Mexican Managers' Perceptions of Cultural Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    2001-01-01

    Global managers in Mexico identified what their U.S. counterparts should know about Mexican culture to do business effectively. Suggested Mexican and U.S.cultures are exact opposites in many respects. Discussed differences in building business relationships, attitudes toward time, family and religious values, communication patterns, and…

  3. Mexicans of Detroit. Peopling of Michigan Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Marietta Lynn; Abonyi, Malvina Hauk

    Tracing the background and history of Mexican Americans in Detroit, Michigan, the booklet briefly reviews the early stages of Meso-American history, the Spaniards' arrival in Mexico, colonial Mexico, Mexico's revolt for independence, and the internal turmoil in Mexico which continued until early in 1861. The accomplishments of such Mexicans as…

  4. Mexican-Americans of South Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, William

    The Hogg Foundation for Mental Health sponsored and financed the Hidalgo Project on Differential Culture Change and Mental Health during the 4-year period from 1957 to 1961; this document is an abbreviated report of that study of Mexican-American culture in Hidalgo County, Texas. Acculturation levels of various classes of the Mexican-American…

  5. Mexicano, Mexican-American or Chicano?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Maximiliano

    Although often considered to be homogeneous, the Hispanic community contains many culturally diverse groups. In the United States today, those of Mexican heritage--by far the largest subgroup within the Hispanic community--can be further classified as Mexicano (undocumented resident), Mexican American, or Chicano. This classification system…

  6. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  7. The First Mexican American Fictional Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholl, James R.

    This paper describes the appearance of the first Mexican-American fictional hero in American literature. In 1878 a book entitled, "Live Boys; or, Charley and Nasho in Texas" was published in Boston; the book described the adventures of a Mexican-American hero called Nasho from the Southwestern United States. The author was Thomas Pilgrim, a young…

  8. Mexican-Americans in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Reynaldo L.; And Others

    Of the 10 million Mexican Americans in the United States, 90% reside in the southwestern states of California, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. Historically, the acquisition of Spanish speaking citizens by the U.S. has resulted from military conquest. Yet, Mexican Americans did not have a significant political voice until the high fatality…

  9. Mexican Celebrations. Latin American Culture Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Lubeck, Maria; Salinas, Ana Maria

    Developed for elementary school children, this unit is designed to teach about Mexican American culture through the study of holidays celebrated throughout much of Latin America and the southwestern United States. The unit describes and provides background information about nine Mexican American holidays. Among the activities included are the…

  10. A novel control and physical realization of a clean hybrid hydrogen fuel-cell/battery low-power personal electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Andrew N.

    With the rapid continuation of global warming, high concentrations of pollutants, and foreign oil conflicts, the green energy push has now begun to manifest into great advancements in renewable or clean energies. Fuel-cells have a promising future for mobile power such as the automotive industry, distributed generation, and portable auxiliary power supplies. The type of fuel-cell that has the most focus today is the hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell. It is widely accepted that a fuel-cell cannot effectively supply a dynamic load on its own. In order to correct this drawback and make the fuel-cell system useful for all occasions, a hybrid FC/storage device system needs to be implemented. In this type of system, a balance is created between the high-energy fuel-cell and the high-power storage devices. In this thesis, a hybrid fuel-cell system topology favorable for use in a "personal" electric vehicle such as a scooter is proposed. This topology consists of a fuel-cell connected directly to the batteries and load via a DC link converter. The converter is used to manage the flow of power within the system. In order to have this flow of power to be stable and within operational limits of the devices, a novel adaptive control algorithm implementing six transfer functions based on six major operating conditions is developed. The development of the adaptive algorithm and the implementation of hardware tests were carried out by Matlab/Simulink and dSPACE. The results of the tests showed that the control algorithm was successful at regulating power flow as well as facilitating DC link stability and accuracy at the major operating points.

  11. Genetic structure and forensic parameters of 38 Indels for human identification purposes in eight Mexican populations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cortés, G; Gusmão, L; Pereira, R; Salcido, V H; Favela-Mendoza, A F; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Inclán-Sánchez, A; López-Hernández, L B; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-07-01

    Insertion-deletions for human identification purposes (HID-Indels) offer advantages to solve particular forensic situations and complex paternity cases. In Mexico, admixed population known as Mestizos is the largest (∼90%), plus a number of Amerindian groups (∼10%), which have not been studied with HID-Indels. For this reason, allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 38 HID-Indels were estimated in 531 unrelated individuals from one Amerindian (Purépecha) and seven Mestizo populations from different regions of the country. Genotype distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in almost all loci/populations. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) test did not reveal possible associations between loci pairs in all eight Mexican populations. The combined power of discrimination was high in all populations (PD >99.99999999998%). However, the power of exclusion of the 38 HID-Indel system (PE >99.6863%) was reduced regarding most of autosomal STR kits. The assessment of genetic structure (AMOVA) and relationships between populations (FST) demonstrated significant differences among Mexican populations, mainly of the Purépecha Amerindian group. Among Mexican-Mestizos, three population clusters consistent with geography were defined: (i) North-West region: Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Jalisco; (ii) Central-Southern region: Mexico City, Veracruz and Yucatan; (iii) South region: Chiapas. In brief, this report validates the inclusion of the 38 HID-Indel system in forensic casework and paternity cases in seven Mexican-Mestizo populations from different regions, and in one Mexican Amerindian group.

  12. Treatment acceptability among mexican american parents.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Joaquin; Ibanez, Elizabeth S; Spendlove, Stuart J; Pemberton, Joy R

    2007-09-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for differences in treatment acceptability. Mexican American parents found response cost, a punishment-based technique, more acceptable than positive reinforcement-based techniques (e.g., differential attention). Results suggest that Mexican American parents' acculturation has little impact on acceptability of child management interventions. No association was found between mothers' acculturation and treatment acceptability. However, more acculturated Mexican American fathers viewed token economy as more acceptable than less acculturated fathers. Results are discussed in the context of clinical work and research with Mexican Americans.

  13. Recognizing Writers and Illustrators of Mexican American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Jennifer; Menchaca, Velma D.

    Contemporary books about Mexican Americans are rare and frequently stereotypical in nature. Until recently, the very few children's books about Mexican Americans were usually written from an outsider's perspective and often displayed negative images and messages about traditional Mexican sex roles, Mexican living conditions, and the Spanish…

  14. Helping Mexican and Mexican-American Students in the Schools of the East Side Union High School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert

    This document provides information about schools in Mexico and suggests ways that U.S. schools can use this information to improve education for Mexican and Mexican American students. Chapter 1 describes the Mexican educational system as a vantage point for understanding the expectations of Mexican parents in the United States. This chapter covers…

  15. Modeling and Validation of Power-split and P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles SAE 2013-01-1470)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined ...

  16. Comparative Structures and Attitudes Along the U.S.-Mexican Border.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Ellwyn R.

    Most on-going research on the U.S.-Mexican Border region is in the major content areas of political structure and urbanization, disaster relief, law enforcement, and self-identity studies. Political interaction contrasts the centrally controlled power structures of Mexico with the more complex economic and social structures of the United States.…

  17. Cultural Freedom in the Schools: The Right of Mexican-American Children to Succeed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerry, Martin H.

    The right of all children to an education free from discrimination due to race, color, or national origin is protected through the Department of Health, Education and Welfare's administrative enforcement mechanism and the Federal courts' equity powers. Yet, between 1954 and 1970, neither had seriously attacked the segregation of Mexican American,…

  18. Mexican national pyronometer network calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VAldes, M.; Villarreal, L.; Estevez, H.; Riveros, D.

    2013-12-01

    In order to take advantage of the solar radiation as an alternate energy source it is necessary to evaluate the spatial and temporal availability. The Mexican National Meterological Service (SMN) has a network with 136 meteorological stations, each coupled with a pyronometer for measuring the global solar radiation. Some of these stations had not been calibrated in several years. The Mexican Department of Energy (SENER) in order to count on a reliable evaluation of the solar resource funded this project to calibrate the SMN pyrometer network and validate the data. The calibration of the 136 pyronometers by the intercomparison method recommended by the World Meterological Organization (WMO) requires lengthy observations and specific environmental conditions such as clear skies and a stable atmosphere, circumstances that determine the site and season of the calibration. The Solar Radiation Section of the Instituto de Geofísica of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México is a Regional Center of the WMO and is certified to carry out the calibration procedures and emit certificates. We are responsible for the recalibration of the pyronometer network of the SMN. A continuous emission solar simulator with exposed areas with 30cm diameters was acquired to reduce the calibration time and not depend on atmospheric conditions. We present the results of the calibration of 10 thermopile pyronometers and one photovoltaic cell by the intercomparison method with more than 10000 observations each and those obtained with the solar simulator.

  19. The ethnic context of Mexican American fertility.

    PubMed

    Abma, J C; Krivo, L J

    1991-01-01

    Researchers analyzed 1980 data on 9954 ever married Mexican American 20-44 year old women living in metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) in the US with at least 50 Mexican Americans to test a multilevel model of Mexican American fertility. The model included percent Mexican American and measures of ethnic cultural integration and constraints in labor market opportunities. The index of ethnic cultural context consisted of percent of Mexican Americans in the MSA who were born in Mexico, immigrated to the US since 1970, and did not speak English well or not at all. Overall it did not have any effect on recent births (at least 1 birth in past 3 years). Yet it did increase the probability of other births among =or30 year old women who already had at least 4 children (p.05). Nevertheless only 13.4% of =or30 year old women with at least 4 children had another child in the last 3 years, thus the effect on overall Mexican American fertility was minimal. Limited economic opportunities had a significant positive effect on fertility for 30 year old women (p.05) as indicated by the unemployment ratio (unemployment rate of Mexican American females/unemployment rate of White females). The greatest effect of limited economic opportunities was that they induced these women to have a 3rd child. Further percent Mexican American also influenced recent births for 30 year old women even after the researchers included the direct measures of cultural and economic context in their analyses (p.05). Like the measure of economic context, the pattern of significance of percent Mexican American held true across age and parity. Thus economic limitations were more likely to explain the effect of group size on fertility than were cultural patterns. PMID:12317290

  20. A sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous determination of HIV and tuberculosis DNA targets based on signal amplification by quantum dots-PowerVision™ polymer coding nanotracers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Wang, De; Qiao, Li; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Hu, Futao

    2015-09-15

    A novel sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple DNA targets related to human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) was developed based on the different quantum dots-PowerVision(TM) polymer nanotracers. The polymer nanotracers were respectively fabricated by immobilizing SH-labeled oligonucleotides (s-HIV or s-TB), which can partially hybrid with virus DNA (HIV or TB), on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and then modified with PowerVision(TM) (PV) polymer-encapsulated quantum dots (CdS or PbS) as signal tags. PV is a dendrimer enzyme linked polymer, which can immobilize abundant QDs to amplify the stripping voltammetry signals from the metal ions (Pb or Cd). The capture probes were prepared through the immobilization of SH-labeled oligonucleotides, which can complementary with HIV and TB DNA, on the magnetic Fe3O4@Au (GMPs) beads. After sandwich-hybridization, the polymer nanotracers together with HIV and TB DNA targets were simultaneously introduced onto the surface of GMPs. Then the two encoding metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) were used to differentiate two viruses DNA due to the different subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric peaks at -0.84 V (Cd) and -0.61 V (Pb). Because of the excellent signal amplification of the polymer nanotracers and the great specificity of DNA targets, this assay could detect targets DNA as low as 0.2 femtomolar and exhibited excellent selectivity with the dynamitic range from 0.5 fM to 500 pM. Those results demonstrated that this electrochemical coding assay has great potential in applications for screening more viruses DNA while changing the probes.

  1. Preliminary investigation of the effects of lower hybrid power on asymmetric behaviors in the scrape-off layer in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Ding, B. J. Li, M. H.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Yang, J. H.; Wu, Z. G.; Liu, L.; Wang, M.; Zhao, L. M.; Ma, W. D.; Xiu, H. D.; Wang, X. J.; Jia, H.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, M.; Wu, D. J.; Xu, L.; and others

    2014-02-15

    The striations in front of the lower hybrid (LH) launcher have been observed during LH injection by a visible video camera in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Edge density at the top of the LH launcher tends to be much larger in reversed magnetic field (B{sub t}) than that in the normal B{sub t}. To study the mechanisms of the observations, the diffusive-convective model is employed. Simulations show that the LH power makes the density in scrape-off layer asymmetric in poloidal direction with five density peaks. The locations of the striations are approximately in agreement with the locations of the density peaks in different directions of B{sub t}. Higher LH power strengths the asymmetry of the density and leads to a bad coupling which is in conflict with the experimental results showing a good coupling with a higher power. Furthermore, an ionization term is introduced into this model and the increase of edge density with LH power can be qualitatively explained. The simulations also show that the density peaks in front of the waveguides become clearer when taking into account gas puffing.

  2. Mexican Americans' perceptions of culturally competent care.

    PubMed

    Warda, M R

    2000-03-01

    Although the literature abounds with authors' discussions of the need for nurses and other health care providers to deliver safe and optimal care to patients of diverse ethnic groups, little work has focused on defining and measuring the dimensions of culturally competent care. The purpose of this research was to identify culturally competent concepts from the perspective of Mexican Americans. Focus group interviews with Mexican American registered nurses and Mexican American lay recipients of health care were used to explore the participants' subjective perceptions regarding the indicators of culturally competent care. For this group of Mexican American registered nurses, the influence of culture remained strong despite nursing professional experience and knowledge of Western biomedical system. The predominance of themes emphasizing respect, caring, understanding, and patience in health care encounters support the critical importance of personal processes of health care with Hispanics.

  3. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    PubMed

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  4. Time and space: undergraduate Mexican physics in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    This is an ethnographic study of the trajectories and itineraries of undergraduate physics students at a Mexican university. In this work learning is understood as being able to move oneself and, other things (cultural tools), through the space-time networks of a discipline (Nespor in Knowledge in motion: space, time and curriculum in undergraduate physics and management. Routledge Farmer, London, 1994). The potential of this socio-cultural perspective allows an analysis of how students are connected through extended spaces and times with an international core discipline as well as with cultural features related to local networks of power and construction. Through an example, I show that, from an actor-network-theory (Latour in Science in action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1987), that in order to understand the complexities of undergraduate physics processes of learning you have to break classroom walls and take into account students' movements through complex spatial and temporal traces of the discipline of physics. Mexican professors do not give classes following one textbook but in a moment-to-moment open dynamism tending to include undergraduate students as actors in classroom events extending the teaching space-time of the classroom to the disciplinary research work of physics. I also find that Mexican undergraduate students show initiative and display some autonomy and power in the construction of their itineraries as they are encouraged to examine a variety of sources including contemporary research articles, unsolved physics problems, and even to participate in several physicists' spaces, as for example being speakers at the national congresses of physics. Their itineraries also open up new spaces of cultural and social practices, creating more extensive networks beyond those associated with a discipline. Some economic, historical and cultural contextual features of this school of sciences are analyzed in order to help understanding the particular

  5. Flexible, Hybrid Piezoelectric Film (BaTi(1-x)Zr(x)O3)/PVDF Nanogenerator as a Self-Powered Fluid Velocity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2015-05-13

    We demonstrate a flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) constructed using a hybrid (or composite) film composed of highly crystalline BaTi(1-x)Zr(x)O3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) nanocubes (abbreviated as BTZO) synthesized using a molten-salt process embedded into a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix solution via ultrasonication. The potential of a BTZO/PVDF hybrid film is realized in fabricating eco-friendly devices, active sensors, and flexible nanogenerators to interpret its functionality. Our strategy is based on the incorporation of various Zr(4+) doping ratios into the Ti(4+) site of BaTiO3 nanocubes to enhance the performance of the PNG. The flexible nanogenerator (BTZO/PVDF) exhibits a high electrical output up to ∼11.9 V and ∼1.35 μA compared to the nanogenerator (BTO/PVDF) output of 7.99 V and 1.01 μA upon the application of cyclic pushing-releasing frequencies with a constant load (11 N). We also demonstrate another exciting application of the PNG as a self-powered sensor to measure different water velocities at an outlet pipe. The average maximum peak power of the PNG varies from 0.2 to 15.8 nW for water velocities ranging from 31.43 to 125.7 m/s during the water ON condition. This study shows the compositional dependence approach, fabrication of nanostructures for energy harvesting, and self-powered devices in the field of monitoring for remote area applications. PMID:25901640

  6. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  7. Mexican oil and dependent development

    SciTech Connect

    Gentlemen, J.

    1984-01-01

    This study was conceived as an opportunity to examine the impact that the condition of dependency would have upon Mexico's effort to develop its huge petroleum resources in the mid 1970s. It is hardly a pleasant tale and one that provides little encouragement for those searching for solutions to underdevelopment within the contemporary Mexican political setting. Despite the fact that the study details a failed development project, the alternative to the model in place is far from obvious, as painful as that observation may be. Indeed, the failure of the development project and the analysis presented here of that failure is not directly suggestive of a preferable development alternative. While a ''socialist'' model is usually implied by dependence analysis, the socialist alternative frankly provides little guarantee of a prospect of long term viability, self-directed development and essential political and human rights to oppressed people.

  8. Effect of power distribution on the weld quality during hybrid laser welding of an Al-Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, P.; Renna, G.; Casalino, G.; Olabi, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper treats of the analysis of the effect of arc and laser powers on the quality of the arc assisted fiber laser welding of an Al-Mg alloy in the butt configuration. Grain size, weld geometry defects, porosity, and magnesium loss were measured. Magnesium content of the fused zone decreased as the laser power increased while the porosity increased with laser power. Microhardness profiles and tensile properties were explained on the basis of the joint microstructure and defects and related to the power distribution. The porosity level and Mg content in the fused zone affected both tensile strength and ductility. The power distribution that stabilized the welding process and minimize the weld porosity was defined.

  9. Design and feasibility of high temperature nanoparticle fluid filter in hybrid thermal/photovoltaic concentrating solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Brekke, Nick; Tunkara, Ebrima; Hari, Parameswar; Roberts, Kenneth; Otanicar, Todd

    2015-09-01

    A nanoparticle fluid filter used with concentrating hybrid solar/thermal collector design is presented. Nanoparticle fluid filters could be situated on any given concentrating system with appropriate customized engineering. This work shows the design in the context of a trough concentration system. Geometric design and physical placement in the optical path was modeled using SolTrace. It was found that a design can be made that blocks 0% of the traced rays. The nanoparticle fluid filter is tunable for different concentrating systems using various PV cells or operating at varying temperatures.

  10. Hybrid systems for transuranic waste transmutation in nuclear power reactors: state of the art and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurov, D. V.; Prikhod'ko, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The features of subcritical hybrid systems (HSs) are discussed in the context of burning up transuranic wastes from the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle. The advantages of HSs over conventional atomic reactors are considered, and fuel cycle closure alternatives using HSs and fast neutron reactors are comparatively evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of two HS types with neutron sources (NSs) of widely different natures -- nuclear spallation in a heavy target by protons and nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasma -- are discussed in detail. The strengths and weaknesses of HSs are examined, and demand for them for closing the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle is assessed.

  11. Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoya Motapon, Souleman

    As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption

  12. Hybrid microfluidic fuel cell based on Laccase/C and AuAg/C electrodes.

    PubMed

    López-González, B; Dector, A; Cuevas-Muñiz, F M; Arjona, N; Cruz-Madrid, C; Arana-Cuenca, A; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Arriaga, L G; Ledesma-García, J

    2014-12-15

    A hybrid glucose microfluidic fuel cell composed of an enzymatic cathode (Laccase/ABTS/C) and an inorganic anode (AuAg/C) was developed and tested. The enzymatic cathode was prepared by adsorption of 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Laccase on Vulcan XC-72, which act as a redox mediator, enzymatic catalyst and support, respectively. The Laccase/ABTS/C composite was characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, streaming current measurements (Zeta potential) and cyclic voltammetry. The AuAg/C anode catalyst was characterised by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The hybrid microfluidic fuel cell exhibited excellent performance with a maximum power density value (i.e., 0.45 mW cm(-2)) that is the highest reported to date. The cell also exhibited acceptable stability over the course of several days. In addition, a Mexican endemic Laccase was used as the biocathode electrode and evaluated in the hybrid microfluidic fuel cell generating 0.5 mW cm(-2) of maximum power density. PMID:25016252

  13. Fair Start Program: Outreach to Mexican and Mexican American Farmworker Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters-Smith, Carol; Larner, Mary

    This presentation describes a home visiting health education program serving Mexican and Mexican-American migrant farmworkers in Florida. The purposes of the program were to educate farmworker families about pregnancy, childbirth, nutrition, and child development, and to encourage the use of preventive health care services. Home visitors were…

  14. Acculturation and metabolic syndrome risk factors in young Mexican and Mexican-American women.

    PubMed

    Vella, Chantal A; Ontiveros, Diana; Zubia, Raul Y; Bader, Julia O

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about effects of acculturation on disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a border community. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between acculturation and features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mexican and Mexican-American women (n = 60) living in the largest US-Mexico border community. Acculturation was measured by the short acculturation scale for Hispanics and birthplace. Body composition was measured by Bod Pod and daily physical activity was measured by questionnaire and accelerometer. Increased acculturation was related to individual features of MetS and increased risk of MetS. These relationships were mediated by fat mass rather than inactivity. Fat mass mediates the relationships between acculturation and individual features of MetS in young Mexican and Mexican-American women. These findings suggest that fat mass, rather than inactivity, is an important contributor to disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a large US/Mexico border community.

  15. Mexican-American and Mexican National Farm Workers: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.

    This paper is concerned with the scholarly treatment accorded to Mexican American and Mexican National farm workers by historical, legal, social work, and social science journals. Only those articles published after the arbitrary date of 1960 are reviewed due to space and time limitations. Works published since then are briefly summarized and…

  16. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  17. MEXICAN-AMERICAN STUDY PROJECT. ADVANCE REPORT 10, MEXICAN AMERICANS IN SOUTHWEST LABOR MARKETS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOGEL, WALTER

    MEXICAN AMERICANS ARE CLEARLY A DISADVANTAGED GROUP IN THE LABOR MARKETS OF THE SOUTHWEST. ALTHOUGH SUBSTANTIAL GAINS IN INCOME AND OCCUPATIONAL STATUS TAKE PLACE BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND GENERATIONS OF MEXICAN AMERICANS, LITTLE IMPROVEMENT IS EVIDENCED AFTER THE SECOND GENERATION. AS FURTHER EVIDENCE OF DISADVANTAGEMENT, IT HAS BEEN FOUND…

  18. A Comparison of Delinquent and Nondelinquent Anglo-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and Mexican Nationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megargee, Edwin I.; Rosenquist, Carl M.

    Some 50 adjudicated male delinquents, aged 12-17, and 50 nondelinquent comparison subjects from the same lower class neighborhoods were selected from each of three cultural groups: (1) Mexican nationals, (2) Mexican-Americans, and (3) Anglo-Americans. Sociological and demographic data were collected. A standard psychological test battery,…

  19. The "Mexican Problem": Empire, Public Policy, and the Education of Mexican Immigrants, 1880-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gilbert G.

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1900s, a central theme in many books and scholarly works about Mexico and Mexicans was the transnational "Mexican problem"--the innate political and cultural backwardness that prevented Mexico's development and modernization. These works greatly influenced both U.S. policy toward Mexico and educational policies aimed at segregating…

  20. Simulation and Performance Analysis of Lithium Battery Bank Mounted on the Hybrid Power System for Mobile Public Health Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busono, Pratondo; Kartini, Evvy

    2013-07-01

    Mobile medical clinic has been proposed to serve homeless people, people in the disaster area or in the remote area where no health service exist. At that site, a number of essential services such as primary health care, general health screening, medical treatment and emergency/rescue operations are required. Such services usually requires on board electrical equipments such as refrigerators, komputer, power tools and medical equipments. To supply such electrical equipments, it needs extra auxiliary power sources, in addition of standard automotive power supply. The auxiliary power source specifically design to supply non automotive load which may have similar configuration, but usually uses high power alternator rated and larger deep cycle on board battery bank. This study covers the modeling and dynamic simulation of auxiliary power source/battery to supply the medical equipment and other electrical equipments on board. It consists a variable speed diesel generator set, photovoltaic (PV) generator mounted on the roof of the car, a rechargable battery bank. As an initial step in the system design, a simulation study was performed. The simulation is conducted in the system level. Simulation results shows that dynamical behaviour by means of current density, voltage and power plot over a chosen time range, and functional behaviour such as charging and discharging characteristic of the battery bank can be obtained.

  1. High power laser beam melting of Ti6Al4V on formed sheet metal to achieve hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Schaub, Adam; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Roman; Merklein, Marion; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the desire to combine the advantages of two manufacturing concepts, namely Additive Manufacturing and sheet metal forming, the concept of hybrid processes emerged. Laser Beam Melting process with its characteristic layer by layer fabrication methodology has already been proved to be successful in fabricating fully dense 3D structures with micro sized Ti6Al4V powder. The presented research focuses on direct fabrication of Ti6 Al4V Additive Structures on a thin pre-formed Ti6 Al4V sheet metal substrate. In the state of the art Laser Beam Melting process, fabrication of solid structures is done on a support structure attached to a thick conventionally manufactured base plate. The state of the art process also uses a 200°C pre-heating of the fabrication platform in order to reduce the effect of heat induced stresses on the fabricated structures. Within the hybrid fabrication concept, 3D structures are directly fabricated on a thin sheet metal and the thermodynamic conditions are significantly different in comparison to the conventional process. The research aims at understanding the fundamental aspects of the interaction between the formed sheet metal and additive structure determines the corresponding mechanical characteristics. The interaction process during the fabrication exposes the alloy locally to non-optimum thermal cycles and the research therefore aims to understand the various influencing factors involved during the fabrication process. The system technology modifications required to achieve the aimed fabrication are also discussed in the presented research.

  2. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  3. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system.

  4. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system. PMID:23957893

  5. Teresa Urrea: Mexican mystic, healer, and apocalyptic revolutionary.

    PubMed

    Nava, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This article is a study of the mystical and apocalyptic dimensions of Teresa Urrea. As explained in this article, Urrea’s mystical experiences and visions are unique for their connection with a propheticapocalyptic and political worldview. This apocalyptic dimension is more than a communication of a hidden message or spiritual world; it also includes a reading of history that is catastrophic and discontinuous. The crisis and terror of history are given expression in Urrea’s mystical and apocalyptic pronouncements. In particular, the chaotic and oppressive circumstances of Mexican society during the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz was confronted and denounced in Urrea’s mystical and apocalyptic ministry. This apocalyptic healer castigated those culpable or even complicit with the injustices affecting the indigenous communities of Mexico during the late nineteenth century. In the case of Urrea, the transformation and healing of Church and society was an important aspect of her spiritual, healing powers. Because Urrea possessed neither arms nor the weapon of the pen, her sole weapon became her mystical experiences and the insight and healing powers that flowed from them. People of Mexico—especially indigenous groups—began to flock to her hoping that she would bring God’s presence to the troubled and chaotic circumstances of their lives. Her compassion and tenderness for the afflicted as well as the apocalyptic expectations that she stirred up among the indigenous groups of Northern Mexico were enough to get this mystical-political Mexican mestiza exiled from her homeland.

  6. Strongly-disordered hybridization and non-Fermi liquid behavior in CePt4Ge12-xSbx studied with thermoelectric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Benjamin; Huang, Kevin; Maple, M. Brian

    2014-03-01

    Non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior is commonly associated with the presence of a nearby quantum critical point, but can also be observed in other scenarios. In a clean system, hybridization between localized and itinerant electron states can be characterized by a single Kondo temperature TK, but introducing chemical disorder can lead to a wide distribution of TK values. Given sufficient disorder, the resulting distribution will tend to include an appreciable number of localized electron states which are characterized by TK ~ 0 K, and NFL behavior emerges. A Kondo-disorder type of NFL behavior was recently reported in the filled skutterudite system CePt4Ge12-xSbx in the vicinity of x = 1 . We performed a study of the thermoelectric power S(T) for this system and observed an evolution of S(T) with x that is dramatic and broadly consistent with the boundaries of the proposed phase diagram. The effect of disordered hybridization is clearly observed in a low-temperature feature in S(T) in the range 0 . 5 <= x <= 1 . 5 and NFL behavior is also observed at x = 1. These results clearly demonstrate how sensitively S(T) is able to probe a Kondo disorder system. Research was performed with support from the US DOE grant DE-FG02-04-ER46105.

  7. Multi-objective component sizing of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrain using Pareto-based natural optimization machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Ahmad; Vajedi, Mahyar; Chehresaz, Maryyeh; Azad, Nasser L.

    2016-03-01

    The urgent need to meet increasingly tight environmental regulations and new fuel economy requirements has motivated system science researchers and automotive engineers to take advantage of emerging computational techniques to further advance hybrid electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) designs. In particular, research has focused on vehicle powertrain system design optimization, to reduce the fuel consumption and total energy cost while improving the vehicle's driving performance. In this work, two different natural optimization machines, namely the synchronous self-learning Pareto strategy and the elitism non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, are implemented for component sizing of a specific power-split PHEV platform with a Toyota plug-in Prius as the baseline vehicle. To do this, a high-fidelity model of the Toyota plug-in Prius is employed for the numerical experiments using the Autonomie simulation software. Based on the simulation results, it is demonstrated that Pareto-based algorithms can successfully optimize the design parameters of the vehicle powertrain.

  8. Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California. Identification of environmental issues, second phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-14

    GeoProducts Corporation and the California Department of Water Resources have jointly proposed to develop a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize geothermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power, the first attempt to utilize these resources together on a commercial scale. This report identifies requirements for new environmental information that must be generated for permit applications and for preparation of environmental documents required by CEOA and NEPA; presents a schedule for generating new environmental data, for preparing and submitting permit applications, and for obtaining permits; presents a budget for permitting, licensing and environmental assessments as required by applicable laws, regulations and procedures; and investigates the step needed to qualify for a Small Power Plant Exemption by the State Energy Commission.

  9. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Ruiz-López, Felipe de J.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Montaldo, Hugo H.; Huson, Heather J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican Holstein (HO) industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN + USA) HO germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv) and the low income (Lowi) system. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican HO cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US HO populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303, and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree HO animals from the Conv, Lowi, and CAN + USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE) and Brown Swiss (BS) genotypes (162 and 86, respectively) were used to determine if Mexican HOs were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC), admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2) analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HO × JE and HO × BS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN + USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire’s country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN + USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN + USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN + USA. Mexican HO cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN + USA but have different genetic signatures. PMID:25709615

  10. A PWM Buck Converter With Load-Adaptive Power Transistor Scaling Scheme Using Analog-Digital Hybrid Control for High Energy Efficiency in Implantable Biomedical Systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Yun; Cho, Jihyun; Lee, Kyuseok; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-12-01

    We report a pulse width modulation (PWM) buck converter that is able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of > 80% in light loads 100 μA) for implantable biomedical systems. In order to achieve a high PCE for the given light loads, the buck converter adaptively reconfigures the size of power PMOS and NMOS transistors and their gate drivers in accordance with load currents, while operating at a fixed frequency of 1 MHz. The buck converter employs the analog-digital hybrid control scheme for coarse/fine adjustment of power transistors. The coarse digital control generates an approximate duty cycle necessary for driving a given load and selects an appropriate width of power transistors to minimize redundant power dissipation. The fine analog control provides the final tuning of the duty cycle to compensate for the error from the coarse digital control. The mode switching between the analog and digital controls is accomplished by a mode arbiter which estimates the average of duty cycles for the given load condition from limit cycle oscillations (LCO) induced by coarse adjustment. The fabricated buck converter achieved a peak efficiency of 86.3% at 1.4 mA and > 80% efficiency for a wide range of load conditions from 45 μA to 4.1 mA, while generating 1 V output from 2.5-3.3 V supply. The converter occupies 0.375 mm(2) in 0.18 μm CMOS processes and requires two external components: 1.2 μF capacitor and 6.8 μH inductor.

  11. A PWM Buck Converter With Load-Adaptive Power Transistor Scaling Scheme Using Analog-Digital Hybrid Control for High Energy Efficiency in Implantable Biomedical Systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Yun; Cho, Jihyun; Lee, Kyuseok; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-12-01

    We report a pulse width modulation (PWM) buck converter that is able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of > 80% in light loads 100 μA) for implantable biomedical systems. In order to achieve a high PCE for the given light loads, the buck converter adaptively reconfigures the size of power PMOS and NMOS transistors and their gate drivers in accordance with load currents, while operating at a fixed frequency of 1 MHz. The buck converter employs the analog-digital hybrid control scheme for coarse/fine adjustment of power transistors. The coarse digital control generates an approximate duty cycle necessary for driving a given load and selects an appropriate width of power transistors to minimize redundant power dissipation. The fine analog control provides the final tuning of the duty cycle to compensate for the error from the coarse digital control. The mode switching between the analog and digital controls is accomplished by a mode arbiter which estimates the average of duty cycles for the given load condition from limit cycle oscillations (LCO) induced by coarse adjustment. The fabricated buck converter achieved a peak efficiency of 86.3% at 1.4 mA and > 80% efficiency for a wide range of load conditions from 45 μA to 4.1 mA, while generating 1 V output from 2.5-3.3 V supply. The converter occupies 0.375 mm(2) in 0.18 μm CMOS processes and requires two external components: 1.2 μF capacitor and 6.8 μH inductor. PMID:26742139

  12. Textbooks, Mexican Americans, and Twentieth-Century American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Secondary and college level American textbooks should include information about minority groups, particularly Mexican-Americans. Surveys history textbooks with regard to their treatment of the Mexican American minority. For journal availability, see so 506 696. (DB)

  13. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs a unique method of imputing the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the U.S. on workers’ wages. Using growth curve techniques, we estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants, U.S-born Mexican Americans, and native non-Latino whites. Our estimates reveal a 17 percent wage disparity between documented and undocumented Mexican immigrant men, and a 9 percent documented-undocumented wage disparity for Mexican immigrant women. We also find that in comparison to authorized Mexicans, undocumented Mexican immigrants have lower returns to human capital and slower wage growth. PMID:25414526

  14. The Representation of "Curanderismo" in Selected Mexican American Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabon, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    "Curanderismo," a Mexican folk practice, is a prevalent subject in Mexican American literature. Because much of the presence of "curanderismo" in Mexican American literature is only explored in ethnographic studies, the purpose of this study is to examine the artistic representation of "curanderismo" in the novels "Bless Me, Ultima" by Rudolfo…

  15. Sociocultural Beliefs Related to Sex among Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Millstein, Susan G.; Eyre, Stephen L.

    1998-01-01

    In a two-phase study, Mexican American male and female adolescents listed positive and negative elements related to preferred partner qualities and engaging in sexual activity; then other Mexican American adolescents classified the items. Results suggest that adolescents' partner preferences and reasons to have sex reflected Mexican American…

  16. Depression and Acculturation in Mexican-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, William G.

    It has been postulated that the result of the Mexican woman's inability to live up to the stiff requirements of her culture should show itself in depressive trends. These theories are often applied to the Mexican-American female as well. The aim of this study was to determine if acculturation is related to depression in Mexican-American females. A…

  17. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2010-01-01

    This article employs a unique method of inferring the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to offer new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the United States on workers' wages. We estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants,…

  18. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The…

  19. Strong selection at MHC in Mexicans since admixture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mexicans are a recent admixture of Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. We performed local ancestry analysis of Mexican samples from two genome-wide association studies obtained from dbGaP, and discovered that at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region Mexicans have excessive African ance...

  20. Mexican Americans: A Brief Look at Their History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Julian

    This short survey begins with a definition of the Mexican American and some of the questions asked by the general public about his culture and aims. It outlines the history of the United States' involvement with Mexico and explains the experience of the Mexican Americans after the end of the Mexican War in 1848. Their ethnic origins and the rich…