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Sample records for mexican national addiction

  1. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  2. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  3. [Retrospective analysis of Mexican National Addictions Survey, 2008. Bias identification and correction].

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Téllez-Rojo Solís, Martha María; Sandoval-Zárate, América Andrea; Zurita-Luna, Juan Manuel; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    To determine the presence of bias on the estimation of the consumption sometime in life of alcohol, tobacco or illegal drugs and inhalable substances, and to propose a correction for this in the case it is present. Mexican National Addictions Surveys (NAS) 2002, 2008, and 2011 were analyzed to compare population estimations of consumption sometime in life of tobacco, alcohol or illegal drugs and inhalable substances. A couple of alternative approaches for bias correction were developed. Estimated national prevalences of consumption sometime in life of alcohol and tobacco in the NAS 2008 are not plausible. There was no evidence of bias on the consumption sometime in life of illegal drugs and inhalable substances. New estimations for tobacco and alcohol consumption sometime in life were made, which resulted in plausible values when compared to other data available. Future analyses regarding tobacco and alcohol using NAS 2008 data will have to rely on these newly generated data weights, that are able to reproduce the new (plausible) estimations.

  4. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  5. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  6. The Mexican national satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

    1983-10-01

    The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

  7. The Need for National Credentialing Standards for Addiction Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Scarborough, Jim; Clark, Catherine; Leonard, Justin C.; Keziah, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the current state of credentialing for addiction counselors in the United States and provide recommendations to the addiction counseling field regarding national standards for credentialing.

  8. The Need for National Credentialing Standards for Addiction Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Scarborough, Jim; Clark, Catherine; Leonard, Justin C.; Keziah, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the current state of credentialing for addiction counselors in the United States and provide recommendations to the addiction counseling field regarding national standards for credentialing.

  9. The Mexican American Political Conference Urges Participation in National Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelo, Cosme Juan, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Participants of the second semiannual meeting of the Arizona Mexican American Political Conference, held in Tucson on September 24, 1977, discussed the Mexican American influence and involvement in local, state, and national politics. (NQ)

  10. Mexican-American and Mexican National Farm Workers: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.

    This paper is concerned with the scholarly treatment accorded to Mexican American and Mexican National farm workers by historical, legal, social work, and social science journals. Only those articles published after the arbitrary date of 1960 are reviewed due to space and time limitations. Works published since then are briefly summarized and…

  11. A Comparison of Delinquent and Nondelinquent Anglo-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and Mexican Nationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megargee, Edwin I.; Rosenquist, Carl M.

    Some 50 adjudicated male delinquents, aged 12-17, and 50 nondelinquent comparison subjects from the same lower class neighborhoods were selected from each of three cultural groups: (1) Mexican nationals, (2) Mexican-Americans, and (3) Anglo-Americans. Sociological and demographic data were collected. A standard psychological test battery,…

  12. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  13. [The national addictions survey of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R; Medina-Mora, M E; Sepúlveda, J; De la Fuente, R; Kumate, J

    1990-01-01

    A probabilistic household survey was made with the following objectives: to estimate the prevalence of consumption of tobacco, alcohol and legal and illegal drugs; to identify attitudes and values, risk factors and problems associated with the consumption of addictive substances in a population from 12 to 65 years old, which resides in the urban areas of Mexico. This survey forms part of the National Health Surveys System, and its sample design is based on the Master Sample Framework of the National Health Surveys System, which gathered information representative of the national population and for seven regions. In the elaboration of the questionnaire indicators proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), validated for Mexico, were used as well as previous knowledge about the topic. Thirteen thousand and five interviews were made, of which 96.7 per cent were complete and 2.6 per cent were rejected. In the group from 12 to 17 years old, 32 per cent of the men and 23 per cent of the women already consumed alcoholic drinks. The age group with the largest proportion of men who were frequent drinkers is from 30 to 39 years of age, with 36.3 per cent. For women 34.0 per cent of the frequent drinkers were found in the 40 to 49 year age group. It was found that six per cent of the population from 18 to 65 years of age is alcohol dependent, 12.5 per cent of men and less than one per cent of women. The population which smokes reaches 26 per cent of the total, with 38.3 per cent of men and 14.4 per cent of women. Forty two and four per cent of smokers are from 18 to 29 years of age. Among the daily smokers, 17 per cent were considered dependent on cigarettes. Only 4.8 per cent of the population admits having consumed some type of drug on at least one occasion, with the men from 12 to 34 years old being the age group which is most affected by the use of drugs (8.5%). Active users in the last year made up 2.1 per cent and in the last month the proportion of active users

  14. Addictive Internet Use among Korean Adolescents: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background A psychological disorder called ‘Internet addiction’ has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. Methods and Findings We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13–18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use. PMID:24505318

  15. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Grivel, J; Tomei, A; Gothuey, I; Andronicos, M; Babel, H; Nunweiler, S

    2013-01-09

    What's new in addiction medicine in 2012? The news are presented according three axes: first, in the field of neuroscience, the process of extinction of addiction memories. Then in the clinical field, a reflexion is reported on how to treat addiction in psychiatric hospitals. At last, in the area of teaching, an e-learning development with a virtual patient shows a great interest in addiction psychiatry.

  16. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Grivel, J; Tomei, A; Falcheri, J-P; Waelchli, M; Simon, O; Rossier, V

    2012-01-11

    The news in addiction medicine for 2011 include new knowledges coming from the neurosciences, but also new clinical concepts, as the role of hospital addiction units in an integrated network of care. The issue of cocaine vaccination is discussed from an ethical point of view. Finally, the integration of mindfulness techniques is introduced as a useful approach in the treatment of the addictions.

  17. Addiction.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2003-01-01

    The development of addiction involves a transition from casual to compulsive patterns of drug use. This transition to addiction is accompanied by many drug-induced changes in the brain and associated changes in psychological functions. In this article we present a critical analysis of the major theoretical explanations of how drug-induced alterations in psychological function might cause a transition to addiction. These include: (a) the traditional hedonic view that drug pleasure and subsequent unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are the chief causes of addiction; (b) the view that addiction is due to aberrant learning, especially the development of strong stimulus-response habits; (c) our incentive-sensitization view, which suggests that sensitization of a neural system that attributes incentive salience causes compulsive motivation or "wanting" to take addictive drugs; and (d) the idea that dysfunction of frontal cortical systems, which normally regulate decision making and inhibitory control over behavior, leads to impaired judgment and impulsivity in addicts.

  18. Active Commuting to School in Mexican Adolescents: Evidence From the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, Alejandra; Medina, Catalina; Salvo, Deborah; Barquera, Simon; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2015-08-01

    Travel to school offers a convenient way to increase physical activity (PA) levels in youth. We examined the prevalence and correlates of active commuting to school (ACS) in a nationally representative sample of Mexican adolescents. A secondary objective was to explore the association between ACS and BMI status. Using data of adolescents (10-14 years old) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2952) we ran multivariate regression models to explore the correlates of ACS and to test the association between ACS and BMI z-score or overweight/obesity. Models were adjusted for potential confounders and design effect. 70.8% of adolescents engaged in ACS (walking: 68.8%, bicycling: 2.0%). ACS was negatively associated with travel time, age, mother's education level, household motor vehicle ownership, family socioeconomic status, and living in urban areas or the North region of the country (P < .05). Time in ACS was negatively associated with overweight/obesity: Each additional minute of ACS was associated with a 1% decrease in the odds for being overweight or obese (P < .05). Potential correlates of ACS that may result in benefits for Mexican adolescents are identified. More studies on this relationship are needed to develop interventions aimed at increasing PA through ACS in Mexico.

  19. [The beginning of Mexican cardiology in the springtime of the Mexican National Academy of Medicine].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The National Academy of Medicine was founded 141 years ago during the French intervention. Under the sponsorship of this brand-new medical association, Mexican cardioangiology took its first steps in the medical and surgical field as well. After the falling of the second empire, the medical and surgical advances of this discipline continued. The corresponding publications appeared in different volumes of the "Gaceta Médica de México"; at present journal of the Academy still published in our time. These steps permitted the development of the true cardiologic speciality during 40s of the twentieth century, due to the vision of Professor Ignacio Chávez, father of Mexican cardiology. Some examples of application are the epistemologic criteria in cardiologycal domains such as the conception of Riva-Rocci's sphygmomanometer in Italy in the nineteenth century and the so-called cardiac metabolic therapy in Mexico of our time, are included.

  20. Evaluation and Reform of Mexican National Epidemiological Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; González-Urbán, Luis; Sarti, Elsa

    2001-01-01

    To generate timely and reliable information for decision making in local health centers, Mexico's National Epidemiological Surveillance System (SINAVE) was evaluated and reformed. The reform was achieved by consensus through national meetings of epidemiologists, using a conceptual model of requirements, leadership, participation, and motivation. The new SINAVE is run by committees that use data from 16 468 local health centers that generate homogeneous information from all health institutions. Indicators, flowcharts, and standardized instruments were created. The reforms modernized SINAVE and strengthened epidemiologists' leadership, consolidated local decision making, and assessed control actions needed to improve the health of the Mexican population. PMID:11684594

  1. A cross-national comparison of Mexican and Mexican American couples using the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (Spanish).

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K; Diáz-Loving, Rolando

    2004-03-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (MSI-R) in a sample of 71 Spanish-speaking couples in Mexico. Results from this sample were compared to findings obtained from 65 Mexican American couples who completed the MSI-R in Spanish. Both the internal consistency and factor structure of the Spanish MSI-R with Mexican couples were found to be comparable to findings on the Spanish MSI-R for Mexican American couples. Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated no significant mean profile differences between these two groups as a function of nationality, gender, or nationality-by-gender interaction. These findings offer initial evidence toward establishing the appropriateness of the Spanish MSI-R for use with Spanish-dominant Mexican couples.

  2. Experiences of Power and Violence in Mexican Men Attending Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Verduzco, Ignacio; Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo; Romero-Mendoza, Martha; Tena-Suck, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Fundamental elements of hegemonic masculinity such as power and violence are analyzed through characteristics of 12-step programs and philosophy immersed in Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment (CRAMAAs). CRAMAAs are a culturally specific form of substance abuse treatment in Mexico that are characterized by control and violence. Fifteen interviews were carried out with men of varied sociodemographic characteristics, and who resided in at least two of these centers. Results identify that power is expressed through drug abuse and leads them to subsequent biopsychosocial degradation. Residency in CRAMAAs is motivated by women, but men do not seek the residency and are usually admitted unwillingly. Power through violence is carried out inside CRAMAAs where men are victims of abuse. From a 12-step philosophy, this violence is believed to lead them to a path of recovery but instead produces feelings of anger and frustration. The implications of these centers on Mexican public health are discussed.

  3. 78 FR 54735 - National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9005 of August 30, 2013 National Alcohol... Proclamation Each day, millions of Americans take courageous steps toward recovery from alcohol and drug... those struggling to break free from addiction. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery...

  4. 75 FR 82200 - Expansion of Global Entry Pilot to Mexican Nationals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry Pilot to Mexican Nationals; Utilization of Global Entry... Protection [Docket No. USCBP-2006-0037] Expansion of Global Entry Pilot to Mexican Nationals AGENCY: U.S... pilot program, referred to as the Global Entry pilot, at several major U.S. airports. Currently...

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Comparison of national and personal identity between person with internet addiction disorder and normal internet users.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Jannatifard, Fereshte; Maracy, Mohammad R; Alaghemandan, Hamed; Setare, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to compare national and personal identity and their subscales in internet addicts and nonaddicts. This study was a descriptive-analytical research, and was carried out on 384 student internet users in different universities in the city of Isfahan who were selected using quota sampling. Subjects completed the questionnaires, then, subscales of personal and national identity questionnaires in internet addict and nonaddict were analyzed via SPSS16 software. Results indicated a significant difference between the scores of national identity and personal identity as well as all subscales in internet addicts and nonaddicts, except for national heritage and homeland defence factors. In addition, there was a negative and significant relationship between addiction to internet and personal and national identity, except for the fourth and fifth factors of national identity (viewpoints of others considering the national group and homeland defence). Moreover, after controlling for the sex variable, internet addiction had an effect on personal and national identity. The findings of this research indicate that an excess of internet use and overinvolvement in cyberspace and the addiction to them, could be associated with defects in some aspects of national and personal identity.

  7. Comparison of national and personal identity between person with internet addiction disorder and normal internet users

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Jannatifard, Fereshte; Maracy, Mohammad R.; Alaghemandan, Hamed; Setare, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds: The present study was carried out in order to compare national and personal identity and their subscales in internet addicts and nonaddicts. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical research, and was carried out on 384 student internet users in different universities in the city of Isfahan who were selected using quota sampling. Subjects completed the questionnaires, then, subscales of personal and national identity questionnaires in internet addict and nonaddict were analyzed via SPSS16 software. Results: Results indicated a significant difference between the scores of national identity and personal identity as well as all subscales in internet addicts and nonaddicts, except for national heritage and homeland defence factors. In addition, there was a negative and significant relationship between addiction to internet and personal and national identity, except for the fourth and fifth factors of national identity (viewpoints of others considering the national group and homeland defence). Moreover, after controlling for the sex variable, internet addiction had an effect on personal and national identity. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicate that an excess of internet use and overinvolvement in cyberspace and the addiction to them, could be associated with defects in some aspects of national and personal identity. PMID:25013835

  8. Nicotine Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The use of tobacco products is one of the most critical health problems facing the country. Through the use of neuroimaging technologies, it is now possible to see some of the changes in brain functioning that occur from smoking. There may be other chemicals in cigarette smoke that contribute to addiction. The improved understanding of addiction,…

  9. Continuing the Epidemiological Function of the Addicts Index--Evidence from Matching the Home Office Addicts Index with the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Matthew; Griffin, Maria; Mott, Joy; Corkery, John; Madden, Peter; Sondhi, Arun; Stimson, Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We discuss the Addicts Index (AI) and examine whether the epidemiological trends of the AI can be continued by the regional drug misuse databases (DMDs, now known as National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS). Methods: (i) Matching individuals recorded as addicted to opiates and/or cocaine in the AI with those reported to the North…

  10. Continuing the Epidemiological Function of the Addicts Index--Evidence from Matching the Home Office Addicts Index with the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Matthew; Griffin, Maria; Mott, Joy; Corkery, John; Madden, Peter; Sondhi, Arun; Stimson, Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We discuss the Addicts Index (AI) and examine whether the epidemiological trends of the AI can be continued by the regional drug misuse databases (DMDs, now known as National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS). Methods: (i) Matching individuals recorded as addicted to opiates and/or cocaine in the AI with those reported to the North…

  11. Repeated addiction treatment use in Sweden: a National Register Database study.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Robert; Chassler, Deborah; Lundgren, Lena

    2014-11-01

    Sweden has a free, universal addiction treatment system, yet few studies exist examining utilization of treatment in this country. This study identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with history of number of voluntary addiction treatment episodes for a national sample of 12,009 individuals assessed for an alcohol and/or drug use disorder in Sweden. On average, people reported 4.3 prior treatment episodes. Linear regression methods identified that predisposing factors such as older age and being male were associated with more voluntary addiction treatment episodes compared to younger and female clients; a higher Addiction Severity Index (ASI) employment score (an enabling factor) was associated with more voluntary addiction treatment episodes; and need factors including a history of inpatient mental health treatment, a higher ASI psychiatric score, a higher ASI alcohol score, higher levels of illicit drug use, more compulsory addiction treatment episodes, a lower ASI legal score, and a history of criminal justice involvement were all associated with more voluntary addiction treatment episodes compared to their counterparts.. There were no differences in the number of treatment episodes by education or immigrant status. (1) Need is a key factor associated with more treatment use. (2) Further studies are needed to identify gender differences in access/use of treatment. (3) Given multiple treatment histories, Swedish addiction treatment policy should reflect a chronic care model rather than an acute care model.

  12. 3 CFR 8701 - Proclamation 8701 of August 31, 2011. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2011 8701 Proclamation 8701 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8701 of August 31, 2011 Proc. 8701 National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2011By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Recovering from addiction to alcohol...

  13. 3 CFR 8850 - Proclamation 8850 of August 31, 2012. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2012 8850 Proclamation 8850 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8850 of August 31, 2012 Proc. 8850 National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month... addiction. People in recovery are not strangers: they are our family members, friends, colleagues, and...

  14. 3 CFR 8406 - Proclamation 8406 of August 31, 2009. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2009 8406 Proclamation 8406 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8406 of August 31, 2009 Proc. 8406 National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month... country overcome their struggles with addiction. With personal determination and the support of family and...

  15. Internet addiction among elementary and middle school students in China: a nationally representative sample study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yun

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%).

  16. New Mexicans` perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Since May, 1990, the Institute for Public Policy (IPP) has published Quarterly Profiles (QPs) of New Mexico`s citizenry. Each QP has focused on a different issue, but they have all asked a set of standard items, including questions about the public`s perceptions of the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL). Each year, the IPP has used the University of New Mexico`s Survey Research Center to conduct a telephone survey of a representative random sample of New Mexicans, and respondents were asked whether they had favorable or unfavorable views of LANL and the degree to which they perceived LANL as an environmentally responsible institution. As a result of this sustained research effort, the IPP now has a collection of fifteen consecutive QPs. With an aggregate sample size of over 8800, we are now able to make precise statistical inferences with greater confidence than was possible when using individual QP samples. Such an extremely large sample mitigates two kinds of common survey research problems.

  17. Mental disorders among English-speaking Mexican immigrants to the US compared to a national sample of Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Joshua; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Borges, Guilherme; Castilla-Puentes, Ruby Cecilia; Kendler, Kenneth S; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Su, Maxwell; Kessler, Ronald C

    2007-05-30

    Our understanding of the relationship between immigration and mental health can be advanced by comparing immigrants pre- and post-immigration with residents of the immigrants' home countries. DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders were assessed using identical methods in representative samples of English-speaking Mexican immigrants to the US, a subsample of the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCSR), and Mexicans, the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (MNCS). Retrospective reports of age of onset of disorders and, in the immigrant sample, age of immigration were analyzed to study the associations of pre-existing mental disorders with immigration and of immigration with the subsequent onset and persistence of mental disorders. Pre-existing anxiety disorders predicted immigration (OR=3.0; 95% CI 1.2-7.4). Immigration predicted subsequent onset of anxiety (OR=1.9; 95% CI 0.9-3.9) and mood (OR=2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.0) disorders and persistence of anxiety (OR=3.7 95% CI 1.2-11.2) disorders. The results are inconsistent with the "healthy immigrant" hypothesis (that mentally healthy people immigrate) and partly consistent with the "acculturation stress" hypothesis (i.e., that stresses of living in a foreign culture promote mental disorder). Replication and extension of these results in a larger bi-national sample using a single field staff are needed.

  18. Mental disorders among English-speaking Mexican immigrants to the US compared to a national sample of Mexicans

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Borges, Guilherme; Castilla-Puentes, Ruby Cecilia; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Su, Maxwell; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationship between immigration and mental health can be advanced by comparing immigrants pre- and post-immigration with residents of the immigrants' home countries. DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders were assessed using identical methods in representative samples of English-speaking Mexican immigrants to the US, a subsample of the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCSR), and Mexicans, the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (MNCS). Retrospective reports of age of onset of disorders and, in the immigrant sample, age of immigration were analyzed to study the associations of pre-existing mental disorders with immigration and of immigration with the subsequent onset and persistence of mental disorders. Pre-existing anxiety disorders predicted immigration (OR=3.0; 95% CI 1.2–7.4). Immigration predicted subsequent onset of anxiety (OR=1.9; 95% CI 0.9–3.9) and mood (OR=2.3; 95% CI 1.3–4.0) disorders and persistence of anxiety (OR=3.7 95% CI 1.2–11.2) disorders. The results are inconsistent with the “healthy immigrant” hypothesis (that mentally healthy people immigrate) and partly consistent with the “acculturation stress” hypothesis (i.e., that stresses of living in a foreign culture promote mental disorder). Replication and extension of these results in a larger bi-national sample using a single field staff are needed. PMID:17363072

  19. [Anxiety and depression in Mexican smokers, and their relationship with the severity of addiction].

    PubMed

    Urdapilleta-Herrera, Eryka del Carmen; Sansores, Raúl H; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Méndez-Guerra, Mónica; Lara-Rivas, Adriana Gabriela; Guzmán-Barragán, Susana Abigail; Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Haro-Valencia, Reyes; Cansino, Selene; Moreno-Coutiño, Ana

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the degree of addiction (DA) and pattern of tobacco consumption (PTC) with anxiety and depression in smokers who want to quit smoking. At admission to a smoking cessation program 495 smokers were surveyed to determine anxiety (IDARE Test), depression (Beck Inventory Test), DA (Fagerström Test) and PTC (pack-years). DA ≥ 6 points was associated with high anxiety levels RM=1.94, (IC95%1.02-3.72), p<0.04]; and with symptoms of severe depression; [RM=2.24, (IC95%1.00-4.99), p<0.04)]. The PCT equal or greater than 21 pack-year, was associated with moderate anxiety; [RM=3.19 (IC95%1.94-5.25), p<.00]; high anxiety; [RM=3.36 (IC95% 1.66-6-80), p<.00]; with moderate depressive symptoms; [RM=3.14, (IC95% 1.75-5-62), p<.00] and severe depressive symptoms; [RM=9.85, (IC95% 3.30-29.37), p<.00)]. A significant association exists in smokers having high GA and PCT, with moderate and high anxiety and depressive symptoms that should be considered during interventions to quit.

  20. Life experiences in active addiction and in recovery among treated and untreated persons: a national study.

    PubMed

    Laudet, Alexandre; Hill, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Addiction treatment can be effective but fewer than 50% of addiction affected persons are ever treated. Little is known about the addiction and recovery experience of this large subgroup. A national sample of persons in recovery (N = 3,176, 29.5% untreated) was used to begin addressing these questions to inform strategies to encourage help-seeking and to contribute to the small knowledge base on untreated individuals. Study domains were finances, family, social and civic functioning, health, criminal justice involvement, and employment. Treated persons reported significantly greater levels of negative-and fewer positive-experiences in all areas during active addiction than did the untreated group. This gap was significantly narrowed in recovery.

  1. Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and BMI in Mexican adolescents: Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Flores, Mario; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index (BMI) in Mexican adolescents. We analyzed the data of 10 689 adolescents (ages 10 to 19 years old) who participated in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Consumption of SSBs (i.e. sodas, fruit beverages and sugar beverages) was evaluated by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated (kg/m(2)). Mean age was 13.8 +/- 2.7 years. Fifty percent were females. Mean BMI was 21.7 +/- 4.5. Thirty percent of adolescents were overweight or obese. Ninety percent of adolescents consumed at least one SSB during the 7 days before the interview. The median consumption of SSBs was 0.89 portion per day. Multiple-linear regression analysis showed that for each portion of sodas consumed, a 0.17-point increase in BMI was observed in boys after adjusting for confounders (95% CI; 0.02-0.32, p 0.03). Positive interactions of SSB consumption with age and time watching TV were observed in boys. Consumption of sodas was positively associated with BMI in Mexican boys.

  2. The Mexican-American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebler, Leo; And Others

    Based on over 4 years of research completed in 1968, this work "is the most comprehensive study to date" of the position of Mexican Americans in selected urban areas of 5 southwestern states (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas). Ranging over historical, cultural, religious, and political perspectives, the class…

  3. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432

  4. The National Museum of Mexican Art: A New Model for Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villafranca-Guzman, Nancy; Tortolero, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The National Museum of Mexican Art was founded by a group of educators in 1987. Twenty-three years later, as the first and only Latino museum accredited by the American Association of Museums, it presents exhibition programming of the highest quality, and conserves an extensive and inclusive art collection. Unlike many museums, it places…

  5. How Has Mexican Faculty Been Trained? A National Perspective and a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Laura Elena

    2008-01-01

    This article depicts how faculty members at Mexican higher education institutions have been prepared in order to assume their professional responsibilities. It relies on three elements: First, a secondary analysis of a national faculty survey composed of 3,861 faculty members from 65 institutions; second, 34 interviews conducted in eight higher…

  6. The National Museum of Mexican Art: A New Model for Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villafranca-Guzman, Nancy; Tortolero, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The National Museum of Mexican Art was founded by a group of educators in 1987. Twenty-three years later, as the first and only Latino museum accredited by the American Association of Museums, it presents exhibition programming of the highest quality, and conserves an extensive and inclusive art collection. Unlike many museums, it places…

  7. Energy and nutrient intake in Mexican adolescents: analysis of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Ponce-Martínez, Xóchitl; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; González-de Cossío, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    To describe energy and nutrient intake and adequacy percentages in Mexican adolescents included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) as well as the proportion of population at risk of dietary inadequacy. Data were analyzed from 7-day food-frequency questionnaires for 8442 male and female adolescents 12-19 years old. Energy and nutrient adequacies as percentage of the Estimated Average Requirement were calculated and comparisons were done by region, residence area, and socioeconomic status (SES). Energy intake was 1903 kcal [adequacy percentage (AP=75%)] in boys, and 1 571 kcal (AP=79.2%) in girls. Intake of most nutrients (zinc, iron, vitamin C and A) was lower in subjects of low SES, living in the southern region and in rural areas. The rural area, the southern region, and the lower socioeconomic status show the lowest intakes and percentages of nutrient adequacy for both male and female adolescents, in particular vitamin A, folates, heme iron, zinc, and calcium.

  8. Hypertension in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    PubMed

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Villalpando, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gilabert, César; Durazo-Arvizú, Ramón; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of hypertension among Mexican adults, and to compare to that observed among Mexican-Americans living in the US. The primary data source came from adults (>20 years) sampled (n=33366) in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Hypertension was defined when systolic blood pressure was >or=140 and/or diastolic was >or= 90 or patients previously diagnosed. A total of 43.2% of participants were classified as having hypertension. We found a positive statistically significant association (p<0.05) between hypertension and BMI, abdominal obesity, previous diagnosis of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Subjects with hypertension had a significantly higher odd of having a history of diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. Hypertension had a higher prevalence in Mexico than among Mexican-Americans living in the US. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Mexico. In the last six years in Mexico, a substantial increase (25%) has been observed in contrast to the reduction seen among Mexican-Americans (-15%).

  9. Homosexuality and illegal residency status in relation to substance abuse and personality traits among Mexican nationals.

    PubMed

    Tori, C D

    1989-09-01

    Maladaptive behavioral and personality reactions to severe stressors among Mexican homosexual men were assessed by comparing substance abuse and Rorschach data obtained from three samples: (a) homosexuals residing illegally in the United States (n = 40), (b) homosexuals living in Mexico (n = 21) and (c) heterosexuals living illegally in the United States (n = 25). The results of orthogonal contrasts showed very similar personality structure and substance abuse patterns among the participants in the two homosexual groups. As predicted, these men were found to be using alcohol or drugs to a greater extent than the heterosexual controls. Rorschach findings indicated that the homosexual subjects were experiencing dysphoric mood and distorted perceptions; they were also having significant difficulties coping with an environment that was discerned as increasingly dangerous. These results are relevant to the stress reduction hypothesis of addiction and provide quantitative information regarding the extent of psychopathology in this underserved Hispanic population.

  10. Repeated entries to the Swedish addiction compulsory care system: a national register database study.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Robert; Lundgren, Lena M; Chassler, Deborah; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-04-01

    This study identified and described specific client groups who have repeated entries to the Swedish addiction compulsory care system. Specifically, through the use of baseline data from the Swedish government Staten's Institutions Styrelse (SiS) database, for 2658 individuals who were assessed at their compulsory care intake interview by social workers in the national social welfare system between 2001 and 2009 the study identified the associations between specific predisposing, enabling and need characteristics and repeated addiction compulsory care entries. The logistic regression model identified that individuals whose children have been mandated to the child welfare system, who have experienced prior compulsory care including compulsory treatment through LVU (law (1990:52) with specific provision about care of young people under 18), and those who have been in prison are more likely to have two or more entries in the addiction compulsory care system compared to their counterparts. Individuals who have been mandated to compulsory care for their substance use disorder two or more times have significant multiple complex problems and repeated experiences of institutionalization. These individuals are a group in need of a well-coordinated and integrated system of aftercare services to reduce the likelihood of re-entry into addiction compulsory care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Comparing life experiences in active addiction and recovery between veterans and non-veterans: a national study.

    PubMed

    Laudet, Alexandre; Timko, Christine; Hill, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The costs of addiction are well documented, but the potential benefits of recovery are less well known. Similarly, substance use issues among both active duty military personnel and veterans are well known but their recovery experiences remain underinvestigated. Furthermore, little is known about whether and how addiction and recovery experiences differ between veterans and non-veterans. This knowledge can help refine treatment and recovery support services. Capitalizing on a national study of individuals in recovery (N = 3,208), we compare addiction and recovery experiences among veterans (n = 481) and non-veterans. Veterans' addiction phase was 4 years longer than non-veterans and they experienced significantly more financial and legal problems. Dramatic improvements in functioning were observed across the board in recovery with subgroup differences leveling off. We discuss possible strategies to address the specific areas where veterans are most impaired in addiction and note study limitations including the cross-sectional design.

  13. Comparing life experiences in active addiction and recovery between veterans and non-veterans: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre; Timko, Christine; Hill, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The costs of addiction are well documented but the potential benefits of recovery are less well known. Similarly, substance use issues among both active duty military personnel and veterans are well known but their recovery experiences remain under-investigated. Further, little is known about whether and how addiction and recovery experiences differ between veterans and non veterans. This knowledge can help refine treatment and recovery support services. Capitalizing on a national study of persons in recovery (N = 3,208) we compare addiction and recovery experiences among veterans (N = 481) and non veterans. Vets’ addiction phase was 4 years longer than non vets and they experienced significantly more financial and legal problems. Dramatic improvements in functioning were observed across the board in recovery with subgroup differences leveling off. We discuss possible strategies to address the specific areas where vets are most impaired in addiction and note study limitations including the cross-sectional design. PMID:24783976

  14. [Participation of the Mexican National Academy of Medicine in the accreditation of medical specialties and the certification of medical specialists].

    PubMed

    Espinosa de Los Reyes Sánchez, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a brief biography of the prominent Mexican doctor Miguel Francisco Jiménez. Because of his great academic contributions and medical achievements, the Mexican National Academy of Medicine named its annual lecture to welcome its new members after him. We also provide insights on the inception of Medical Boards for certification and medical specialties, emphasizing the Mexican situation. The Mexican National Academy of Medicine has had an important role in the organization, development, and recognition of these boards by official health authorities. Finally, we explain how the Advisory Committee of The National Board for Medical Specialties (CONACEM) functions, and how it has become a relevant auxiliary body within the Federal Government.

  15. Potato cultivars from the mexican national program: sources and durability of resistance against late blight.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Niklaus J; Cadena Hinojosa, Mateo A; Covarrubias, Oswaldo Rubio; Peña, Antonio Rivera; Niederhauser, John S; Fry, William E

    2002-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Mexican National Potato Program has produced several cultivars with high levels of field resistance. We evaluated the durability of resistance to potato late blight of a selection of 12 such cultivars using data from 1960 to the present. Data were extracted from the field notebooks located in the archives of the Mexican National Potato Program in the John S. Niederhauser Library in Toluca, Mexico. There was a trend indicating that field resistances to potato late blight of Mexican cultivars released between 1965 to 1999 were durable. At least two of the cultivars, namely 'Sangema' and 'Tollocan', have been grown on at least 4 to 5% of the potato acreage and over long periods of time without decay in levels of field resistance. Pedigrees of the 12 cultivars indicate that most of the field resistance was introgressed from Solanum demissum. Field resistance might also be derived from commonly grown land-race cultivars such as 'Amarilla de Puebla' and 'Leona'. These have been grown in Mexico since about the 1780s. They have the appearance of S. andigena-derived material but their genetic background is unknown.

  16. Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia.

  17. Beliefs About Tobacco, Health, and Addiction Among Adults in Cambodia: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S.; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N.

    2012-01-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n = 13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88–93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86–93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93–95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia. PMID:21948146

  18. Quantification of Anti-Addictive Alkaloids Ibogaine and Voacangine in In Vivo- and In Vitro-Grown Plants of Two Mexican Tabernaemontana Species.

    PubMed

    Krengel, Felix; Herrera Santoyo, Josefina; Olivera Flores, Teresa de Jesús; Chávez Ávila, Víctor M; Pérez Flores, Francisco J; Reyes Chilpa, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Tabernaemontana alba and Tabernaemontana arborea are Apocynaceae species used in Mexican traditional medicine for which little phytochemical information exists. In this study, preliminary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of different organs obtained from wild plants of both species identified a total of 10 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) and one simple indole alkaloid, nine of which were reported for the first time in these species. Furthermore, callus cultures were established from T. alba leaf explants and regeneration of whole plants was accomplished via somatic embryogenesis. The anti-addictive MIAs ibogaine and voacangine were then quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection in wild plants of both species, as well as greenhouse-grown plants, in vitro-grown plantlets and embryogenic callus of T. alba. Ibogaine and voacangine were present in most samples taken from the whole plants of both species, with stem and root barks showing the highest concentrations. No alkaloids were detected in callus samples. It was concluded that T. alba and T. arborea are potentially viable sources of ibogaine and voacangine, and that these MIAs can be produced through somatic embryogenesis and whole plant regeneration of T. alba. Approaches to increase MIA yields in whole plants and to achieve alkaloid production directly in cell cultures are discussed.

  19. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Video Game Addiction: A Study Based on a National Representative Sample of Gamers.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Charlotte Thoresen; Finserås, Turi Reiten; Pallesen, Ståle; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Hanss, Daniel; Griffiths, Mark D; Molde, Helge

    Video gaming has become a popular leisure activity in many parts of the world, and an increasing number of empirical studies examine the small minority that appears to develop problems as a result of excessive gaming. This study investigated prevalence rates and predictors of video game addiction in a sample of gamers, randomly selected from the National Population Registry of Norway (N = 3389). Results showed there were 1.4 % addicted gamers, 7.3 % problem gamers, 3.9 % engaged gamers, and 87.4 % normal gamers. Gender (being male) and age group (being young) were positively associated with addicted-, problem-, and engaged gamers. Place of birth (Africa, Asia, South- and Middle America) were positively associated with addicted- and problem gamers. Video game addiction was negatively associated with conscientiousness and positively associated with neuroticism. Poor psychosomatic health was positively associated with problem- and engaged gaming. These factors provide insight into the field of video game addiction, and may help to provide guidance as to how individuals that are at risk of becoming addicted gamers can be identified.

  1. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006), collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E) fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA) among all age-groups (45-60%) and of trans fatty acids (TrFA) in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk. PMID:21651771

  2. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de Los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=0.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Method Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. Results A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Conclusion Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. PMID:25769392

  4. A Cross-National Study on Prevalence of Mental Disorders, Service Use, and Adequacy of Treatment Among Mexican and Mexican American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Breslau, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined differences in the use of mental health services, conditional on the presence of psychiatric disorders, across groups of Mexico’s population with different US migration exposure and in successive generations of Mexican Americans in the United States. Methods. We merged surveys conducted in Mexico (Mexican National Comorbidity Survey, 2001–2002) and the United States (Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, 2001–2003). We compared psychiatric disorders and mental health service use, assessed in both countries with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, across migration groups. Results. The 12-month prevalence of any disorder was more than twice as high among third- and higher generation Mexican Americans (21%) than among Mexicans with no migrant in their family (8%). Among people with a disorder, the odds of receiving any mental health service were higher in the latter group relative to the former (odds ratio = 3.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.82, 6.17) but the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of untreated disorder was also higher. Conclusions. Advancing understanding of the specific enabling and dispositional factors that result in increases in mental health care may contribute to reducing service use disparities across ethnic groups in the United States. PMID:23865664

  5. A Cross-National Comparison of Mexican and Mexican American Couples Using the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K.; Diaz-Loving, Rolando

    2004-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of the Marital Satisfaction InventoryRevised (MSI-R) in a sample of 71 Spanish-speaking couples in Mexico. Results from this sample were compared to findings obtained from 65 Mexican American couples who completed the MSI-R in Spanish. Both the internal consistency and factor…

  6. [HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans age 15 to 49: results from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; Conde-González, Carlos J; Izazola, José Antonio; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans aged 15 to 49 years old and living in households, and to describe the profile of serorreactive individuals. Cross-sectional study with a national probabilistic sample of individuals aged 15 to 49 years with behavioral data from direct interview (face-to-face) at households and HIV screening using capillary blood collected from the same individuals. A seroprevalence of 0.15% (95%CI 0.09-0.21) was estimated for Mexicans aged 15 to 49; seroprevalence among women was 0.07% (95%CI 0.03-0.11) and 0.24% (95%CI 0.11-0.36) for men. HIV serorreactive population is composed of younger men, with a higher socioeconomic level compared to the general population, and with a higher insurance coverage-social protection on health in general and social security in particular. Only 50% of the serorreactive individuals may be aware of their status as living with HIV. The estimated HIV seroprevalence in the NHNS 2012 suggests a stable pattern since 2000. The estimated prevalence among individuals 15 to 49 years was adjusted both for selection bias correction and to include MSM estimations (under the assumption that MSM is a population hard to reach in a household survey), resulting in a total seroprevalence of 0.23% and an estimated number of people with HIV of 140,000.

  7. Current patterns of water and beverage consumption among Mexican children and adolescents aged 1-18 years: analysis of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate patterns of water consumption from plain water, beverages and foods among Mexican children and adolescents and to compare actual patterns of total daily water intake with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). We analysed one 24 h dietary recall from Mexican children and adolescents. We calculated intakes of total daily water and water from foods and from beverages. Actual total water intake per capita was subtracted from the DRI for water to calculate the shortfall. Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2012. Mexican children and adolescents (n 6867) aged 1-18 years. Approximately 73% of children and adolescents aged 1-18 years reported drinking plain water. Beverages and plain water represented 65·5% and 26·5% of total daily water intake, respectively. Among 1-3-year-olds, the top three main sources of water were from foods, plain water and water from plain milk. Among 4-8- and 9-13-year-olds, the main sources were from foods, plain water and agua fresca (fruit water). Among 14-18-year-olds, the main sources of water were plain water, water from foods and soda. A higher proportion of 1-3-year-olds and 4-8-year-olds met the DRI for water (38% and 29%, respectively). Among 9-13-year-olds and 14-18-year-olds, 13-19% of children met the DRI for water. Total daily water intakes remain below DRI levels in all age groups. Although plain water still contributes the greatest proportion to daily water intake among fluids, caloric beverages are currently major sources of water especially among older children and adolescents.

  8. Addiction treatment provider attitudes on staff capacity and evidence-based clinical training: results from a national study.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lena; Amodeo, Maryann; Krull, Ivy; Chassler, Deborah; Weidenfeld, Rachel; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Gowler, Rebekah; Lederer, Jaime; Cohen, Alexander; Beltrame, Clelia

    2011-01-01

    This national study of addiction-treatment organizations' implementation of evidence-based practices examines: (1) organizational/leadership factors associated with director (n = 212) attitudes regarding staff resistance to organizational change, and (2) organizational/staff factors associated with staff (n = 312) attitudes regarding evidence-based clinical training. Linear regression analyses, controlling for type of treatment unit, leadership/staff characteristics and organizational readiness to change, identified that directors who perceived their organization needed more guidance and had less staff cohesion and autonomy rated staff resistance to organizational change significantly higher. Staff with higher levels of education and greater agreement that their organization supported change had greater preference for evidence-based trainings. Federal addiction treatment policy should both promote education and training of treatment staff and organizational development of treatment CBOs.  © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among employees of the Mexican National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Sansores, R H; Villalba-Caloca, J; Herrera-Kiengelher, L; Soriano-Rodríguez, A; Ramírez-Venegas, A

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking at the National Institutes of Health in Mexico (NIHM). A survey was performed among workers who voluntarily answered a questionnaire. Smokers were identified with two specific questions, and type of employment was classified as physicians, administrative staff, investigators and support personnel. Total prevalence smoking was 28% (of 4,422 answered questionnaires). It was significantly higher among females, among administrative staff, and common-law and separated workers. It was significantly higher at the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry than at the remaining Institutes, even after adjusting for confounding. The prevalence was also higher among physicians from the same Institute. Of the smokers, 46% do so in their work areas and 78% of them would like to quit. The prevalence of smokers at the NIHM is as high as in the general population and a broad educational program for tobacco control and prevention is needed.

  10. Country of birth, acculturation status and abdominal obesity in a national sample of Mexican-American women and men.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, J; Winkleby, M

    2000-06-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of country of birth and acculturation status on indicators of obesity using national samples of Mexican-American women and men. We analysed data for 1387 Mexican-American women and 1404 Mexican- American men, ages 25-64, from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). We examined whether waist circumference and abdominal obesity varied by country of birth and acculturation status (primary language spoken), and whether among those with abdominal obesity, number of associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors varied by country of birth and acculturation status. Both country of birth and, to a lesser degree, acculturation status were significantly associated with waist circumference and abdominal obesity. Mexican-born women and men had the smallest waist circumference (90.4 cm, 94.0 cm respectively), US-born English-speaking women and men had intermediate waist circumference (93.6 cm, 97.3 cm), and US-born Spanish-speaking women and men had the largest waist circumference (96.9 cm, 97.7 cm), after accounting for age, education, per cent of energy from dietary fat, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking. All women had high prevalences of abdominal obesity, particularly US-born Spanish-speaking women (68.7%). In addition, US-born Spanish-speaking women with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have one or more of the following CVD risk factors: high serum insulin, non-insulin dependent diabetes, high blood lipids, and/or hypertension. These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of the Mexican-American population and suggest that country of birth and lack of acculturation to the majority culture, as well as secondary lifestyle changes, may explain the significant clinical differences observed in abdominal obesity within Mexican-American population subgroups.

  11. The State of Addictions Education Programs: Results of a National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleff, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Presents the results of an exploratory survey on collegiate addictions studies programs offered in the United States. Eighteen percent of these programs are at the graduate level, 13% at the bachelor's level, and 69% at the associate's level. Counseling courses by far were the most cited addiction studies offered at all academic levels with…

  12. The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean A; Gaetz, Stephen; O'Grady, Bill

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population. This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators. Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]). This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.

  13. Linkages Between Patient-centered Medical Homes and Addiction Treatment Organizations: Results From a National Survey.

    PubMed

    D'Aunno, Thomas; Pollack, Harold; Chen, Qixuan; Friedmann, Peter D

    2017-04-01

    To meet their aims of providing comprehensive and coordinated care, patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) need to coordinate services for individuals with substance use disorders. Yet, the 14,000 addiction treatment (AT) organizations across the United States that provide services for more than 1 million individuals daily are generally ill-prepared to work with PCMHs (eg, AT organizations often lack electronic health records). To examine the extent to which AT organizations have formal linkages through contracts with PCMHs; to identify key dimensions of linkages between PCMHs and AT organizations (eg, shared use of electronic health records); to identify characteristics of AT organizations and their environments associated with these linkages. We draw on data from a 2014 nationally representative survey of directors and clinical supervisors from 695 AT organizations (n=1390 survey respondents). Thirty-eight percent of patients across the nation are receiving treatment in AT organizations linked by contracts to PCMHs. This number increases to 51% in states that expanded Medicaid (vs. only 6.2% of patients in non-Medicaid expansion states). Yet, the great majority of linkages are relatively weak; they do not include the exchange of patient information. Results from multivariable analyses show that larger, nonprofit and publicly owned AT organizations, as well as those located in the northeast and in states that expanded Medicaid coverage, are more likely to have contracts with PCMHs. Without stronger linkages between AT organizations and PCMHs or the development of other models that integrate services, individuals with substance abuse disorders may continue to receive uncoordinated care.

  14. Conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999: translating results into nutrition policy.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Sepúlveda Amor, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    This article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999) and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings. The NNS-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18,000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural levels in Mexico. Subjects included were children < 12 years and women 12-49 years. Anthropometry, blood specimens, diet and socioeconomic information of the family were collected. The principal public nutrition problems are stunting in children < 5 years of age; anemia, iron and zinc deficiency, and low serum vitamin C concentrations at all ages; and vitamin A deficiency in children. Undernutrition (stunting and micronutrient deficiencies) was generally more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic groups, in rural areas, in the south and in Indigenous population. Overweight and obesity are serious public health problems in women and are already a concern in school-age children. A number of programs aimed at preventing undernutrition are currently in progress; several of them were designed or modified as a result of the NNS-1999 findings. Most of them have an evaluation component that will inform adjustments or modifications of their design and implementation. However, little is being done for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity and there is limited experience on effective interventions. The design and evaluation of prevention strategies for controlling obesity in the population, based on existing evidence, is urgently needed and success stories should be brought to scale quickly to maximize impact. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  15. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the Department of Alcohol, Drugs and Addiction at the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland: diverse problems, diverse perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2012-10-01

    The Department of Alcohol, Drugs and Addiction started operations on 1 January 2009, when the National Institute of Public Health (KTL) and the National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (STAKES) were merged. The newly formed institute, called the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), operates under the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The scope of the research and preventive work conducted in the Department covers alcohol, drugs, tobacco and gambling issues. The two main tasks of the Department are (i) to research, produce and disseminate information on alcohol and drugs, substance use, addictions and their social and health-related effects and (ii) to develop prevention and good practices with a view to counteracting the onset and development of alcohol and drug problems and the damaging effects of smoking and other addictions. The number of staff hovers at approximately 60 people. The Department is organized into three units, one specialized in social sciences (the Alcohol and Drug Research Unit), another in laboratory analytics (the Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit) and the third primarily in preventive work (the Addiction Prevention Unit). These units incorporate a rich variety and long traditions of both research and preventive work. The mixture of different disciplines creates good opportunities for interdisciplinary research projects and collaboration within the Department. Also, the fact that in the same administrative context there are both researchers and people specialized in preventive work opens up interesting possibilities for combining efforts from these two branches. Nationally, the Department is a key player in all its fields of interest. It engages in a great deal of cooperation both nationally and internationally, and among its strengths are the high-quality, regularly collected long-term data sets. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Does prescribing for opiate addiction change after national guidelines? Methadone and buprenorphine prescribing to opiate addicts by general practitioners and hospital doctors in England, 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    Strang, John; Manning, Victoria; Mayet, Soraya; Ridge, Gayle; Best, David; Sheridan, Janie

    2007-05-01

    To assess changes in opiate prescribing (1995-2005) following a decade of national guidelines to address substandard opiate substitution prescribing for heroin addiction. A repeat national survey (1995 and 2005) using random one-in-four samples of all community pharmacies in England, achieving response rates of 75% (1847/2475) in 1995 and 95% (2349/2473) in 2005. Data were obtained on 3732 (1995 data) and 9620 (2005 data) prescriptions dispensed in the preceding month from the 936 and 1463 pharmacies who were currently dispensing. We have measured impact on practice for seven specific recommended changes. Between 1995 and 2005 the number of substitute opiate prescriptions doubled (x 2.03). By 2005, methadone still dominated (down from 97% to 83%), buprenorphine increased (from 1% to 16%) and other opiate medications virtually disappeared. Changes in the direction of national guidelines included: increased daily dose of methadone (from 47.3 mg to 56.3 mg), more frequent dispensing (from 38% to 60% as daily installments), more supervised consumption (from 0% to 36%) and fewer methadone tablets (from 10.9% to 1.8%). Nevertheless, despite the increased mean daily dose, only 41.0% of prescriptions for methadone were for daily doses in the recommended 60-120 mg dose range. Only one change was not in the direction of the national guidelines--the proportion of prescriptions from GPs fell from 41% to 30%, although this still represented an approximate 50% increase in the extent of GP prescribing. Doubling in provision of opiate substitute treatment has occurred, alongside significant improvements in the nature of this treatment. These positive changes have occurred in the direction of six out of seven of the UK national guidelines.

  17. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, A M; Wong, R; Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this 'social gradient' in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico - a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change - conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally representative sample of 39,129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future.

  18. An Asymmetrical Network: National and International Dimensions of the Development of Mexican Physiology.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the history of Mexican physiology during the period 1910-60 when two noted investigators, José J. Izquierdo, first, and Arturo Rosenblueth, second, inscribed their work into an international network of medical research. The network had at its center the laboratory of Walter B. Cannon at Harvard University. The Rockefeller Foundation was its main supporter. Rosenblueth was quite familiar with the network because he worked with Cannon at Harvard for over ten years before returning to Mexico in the early 1940s. Izquierdo and Rosenblueth developed different strategies to face adverse conditions such as insufficient laboratory equipment, inadequate library resources, a small scientific community, and ephemeral political support. Both acquired local influence and international prestige, but the sources of financial and academic power remained in the United States. This case study provides insight into the circulation of scientific ideas and practices in an important Latin American country and suggests that the world's circulation of science among industrial and developing nations during the mid-twentieth century was intrinsically asymmetric but opened temporary opportunities for talented individuals and groups of researchers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  20. The Mexican Cycle of Suicide: A National Analysis of Seasonality, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Astudillo-García, Claudia Iveth; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Morales-Carmona, Evangelina; Montoya-Rodriguez, Airain Alejandra; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suicide is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon with growing importance to public health. An increase in its occurrence has been observed in Mexico over the past 10 years. The present article analyzes the secular trend in suicide at the national level between the years 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods All suicides during the study period (n = 64,298, of which 82.11% were men) were characterized using a spectral decomposition of the time series and a wavelet analysis to evaluate the effect of seasonal changes, type of area (urban versus rural) and sex. Results A seasonal pattern was observed with statistically significant cycles every 12 months, where peaks were identified in May but only for men in urban zones as of the year 2007. In addition, specific days of the year were found to have a higher frequency of suicides, which coincided with holidays (New Year, Mother’s Day, Mexican Independence Day and Christmas). Conclusion A wavelet analysis can be used to decompose complex time series. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of this technique to the study of suicides in developing countries. This analysis enabled identifying a seasonal pattern among urban men in Mexico. The identification of seasonal patterns can help to create primary prevention strategies, increase the dissemination of crisis intervention strategies and promote mental health. These strategies could be emphasized during specific periods of the year and directed towards profiles with a higher risk. PMID:26752641

  1. The National Treatment Outcomes Research Study (NTORS) and its influence on addiction treatment policy in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gossop, Michael

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the political origins of the National Treatment Outcomes Research Study (NTORS) and the outputs and impacts of the study. NTORS was designed to meet the request of the Health Secretary and of a Government Task Force for evidence about the effectiveness of the national addiction treatment services. NTORS was a prospective cohort study which investigated outcomes over a 5-year period of drug users admitted to four major treatment modalities: in-patient treatment, residential rehabilitation, methadone reduction and methadone maintenance programmes. The study investigated treatments delivered under day-to-day operating conditions. Outcomes showed substantial reductions in illicit drug use and reduced injecting risk behaviours. These changes were accompanied by improved psychological and physical health and by reductions in criminal behaviour. However, not all outcomes were so positive. There was a continuing mortality rate in the cohort of about 1% per year, and many clients continued to drink heavily throughout the 5-year follow-up. NTORS findings informed and influenced UK addiction treatment policy both at the time and subsequently. The findings were influential in supporting an immediate increase in funding for treatment, and Government Ministers have repeatedly cited NTORS as evidence of the effectiveness of addiction treatment. One finding that received political attention was that of the cost savings provided by treatment through reductions in crime. This important finding led to an unanticipated consequence of NTORS; namely, the greater focus on crime reduction that has increasingly been promoted as a political and social priority for drug misuse treatment. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Use of multiple tobacco products in a national sample of persons enrolled in addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Guydish, Joseph; Tajima, Barbara; Pramod, Sowmya; Le, Thao; Gubner, Noah R; Campbell, Barbara; Roman, Paul

    2016-09-01

    To explore use of tobacco products in relationship to marketing exposure among persons in addiction treatment. A random sample of treatment programs was drawn from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Participants in each program completed surveys concerning use of tobacco products (N=1113). Exposure to tobacco marketing and counter-marketing, advertising receptivity, and perceived health risks of smoking were tested for their association with use of multiple tobacco products. Prevalence of combustible cigarette use was 77.9%. Weekly or greater use of other products was: e-cigarettes (17.7%), little filtered cigars (8.6%), smokeless tobacco (5.2%), and standard cigars (4.6%) with 24.4% using multiple tobacco products. Compared to single product users, multiple product users smoked more cigarettes per day (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p<0.001), were more likely to have tried to quit (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.02-1.96, p=0.041), reported greater daily exposure to advertising for products other than combustible cigarettes (OR=1.93, CI 1.35-2.75, p<0.001), and greater daily exposure to tobacco counter-marketing (OR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.09-2.63, p=0.019). Heavier smokers and those trying to quit may be more likely to use e-cigarettes, little filtered cigars, or smokeless tobacco and have greater susceptibility to their advertising. This highlights the importance of regulating advertising related to smoking cessation as their effectiveness for this purpose has not been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The National Pharmacopoeia and the therapeutic status of flora in Mexican biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Hersch Martinez, P

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyses the transformation of the Mexican pharmacopoeia, focusing on the presence of medicinal plants. Reflecting diverse processes, editions of the pharmacopoeia show a progressive modification in its content and profile. A text written to shape a Mexican materia medica, recognising empirical knowledge by the inclusion of popularly used resources and involving clinicians as authors and recipients, was transformed into a mainly industrial publication with no clinical references. The origin and implications of this process are explored.

  4. Narcotic Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Fern, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the major features of narcotic addictions, focusing on the role of methadone as a means of controlling or removing the addiction. It concludes with some observations on society's attitude towards addicts, addictions and programs for control of addiction. PMID:21308103

  5. 75 FR 54447 - National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ..., failure in school, job loss, child abuse, crimes, and death. I encourage all Americans to visit Recovery... of abuse, and we encourage those in need to seek help. This year's theme, ``Join the Voices for... substance abuse is preventable, that addiction is treatable, and that recovery is possible. NOW,...

  6. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor

    2014-11-07

    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.

  7. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor; Reynoso-Mejía, Alberto; Casares-Cruz, Katiuzka; Taboada-Barajas, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.

  8. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

  9. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  10. Factors associated with fatal occupational accidents among Mexican workers: a national analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H; Aguilar, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico.

  11. National survey of oral/dental conditions related to tobacco and alcohol use in Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-03-17

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18-30, 31-45 and 46-98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.

  12. [Characteristics of mixed hyperlipidemia cases in a population-based study: results from the Mexican National Survey of Chronic Diseases].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas, Rosalba; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Valles, Victoria; Franco, Aurora; Olaiz, Gustavo; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Rull, Juan A

    2002-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of mixed hyperlipidemia cases, using data derived from the Encuesta Nacional de Enfermedades Crónicas (Mexican National Survey of Chronic Diseases, ENEC). The ENEC was conducted in 1993, in 417 Mexican cities. Blood measurements of lipids, glucose, and insulin were obtained from 2206 cases. Differences between dyslipidemia patients and non cases were obtained using analysis of variance or the chi-squared test. Mixed hyperlipidemia was diagnosed in 282 subjects (12.8%). Cases were 42.7+/-12.6 years old. Fifty six percent were males and 46.4% had HDL cholesterol levels < 0.9 mmol/l. Other cardiovascular risk factors were also present. The prevalence of mixed hyperlipidemia was high even among young adults. A logistic regression model showed that obesity, age, male gender, residence in some regions of Mexico, diabetes, arterial hypertension, and fasting insulin levels >21 mU/ml, were factors associated with mixed hyperlipidemia. Mixed hyperlipidemia is a very common condition in Mexican adults. It is more common in males older than 30 years, with additional cardiovascular risk factors. Study findings suggest that the metabolic syndrome plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  13. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  14. Internet Addiction Prevalence and Quality of (Real) Life: A Meta-Analysis of 31 Nations Across Seven World Regions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Angel Yee-lam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Internet addiction (IA) has emerged as a universal issue, but its international estimates vary vastly. This multinational meta-analysis fills this gap by providing estimates of its global prevalence. Two hypotheses were formulated to explain the cross-national variations. The accessibility hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is positively related to Internet penetration rate and GDP per capita, whereas the quality of (real) life hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is inversely related to a global national index of life satisfaction and specific national indices of environmental quality. Multiple search strategies were used in an attempt to retrieve all empirical reports from 1996 to 2012 that adopted the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire or Internet Addiction Test for assessing generalized IA. The data set comprised 164 prevalence figures derived from 80 reports, including 89,281 participants from 31 nations across seven world regions. A random effects meta-analysis showed a global prevalence estimate of 6.0% [95% CI 5.1–6.9], with moderate heterogeneity (I2=44%, p<0.0001). The highest prevalence was in the Middle East with 10.9% [95% CI 5.4–16.3], and the lowest was in Northern and Western Europe with 2.6% [95% CI 1.0–4.1]. Moreover, IA prevalence was higher for nations with greater traffic time consumption, pollution, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The prevalence rate of IA varies across world regions. IA prevalence is inversely associated with the quality of life, as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental conditions) indicators. PMID:25489876

  15. Internet addiction prevalence and quality of (real) life: a meta-analysis of 31 nations across seven world regions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia; Li, Angel Yee-lam

    2014-12-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has emerged as a universal issue, but its international estimates vary vastly. This multinational meta-analysis fills this gap by providing estimates of its global prevalence. Two hypotheses were formulated to explain the cross-national variations. The accessibility hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is positively related to Internet penetration rate and GDP per capita, whereas the quality of (real) life hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is inversely related to a global national index of life satisfaction and specific national indices of environmental quality. Multiple search strategies were used in an attempt to retrieve all empirical reports from 1996 to 2012 that adopted the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire or Internet Addiction Test for assessing generalized IA. The data set comprised 164 prevalence figures derived from 80 reports, including 89,281 participants from 31 nations across seven world regions. A random effects meta-analysis showed a global prevalence estimate of 6.0% [95% CI 5.1-6.9], with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=44%, p<0.0001). The highest prevalence was in the Middle East with 10.9% [95% CI 5.4-16.3], and the lowest was in Northern and Western Europe with 2.6% [95% CI 1.0-4.1]. Moreover, IA prevalence was higher for nations with greater traffic time consumption, pollution, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The prevalence rate of IA varies across world regions. IA prevalence is inversely associated with the quality of life, as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental conditions) indicators.

  16. Treatment of Sleep Disturbance in Alcohol Recovery: A National Survey of Addiction Medicine Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Herman, Debra S.; Freedman, Shelby; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Ramsey, Susan; Stein, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among patients in recovery from alcoholism and can precipitate relapse. Though sleep complaints are commonly managed with medication, little is known about their management among recovering alcoholic patients. We performed a postal survey of a self-weighted, random systematic sample of 503 members of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) to examine addiction medicine physicians’ medical management of sleep disturbance among patients in early recovery from alcoholism. After 3 mailings, 311 (62%) responded. Of responents, 64% have offered pharmacological treatment to an insomniac, alcoholic patient in the first 3 months after detoxification, but only 22% offered medication to more than half of such patients. Trazodone was the preferred therapy, chosen first by 38% of respondents, followed by other sedating antidepressants (12%), and antihistamines (12%). The mean duration of therapy for trazodone and other sedating antidepressants exceeded one month. Experts in addiction medicine appear reluctant to prescribe medication to sleep-disturbed patients in early recovery from alcoholism. When they do prescribe, trazodone, other sedating antidepressants and antihistamines are favored, despite limited evidence for or against this indication. Although the treatment of disordered sleep among alcoholic patients in early recovery may have merit to prevent relapse, controlled studies of these sleep agents are needed. PMID:12703672

  17. Mexican Americans and the American Nation: A Response to Professor Huntington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telles, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This essay is based on a talk I delivered at Texas A&M University on December 10, 2005, in response to an earlier lecture at the university by Professor Samuel P. Huntington. It relies on social science evidence to first address Huntington's contention that Mexicans are overwhelming American borders. It then turns to evidence that Mexican…

  18. Forging a Mestiza Rhetoric: Mexican Women Journalists' Role in the Construction of a National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Cristina D.

    2009-01-01

    This author investigates Mexican women journalists' writing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These women were at the center of the Latin American transnational experience--as female pioneers in the creation of a new mestiza rhetoric that reflected writing from the standpoint of inclusion that was resistant to oppressive ideologies. A…

  19. Mexican Americans and the American Nation: A Response to Professor Huntington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telles, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This essay is based on a talk I delivered at Texas A&M University on December 10, 2005, in response to an earlier lecture at the university by Professor Samuel P. Huntington. It relies on social science evidence to first address Huntington's contention that Mexicans are overwhelming American borders. It then turns to evidence that Mexican…

  20. Medical Education About the Care of Addicted Incarcerated Persons: A National Survey of Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Mark L.; Isaacson, J. Harry; Kahn, Ruth; Mundt, Marlon P.; Manwell, Linda Baier

    2001-06-01

    In June 1998, there were 1.8 million inmates in correctional facilities for adults; 1.2 million in state and federal prisons and 600,000 in municipal/county jails (668 persons per 100,000 U.S. population). Rates of TB, AIDS, mental illness, and substance abuse are 2-13 times higher in persons living in jails and prisons. This study was designed to assess the level of training offered to residents in seven medical specialties in the care of addicted incarcerated persons. The study design involved two stages. The first entailed a mailed survey to 1,831 residency directors in family medicine, internal medicine, osteopathic medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and emergency medicine. The second stage was a telephone interview, about substance use disorders, of faculty listed by the residency directors as teaching residents. The mailed survey was completed by 1,205 residency directors (66%). The 769 faculty from those identified programs, who participated in the telephone interview, reported that only 14% of their residency programs offered lectures or conferences on the care of incarcerated persons, yet 44% of the programs had residents caring for incarcerated persons with substance abuse problems, in a clinical setting. Only 22% offered clinical experiences for residents in a correctional facility.We recognize that our survey of correctional health and substance abuse training is limited, but as such, a greater number of respondents to our survey do not teach residents addiction medicine topics pertaining to prevention, evaluation, intervention, and management of the addicted criminal offender/patient in a correctional setting or give adequate clinical exposure to this special population. The data suggests a need to develop and implement educational programs on medical care for this high-risk and expanding population.

  1. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ascencio-Montiel, Iván de Jesús; Kumate-Rodríguez, Jesús; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Fernández-Garate, José Esteban; Konik-Comonfort, Selene; Macías-Pérez, Oliver; Campos-Hernández, Ángel; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Héctor; López-Roldán, Verónica Miriam; Zitle-García, Edgar Jesús; Solís-Cruz, María Del Carmen; Velázquez-Ramírez, Ismael; Aguilar-Jiménez, Miriam; Villa-Caballero, Leonel; Cisneros-González, Nelly

    2016-09-01

    Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,014 Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes during the years 2000-2013 at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. A cross-sectional analysis study was conducted using national administrative records data from the entire country, regarding permanent occupational disability medical certification, pension payment and vital status. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) in order to assess the cohort characteristics and all-cause mortality risk. Total expenses derived from pension payments for the period were accounted for in U.S. dollars (USD, 2013). There were 12,917 deaths in 142,725.1 person-years. Median survival time was 7.26 years. After multivariate adjusted analysis, males (HR, 1.39; 95 % CI, 1.29-1.50), agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers (HR, 1.41; 95 % CI, 1.15-1.73) and renal complications (HR, 3.49; 95 % CI, 3.18-3.83) had the highest association with all-cause mortality. The all-period expenses derived from pension payments amounted to $777.78 million USD (2013), and showed a sustained increment: from $58.28 million USD in 2000 to $111.62 million USD in 2013 (percentage increase of 91.5 %). Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes had a median survival of 7.26 years, and those with renal complications showed the lowest survival in the cohort

  2. Health Disparities Among Mexican American Women Aged 15–44 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Phyllis A.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Borrud, Lori G.; McDonald, Jill A.; Villalobos, Susie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the health of Mexican American women aged 15 to 44 years, by generation and language preference, to guide planning for reproductive health services in this growing population. Methods. We used personal interview and medical examination data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We used SUDAAN for calculating age-adjusted prevalence estimates of demographic and health characteristics. The Satterthwaite adjusted F test and Student t test were used for subgroup comparisons. Results. The women had different health profiles (P < .05) by generation and language preference. Second- and later-generation women and women who used more English were more likely to be sexually active, to have been younger at first intercourse, and to have had more male sexual partners than were first-generation women and women who used more Spanish. Compared with their first-generation counterparts, second- and later-generation women drank more alcohol, were better educated, had higher incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance. Third-generation women were more likely to have delivered a low-birthweight baby than were first-generation women. Conclusions. Differences by generation and language preference suggest that acculturation should be considered when planning interventions to promote healthy reproductive behaviors among Mexican American women. PMID:19443827

  3. Using terrestrial ecosystem survey data to identify potential habitat for the Mexican spotted owl on National Forest System lands: a pilot study

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey; Mary Ann Benoit

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the usefulness of Terrestrial Ecosystem Survey (TES) data as a means of identifying habitat for the Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) in three National Forests in Arizona. This spatial data set incorporates information on soils, vegetation, and climatic conditions in defining a set of ecological "map units" showing potential...

  4. A Case Study of the Effectiveness of the Mexican INEA (National Institute for the Education of Adults) Program Trapped between Text and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The level of success of the Mexican INEA (National Institute for the Education of Adults) academic program implemented in the U.S. has never been examined. INEA developed five goals for its students in the U.S. that supplement the general goals that the program has for all its students in Mexico. The 5 supplementary goals are to provide access to…

  5. A Case Study of the Effectiveness of the Mexican INEA (National Institute for the Education of Adults) Program Trapped between Text and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The level of success of the Mexican INEA (National Institute for the Education of Adults) academic program implemented in the U.S. has never been examined. INEA developed five goals for its students in the U.S. that supplement the general goals that the program has for all its students in Mexico. The 5 supplementary goals are to provide access to…

  6. A Profile of Mexican-born Women Who Adhere to National Cervical Cancer Screening Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Christina M.; Wallace, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Mexican-born women’s utilization and adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines. Ninety-seven women in southeastern U.S. participated. Data was collected in Spanish. The majority of women met adherence guidelines for the Pap exam. Marital status, educational attainment, marianismo, blood pressure knowledge, fatalism, cultural cancer beliefs, trust in provider, and perceived provider communication abilities were not associated with utilization or adherence to screening guidelines. This study had higher than expected adherence to screening guidelines. Nearly all women received screenings through safety net services indicating the need to advocate for continued public health funding. PMID:25051321

  7. A profile of Mexican-born women who adhere to national cervical cancer screening recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Christina M; Wallace, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Mexican-born women's utilization and adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines. Ninety-seven women in the southeastern United States participated. Data were collected in Spanish. The majority of women met adherence guidelines for the pap exam. Marital status, educational attainment, marianismo, blood pressure knowledge, fatalism, cultural cancer beliefs, trust in provider, and perceived provider communication abilities were not associated with utilization or adherence to screening guidelines. This study had higher than expected adherence to screening guidelines. Nearly all women received screenings through safety net services indicating the need to advocate for continued public health funding.

  8. Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations: A Threat to the United States National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    southern and northern borders of the U.S., to prevent DTOs from entering the U.S . . Background Mexican DTOs first entered the U.S. market in the mid...seek alternate routes into the U.S. The proximity of the U.S., one of the largest markets for illicit drugs, and the poor economic state of Mexico...Nuevo Laredo, the Zetas operate a parallel network in Reynosa and Miguel Aleman. 9 The Juare~ Cartel operates in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

  9. Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Spilka, Stanislas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Simon, Olivier; Berchtold, André; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Evidence-based and reliable measures of addictive disorders are needed in general population-based assessments. One study suggested that heavy use over time (UOT) should be used instead of self-reported addiction scales (AS). This study compared UOT and AS regarding video gaming and internet use empirically, using associations with comorbid factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2011 French Survey on Health and Consumption on Call-up and Preparation for Defence-Day (ESCAPAD), cross-sectional data from the 2012 Swiss ado@internet.ch study and two waves of longitudinal data (2010-13) of the Swiss Longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Three representative samples from the general population of French and Swiss adolescents and young Swiss men, aged approximately 17, 14 and 20 years, respectively. ESCAPAD: n =22 945 (47.4% men); ado@internet.ch: n =3049 (50% men); C-SURF: n =4813 (baseline + follow-up, 100% men). We assessed video gaming/internet UOT ESCAPAD and ado@internet.ch: number of hours spent online per week, C-SURF: latent score of time spent gaming/using internet] and AS (ESCAPAD: Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire, ado@internet.ch: Internet Addiction Test, C-SURF: Gaming AS). Comorbidities were assessed with health outcomes (ESCAPAD: physical health evaluation with a single item, suicidal thoughts, and appointment with a psychiatrist; ado@internet.ch: WHO-5 and somatic health problems; C-SURF: Short Form 12 (SF-12 Health Survey) and Major Depression Inventory (MDI). UOT and AS were correlated moderately (ESCAPAD: r = 0.40, ado@internet.ch: r = 0.53 and C-SURF: r = 0.51). Associations of AS with comorbidity factors were higher than those of UOT in cross-sectional (AS: .005 ≤ |b| ≤ 2.500, UOT: 0.001 ≤ |b| ≤ 1.000) and longitudinal analyses (AS: 0.093 ≤ |b| ≤ 1.079, UOT: 0.020 ≤ |b| ≤ 0.329). The results were similar across gender in ESCAPAD and ado

  10. Gambling Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction A A ... So what's the story with gambling? What Is Gambling? Gambling means taking part in any activity or ...

  11. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. SHOULD THE REORGANIZATION OF ADDICTION-RELATED RESEARCH ACROSS ALL THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH BE STRUCTURAL?—THE DEVIL IS TRULY IN THE DETAILS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bankole A.; Messing, Robert O.; Charness, Michael E.; Crabbe, John C.; Goldman, Mark S.; Harris, R. Adron; Kranzler, Henry R.; Mitchell, Mack C.; Nixon, Sara Jo; Riley, Edward P.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    The recent proposal to dissolve the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Institute on Drug Abuse and create a new institute for substance use, abuse, and addiction will require significant effort by the staff of both institutes, the Advisory Councils, and outside experts to overcome complex challenges that could threaten its success. Although integration of the grants portfolios can be achieved, harmonization of goals and policies related to legal use of alcohol versus illegal consumption of drugs will present serious challenges. Consolidating the infrastructure of the two existing institutes would entail avoiding encroachment on grant funding. A new institute for substance use, abuse, and addiction would require an enormous amount of cooperation from other institutes since the portfolios of research on alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse should logically be transferred to the new institute. In the near term, a structural reorganization would be less efficient and more costly than the individual institutes are currently. Increasing efficiency and reducing costs over time will necessitate careful strategic planning. Success in this difficult task would be made easier and less costly by first implementing carefully placed building blocks of increasing functional reorganization. The newly created institute should increase opportunities for specialization within disorders of addiction, attract new leadership, and build a novel strategic plan that will energize scientists and staff and incorporate ideas of stakeholders to advance the public good in preventing and treating alcohol, tobacco, and all addictions. Attention must be paid to the devil in the details. PMID:21443646

  13. Should the reorganization of addiction-related research across all the National Institutes of Health be structural?--The devil is truly in the details.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Messing, Robert O; Charness, Michael E; Crabbe, John C; Goldman, Mark S; Harris, R Adron; Kranzler, Henry R; Mitchell, Mack C; Nixon, Sara Jo; Riley, Edward P; Schuckit, Marc A; Sher, Kenneth J; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2011-04-01

    The recent proposal to dissolve the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Institute on Drug Abuse and create a new institute for substance use, abuse, and addiction will require significant effort by the staff of both institutes, the Advisory Councils, and outside experts to overcome complex challenges that could threaten its success. Although integration of the grants portfolios can be achieved, harmonization of goals and policies related to legal use of alcohol versus illegal consumption of drugs will present serious challenges. Consolidating the infrastructure of the 2 existing institutes would entail avoiding encroachment on grant funding. A new institute for substance use, abuse, and addiction would require an enormous amount of cooperation from other institutes as the portfolios of research on alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse should logically be transferred to the new institute. In the near term, a structural reorganization would be less efficient and more costly than the individual institutes are currently. Increasing efficiency and reducing costs over time will necessitate careful strategic planning. Success in this difficult task would be made easier and less costly by first implementing carefully placed building blocks of increasing functional reorganization. The newly created institute should increase opportunities for specialization within disorders of addiction, attract new leadership, and build a novel strategic plan that will energize scientists and staff and incorporate ideas of stakeholders to advance the public good in preventing and treating alcohol, tobacco, and all addictions. Attention must be paid to the devil in the details.

  14. Exposure to DDT and diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M; Dismuke, Clara E

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its metabolite DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, were evaluated to determine their relationships with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N = 1,411, population estimate = 13,760,609). The sample included teens, 12-19 years old, which accounted for 19.8% of the data. The time of the study overlapped the banning of DDT in Mexico in the year 2000, and those participants born in Mexico were exposed to DDT before they immigrated to the US. We sought to better understand the relationship of DDT with diabetes in a race/ethnicity group prone to develop diabetes and exposed to DDT. In this study, nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and total diabetes was defined as diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes (glycohemoglobin, A1c ≥ 6.5%). The proportion with the isomer p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g (above the maximum limit of detection) was 13.3% for Mexican Americans born in the US, and 36.9% for those born in Mexico. Levels of p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g were associated with total diabetes with nephropathy (odds ratio = 4.42, 95% CI 2.23-8.76), and with total diabetes without nephropathy (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.44). The third quartile of p,p'-DDE (2.99-7.67 ng/g) and the fourth quartile of p,p'-DDE (≥7.68 ng/g) were associated with diabetic nephropathy and had odds ratios of 5.32 (95% CI 1.05-26.87) and 14.95 (95% CI 2.96-75.48) compared to less than the median, respectively, whereas p,p'-DDE was not associated with total diabetes without nephropathy. The findings of this study differ from those of a prior investigation of the general adult US population in that there were more associations found with the Mexican Americans sample.

  15. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population

  16. Overview of the Dietary Intakes of the Mexican Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Pedraza, Lilia S; Aburto, Tania C; Batis, Carolina; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; González de Cosío, Teresita; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Mexico is facing the double burden of malnutrition: stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in young children, iron deficiency in pregnant women, and widespread obesity across age groups. The aim was to summarize and discuss findings published in this supplement on dietary intakes and the eating habits of the Mexican population. A 24-h recall questionnaire that used the multiple-pass method with a repeated measure in a fraction of the sample was applied in a nationally representative sample. We estimated mean intakes and percentages of inadequacy for macronutrients and micronutrients; mean intakes and percentages of the population who adhere to dietary recommendations for food groups; sources of added sugars; intakes of discretionary foods by mealtime, place, and activity; and mean dietary intakes in children <2 y old. Infant formula was consumed by almost half of infants aged <6 mo and sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed by two-thirds of children aged 12-23 mo. In the different age groups, a high proportion of the population had excessive intakes of added sugars (58-85%) and saturated fats (54-92%), whereas a high prevalence of insufficient intakes was found for fiber (65-87%), vitamin A (8-70%), folates (13-69%), calcium (26-88%), and iron (46-89%). Discretionary foods (nonbasic foods high in saturated fats and/or added sugars) contributed 26% of the population's total energy intake, whereas only 1-23% met recommendations for legumes, seafood, fruit, vegetables, and dairy foods. High proportions of Mexicans consume diets that do not meet recommendations. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding diverged from recommendations, intakes of discretionary foods were high, and the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies and age groups not meeting intake recommendations of basic food groups were also high. The results are consistent with the high prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition and are useful to design food and nutrition policies. © 2016 American Society

  17. Diet quality and its relationship with central obesity among Mexican Americans: findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yilin; Scribner, Richard; Chen, Liwei; Broyles, Stephanie; Phillippi, Stephen; Tseng, Tung-Sung

    2017-05-01

    Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the present study aimed to examine diet quality and the impact of overall diet quality and its components on central obesity among Mexican-American men and women. Cross-sectional data from NHANES 1999-2012 were used. The HEI-2010 data, including twelve components for a total score of 100, were collected with a 24 h recall interview. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference of ≥88 cm for women and ≥102 cm for men. Weighted logistic regressions were performed to assess associations between HEI-2010 scores and central obesity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2012. A total of 6847 Mexican Americans aged ≥20 years with reliable dietary recall status and non-pregnancy status. Higher HEI-2010 total score was associated with lower odds of central obesity in Mexican-American men (OR; 95 % CI=0·98; 0·98, 1·00). Among all Mexican Americans, one-unit higher score of total fruit and sodium (i.e. lower level of intake) was associated with 4 % (0·96; 0·93, 0·99) and 2 % (0·98; 0·96, 0·99) lower odds of central obesity, respectively. However, a higher total proteins score was associated with higher odds of central obesity (1·08; 1·00, 1·16). In gender-specific analyses, a higher whole fruit or sodium score was inversely associated with central obesity in men but not in women. HEI-2010 scores of total fruit and sodium were inversely associated with central obesity among all Mexican Americans. However, total proteins score and central obesity was positively associated. In Mexican-American men, HEI-2010 total and whole fruit scores were inversely associated with central obesity.

  18. 77 FR 55087 - National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... part of our 2012 National Drug Control Strategy, we are promoting early intervention and taking action... is committed to advancing evidence- based recovery solutions. Over the past 3 years, we have...

  19. Sexual addictions.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.

  20. [Dental fluorosis prevalence in eight cohorts of Mexicans born during the implementation of the Fluoridated Domestic Salt National Program].

    PubMed

    Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    to determine the effect of birth cohort on dental fluorosis in Mexican schoolchildren during the implementation of the national program to fluoridate domestic salt. in a cross-sectional study we examined 1,644 schoolchildren 6-13 years old born between 1985-1992 in Campeche, México; a community where there is negligible naturally available fluoride in water supplies. Dental fluorosis was assessed with the Dean’s index in the permanent dentition. Questionnaires were used to identify diverse socio-demographic and socio-economic variables. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was used. the prevalence of fluorosis was 15.5%. In the multivariate model,we observed fluorosis was associated with larger family sizes (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84-0.99) and female sex (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.57-0.98). Furthermore, using the cohort of 1985 as a comparison group, no significant dental fluorosis differences were found with those born between 1986-1987; in contrast, in the cohorts born between 1989-1992 the risk of dental fluorosis increased by almost four times (p < 0.05). the prevalence of fluorosis was low compared to other studies in Mexico. In this community with negligible fluoride in water supplies the likelihood of dental fluorosis increased as the windows of susceptibility in birth cohorts were closer to the chronologic beginning of the national domestic salt fluoridation program in 1991. This trend was more apparent after 1991.

  1. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study - Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bukten, Anne; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Rognli, Eline Borger; Stavseth, Marianne Riksheim; Lobmaier, Philipp; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Kunøe, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The main goal of the study is to describe the criminal and health-related trajectories based on both survey and registry linkage information. Data were collected from 1,499 inmates in Norwegian prison facilities during 2013-2014. Of these, 741 inmates provided a valid personal identification number and constitute a cohort that will be examined retrospectively and prospectively, along with data from nationwide Norwegian registries. This study describes the design, procedures, and implementation of the ongoing NorMA study and provides an outline of the initial data.

  2. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study – Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukten, Anne; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Rognli, Eline Borger; Stavseth, Marianne Riksheim; Lobmaier, Philipp; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Kunøe, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The main goal of the study is to describe the criminal and health-related trajectories based on both survey and registry linkage information. Data were collected from 1,499 inmates in Norwegian prison facilities during 2013–2014. Of these, 741 inmates provided a valid personal identification number and constitute a cohort that will be examined retrospectively and prospectively, along with data from nationwide Norwegian registries. This study describes the design, procedures, and implementation of the ongoing NorMA study and provides an outline of the initial data. PMID:26648732

  3. Abstinence versus Harm Reduction: Considering Follow-Up and Aftercare in First Nations Addictions Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Woerd, Kimberly A.; Cox, David N.; Reading, Jeff; Kmetic, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol and substance use in First Nations populations frequently describes the nature of the problem, and the severity of the risk factors, but seldom addresses possible interventions and the effectiveness of the treatments that clients do engage in. This paper reviews a participatory evaluation of the 6-week residential "Namgis…

  4. Abstinence versus Harm Reduction: Considering Follow-Up and Aftercare in First Nations Addictions Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Woerd, Kimberly A.; Cox, David N.; Reading, Jeff; Kmetic, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol and substance use in First Nations populations frequently describes the nature of the problem, and the severity of the risk factors, but seldom addresses possible interventions and the effectiveness of the treatments that clients do engage in. This paper reviews a participatory evaluation of the 6-week residential "Namgis…

  5. Victimizations of Mexican youth (12-17 years old): A 2014 national survey.

    PubMed

    Frías, Sonia M; Finkelhor, David

    2017-05-01

    Victimization of Mexican youth (aged 12-17) has received little attention compared to that of adults. Using the 2014 Social Survey on Social Cohesion for the Prevention of Violence and Delinquency, we examine prevalence and types of victimization; describe the characteristics of incidents in terms of relationship with perpetrator(s) and places where took place; and study significant correlates of forms of victimization and poly-victimization. During 2014 alone, more than 2.8 million minors were victims of bullying, cyberbullying, theft, sexual abuse, physical assault, threats, robbery, or extortion. About 10% of these were poly-victims-experienced at least four different types of victimization by at least four types of perpetrators. Youth tended to be victimized by people in their inner circle. The factors associated with victimization tended to vary by victimization type, but proximity to crime and peer delinquency increased the risk of experiencing all types of victimization. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use.

    PubMed

    Kampman, Kyle; Jarvis, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it. This "Practice Guideline" was developed to assist in the evaluation and treatment of opioid use disorder, and in the hope that, using this tool, more physicians will be able to provide effective treatment. Although there are existing guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder, none have included all of the medications used at present for its treatment. Moreover, few of the existing guidelines address the needs of special populations such as pregnant women, individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disorders, individuals with pain, adolescents, or individuals involved in the criminal justice system. This Practice Guideline was developed using the RAND Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method (RAM) - a process that combines scientific evidence and clinical knowledge to determine the appropriateness of a set of clinical procedures. The RAM is a deliberate approach encompassing review of existing guidelines, literature reviews, appropriateness ratings, necessity reviews, and document development. For this project, American Society of Addiction Medicine selected an independent committee to oversee guideline development and to assist in writing. American Society of Addiction Medicine's Quality Improvement Council oversaw the selection process for the independent development committee. Recommendations included in the guideline encompass a broad range of topics, starting with the initial evaluation of the

  7. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Markus; Warren, Kenneth R; Kunos, George; Silverman, Peter B; Hewitt, Brenda G

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise account of the history, mission, structure and some recent achievements of the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Created by the US Congress 40 years ago, the NIAAA has evolved from an entity charged mainly with building a national system of alcoholism treatment services to one with responsibility for developing, nurturing and supporting the biomedical and behavioral science foundation necessary to reduce the significant domestic and global public health impact of alcohol use disorders. The NIAAA is unique in that it functions both as a funding agency, supporting research at universities and other external, or 'extramural' research institutions, and is also a research institution itself, where alcohol research is carried out in-house, or 'intramurally'. Of a $450.2 million 2009 Congressional Appropriation, approximately 90% was devoted toward the former and approximately 10% towards the latter objective. The current NIAAA Strategic Plan builds on a new organizing principle for long-range research planning, based on a life-span perspective that recognizes that human biology and behavior continue to change throughout life and changes occurring throughout the life-span affect individuals' drinking patterns as well as the decisions they may make to change their drinking habits or to seek help for alcohol use problems. Within this framework, major efforts are currently being devoted to educating practitioners on clinically useful, science-based assessment and treatment methods that exist today, and development of personalized new treatments for tomorrow.

  8. American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use

    PubMed Central

    Kampman, Kyle; Jarvis, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it. This “Practice Guideline” was developed to assist in the evaluation and treatment of opioid use disorder, and in the hope that, using this tool, more physicians will be able to provide effective treatment. Although there are existing guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder, none have included all of the medications used at present for its treatment. Moreover, few of the existing guidelines address the needs of special populations such as pregnant women, individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disorders, individuals with pain, adolescents, or individuals involved in the criminal justice system. This Practice Guideline was developed using the RAND Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method (RAM) – a process that combines scientific evidence and clinical knowledge to determine the appropriateness of a set of clinical procedures. The RAM is a deliberate approach encompassing review of existing guidelines, literature reviews, appropriateness ratings, necessity reviews, and document development. For this project, American Society of Addiction Medicine selected an independent committee to oversee guideline development and to assist in writing. American Society of Addiction Medicine's Quality Improvement Council oversaw the selection process for the independent development committee. Recommendations included in the guideline encompass a broad range of topics, starting with the initial evaluation of

  9. Community Circulation Patterns of Oral Polio Vaccine Serotypes 1, 2, and 3 After Mexican National Immunization Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Huang, ChunHong; Sarnquist, Clea; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Nelson, Christine; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Holubar, Marisa; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. With wild poliovirus nearing eradication, preventing circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) by understanding oral polio vaccine (OPV) community circulation is increasingly important. Mexico, where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs) but where children receive inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of their primary regimen, provides a natural setting to study OPV community circulation. Methods. In total, 216 children and household contacts in Veracruz, Mexico, were enrolled, and monthly stool samples and questionnaires collected for 1 year; 2501 stool samples underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3. Results. OPV was detected up to 7 months after an NIW, but not at 8 months. In total, 35% of samples collected from children vaccinated the prior month, but only 4% of other samples, contained OPV. Although each serotype was detected in similar proportions among OPV strains shed as a result of direct vaccination, 87% of OPV acquired through community spread was serotype 2 (P < .0001). Conclusions. Serotype 2 circulates longer and is transmitted more readily than serotypes 1 or 3 after NIWs in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV. This may be part of the reason why most isolated cVDPV has been serotype 2. PMID:24367038

  10. Growing Trend of Alternative Tobacco Use Among the Nation's Youth: A New Generation of Addicts.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John R; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data and trends related to the rising epidemic of usage of alternate forms of tobacco among the nation's youth. For the first time ever, the use of the electronic cigarette (e-cigarrette) has surpassed traditional cigarette usage in adolescents. E-cigarettes are battery-operated products designed to deliver aerosolized nicotine and other flavors to the consumer. Most look like conventional cigarettes but some resemble everyday items such as pens, USB drives, and memory sticks.1 In the following article, we present findings from the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report with commentary on the state of this growing epidemic and barriers to effective screening methods.

  11. El Museo Nacional de Antropologia de Mexico. (The Mexican National Museum of Anthropology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gilberto

    1970-01-01

    Designed as a potential attraction of tourist income and for popular education, the National Museum of Anthropology provides instruction for children and adults, publications, public lectures, library services, and other educational services. (LY)

  12. El Museo Nacional de Antropologia de Mexico. (The Mexican National Museum of Anthropology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gilberto

    1970-01-01

    Designed as a potential attraction of tourist income and for popular education, the National Museum of Anthropology provides instruction for children and adults, publications, public lectures, library services, and other educational services. (LY)

  13. [Kidney transplant experience at the Specialty Hospital Bernardo Sepulveda National Medical Center Century XXI, Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    PubMed

    Gracida-Juárez, Carmen; Espinoza-Pérez, Ramón; Cancino-López, Jorge David; Ibarra-Villanueva, Araceli; Cedillo-López, Urbano; Villegas-Anzo, Fernando; Martínez-Alvarez, Julio

    2011-09-01

    The first kidney transplant in Mexico was done on October 22, 1963 at the General Hospital of National Medical Center (CMN) of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. After the earthquake in 1985, the transplantation activity was continued at the Specialty Hospital of National Medical Center Century XXI. Our program has a continue activity for almost 48 years and a total of 2019 kidney transplants from October 1963 to December 2010. We describe our experience in 20 years. Retrospective cohort study that includes all kidney transplants performed in the period from January 1991 to December 2010. Descriptive statistics were used. The survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan Meier method. We show the patient survival, graft survival censored for death with functional graft and total graft survival (uncensored). We analyzed a total of 1544 kidney transplants. The percentage of living donor was 82.9 vs. deceased donor of 17.1%. Patient survival at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years was 95.0, 91.8, 87.2, 81.1 and 70.1%, respectively; allograft survival rate censored for death with functional allograft at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years was 93.0, 86.2, 76.2, 63.7 and 50.9%, respectively. Our Transplant center also take care of around 1300 living donors in the long term, looking for morbidities as risk factors for the unique kidney as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension and others. In our program, the main source of renal allografts was living donors. Our transplant center has to increase the organ procurement from deceased donors. An important contribution of our center has been the long follow up of living donors according to international consensus.

  14. Innovation attributes and adoption decisions: perspectives from leaders of a national sample of addiction treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on diffusion theory to further knowledge about evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs), this study describes the perceived importance of innovation attributes in adoption decisions within a national sample of SUD treatment organizations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with leaders of 307 organizations. A typology differentiated organizations reporting: (1) adoption of a treatment innovation in the past year ("recent adoption"), (2) plans to adopt an innovation in the upcoming year ("planned adoption"), or (3) no actual or planned adoption ("non-adoption"). About 30.7% of organizations reported recent adoption, 20.5% indicated planned adoption, and 48.8% were non-adopters. Leaders of organizations reporting recent adoption (n=93) or planned adoption (n=62) rated the importance of innovation attributes, including relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability, on these adoption decisions using a Likert scale that ranged from 0 to 5. Innovation attributes most strongly endorsed were consistency with the program's treatment philosophy (mean=4.47, SD=1.03), improvement in the program's reputation with referral sources (mean=4.00, SD=1.33), reputational improvement with clients and their families (mean=3.98, SD=1.31), and reductions in treatment dropout (mean=3.75, SD=1.54). Innovation characteristics reflecting organizational growth and implementation costs were less strongly endorsed. Adopters and planners were generally similar in their importance ratings. There were modest differences in importance ratings when pharmacological innovations were compared to psychosocial interventions. These findings are consistent with diffusion theory and suggest that efforts to link EBPs with client satisfaction and potential reputational benefits may enhance the diffusion of EBPs. Attention to these attributes when developing and evaluating SUD treatment interventions may enhance efforts to increase

  15. Innovation Attributes and Adoption Decisions: Perspectives from Leaders of a National Sample of Addiction Treatment Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Roman, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on diffusion theory to further knowledge about evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs), this study describes the perceived importance of innovation attributes in adoption decisions within a national sample of SUD treatment organizations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with leaders of 307 organizations. A typology differentiated organizations reporting: (1) adoption of a treatment innovation in the past year (“recent adoption”), (2) plans to adopt an innovation in the upcoming year (“planned adoption”), or (3) no actual or planned adoption (“non-adoption”). About 30.7% of organizations reported recent adoption, 20.5% indicated planned adoption, and 48.8% were non-adopters. Leaders of organizations reporting recent adoption (n = 93) or planned adoption (n = 62) rated the importance of innovation attributes, including relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability, on these adoption decisions using a Likert scale that ranged from 0 to 5. Innovation attributes most strongly endorsed were consistency with the program's treatment philosophy (mean = 4.47, SD = 1.03), improvement in the program's reputation with referral sources (mean = 4.00, SD = 1.33), reputational improvement with clients and their families (mean = 3.98, SD = 1.31), and reductions in treatment dropout (mean = 3.75, SD = 1.54). Innovation characteristics reflecting organizational growth and implementation costs were less strongly endorsed. Adopters and planners were generally similar in their importance ratings. There were modest differences in importance ratings when pharmacological innovations were compared to psychosocial interventions. These findings are consistent with diffusion theory and suggest that efforts to link EBPs with client satisfaction and potential reputational benefits may enhance the diffusion of EBPs. Attention to these attributes when developing and evaluating SUD treatment interventions may

  16. Feeding patterns of Mexican infants recorded in the 1988 National Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Long-Dunlap, K; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Rivera-Pasquel, M; Hernández-Avila, M; Lezana, M A

    1995-01-01

    Infant feeding patterns in Mexico were analyzed using data from the 1988 National Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of breast-feeding among infants declined from 86% at birth to approximately 40% after three months of age. The hazard rate of terminating breast-feeding increased by 38% at the national level and by 87% in the northern region with each increment in household living conditions, decreased 50% in rural municipalities in the south and decreased by 20% in all regions for each month that the introduction of other milks was delayed. The rate of other milk introduction increased by between 16% and 20% at the national level and within the central and southern regions with each household living condition increment but decreased by between 20 to 30% within indigenous or rural. Finally, the probability of solid food introduction increased by between 8 and 15% with each household living condition increment.

  17. The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity over the last decade. Although most people's social media use is non-problematic, a small number of users appear to engage in social media excessively and/or compulsively. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem. A cross-sectional convenient sample of 23,532 Norwegians (Mage=35.8years; range=16-88years) completed an open web-based survey including the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results demonstrated that lower age, being a woman, not being in a relationship, being a student, lower education, lower income, lower self-esteem, and narcissism were associated with higher scores on the BSMAS, explaining a total of 17.5% of the variance. Although most effect sizes were relatively modest, the findings supported the notion of addictive social media use reflecting a need to feed the ego (i.e., narcissistic personality traits) and an attempt to inhibit a negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-esteem). The results were also consistent with demographic predictions and associations taken from central theories concerning "addiction", indicating that women may tend to develop more addictive use of activities involving social interaction than men. However, the cross-sectional study design makes inferences about directionality impossible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. National trends in smoking behaviors among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban men and women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lyzette; Garcia, Robert; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; White, Martha M; Messer, Karen; Pierce, John P; Trinidad, Dennis R

    2014-05-01

    We examined trends in smoking behaviors across 2 periods among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. We constructed 2 data sets (1990s vs 2000s) to compare smoking behaviors between the 2 periods. Significant decreases in ever, current, and heavy smoking were accompanied by increases in light and intermittent smoking across periods for all Latino groups, although current smoking rates among Puerto Rican women did not decline. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that in the 2000s, younger Mexicans and those interviewed in English were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers. Mexican and Cuban light and intermittent smokers were less likely to be advised by healthcare professionals to quit smoking. Mexicans and Puerto Ricans who were unemployed and Mexicans who worked outdoors were more likely to be heavy smokers. Increases in light and intermittent smoking among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban Americans suggest that targeted efforts to further reduce smoking among Latinos may benefit by focusing on such smokers.

  19. [Experience of the Mexican National Health System in the development of clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Sosa-García, Jesús Ojino; Nieves-Hernández, Pedro; Puentes-Rosas, Esteban; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Barragán-Padilla, Sergio Baltazar; Díaz-González, Ruth; Chávez-Valdez, Lizbeth; Ramírez-López, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are tools that have been able to streamline decisions made in health issues and to decrease the gap between clinical action and scientific evidence. The objective of the study is to share the experience in the development and to update the guidelines by the National Health System of Mexico. The methodology in the development of the guidelines consists of 5 phases: prioritisation, establishment of work groups, development by adoption of international guidelines of de novo, validation and integration in the Master catalogue of clinical practice guidelines for its dissemination. The Master catalogue of clinical practice guidelines contains 664 guidelines, distributed in 42% Internal Medicine, 22% Surgery, 24% Pediatrics and 12% Gynecology. From the total of guidelines coverage is granted at an 85% of the Universal catalogue of health services, an 84% of the Catastrophic expenses protection fund and a 61% of the XXI Century Medical Insurance of the National Commission of Social Protection in Health. The result is the sum of a great effort of coordination and cooperation between the institutions of the National Health System, political wills and a commitment of 3,477 health professionals that participate in guidelines' development and update. Master catalogue guidelines' integration, diffusion and implantation improve quality of attention and security of the users of the National Health System. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. [Gambling addiction].

    PubMed

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.

  1. Addictive neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kodirov, Sodikdjon A.

    2017-01-01

    Since the reward center is considered to be the area tegmentalis ventralis of the hypothalamus, logically its neurons could mainly be responsible for addiction. However, the literature asserts that almost any neurons of CNS can respond to one or another addictive compound. Obviously not only addictive nicotine, but also alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and morphine may influence dopaminergic cells alone in VTA. Moreover, paradoxically some of these drugs ameliorate symptoms, counterbalance syndromes, cure diseases and improve health, not only those related to the CNS and in adults, but also almost all other organs and in children, e.g. epilepsy. PMID:28649663

  2. New Mexicans` images and perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Winter, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This report uses survey data to profile New Mexico residents` images and perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The survey results are the responses of a representative, stratified random sample of 992 New Mexico households to a set of questions asked in October, 1992. The data allow statistical inference to the general population`s responses to the same set of questions at the time the survey was administered. The results provide an overview of New Mexico residents` current images and perceptions of the Laboratory. The sample margin of error is plus or minus 3.5% at the 95% confidence level.

  3. Behavioral addictions.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Opioid Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... These medicines include methadone (often used to treat heroin addiction), buprenorphine, and naltrexone.After detox, behavioral treatments ... Dezocine, Diamorphine, Dihydrocodeine, Diphenoxylate, Diphenylpropylamine ... Ketobemidone, LAAM, Levo-alphacetylmethadol, loperamide, meperidine, ...

  5. Gambling Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... for developing an addiction. So can people whose personalities mean they enjoy taking risks. This doesn't ... good job or career. Gambling can also affect personality, causing mood swings and problems in someone's social ...

  6. ["Addictive" personality].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A A; Rokhlina, M L

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an observation of 100 patients (84 men, 16 women) aged 13-50 years (mean 25 +/- 6.7 years) with different forms of drug addiction, namely: heroin, opiate, pervitin-ephedrone addiction as well as polynarcomanias. The duration of drug addiction ranged from 1 to 24 years (mean 4.35 +/- 2.25 years). No matter what the type of a drug was abused, all patients had levelled off individual personal traits and some formed peculiar narcomanic defect. It was characterized by elevated excitability, gradually progressing affective disorders in form of dysphoric or apathoabulic depressions, affective lability, prevailing hysteric-excitable forms of responses, psychosocial dysfunction as gradually decreasing interests, different anomalies of the emotional sphere, impuls control disorders, including sexual ones. A moral-ethic decrease was pronounced as well as transient intellectual-mnestic disturbances. By and large personality disorders were qualified as an "addictive personality".

  7. The Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Stan

    For more than 400 years the ancestors of the Mexican American have contributed to the spiritual and material wealth of this land, yet recognition of their cultural and national rights has been slow to come. Like the American Indians, Chicanos can claim, "We did not come to America, America came to us". As a conquered people, they have…

  8. Historical distribution of central nervous system tumors in the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Rangel-López, Edgar; Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz de la; Rodríguez-Pérez, Citlali Ekaterina; Ruano, Luis; Velásquez-Pérez, Leora; Martínez-Moreno, Mauricio; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan; Sotelo, Julio

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the first fifty years of the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico Manuel Velasco Suárez (Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía de México, INNN) from 1965 to 2014. A total of 16 116 institutional records of CNS tumors were analyzed. The frequency and distribution of CNS tumors were evaluated by tumor type, patient age and patient gender. The annual relationship between CNS tumors and surgical discharges (SD) over the last 20 years was estimated. The frequencies of most CNS tumors were consistent with those found worldwide, and the most common tumors were neuroepithelial tumors (33%), particularly astrocytic tumors (67%); meningeal tumors (26%); and pituitary tumors (20%). The incidence of pituitary tumors in these data was twice as high as that reported in other regions of the world, and the relationship between CNS tumors and SD was consistent over time (0.22-0.39). This study summarizes the largest sample of CNS tumor cases analyzed in Mexico and provides an important reference of the frequency of this tumor type in the country. This work will serve as a basis for conducting studies evaluating factors associated with the presence of CNS tumors and for identifying adequate public health interventions.

  9. New Mexicans` perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Awareness and evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    This report uses survey data to profile New Mexico residents`perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The survey results are the responses of a representative, randomly selected sample of New Mexico households to a set of questions asked in September and October 1990. The data allow statistical inference to the general population`s responses to the same set of questions at the time the survey was administered. The results provide an overview of New Mexico residents` current perceptions of LANL. The sample margin of error is slightly less than plus or minus five percent. Because our sample frame is designed to be proportionate to population, counties with the smallest populations, such as Mora and Los Alamos, tend to have very few respondents in a standard sample. In order to have sample sizes sufficiently large to discern statistically significant differences across these counties, we took additional, non-proportionate random samples from Los Alamos County and its neighboring counties, including Rio Arriba, Taos, San Miguel, Mora and Sandoval Counties. This required the specification of new sample frames for each of the six counties and an additional sample of 300 respondents (50 in each county). Therefore, the analysis for this report is somewhat more complex than usual in that two separate samples will be analyzed, the state-wide random sample and the oversample.

  10. Obstructive lung disease in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites: an analysis of diagnosis and survival in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Come, Carolyn E; Mannino, David M; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Divo, Miguel J; Bigelow, Carol; Celli, Bartolome; Washko, George R

    2014-02-01

    Although obstructive lung disease (OLD), which includes COPD, affects all the populations, Hispanics seem to be protected against COPD development and progression. Whether this advantage translates into a survival benefit for this population is unknown. We aimed to determine the risk for OLD in Mexican Americans, the largest US Hispanic subgroup, compared with non-Hispanic whites and to assess all-cause mortality in subjects with OLD. We assessed the relationships between Mexican American ethnicity and spirometric OLD and risk of death among 6,456 US adults aged ≥ 40 years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey Follow-up Study. We used logistic and Cox regression analyses to estimate the OR for OLD among Mexican Americans and the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality among Mexican Americans with OLD, respectively. After adjustment for demographic factors, socioeconomic status, and COPD risk factors, Mexican Americans had decreased odds of OLD diagnosis compared with whites (OR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.54-0.95]). Among the 1,734 participants with OLD, 1,054 (60.8%) died during median follow-up of 12 years. In an adjusted model, Mexican Americans had no advantage in mortality from all causes (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.69-1.13]). After accounting for the fact that some Mexican Americans may have moved back to Mexico and died there (thus, had no US death certificate), there was still no difference in mortality between these groups. Although Mexican Americans appear to have lower risk for OLD, subjects of this ethnicity with OLD do not seem to have a survival advantage.

  11. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  12. Adverse birth outcomes among native-born and immigrant women: replicating national evidence regarding Mexicans at the local level.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Keith, L; Wyshak, G

    1999-06-01

    For almost two decades, the literature has consistently described an epidemiologic paradox relating to better birth outcomes among high-risk groups, particularly new immigrants from Mexico and Southeast Asia. We hypothesize that regardless of their sociodemographic profile, Mexican immigrants will exhibit lower rates of low birth weight and preterm deliveries than native-(U.S.) born women of Mexican origin, non-Hispanic White and Black women, and Puerto Rican Women. We studied 57,324 live-born singleton infants born to residents in the city of Chicago in a linked data set of 1994 birth-death records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze race/ethnicity differentials in two pregnancy outcome measures, low birth weight and preterm birth. Overall better birth outcome is related to maternal immigrant status regardless of race/ethnic groups. Immigrant Mexican women had a significantly lower risk of both low birth weight [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-0.91] and preterm births (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.86) and were at 28% and 33% lower risks of delivering a low birth weight infant or a premature infant, respectively, than non-Hispanic White women.

  13. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  14. [Heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    Heroin is an illicit, highly addictive drug. It is either the most abused or the most rapidly acting member of opioids. Abusers describe a feeling of a surge of pleasurable sensation, named as "rush" or "high". Repeated administration of high doses of heroin results in the induction of physical dependence. Physical dependence refers to an altered physiological state produced by chronic administration of heroin which necessitates the continued administration of the drug to prevent the appearance of a characteristic syndrome, the opioid withdrawal or abstinence syndrome. Withdrawal symptoms may occur within a few hours after the last administration of heroin. Symptoms of the withdrawal include restlessness, insomnia, drug craving, diarrhea, muscle and bone pain, cold flashes with goose bumps, and leg movements. Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose of heroin and subside after about a week. At this time, weakness and depression are pronounced and nausea and vomiting are common. Nevertheless, some chronic addicts have shown persistent withdrawal signs for many months or even years. Heroin addiction is considered as a behavioural state of compulsive drug use and a high tendency to relapse after periods of abstinence. It is generally accepted that compulsive use and relapse are typically associated with the status of heroin craving or heroin hunger that are difficult to define but appear to be powerful motivational significance in the addiction process. The route of administering heroin varies largely and may indicate the degree of seriousness of the individual's addiction. Intravenous administration seems to be the predominant method of heroin use, but recently a shift in heroin use pattern has been found, i.e. from injection to sniffing and smoking. Frequent injections coupled with widespread sharing of syringes increase the risk of contracting HIV, hepatitis B, C and other blood-borne infectious diseases. Long-term use of heroin

  15. Differences in dental treatment plan and planning for drug-addicted and non-drug-addicted patients.

    PubMed

    ter Horst, G; Molendijk, B; Brouwer, E; Verhey, H G

    1996-04-01

    This study investigated whether dental treatment plans and planning of general practitioners are different for addicted and identical non-addicted patients. Dental practitioners (n = 500) were sent a questionnaire with information on and questions about treatment for either an addicted or an identical non-addicted patient; response rate was 41 %. Loglinear analysis showed that after controlling for the influence of four demographic variables (sex, age number of patients and number of National Health Service insured patients), the treatment plans made for addicted patients were less elaborate than those for non-addicted. For the addicted, fillings or frames were proposed more often, whereas for non-addicted patients more often crowns or bridges were proposed. Extraction instead of filling was more often proposed for the addicted patient. Less elaborate treatment for addicted patients corresponds to the way dentists specialized in treating drug addicts work, with one exception: extraction should be avoided whether a patient is addicted or not. Treatment planning did not differentiate for addicted and non-addicted patients, whereas dentists specialized in treating addicted patients do recommend an adjusted treatment plan for the addicted.

  16. Mexican environments

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, L.; Nieder, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the broad Mexican demographic/economic environment as it influences/interacts with the Mexican physical environment. Mexico is relatively resource-rich, but a high population yields a low per capita income, one sixth that of the United States an Canada, still above levels of most other American countries. The Mexican population has become highly urbanized, and population will continue to increase well into the next century. Mexico City will continue to dominate the Mexican urban hierarchy into the future, and the heavy concentration of people has resulted in a heavy concentration of environmental problems in the Mexico City region. A multi-billion-dollar program has been implemented with a goal of limiting air emissions in 2010 to the levels experienced in 1990. Numerous Mexican environmental problems exist beyond Mexico City, in border areas, and throughout Mexico, but qualified professionals and other resources needed for assessments and management are lacking. The authors conclude that continued economic/environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico will help Mexico to acquire resources needed to improve its infrastructure, environmental education, and environmental education, and environmental management, but the authors question whether Mexico, even with reduced population growth, will be able to attain levels of affluence currently enjoyed in the United State and Canada. They raise, but leave unanswered, the larger question of the level of environmentally sound development which is achievable, appropriate, and sustainable for Mexico and for the North American continent as a whole.

  17. National addictions vigilance intervention and prevention program (NAVIPPRO): a real-time, product-specific, public health surveillance system for monitoring prescription drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen F; Budman, Simon H; Licari, Andrea; Cassidy, Theresa A; Lioy, Katherine; Dickinson, James; Brownstein, John S; Benneyan, James C; Green, Traci Craig; Katz, Nathaniel

    2008-12-01

    The National Addictions Vigilance Intervention and Prevention Program (NAVIPPRO) is a scientific, comprehensive risk management program for scheduled therapeutics. NAVIPPRO provides post-marketing surveillance, signal detection, signal verification and prevention and intervention programs. Here we focus on one component of NAVIPPRO surveillance, the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV) Connect, a continuous, real-time, national data stream that assesses pharmaceutical abuse by patients entering substance abuse treatment by collecting product-specific, geographically-detailed information. We evaluate population characteristics for data collected through the ASI-MV Connect in 2007 and 2008 and assess the representativeness, geographic coverage, and timeliness of report of the data. Analyses based on 41,923 admissions to 265 treatment centers in 29 states were conducted on product-specific opioid abuse rates, source of drug, and route of administration. ASI-MV Connect data revealed that 11.5% of patients reported abuse of at least one opioid analgesic product in the 30 days prior to entering substance abuse treatment; differences were observed among sub-populations of prescription opioid abusers, among products, and also within various geographic locations. The ASI-MV Connect component of NAVIPPRO represents a potentially valuable data stream for post-marketing surveillance of prescription drugs. Analyses conducted with data obtained from the ASI-MV Connect allow for the characterization of product-specific and geospatial differences for drug abuse and can serve as a tool to monitor responses of the abuse population to newly developed "abuse deterrent" drug formulations. Additional data, evaluation, and comparison to other systems are important next steps in establishing NAVIPPRO as a comprehensive, post-marketing surveillance system for prescription drugs. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Game addiction].

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  19. The Frequency and Type of K-RAS Mutations in Mexican Patients With Colorectal Cancer: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Ramos, Susana G; Alcázar-González, Gregorio; Reyes-Cortés, Luisa M; Torres-Grimaldo, Abdiel A; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana L; Morales-Casas, José; Flores-Sánchez, Patricia; De León-Escobedo, Raúl; Gómez-Díaz, Antonio; Moreno-Bringas, Carmen; Sánchez-Guillén, Jorge; Ramos-Salazar, Pedro; González-de León, César; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A

    2017-06-01

    Current metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) therapy uses monoclonal antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor. This treatment is only useful in the absence of K-RAS gene mutations; therefore the study of such mutations is part of a personalized treatment. The aim of this work is to determine the frequency and type of the most common K-RAS mutations in Mexican patients with metastatic disease by nucleotide sequencing. We studied 888 patients with mCRC from different regions of Mexico. The presence of mutations in exon 2, codons 12 and 13, of the K-RAS gene was determined by nucleotide sequencing. Patients exhibited K-RAS gene mutations in 35% (310/888) of cases. Mutation frequency of codons 12 and 13 was 71% (221/310) and 29% (89/310), respectively. The most common mutation (45.7%) in codon 12 was c.35G>A (p.G12D), whereas the one in codon 13 was c.38G>A (p.G13D) (78.7%). Given the frequency of K-RAS mutations in Mexicans, making a genetic study before deciding to treat mCRC patients with monoclonal antibodies is indispensable.

  20. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. Methods In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Results Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X2=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Conclusions Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug

  1. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X (2)=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug users and that such harassment may

  2. Cigarette smoking; knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R; Cravioto, P; de la Rosa, B; Galván, F; García-de la Torre, G; Kuri, P

    1997-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3,568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993) was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98%) surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily), 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p < 0.05). Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  3. Immigration and Suicidal Behavior Among Mexicans and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Su, Maxwell; Miller, Matthew; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined migration to the United States as a risk factor for suicidal behavior among people of Mexican origin. Methods. We pooled data from 2 nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001–2003; n = 1284) and Mexico (2001–2002; n = 5782). We used discrete time survival models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics, including psychiatric disorders. Results. Risk for suicidal ideation was higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 2.11), Mexican-born immigrants who arrived in the United States at 12 years or younger (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.09, 3.09), and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.03, 2.38) than among Mexicans with neither a history of migration to the United States nor a family member currently living there. Risk for suicide attempts was also higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.52) and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.65). Selection bias caused by differential migration or differential return migration of persons at higher risk of suicidal ideation or attempt did not account for these findings. Conclusions. Public health efforts should focus on the impact of Mexico–US migration on family members of migrants and on US-born Mexican Americans. PMID:19150909

  4. Preliminary risk assessment of the Mexican Spotted Owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Pratt, L.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that the Department of Energy takes special precautions to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida). In order to do so, risk to the owl presented by radiological and nonradiological contaminants must be estimated. A preliminary risk assessment on the Mexican Spotted Owl in two Ecological Exposure Units (EEUs) was performed using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient method, the FORTRAN model ECORSK4, and a geographic information system. Estimated doses to the owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime were compared against toxicological reference doses generating hazard indices (HIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) for three risk source types. The average HI was 0.20 for EEU-21 and 0.0015 for EEU-40. Under the risk parameter assumptions made, hazard quotient results indicated no unacceptable risk to the owl, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. An HI of 1.0 was used as the evaluative criteria for determining the acceptability of risk. This value was exceeded (1.06) in only one of 200 simulated potential nest sites. Cesium-137, Ni, {sup 239}Pu, Al and {sup 234}U we`re among the constituents with the highest partial HQs. Improving model realism by weighting simulated owl foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased the estimated risk by 72% (0.5 HI units) for EEU-21 and by 97.6% (6.3E-02 HI units) for EEU-40. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, owl habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at acceptably low levels.

  5. Early consumption of liquids different to breast milk in Mexican infants under 1 year: results of the probabilistic National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    PubMed

    González-Castell, Dinorah; González de Cosío, Teresita; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia

    2016-02-16

    Introduction: Studies on infant dietary intake do not generally focus on the types of liquids consumed. Objective: To document by age and breastfeeding status, the types of liquids present in the diet of Mexican children under 1 year of age (< 1 y) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (ENSANUT-2012). Methods: Analysis of the infant < 1 y feeding practices from the ENSANUT-2012 survey in non-breastfed (non-BF) and breastfed (BF) infants by status quo for the consumption of liquids grouped in: water, formula, fortified LICONSA milk, nutritive liquids (NL; thin cereal-based gruel with water or milk and coffee with milk) and non-nutritive liquids (non-NL) as sugared water, water-based drinks, tea, beans or chicken broth, aguamieland coffee. In this infants < 1 y we analyzed the not grouped consumption of liquids in the first three days of life (newborns) from the mother’s recall. Percentage and confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated adjusting for survey design. Statistical differences were analyzed by Z test. Results: We observed a high consumption of human milk followed by formula (56.7%) and water (51.1%) in infants under 6 months of age (< 6 mo). The proportion of non-BF infants consuming non-NL was higher than for BF infants (p < 0.05). More than 60% of older infants (6 mo and < 1 y) consumed formula and were non-BF. In newborns formula consumption was predominant, followed by tea or infusion and water. Conclusions: Non-breast milk liquids are present undesirably in Mexican infants’ diet and non-NL are consumed earlier than NL, revealing inadequate early dietary practices.

  6. Long-term outcomes from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; Provost, Scott E; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; McDermott, Katherine A; Srisarajivakul, Emily N; Dodd, Dorian R; Dreifuss, Jessica A; McHugh, R Kathryn; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2015-05-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of prescription opioid dependence, longitudinal studies have not examined long-term treatment response. The current study examined outcomes over 42 months in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS). POATS was a multi-site clinical trial lasting up to 9 months, examining different durations of buprenorphine-naloxone plus standard medical management for prescription opioid dependence, with participants randomized to receive or not receive additional opioid drug counseling. A subset of participants (N=375 of 653) enrolled in a follow-up study. Telephone interviews were administered approximately 18, 30, and 42 months after main-trial enrollment. Comparison of baseline characteristics by follow-up participation suggested few differences. At Month 42, much improvement was seen: 31.7% were abstinent from opioids and not on agonist therapy; 29.4% were receiving opioid agonist therapy, but met no symptom criteria for current opioid dependence; 7.5% were using illicit opioids while on agonist therapy; and the remaining 31.4% were using opioids without agonist therapy. Participants reporting a lifetime history of heroin use at baseline were more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence at Month 42 (OR=4.56, 95% CI=1.29-16.04, p<.05). Engagement in agonist therapy was associated with a greater likelihood of illicit-opioid abstinence. Eight percent (n=27/338) used heroin for the first time during follow-up; 10.1% reported first-time injection heroin use. Long-term outcomes for those dependent on prescription opioids demonstrated clear improvement from baseline. However, a subset exhibited a worsening course, by initiating heroin use and/or injection opioid use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Shame of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as “choice” and “responsibility” to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  8. 456 Hereditary Angioedema: Report of Ten Mexican Patients at West National Medical Center in Guadalajara City

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal, Ileana

    2012-01-01

    Background Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition characterized by swelling of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and the walls of almost all organs, including upper respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. The aim of this paper is to show the medical community clinical characteristics of 10 Mexican patients with HAE. Methods We reviewed medical records of 10 patients with hereditary angioedema. Results All are women, mean age 36 years; 4 of them with C4 0 mg/dL and the rest with serum levels less than 7 mg/dL. In all patients, C1 INH was determined quantitatively with low serum levels. It was also carried out qualitative determination of C1 INH with negative results in all patients. In 1 patient it was diagnosed also systemic lupus erythematosus. Conclusions All patients presented here have HAE type I and the diagnosis was made according to the criteria defined by Cicardi Zingale. They have been long-term treated with danazol with different response, dose range of 100 to 400 mg daily, depending of clinical response in each patient. In only 2 of them was used a selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant with good response.

  9. [Health care costs attributable to tobacco consumption on a national level in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Rodríguez-Bolaños, Rosibel de Los Angeles; Jiménez, Jorge Alberto; Juárez-Márquez, Sergio Arturo; Castro-Ríos, Angélica; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost of medical care for the major diseases attributable to tobacco consumption at the IMSS. A cost of illness (COI) analysis was carried out from the perspective of the health provider. A random sample of clinical files (n= 1,596) was reviewed to estimate the human resources and medical supplies's utilization according to the health care facilities. The smoking attributable fraction (SAF) by disease was used to derive costs attributable to tobacco consumption. The unitary cost was valuated in 2004 Mexican pesos (MP). The estimated annual total cost of medical care was 7114 million MP for acute myocardial infarction (AMI); 3424 million MP for Cerebrovascular Disease, 1469 million MP for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 102 million MP for lung cancer (LC). The annual total cost of medical care for IMSS was 12100 million MP. The total annual cost of medical care attributable to tobacco consumption corresponds to 7100 million MP, which is equivalent to 4.3% of the annual expenditures of the IMSS during 2004. These results confirm the high medical costs associated with smoking. This information would be used to reinforce the tobacco control preventive actions at IMSS and support decision-makers in strengthening public policies to control tobacco use in Mexico.

  10. [A genetic view of addiction].

    PubMed

    Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The genetic analyses of addictions recently converted to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and thanks to national and international consortia, allowed to recruit large cohorts of patients. This approach allowed the identification of the first susceptibility gene in addiction (tobacco), with genes CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 encoding the α5, α3 and b4 subunits involved in the formation of nicotinic receptors, explaining 14% of the attributable risk for tobacco dependence. Variants of ADH1B and ADH1C genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenases enzymes have also been consistently associated, this time with alcohol dependence (AD). Finally, DRD2 and ANKK1 genes, involved in the dopaminergic pathway, and which were initially associated with AD, are now considered to be involved in a broader phenotype (addiction to psychoactive substances) including opiates. Future directions in molecular study of addiction are gene x environment interactions though the epigenetic approach. Numerous studies already investigated the methylome in addiction, including histone and microRNA modifications. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  11. Relationship between childhood bullying and addictive and anti-social behaviors among adults in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional national study.

    PubMed

    Almuneef, Maha; Saleheen, Hassan N; ElChoueiry, Nathalie; Al-Eissa, Majid A

    2017-08-24

    Background Bullying is a widespread public health problem among youth with potentially far reaching negative implications. Objective To determine the prevalence of childhood bullying and its association with addictive and anti-social behaviors among adults. Subjects Adults (n = 10,156) aged ≥18 years were invited to participate. Methods A cross-sectional, national study utilizing Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) was conducted in Saudi Arabia (SA). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for bullying in relation to the outcome. Results Participant's mean age was 34.3 ± 11.3 years and 52% were male. Thirty-nine percent of the participants reported being bullied. Significant gender differences were found in terms of prevalence of different types of bullying. Men reported higher prevalence of physical (40% vs. 33%, p < 0.01) and sexual (19% vs. 10%, p < 0.01) types of bullying. In contrast, women tend to report higher prevalence of psychological (16% vs. 9%, p < 0.01) and social (14% vs. 10%, p < 0.01) types of bullying. Bullying victims were 1.8 (95% CI 1.6-2.1) times more likely to smoke, 2.3 (95% CI 1.9-2.7) times more likely to drink alcohol, 2.9 (95% CI 2.4-3.4) times more likely to use drugs, 2.1 (95% CI 1.8-2.4) times more likely to have ever had out of wedlock sexual relations, and 2.5 (95% CI 2.1-3.0) times more likely to have suicidal thoughts compared to those who were not bullied. Conclusion Childhood bullying increases the chances of risky behaviors among adults in SA. Prevention of bullying should be in the national agenda of the Ministry of Education.

  12. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, India--a profile.

    PubMed

    Ray, Rajat; Dhawan, Anju; Chopra, Anita

    2013-10-01

    The National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) is a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a premier autonomous medical university in India. This article provides an account of its origin and its contribution to the field of substance use disorder at the national and international levels. Since its establishment, the NDDTC has played a major role in the development of various replicable models of care, the training of post-graduate students of psychiatry, research, policy development and planning. An assessment of the magnitude of drug abuse in India began in the early 1990s and this was followed by a National Survey on Extent, Patterns and Trends of Drug Abuse in 2004. Several models of clinical care have been developed for population subgroups in diverse settings. The centre played an important role in producing data and resource material which helped to scale up opioid substitution treatment in India. A nationwide database on the profile of patients seeking treatment (Drug Abuse Monitoring System) at government drug treatment centres has also been created. The centre has provided valuable inputs for the Government of India's programme planning. Besides clinical studies, research has also focused on pre-clinical studies. Capacity-building is an important priority, with training curricula and resource material being developed for doctors and paramedical staff. Many of these training programmes are conducted in collaboration with other institutions in the country. The NDDTC has received funding from several national and international organizations for research and scientific meetings, and, most recently (2012), it has been designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Substance Abuse.

  13. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction Print A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  14. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction A A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  15. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    PubMed

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  16. The Italian Association on Addiction Psychiatry (SIPDip), formerly The Italian Association on Abuse and Addictive Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2003-08-01

    The Italian Association on Addiction Psychiatry (SIPDip) is a special section of the Italian Psychiatric Association (SIP). It started, under the name of the Italian Association on Abuse and Addictive Behaviours (SICAD), in 1989 from the awareness that the addiction field had been starved of a psychiatrists' contribution since 1975. SIPDip aims to improve and implement study, clinical, research and educational topics about substance abuse and addictive behaviours. The National Board composition aims to provide an equal distribution of psychiatrists working in psychiatric and addiction facilities inside the National Health System, and private non-profit agencies. All psychiatrists and members of the Italian Psychiatric Association can become SIPDip ordinary members, while other health professionals working in psychiatric and addiction fields can become associate members. SIPDip has its National Congress every second year. In 2001 it promoted a network called the National Council of Addiction Disorders. It is recognized officially by the Drug Policy National Department and was created under the direct authority of the Prime Minister. In this, SIPDip is particularly involved in review groups relating to ethical issues, substitutive therapies and dual diagnosis. Furthermore, it organized the first Consensus Conference on Dual Diagnosis, under the sponsorship of the Italian Psychiatric Association. This was held in June 2003 to implement relevant national guidelines. The SIPDip main topics that will be addressed in the near future are: psychiatric comorbidity in substance related disorders; intervention efficacy assessment; and special populations and novel addictions. The National Board meeting on 15 December 2002 decided to submit to the General Assembly in April 2003, a motion to modify the Association's byelaws and to rename the organization 'The Italian Association of Addiction Psychiatry'.

  17. A population-based comparison of weight and weight perceptions among overweight and obese Mexican and Mexican-American men.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C Haskin; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-01-01

    To examine actual and perceived weight in national cohorts of Mexican-origin adult men in Mexico and the United States (US). We used the 2001-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (OO) in Mexicans was 65% and in Mexican-Americans was 72%. OO Mexican-American men were more likely than OO Mexican men (56 vs. 49%) to perceive themselves as "overweight". Among OO men from both populations, those who had been screened for OO by a health provider were almost seven times more likely to have accurate weight perceptions. Only 9% of OO men in Mexico and 25% in the US recalled having been screened for weight. Weight misperceptions were common in both populations but more prevalent in Mexico; low screening by providers may contribute to poor weight control in both countries.

  18. Vitamins A, and C and folate status in Mexican children under 12 years and women 12-49 years: a probabilistic national survey.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Salvador; Montalvo-Velarde, Irene; Zambrano, Norma; García-Guerra, Armando; Ramírez-Silva, Claudia Ivonne; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera, Juan A

    2003-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of Vitamin A and C and folic acid deficiencies and their association with sociodemographic and dietary factors in a national probabilistic sample of Mexican women and children. This is a probabilistic sample from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN-99) including 1,966 children and 920 women. Vitamins A and C were measured in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography, and folic acid in total blood by a microbiological method. Determinants for such deficiencies were explored by multiple regression models. Vitamin A deficiency (retinol < 10 micrograms/dl) was rare in both children and women. But subclinical deficiency (retinol > 10 and < 20 micrograms/dl) was present in 25% of children. The likelihood of subclinical deficiency of vitamin A was less in older children (OR = 0.98, p = 0.01) and in women with higher body mass index (OR = 0.93, p = 0.01). About 30% of children < 2 years of age and 40% of women were vitamin C deficient. The likelihood of vitamin C deficiency was less in children and women as socioeconomic level increased (OR = 0.69, p = 0.03, and OR = 0.80, p = 0.04), and higher in older women (OR = 1.02, p = 0.05). The prevalence of folate deficiency varied in children (2.3 to 11.2), in women it was 5%. Folate deficiency was less in children of higher socioeconomic level (OR = 0.62, p = 0.01), and in those eating more vegetables (OR = 0.22, p = 0.01). The high prevalence of subclinical deficiency of vitamin A in children is indicative of risk of further deterioration under adverse circumstances. Vitamin C deficiency in both children and women implies in addition diminished ability for iron absorption. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  19. Development of the First National Mexican Emission Inventories for Ships Using the Waterway Network Ship Traffic, Energy, and Environmental Model (STEEM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this report is to help policy makers and stakeholders understand results, limitations and advantages of the ship emissions estimations that will form the basis of a Mexican ECA designation proposal.

  20. Prescribing injectable and oral methadone to opiate addicts: results from the 1995 national postal survey of community pharmacies in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Strang, J.; Sheridan, J.; Barber, N.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To establish the extent of prescribing injectable and oral methadone to opiate addicts and the practice characteristics and dispensing arrangements attached to these prescriptions. DESIGN--National survey of 25% random sample of community (high street) pharmacies through postal questionnaire, with four mailings. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--1 in 4 sample of all 10,616 community pharmacies, stratified by family health services authority. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Data were collected on each prescription for controlled drugs currently being dispensed by pharmacies to misusers, describing the drug, form, dose, source (general practice or hospital; and NHS or private), and numbers of dispensing pick ups a week. RESULTS--Methadone was the opiate most commonly dispensed to misusers (96.0% of 3846 opiate prescriptions). 79.6% of methadone prescriptions were for the oral liquid form, 11.0% for tablet, and 9.3% for injectable ampoules. More than one third of all methadone prescriptions were for weekly or fortnightly pick up, with a further third being for daily pick up. Tablets and ampoules were even less likely to be dispensed on a daily basis. Private prescriptions were significantly more likely than NHS ones to be for tablets or ampoules, to be for substantially higher daily doses, and to be collected on a weekly or fortnightly basis. CONCLUSIONS--The distinctively British practice of prescribing injectable methadone was found to be widespread and, contrary to guidance, to be as prevalent in non-specialist as specialist settings. In view of the frequent crushing and injecting of methadone tablets, clearer more authoritative guidance is needed on the contexts in which injectable methadone (tablets as well as ampoules) should be prescribed and on the responsibilities for monitoring and supervision which should be attached. PMID:8704540

  1. Prescribing injectable and oral methadone to opiate addicts: results from the 1995 national postal survey of community pharmacies in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Strang, J; Sheridan, J; Barber, N

    1996-08-03

    To establish the extent of prescribing injectable and oral methadone to opiate addicts and the practice characteristics and dispensing arrangements attached to these prescriptions. National survey of 25% random sample of community (high street) pharmacies through postal questionnaire, with four mailings. England and Wales. 1 in 4 sample of all 10,616 community pharmacies, stratified by family health services authority. Data were collected on each prescription for controlled drugs currently being dispensed by pharmacies to misusers, describing the drug, form, dose, source (general practice or hospital; and NHS or private), and numbers of dispensing pick ups a week. Methadone was the opiate most commonly dispensed to misusers (96.0% of 3846 opiate prescriptions). 79.6% of methadone prescriptions were for the oral liquid form, 11.0% for tablet, and 9.3% for injectable ampoules. More than one third of all methadone prescriptions were for weekly or fortnightly pick up, with a further third being for daily pick up. Tablets and ampoules were even less likely to be dispensed on a daily basis. Private prescriptions were significantly more likely than NHS ones to be for tablets or ampoules, to be for substantially higher daily doses, and to be collected on a weekly or fortnightly basis. The distinctively British practice of prescribing injectable methadone was found to be widespread and, contrary to guidance, to be as prevalent in non-specialist as specialist settings. In view of the frequent crushing and injecting of methadone tablets, clearer more authoritative guidance is needed on the contexts in which injectable methadone (tablets as well as ampoules) should be prescribed and on the responsibilities for monitoring and supervision which should be attached.

  2. Genomics, public health and developing countries: the case of the Mexican National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN).

    PubMed

    Séguin, Béatrice; Hardy, Billie-Jo; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2008-10-01

    In 2004, the government of Mexico established the National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN), to carry out disease-related genomic studies that will address national health problems and stimulate scientific and technological development by generating new commercial products and services in genomic medicine. Towards this end, INMEGEN is carrying out a large-scale genotyping project to map genomic variation within its own population. The initiative is expected to generate a key resource for local researchers to understand disease susceptibility and variation in drug responses, which will contribute to Mexico's goal of developing public health genomics - a field in which Mexico is proving to be a leader amongst emerging economies.

  3. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  4. [Recovery from Sexual Addiction].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Addiction is a disease that can cause an individual to lose his or her life. However, addiction can be considered a form of self medication or survival skill. If affected individuals attend a mutual aid group, individuals with such addiction can share their common experiences and they are willing to will grow along spiritual lines.

  5. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  6. NARCOTIC DRUG ADDICTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YAHRAES, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

    MUCH HAS BEEN LEARNED IN RECENT YEARS ABOUT THE NATURE OF DRUG ADDICTION, THE FACTORS WHICH LEAD A PERSON INTO ADDICTION, AND THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF PERSONS WHO HAVE BECOME ADDICTED. THIS PAMPHLET SURVEYS THE NEW FINDINGS AND IS INTENDED PRIMARILY FOR (1) THOSE WHO IN THE COURSE OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL DUTIES COME IN CONTACT WITH ADDICTED…

  7. Imagining the Mexican Immigrant Worker: (Inter)Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Ernesto

    2000-01-01

    Traces the history of two organizations of the 1970s Chicano Movement: the Committee to Free Los Tres and the Centro de Accion Social Autonomo (CASA). Discusses their Marxist ideology, notion of Chicano cultural nationalism, involvement of college students and other youth, campaigns supporting immigrant workers' rights and affirmative action at…

  8. Imagining the Mexican Immigrant Worker: (Inter)Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Ernesto

    2000-01-01

    Traces the history of two organizations of the 1970s Chicano Movement: the Committee to Free Los Tres and the Centro de Accion Social Autonomo (CASA). Discusses their Marxist ideology, notion of Chicano cultural nationalism, involvement of college students and other youth, campaigns supporting immigrant workers' rights and affirmative action at…

  9. [Women members of the Mexican National Academy of Medicine. An analysis of their membership and place in the medical elite].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-de Romo, Ana Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes women's admission to Mexico's National Academy of Medicine (NAM) originally an all-male institution. We describe the demographic characteristics of female members of the NAM. By the year 2006, the NAM had 536 academic members, 62 of them were women. Data gathered included date of entry to the NAM, members' age at time of admission, current age, whether they had children and the field and or area to which they were assigned. We also analyzed membership to the "National System of Researchers" (Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, SNI). Women admitted to the NAM were all competitive scholars who planned their career choices, sought and achieved positions of power yet gender issues still determined their professional careers.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for the Use of Medications to Treat Opioid Addiction in the United States and Other Nations of the World.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Mark W; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Samuels, Paul N; Maremmani, Icro

    2015-01-01

    There has been a well documented increase in the use and abuse of prescription opioids and heroin in the United States and other parts of the world. There has also been an increasing focus to increase access to the use of medications (methadone, buprenorphine, Naltrexone/Vivitrol) for opioid addicted individuals under legal supervision. As policymakers engage in strategic initiatives to better prevent and effectively treat chronic opioid addiction, both in the United States and other countries, there are a number of unintended consequences, complicating how best to increase access to effective treatment.

  11. Improving drug addiction treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Lang; Hao, Wei

    2007-07-01

    To illustrate the current situation and problems of drug addiction in treatment China and propose suggestions. A descriptive study based on literature searched from Medline and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (1996-2007) and hand-picked references. Since the re-emergence of drug addiction in China in the early 1990s, there has been tremendous progress in drug addiction treatments in China, especially treatments for opiate addiction. However, many problems and challenges remain for improvement, including widespread negative attitudes towards drug abuse and drug-dependent individuals, the lack of evidence-based data on the efficacy of Chinese traditional medicine and the lack of a comprehensive and integrated system to organize all treatment resources and monitor treatment progress. The authors discuss the challenges that impede effective treatments of drug addiction and some suggestions are proposed. Implementing these suggestions can improve the outcome of treatment of drug-dependent individuals and benefit the whole society. China faces substantial drug addiction problems that appear to be worsening with time. Although much progress in drug addiction treatment has been made, improvement in many aspects is needed urgently.

  12. Use of a Novel Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Oral Polio Vaccine Shedding and Reversion in Stool and Sewage Samples after a Mexican National Immunization Day▿

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Huang, ChunHong; Mahmud, Nadim; Lee, Yu-Jin; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Flaster, Harry; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    During replication, oral polio vaccine (OPV) can revert to neurovirulence and cause paralytic poliomyelitis. In individual vaccinees, it can acquire specific revertant point mutations, leading to vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). With longer replication, OPV can mutate into vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), which causes poliomyelitis outbreaks similar to those caused by wild poliovirus. After wild poliovirus eradication, safely phasing out vaccination will likely require global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) until cessation of OPV circulation. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given biannually during national immunization days (NIDs), provides a natural setting to study the duration of OPV circulation in a population primarily vaccinated with IPV. We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect and distinguish revertant and nonrevertant OPV serotype 1 (OPV-1), OPV-2, and OPV-3 from RNA extracted directly from stool and sewage. Stool samples from 124 children and 8 1-liter sewage samples from Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico, collected 6 to 13 weeks after a NID were analyzed. Revertant OPV-1 was found in stool at 7 and 9 weeks, and nonrevertant OPV-2 and OPV-3 were found in stool from two children 10 weeks after the NID. Revertant OPV-1 and nonrevertant OPV-2 and -3 were detected in sewage at 6 and 13 weeks after the NID. Our real-time PCR assay was able to detect small amounts of OPV in both stool and sewage and to distinguish nonrevertant and revertant serotypes and demonstrated that OPV continues to circulate at least 13 weeks after a NID in a Mexican population routinely immunized with IPV. PMID:21411577

  13. National survey on edentulism and its geographic distribution, among Mexicans 18 years of age and older (with emphasis in WHO age groups).

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, C E; Pérez-Núñez, R; Maupomé, G; Avila-Burgos, L; Pontigo-Loyola, A P; Patiño-Marín, N; Villalobos-Rodelo, J J

    2008-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of edentulism in adults aged 18 years and older in Mexico and to describe its distribution in 20 of the 32 States in Mexico, highlighting the experience in the WHO age groups. A secondary analysis of the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2002-2003 (representative at the state level and part of the Word Health Survey) was undertaken. The sample design was probabilistic, stratified and through conglomerates. Data on dental conditions were available only for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico, leading to a total of 24 159 households (N = 54 638 654). The percentage of edentulism was determined as the proportion of subjects that self-reported complete loss of teeth. Data were analyzed using the SVY module for complex surveys in STATA 8.2. The mean age was 41.3 +/- 17.0 years (range 18-99). An estimated 6.3% (N = 3 437 816) of the population > or =18 years was edentulous. Lowest prevalences were observed in the states of Tlaxcala, Puebla and the Estado de Mexico with 3.4%, 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Highest prevalences were observed in San Luis Potosí, Colima, and Michoacán with 10.3%, 10.2% and 10.1%, respectively. Following the WHO age groups, the prevalence ranged from 2.4% in the 35-44 group through 25.5% in the 65-74 group. No obvious association between socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level and prevalence of edentulism was found. The prevalence of complete tooth loss observed in the present study varied greatly across states, although no straightforward association was found with socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level. This study could serve as a baseline to enable future evaluations of the oral status of Mexican adults and elders, following WHO age groups.

  14. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Sewage Samples to Determine Oral Polio Vaccine Circulation Duration and Mutation After Mexican National Immunization Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Huang, ChunHong; Lee, Yu-Jin; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV. Methods. One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence. Results. OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence. Conclusions. OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains. PMID:23667738

  15. Epidemiological Characteristics of the Largest Kidney Transplant Program in Mexico: Western National Medical Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security.

    PubMed

    Solis-Vargas, E; Evangelista-Carrillo, L A; Puentes-Camacho, A; Rojas-Campos, E; Andrade-Sierra, J; Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, J I; Nieves-Hernández, J J; Jalomo-Martínez, B; Medina-Pérez, M; Martínez-Martínez, P; Monteón-Ramos, F J; Gómez-Navarro, B

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Transplant Center (CENATRA), in 2013, a total of 2707 transplantations were performed in Mexico; of them, 10% (270 transplantations) were done in our Tertiary Care Hospital (Western National Medical Center). This means that one in 10 transplant recipients undergoes transplantation at our medical center. The aim of our study was to describe the characteristics of and to compare changes in the kidney transplantation program over time. This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected from the hospital transplant registry from January 1994 to December 2014. During the study period, 3643 kidney transplantations were conducted; most were living donor 3236 (89%), and only 407 patients (11%) received a graft from a deceased donor. Of living donors, 2786 (87%) were related, and 450 (13%) were genetically unrelated. The average recipient age was 28 years, and the average age of the donor was 34 years. It was observed that siblings donated more frequently (51%), followed by parents (34%). Among unrelated donors, spouses donated the most (66%). In 80% of cases, the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown (80%). The most frequent renal replacement therapy was peritoneal dialysis (54%), followed by hemodialysis (18%); only 5% of patients received preemptive kidney transplant. The most frequent immunosuppression scheme was tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone in 70% of patients. The Western National Medical Center is the largest kidney transplantation program in Mexico. The main activity is living donor transplantation. Recipients are relatively young persons with unknown etiology of ESRD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Food Addiction as a new behavioral addiction].

    PubMed

    Eördögh, Erika; Hoyer, Mária; Szeleczky, Gábor

    Aim of review: To overview the new studies on food addiction and highlighting the analogies and differences between food and drug addiction. Recent studies on food addiction have demonstrated that the neurobiological circuits involved in the development of drug addiction also play a role in food consumption, and that the uptake of nutrients by the organism is under the control of numerous complicated peripheral and central signal-transducing networks. In addition, it has also been shown that addiction and/or craving may develop toward certain foods and nutrients, too. The most recent investigations about the neurobiological systems motivating the obtaining behavior have suggested that the acquired drive toward energy rich, rewarding food contributes to the appearance of obesity as an endemic. This report presents the definition of substance use disorders and describes the results of the neurobiological approaches in the study of addiction supporting the concept that food addiction is a real phenomenon. The subsequent description of the central and peripheral signaling pathways of food consumption demonstrates that while both food (nutrients) and drugs with abuse potential exert their effect on the same central neurobiological networks, the action of the peripheral signaling systems make it more difficult to understand the regulation of food intake and thus the treatment of pathological eating behavior. The presentation of the evidences of food addiction obtained in animal experiments and with imaging methods and the subsequent overview of the results achieved in the surveys of pathologic eating patterns and in the new clinical and behavioral assessment of human food addiction point to the conclusion that the pharmacological and behavioral therapy methods applied to the treatment of substance abuse disorders may also prove useful in the management of obesity.

  17. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  18. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  19. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  20. A review of addiction.

    PubMed

    Clay, Steven W; Allen, Jason; Parran, Theorore

    2008-07-31

    Addiction to drugs and alcohol is often undiagnosed and untreated. Physicians are often unaware or have negative attitudes regarding these patients, such as the perception that treatment is ineffective. Addiction--psychological dependence with or without tolerance and withdrawal--is essentially compulsive uncontrolled substance use despite physical, psychological, or social consequences. We now have an understanding of the 2 major neurological pathways involved in addiction. First, the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, which is essential for survival, can be physically altered by drug abuse to result in uncontrolled cravings. Second, the decision-making prefrontal cortex, which suppresses inappropriate reward response, can also be altered by drug abuse. Thus, accelerated "go" signals and impaired "stop" signals result in uncontrolled use despite severe consequences. Further, addicts can be predisposed to addiction by genetic defects in reward pathway neurotransmission and stress-related developmental brain abnormalities. Relapse to drug use can occur because of stress or cue-related reward pathway stimulation or even by a single drug dose. Individualized treatment of addiction, including pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions, can be as successful as treatment of other chronic diseases. Several pharmaceuticals are available or under study for these disorders. Waiting for the addict to "be ready" for treatment can be dangerous and detoxification alone is often ineffective. The physician's role in treating addiction includes prevention, diagnosis, brief intervention, motivational interviewing, referral, and follow-up care. An understanding of the biological reality of addiction allows physicians to understand addicts as having a brain disease. Further, the reality of effective pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments for addiction allows physicians to be more optimistic in treating addicts. The challenge to the physician is to embrace the

  1. Addiction and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    PubMed

    Westreich, Laurence M

    2002-01-01

    On July 26, 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which was intended as a broad, national, civil rights-oriented mandate "for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities," both physical and mental. ADA protection is extended, in limited form, to those with addiction disorders. However, many addicted individuals are denied ADA protection because of exclusionary criteria in the ADA itself and because of increasingly restrictive interpretations of the ADA in recent cases. The benefit to the addicted persons, and to the larger society, is lost when unfair discriminatory practices preclude employment of otherwise qualified, though stigmatized, individuals. The ADA currently falls short, in many respects, of preventing such discrimination against those with addictions.

  2. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_012017.pdf Addiction ... Español English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz ...

  3. "Addiction Proneness" and Personality in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jerome J.

    1975-01-01

    A carefully controlled comparison of the personality characteristics of heroin addict (n=27) and nonaddict (n=20) offenders was carried out so as to avoid methodological problems associated with earlier studies. (Editor)

  4. [Internet addiction: a different kind of addiction?].

    PubMed

    Dejoie, J F

    2001-07-01

    The concept of Internet addiction, also called Internet addictive disorder or pathological Internet use, entered the medical dictionary in 1995. More and more authors have been preoccupied with it lately, and the majority conclude that this condition, on which some people cast doubt a few years ago, well and truly exists. Several forms of Internet addiction appear to exist, categorised according to the type of misuse it is subjected to: "cybersex", "chat rooms", "net gaming", the pathological search for information or video games being the most frequent. Psychiatric disorders most usually associated with Internet addiction seem to be bipolar disorders. As a consequence, efficient drugs would be those that act as thymo-stabilisers, undoubtedly because they are also effective against those bipolar disorders. Psychotherapeutic treatments as discussion groups on the Internet or group therapies have not yet been evaluated.

  5. Evaluation of completeness of suspected adverse drug reaction reports submitted to the mexican national pharmacovigilance centre: a cross-sectional period-prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Betsabé; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Moreno-Bonett, Consuelo; Vázquez-Moreno, Everardo; Martínez-Núñez, Juan Manuel

    2012-10-01

    The Mexican National Centre of Pharmacovigilance (CNFV) receives suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports from the pharmaceutical industry, Federal States Centre of Pharmacovigilance (CEFV) and Healthcare Institution Centres of Pharmacovigilance (CIFV). The completeness of these suspected ADR reports is particularly important for the proper evaluation of drug safety. The aim of the study was to evaluate the completeness of the information reported in a representative sample of suspected ADR reports submitted to the CNFV during 2007 and 2008, to evaluate the completeness of the suspected ADR reports submitted to the CNFV from different sources during these 2 years and to identify the therapeutic subgroups with the highest number of suspected ADR reports during the study years. A cross-sectional period-prevalence study was conducted at the CNFV. Only reports of suspected ADRs submitted by the CEFV, pharmaceutical industry and CIFV during 2007 and 2008 were included in the present study (reports related to vaccines were excluded). The sample sizes to be used for each year were determined using the formula for population rate at 95% significance level. The samples for each year were randomly selected from the reports related to synthetic drugs submitted that year. The suspected ADR reports were classified according to the standing Mexican Official Norm (Norma Oficial Mexicana [NOM]) guidelines, which were used to divide the reports into four categories (0, 1, 2 and 3) based on their completeness. The seriousness of the suspected ADRs reported was also evaluated; a suspected ADR was classified as 'non-serious' when signs and symptoms are likely to be tolerated, 'moderate' when ADR is not life threatening and needs pharmacological treatment, 'serious' when ADR is life threatening and leads to hospitalization and 'fatal' when ADR contributes directly or indirectly to the patient's death. A total sample size of 370 and 371 suspected ADR reports from 2007 and 2008

  6. Drug addiction. Part III. Pharmacotherapy of addiction.

    PubMed

    Vetulani, J

    2001-01-01

    The last decade brought a considerable progress in pharmacotherapy of addiction. Basing on recently gained knowledge of mechanisms of development of addiction and the physiology of the brain reward system, several therapeutic strategies have evolved. The strategies aimed at targeting the basic mechanisms of addiction rely on the premises that addiction is caused by adaptive changes in the central nervous system and that craving, which is the main cause of relapse, depends on dopaminergic mechanisms and requires high general excitability. The pharmacological approach involves drugs that reduce neuronal adaptability by inhibiting the calcium entry to neurons both through voltage-gated channels (e.g. nimodipine) and NMDA receptors (e.g. memantine), and drugs that stimulate the inhibitory GABAergic system (gamma-vinyl-GABA, baclofen), Particular attention is paid to the compounds that may attenuate dopaminergic hyperactivity, without considerable suppression of tonic activity of dopaminergic neurons (e.g. BP 897, a partial dopamine D3 receptor antagonist). Specific strategies are aimed at interference with the action of particular drugs of addiction. An important group includes the agonistic therapies (known also as substitution or maintenance therapies) in which a long-acting agonist is used in order to reduce the action of the drugs of high addictive potential (e.g. methadone against heroin addiction or vanoxerine (GBR 12909) against psychostimulants). Other specific strategies aimed at reduction of the transport of molecules of addictive substances into the brain: the approaches involve preparation of antibodies that form complexes unable to cross blood-brain barrier or enzymes accelerating the metabolism of the compounds in the blood (e.g. variants of butyrylcholinesterase). A considerable progress has been made in combating the abuse of legal addictive substances, alcohol (naltrexone, acamprosate) and tobacco (bupropion). The prospects for developing effective

  7. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management.

  8. The current situation in mexican immigration.

    PubMed

    Vernez, G; Ronfeldt, D

    1991-03-08

    By 1988, the Mexican-origin population of the United States had grown to 12.1 million, largely from recent, sharp increases in immigration. The policy concerns raised by this phenomenon have been influenced by some perceptions that available research contradicts. Today most Mexican immigrants come to stay, about half are female, and they have increasingly less schooling compared to the native-born population and other immigrants. Nationally, they do not cause adverse economic effects for native-born workers and, across generations, their language and political assimilation is proceeding well. They put greater demands on education than on other public services. However, the Mexican-origin population affects the economy and public services more and differently in the areas where it is concentrated, primarily in the western United States and large urban areas. Further, the recent legalization of 2.3 million Mexican immigrants can be expected to increase the demand on public services, especially in those areas.

  9. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  10. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  11. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  12. Contemporary Fertility Patterns and First-Birth Timing among Mexican-Origin Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batson, Christie D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines first-birth timing among Mexican women in the United States over two birth cohorts. Currently, Mexican women are one of a small group that maintains above-replacement fertility in the United States, contributing to both Mexican population growth and overall national population growth. Yet, the fertility timing of Mexican…

  13. Contemporary Fertility Patterns and First-Birth Timing among Mexican-Origin Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batson, Christie D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines first-birth timing among Mexican women in the United States over two birth cohorts. Currently, Mexican women are one of a small group that maintains above-replacement fertility in the United States, contributing to both Mexican population growth and overall national population growth. Yet, the fertility timing of Mexican…

  14. What is addiction?

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines.

  15. Non-addictive psychoactive drug use: Implications for behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    The newly proposed framework for non-addictive psychoactive substances postulated by Müller & Schumann (M&S) provides an interesting and plausible explanation for non-addictive drug use. However, with specific reference to the relevant behavioral addiction literature, this commentary argues that the model may unexpectedly hold utility not only for non-addictive use of drugs, but also for non-addictive use of other potentially addictive behaviors.

  16. Introduction to Behavioral Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or “behavioral” addictions. Objectives Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. Methods: We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:20560821

  17. Addiction and will

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  18. Addiction and will.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  19. Mexican American Male Masquerades in the Institution as Bully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterreich, Heather A.; Sosa-Provencio, Mia A.; Anatska, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    This Black and Chicana Feminist case study challenges national discourse surrounding school bullying as individualistic, student-centered. We explore the warrior lens of Mexican/Mexican-American males. While masquerading institutional compliance, they simultaneously unmask policies, practices as the means to control mind/bodies/spirit. This…

  20. Growth of Mexican-American Children in South Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Crofts, Alfred

    Height, weight, and triceps skinfold were measured in 1,680 Mexican American children, 10 through 14 years of age, from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) region of Texas. Study sample measurements were compared to those gathered in 1972 involving LRGV Mexican American children as well as National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference data…

  1. Current considerations regarding food addiction.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Erica M; Joyner, Michelle A; Potenza, Marc N; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2015-04-01

    "Food addiction" is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of "food addiction" that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual differences are important in determining who develops an addiction. If certain foods are addictive, the identification of possible risk factors for "food addiction" is an important next step. Not all treatments for addiction require abstinence. Addiction interventions that focus on moderation or controlled use may lead to novel approaches to treating eating-related problems. Finally, addiction-related policies that focus on environmental (instead of educational) targets may have a larger public health impact in reducing overeating.

  2. Addiction to melodrama.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Robert P

    2011-01-01

    Addiction films have been shaped by the internal demands of a commercial medium. Specifically, melodrama, as a genre, has defined the limits of the visual representation of addiction. Similarly, the process of intermedialization has tended to induce a metamorphosis that shapes disparate narratives with diverse goals into a generic filmic form and substantially alters the meanings of the texts. Ultimately, visual representations shape public perceptions of addiction in meaningful ways, privileging a moralistic understanding of drug addiction that makes a complex issue visually uncomplicated by reinforcing "common sense" ideas of moral failure and redemption.

  3. Genetics of opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Reed, Brian; Butelman, Eduardo R; Yuferov, Vadim; Randesi, Matthew; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-11-01

    Addiction to MOP-r agonists such as heroin (and also addiction to prescription opioids) has reemerged as an epidemic in the twenty first century, causing massive morbidity. Understanding the genetics contributing to susceptibility to this disease is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and also for discovery of genetic markers which would indicate relative protection or vulnerability from addiction, and relative responsiveness to pharmacotherapy. This information could thus eventually inform clinical practice. In this review, we focus primarily on association studies of heroin and opiate addiction, and further describe the studies which have been replicated in this field, and are thus more likely to be useful for translational efforts.

  4. Hidden addiction: Television

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  5. Addicted Women: Family Dynamics, Self Perceptions, and Support Systems. Services Research Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne County Dept. of Substance Abuse Services, Detroit, MI.

    Female drug addicts show greater personal distress and have fewer personal resources a9d social supports than other women. To gain new knowledge about female addicts, the Services Research Branch of the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded several research projects to analyze personality, attitudes and value measures of addicted women, support…

  6. Pleasure and addiction.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Jeanette; Matthews, Steve; Snoek, Anke

    2013-09-25

    What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savulescu (1) have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behavior. They describe addiction as "strong appetites toward pleasure" and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers) reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value, and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  7. Pleasure and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Jeanette; Matthews, Steve; Snoek, Anke

    2013-01-01

    What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savulescu (1) have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behavior. They describe addiction as “strong appetites toward pleasure” and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers) reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value, and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction. PMID:24093020

  8. The association of acculturation factors with biochemical indices of folate status among Mexican Americans 60 years of age or older in the post-fortification era: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Heather C; Cogswell, Mary E; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Acculturation factors have been found to affect dietary intakes of folate among older Mexican Americans (MAs) (≥60 years). The association of acculturation with folate biomarkers is unknown. We determined whether acculturation factors were associated with folate biomarkers (e.g., serum folate, red blood cell [RBC] folate, and total homocysteine concentrations) and whether this association could be explained by dietary folate. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006, we estimated that 42.8% and 40.1% of older MAs reported speaking Spanish all or most of the time or being born in Mexico, respectively (lower acculturation factors). Lower acculturation factors were not associated with total homocysteine concentrations but were, in general, associated with lower serum folate and RBC folate concentrations, but these associations were not always independent of factors such as sex, education, and poverty, and possibly were mediated by dietary and supplemental folate. Thus, the lower folate status observed among older MA with lower acculturation factors may be modifiable by changes in the intake of folic acid. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics for the following free supplemental resource: a table of the predictors of serum folate or red blood cell folate concentrations among Mexican Americans 60 years of age or older using country of origin or language preference, respectively, as acculturation factors, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.].

  9. Association of acculturation factors with dietary intakes of folate among older Mexican Americans in the post-fortification era: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Heather C; Cogswell, Mary E; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acculturation factors are associated with dietary patterns of older Mexican Americans (MAs), but the association of these factors with post-fortification folate intake is unknown. We estimated usual folate intakes for U.S. MAs aged ≥60 years (N = 712) by acculturation factors using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006. Mean total folic acid and total folate, but not natural folate intakes, were lower for MAs with lower acculturation factors, and 16% of MAs had total folate intakes less than the estimated average requirement (EAR) of 320 µg/day. Most older U.S. MAs did not meet requirements from natural food folate intake alone, regardless of acculturation status, but their intakes were adequate when fortified foods and supplement sources were taken into account. Logistic regression models including age, sex, education, poverty, and acculturation factors indicated that low income, not acculturation, was significantly associated with intake below the EAR. Thus our findings indicate that the association of low acculturation with folate intake below the EAR is not independent of poverty. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics for the following free supplemental resource: a table of the distribution of usual folate intake among Mexican Americans aged ≥60 years by sex, age, education level, poverty income ratio, and acculturation factors, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.].

  10. Patterns of contraceptive use among Mexican-origin women.

    PubMed

    White, Kari L; Potter, Joseph E

    Mexican women in the United States (US) have higher rates of fertility compared to other ethnic groups and women in Mexico. Whether variation in women's access to family planning services or patterns of contraceptive use contributes to this higher fertility has received little attention. We explore Mexican women's contraceptive use, taking into account women's place in the reproductive life course. Using nationally representative samples from the US (National Survey of Family Growth) and Mexico (Encuesta National de la Dinámica Demográfica), we compared the parity-specific frequency of contraceptive use and fertility intentions for non-migrant women, foreign-born Mexicans in the US, US-born Mexicans, and whites. Mexican women in the US were less likely to use IUDs and more likely to use hormonal contraception than women in Mexico. Female sterilization was the most common method among higher parity women in both the US and Mexico, however, foreign-born Mexicans were less likely to be sterilized, and the least likely to use any permanent contraceptive method. Although foreign-born Mexicans were slightly less likely to report that they did not want more children, differences in method use remained after controlling for women's fertility intentions. At all parities, foreign-born Mexicans used less effective methods. These findings suggest that varying access to family planning services may contribute to variation in women's contraceptive use. Future studies are needed to clarify the extent to which disparities in fertility result from differences in contraceptive access.

  11. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  12. Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?

    PubMed Central

    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955

  13. Systems biology and addiction.

    PubMed

    Tretter, F; Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Albus, M; an der Heiden, U; Schwegler, H

    2009-05-01

    The onset of addiction is marked with drug induced positive experiences that keep being repeated. During that time, adaptation occurs and addiction is stabilized. Interruption of those processes induces polysymptomatic withdrawal syndromes. Abstinence is accompanied by risks of relapse. These features of addiction suggest adaptive brain dynamics with common pathways in complex neuronal networks. Addiction research has used animal models, where some of those phenomena could be reproduced, to find correlates of addictive behavior. The major thrust of those approaches has been on the involvement of genes and proteins. Recently, an enormous amount of data has been obtained by high throughput technologies in these fields. Therefore, (Computational) "Systems Biology" had to be implemented as a new approach in molecular biology and biochemistry. Conceptually, Systems Biology can be understood as a field of theoretical biology that tries to identify patterns in complex data sets and that reconstructs the cell and cellular networks as complex dynamic, self-organizing systems. This approach is embedded in systems science as an interdisciplinary effort to understand complex dynamical systems and belongs to the field of theoretical neuroscience (Computational Neuroscience). Systems biology, in a similar way as computational neuroscience is based on applied mathematics, computer-based computation and experimental simulation. In terms of addiction research, building up "computational molecular systems biology of the (addicted) neuron" could provide a better molecular biological understanding of addiction on the cellular and network level. Some key issues are addressed in this article.

  14. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  15. Counseling Compulsive Resume Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Marshall J.

    Compulsive Resume Addiction (CRA) is a condition where applicants become dependent on their written credentials to get new employment. It is similar to other addictions in that the person manifests short-term, gratification-seeking behavior with the long term cost in self-esteem and self-confidence. Applicants get stuck in thinking that a better…

  16. Associations between the Risk of Internet Addiction and Problem Behaviors among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jisun; Lee, Jungkwon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Park, Yong Soon; Ahn, Eun Ju

    2013-03-01

    The number of internet users is increasing rapidly and internet addiction among adolescents has become a serious public health problem in Korea. In the light of behavioral addiction, this study was aimed to identify the associations between the risk of internet addiction and other problem behaviors which can lead to addiction, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse among a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (respondents, 73,238) were analyzed. Risk of internet addiction was assessed by the 'Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form: Self Report' which was developed by the Korean National Information Society Agency in 2008. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios of problem behaviors among adolescents at high risk for internet addiction and adolescents at low risk for internet addiction. The odds of smoking experience, drug abuse experience, and sexual intercourse experience were significantly higher among boys at high risk for internet addiction compared to boys at low risk for internet addiction. Among girls at high risk of internet addiction, the odds of smoking experience, drinking experience, and drug abuse experience were significantly higher compared with girls at low risk of internet addiction. The risk of internet addiction was associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse experience among Korean adolescents.

  17. [Addictive behavior disorders].

    PubMed

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  18. Classrooms under the Influence: Addicted Families/Addicted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.; And Others

    Addiction, the focus of this book, is a social phenomenon that influences both social and academic issues in the classroom. The book is not simply about students who become addicted to chemical substances or alcohol; it is about the complex effects of addiction on the user and the impact of this addiction on other people in his or her life.…

  19. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  20. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-08

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  1. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-01

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  2. Attitudes of Mexican Americans toward irregular immigration.

    PubMed

    Polinard, J L; Wrinkle, R D; Garza, R D

    1984-01-01

    This inquiry focuses on the attitudes of 314 Mexican Americans toward issues relating to current US immigration policy. Telephone and personal interviews were conducted in Hidalgo and Travis counties, Texas, with Mexican-Americans. Virtually all respondent groups oppose an increased rate of immigration, consider illegal immigration to be an important problem, support stricter enforcement of immigration laws, and believe that undocumented workers take jobs no one else wants. Half of the respondents identify illegal immigration as a regional rather than a personal problem. At the same time, the data suggest significant differences in both direction and intensity of attitudes between Mexican Americans of different generations, income, occupational levels, and region. There is general opposition to the requirement of a national identity card, but widespread support for penalizing employers of undocumented workers and for granting amnesty to undocumented workers. These findings allow an examination of the extent to which the Mexican American leadership, which has been overwhelmingly opposed to the Simpson-Mazzoli bill, accurately reflects the views of the Mexican American people. The leadership and the population at large agree on 2 of the 3 issues, amnesty and the national identity card, but disagree on employer sanctions. 1st, it may be that the leadership holds the kinds of jobs for which undocumented workers are unlikely to compete, so they may not feel threatened. 2nd, they may feel that instituting employer sanctions will create incentives for employers to discriminate in their hiring practices against all Latino-looking job applicants. Non-elite Mexican Americans who support employer sanctions may believe that the only way they can compete for jobs is to make it impossible for elites to be hired. Both groups appear to fear that, regardless of the specifics of immigration reform, Mexican Americans are likely to encounter increased discrimination in the job market.

  3. Birthplace, language use, and body size among Mexican American women and men: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Fernandez, Alicia; Thornton, Dorothy; Brindis, Claire

    2011-05-01

    Mexican immigrant status has been associated with decreased obesity, but this pattern may be changing. We draw from 2001-2006 NHANES data on Mexican Americans to examine whether body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference vary by country of birth and among the U.S.-born by language. Among women, U.S.-born Spanish speakers had the highest mean BMI, followed by immigrant women, while U.S.-born English speakers had the lowest mean BMI. Immigrant men had a lower mean BMI than U.S.-born men. These patterns were similar for waist circumference and persisted after adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES) and other covariates. Immigrant women do not appear to be protected against a large body size, compared with immigrant men. Among the U.S.-born, women who retain Spanish are at higher risk for larger body size than exclusive English speakers. Initiatives targeting obesity should address differentials in body size patterns among immigrant and U.S.-born Mexican American men and women.

  4. The process addictions and the new ASAM definition of addiction.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a primary, chronic disease involving brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry; it can lead to relapse, progressive development, and the potential for fatality if not treated. While pathological use of alcohol and, more recently, psychoactive substances have been accepted as addictive diseases, developing brain science has set the stage for inclusion of the process addictions, including food, sex, shopping and gambling problems, in a broader definition of addiction as set forth by the American Society of Addiction Medicine in 2011.

  5. Reducing the health consequences of opioid addiction in primary care.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sarah; Eiserman, Julie; Beletsky, Leo; Stancliff, Sharon; Bruce, R Douglas

    2013-07-01

    Addiction to prescription opioids is prevalent in primary care settings. Increasing prescription opioid use is largely responsible for a parallel increase in overdose nationally. Many patients most at risk for addiction and overdose come into regular contact with primary care providers. Lack of routine addiction screening results in missed treatment opportunities in this setting. We reviewed the literature on screening and brief interventions for addictive disorders in primary care settings, focusing on opioid addiction. Screening and brief interventions can improve health outcomes for chronic illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Similarly, through the use of screening and brief interventions, patients with addiction can achieve improved health outcome. A spectrum of low-threshold care options can reduce the negative health consequences among individuals with opioid addiction. Screening in primary care coupled with short interventions, including motivational interviewing, syringe distribution, naloxone prescription for overdose prevention, and buprenorphine treatment are effective ways to manage addiction and its associated risks and improve health outcomes for individuals with opioid addiction.

  6. Brain Stimulation in Addiction.

    PubMed

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-11-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  7. Food Acculturation Drives Dietary Differences among Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites123

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Hernandez-Barrera, Lucia; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the effects of food acculturation on Mexican Americans’ (MA) diets, taking the Mexican diet as reference. We used nationally representative samples of children (2–11 y) and female adolescents and adults (12–49 y) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and NHANES 1999–2006 to compare the diets of Mexicans (n = 5678), MA born in Mexico (MAMX) (n = 1488), MA born in the United States (MAUS) (n = 3654), and non-Hispanic white Americans (NH-White) (n = 5473). One 24-h diet recall was used to examine the percentage consuming and percentage energy consumed from selected food groups. Most of the food groups analyzed displayed a fairly linear increase or decrease in percent energy/capita intake in this order: Mexican, MAMX, MAUS, NH-White. However, few significant differences were observed among the US subpopulations, especially among MAUS and NH-Whites. Overall, compared to Mexicans, the US subpopulations had greater intakes of saturated fat, sugar, dessert and salty snacks, pizza and French fries, low-fat meat and fish, high-fiber bread, and low-fat milk, as well as decreased intakes of corn tortillas, low-fiber bread, high-fat milk, and Mexican fast food. Furthermore, the patterns were similar in all age groups. Although we found a mix of positive and negative aspects of food acculturation, the overall proportion of energy obtained from unhealthy foods was higher among the US subpopulations. Our findings indicate that within one generation in the US, the influence of the Mexican diet is almost lost. In addition, our results reinforce the need to discourage critical unhealthful components of the American diet among MA. PMID:21880951

  8. Dosage regimes in the prescription of heroin and other narcotics to chronic opioid addicts in Switzerland--Swiss national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gschwend, Patrick; Rehm, Jürgen; Blättler, Richard; Steffen, Thomas; Seidenberg, André; Christen, Stephan; Bürki, Christoph; Gutzwiller, Felix

    2004-01-01

    Within the guidelines of the research programme on medical prescription of narcotics for opioid addicts (PROVE), heroin, morphine, and methadone were prescribed to heavily opioid addicted individuals in Switzerland since 1994. This contribution analyses the course of dose levels during the treatment period. Naturalistic description of consumed dosages per day and month. The study describes the dosages prescribed to all individuals who began outpatient treatment in the PROVE programme in Switzerland between 1994 and 1996. Consumed amount of narcotics per day and the course of dosage of injectable heroin in different treatment regimes. Heroin was the most frequently prescribed narcotic. Of all consumption days, heroin had been applied in 77% as injection and in 9% in a smokeable form. The mean daily dosage was 474 mg for intravenous application and 993 mg for the smokeable form. Second most frequent was the prescription of oral methadone, in most cases in combination with heroin. The mean amount of daily consumption of oral methadone was 53 mg. There were dosage differences between treatment regimes. During the course of treatment the mean dosage for injectable heroin per day decreased significantly and, depending on the treatment regime, almost linearly. The significance of heroin dosages in heroin-assisted therapy for treatment outcome should be further explored, especially in the light of the markedly higher dosages in Switzerland compared to the UK. During the treatment period, dosages did not increase but generally decreased, indicating no further increase in tolerance. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. The Mexican American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  10. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  11. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  12. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addiction treatments. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (n = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program.

  13. An International Student's Guide to Mexican Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Alan, Ed.; Salazar, Sylvia Ortega, Ed.

    This guide for students interested in studying at Mexican universities covers 50 universities including all state universities, the National University of Mexico, as well as a representative selection of the leading private universities. Introductory material provides a brief history of Mexico, a discussion of differences from and similarities to…

  14. An International Student's Guide to Mexican Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Alan, Ed.; Salazar, Sylvia Ortega, Ed.

    This guide for students interested in studying at Mexican universities covers 50 universities including all state universities, the National University of Mexico, as well as a representative selection of the leading private universities. Introductory material provides a brief history of Mexico, a discussion of differences from and similarities to…

  15. Mexican Trends: The Next Five Years,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-12

    administration/- ENA/Paris, background in SHCP, IMSS , CONASUPO, Diconsa, SPP, father was governor of Hidalgo) Secretary General: Deputy Irma CUE Sarquis (b...IEPES - Institute for Social, Political, & Economic Studies IMSS - Mexican Social Security Institute NYU - New York University PAN - National Action

  16. [Online addictive disease].

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality.

  17. Heroin addiction and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bashore, R A; Ketchum, J S; Staisch, K J; Barrett, C T; Zimmermann, E G

    1981-06-01

    Pregnant heroin addicts tend to be younger than nonaddicted pregnant patients, unmarried or separated from spouses, and a disproportionately large number are members of minority ethnic groups. Heroin addiction during pregnancy is associated with several significant medical and obstetrical complications and may result in both acute and chronic abnormalities in neonates. Malnutrition, venereal disease, hepatitis, pulmonary complications, preeclampsia and third-trimester bleeding are the most common maternal complications, while fetal death, intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity and withdrawal symptoms affect the fetus and neonate. There is controversy about treating addicts with methadone during pregnancy. The findings of studies in animals suggest that there may be a long-lasting drug-induced syndrome, characterized by growth retardation, delayed motor development and behavior abnormalities in offspring of heroin-addicted or methadone-treated mothers.

  18. The Treatment of Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, P. A. L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes sociological and medical treatment appropriate to young drug experimenters and addicts. Discusses role of teachers, probation officers, school medical services, and general practitioners. Indicates necessity for long treatment period. Considers whether dependence is a disease of delinquent behavior. (AL)

  19. Acupuncture and addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Moner, S E

    1996-01-01

    Acupuncture has been advocated as a safe effective treatment for addictive diseases. This review highlights clinical trials using acupuncture in drug treatment. Clinical trials selected were those conducted for efficacy of acupuncture treatment with opiate, alcohol, cocaine and nicotine dependence.

  20. Individual vulnerability to addiction.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, Joel; Le Moal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The process of addiction is often studied in the neurosciences as a function of the quantity or type of substance consumed, with the ultimate goal of counteracting these effects by other pharmacological means. However, epidemiology and clinical research have extensively demonstrated that most individuals who use drugs do not develop dependence. Numerous factors may explain an individual's propensity to addiction. This review discusses these paradigms and summarizes research on individual differences that encompass cultural and sociodemographic factors, psychiatric or psychological vulnerability, and biological or genetic propensity to addiction. Although these different factors often interact in the expression of vulnerable phenotypes, it is possible to alter or control specific sources of vulnerability. For these reasons, integrating individual vulnerability to addiction across different research disciplines is likely to provide the greatest advances for intervention and prevention efforts. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Genome-wide significant loci for addiction and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, K.; Almasy, L.; Knowles, E.E.M.; Kent, J.W.; Curran, J.E.; Dyer, T.D.; Göring, H.H.H.; Olvera, R.L.; Fox, P.T.; Pearlson, G.D.; Krystal, J.H.; Duggirala, R.; Blangero, J.; Glahn, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity is common among individuals with addictive disorders, with patients frequently suffering from anxiety disorders. While the genetic architecture of comorbid addictive and anxiety disorders remains unclear, elucidating the genes involved could provide important insights into the underlying etiology. Methods Here we examine a sample of 1284 Mexican-Americans from randomly selected extended pedigrees. Variance decomposition methods were used to examine the role of genetics in addiction phenotypes (lifetime history of alcohol dependence, drug dependence or chronic smoking) and various forms of clinically relevant anxiety. Genome-wide univariate and bivariate linkage scans were conducted to localize the chromosomal regions influencing these traits. Results Addiction phenotypes and anxiety were shown to be heritable and univariate genome-wide linkage scans revealed significant quantitative trait loci for drug dependence (14q13.2–q21.2, LOD = 3.322) and a broad anxiety phenotype (12q24.32–q24.33, LOD = 2.918). Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anxiety and each of the addiction subtypes (ρg = 0.550–0.655) and further investigation with bivariate linkage analyses identified significant pleiotropic signals for alcohol dependence-anxiety (9q33.1–q33.2, LOD = 3.054) and drug dependence-anxiety (18p11.23–p11.22, LOD = 3.425). Conclusions This study confirms the shared genetic underpinnings of addiction and anxiety and identifies genomic loci involved in the etiology of these comorbid disorders. The linkage signal for anxiety on 12q24 spans the location of TMEM132D, an emerging gene of interest from previous GWAS of anxiety traits, whilst the bivariate linkage signal identified for anxiety-alcohol on 9q33 peak coincides with a region where rare CNVs have been associated with psychiatric disorders. Other signals identified implicate novel regions of the genome in addiction genetics. PMID:27318301

  2. A commentary on the "eating addiction" versus "food addiction" perspectives on addictive-like food consumption.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Erica M; Potenza, Marc N; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-10-27

    The food addiction construct posits that vulnerable individuals may experience an addictive-like response to certain foods, such as those high in fat and refined carbohydrates. Recently, an alternative model to food addiction was proposed, suggesting that the act of eating may be a behavioral addiction that can trigger an addictive-like response in susceptible individuals. One major rationale for the eating addiction framework is that the assessment of food addiction is based on behavioral indicators, such as consuming greater quantities of food than intended and eating certain foods despite negative consequences. It is also suggested that the lack of investigation into which foods and food attributes (e.g., sugar) may have an addictive potential is evidence that food addiction does not parallel a substance-based addiction and more closely resembles a behavioral addiction. The present paper provides a commentary suggesting that the substance-based, food-addiction framework is more appropriate than the behavioral-addiction, eating-addiction perspective to conceptualize addictive-like food consumption. In order to illustrate this point, this manuscript will discuss behavioral components characteristic of all substance-use disorders, preliminary evidence to suggest that all foods are not equally associated with addictive-like eating, and key differences between the hypothesized eating addiction phenotype and the only existing behavioral addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder. Further, this paper will consider implications of applying an addiction label to food versus eating and suggest future research directions to evaluate whether food addiction is a valid and clinically useful construct.

  3. [Involuntary admission of addict during early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hondius, Adger J K; Stikker, Tineke E; Wennink, J M B Hanneke; Honig, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old cocaine-dependent woman was 16 weeks pregnant. Because of possible endangerment of the fetus, an involuntary provisional admission was authorized. Of particular interest is the application of the Dutch Act on Formal Admissions to Psychiatric Hospitals for the primary diagnosis 'addiction' and the fact that the fetus was regarded as a legal 'other'. In severe cases of addiction combined with pregnancy an earlier intervention is needed and arrangement of accelerated legal custody of the newborn before birth should be considered. For the protection of the unborn, we advocate a stricter application of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Information for addicted women with preconception counselling can help prevent a compulsory admission.

  4. Biological substrates of addiction.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Max E; Grueter, Carrie A; Grueter, Brad A

    2014-03-01

    This review is an introduction to addiction, the reward circuitry, and laboratory addiction models. Addiction is a chronic disease hallmarked by a state of compulsive drug seeking that persists despite negative consequences. Most of the advances in addiction research have centered on the canonical and contemporary drugs of abuse; however, addictions to other activities and stimuli also exist. Substances of abuse have the potential to induce long-lasting changes in the brain at the behavioral, circuit, and synaptic levels. Addiction-related behavioral changes involve initiation, escalation, and obsession to drug seeking and much of the current research is focused on mapping these manifestations to specific neural pathways. Drug abuse is well known to recruit components of the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. In addition, altered function of a wide variety of brain regions is tightly associated with specific manifestations of drug abuse. These regions peripheral to the mesolimbic pathway likely play a role in specific observed comorbidities and endophenotypes that can facilitate, or be caused by, substance abuse. Alterations in synaptic structure, function, and connectivity, as well as epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie the pathologies of addiction. In preclinical models, these persistent changes are studied at the levels of molecular pharmacology and biochemistry, ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiology, radiography, and behavior. Coordinating research efforts across these disciplines and examining cell type- and circuit-specific phenomena are crucial components for translating preclinical findings to viable medical interventions that effectively treat addiction and related disorders. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:151-171. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1273 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the

  5. Biological substrates of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Max E.; Grueter, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    This review is an introduction to addiction, the reward circuitry, and laboratory addiction models. Addiction is a chronic disease hallmarked by a state of compulsive drug seeking that persists despite negative consequences. Most of the advances in addiction research have centered on the canonical and contemporary drugs of abuse, however, addictions to other activities and stimuli also exist. Substances of abuse have the potential to induce long-lasting changes in the brain at the behavioral, circuit and synaptic levels. Addiction-related behavioral changes involve initiation, escalation and obsession to drug seeking and much of the current research is focused on mapping these manifestations to specific neural pathways. Drug abuse is well known to recruit components of the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. In addition, altered function of a wide variety of brain regions is tightly associated with specific manifestations of drug abuse. These regions peripheral to the mesolimbic pathway likely play a role in specific observed comorbidities and endophenotypes that can facilitate, or be caused by, substance abuse. Alterations in synaptic structure, function and connectivity, as well as epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie the pathologies of addiction. In preclinical models, these persistent changes are studied at the levels of molecular pharmacology and biochemistry, ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiology, radiography and behavior. Coordinating research efforts across these disciplines and examining cell type- and circuit-specific phenomena are crucial components for translating preclinical findings to viable medical interventions that effectively treat addiction and related disorders. PMID:24999377

  6. [Neurobiology of addictive behavior].

    PubMed

    Ivlieva, N Iu

    2011-01-01

    Addictive behavior developes after repeated substance use and it typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to the drug use than to other activities. Relapse, the resumption of drug taking after periods of abstinence, remains the major problem for the treatment of addiction. The process of drug addiction shares striking commonalities with neural plasticity associated with natural reward learning and memory and is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. The switch from controlled to compulsive drug seeking represents a transition at the neural level from prefrontal cortical to striatal control. Current neurophysiologic evidence suggests that the development of addiction is to some extent due to neurochemical stimulation of the midbrain dopaminergic system that is traditionally considered as a 'common neural currency' for rewards of most kinds. Addictions are a result of the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. They are characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity as well as polygenicity. Environmental factors are crucial in addiction vulnerability and resistese too.

  7. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  8. Specialized training on addictions for physicians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tontchev, Gramen V; Housel, Timothy R; Callahan, James F; Kunz, Kevin B; Miller, Michael M; Blondell, Richard D

    2011-04-01

    In the United States accredited residency programs in addiction exist only for psychiatrists specializing in addiction psychiatry (ADP); nonpsychiatrists seeking training in addiction medicine (ADM) can train in nonaccredited "fellowships," or can receive training in some ADP programs, only to not be granted a certificate of completion of accredited training. Information about ADP residency programs has been tabulated, but it is not available for ADM fellowships. The authors conducted a national survey to compile information about the location, structure, curriculum, and other characteristics of active ADM fellowships. Of the 40 accredited ADP residency programs, 7 offered training in addiction to nonpsychiatrists. The authors identified 14 nonaccredited ADM fellowships. In 2009 and 2010, there were approximately 15 nonpsychiatrists in ADP programs and 25 in ADM fellowships. Clinical experiences included inpatient services, outpatient treatment services such as methadone maintenance or buprenorphine maintenance, and providing addiction consult services. The most common academic activities included weekly lectures and the teaching of medical students.

  9. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) of the Mexican Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Solis-Marín, Francisco A; Durán-González, Alicia; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Buitrón Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Torres-Vega, Juan

    2005-12-01

    A systematic list of the echinoderms of the Mexican Caribbean based on museum specimens of the Colección Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. is presented. This list reveals an important echinoderm biodiversity in the Mexican Caribbean, where five of the six echinoderm classes are represented. A total of 178 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 113 genera, 51 families and 22 orders. 30 new records for the Mexican Caribbean are presents: Crínoidea (three), Asteroidea (two), Ophiuroidea (eleven), Echinoidea (one), Holothuroidea (thirteen).

  10. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Toxicological Evaluations of Potential Medications to Treat Drug Addiction... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes...

  11. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    PubMed

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R

    1980-08-01

    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  12. Interviews with Mexican midwives.

    PubMed

    Bortin, S

    1993-01-01

    Mexican society contains a variety of indigenous cultures as well as European influences. Most babies in rural areas are delivered by midwives. Traditional midwives, government-trained and empirical midwives, nurse-midwives, and foreign-trained midwives all practice in Mexico. Nurse-midwives in one project are demonstrating their ability to meet the needs of urban childbearing women. A midwifery organization is developing under the leadership of midwives influenced by the contemporary midwifery movement in the United States. In this article, some traditional Mexican midwifery practices are discussed and interviews with several different Mexican midwives from a variety of backgrounds are presented.

  13. Development of Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:24848006

  14. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  15. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R

    2012-10-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental factors, including stress responsivity, addict mindset, and social setting. Specific gene variants, including variants encoding pharmacological target proteins or genes mediating neuroadaptations, also modify vulnerability at particular stages of addiction. Greater understanding of these interacting factors through laboratory-based and translational studies have the potential to optimize early interventions for the therapy of chronic addictive diseases and to reduce the burden of relapse. Here, we review the molecular neurobiology and genetics of opiate addiction, including heroin and prescription opioids, and cocaine addiction.

  17. For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

  18. For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

  19. The Addict in Us all

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Brendan; Holton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1–3) entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these “incentive salience” desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account, the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents – though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways in which it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action. PMID:25346699

  20. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  1. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Ashby, C.R. Jr.

    2000-05-02

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  2. Buprenorphine for opioid addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Mooney, Larissa; Torrington, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist of the µ-receptor, and is used as a daily dose sublingual tablet or filmstrip for managing opioid addiction. In the USA, the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 made buprenorphine the only opioid medication for opioid addiction that can be prescribed in an office-based setting. Owing to its high affinity for the µ-receptor, buprenorphine inhibits the reinforcing effect of exogenous opioids. The ceiling effect of buprenorphine's µ-agonist activity reduces the potential for drug overdose and confers low toxicity even at high doses. Buprenorphine pharmacotherapy has proven to be a treatment approach that supports recovery from addiction while reducing or curtailing the use of opioids. This article examines buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction, focusing on the situation in the USA, and is based on a review of pertinent literature, and the authors’ research and clinical experience. The references in this paper were chosen according to the authors’ judgment of quality and relevance, and with respect to their familiarity and involvement in related research. PMID:24654720

  3. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  4. Addiction, the Addict, and Career: Considerations for the Employment Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Matthew D.

    2006-01-01

    Employment counselors have been resistant to working with persons in recovery from addiction except under the strictest of criteria. This article examines the relationship between this resistance and the concepts of addiction and addict. Following this is an examination of substance abuse recovery and practical suggestions on incorporating…

  5. The Dreams of Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Maryanne

    1972-01-01

    Few heroin addicts get high'' in their dreams. An exploration of the reasons for this failure provides some clues to the conflicts and other problems that retard an addict's progress in therapy. (Author)

  6. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Nadia S.

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early Ife stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors addiction thus plays an important role in the understanding of processes of addiction and origins of differential vulnerabilities and treatment responses. PMID:18286803

  7. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Nadia S

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early life stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors in addiction thus plays an important role in the understanding of processes of addiction and origins of differential vulnerabilities and treatment responses.

  8. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  9. Parental alcoholism in opioid addicts.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T R; Rounsaville, B J; Kleber, H D

    1985-08-01

    Using the family history method, the authors examined the relationships of parental alcoholism to alcoholism, depression, and antisocial personality disorder among 638 opioid addicts. It was concluded that, compared to addicts without parental alcoholism; addicts with parental alcoholism were more frequently concurrent alcoholics; addicts with parental alcoholism not only had alcoholism more often, but also depression and antisocial personality disorder; among alcoholic addicts, those with parental alcoholism had more severe problems with alcohol abuse; and addicts with parental alcoholism reported more disruptive childhood events. The independent additive effects of disruptive childhood events and parental alcoholism on the severity of addict disorders including alcoholism were also examined. Although alcoholic addicts had experienced more disruptive childhood events than nonalcoholic addicts, these events did not substantially contribute to increasing the severity of alcohol-related problems. Similar results were obtained for depression and antisocial behaviors in these addicts. The conclusions concerning addicts supported some of those described for "familial alcoholism" among nonaddict alcoholics, but other characteristics of alcoholics with familial alcoholism were not found among addicts.

  10. Addicts - Everything but Human Beings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldorf, Dan; Reinarman, Craig

    1975-01-01

    Popular theories of drug addiction are detailed and found wanting. Naturalistic studies of addicts in their own environments are reviewed in order to demonstrate that addicts do not fit these theories which are supposed to explain them. A plea is made to pay more attention to these ethnographic studies, if more effective and humane laws and social…

  11. Addicts - Everything but Human Beings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldorf, Dan; Reinarman, Craig

    1975-01-01

    Popular theories of drug addiction are detailed and found wanting. Naturalistic studies of addicts in their own environments are reviewed in order to demonstrate that addicts do not fit these theories which are supposed to explain them. A plea is made to pay more attention to these ethnographic studies, if more effective and humane laws and social…

  12. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  13. Attitudes of Former Drug Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudouris, James

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of addicts (N=222) and their own appraisal of which treatment modality they found most successful based upon their own experiences are of primary importance in prescribing a treatment for the addict. For the long-term addict continually in and out of prisons, perhaps methadone maintenance is the solution. (Author)

  14. Psychostimulant addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2014-12-01

    Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. In this paper, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  15. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-10-01

    Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.

  16. Behavioral Health Insurance Parity: Does Oregon’s Experience Presage the National Experience with the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act?

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, K. John; Gast, Samuel H.N.; Ridgely, M. Susan; Wallace, Neal; Jacuzzi, Natalie; Rieckmann, Traci; McFarland, Bentson H.; McCarty, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act prohibits commercial group health plans from imposing spending and visit limitations for mental health and substance abuse services that are not imposed on medical-surgical benefits. Controversially, the Act also restricts the use of managed care tools that apply to the behavioral health benefit in ways that differ from their application to the medical-surgical benefit. The only precedent for this approach is Oregon’s state parity law, implemented in 2007. The goal of this study is to estimate the effect of Oregon’s parity law on expenditures for mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Methods We compared expenditures for individuals in four Oregon commercial plans from 2005 through 2008 to a matched group of commercially insured individuals in Oregon who were exempt from parity. Using a difference-in-differences analysis, we analyzed the effect of comprehensive parity on spending for mental health and substance abuse services. Results Increases in spending on mental health and substance abuse services following Oregon’s parity law were due almost entirely to a general trend observed among individuals with and without parity. Expenditures per enrollee for mental health and substance abuse services attributable to parity were positive but did not differ significantly from zero in any of the four plans (range: +$12.15 to +$25.49, p>0.05 for each comparison). Conclusion Behavioral health insurance parity that places restrictions on how plans manage mental health and substance abuse services can improve insurance protections without substantial increases in total costs. PMID:21890792

  17. Mexican Intellectuals' Perceptions of Mexican Americans and Chicanos, 1920-Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold del Castillo, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Mexican public opinion about emigrants to the United States has gradually changed from that of "cultural traitors." The Mexican government has increasingly come to see Chicano political leaders as important to Mexico's relationship with the United States, while Mexican intellectuals increasingly regard Chicano academics as their allies…

  18. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment.

  19. Opioid addiction in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shainker, Scott A; Saia, Kelley; Lee-Parritz, Aviva

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the incidence, risks, pregnancy complications, and maintenance options for treatment of opioid addiction in pregnancy. Opioid dependence in pregnancy carries clear identifiable maternal and fetal risk. Providing care for patients with dependence is best done in a multidisciplinary care model addressing the particular needs of this population. There are limited data on maternal detoxification, with data still emerging surrounding the safety profile of this practice. Historically, methadone has been the recommended maintenance treatment; however, recent data on buprenorphine identify this as a safe and effective option. The majority of births from women with opioid dependence result in neonatal abstinence syndrome requiring prolonged neonatal hospitalization. Intrapartum pain management should not differ from the general obstetric population. Postpartum pain is magnified in this population, and particular attention should be focused on this issue. Breast-feeding is recommended regardless of maintenance dose, unless other conditions restricting breast-feeding are present. Comprehensive postpartum care and transition of care to addiction specialists are highly recommended. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians, addiction specialists. After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to assess the treatment options available to patients with opioid addiction during pregnancy, compare the risk/safety profiles of methadone and buprenorphine, and evaluate the recommendations and current data surrounding breast-feeding while on opioid maintenance treatment.

  20. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  1. Religion and addiction.

    PubMed

    Gostečnik, Christian; Cvetek, Mateja; Poljak, Saša; Repič, Tanja; Cvetek, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Religion with its rituals can become an object of addiction, especially when a child while growing up experiences neglect and abuse. It is also very common that such individuals transfer their feelings of anger, rage and sometimes even true hatred to God. Then God becomes the substitute for their displaced vengeance (upon those who abused them as children).

  2. Addicted to Expectations? Conference!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Mary

    Whether teaching incoming students or training faculty in other disciplines, writing instructors often form unrealistic expectations about goals and skills of students and colleagues, which (like chemical addictions) predictably recur each semester as though they had never occurred before. For effective instruction, it is important that…

  3. Pharmacotherapy of addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen; Peselow, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Substance use disorders are highly prevalent in the United States and cause considerable damage to our society. They are underrecognized and undertreated despite a vast body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of treatment using both psychosocial and psychopharmacological modalities. For the last decade, research and progress into the biological basis of the addictive process has led to a rapidly growing number of pharmacological agents used to interrupt the addictive process at its various stages such as the initiation of substance abuse, the transition from abuse to dependence, and the prevention of drug reinstatement or relapse. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications exist for nicotine, alcohol, and opioid use disorders, and progress is being made to develop agents for stimulant use disorders. Regarding nicotine use disorders, nicotine replacement therapies,bupropion and varenicline, have Food and Drug Administration approval, and future options exist with endocannabinoid antagonists and immune therapy. Aversive agents, opiate antagonists, and glutamate based interventions are currently approved to treat alcohol use disorders with future promise with GABAergic, serotonergic, and endocannabinoid system agents. Opiate addiction is treated by approved agonist and antagonist mu-opioid medications with the future potential for agents that can modulate the stress systems and the iboga alkaloids. Although no pharmacotherapies are currently approved for cocaine addiction, promising lines of research include agents that affect dopaminergic, GABAergic, serotonergic,and glutamatergic systems as well as the promise for immune therapies.

  4. Interoception and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Martin P; Stewart, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an "embodied" experience of drug uses together with the individual's predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  5. Interoception and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Stewart, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an “embodied” experience of drug uses together with the individual’s predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. PMID:23855999

  6. [The new types of addiction].

    PubMed

    Semaille, P

    2009-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by the inability to control his consumption of product or control certain behaviors, and the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of its adverse effects. Addictions to substances like heroin, cocaine, etc., are well known. But other substances potentially addictive are getting more common in Belgium: MDMA, GHB / GBL, Cristal, etc. The existence of addictions without substance (called also behavioral addiction) is well recognized now: gambling addiction seems to be the most common and has been recognized as a disease by WHO, but we can also observe cyberaddiction, addiction to sex, workalholic, addiction to shopping, etc. The screening of poly-addiction or to one substance or one behavior should be systematized in the history of every patient. This screening should be facilitated through the development and validation of a cross scale. Particular attention will be paid to certain groups, both in primary prevention and screening: men, adolescents and young adults, university students or high schools, clubbers, sporting people, prisoners, ethnic minorities, people with mental disorders like depression. Primary care workers, and especially general practitioners, are at the first place to detect those different forms of addiction, can affort appropriate care according to patient's characteristics and type addiction, and to identify high-risk situations for relapse.

  7. Demythologizing the Mexican American Father

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This review presents recent studies on Mexican American fathers in the United Sates to provide researchers with an understanding of contemporary fatherhood of Mexican American individuals. It describes the myths that create methodological and conceptual problems in conducting research studies to characterize Mexican American fathers. It also…

  8. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  9. Patterns of contraceptive use among Mexican-origin women

    PubMed Central

    White, Kari L.; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mexican women in the United States (US) have higher rates of fertility compared to other ethnic groups and women in Mexico. Whether variation in women’s access to family planning services or patterns of contraceptive use contributes to this higher fertility has received little attention. OBJECTIVE We explore Mexican women’s contraceptive use, taking into account women’s place in the reproductive life course. METHODS Using nationally representative samples from the US (National Survey of Family Growth) and Mexico (Encuesta National de la Dinámica Demográfica), we compared the parity-specific frequency of contraceptive use and fertility intentions for non-migrant women, foreign-born Mexicans in the US, US-born Mexicans, and whites. RESULTS Mexican women in the US were less likely to use IUDs and more likely to use hormonal contraception than women in Mexico. Female sterilization was the most common method among higher parity women in both the US and Mexico, however, foreign-born Mexicans were less likely to be sterilized, and the least likely to use any permanent contraceptive method. Although foreign-born Mexicans were slightly less likely to report that they did not want more children, differences in method use remained after controlling for women’s fertility intentions. CONCLUSION At all parities, foreign-born Mexicans used less effective methods. These findings suggest that varying access to family planning services may contribute to variation in women’s contraceptive use. COMMENTS Future studies are needed to clarify the extent to which disparities in fertility result from differences in contraceptive access. PMID:26146485

  10. Community-Based Addiction Treatment Staff Attitudes about the Usefulness of Evidence-Based Addiction Treatment and CBO Organizational Linkages to Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena; Krull, Ivy; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This national study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations' (CBOs) implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program Directors' (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518) attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that identical…

  11. Community-Based Addiction Treatment Staff Attitudes about the Usefulness of Evidence-Based Addiction Treatment and CBO Organizational Linkages to Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena; Krull, Ivy; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This national study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations' (CBOs) implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program Directors' (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518) attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that identical…

  12. [Drug-addicted mothers].

    PubMed

    Correia, M A; Oliveria, A P; Almeida, J P; Sing, C K; Nobrega, J D

    1995-01-01

    Drug addiction in Portuguese women has greatly increased recently and affects women of child-bearing age. The lack of scientific knowledge of the influence of drug addiction on pregnancy led us to create a model to approach the problem. With that purpose, a Clinic for Pregnant Drug Addicts was opened in the Alfredo da Costa Maternity Hospital in 1989, intended to set up a special permanent team to provide personalized pre-natal care. This clinic should be considered an integral part of multi-disciplinary action covering obstetrics, pediatrics, anesthesiology, nursing, clinical psychology and social assistance. The evolution of 164 pregnant women was monitored from October 1989 to December 1992, urine and amniotic fluid was analysed in 51 women. Due to the difficulty in applying standard criteria to the pregnancies observed, three levels of pre-natal care for the aforementioned 51 pregnant women, who are the object of this study, are proposed. The pre-natal observation of 164 pregnant drug addicts revealed that 74% were aged from 20 to 29 years, 49% had completed compulsory education, 59% were unemployed, 61% were unmarried and 82% had not planned their baby and had attended their first pre-natal clinic in the 19th week of pregnancy. The women's partners were drug addicts in 80% of cases. Their toxicological history revealed that 29% of them began taking drugs between the ages of 11 and 15, cannabis-based products being the first drug in 67% and opium-based in 28% of cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Neuroscience exposure and perceptions of client responsibility among addictions counselors.

    PubMed

    Steenbergh, Timothy A; Runyan, Jason D; Daugherty, Douglas A; Winger, Joseph G

    2012-06-01

    Members of the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors (n = 231) participated in a survey concerning their view of the role of personal responsibility in addictions treatment and its relation to their exposure to neuroscience (i.e., the amount to which members considered themselves familiar with current neuroscience research). We used the two-dimensional model of responsibility (Responsible/not responsible for development × Responsible/not responsible for recovery) proposed by P. Brickman et al. (1982) to guide our assessment of responsibility, thus inquiring about counselors' views of clients' responsibility for both the development of a substance-related addiction and its resolution. Findings suggest that counselors rate biological factors as most influential in the development of an addiction and assign clients less personal responsibility for the development of an addiction than for recovery from an addiction. Counselors' level of neuroscience exposure was negatively correlated with their ratings of client responsibility for the development of an addiction but positively correlated to ratings of client responsibility for recovery. This suggests that counselors are integrating neuroscientific findings with what is learned from other modes of enquiry in a way that diminishes the view that clients are responsible for addiction development but accentuates the view that clients are responsible for recovery. We explore reasons for why this is and why this approach may be beneficial.

  14. Online video game addiction: identification of addicted adolescent gamers.

    PubMed

    Van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Vermulst, Ad A; Van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-01-01

    To provide empirical data-driven identification of a group of addicted online gamers. Repeated cross-sectional survey study, comprising a longitudinal cohort, conducted in 2008 and 2009. Secondary schools in the Netherlands.   Two large samples of Dutch schoolchildren (aged 13-16 years). Compulsive internet use scale, weekly hours of online gaming and psychosocial variables. This study confirms the existence of a small group of addicted online gamers (3%), representing about 1.5% of all children aged 13-16 years in the Netherlands. Although these gamers report addiction-like problems, relationships with decreased psychosocial health were less evident. The identification of a small group of addicted online gamers supports efforts to develop and validate questionnaire scales aimed at measuring the phenomenon of online video game addiction. The findings contribute to the discussion on the inclusion of non-substance addictions in the proposed unified concept of 'Addiction and Related Disorders' for the DSM-V by providing indirect identification and validation of a group of suspected online video game addicts. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients in Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Liya; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Eldridge, Alison L.; Villalpando-Carrión, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Food sources of nutrients in Mexican children are not well known. To fill the knowledge gap, dietary intake was assessed in 2057 children using a 24-h dietary recall. All reported foods and beverages were assigned to one of 76 food groups. Percent contribution of each food group to nutrient intake was estimated for four age groups: 0–5.9, 6–11.9, 12–23.9, and 24–47.9 months. Breast milk, infant formula, and cow’s milk were the top sources of energy and nutrients, especially in younger groups. Among infants aged 6–11.9 months, the top food sources of energy included soups and stews, cookies, fruit, tortillas, eggs and egg dishes, and traditional beverages. The same foods plus sweetened breads, dried beans, and sandwiches and tortas were consumed as the top sources of energy among toddlers and young children. Milk, soups, and stews were the top contributors for all nutrients and tortillas, eggs, and egg dishes were among the top contributors for iron and zinc. This study showed that low nutrient-dense cookies, sweetened breads, and traditional beverages were among the core foods consumed early in life in Mexico. This compromises the intake of more nutritious foods such as vegetables and fortified cereals and increases the risk of obesity. PMID:28505084

  16. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients in Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Denney, Liya; Afeiche, Myriam C; Eldridge, Alison L; Villalpando-Carrión, Salvador

    2017-05-13

    Food sources of nutrients in Mexican children are not well known. To fill the knowledge gap, dietary intake was assessed in 2057 children using a 24-hour dietary recall. All reported foods and beverages were assigned to one of 76 food groups. Percent contribution of each food group to nutrient intake was estimated for four age groups: 0-5.9, 6-11.9, 12-23.9, and 24-47.9 months. Breast milk, infant formula, and cow's milk were the top sources of energy and nutrients, especially in younger groups. Among infants aged 6-11.9 months, the top food sources of energy included soups and stews, cookies, fruit, tortillas, eggs and egg dishes, and traditional beverages. The same foods plus sweetened breads, dried beans, and sandwiches and tortas were consumed as the top sources of energy among toddlers and young children. Milk, soups, and stews were the top contributors for all nutrients and tortillas, eggs, and egg dishes were among the top contributors for iron and zinc. This study showed that low nutrient-dense cookies, sweetened breads, and traditional beverages were among the core foods consumed early in life in Mexico. This compromises the intake of more nutritious foods such as vegetables and fortified cereals and increases the risk of obesity.

  17. Socioeconomic differences in obesity among Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Heidi Ullmann, S; Buttenheim, Alison M; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Wong, Rebeca

    2011-06-01

    We investigate socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity in Mexico. Three questions are addressed. First, what is the social patterning of obesity among Mexican adolescents? Second, what are the separate and joint associations of maternal and paternal education with adolescent obesity net of household wealth? Third, are there differences in socioeconomic status (SES) gradients among Mexican boys and girls, rural residents and non-rural residents? Using data from the Mexican National Health Survey 2000 we examined the slope and direction of the association between SES and adolescent obesity. We also estimated models for sub-populations to examine differences in the social gradients in obesity by sex and non-rural residence. We find that household economic status (asset ownership and housing quality) is positively associated with adolescent obesity. High paternal education is related to lower obesity risk, whereas the association between maternal education and obesity is positive, but not always significant. The household wealth components of SES appear to predispose Mexican adolescents to higher obesity risk. The effects of parental education are more complex. These findings have important policy implications in Mexico and the United States.

  18. Socioeconomic differences in obesity among Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    ULLMANN, S. HEIDI; BUTTENHEIM, ALISON M.; GOLDMAN, NOREEN; PEBLEY, ANNE R.; WONG, REBECA

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigate socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity in Mexico. Three questions are addressed. First, what is the social patterning of obesity among Mexican adolescents? Second, what are the separate and joint associations of maternal and paternal education with adolescent obesity net of household wealth? Third, are there differences in socioeconomic status (SES) gradients among Mexican boys and girls, rural residents and non-rural residents? Methods Using data from the Mexican National Health Survey 2000 we examined the slope and direction of the association between SES and adolescent obesity. We also estimated models for sub-populations to examine differences in the social gradients in obesity by sex and non-rural residence. Results We find that household economic status (asset ownership and housing quality) is positively associated with adolescent obesity. High paternal education is related to lower obesity risk, whereas the association between maternal education and obesity is positive, but not always significant. Conclusion The household wealth components of SES appear to predispose Mexican adolescents to higher obesity risk. The effects of parental education are more complex. These findings have important policy implications in Mexico and the United States. PMID:20883181

  19. The Prevalence of Hypertension in Older Mexicans and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Eschbach, Karl A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Design Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician diagnosed hypertension were conducted using the Hispanic EPESE (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS- 70 years and older) datasets. Setting Five Southwestern States of Texas, Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico in the United States. Participants Older Mexican and Mexican Americans ages 70 and over living in the United States and Mexico. Main Outcome Measures Physician diagnosed hypertension. Results Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women, who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico, have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, obesity, and smoking, older Mexican and Mexican American women who have migrated or immigrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conclusions Gender differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:18785442

  20. The Exclusion of Nicotine: Closing the Gap in Addiction Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a complex brain disease with frequently overlapping expressions involving nicotine, alcohol, and other drugs. Yet current health care practices, public policies, and national treatment data too often exclude nicotine or address its use as completely separate from other forms of substance use and addiction, compromising patients’ health and incurring unnecessary health care costs. Effective prevention and treatment requires the inclusion of nicotine in a comprehensive approach addressing all manifestations of addiction within health care policy and practice. PMID:23763410

  1. Neighbourhood ethnic composition and diet among Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Ju, Hyunsu; Eschbach, Karl; Kuo, Yang-Fang; Gaadwin, James S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We explore the association between a neighbourhood's ethnic composition and the foods and nutrients consumed by Mexican-Americans. Design Cross-sectional survey of a large national sample. from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94), was linked to the 1990 Census. The outcomes were food frequencies and serum levels of micronutrients. The variable of interest was percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level. Setting United States. Subjects A total of 5306 Mexican-American men and women aged 17-90 years. Results Increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with less consumption of fruits, carrots, spinach/greens and broccoli and with lower serum levels of Se, Iycopene, α-carotene, vitamin C and folate. By conrrast, increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with more consumption of corn, tomatoes, hot red chilli peppers and legumes such as beans, lentils or chickpeas. Conclusions An increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with less consumption of selective foods (e.g. some fruits, broccoli) and low levels of serum Se or vitamin C, but it was associated with more consumption of other foods (e.g. legumes, tomatoes, corn products) that may have positive effects on health in this population. PMID:19254428

  2. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blending addiction research and practice: strategies for technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Condon, Timothy P; Miner, Lucinda L; Balmer, Curtis W; Pintello, Denise

    2008-09-01

    Consistent with traditional conceptions of technology transfer, efforts to translate substance abuse and addiction research into treatment practice have typically relied on the passive dissemination of research findings. The large gap between addiction research and practice, however, indicates that there are many barriers to successful technology transfer and that dissemination alone is not sufficient to produce lasting changes in addiction treatment. To accelerate the translation of research into practice, the National Institute on Drug Abuse launched the Blending Initiative in 2001. In part a collaboration with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration/Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's Addiction Technology Transfer Center program, this initiative aims to improve the development, effectiveness, and usability of evidence-based practices and reduce the obstacles to their timely adoption and implementation.

  4. Scientific Overview: 2013 BBC Plenary Symposium on Tobacco Addiction

    PubMed Central

    De Biasi, M.; McLaughlin, I.; Perez, E.E.; Crooks, P.A.; Dwoskin, L.P.; Bardo, M.T.; Pentel, P.R.; Hatsukami, D.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine dependence plays a critical role in addiction to tobacco products, and thus contributes to a variety of devastating tobacco-related diseases (SGR 2014). Annual costs associated with smoking in the US are estimated to be between $289 and $333 billion. Effective interventions for nicotine dependence, especially in smokers, are a critical barrier to the eradication of tobacco-related diseases. This overview highlights research presented at the Plenary Symposium of Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference (BBC), hosted by the UT Health Science Center San Antonio, on March 9–10, 2013. The Plenary Symposium focused on tobacco addiction, and covered topics ranging from basic science to national policy. As in previous years, the meeting brought together globally-renowned scientists, graduate student recruits, and young scientists from underrepresented populations in Texas and other states with the goal of fostering interest in drug addiction research in young generations. PMID:24934691

  5. Regulating gambling to prevent addiction: more necessary now than ever.

    PubMed

    Chóliz, Mariano; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo

    2016-06-15

    The American Psychiatric Association published the 5th Edition of DSM in May 2013, in which the gambling disorder is included within the category of addictive disorders -a long-standing and recurrent demand from the clinical, social and scientific fields. Nevertheless, the harmful effects of gambling have not been considered by the Government, which is the main area of addiction prevention.The present article is a proposal for the regulation of gambling by the Government through the different levels of the State (national, regional and even local), which has the ultimate goal of preventing gambling addiction. This proposal has been presented to the Chamber of Deputies of the Congress, as part of the Congress-Senate Joint Committee for the Study of Drug Problems. The proposed regulation is based on the evidence provided by scientific studies on the prevention of addiction.

  6. The Family and Addictions: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses issues related to families and addictions in the context of family-related helping professions and addictions counseling. Describes family systems approach to addictions and some family-based addiction interventions. Notes research articles that have made significant contributions to families and addictions field. (Author/CM)

  7. The Economic Condition of the Mexican-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Fred H.; Koford, Kenneth

    Persons of Spanish heritage constitute the only minority in the United States whose numbers continue to grow through large-scale immigration. Mexican nationals, the "invisible people", incessantly infiltrate the U.S. population from Mexico. From 1939 through 1969, more than 7.4 million nationals entered the country unlawfully and were…

  8. [Neuroscientific basic in addiction].

    PubMed

    Johann-Ridinger, Monika

    2014-10-01

    The growing evidence of Neuroscience leads to a better understanding of cerebral processes in cases of acute or chronic intake of psychotropic substances (ps). Predominantly, structures of the "reward system" contributed to the development of addiction. Chronic consumption of ps provides changing in brain equilibrium and leads to adaptations in the brain architecture. In this article, the complex responses of neurons and neuronal networks are presented in cases of chronic intake of ps. The alterations affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral processings and influence learning and stress regulation. In summary, all cerebral adaptations are integrated in a complex model of biological, psychological and social factors and therefore, addiction arises as a consequence of combination of individual protecting and risk factors.

  9. [Environment and addictive behaviors].

    PubMed

    Touzeau, Didier; Raynal, Marie-Line

    2012-12-01

    Consumer society creates the emergence of addictive behaviors and environments of the subject "shape" the use of psychoactive substances. The family approach is to search out a guilt of members to understand family dynamics and enable young people to emancipate themselves from the family model. The social environment contributes to the marginalization of drug users "pathologizing" his conduct. Offer help without preconditions and a relationship based on a therapeutic alliance can contribute decisively to the recovery of an addict. The prison is a place of initiation of use and consumption of psychoactive substances despite the offer of specialized treatment. Measures of risk reduction of HCV/HIV infection and alternatives to incarceration should complete it. At workplace, consumption can be considered as a mean of doping to be more "efficient", but also as an attempt to withstand the stresses and changes in working conditions in the context of individualization and a loss of marks related to the new way of organizing work.

  10. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  11. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  12. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  13. Implications of Mexican Health Care Reform on the Health Coverage of Nonmigrants and Returning Migrants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess health coverage among Mexicans with US migration experience, before and after the implementation of Mexico’s universal health care program, Seguro Popular. Methods. I used data from the 2000 and 2010 Mexican Censuses to generate nationally representative estimates of health coverage among working-age Mexicans by migrant status. Results. In 2000, before the implementation of Seguro Popular, 56% of Mexicans aged 15 to 60 years with no recent US migrations were uninsured compared with 80% of recently returned migrants. By 2010, the proportion uninsured declined from 56% to 35% (−38%) among nonmigrants and from 80% to 54% (−33%) among return migrants. Conclusions. Seguro Popular has increased health coverage among Mexican return migrants, but they remain substantially underinsured. A creative and multifaceted approach likely will be needed to address Mexican immigrants’ health care needs. PMID:26985598

  14. Improving occupational safety and health among Mexican immigrant workers: a binational collaboration.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael A; Check, Pietra; Eggerth, Donald E; Tonda, Josana

    2013-11-01

    Latino immigrants are 50% more likely than all workers in the United States to experience a fatal injury at work. Occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations often find that the approaches and networks they successfully use to promote OSH among U.S.-born workers are ineffective at reaching Latino immigrants. This article describes the collaboration between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores) to promote OSH among Mexican immigrant workers. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs operates 50 consulates throughout the U.S. that provide four million discrete service contacts with Mexican citizens annually. The focus of this ongoing collaboration is to develop the internal capacity of Mexican institutions to promote OSH among Mexican immigrants while simultaneously developing NIOSH's internal capacity to create effective and sustainable initiatives to better document and reduce occupational health disparities for Mexican immigrants in the U.S.

  15. Improving Occupational Safety and Health Among Mexican Immigrant Workers: A Binational Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Check, Pietra; Eggerth, Donald E.; Tonda, Josana

    2013-01-01

    Latino immigrants are 50% more likely than all workers in the United States to experience a fatal injury at work. Occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations often find that the approaches and networks they successfully use to promote OSH among U.S.-born workers are ineffective at reaching Latino immigrants. This article describes the collaboration between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores) to promote OSH among Mexican immigrant workers. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs operates 50 consulates throughout the U.S. that provide four million discrete service contacts with Mexican citizens annually. The focus of this ongoing collaboration is to develop the internal capacity of Mexican institutions to promote OSH among Mexican immigrants while simultaneously developing NIOSH's internal capacity to create effective and sustainable initiatives to better document and reduce occupational health disparities for Mexican immigrants in the U.S. PMID:24179277

  16. [Therapy in heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sáandor; Fürst, Zsuzsanna

    2014-09-01

    Heroin addiction is one of the most devastating and expensive of public health problems. The most effective treatment is opioid replacement therapy. Replacement of heroin, a short-acting euphoriant with methadone or other opioids that have significantly longer duration of action provides a number of therapeutic benefits. Opioid detoxification has a role in both preventing acute withdrawal and maintaining long-term abstinence. Opioid-based detoxification is based on the principle of cross-tolerance, in which one opioid is replaced with another one that is slowly tapered. For the treatment of heroin addicts a wide range of psychosocial and pharmacotherapeutic treatments are available; of these, methadone maintenance therapy has the most evidence of benefit. Methadone maintenance reduces and/or eliminates the use of heroin, reduces the death rate and criminality associated with heroin use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity. In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with heroin injection, such as hepatitis and HIV. The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with heroin. There is growing interest in expanding treatment into primary care, allowing opioid addiction to be managed like other chronic illnesses. Buprenorphine which is a long-acting partial agonist was also approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence. Opioid antagonists can reduce heroin self-administration and opioid craving in detoxified addicts. Naltrexone, which is a long-acting competitive antagonist at the opioid receptors, blocks the subjective and objective responses produced by intravenous opioids. Naltrexone is employed to accelerate opioid detoxification by displacing heroin and as a maintenance agent for detoxified formerly heroin-dependent patients who want to

  17. [To define internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Tonioni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.

  18. [Addiction and personality].

    PubMed

    Franques, P; Auriacombe, M; Tignol, J

    2000-01-01

    Within the field of substance abuse, it is now widely admitted that the addictive personality does not exist. No one personality type is predisposed to addiction. The predisposition to drug dependence involves many different factors: psychological, social, familial, biological. None of these factors can be the sole determinant of drug dependence. Keeping that in mind, it is of interest to review the recent data on the relationship between personality traits or disorders and opiate and cocaine dependence. Using DSM and ICD categorical assessment, no single personality disorder emerged, instead a range of personality disorders has been evaluated in opiate and cocaine dependent subjects. Every type of personality disorders (PD) existed but cluster BPD were the most common (especially antisocial personality disorder in opiate addicts). However, it is noteworthy that a large minority to a majority of subjects did not display any king of PD. The implication of these results is that antisocial PD is probably over-diagnosed in drug dependence clinical settings. The studies reviewed failed to demonstrate that personality disorders were strong predictors of outcome in opiate or cocaine dependence. However, opiate dependent PD subjects entering treatment had more severe problems and lower retention rate than non PD subjects. But the amount of improvement was not significantly different between PD subjects and non PD subjects. This demonstrated that substance dependent PD patients could benefit from treatment whose intensity and duration must be adjusted. There is good support for the idea that Sensation Seeking trait is a vulnerability factor to substance abuse. But after dependence develops, sensation seeking is probably irrelevant to continued use of the drugs. This break between the psychopathology of vulnerability of substance abuse and the psychopathology of dependence raises the question of the existence of dramatically different factors involved in both phases of

  19. Treatment of internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  20. Raising Questions for Binational Research in Education: An Exploration of Mexican Primary School Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bryant

    2008-01-01

    Educational opportunity in the United States and Mexico is an important factor in the process of expanding social and economic opportunities, as well as political and civil rights in both countries. Yet, by national and international indicators, many Mexican American and Mexican children are underserved by public schools in both countries; and…

  1. Extended Family Integration among Euro and Mexican Americans: Ethnicity, Gender, and Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia; Gerena, Mariana; Gerstel, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the extended family integration of Euro and Mexican American women and men and assesses the importance of class and culture in explaining ethnic differences. Using National Survey of Families and Households II data (N = 7,929), we find that ethnic differences depend on the dimension of integration. Mexican Americans exhibit…

  2. Race-Ethnic Differences in Nonmarital Fertility: A Focus on Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Raley, R. Kelly

    2006-01-01

    We use the National Survey of Family Growth to identify race-ethnic differences in nonmarital fertility, paying particular attention to Mexican American women. On the basis of a sample of 9,054 White, Black, and Mexican American women, we use event history methods to explore the role of family background, a woman's own employment and school…

  3. A Liberal Account of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Foddy, Bennett; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Philosophers and psychologists have been attracted to two differing accounts of addictive motivation. In this paper, we investigate these two accounts and challenge their mutual claim that addictions compromise a person’s self-control. First, we identify some incompatibilities between this claim of reduced self-control and the available evidence from various disciplines. A critical assessment of the evidence weakens the empirical argument for reduced autonomy. Second, we identify sources of unwarranted normative bias in the popular theories of addiction that introduce systematic errors in interpreting the evidence. By eliminating these errors, we are able to generate a minimal, but correct account, of addiction that presumes addicts to be autonomous in their addictive behavior, absent further evidence to the contrary. Finally, we explore some of the implications of this minimal, correct view. PMID:24659901

  4. Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Luke; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H

    2013-08-01

    Developments in psychiatry have ratified the existence of behavioral addictions, that certain activities such as gambling or video-game play may be considered addictive in the absence of exogenous (i.e. drug-induced) stimulation of brain reinforcement circuitry. This article describes recent advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of behavioral addiction, with a focus on pathological gambling as the prototypical disorder. We describe positron emission tomography (PET) studies characterizing dopaminergic transmission, and functional imaging studies of reward processing and gambling-related cognitive distortions. The current evidence not only indicates changes in pathological gamblers in core circuitry implicated in drug addiction, but also highlights some subtle differences. Behavioral addictions can also provide experimental traction on distinguishing vulnerability markers for addictions from the active detrimental effects of chronic drug use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent constructions of nicotine addiction.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara; Grewal, Jeevan; Ratner, Pamela A; Kalaw, Cecilia

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to extend our understanding of how adolescents view nicotine addiction. This secondary analysis included 80 open-ended interviews with adolescents with a variety of smoking histories. The transcribed interviews were systematically analyzed to identify salient explanations of nicotine addiction. These explanations presuppose causal pathways of nicotine exposure leading to addiction and include repeated use, the brain and body "getting used to" nicotine, personal weakness, and family influences. A further explanation is that some youths pretend to be addicted to project a "cool" image. These explanations illustrate that some youths see themselves as passive players in the formation of nicotine addiction. The findings can be used in the development of programs to raise youth awareness about nicotine addiction.

  6. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  7. Mitoepigenetics and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-11-01

    Being the center of energy production in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are also crucial for various cellular processes including intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria contain their own circular DNA which encodes not only proteins, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNAs but also non-coding RNAs. The most recent line of evidence indicates the presence of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); thus, the level of gene expression - in a way similar to nuclear DNA - can be regulated by direct epigenetic modifications. Up to now, very little data shows the possibility of epigenetic regulation of mtDNA. Mitochondria and mtDNA are particularly important in the nervous system and may participate in the initiation of drug addiction. In fact, some addictive drugs enhance ROS production and generate oxidative stress that in turn alters mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. This review summarizes recent findings on mitochondrial function, mtDNA copy number and epigenetics in drug addiction.

  8. What is sexual addiction?

    PubMed

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment.

  9. Notable Mexican American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Judith

    This paper describes the careers of four notable Mexican American women, including their educational and family backgrounds, achievements, and importance as role models for young Hispanic women. Marie Acosta-Colon's political activism began as a college student volunteering for presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy in 1968. Active in political…

  10. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  11. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  12. Country of birth as a risk factor for asthma among Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Holguin, Fernando; Mannino, David M; Antó, Josep; Mott, Joshua; Ford, Earl S; Teague, W Gerald; Redd, Stephen C; Romieu, Isabelle

    2005-01-15

    In the United States, among Hispanics, Mexican Americans have the lowest rate of asthma. However, this population includes Mexican Americans born in the United States and in Mexico, and risk factors that might impact the prevalence of asthma differ between these groups. To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among U.S.- and Mexican-born Mexican Americans, we analyzed data from two U.S. surveys that included 4,574 persons who self-reported their ethnicity as Mexican American from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1998-1994 and 12,980 persons who self-reported their ethnicity as Mexican American from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1997-2001. U.S.-born Mexican Americans were more likely than Mexican-born Mexican Americans to report ever having asthma in both the NHANES III (7% [SE 0.5] vs. 3% [SE 0.3], p < 0.001) and NHIS surveys (8.1% [0.4] vs. 2.5% [0.2], p < 0.001). In a multivariate regression model controlling for multiple demographic variables and health care, the risk for asthma was higher among U.S.-born Mexicans in NHANES III (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-3.3) and NHIS (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.6-5.5). In conclusion, the prevalence of asthma was higher in U.S.-born than in Mexican-born Mexican Americans. This finding highlights the importance of environmental exposures in developing asthma in a migratory population.

  13. The neurobiology of addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen; Peselow, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Addiction is increasingly understood as a neurobiological illness where repetitive substance abuse corrupts the normal circuitry of rewarding and adaptive behaviors causing drug-induced neuroplastic changes. The addictive process can be examined by looking at the biological basis of substance initiation to the progression of substance abuse to dependence to the enduring risk of relapse. Critical neurotransmitters and neurocircuits underlie the pathological changes at each of these stages. Enhanced dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens is part of the common pathway for the positively rewarding aspects of drugs of abuse and for initiation of the addictive process. F-Aminobutyric acid,opioid peptides, serotonin, acetylcholine, the endocannabinoids, and glutamate systems also play a role in the initial addictive process. Dopamine also plays a key role in conditioned responses to drugs of abuse, and addiction is now recognized as a disease of pathological learning and memory. In the path from substance abuse to addiction, the neurochemistry shifts from a dopamine-based behavioral system to a predominantly glutamate-based one marked by dysregulated glutamate transmission from the prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens in relation to drug versus biologically oriented stimuli. This is a core part of the executive dysfunction now understood as one of the hallmark features of addiction that also includes impaired decision making and impulse dysregulation.Understanding the neurobiology of the addictive process allows for a theoretical psychopharmacological approach to treating addictive disorders,one that takes into account biological interventions aimed at particular stages of the illness.

  14. Food addiction among sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Jacob C; Furman, Celina R; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2017-08-19

    Although sexual minorities represent a small proportion of the general population, this group has been observed to be at an increased risk of developing various pathologies, including substance use and eating disorders. Research suggests that foods high in added fat and refined carbohydrates may trigger an addictive response, especially in at-risk individuals. Consequently, food addiction is associated with elevated risk for obesity, diet-related disease, and psychological distress. However, there is limited research on whether food addiction, like substance use, may be elevated among sexual minorities, and whether self-compassion may be a protective factor. Thus, the current study aims to test whether food addiction is elevated in sexual minorities (relative to heterosexuals) and if discrimination and self-compassion may be related to food addiction among sexual minorities. In a community sample of 356 participants (43.3% sexual minority), sexual minorities had almost twice the prevalence of food addiction (16.9%) as heterosexuals (8.9%). Also, sexual minorities on average experienced more food addiction symptoms (M = 2.73, SD = 1.76) than heterosexuals (M = 1.95, SD = 1.59). For sexual minorities, heterosexist harassment was associated with increased food addiction, while self-compassion appeared to be a protective factor. Further research needs to examine between-group differences among sexual minorities for better treatment and interventions for food addiction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Exercise can be an addiction].

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Mia; Støvring, René

    2014-09-01

    Exercise is normally a healthy activity, which leads to enjoyment and wellness. But some people appear to become addicted and continue to exercise even to the detriment of their social lives and health. The symptoms are e.g. increasing exercise amounts, withdrawal symptoms, euphoria and relapse. The Exercise Addiction Inventory is a screening tool validated in Danish, which identifies 3-10% of the exercisers at risk of addiction. Exercise addiction can be a symptom of an eating disorder, but it seems to exist independently though it is not recognized as a diagnosis.

  16. Effect of long-term addiction to heroin on oral tissues.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, D I

    1975-01-01

    The oral health status of 36 long-term heroin addicts was measured using DMF, OHIS, and PI. Comparisons were made utilizing data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Age, sex, race, education, income, and geographic location were compared. The former addicts exhibited a significant increase in DMF, with significantly higher missing and decayed teeth, and fewer filled teeth. The periodontal condition of the former addict also showed health status. It would appear that long-term heroin addiction either contributes directly to lowered oral health status, or more likely, causes individuals to lead a life style which has ramifications to their oral health.

  17. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    PubMed Central

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  18. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention relates to the use of a composition that increases central nervous system GABA levels in a mammal, for the treatment of addiction to drugs of abuse and modification of behavior associated with addiction to drugs of abuse in said mammal.

  19. [Food addiction - substance use disorder or behavioral addiction?].

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Özgür; Kliewer, Josephine; Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms. Until recently it was argued that food addiction appears only in the realms of obesity and eating disorders (e.g., binge-eating disorder, BED). Some studies, however, described the prevalence of food addiction symptoms and diagnoses independent of overweight or that they were in subjects who do not fulfill the criteria for BED. This article sums up the controversial discussion about the phenomenological and neurobiological classification of food addiction. Implications of food addiction for children and adolescents as well as public-health-related issues are also discussed.

  20. What Are the Treatments for Heroin Addiction?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter What are the treatments for heroin addiction? A variety of effective treatments are available for heroin addiction, including both behavioral and pharmacological (medications). Both approaches ...

  1. The prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Eschbach, Karl A; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician-diagnosed hypertension were conducted by using the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (age > or =70 years) datasets. Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, diabetes, obesity, alcohol use, and smoking, older Mexican women who have migrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conversely, immigrant older Mexican American men are at significantly lower odds of hypertension. Sex differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in Mexico.

  2. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCIESMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez, L. X.

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications of the Civil Protection Law in Mexico include now specific mentions to space hazards and space weather phenomena. During the last few years, the UN has promoted international cooperation on Space Weather awareness, studies and monitoring. Internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a Space Weather Service in Mexico (SCIESMEX). The SCIESMEX (www.sciesmex.unam.mx) is operated by the Geophysics Institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The UNAM has the experience of operating several critical national services, including the National Seismological Service (SSN); besides that has a well established scientific group with expertise in space physics and solar- terrestrial phenomena. The SCIESMEX is also related with the recent creation of the Mexican Space Agency (AEM). The project combines a network of different ground instruments covering solar, interplanetary, geomagnetic, and ionospheric observations. The SCIESMEX has already in operation computing infrastructure running the web application, a virtual observatory and a high performance computing server to run numerical models. SCIESMEX participates in the International Space Environment Services (ISES) and in the Inter-progamme Coordination Team on Space Weather (ICTSW) of the Word Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  3. A Canadian perspective on documentary film: Drug Addict.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Susan

    2013-11-01

    In 1948 the first National Film Board (NFB) documentary in Canada about illegal drugs, trafficking, and addiction was produced. The documentary is titled Drug Addict, and was directed by Robert Anderson. This paper provides a socio-historical context for the documentary Drug Addict. Viewing the film through the lens of Canadian history gives readers a better context to understand the claims and representations in the film about law enforcement, people who use illegal drugs and treatment. To examine Drug Addict, a socio-historical analysis and case study were conducted. This project's qualitative methodological framework is consistent with its critical theoretical perspective, drawing from Stuart Hall's perspectives on visual and textual representation and cultural criminology. Drug Addict is a significant documentary because it provides insight into early foundational law enforcement discourses and practices about illegal drugs, addiction, and treatment, including obstacles to drug substitution and maintenance programs. It also highlights the emergence of psychiatry as a new knowledge producer in the area of drug treatment. The film also transmits ideas about the criminal nature of addicts and the need for punitive criminal justice control. Drug Addict captures some past and contemporary tensions related to Canadian drug policy. The film also provides another lens to understand some of the foundational frameworks of Canadian drug policy such as the dominance of criminal justice, and its practices of knowledge production, the resistance espoused by institutions to diverse models of treatment such as drug maintenance programs, and the power of visual representation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight Status of Mexican Immigrant Women: A Comparison With Women in Mexico and With US-Born Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L.; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. Methods. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001–2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Results. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Conclusions. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a “healthy immigrant” effect. PMID:23865649

  5. Weight status of Mexican immigrant women: a comparison with women in Mexico and with US-born Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia D; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-09-01

    We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001-2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a "healthy immigrant" effect.

  6. Mexican Migration: Assessing Root Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    66 Figure 4 is derived from John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas...John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” 4. 31 Another explanation for the increase in migration concerns neither the Mexican economy nor the Mexican...Dominant Regime,” 135. 82 John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” 5. 83 World Bank: Mexican Health Foundation, “Trends and Empirical Causes of Violent

  7. Research as Cultural Renewal: Applying Two-Eyed Seeing in a Research Project about Cultural Interventions in First Nations Addictions Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Laura; Dell, Colleen A.; Fornssler, Barb; Hopkins, Carol; Mushquash, Christopher; Rowan, Margo

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the application of two-eyed seeing in the first year of a three-year study about the effectiveness of cultural interventions in First Nations alcohol and drug treatment in Canada. Two-eyed seeing is recognized by Canada’s major health research funder as a starting point for bringing together the strengths of Indigenous and Western ways of knowing. With the aim of developing a culture-based measurement tool, our team carried out an Indigenous-centred research process with our interpretation of two-eyed seeing as a guiding principle. This enabled us to engage in a decolonizing project that prioritized Indigenous methodologies and ways of knowing and knowledge alongside those of Western science. By concentrating on Indigenous governance in the research process, our project supported efforts at Indigenous cultural renewal. Two illustrations are offered, our team’s reconceptualization of Western derived understandings of data collection through Indigenous storytelling and our research grant timeframe with Indigenous knowledge gardening. This article contributes to the Indigenous research and policy literature which is lacking documentation about how Indigenous communities and research teams are benefitting from two-eyed seeing. PMID:27867445

  8. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  9. Comprehensive Treatment of Addictive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Stephen E.; Horberg, Lawrence K.

    This article describes a practical approach to treating addictive families, designed to help them repair the damage, create more satisfying lives, and prevent long-lasting deleterious effects, commonly associated with "co-dependency" and "children of addicts." This approach is grounded in a developmental model of family recovery which was devised…

  10. Comprehensive Treatment of Addictive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Stephen E.; Horberg, Lawrence K.

    This article describes a practical approach to treating addictive families, designed to help them repair the damage, create more satisfying lives, and prevent long-lasting deleterious effects, commonly associated with "co-dependency" and "children of addicts." This approach is grounded in a developmental model of family recovery which was devised…

  11. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  12. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  13. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  14. Invertebrate models in addiction research.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Eirik; Barron, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    While drug addiction is a uniquely human problem, most research examining the biological mechanisms of the transition from substance use to addiction is conducted with vertebrate animal models. Many other fields of neuroscience have greatly benefitted from contributions from simple and manipulable invertebrate model systems. However, the potential of invertebrate research has yet to be fully capitalised on in the field of addiction neuroscience. This may be because of the complexity of addiction and the clinical imperative of addiction research. We argue that the homocentric diagnostic criteria of addiction are no more a hindrance to the use of invertebrate models than they are to vertebrate models. We highlight the strengths of the diversity of different invertebrate model systems in terms of neuroanatomy and molecular machinery, and stress that working with a range of different models will aid in understanding addiction and not be a disadvantage. Finally, we discuss the specific advantages of utilising invertebrate animals for addiction research and highlight key areas in which invertebrates are suited for making unique and meaningful contributions to this field.

  15. Medical comorbidity in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Wadland, William C; Ferenchick, Gary S

    2004-12-01

    Greater risks exist for medical comorbidities in persons with addictive disorders. Clinicians should screen for early comorbidities such as hepatitis C and HIV. During acute intoxications and overdoses, patients are at greater risk for major respiratory and cardiac events. Long-term management of persons with addictions and medical disorders requires integrative care programs involving comprehensive primary and psychiatric care.

  16. [Pharmacopsychoses during drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Cottereau, M J; Lôo, H; Poirier, M F; Deniker, P

    1975-01-01

    Widespread use of certain drugs (amphetamines, L.S.D., hypnotics) in France, allowed us to observe more than 200 cases of acute or chronic psychoses among addicts. Sometimes these are transitory outburst but the occurrence of a delusional psychosis with long range evolution raises a difficult diagnosis problem in relation to functional psychoses. The emphasis should be put on respective roles of the drug and of a predisposed mental state. Circumstances of beginning, apparently direct relationship between drug taking and pathological symptoms, therapy efficiency, absence of earlier pathological traits (as in many of our patients) and relapse when intoxication starts again, are in favour of a pharmacological origin of the troubles.

  17. Addictive Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Truong, Anh; Moukaddam, Nidal; Toledo, Alexander; Onigu-Otite, Edore

    2017-09-01

    Addictive disorders in youth represent a dynamic field characterized by shifting patterns of substance use and high rates of experimentation, while retaining the risky behaviors and negative outcomes associated with established drug classes. Youth/adolescents are also at the forefront of use of new technologies, and non-substance-related disorders are pertinent. These disorders present with similar pictures of impairment, and can be diagnosed following the same principles. An underlying mental disorder and the possibility of a dual diagnosis need to be assessed carefully, and optimal treatment includes psychosocial treatments with applicable pharmacologic management, the latter representing an expanding field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tobacco addiction: implications for treatment and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Cinciripini, P M; Hecht, S S; Henningfield, J E; Manley, M W; Kramer, B S

    1997-12-17

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the National Cancer Institute convened a symposium in June 1996 on tobacco addiction. Additional support for the symposium was provided by the American Medical Women's Association and the American Society of Preventive Oncology. The goals of this conference were to describe the burden and public health consequences of tobacco addiction, to describe the state of science for the treatment of nicotine dependence, and to explore new strategies to increase quit rates and to prevent the uptake of tobacco use. This article summarizes and integrates the meeting presentations on tobacco addiction and includes the topics of smoking prevalence; psychobiologic aspects of nicotine dependence; and implications for disease, treatment, and prevention. Comments on regulatory approaches and national strategies for reducing dependence are also summarized in presentations by Dr. David Kessler, former Food and Drug Administration Commissioner, and Dr. C. Everett Koop, former U.S. Surgeon General.

  19. Sexual addiction in drug addicts: The impact of drug of choice and poly-addiction.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Nelson; Diehl, Alessandra; Niel, Marcelo; Pillon, Sandra; Ratto, Lilian; Pinheiro, Maria Carolina; Silveira, Dartiu; Otani, Thais Zelia; Otani, Victor; Cordeiro, Quirino; Ushida, Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71) and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91). The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02) and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25). We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012), but not in the alcohol group. Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.

  20. Mexican oil: Its history, development and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, R.

    1990-04-02

    Oil has been an important resource in the modernization of Mexico. Most of Mexican economic development since petroleum nationalization has been based on this strategic source of energy by means of exploitation and exportation. Postrevolutionary governments have relied primarily on petroleum to accomplish the political, social and economic aims set forth in the Constitution of 1917. Oil revenues have allowed Mexican governments to pursue domestic political, social and economic goals and also ambitious foreign political and economic policies. This paper begins by describing the history of Mexican oil, focusing mainly on analyzing problems, goals achieved, development and oil policies since the oil nationalization in 1938 by General Lazaro Cardenas. Facts and policies related to the boom and crisis of the 1970's, 1980's are also analyzed as are efforts made in the 1980's, 1990's to save the country from the economic crisis. Current oil policies are reviewed and conclusions given.

  1. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  2. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  3. Parenting and addiction: neurobiological insights.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena Jv; Mayes, Linda C

    2017-06-01

    Addiction remains a significant public health concern that affects multiple generations within families, and in particular the early relationship between parents and their developing child. This article will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of parenting and addiction. Specifically, the discussion will focus on the reward-stress dysregulation model of addicted parenting, which proposes that the dysregulation of stress and reward neural circuits by addiction represents a neurobiological pathway through which to understand how caregiving may be compromised in addicted parents. Empirical research in parents and non-parents will be discussed in support of this model and critical consideration of the model and its limitations will be provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The psychological science of addiction.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  5. [Can we treat sexual addiction ?].

    PubMed

    Inescu Cismaru, A; Andrianne, R; Triffaux, F; Triffaux, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Sexual addiction or sexual dependence is characterized by hypersexuality, impaired regulation of sexual desire and sexual compulsivity, including having sex with uncontrolled excessive frequency (5 to 15 sexual acts per day for more than 6 months, from 15 years old). Between 3% and 6% of the adult population (> or =18 years) would have the characteristics of sexual addiction, disorder prevalent in the male population. The addictive processes affect three behavioral domains : motivation-reward, affect regulation and behavioral inhibition. Sex addiction is usually accompanied by other addictions, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol or sex toys that enhance sexual performance. Psychiatric comorbidities can be found : anxiety disorders, mood disorders. Several forms of treatment have been tried, using medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychotherapy sessions alternated with exposure therapy in virtual reality. In this article, we will discuss the multiple definitions of hypersexuality and the possibilities of therapeutic approaches.

  6. Internet addiction in young people.

    PubMed

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  7. A transnational study of migration and smoking behavior in the Mexican-origin population.

    PubMed

    Tong, Elisa; Saito, Naomi; Tancredi, Daniel J; Borges, Guilherme; Kravitz, Richard L; Hinton, Ladson; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-11-01

    We examined migration-related changes in smoking behavior in the transnational Mexican-origin population. We combined epidemiological surveys from Mexico (Mexican National Comorbidity Survey) and the United States (Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys). We compared 4 groups with increasing US contact with respect to smoking initiation, persistence, and daily cigarette consumption: Mexicans with no migrant in their family, Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience, migrants, and US-born Mexican Americans. Compared with Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience, migrants were less likely to initiate smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38, 0.83) and less likely to be persistent smokers (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.63). Among daily smokers, the US-born smoked more cigarettes per day than did Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience for men (7.8 vs 6.5) and women (8.6 vs 4.3). Evidence suggests that smoking is suppressed among migrants relative to the broader transnational Mexican-origin population. The pattern of low daily cigarette consumption among US-born Mexican Americans, noted in previous research, represents an increase relative to smokers in Mexico.

  8. A Transnational Study of Migration and Smoking Behavior in the Mexican-Origin Population

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Elisa; Saito, Naomi; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Borges, Guilherme; Kravitz, Richard L.; Hinton, Ladson; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined migration-related changes in smoking behavior in the transnational Mexican-origin population. Methods. We combined epidemiological surveys from Mexico (Mexican National Comorbidity Survey) and the United States (Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys). We compared 4 groups with increasing US contact with respect to smoking initiation, persistence, and daily cigarette consumption: Mexicans with no migrant in their family, Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience, migrants, and US-born Mexican Americans. Results. Compared with Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience, migrants were less likely to initiate smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38, 0.83) and less likely to be persistent smokers (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.63). Among daily smokers, the US-born smoked more cigarettes per day than did Mexicans with a migrant in their family or previous migration experience for men (7.8 vs 6.5) and women (8.6 vs 4.3). Conclusions. Evidence suggests that smoking is suppressed among migrants relative to the broader transnational Mexican-origin population. The pattern of low daily cigarette consumption among US-born Mexican Americans, noted in previous research, represents an increase relative to smokers in Mexico. PMID:22994190

  9. Characterizing Intercellular Signaling Peptides in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Romanova, Elena V.; Hatcher, Nathan G.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2009-01-01

    Intercellular signaling peptides (SPs) coordinate the activity of cells and influence organism behavior. SPs, a chemically and structurally diverse group of compounds responsible for transferring information between neurons, are broadly involved in neural plasticity, learning and memory, as well as in drug addiction phenomena. Historically, SP discovery and characterization has tracked advances in measurement capabilities. Today, a suite of analytical technologies is available to investigate individual SPs, as well as entire intercellular signaling complements, in samples ranging from individual cells to entire organisms. Immunochemistry and in situ hybridization are commonly used for following preselected SPs. Discovery-type investigations targeting the transcriptome and proteome are accomplished using high-throughput characterization technologies such as microarrays and mass spectrometry. By integrating directed approaches with discovery approaches, multiplatform studies fill critical gaps in our knowledge of drug-induced alterations in intercellular signaling. Throughout the past 35 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse has made significant resources available to scientists that study the mechanisms of drug addiction. The roles of SPs in the addiction process are highlighted, as are the analytical approaches used to detect and characterize them. PMID:18722391

  10. Despite Resources From The ACA, Most States Do Little To Help Addiction Treatment Programs Implement Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christina; Abraham, Amanda; Grogan, Colleen M; Pollack, Harold A; Bersamira, Clifford; Humphreys, Keith; Friedmann, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) dramatically expands health insurance for addiction treatment and provides unprecedented opportunities for service growth and delivery model reform. Yet most addiction treatment programs lack the staffing and technological capabilities to respond successfully to ACA-driven system change. In light of these challenges, we conducted a national survey to examine how Single State Agencies for addiction treatment--the state governmental organizations charged with overseeing addiction treatment programs--are helping programs respond to new requirements under the ACA. We found that most Single State Agencies provide little assistance to addiction treatment programs. Most agencies are helping programs develop collaborations with other health service programs. However, fewer than half reported providing help in modernizing systems to support insurance participation, and only one in three provided assistance with enrollment outreach. In the absence of technical assistance, it is unlikely that addiction treatment programs will fully realize the ACA's promise to improve access to and quality of addiction treatment.

  11. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  12. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  13. [Immunotherapies for drug addictions].

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapies in the form of vaccines (active immunization) or monoclonal antibodies (passive immunization) appear safe and a promising treatment approaches for some substance-related disorders. The mechanism of action of the antibody therapy is by preventing the rapid entry of drugs of abuse into the central nervous system. In theory, immunotherapies could have several clinical applications. Monoclonal antibodies may be useful to treat drug overdoses and prevent the neurotoxic effects of drugs by blocking the access of drugs to the brain. Vaccines may help to prevent the development of addiction, initiate drug abstinence in those already addicted to drugs, or prevent drug use relapse by reducing the pharmacological effects and rewarding properties of the drugs of abuse on the brain. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies has been investigated for cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and phencyclidine (PCP). Active immunization with vaccines has been studied for cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine. These immunotherapies seem promising therapeutic tools and are at different stages in their development before they can be approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of substance-related disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the current immunotherapy approaches with emphasis on the risks and benefits for the treatment of these disorders.

  14. Sex differences in addiction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jill B

    2016-12-01

    Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.

  15. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    PubMed

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories.

  16. Sex differences in addiction

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jill B.

    2016-01-01

    Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction. PMID:28179811

  17. Glutamine Addiction In Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Javier; Alonso, Francisco J; Matés, José M; Segura, Juan A; Martín-Rufián, Mercedes; Campos-Sandoval, José A

    2017-03-09

    Cancer cells develop and succeed by shifting to different metabolic programs compared with their normal cell counterparts. One of the classical hallmarks of cancer cells is their higher glycolysis rate and lactate production even in the presence of abundant O2 (Warburg effect). Another common metabolic feature of cancer cells is a high rate of glutamine (Gln) consumption normally exceeding their biosynthetic and energetic needs. The term Gln addiction is now widely used to reflect the strong dependence shown by most cancer cells for this essential nitrogen substrate after metabolic reprogramming. A Gln/glutamate (Glu) cycle occurs between host tissues and the tumor in order to maximize its growth and proliferation rates. The mechanistic basis for this deregulated tumor metabolism and how these changes are connected to oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways are becoming increasingly understood. Based on these advances, new avenues of research have been initiated to find novel therapeutic targets and to explore strategies that interfere with glutamine metabolism as anticancer therapies. In this review, we provided an updated overview of glutamine addiction in glioma, the most prevalent type of brain tumor.

  18. [On Mexican medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

    2009-12-01

    During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country.

  19. Periodontitis associated with Chronic Kidney Disease among Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, Effie; Hall, Yoshio; Swede, Helen; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective In comparison to non-Hispanic whites, a number of healthcare disparities, including poor oral health, have been identified among Hispanics in general and Mexican-Americans in particular. We hypothesized that Mexican-Americans with Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) would have higher prevalence of chronic periodontitis compared to Mexican Americans with normal kidney function, and that the level of kidney function would be inversely related to the prevalence of periodontal disease. Method We examined this hypothesis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994 (NHANES III) dataset. We followed the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP)/Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition for periodontitis. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-Epidemiology (EPI) equation for Hispanic populations. The classification to CKD stages was based on the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Results Periodontitis prevalence increased across the kidney function groups showing a statistically significant dose-response association (p<0.001). Mexican Americans with reduced kidney function were 2-fold more likely to have periodontitis compared to Mexican Americans with normal kidney function after adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, diabetes and socioeconomic status. Multivariate adjusted Odds Ratio for periodontitis significantly increased with 1, 5 and 10 mL/minute eGFR reduction from the mean. Conclusion This is the first report, to the best our knowledge, that showed an increase of periodontitis prevalence with decreased kidney function in this population. PMID:22775287

  20. Toward Quality Education for Mexican Americans. Mexican American Education Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Burciaga, Cecilia Preciado; And Others

    The 6th and final report of the Mexican American Education Study (MAES) focuses on specific educational problems of Mexican American children in the Southwest and recommends actions at various governmental and educational levels to alleviate these. Information was gathered from: (1) a 1969 survey and 1970-71 field study; (2) a literature review;…

  1. How Mexican Is a Spanish-Speaking Mexican American?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patella, Victoria M.

    To investigate the validity of language usage as an indicator of identification with the Mexican American subculture, this study hypothesized that greater use of Spanish than English would be correlated with characteristics consistent with the ideal, typical, Mexican American family in terms of family of orientation and aspirations for future…

  2. Converging Forces: Mexican Culture and Clinical Issues of Mexican Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Jeanne M.

    Mexican women tend to have limited access to medical and mental health care resources. Some of the common clinical issues experienced by Mexican woman are psychological conflict, depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms. Appropriate treatment approaches for therapy varies depending on the nature of the presenting problem. If clinical issues…

  3. Greater Leisure Time Physical Activity Is Associated with Lower Allostatic Load in White, Black, and Mexican American Midlife Women: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 through 2004.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Rainisch, Bethany Wexler; Chyu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Allostatic load is a useful construct to understand how social and environmental conditions get under the skin to affect health. To date, few studies have examined health-enhancing lifestyle behaviors and their potential benefits in reducing allostatic load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of leisure time physical activity on level of allostatic load among White, Black, and Mexican American midlife women. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 through 2004 (n = 1,680, women ages 40-59). All analyses were weighted. Negative binomial regression was used to model a summative count measure of allostatic load (M = 2.30). Models were also computed to estimate adjusted predicted allostatic load for given levels of physical activity, and by race/ethnicity for each age category (40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59), controlling for other demographics and medication use. Higher levels of physical activity were associated significantly with lower levels of allostatic load, independent of demographics. Compared with White women ages 40 to 44, all other racial/ethnic-by-age groups had significantly higher allostatic load. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a lower allostatic load. Adjusted prediction models demonstrated associations between greater levels of physical activity and lower allostatic load for all ages and racial/ethnic groups. Our findings suggest physical activity may ameliorate some of the effects of cumulative physiological dysregulation and subsequent disease burden in midlife women. Programs and policies that encourage and promote healthy aging and provide opportunities for a diversity of women to engage in health-enhancing lifestyle practices such as physical activity are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral addictions in addiction medicine: from mechanisms to practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Banz, Barbara C; Yip, Sarah W; Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in our understanding of nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions, although these conditions and their most appropriate classification remain debated and the knowledge basis for understanding the pathophysiology of and treatments for these conditions includes important gaps. Recent developments include the classification of gambling disorder as a "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorder" in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder in Section 3 of DSM-5. This chapter reviews current neuroscientific understandings of behavioral addictions and the potential of neurobiological data to assist in the development of improved policy, prevention, and treatment efforts.

  5. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  6. Childhood: Setting the Stage for Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes various terms used in discussion of addictive disorders and how they relate to one another. Proposes the term "intrapsychic addiction" to describe the substrate of the externally manifested addictions. Reviews the physical, psychological, and social factors predisposing children to addiction. Presents a model relating these…

  7. Signs of Drug Use and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use and Addiction Signs of Drug Use and Addiction Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_012017.pdf People ... English Español "I feel so helpless against his addiction." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's brother Stephen is ...

  8. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  9. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  10. Lay theories of heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Thomson, L

    1996-07-01

    This study examined the structure and determinants of lay people's implicit theories of heroin addiction. A questionnaire was derived from interviews with lay people about their beliefs and theories of heroin addiction and academic literature on the subject. One hundred and forty-four subjects completed the questionnaire, in which they rated 105 statements about the causes, correlates and cures of heroin addiction. The three parts of the questionnaire were individually factor analyzed and a clear, interpretable factor structure emerged for each. The factors seemed similar to explicit academic theories, but the exception was beliefs about cure, which did not show overall support for the most clinically used models. When the three factor analyses were combined into a single 'higher-order' factor analysis four factors emerged, labelled moralistic, psychosocial, sociocultural and drug treatment, which reflect more or less coherent views on the nature of heroin addiction. Subjects' political beliefs was the greatest (demographic and attitudinal) determinant of lay beliefs in these factors, with experience of addiction, addicts, drugs and age also highly correlated. Vote was the main determinant and best predictor of the four 'higher-order' structured lay theories: right-wing voters emphasizing moralistic and individualistic theory and left-wing voters supporting the psychological and societal ideas. Implications for policy and interventions to addicts of these lay theories are considered.

  11. Personality, addiction, dopamine: insights from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Alain; Robbins, Trevor W

    2009-02-26

    In rare instances, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may become addicted to their own medication or develop behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling. This is surprising because PD patients typically have a very low incidence of drug abuse and display a personality type that is the polar opposite of the addictive personality. These rare addictive syndromes, which appear to result from excessive dopaminergic medication use, illustrate the link between dopamine, personality, and addiction. We describe the clinical phenomena and attempt to relate them to current models of learning and addiction. We conclude that persistently elevated dopaminergic stimulation promotes the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors.

  12. NADA protocol: integrative acupuncture in addictions.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kenneth; Olshan-Perlmutter, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) acupuncture is a simple, standardized, 1- to 5-point auricular needling protocol that originated as a grass-roots response to the opiate epidemic of the 1970s. NADA acupuncture is increasingly recognized as a universally useful intervention in the treatment of addictions specifically and in behavior health more generally. It is recognized as a best practice in the treatment of substance use disorders. Integrative programs using the NADA protocol are likely to see improvements in engagement, retention, decreased drug cravings, anxiety, and less physical symptoms.

  13. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study.

  14. Mexican Americans in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Walker, Ed.

    The outgrowth of a conference intended to broaden the base of objective information about the Mexican American community, this collection of 13 papers examines the effects of immigration by people of Mexican origin on the economic, educational, social, political, and linguistic systems of the United States. Walker Connor's introduction puts the…

  15. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    PubMed

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  16. On Being a Mexican American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Joe I.

    1994-01-01

    A well-acculturated migrant education program director reminisces about his Mexican upbringing in the United States, noting the persistence of his cultural heritage and the scars left by acts of segregation, prejudice, and racism. It is important for Mexican Americans to recognize that they are a unique group at a crossroads. They are not all…

  17. On Being a Mexican American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Joe I.

    1994-01-01

    A well-acculturated migrant education program director reminisces about his Mexican upbringing in the United States, noting the persistence of his cultural heritage and the scars left by acts of segregation, prejudice, and racism. It is important for Mexican Americans to recognize that they are a unique group at a crossroads. They are not all…

  18. The Chicanos; Mexican American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Edward W., Ed.; Santibanez, James, Ed.

    Articles, fiction, and poetry that form a picture of Chicano life today are presented in this anthology of writings about Mexican Americans. Included are reminiscences of Mexican American childhood, accounts of Chicanos in the American school system, reports on strikes by Chicano workers, and poems and stories that reflect the hard realities of…

  19. The Chicanos; Mexican American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Edward W., Ed.; Santibanez, James, Ed.

    Articles, fiction, and poetry that form a picture of Chicano life today are presented in this anthology of writings about Mexican Americans. Included are reminiscences of Mexican American childhood, accounts of Chicanos in the American school system, reports on strikes by Chicano workers, and poems and stories that reflect the hard realities of…

  20. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. The basic laboratory evidence for sex differences in addiction is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. PMID:27870394

  1. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  2. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N D; Prabhat, K C

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health.

  3. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  4. [Neurobiology and genetics of addiction].

    PubMed

    Kiefer, F

    2010-04-01

    Recent results on the neurobiological bases of addictive disorders allow new insights into the etiopathogenesis of addiction to be made and allow targets for new therapeutic strategies to be defined. An important advancement in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology derives from recent research results, showing similarities between addiction and physiological neural plasticity in learning and memory. These include basic mechanisms involving dopamine, glutamate, and their cellular and molecular targets leading to drug-induced synaptic alterations in the mesolimbic reward system. Genetic factors modulate the individual vulnerability. The challenge of future research will be to generate more efficient and individualized therapies based on the insights from neurobiology and genetics.

  5. Financial Assistance of Mexican American Students in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Armando

    The problem encountered by Mexican Americans in finding and obtaining sources of financial aid to enter and continue in higher education is reviewed. Financial assistance provided by the Federal Government is described and discussed. Programs such as Talent Search, Upward Bound, Educational Opportunity Grants Program, National Defense Student Loan…

  6. A Directory of Organizations and Programs in Mexican American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada-Aragon, Manuela L., Comp.

    The directory cites 40 organizations or programs related to Mexican American education. Entries are based on responses to surveys conducted in the fall of 1985 and spring of 1986. The entries are listed alphabetically by state within national, state, and university categories. Each entry includes a brief description of the organization/program…

  7. (Short overview of the Mexican Society of Clinical Chemistry meetings)

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.

    1991-01-01

    Organized and chaired session on instrument evaluation at the XIV Congreso Nacional De Quimica Clinica which is the National Meeting of the Mexican Society of Clinical Chemistry. In addition, I presented a paper on calibration at a Congress workshop and spoke on the impact of technology in a symposium on quality control.

  8. [Diabetes mellitus in an adult population of the IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security). Results of the National Health Survey 2000].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, José Luis; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Cantón, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and control of diabetes in the adult population served by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social according to data from the National Health Survey 2000 (ENSA-2000). The data for adults from the National Health Survey 2000 was used to estimate and describe the prevalence of diabetes in the population that belongs to the social security system in Mexico. Criteria used to define diabetes mellitus were the medical diagnosis of the disease (MDDM) and the glucose measurement from capillary blood (>126 mg/dL fasting sample and 200 mg/dL in casual blood sample). If diabetes was confirmed only through blood sample, the diabetes case was define as survey finding (SF). Prevalences were estimated for both groups, while means and medians were estimated for the four possible combination groups (SF+, MDDM+, SF+, MDDM-, SF-, MDDM+, SF-, MDDM-). Sampling results were adjusted for population estimates according to the methods established in the ENSA-2000. Diabetes is described according to age, sex, education level, geographic region, background of diabetes in the family, body mass index (BMI), abdominal perimeter. A logistic regression method was used to estimate potential associations with different risk factors. Overall prevalence was 8.7%; for MDDM, it was 7.1%, and for SF, only 1.5%. Glycemia was highest in SF+ and MDDM-, median 292 mg/dL and in MDDM+ but SF-, median 289 mg/dL. Major risk factors were background of diabetes in both parents, abdominal obesity, low educational level age (coef. = 0.5943 per decade) and BMI (coef. = 0.0133). Diabetes in social security population is higher than in the rest of the population, while genetic background, age, educational level, high BMI and abdominal perimeter have important influences in diabetes prevalence in this population. Glucose control is suboptimal even in patients under medical supervision.

  9. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Daniel

    2009-06-26

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain’s reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increase in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain’s reward system.

  10. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Daniel

    2002-06-26

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain's reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increase in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain's reward system.

  11. [Neurobiology of addiction].

    PubMed

    Scuvée-Moreau, J

    2013-01-01

    Several psychoactive drugs may induce addiction. Despite distinct pharmacological targets, all have the common property to stimulate the brain reward circuitry, which results in an increase of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The stimulation induced by drugs of abuse is much more important in intensity and duration than the stimulation induced by natural rewards. The positive reinforcement resulting from this stimulation promotes repeated drug intake, which induces cellular and molecular adaptations in the brain reward circuit and other regions associated with this circuit. Enduring changes are more particularly observed in regions involved in pleasure, motivation, memory, conditioning, executive functions, judgement and self-control. A tolerance to the reinforcing effects of natural rewards is observed in parallel to a hypersensitivity to the motivational effects of drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Behaviour focuses more and more exclusively on drug research and drug consumption. Drug privation can induce a negative emotional state, withdrawal signs and craving which are key elements of relapse

  12. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  13. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  14. Mexico’s National Security Challenges and the Military Endeavor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Constitucion Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, art 89 fracc. X Camara de Diputados del H. Congreso de la Union ( Mexico : D.F. Gobierno de la...threatening the national security of Mexico . Current Mexican national security policy does not provide clear strategic guidance for all government agencies and...challenge Mexican stability thus provoking uncertainty and threatening the national security of Mexico . Current Mexican national security policy

  15. The Past, Present, and Future of Nicotine Addiction Therapy.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco addiction treatment field is progressing through innovations in medication development, a focus on precision medicine, and application of new technologies for delivering support in real time and over time. This article reviews the evidence for combined and extended cessation pharmacotherapy and behavioral strategies including provider advice, individual counseling, group programs, the national quitline, websites and social media, and incentives. Healthcare policies are changing to offer cessation treatment to the broad population of smokers. With knowledge of the past and present, this review anticipates what is likely on the horizon in the clinical and public health effort to address tobacco addiction.

  16. The Past, Present, and Future of Nicotine Addiction Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco addiction treatment field is progressing through innovations in medication development, a focus on precision medicine, and application of new technologies for delivering support in real time and over time. This article reviews the evidence for combined and extended cessation pharmacotherapy and behavioral strategies including provider advice, individual counseling, group programs, the national quitline, websites and social media, and incentives. Healthcare policies are changing to offer cessation treatment to the broad population of smokers. With knowledge of the past and present, this review anticipates what is likely on the horizon in the clinical and public health effort to address tobacco addiction. PMID:26332005

  17. Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)

  18. Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)

  19. Access to Addiction Pharmacotherapy in Private Health Plans.

    PubMed

    Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M; Hodgkin, Dominic; Matteucci, Ann-Marie; Creedon, Timothy B; Stewart, Maureen T

    2016-07-01

    An increasing number of medications are available to treat addictions. To understand access to addiction medications, it is essential to consider the role of private health plans. To contain medication expenditures, most U.S. health plans use cost-sharing and administrative controls, which may impact physicians' prescribing and patients' use of addiction medications. This study identified health plan approaches to manage access to and utilization of addiction medications (oral and injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and buprenorphine). Data are from a nationally representative survey of private health plans in 2010 (n=385 plans, 935 products; response rate 89%), compared to the same survey in 2003. The study assessed formulary inclusion, prior authorization, step therapy, overall restrictiveness, and if and how health plans encourage pharmacotherapy. Formulary exclusions were rare in 2010, with acamprosate excluded most often, by only 9% of products. Injectable naltrexone was covered by 96% of products. Prior authorization was common for injectable naltrexone (85%) and rare for acamprosate (3%). Step therapy policies were used only for injectable naltrexone (41%) and acamprosate (20%). Several medications were often on the most expensive tier. Changes since 2003 include fewer exclusions, yet increased use of other management approaches. Most health plans encourage use of addiction pharmacotherapy, and use a variety of methods to do so. Management of addiction medications has increased over time but it is not ubiquitous. However, health plans now also include all medications on formularies and encourage providers to use them, indicating that they value addiction pharmacotherapy as an evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Access to Addiction Pharmacotherapy in Private Health Plans

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Matteucci, Ann-Marie; Creedon, Timothy B.; Stewart, Maureen T.

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of medications are available to treat addictions. To understand access to addiction medications, it is essential to consider the role of private health plans. To contain medication expenditures, most U.S. health plans use cost-sharing and administrative controls, which may impact physicians' prescribing and patients' use of addiction medications. This study identified health plan approaches to manage access to and utilization of addiction medications (oral and injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and buprenorphine). Methods Data are from a nationally representative survey of private health plans in 2010 (n=385 plans, 935 products; response rate 89%), compared to the same survey in 2003. The study assessed formulary inclusion, prior authorization, step therapy, overall restrictiveness, and if and how health plans encourage pharmacotherapy. Results Formulary exclusions were rare in 2010, with acamprosate excluded most often, by only 9% of products. Injectable naltrexone was covered by 96% of products. Prior authorization was common for injectable naltrexone (85%) and rare for acamprosate (3%). Step therapy policies were used only for injectable naltrexone (41%) and acamprosate (20%). Several medications were often on the most expensive tier. Changes since 2003 include fewer exclusions, yet increased use of other management approaches. Most health plans encourage use of addiction pharmacotherapy, and use a variety of methods to do so. Conclusions Management of addiction medications has increased over time but it is not ubiquitous. However, health plans now also include all medications on formularies and encourage providers to use them, indicating they value addiction pharmacotherapy as an evidence-based practice. PMID:27211993

  1. Depressive Symptoms Among Older Mexicans: The Role of Widowhood, Gender, and Social Integration.

    PubMed

    Monserud, Maria A; Wong, Rebeca

    2015-11-01

    Widowhood is often associated with decreased mental health. In developing countries with low institutional support, such as Mexico, social integration can be particularly consequential for widowed older adults' psychological well-being. This study investigates the interplay among depressive symptoms, widowhood, gender, and social integration in a nationally representative sample of older Mexicans. Drawing on Waves 1 (2001) and 2 (2003) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we estimated the ordinary least squares regressions to examine the implications of widowhood, gender, social support, social network, and social engagement for changes in depressive symptoms between the waves among Mexicans aged 50 and older (N = 8,708). The findings indicate that social integration can mitigate as well as exacerbate depressive symptomatology among older Mexicans. Certain aspects of social integration can moderate marital status-gender differences in depressive symptoms among older Mexicans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Depressive Symptoms Among Older Mexicans: The Role of Widowhood, Gender, and Social Integration

    PubMed Central

    Monserud, Maria A.; Wong, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Widowhood is often associated with decreased mental health. In developing countries with low institutional support, such as Mexico, social integration can be particularly consequential for widowed older adults’ psychological well-being. This study investigates the interplay among depressive symptoms, widowhood, gender, and social integration in a nationally representative sample of older Mexicans. Drawing on Waves 1 (2001) and 2 (2003) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we estimated the ordinary least squares regressions to examine the implications of widowhood, gender, social support, social network, and social engagement for changes in depressive symptoms between the waves among Mexicans aged 50 and older (N = 8,708). The findings indicate that social integration can mitigate as well as exacerbate depressive symptomatology among older Mexicans. Certain aspects of social integration can moderate marital status-gender differences in depressive symptoms among older Mexicans. PMID:25651596

  3. Is Socioeconomic Incorporation Associated with a Healthier Diet? Dietary Patterns among Mexican-American Children

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.; Van Hook, Jennifer L.; Quiros, Susana

    2015-01-01

    With each successive generation in the United States, Mexican-origin families lose their initial dietary advantages. Focusing on children’s diets, we ask whether greater socioeconomic status (SES) can help buffer Mexican-origin children in immigrant families from negative dietary acculturation or whether it exacerbates these dietary risks. Pooling data from the 1999 to 2009 waves of the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we test whether the association between generational status and Mexican-origin children’s nutrition varies by the family’s SES. When predicting children’s overall dietary quality using the Healthy Eating Index (2010) and predicting unhealthy dietary patterns, we find stronger evidence of segmented assimilation, whereby greater family average SES is associated with better diets across generations of Mexican-origin children. High-status Mexican-origin parents appear able to buffer their children against generational dietary declines documented in the acculturation literature. PMID:26523786

  4. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Optogenetics: potentials for addiction research.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Burdakov, Denis; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2011-10-01

    Research on the biology of addiction has advanced significantly over the last 50 years expanding our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying reward, reinforcement and craving. Novel experimental approaches and techniques have provided an ever increasing armory of tools to dissect behavioral processes, neural networks and molecular mechanisms. The ultimate goal is to reintegrate this knowledge into a coherent, mechanistic framework of addiction to help identify new treatment. This can be greatly facilitated by using tools that allow, with great spatial and temporal specificity, to link molecular changes with altered activation of neural circuits and behavior. Such specificity can now be achieved by using optogenetic tools. Our review describes the general principles of optogenetics and its use to understand the links between neural activity and behavior. We also provide an overview of recent studies using optogenetic tools in addiction and consider some outstanding questions of addiction research that are particularly amenable for optogenetic approaches.

  6. Tobacco Addiction: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Stead, Lindsay F.; Gupta, Prakash C.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per year worldwide and is considered as one of the leading causes of premature death. Comprehensive tobacco control programs can significantly reduce the prevalence of tobacco use. An important component of a comprehensive program is the provision of treatment for tobacco addiction. Treatment involves targeting multiple aspects of addiction including the underlying neurobiology and behavioral processes. Furthermore, building an infrastructure in health systems that encourage and facilitate cessation and expanding the accessibility of treatments are necessary. While current pharmacological and behavioral treatments are effective in improving cessation success, the rate of relapse to smoking remains high, demonstrating the strong addictive nature of nicotine. The future of treatment resides in better patient matching to treatment, combination or novel medications, and conceptualizing nicotine addiction as a chronic disorder which may require long-term treatment. PMID:18555914

  7. Levodopa addiction. A case study.

    PubMed

    Tack, E; De Cuypere, G; Jannes, C; Remouchamps, A

    1988-09-01

    A case is presented of a young woman with a serious addiction to levodopa who over the years developed an extrapyramidal syndrome and chronic paranoid psychotic behaviour. The possible pathophysiological mechanism is discussed.

  8. [What brings neurobiology to addictions?

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Magalie; Noble, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Addictions are multifactorial, and there are no experimental models replicating all aspects of this pathology. The development of animal models reproducing the clinical symptoms of addictions allows significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiological processes involved in addiction. Preclinical data highlight different neuroadaptations according to the routes of administration, speeds of injection and frequencies of exposure to drugs of abuse. The neuroadaptations induced by an exposure to drugs of abuse follow dynamic processes in time. Despite significant progresses in the knowledge of neurobiology of addictions allowing to propose new therapeutic targets, the passage of new drugs in clinical is often disappointing. The lack of treatment efficacy reported in clinical trials is probably due to a very important heterogeneity of patients with distinct biological and genetic factors, but also with different patterns of consumption that can lead to different neuroadaptations, as clearly observed in preclinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional assessment of drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Santolaria-Fernández, F J; Gómez-Sirvent, J L; González-Reimers, C E; Batista-López, J N; Jorge-Hernández, J A; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A; Hernández-García, M T

    1995-04-01

    To discern if factors such as organic pathology, sex, duration and/or intensity of drug addiction, alcohol abuse, hepatitis B infection, anorexia with poor food and drink consumption, or disturbance of social and familial networks, are related to an impaired nutritional status in hospitalized drug addicts. Cross-sectional prospective study. Detoxication unit and internal medicine unit of a university hospital. 140 drug addicts without acute organic pathology and 18 with acute organic pathology related to drug addiction. The immunological study was compared with a control group composed of 50 healthy and well-nourished individuals (26 women and 24 men), age-matched with our patients. Drug addicts without organic pathology were under-nourished: 92.4% weighed under the mean weight for the population and 55.7% had had a weight loss above 5%. The distribution of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold (TSF) measurement and mid-arm muscle area (MAMA) compared with the percentiles for the population showed a shift towards lower values. We found a high percentage of patients with a high lymphocyte count (55%). Despite the high lymphocyte count, delayed hypersensitivity was depressed in our patients. Of our patients, 66.4% exhibited anorexia at admission. The mean calorific intake was 978 +/- 89 kcal/day in females and 1265 +/- 64 kcal/day in males. However, in most cases, malnutrition (usually marasmus-like malnutrition) was not very severe; only 30% of the drug addicts weighed less than 80% of the mean weight for the population, or admitted to a weight loss above 10%, and by subjective nutritional assessment, only 18% were deeply malnourished. Otherwise, the nutritional status was very poor in drug addicts with acute organic pathology. We also found a worse nutritional status in our patients related to female sex, intensity of drug addiction, anorexia with poor food and drink consumption, and disturbance of the social and familial networks. Many drug addicts

  10. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  11. Volunteer Work in the Church Among Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith. PMID:22686148

  12. The Mexican Revolution and health care or the health of the Mexican Revolution.

    PubMed

    Horn, J J

    1985-01-01

    Despite a victorious social revolution, a self-proclaimed "revolutionary" government, and a significant post-war economic growth, Mexico has not achieved a just or equitable social system. The Mexican Revolution led to the emergence of a new bureaucratic class whose "trickle-down" development strategy sacrificed social welfare to capital accumulation. Mexican morbidity and mortality patterns resemble those of more impoverished developing nations without revolutionary experience. The patterns of health care in Mexico reflect inequities and contradictions in the society and economy at large and flow from the erosion of the egalitarian aims of the revolution concomitant with the expansion of capitalism and the concentration of the benefits of "modernization" in the hands of privileged elites. Mexico's health problems are symptomatic of a general socio-economic malaise which questions the legitimacy of the Revolution.

  13. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Ferdosi, Masoud; Jannatifard, Fereshte; Eslami, Mehdi; Alaghemandan, Hamed; Setare, Mehrdad

    2012-04-01

    Behavioral science experts believe that all entities capable of stimulating a person can be addictive; and whenever a habit changes into an obligation, it can be considered as an addiction. Researchers also believe that there are a number of similarities as well as some differences between drug addiction and behavioral addiction diagnostic symptoms. The purpose of this study is to consider different approaches in this field. This is a descriptive research using content analysis method. First, differences and similarities of various perspectives on addiction and addiction behavior in different substances were obtained, thereafter, the data was coded and categorized, subjects were discussed and major issues were extracted. Behavioral addiction such as internet addiction is similar to drug addiction except that in the former, the individual is not addicted to a substance but the behavior or the feeling brought about by the relevant action. In addition, the physical signs of drug addiction, are absent in behavioral addiction. Others have stated that behaviorally addicted individuals have certain symptoms and will undergo the same consequences brought about by addiction to alcohol and drugs as well as other obsessive behaviors. Similar to substance abuse prevention, programs aimed at addicted individuals and specialized training can educate adolescents about the warning signs of online addiction, in order to assist the early detection of this disorder. For prevention of behavioral addiction (such as internet addiction) authorities, cultural institutions and parents should monitor the use of internet and teach to the adolescent and children, the useful and appropriate methods of internet use.

  14. Mobility and International Collaboration: Case of the Mexican Scientific Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo-Leyva, Rafael; Perez-Angon, Miguel Angel; Russell, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    We use a data set of Mexican researchers working abroad that are included in the Mexican National System of Researchers (SNI). Our diaspora sample includes 479 researchers, most of them holding postdoctoral positions in mainly seven countries: USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Spain, Canada and Brazil. Their research output and impact is explored in order to determine their patterns of production, mobility and scientific collaboration as compared with previous studies of the SNI researchers in the periods 1991–2001 and 2003–2009. Our findings confirm that mobility has a strong impact on their international scientific collaboration. We found no substantial influence among the researchers that got their PhD degrees abroad from those trained in Mexican universities. There are significant differences among the areas of knowledge studied: biological sciences, physics and engineering have better production and impact rates than mathematics, geosciences, medicine, agrosciences, chemistry, social sciences and humanities. We found a slight gender difference in research production but Mexican female scientists are underrepresented in our diaspora sample. These findings would have policy implications for the recently established program that will open new academic positions for young Mexican scientists. PMID:26047501

  15. Mobility and International Collaboration: Case of the Mexican Scientific Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Marmolejo-Leyva, Rafael; Perez-Angon, Miguel Angel; Russell, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We use a data set of Mexican researchers working abroad that are included in the Mexican National System of Researchers (SNI). Our diaspora sample includes 479 researchers, most of them holding postdoctoral positions in mainly seven countries: USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Spain, Canada and Brazil. Their research output and impact is explored in order to determine their patterns of production, mobility and scientific collaboration as compared with previous studies of the SNI researchers in the periods 1991-2001 and 2003-2009. Our findings confirm that mobility has a strong impact on their international scientific collaboration. We found no substantial influence among the researchers that got their PhD degrees abroad from those trained in Mexican universities. There are significant differences among the areas of knowledge studied: biological sciences, physics and engineering have better production and impact rates than mathematics, geosciences, medicine, agrosciences, chemistry, social sciences and humanities. We found a slight gender difference in research production but Mexican female scientists are underrepresented in our diaspora sample. These findings would have policy implications for the recently established program that will open new academic positions for young Mexican scientists.

  16. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  17. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  18. Addiction science and its genetics.

    PubMed

    Ball, David

    2008-03-01

    To assess the progress and impact of genetic studies in the addictions arena and to present this information in a form accessible to the general readership of Addiction. Review of the evidence that genes are involved in addiction, approaches to their identification, current findings and the potential implications. Family, twin and adoption studies provide strong evidence that addiction runs in families and that this is determined in part by genetic factors. Two main molecular genetic approaches, namely linkage and association, have been adopted to identify the specific genes involved. Both methods are fraught with problems. Linkage is limited by issues of sensitivity, and association by false positives. Perhaps the strongest finding in psychiatric genetics to date is the impressive effect that a single genetic variant, in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene, has on drinking behaviour and reducing the risk of developing alcohol dependence. Other findings are currently less robust; however, the implications of elucidating the genetic underpinning of addiction will be profound. Addiction genetics is a developing science that has yet to prove its worth in the clinical setting.

  19. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    PubMed

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  20. Transnational Messages: Experiences of Chinese and Mexican Immigrants in American Schools. The New Americans: Recent Immigration and American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, Carmina

    This book examines the interactions of Mexican and Chinese immigrant students with other students from the same country (co-nationals) and their exchanges of information about experiences in U.S. schools. Research focused on 74 Chinese and 78 Mexican immigrant students, aged 11-17, in Boston and the San Francisco Bay Area, who received…

  1. Transnational Messages: Experiences of Chinese and Mexican Immigrants in American Schools. The New Americans: Recent Immigration and American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, Carmina

    This book examines the interactions of Mexican and Chinese immigrant students with other students from the same country (co-nationals) and their exchanges of information about experiences in U.S. schools. Research focused on 74 Chinese and 78 Mexican immigrant students, aged 11-17, in Boston and the San Francisco Bay Area, who received…

  2. The Labor Market Experience of Female Migrants: The Case of Temporary Mexican Migration to the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Susan; Kossoudji, Sherrie A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews data on the labor market experience of Mexican female temporary migrants in the United States. Analyzes data from a Mexican national survey and compares the role of schooling, work experience, region of origin,and legal status in male and female migrants' working experiences. (KH)

  3. The Undocumented (Im)Migrant Educational Pipeline: The Influence of Citizenship Status on Educational Attainment for People of Mexican Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Lara, Argelia

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed three trends impacting educational experiences for undocumented Mexican students: (a) a dramatic increase of Mexican-origin people, (b) organized and openly supported anti-immigrant policies with a racial dimension, and (c) increased participation by politicized migrants in national public discussions on immigration.…

  4. The Undocumented (Im)Migrant Educational Pipeline: The Influence of Citizenship Status on Educational Attainment for People of Mexican Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Lara, Argelia

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed three trends impacting educational experiences for undocumented Mexican students: (a) a dramatic increase of Mexican-origin people, (b) organized and openly supported anti-immigrant policies with a racial dimension, and (c) increased participation by politicized migrants in national public discussions on immigration.…

  5. Longitudinal Lung Function Growth of Mexican Children Compared with International Studies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to compare the longitudinal lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents with the collated spirometric reference proposed for international use and with that of Mexican-Americans from the National Health State Examination Survey III (NHANES) III study. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third year of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models separated by gender were fit for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children expressed as Z-scores of tested reference equations. Impact of adjustment by sitting height on differences with Mexican-American children was observed in a subsample of 1,987 children. Results At same gender, age, and height, Mexican children had increasingly higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) than the children from the collated reference study (mean Z-score, 0.68 for FEV1 and 0.51 for FVC) and than Mexican-American children (Z-score, 0.23 for FEV1 and 0.21 for FVC) respectively. Differences with Mexican-Americans were not reduced by adjusting by sitting height. Conclusions For reasons that remain unclear, the gender-, age-, and height-adjusted lung function of children from Mexico City is higher than that reported by several international studies. PMID:24143231

  6. Drinks per day in women of Mexican origin: does birth place matter?

    PubMed

    Hardie, Thomas L; Polek, Carolee; Garcia, Victor; González, Laura; Welsh, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Historically, Mexican-born women who immigrate to the United States (U.S.) have lower levels of alcohol use and higher rates of abstinence compared with Mexican American women born in the U.S. and other racial groups in the U.S. As such, immigrant women's alcohol use has received limited attention by the research community. Gaps in knowledge of their alcohol use patterns, changes in healthy drinking recommendation for women, and projections of population growth in both Mexican immigrant and Mexican American populations support the need for the study. Data from the Center for Disease Control's National Health Interview Survey were used to explore alcohol use differences in women of Mexican origin born in and outside of the U.S. In addition, the relationship between years in the U.S. and drinks per day was explored in Mexican immigrant women. The results indicated that Mexican immigrant women who drink are drinking above recommended levels and the younger immigrant women are drinking more drinks per day than young Mexican American women. These changes point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive interventions for this expanding segment of the population.

  7. Longitudinal lung function growth of Mexican children compared with international studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the longitudinal lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents with the collated spirometric reference proposed for international use and with that of Mexican-Americans from the National Health State Examination Survey III (NHANES) III study. A cohort of Mexican children in third year of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models separated by gender were fit for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children expressed as Z-scores of tested reference equations. Impact of adjustment by sitting height on differences with Mexican-American children was observed in a subsample of 1,987 children. At same gender, age, and height, Mexican children had increasingly higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) than the children from the collated reference study (mean Z-score, 0.68 for FEV1 and 0.51 for FVC) and than Mexican-American children (Z-score, 0.23 for FEV1 and 0.21 for FVC) respectively. Differences with Mexican-Americans were not reduced by adjusting by sitting height. For reasons that remain unclear, the gender-, age-, and height-adjusted lung function of children from Mexico City is higher than that reported by several international studies.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of sexual addiction.

    PubMed

    Goodman, A

    1993-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the concept of addiction, the definition of and diagnostic criteria for sexual addiction are presented. A theoretical framework for treatment of sexual addiction is then outlined, based on an understanding of the underlying addictive process: the compulsive dependence on external actions as a means of regulating one's internal states. Effective treatment addresses both addictive behavior and the addictive process. Addictive sexual behavior is addressed through behavioral symptom management, which includes relapse prevention and other cognitive-behavioral techniques. The addictive process is addressed by enhancing self-regulatory functions through individual psychotherapy, therapeutic group experience, and pharmacotherapy (medication treatment, when indicated). An integrated system for treatment of sexual addiction, which brings together these therapeutic methods in one theoretically coherent, clinically unified approach, is outlined.

  9. Binary logistic regression modelling: Measuring the probability of relapse cases among drug addict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Alias, Siti Nor Shadila

    2014-07-01

    For many years Malaysia faced the drug addiction issues. The most serious case is relapse phenomenon among treated drug addict (drug addict who have under gone the rehabilitation programme at Narcotic Addiction Rehabilitation Centre, PUSPEN). Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the most significant factor that contributes to relapse to happen. The binary logistic regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between independent variables (predictors) and dependent variable. The dependent variable is the status of the drug addict either relapse, (Yes coded as 1) or not, (No coded as 0). Meanwhile the predictors involved are age, age at first taking drug, family history, education level, family crisis, community support and self motivation. The total of the sample is 200 which the data are provided by AADK (National Antidrug Agency). The finding of the study revealed that age and self motivation are statistically significant towards the relapse cases..

  10. Hacia la creacion de una filosofia latinoamericana. Un ensayo nacionalista: El perfil del hombre y la cultura en Mexico (Toward the Creation of a Latin American Philosophy. An Essay on Nationalism: A Profile of the Mexicans and Their Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Manuel

    An analysis of a Mexican essay by Samuel Ramos attempts to resolve the issue of whether or not there is a common philosophy in Latin America today. Manuel Mendoza concludes that no such philosophy exists, because the area has not had time to develop an internal character, and as a result, the intellectual and and philosophical concepts are based…

  11. Eating ready-to-eat cereal for breakfast is positively associated with daily nutrient intake, but not weight, in Mexican-American children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) has been associated with improved nutrient intake and weight status, but intake has not been studied in Mexican-American (MA) children. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutrient intake, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and weight were associated with classificat...

  12. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Freimuth, Marilyn; Forster, Myriam; Ames, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena. PMID:21909314

  14. Salt addiction: a different kind of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Tekol, Yalcin

    2006-01-01

    Under the headline "drug addiction" the medical world has exclusively been interested in psychoactive drugs. For diagnosis of substance dependence (addiction), DSM-IV-TR has determined seven criteria, and fulfilling at least tree of them signifies addiction. When studied salt intake according to these criteria it is seen that most of them are fulfilled, showing that sodium chloride, which is not classified under the psychoactive drugs, is capable of producing addiction. Namely: at the beginning of salt abstinence, anorexia and slight nausea during meal time (withdrawal symptoms); about 1000-fold difference of per capita salt consumption between several human societies, and life-long continuation of discretional salt intake behaviour (high dose and very long duration of use); difficulty of restriction of salt intake (unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control); lack of success of salt restriction campaigns in hypertensive patients (substance use despite health problem). Additionally, the decrease of salt preferences of individuals whose salt intake are restricted for some time, and vice versa, signifies tolerance. On the other hand, it is evident that as the main culprit of developing systemic hypertension and as producing or promoting some other important health problems, salt intake causes millions of deaths in the world yearly. The recognition of addicting property of salt will facilitate combating these health problems.

  15. The "addicted" spine.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Saturnino; Mulas, Giovanna; Piras, Francesca; Diana, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Units of dendritic branches called dendritic spines represent more than simply decorative appendages of the neuron and actively participate in integrative functions of "spinous" nerve cells thereby contributing to the general phenomenon of synaptic plasticity. In animal models of drug addiction, spines are profoundly affected by treatments with drugs of abuse and represent important sub cellular markers which interfere deeply into the physiology of the neuron thereby providing an example of the burgeoning and rapidly increasing interest in "structural plasticity". Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs) of the Nucleus Accumbens (Nacc) show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized "strictly" to second order dendritic branches where dopamine (DA)-containing terminals, impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling.

  16. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Goldman, Howard H; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N = 3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2-5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6-10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness.

  17. Historical review: Molecular and cellular mechanisms of opiate and cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2004-04-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse was founded in 1974, and since that time there have been significant advances in understanding the processes by which drugs of abuse cause addiction. The initial protein targets for almost all drugs of abuse are now known. Animal models that replicate key features of addiction are available, and these models have made it possible to characterize the brain regions that are important for addiction and other drug effects, such as physical dependence. A large number of drug-induced changes at the molecular and cellular levels have been identified in these brain areas and rapid progress is being made in relating individual changes to specific behavioral abnormalities in animal models of addiction. The current challenges are to translate this increasingly impressive knowledge of the basic neurobiology of addiction to human addicts, and to identify the specific genes that make some individuals either particularly vulnerable or resistant to addiction. In this article, I present a historical review of basic research on opiate and cocaine addiction.

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  19. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-03-17

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good.

  20. Mexican contributions to Noncommutative Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Vergara, J. David; Garcia-Compean, H.

    2006-09-25

    In this paper we summarize the Mexican contributions to the subject of Noncommutative theories. These contributions span several areas: Quantum Groups, Noncommutative Field Theories, Hopf algebra of renormalization, Deformation Quantization, Noncommutative Gravity, and Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics.

  1. Becoming Overweight Without Gaining a Pound: Weight Evaluations and the Social Integration of Mexicans in the United States.

    PubMed

    Altman, Claire E; Van Hook, Jennifer; Gonzalez, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Mexican women gain weight with increasing duration in the United States. In the United States, body dissatisfaction tends to be associated with depression, disordered eating, and incongruent weight evaluations, particularly among white women and women of higher socioeconomic status. However, it remains unclear how overweight and obesity is interpreted by Mexican women. Using comparable data of women ages 20-64 from both Mexico (the 2006 Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion; N=17,012) and the United States (the 1999-2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; N=8,487), we compare weight status evaluations among Mexican nationals, Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Mexicans, U.S.-born non-Hispanic Whites, and U.S.-born non-Hispanic blacks. Logistic regression analyses, which control for demographic and social-economic variables and measured body mass index and adjust for the likelihood of migration for Mexican nationals, indicate that the tendency to self-evaluate as overweight among Mexicans converges with levels among non-Hispanic whites and diverges from blacks over time in the United States. Overall, the results suggest a U.S. integration process in which Mexican-American women's less critical self-evaluations originate in Mexico but fade with time in the United States as they gradually adopt U.S. white norms for thinner body sizes. These results are discussed in light of social comparison and negative health assimilation.

  2. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.

  3. The addictive dimensionality of obesity.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D

    2013-05-01

    Our brains are hardwired to respond and seek immediate rewards. Thus, it is not surprising that many people overeat, which in some can result in obesity, whereas others take drugs, which in some can result in addiction. Though food intake and body weight are under homeostatic regulation, when highly palatable food is available, the ability to resist the urge to eat hinges on self-control. There is no homeostatic regulator to check the intake of drugs (including alcohol); thus, regulation of drug consumption is mostly driven by self-control or unwanted effects (i.e., sedation for alcohol). Disruption in both the neurobiological processes that underlie sensitivity to reward and those that underlie inhibitory control can lead to compulsive food intake in some individuals and compulsive drug intake in others. There is increasing evidence that disruption of energy homeostasis can affect the reward circuitry and that overconsumption of rewarding food can lead to changes in the reward circuitry that result in compulsive food intake akin to the phenotype seen with addiction. Addiction research has produced new evidence that hints at significant commonalities between the neural substrates underlying the disease of addiction and at least some forms of obesity. This recognition has spurred a healthy debate to try and ascertain the extent to which these complex and dimensional disorders overlap and whether or not a deeper understanding of the crosstalk between the homeostatic and reward systems will usher in unique opportunities for prevention and treatment of both obesity and drug addiction.

  4. Meperidine addiction or treatment frustration?

    PubMed

    Hung, C I; Liu, C Y; Chen, C Y; Yang, C H; Yeh, E K

    2001-01-01

    There have been few studies of the psychiatric characteristics of analgesics addiction. The physician's perceptions that patients were addicted to analgesics might be partially attributable to frustration with poor response to treatment. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the medical records of 20 subjects (15 male and 5 female) who were perceived as having addiction to meperidine by general physicians. The most common medical diagnosis among these patients was chronic pancreatitis (7/20). Among them, five had a past history of suicide attempt and three had self-injury behavior during the index admission. The fact that subjects were perceived as being addicted might be attributable to a vicious cycle of the following factors: 1) chronic intractable pain; 2) poor staff-patient relationship; 3) lower pain threshold or tolerance due to anxiety or depression; 4) patients with a history or tendency of substance abuse; 5) placebo use and inadequate analgesics regimen. The findings of this study suggest that the importance of the following diagnostic and treatment procedures in these patients: 1) suicide risk should be evaluated; 2) comorbid psychiatric diseases should be treated; 3) factors that cause a vicious cycle in pain control should be identified; 4) misconceptions of opiate analgesics among medical staff should be discussed; 5) poor staff-patient relationship should be managed aggressively; and 6) "addiction" is a critical diagnosis that should be avoided if possible.

  5. The Addictive Dimensionality of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D.

    2016-01-01

    Our brains are hardwired to respond and seek immediate rewards. Thus, it is not surprising that many people overeat, which in some can result in obesity, whereas others take drugs, which in some can result in addiction. Though food intake and body weight are under homeostatic regulation, when highly palatable food is available, the ability to resist the urge to eat hinges on self-control. There is no homeostatic regulator to check the intake of drugs (including alcohol); thus, regulation of drug consumption is mostly driven by self-control or unwanted effects (i.e., sedation for alcohol). Disruption in both the neurobiological processes that underlie sensitivity to reward and those that underlie inhibitory control can lead to compulsive food intake in some individuals and compulsive drug intake in others. There is increasing evidence that disruption of energy homeostasis can affect the reward circuitry and that overconsumption of rewarding food can lead to changes in the reward circuitry that result in compulsive food intake akin to the phenotype seen with addiction. Addiction research has produced new evidence that hints at significant commonalities between the neural substrates underlying the disease of addiction and at least some forms of obesity. This recognition has spurred a healthy debate to try and ascertain the extent to which these complex and dimensional disorders overlap and whether or not a deeper understanding of the crosstalk between the homeostatic and reward systems will usher in unique opportunities for prevention and treatment of both obesity and drug addiction. PMID:23374642

  6. Freud's Mexican readers.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents an overview of artists and writers who read Freud's work in Mexico between 1920 and 1968. The focus is on cultural readings of Freud: non-clinical interpretations of psychoanalysis that applied Freud's theory to literary, artistic, philosophical, or religious questions. The essay focuses on Salvador Novo, one of the poets associated with the Contemporáneos group, and his reading of the "Three Essays in the Theory of Sexuality;" Raúl Carrancá y Trujillo, a judge and criminologist who used psychoanalysis in his work, including the trial of Trotky's assassin; Octavio Paz, a poet and intellectual who wrote an essay on Mexican history, "The Labyrinth of Solitude," as a response to "Moses and Monotheism;" and Gregorio Lemercier, a Benedictine monk who placed his monastery in group analysis. These unorthodox readings of Freud opened the door for some of the most daring intellectual experiments in the 20th century.

  7. The globalization of addiction research: capacity-building mechanisms and selected examples.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Richard A; Woody, George; Kresina, Thomas F; Gust, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the amount and variety of addiction research around the world has increased substantially. Researchers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States, and western Europe have significantly contributed to knowledge about addiction and its treatment. However, the nature and context of substance use disorders and the populations using drugs are far more diverse than is reflected in studies done in Western cultures. To stimulate new research from a diverse set of cultural perspectives, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has promoted the development of addiction research capacity and skills around the world for over 25 years. This review will describe the programs NIDA has developed to sponsor international research and research fellows and will provide some examples of the work NIDA has supported. NIDA fellowships have allowed 496 individuals from 96 countries to be trained in addiction research. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have recently developed funding to support addiction research to study, with advice from NIDA, the substance use disorder problems that affect their societies. Examples from Malaysia, Tanzania, Brazil, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Iceland, China, and Vietnam are used to illustrate research being conducted with NIDA support. Health services research, collaboratively funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and Department of State, addresses a range of addiction service development questions in low- and middle-income countries. Findings have expanded the understanding of addiction and its treatment, and are enhancing the ability of practitioners and policy makers to address substance use disorders.

  8. Online social networking addiction among college students in Singapore: Comorbidity with behavioral addiction and affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Koh, Yvaine Yee Woen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of addiction to social networking sites/platforms (SNS) and its comorbidity with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder among college students in Singapore. 1110 college students (age: M=21.46, SD=1.80) in Singapore completed measures assessing online social networking, unhealthy food intake and shopping addiction as well as depression, anxiety and mania. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate the prevalence and comorbidity of behavioral addiction and affective disorder. Chi-square tests were used to examine gender differences. The prevalence rates of SNS, food and shopping addiction were 29.5%, 4.7% and 9.3% respectively for the total sample. SNS addiction was found to co-occur with food addiction (3%), shopping addiction (5%), and both food and shopping addiction (1%). The comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder were 21% for depression, 27.7% for anxiety, and 26.1% for mania. Compared with the total sample, students with SNS addiction reported higher comorbidity rates with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder. In general, females as compared to males reported higher comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder. SNS addiction has a high prevalence rate among college students in Singapore. Students with SNS addiction were vulnerable to experience other behavior addiction as well as affective disorder, especially among females. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [The place of cyber addiction in teenagers' addictive behavior].

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.

  10. Neurobiology of addiction. An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    Evidence that psychoactive substance use disorders, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling, and sexual addiction share an underlying biopsychological process is summarized. Definitions are offered for addiction and addictive process, the latter being the proposed designation for the underlying biopsychological process that addictive disorders are hypothesized to share. The addictive process is introduced as an interaction of impairments in three functional systems: motivation-reward, affect regulation, and behavioral inhibition. An integrative review of the literature that addresses the neurobiology of addiction is then presented, organized according to the three functional systems that constitute the addictive process. The review is directed toward identifying candidate neurochemical substrates for the impairments in motivation-reward, affect regulation, and behavioral inhibition that could contribute to an addictive process.

  11. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  12. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too much alcohol might forget things that happened when they were ...

  13. Binge eating disorder and food addiction.

    PubMed

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; White, Marney A; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-09-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and "food addiction" may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be informative in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating. In the following paper, we 1) examine the theoretical similarities and differences between BED and addiction, 2) review recent empirical evidence that speak to the relationship between BED and food addiction and 3) discuss the implications of associations between BED and food addiction with respect to clinical interventions.

  14. Longer Addiction Treatment Is Better, Study Confirms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Drug Abuse Opioid Abuse and Addiction Prescription Drug Abuse Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Drug Abuse Opioid Abuse and Addiction Prescription Drug Abuse About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  15. Is binge eating experienced as an addiction?

    PubMed

    Cassin, Stephanie E; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2007-11-01

    To ascertain to what degree binge eating is experienced as an addiction, this study examined the proportion of women with binge-eating disorder (BED) whose symptoms met criteria for an addiction. Women (N = 79) with current BED completed a structured telephone interview to assess for symptoms of a modified version of DSM-IV substance dependence and Goodman's [(1990). Addiction: Definition and implications. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 1403-1408] proposed diagnosis of 'addictive disorder'. Most binge eaters (92.4%) met modified DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence, whereas many fewer (40.5%) met Goodman's more restrictive criteria for addictive disorder. Women meeting criteria for addictive disorder had more frequent eating binges than those who did not. Despite certain observed similarities between binge eating and addictions, we argue that BED should remain classified as an eating disorder.

  16. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction

    PubMed Central

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABAA, glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca2+ channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  17. Narcocultura: A Threat to Mexican National Security?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    28 In contrast to these syncretic, almost satanic cults, La Familia Michoacana, a DTO primarily located in the state of Michoacan, espouses a highly...conservative Christian belief system. La Familia claims to administer “divine justice” to the undesirables of society: rapists, robbers, corrupters...of youth, and kidnappers.96 Raul Benitez, an expert on DTOs stated that, “La Familia uses religion as a way of forcing cohesion among its members

  18. Developing a competence-based addiction medicine curriculum in Indonesia: the training needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Pinxten, W J L; De Jong, C; Hidayat, T; Istiqomah, A N; Achmad, Y M; Raya, R P; Norviatin, D; Siregar, I M P

    2011-04-01

    Indonesia has one of the fastest growing, injecting drugs user-driven, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in Asia. Coverage of needle and syringe programs (NSPs), opioid substitution therapy (OST), and antiretroviral treatment (ART) is increasing, but is still low, whereas professional training in addiction medicine is not yet established. Urgent development and scaling-up of professional capacity in comprehensive, evidence-based addiction medicine is needed. In this article the results of the first step is presented, being the training needs assessment (TNA) and the process of further developing a national evidence- and competence-based addiction medicine curriculum in Indonesia.

  19. Assessment and Treatment of Co-occurring Eating Disorders in Privately Funded Addiction Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Therese K.; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Bride, Brian E.; Cohen, Lisa; Gordon, Susan Merle; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Privately-funded addiction treatment programs were surveyed to increase understanding of assessment and current treatment options for patients with co-occurring substance use and eating disorders. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with program administrators of a nationally representative sample of 345 private addiction treatment programs. Although the majority of programs reported screening for eating disorders, programs varied in screening instruments used. Sixty-seven percent reported admitting cases of low severity. Twenty-one percent of programs attempt to treat eating disorders. These results highlight the need for education of addiction treatment professionals in assessment, referral and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:21477048

  20. Muscle weakness is associated with diabetes in older Mexicans: The Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; McGrath, Ryan; Zhang, Peng; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Snih, Soham Al; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of cardiovascular problems due to diabetes mellitus is highest among older Mexicans, and yet what remains to be determined is the association between muscle weakness and diabetes in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association between muscle strength and diabetes among Mexican adults greater than 50 years old. Design Cross-sectional. Setting National sample of households in both urban and rural areas. Participants A sub-sample of 1,841 individuals, aged 50 years and older, was included from the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Measurements Strength was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer, and the single largest reading from either hand was normalized to body mass (NGS). Conditional inference tree analyses were used to identify sex-specific NGS weakness thresholds. Linear regression was used to examine the association between NGS and HbA1c, and logistic regression was used to assess the association between weakness and risk of diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), after controlling for age, sex and waist circumference. Results Normalized grip strength was inversely associated with HbA1c (β=−1.56; p<0.001). Optimal sex-specific NGS weakness thresholds to detect diabetes were ≤0.46 and ≤0.30 for men and women respectively. Weakness was associated with significantly increased odds of diabetes (OR: 1.69, 95%CI: 1.37-2.10), even after adjusting for age, sex, and waist circumference. Conclusions NGS was robustly associated with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors in older Mexicans. This simple screen may serve as a valuable tool to identify adults that are at risk for negative health consequences or early mortality, and that might benefit from lifestyle interventions to reduce risk. PMID:27450948